Page 1


VEGANISM is a way of living on the products of the plant kingdom to the exclusion of flesh, fish, fowl, eggs, animal milk and its derivatives and honey. It encourages the study and use of alternatives for all commodities normally derived wholly or partly from animals. The objects of The Vegan Society are to further knowledge of, and interest in, sound nutrition and in the vegan method of agriculture and food production as a means of increasing the potential of the earth to the physical, moral and economic advantage of mankind.

President: Mr. J. Sanderson. Deputy President: Mrs. S. Coles. Vice-Presidents: Mrs. E. Batt, Mr. J. Dinshah, Dr. C. Nimmo, Miss W. Simmons, Miss M. Simmons. Council: Mrs. E. Batt, Mrs. S. Coles, Mrs. K. Jannaway, Mr. A. Pay, Mr. J. Sanderson, Mrs. G. Smith, Mr. W. Wright. Treasurer: Mrs. G. Smith, but all subscriptions, donations, etc., should be sent to the Secretary, 47 Highlands Road, Leatherhead, Surrey. Hon. Secretary: Mrs. K. Jannaway, address as above. Subscriptions: £1.25 yearly. Additional members at same address not requiring an extra Journal, pensioners and juniors, 63p. THE VEGAN Quarterly Journal £1.25 per annum. 30p, post free. From the Secretary, address as above. Editors: Mr. J. Sanderson and Mrs. K. Jannaway. All advertisements to Leatherhead Office. The Editorial Board does not necessarily agree with opinions expressed by contributors to this magazine, or endorse advertisements. Published: March 21st, June 2!st, September 21st, December 21st. Copy dates: 1st of preceding months.


was tormed in 1944 by a group of vegetarians who became aware of the suffering inseparable from the dairy industry. In 1964, it was recognised as an educational charity and is now growing rapidly in influence and membership, as people realise its importance for their own health and for the wise use of resources as well as for the relief of cruelly exploited animals. Free from commitment to any religious, political, philosophical, social, dietary or medical goup, the Vegan Society endeavours to co-operate with all who are seeking a positive way forward for mankind. It challenges all those who preach love and compassion but still base their lives on cruel practices and the debasement of both man and beast involved in meat and milk production. W H A T T H E N DO V E G A N S E A T ? There is a great variety of vegan diets, from the very simple and truly economical, based almost entirely on food that can be grown on small plots of land anywhere, or be bought in ordinary grocers, whole food shops and greengrocers, to those using the many vegan convenience foods sold in the Health Food Stores. The Vegan Society helps with all types of vegan diet. MINIMUM SUBSCRIPTIONS are kept low - El. 25 or 63 pence for pensioners, juniors and those sharing a journal - so that all who agree with the importance of the vegan way of life can register their support. Overseas members are asked to send International Money Orders or to send extra to cover Bank Charges (which are now very heavy). FULL MEMBERSHIP is open to all vegans who live on the products of the plant kingdom only. (As honey is produced by insects, it was excluded by the Rules when Charity status was granted. Most commercial honey production involves ruthless exploitation, but since home production of honey need not involve cruelty and bees are essential to fruit production, the 1974 A. G. M. voted that the use of honey need not be a bar to full membership, but the Charity Commissioner has refused permission to alter the original wording.) ASSOCIATE MEMBERSHIP is open to vegetarian sympathisers. JOURNAL SUBSCRIBERS are welcomed at the same rate, especially those who agree with the Vegan Society's aims but are not able to follow, fully, the vegan or vegetarian way of life. To the Secretary, Vegan Society, 47 Highlands Road, Leatherhead. Surrey. I enclose a Stamped Addressed Foolscap Envelope For Full Details. I am a practising vegan and apply for Full Membership I am a vegetarian sympathiser and apply for Associate Membership I wish to be listed as a Journal Subscriber as i am not t a vegan or vegetarian. y e

Name .. Address

I enclose ÂŁ 1

(see above)

PUBLICATIONS VEGAN NUTRITION. T. A. B. Sanders, Ph.D. Nutrition, has revised and extended the articles written by him and Dr. Frey Ellis for the "Vegan" and added some very useful tables to produce a booklet which is the most authoritative guide to vegan nutrition yet produced. The titles of the tables reveal how useful this booklet will be in planning your meals; Energy and Carbohydrate Content of Some Plant Foods; Recommended Daily Intakes of Energy and Protein for Babies and Adults; Portions of Plant Foods that Provide 20gm. of Protein; and seven others. Also an essential aid for the education of your doctor, health visitor, hospital and school authorities, in-laws and others. Price only 60p inclusive of postage. VEGAN MOTHERS AND CHILDREN 1. by 10 Vegan mothers 35p.incl.p&p 2. by 8 more Vegan mothers 40p. incl.p&p the two together 70p.incl.D&D WHAT'S COOKING?. Comprehensive cookery book and food guide by Eva Batt. £2.40 inclusive of postage. Over 250 recipes & many practical hints. FIRSTHAND: FIRST RATE by Kathleen Jannaway. Five dozen recipes and ideas for labour saving, money saving, resource saving, vegan living. Revised issue 40p inclusive of postage. SALADINGS by Mabel Cluer. Useful notes on choosing and using the fresh foods around you in garden, field and hedgerow. Attractively and usefully illustrated. 65p inclusive of postage. VEGAN BADGES 60p + S. A. E. PENDANTS 55p + S. A. E. M y S O L D but N O T P U B L I S H E D by the Vegan Society FOOD FOR A FUTURE by Jon Wynne Tyson - comprehensive case - vividly expressed, valuable for facts and figures. New paper back £1.70 Hncl. p few re maining hard back £4.00 incl. p&p CIVILISED ALTERNATIVE by Jon Wynne Tyson - Plea for eclectic approach to world religions, philosophies and social theories. £3.35 incl.p&p ANIMAL LIBERATION by Peter Singer - overwhelming evidence and logic for the end of specfeasm. paper back £2.15 incl. pip ANIMAL'S RIGHTS a Symposium - see Review Page -hard back

£7.10 incl.p&p

VEGETARIAN SOCIETY HANDBOOK - Information about restaurants, hotels, guest houses at home and abroad, commodities, health stores, wholefood shops, organic growers, etc. £1.20 plus 15p. postage. B L Y F R O M U S A N D H E L P the S O C I E T Y 2



The alleviation and cure of a symptom is a very necessary part of the work of both orthodox medicine and the supplementary therapies. It is however becoming recognised that unless dis-ease is tackled at levels nearer to its cause, it is likely to re-occur, often in the form of different symptoms. As people are becoming more aware of this, the gulf between orthodox and unorthodox approaches to healing is beginning to be bridged and new concepts concerning the nature of disease and its treatment are emerging. So begins the brochure for the Wrekin Trust 8th. Annual Conference on Health and Healing to be held at Loughborough University of Technology on 20 - 22 July. It would probably be conceeded by most people that the most wonderful creation on earth is the human body - an intricate arrangement of sensory mechanisms and interweaving systems related to energy fields and consciousness with many built in compensatory processes of self replacement and repair and self healing. The latter processes require the regular intake of fluids in the form of foods, drink and air, and it is sheer good sense to expect that we shall supply the body's necessities with at least the same care as we give to our car which lasts but a fractiai of the time. Among the subjects discussed - acupuncture, cancer therapy, group healing, homoeopathy, human energy fields, hydrotherapy, meditation, nutrition, osteopathy, psychosomatic diseases and spiritual healing, two subjects stand out as being basic to healing. These are nutrition and psychosomatic medicine. Experience shows that only a few doctors are sufficiently well informed on the science *f nutrition and not enough use is made of the services of the relatively small number of nutritionists and dietitians around. Members of the latter pair"of professions always deplore the inadequacy of current medical training in this field and the correspondence received by our secretary tends to support this view. The public at large is still apathetic or ill-informed about the need (simply for health reasons) of a well balanced diet containing as much sun-ripened whole food and live raw food as possible, and as little flesh food, dairy produce, cooked food and de-natured refined food as possible (vegans of course have their own reasons for rejecting these) Too many diets are a steady, insidious progress to inevitable disease. Most food serving establishments and popular sources of recipes still lead an unsuspecting public along the roads leading to second rate health and a lack of vitality. A revolution is required in our thinking. Our cookery books need to be replaced or re-written. Even the word "cookery" needs to be replaced by some such term as food preparation. Our taste buds need to be re-educated 3

and re-trained and mistakes no longer perpetuated with the new generations. The following extracts from the brief biographies of some of the speakers at the Loughborough Conference indicate that the four or five hundred members will receive informed and up-to-date data on nutrition. Mr. Conrad Latto, the eminent surgeon " — has been interested in the relationship between nutrition and disease for many years, and has found that a change in diet can often result in surgery becoming unnecessary. Furthermore that should an operation prove unavoidable, a patient can benefit considerably from correct eating both in faster recovery time and in the avoidance of certain post-operative complications. He has studied every scientific paper on vegetarianism in the Index Medicus and has published several himself." Bruce MacManaway. "Activities include the practice and teaching of - - food reform, yoga, meditation and relaxation, and the development of the E. S. P. faculty." Joseph Goodman, "Dean of the College of Osteopathy, London, is on the Editorial Board of the Encyclopaedia of Unconventional Medicine, and supervised the section on Nutrition. " Dr. Gordon Latto, " visited Switzerland to study Dietetics. He is particularly interested in the Medical Aspect of Vegetarianism and has been President of the Vegetarian Society since 1969. He is a member of the McCarrison Society (concerned with Human Nutrition, Editor) and President of the International Vegetarian Union in a busy private medical practice he encourages patieits to use dietetics, breathing exercise, hydrotherapy, herbal remedies and positive thinking." The latter words "positive thinking" lead on to the other subject Psychosomatics. The human body is not a mechanical robot but a living organism and furthermore a centre of living fields or energies. We could receive the most perfect foods, drink the best spring water, breathe the cleanest air and do the best exercises in the most glorious sunshine, and yet if the MindBody relationship is not right we shall experience disharmony and dis-ease. Too much tension and not enough sleep or relaxation can be just as potent as other factors in affecting human health. The working of the glands and other body centres are inhibited or sometimes over stimulated, if the mental states are cold and hard and ungiving or the emotions unbalanced. The physical cells of the body are in a state of growth - birth, development, functioning and death, destruction and replacement. In any day of our lives, myriads of new cells are being created in energy fields associated with our prevailing and transient moods, thoughts and emotions. The first body these vibrations affect is our own - but let us not forget that they may affect others in our vicinity in the long term. A joyous, happy, serene nature is one of the most healthful influences both for oneself and for those with whom one associates. If our vibrations are negative, depressed, unhealthy and lacking in some way, then improper cells are being created in a distorted imperfect 4

way and ill health and imperfect functioning is being built into our bodies. We are creating our own disharmonies and diseases and laying the foundations of a troublesome future. Fortunately the body has a most wonderful built-in intelligent, self-healing factor, and once the faults of our diet, emotions and thoughts are realised, the process can be reversed or alleviated and we can consciously begin a re-building process. Other speakers at Loughborough, mindful of this process include: Dr. R. Twentyman, homoeopath, was interested in the psychosomatic aspect of medicine." Dr. I. Pearce, " his findings led him into concepts of holistic healine which he applies. " Dr. Brugh Joy His book "Joy's Way" presents a map for the transformational journey as well as an introduction to the potentials for healing with body energies." 11

It is not without interest that the words of the title for the Olympia Festival in London were changed from -"of Mind and Body" in 1978 to "of Mind, Body and Spirit" in 1979. Jack Sanderson DR. F R E Y E L L I S R E S E A R C H


Contributions to the fund at present being used to support the research at Queen Elizabeth College are urgently needed. Please send to the Secretary, 47 Highlands Road, Leatherhead, Surrey. The Society is veiy fortunate that Dr. Sanders is interested and willing to work in this field. VEGAN P R E G N A N C Y AND L A C T A T I O N P R O J E C T To Vegan Mothers - The Maternal and Infant Nutrition Research Unit at Queen Elizabeth College (University of London)is studying the effects of a vegan diet on pregnancy and lactation and needs vegan volunteers. You would be asked to record your food intake for three days, to complete a questionnaire and to provide a small milk sample (about 10 ml.). If you live in the London area you might in addition, be asked to provide a small blood sample (10 ml) and a one day urine collection. Collection of the samples will be arranged by the unit. Write to Dr. Sanders, Dept. Nutrition, Queen Elizabeth College, Campden Hill, London W. 8. STUDY OF THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF VEGAN CHILDREN The unit is also studying the nutritional status of vegan children. Parents willing to co-operate will be visited and asked to give details of their children's diet and to have them weighed and measured. Please write to Dr. Sanders, Queen Elizabeth College, Campden Hill, London, W. 8. 5



We are glad to announce the appointment of an Assistant Secretary to help our long over-worked Honorary Secretary Kathleen Jannaway. Perhaps some readers do not realise just how many duties have been resting on her willing shoulders. Added to normal secretarial duties (which include an enormous and varied post) are that of Editor, Membership Secretary, Exhibition Organiser, Demonstrator, Lecturer and Publicity Secretary. Being a wife and mother must, in such circumstances, often come last but, fortunately for us all, Kathleen has the loving support of what must be, we feel, a somewhat neglected Family at times (no one knows better than I the difficulty of maintaining a balance in these conditions - and the Society was very much smaller when I was in a similar position). For some time now your Council has been seriously concerned lest Kathleen found herself unable to carry such a load - not that her health showed any signs of waning, but we all know that, however capable, the body will not tolerate continuous pressure over long periods. Consequently we are greatly relieved that the work will now be shared. Maggi Taylor who will assume the post of Assistant Secretary is trained in this work and in Journalism, and Frances Quinn, who has been helping in a voluntary capacity for some time, will also join the staff as Membership Secretary.

A s a result of generous legacies in the past we have been able to build up a reserve capital to enable us to take on the responsibility of paid officials. However costs are rising all the time and if we are to take advantage of the many opportunities now opening up, we shall have to appeal to our members for increased financial support. We wish to keep our membership subscription low but shall be even more grateful than before for the extra that in the past has helped us to balance our books. We go ahead now, confident that your generosity will continue to keep your Society not only solvent but active, flourishing and growing in size and influence. Kathleen Jannaway, now General Secretary (she insists on retaining her honorary status) will continue to hold the reins and take responsibiUty for the running of the Society and looks forward to being able to devote more of her time to publicity, writing, lecturing and demonstrating. She will certainly NOT BE RETIRING: 6

Having reached this stage in the growth of the Society there is no reason why the adoption of veganism should not expand at an even greater pace, for certainly the time is right. Many people are seeking a less destructive, more humane way of life whether their concern is chiefly the suffering of food animals in factory farms, air, land or water pollution, the export of live animals or any of the many other cruel or destructive practices now surrounding us. Veganism HAS THE ANSWER, and we can introduce the advantages, to mankind as wellas tothe animals, of our chosen way of life. I am sure I speak for all In extending a warm welcome and good wishes to the new officers and, while 1 have your ear, apologise to all readers that, due to personal committments and moving house (all at the same time) I have been unable to include a Products List in this issue. Keep up the good work of asking manufacturers what they are usi g sending the replies to me, at the Bournemouth address please.Eva Batt, Chairman of the Council *



An E X T R A O R D I N A R Y G E N E R A L M E E T I N G will be held on October 20th 1979 at 2.00pm (i.e. immediately before the A.G.M.) for the purpose of changing the Vegan Society into "The Vegan Society Limited" i. e. a company limited by guarantee and not having a share capital. This move is deemed necessary in view of the greatly increased size and financial responsibilities of the Society. It has already been taken by the Vegetarian Society, the Nature Cure Clinic, and many* such. * * * * * * * * * * will be held on October 20th 1979 at 2. 30pm - immediately after the Extraordinary General Meeting - at Friends Meeting House, 52 St. Martins Lane, Westminster, few minutes walk north of St. Martin in the Fields Church, Trafalgar Square. Near Leicester Square and Trafalgar Square Underground stations. Members are reminded that any resolutions must be received in writing not less than 42 days before the Annual General Meeting and that any nominations for Officers or Council must be received 21 days before the A. G. M. and be accompanied by statements by the nominees of their willingness to serve. After tea there will be a panel of the Council members and other active members to answer A N Y Q U E S T I O N S . Questions beforehand please to the Secretary, 47 Highlands Rd, Leatherhead, Surrey.





Our cover picture is from one of the posters which "Catweazle" designed for the vegan stand at the Festival of Mind, Body and Spirit at Olympia this year. Underneath is written: "All living forms exist in an ecological system - an intricate web of living species dependent upon each other and their physical environment. Man has broken the web by overbreeding the species he exploits for food."

Ecological harmony depends on each individual making its unique contribution to the Whole. When individuals compete, seeking their own advantage regardless of the Whole, the web breaks and threads tangle uselessly. As with the Whole so with the cells of individual bodies and so with the groupings that individuals form for more effective service. The Vegan Society is one such grouping. It is composed of many greatly differing cells, each with its own unique contribution to make to the common purpose of furthering veganism. It is as useless to require one type of member to perform the function of another type as it is to attempt to see with the ear or walk with the hands. T he Society needs activists who, regardless of their own health and safety, can challenge the animal exploiters; it needs nutritionists (or those who can interpret their findings) who can convince the many, half committed, that their health will not suffer if they free their bodies from dependence on animal products ; it needs Christians (and those of other religions) who can challenge their fellows to practise the compassion they preach; it needs its agnostics and atheists, predictably reacting in thought and word to the hypocrisy of the religious but in practice often blazing the trail for them; it needs all manner of people, of all religions and philosophies and of none who can convey the message to their own kind. "The logic of the vegan case is absolute" says John Wynne Tyson in his "Food for a Future", but the movement must grow much larger if practical and social difficulties are to be overcome and a significant contribution to the good of the Whole is to be achieved. This issue of the Journal gives prominence to the human health aspects of the vegan case, where much progress is at present being made. The economic and ecological aspects will come to the fore soon, as the relevance of veganism becomes recognised. The Society plans to be ready with new booklets and reproductions of the other excellent posters that Catweazle made for the Festival. Now is the time for maximum united effort, springing from concern for suffering creatures and seeking to achieve a new ecological balance io replace that being destroyed by Man's greed, fear and pride. 8

Kathleen J anna way



The first Dr. Frey Ellis Memorial Lecture was given by Dr. J.W. T. Dickerson, Professor of Human Nutrition at the University of Surrey, to an audience of well over a hundred at the Westminster Meeting House of the Society of Friends on Thursday March 29th. He took as his subject. PLANT FOODS FOR HUMAN HEALTH with special reference tothe above. Professor Dickerson paid tribute to Dr. Ellis' work in placing the Vegan diet on a sound scientific basis. It was, he said, now being recognised that it was not only possible to provide all necessary nutrients from plant sources but that in some respects they have definite advantages in the promotion of of human health. In an hour-long lecture , aided by slides, Professor Dickerson made the following points. The researches of Dr. Ellis and his colleagues revealed no evidence of greater incidence of any disease among vegans, and extensive test results came within the normal range. Epidemiological studies showed that some of the major diseases of our society were uncommon in the developing world. The incidence increased among those who moved to the West thus suggesting that the causes were environmental not genetic. Among the diseases were cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease, cancers of the colon and the breast, hiatus hernia, diverticulitis and appendicitis. The features of the diet of poorer countries which were considered to be advantageous were the lower fat content (especially animal fat) and the higher fibre intake. In both these respects the typical vegan diet was similar to that of the majority in the developing world and markedly different from that common in the affluent societies of the West. The positive correlation between high saturated fat intake and diseases of the vascular system was now generally recognised. Research work at the Marie Curie Memorial Institute had shown higher levels of blood lipids in patients with breast cancer. The relationship was complex and interrelated with hormone balance, but the generally lower fat intake of vegans (30% of the diet as compared with the 40% typical in this country,) could be significant. 9

Other cancers, particularly cancer of the colon, were possibly connected with high fat intake. The rapid transit time through the bowels promoted by high fibre intake lessened the likelihood of carcinogens being in contact with the lining of the intestines long enough to promote cancerous growths. A high fibre diet was preventative of constipation and therefore lessened the likelihood of appendicitis, diverticulitis and hernia. Dr. Frey Ellis had had encouraging results from treating angina pectoris with the vegan diet. Vegan diets were generally much higher in Vitamin C than were conventional diets. It was now being considered that accepted levels for this vitamin were too low. They were also higher in Vitamin E, the value of which was now being appreciated, especially as an anti-blood clotting agent that could be of great importance in vascular diseases. The food position in the developing world was, generally speaking, deteriorating. It was estimated that there were now some 300 million malnourished children. In past years there had been a mistaken emphasis on the so-called "protein gap", which could more aptly be named the "protein fiasco. " Efforts to produce novel proteins had had little effect save to provide more feeding stuffs for livestock in the West. New strains of plants had brought new problems - e. g. they needed greater imput of fertilisers which could be environmentally damaging. It was being realised that in Nature we were dealing with a balance that could only be manipulated with care. The body's primary need was for energy. In the absence of sufficient carbohydrates the scarcer proteins would be used for calories. What was needed in the developing world was appropriate provision of all nutrients as cheaply as possible. This could only be achieved by plant foods and agricultural practices that increased their production. With regard to nutritious diets for young children the range of possibilites was less than for adults. Plant foods were bulky for their digestive systems and it was necessary that they should be carefully 10

selected to give adequate balance of nutrients. Solutions were not simple. Education and training of mothers was necessary. Never-the-less the disease preventing advantages of the vegan diet were more likely to be effective if it was adopted from an early age. Our continuing tribute to Dr. Ellis must be to carry on the valuable work of research with the vegan diet that he had begun. The above is a very condensed and simplified impression of Professor Dickerson's erudite lecture which we hope will be available in full shortly.

RICHMOND COURSE IN VEGAN NUTRITION The one day intensive course arranged by the Vegan Society in cooperation with Richmond Adult College can be counted a considerable success. More than half the participants were teachers, dietitians or others with professional interests (we took this as an encouraging sign of the growing acceptance of the diet as a healthy, even a healing diet). Even though arrangements were made to include twice as many as originally expected, several applicants had to be disappointed. The others gathered at 9 a. m. to be welcomed by Dr. Nancy Worcester, Head of the Home and Community Department of the College, who gave a clear and lively outline of the main facts of vegan nutrition. Kathleen Jannaway demonstrated the preparation of a vegan lunch and in the practical that followed lunch was prepared and served for 40. to the afternoon, Miss Gill Davies, Lecturer in Home Economics at the South Bank College of Technology, lectured on the importance of vegetable fibre in the diet, illustrating her talk with slides and with examples from her own current research. The preparation of vegan alternatives to dairy products and vegan cakes was demonstrated by Mabel Cluer and Kathleen Jannaway and, after tea, Dr. Sanders of the Department of Nutrition, Queen Elizabeth College, lectured on the vegan diet with reference to various special groups - children and those with tendency to various diseases. Mabel Cluer demonstrated the preparation of a vegan dinner and participants helped to prepare enough for all. 22 11

w mm


Harold and Jenny Bland became vegans without knowing it. They decided to become vegetarians about 14 years ago at their wedding reception as they didn't like the idea of exploiting animals. Because they liked experimenting with a variety of food they did not have a lot of dairy products, then found they were not using any animal products at all. Harold said that while doing teaching practice someone in the staff room asked him about the wholemeal bread he was eating, they got onto talking about food and "this person said I was a vegan. He gave me the address of the \fegan Society and we joined. " "I always like to emphasise this because many people say how difficult it is to change over to veganism, yet we did it by accident. " They have a similar attitude to their self-sufficiency projects which include growing a lot of their own food; using a wood-burning stove for heating, for hot water and much of their cooking; experimenting with a solar oven (and solar heated paddling pool for the children in summer), and Harold's latest venture - he has a windgenerator on loan to experiment with the possibility of storing energy as gas and then using it for welding. When asked they say they are not really planning to be self-sufficient everything stems froiri their interests, a concern for conservation and making the best use of everything that is available.

Harold is a lecturer in physics and Jenny teaches maths part-time at a college in Stevenage - about four miles from where they live at Rabley Heath in Hertfordshire. They both cycle to work - Jenny with their two children, Rosemary (4) on the front of her bike and Michael (nearly 2) in a seat at the back. (See picture in our new Mothers and Babies booklet) They are very involved in the local community. Jenny is a volunteer driver for local disabled people, and Harold makes and adapts appliances for the disabled, as well as repairing cassette players for the Talking Book scheme for the blind. Jenny looks after the vegetable garden, which is about the size of two allotments, and says that gardening is her favourite occupation. She grows beans of all kinds, marrows, pumpkins, salad vegetables, leeks, swedes, turnips, peas and artichokes, as well as soft fruit. There were ap{ie trees already on the land. Harold has planted pear, hazel and walnut trees and is 12

planning to plant further fruit and nut trees. On the hillside behind the house he is making a hazel grove, which will be sheltered by an ash and birch windbreak, and an orchard. When I visited them Harold was preparing the ground for grape vines and a local expert came along to give advice. "I think he thought it a bit odd that we want to grow grapes for making r a i s i n s , s a i d Harold when he had left, "But at the moment we have to import raisins into this country so I think it is important to experiment with growing and making our own. " Jenny estimates that it takes about ÂŁ5 a week to feed them all. What they cannot grow they buy in bulk about twice a year from wholefood suppliers in London. Several v.egetarian friends locally then buy f rom Jenny "which helps keep the costs down for all of them. Last year they had very good crops of applesÂťand potatoes. They dried a lot of apple rings in an old Flatley clothes dryer converted by Harold to take many pounds of apples at a time. They have also successfully dried green beans and the results are very similar to the freeze-dried variety available in supermarkets. With some of the windfall apples Harold made a large quantity of apple juice in an electric centrifugal juicer - boiled it, then, bottled ife in hot kilner or fruit juice jars. They are experimenting with growing rape seed for salad cress and have, found that the best containers are pottery trays made by a student-potter friend., The kitchen is the focal point of their home: and is heated by a woodburning stove which Harold has now connected up to the central heating system so that it provides most of their hot water; They also use the top of the stove for a lot of their cooking, and keep a kettle constantly on the boil to fill Thermos flasks so no heat is wasted. A frying pan, saucepan and kettle can all be accommodated on top of the stove at the same time. In winter the stove can be kept in all night, opened up in the morning and the kitchen is warm in 15 minutes. They only have to rake out the ashes about once a fortnight. Harold has made another wood-stove for the sitting room, as well as one for a friend, and they work very effectively. Even if he had to buy wood Harold estimates that it is the cheapest form of heating. There were some dead trees on the property and, at the moment, there are a lot of dead elms around which people are only too glad to get rid of as they normally 13

have to pay to have them removed. They have hopes of buying part of an adjoining wood which, if properly managed, could provide all the wood they need indefinitely. Careful pruning would also improve the wooded area. One of their biggest problems is the number of rabbits which caused considerable damage to newly planted fruit and nut trees, until Harold devised guards for the base of them. He explained that the previous owner of the adjoining land had had all the foxes, stoats and weasels killed because he had stocked his land with pheasant for shooting. "If the present owner will just let the rabbit predators alone this will keq) the rabbit population down to an acceptable level. " They plan to experiment again with their solar oven this summer. Harold made it from bits and pieces he found in the garage when they moved into the house last year. (They do not throw anything away unless absolutely useless and only collect about two plastic bags of rubbish a year for the dustman.) The oven consists of a wooden box lined with fibreglass two inches thick and a cooking chamber made of metal salvaged from old peanut tins. Flat wooden boards covered with strong plastic reflect the heat from the sun into the cooker through a glass panel on the front, tt heats up to about 350 F which is hot enough to make a casserole, biscuits and rolls, but not quite good enough to make decent bread. But by double-glazing the front glass it should be hot enough for anything.

They are bringing up Rosemary and Michael as vegans but do not worry if they have non-vegan food when visiting friends, although Rosemary refuses meat. They consider it more important for them to be able to mix socially than to insist on a 100% vegan diet, as any non-vegan food they might have only makes up a tiny proportion of what they eat. Harold and Jenny, with Rosemary then a baby, took part in the Open Door film. They have also been featured several times in local newspapers. Maggi Taylor


Vegan Diet and Lactation. Dr. T. Sanders. Department of Nutrition, Queen Elizabeth College, University of London. Breastmilk can meet all the requirements for nutrients for the first six months of life providing the supply is adequate and the mother is adequately nourished. The supply of milk is established soon after birth. Research has shown that lactation is more likely to be successful if the baby is put to the breast as soon as possible after birth. The supply of milk from the mother is stimulated by suckling: the more a breast is suckled the more milk it will supply. For this reason demand feeding is to be preferred. The amount of milk a baby takes varies greatly from one baby to another- some babies will thrive on 600 mis. (about a pint) and others need 1000 mis a day to maintain the same rate of growth. Most babies, however, take about 800 -900 mis a day in the first three months of life if they are entirely breastfed. The best way for a mother to judge whether her baby is getting enough milk is to check that her baby is gaining weight. Most breast-fed babies will gain 4 - 5 ounces a week in the first three months and by the age of six months they should have doubled their birth weight. During the last three months of pregnancy, a mother will lay down a considerable amount of body fat usually about 4 Kgs. This is an entirely natural process that occurs in all mammals. This fat acts as an energy store to help subsidise the cost of lactation. Each kilogram of fat deposited in pregnancy can be cashed in during lactation to yield 9000 Kcalories, which is sufficient to support the cost in energy of producing lO litres of milk. Mothers who put on a lot of fat during pregnancy do not need to eat as much during lactation as those who put on very little. The DHSS recommends an additional intake of 500 Kcalories a day during lactation. In practice, however, it has been found that the energy intakes of mothers who are successfully breastfeeding is somewhat lower than this figure. The same was true of the vegan mothers we studied. Although it is hard to interpret these recommendations into dietary practice, two general pieces of advice can be given: if you are breast-feeding do not attempt to diet; if you feel ravenously hungry eat more. The amount rather than the quality of milk produced is affected by diet: the levels of protein, fat, lactose, calcium and iron in milk are not readily altered by diet. The amount of milk produced is also affected by hormones and psychological factors and insufficient milk production is generally due to these factors rather than an inadequate diet. Our vegan subjects produced normal amounts of milk, when estimated by testweighing the baby before and after feeding. 15

Some authorities recommend an increase in protein intake during lactation to compensate for that lost by the mother in milk, which is about 8 - 1 0 grams/ day. However, there is some evidence that lactating mothers have a more efficient protein metabolism and so do not require the extra protein. The diets of the vegan mothers we studied provided more than the recommended intake for protein and iron. Their diets, however, generally failed to provide the recommended intake for calcium. However, in addition to the dietary calcium, a significant contribution can be made by drinking water, especially in hard water areas where the water may contain as much as 200 mg/litre. Furthermore some of the mothers were taking calcium gluconate tablets. Although the calcium intakes were lower than the recommended intakes in several of the subjects, this does not mean to say that they were inadequate. It is well known that adaptation to low calcium intakes does occur. Moreover the absorption of calcium from the digestive tract is improved in pregnancy and lactation and this to some extent compensates for the extra calcium requirements. The absorption of calcium is also aided by vitamin D, which is produced by the action of sunlight on the skin and is present in margarine. The recommended intake for calcium is derived from a series of calculations and the level of calcium in the typical diet of western developed countries, where dairy products provide more than half of the total calcium intake. Besides milk and tinned fish there are no other important dietary sources of calcium of animal origin. It is important, therefore, to bear in mind that the recommended intakes are not equivalent to minimum requirements. Nuts and pulses are good sources of calcium and so are dark leafy vegetables. How much calcium is available to the body from these foods is not known; for example much of the calcium in spinach is bound up as oxalate and cannot be absorbed. Plamil and Granogen a r e also good sources of calcium. An easy way for vegans, who bake their own bread, to increase their calcium Intake is to add one level teaspoon of calcium carbonate (Chalk B. P.) to each pound of flour. If a mother's intake of calcium is inadequate this will not affect her milk but it might lead to a loss of calcium from her bones. Loss of calcium from the bones is exacerbated by a sedentary life. It is advisable, therefore, for vegan mothers to play safe and take extra calcium during pregnancy and lactation. Constipation is a complaint suffered by many omnivores during pregnancy and lactation and is caused by a shortage of fibre in the diet. In contrast, all the vegan mothers had high fibre intakes: on average these were two and a half times greater than those found in the diets of omnivores. The composition of fat in breastmilk is affected by the fat in the mother's diet. The breast-milk of all the vegans we have studied so far 16

contains more polyunsaturated and less saturated fatty acids than that of omnivores. Whether this is of any benefit to the children remains to be determined but it does not seem to do them any harm. The levels of water-soluble vitamins in breast-milk are also affected by maternal diet. As vitamin B 12 is absent from plant foods, it is very important that vegan mothers take vitamin B 12 supplements during lactation either as foods supplemented with the vitamin such as Plamil, Granogen, Tastex and Barmene or as tablets or Cytacon liquid. The importance of this cannot be overemphasised in the light of a recent case of vitamin B 12 deficiency in a breast-fed baby, whose mother had been a vegan for several years and had not taken any vitamin B 12 supplements. The deficiency impaired the baby's brain growth. Although this was almost completely reversed by vitamin B 12 supplements, there was some residual damage to his nervous system. Most of the vegan mothers we studied were taking vitamin B 12 on a regular basis. Riboflavin intakes were low in a few of the vegan mothers but the levels in breast-milk were inside the normal range. Pulses, nuts and dark green leafy vegetables are excellent sources of the vitamin as are Plami:. Barmene and Tastex. Thiamine, niacin and vitamin C intakes were a)! Mgh in the mothers and this was reflected by a higher level of the vitamins in the breast-milk. In conclusion, the vegan mothers we have studied so far seemed capable of supporting normal lactation. While the diets of most of the mothers were generally adequate, but in a few cases the intakes of riboflavin, vitamin B 12 and calcium were only marginally adequate. Therefore, it would seem wise for lactating vegans to ensure that their intakes of these three nutrients are adequate. NUTRIENT INTAKES IN LACTAT ION OF FOURTEEN VEGAN MOTHERS

Mean value for vegan mother Range

Energy Intake in Kcal day

Protein as $ energy intake

2375 1500 - 3680

Intake recommended by the DHSS 2700

Fat as % energy intake

Fibre grams/day

Calcium giams/day


35 10 - 16

27 - 45

Iron milligrams/ day

25 - 95

0.4 -1.3

15 - 40



A D E X O L I N drops are V E G A N We are glad to have received an assurance from Farley Health Products Ltd. that their Adexolin drops are suitable for vegans. 17

P p / M p e c G E R M A N A P P L E OR t. W PLUM CAKE (This cake consists of three layers, the base, the fruit topping, and the semolina top cover.) INGREDIENTS For the base | oz (20g) fresh yeast or equivalent of dry yeast. 1 teaspoon molasses (or black treacle or sugar) spt. (| 1) diluted/reconstituted Vegan milk 17 \ oz (500g) 85% plain wheat flour 2 | oz (70g) sugar (optional) For the fruit topping 5level teaspoon salt About lb (1-1J kg) 3 tablespoons vegetable oil. raw apples or plums. For the top cover 1 pt (g I) diluted/reconstituted Vegan milk of pleasant taste (suggest mixture of | pt "Plamil" and \ pt "Nectina" almond milk) 4 oz. (U5g) semolina lg oz (40g) vegetable margarine \ level tea spoon Joking 2 | - 3oz ( 7 O - 8 O g) soft light-brown sugar pinch of Bicarbonate of 1 desertspoon "Soyolk" Soda (optional) 2 level teaspoons Vanilla essence pinch of salt a little margarine. The above quantities will fill 2 baking sheets for average-size gas oven or 4 round sandwich cake tins of 8|" diameter or 1 baking sheet and 2 sandwich cake tins. METHOD 1. Peel apples, remove cores and cut in fairly thick slices - or wash plums, remove stones and cut in halves. 2. Prepare top cover as follows: Bring milk with salt to boil. Remove from fire, slowly and gradually stir in semolina, simmer on low flame until thick, switch off flame and let cool to room temperature - stirring all the time. Warm margarine and beat to a cream, gradually adding sugar, Soyolk, Vanilla essence, baking powder, bicarbonate and semolina pulp. 3. Prepare dough for base as follows Dissolve yeast and molasses in 5 tablespoons of the lukewarm milk. Sieve f, of the flour into a bowl, make a hole in the centre, into which pour 18

the yeast - molasses - milk mixture, and cover with J" (6 mo) thick flour layer. Put the lukewarm oil, salt and remaining sugar (if used) on the edge of the dish (these ingredients must not come into direct contact with the yeast mixture.':). Accommodate in a warm place. As soon as the layer of flour, covering the yeast mixture shows heavy cracks, mix yeasty flour and other ingredients, stirring from the centre, and gradually add remaining milk. Beat dough with wooden spoon until bubbles occur. Then knead in remaining flour. Should the dough be sticky, work to a little bit more flour (but dough must remain soft!) Preheat oven on ga;s mark 8 for 5 minutes, then switch, off. Let dough rise in preheated oven until double in volume. ;Knead thoroughly and roll onto well-greased sheets (tins). In order to prevent dough escaping over the edge of the sheet, frame this with a If" high wall of greased aluminium foil. 4. Cover dough evenly with apple slices or plum halves (latter inside up) and press them a little into the dough. 5. Cover whole thing fairly thickly with semolina mixture and finish up with dots of margarine. Put cake back into preheated oven (mark8, but switched off, as above), upper shelves; until again double in height. 6. Bake for 25-30 mins. at gas mark 4 in centre of oven; if after.that time top cover is still wet, give it a little longer. -yi


GERMAN POTATO PANCAKES ("PUFFER") INGREDIENTS 2-2Jibs (1 kg) potatoes (raw) 1-2 ievel desertpoons ground nuts 1 level tspoon salt or more to taste i- level teaspoon Barmene or 1 small, onion Tastex (optional) 1 oz (2 8 g) self-raising 100% or 85% | level teaspoon Agar-Agar pinch of, Bicarbonate of Soda wheatfloui; or plain flour plus | level About 3 | oz (lOOg) vegetable oil. teaspoon baking powder. 1-2 level desertspoons "Soyolk" The above quantities will feed four hungry people as a main course. METHOD Wash potatoes thoroughly with a brush (only very old and ugly ones have to be peeled), grate them medium thick and mix in other ingredients except oil. Heat part of oil in frying pan - enough to allow Puffers to swim nicely. Drop dough into hot oil tablespoonwise and flatten. Fry golden-brown on both sides. Add more oil whenever necessary. SERVING - Hot, preferably from the pan immediately onto peoples' plates, with any cooked fruit (cold) on a side plate, ( e. g. cooked apples, plums, strawberries, any jam or - in Germany regarded as a first-class delicacy, cooked bilberries or cranberries.) Margret PIBger


"It is past the time for moral condemnation of personal7*~sbcial or ecological behaviour, past the time for refusing to face well-evidenced facts. It is time for a new realism" - this was fhe keynote of the World Symposium on Humanity held at Wembley Conference Centre from I - 13 April. Held simultaneously with others in Toronto and Los Angeles the Symposium brought together leading exponents of New Age and Alternative thinking on both practical and spiritual levels. The aim was to provide an arena for communicating the work of those whose approach to the future is essentially co-operative and motivated by a realisation o! human unity as the main survival factor. Two seminars were held each morning - one dealing with personal development, the other with planetary aspects. These were followed by in-deptn workshops in the afternoon by panellists from the morning sessions on their special subjects. The seminars dealt with alternative energy sources, the third world, food and agriculture (during which Kathleen Jannaway spoke of the need for a change to a vegan way of life) and the future of industrial society. Richard St. Barbe Baker 'Man of the Trees' and Alan Grainger, secretary of the International Tree Crops Institute, explored the question "Is Earth becoming a desert?". On the personal side, "what makes a healthy person?" , the psyche, alternative health care and visions of new communities were discussed. In the latter Peter Caddy spoke of Findhorn, and slides were shown of Shakers, the historic spiritual craftsmen of the USA, Carmel Paul Soloman's new community, and two others - Auroville and the Bahai (a New World Community). Although not well attended by members of the general public, it was an informative and invigorating occasion for those who participated. Apart frorr. the "organised" events there were informal discussion groups where those wanting to get involved could get together with others already working on an alternative project. ine whole event was pervaded by a feeling of community. Although mainly American orientated, there were many nationalities represented, and the aim was to carry the work of the Symposium forward into the future. Maggi Taylor 20



Thousands of people of all ages from this, and many other countries, must be grateful to Graham Wilson, Terry Ellis and their helpers for having the courage to take the risk of organising the three Olympia Festivals of 1977 - 8 - 9. Not only did they meet a need, but they provided a wonderful meeting ground for thousands of pioneers in the New Age field. The total attendance at the three Festivals was close to a quarter million people. As in the previous years, the Vegan Stall was continuously manned by 3 or 4 helpers who were generally kept busy by a non-stop stream of enquirers. Thousands of leaflets were taken, many new contacts made and much literature sold, whilst a continuous slide show caught the eyes of many passers by. Our stall was larger than last year's, and included many artistic posters which stopped many visitors in their tracks and obviously affected the thoughts of those who read them. There were over thirty interesting speakers, a sanctuary for healing, meditation, yoga, dance, music, prayer and poetry, and a demonstration area for all kinds of dance, music, yoga, song and ballet. Over 150 groups, societies, colleges, foundations, communities, institutes, trusts, centres, fellowships and associations had stalls there, and most visitors would find some to their liking. Vegan visitors for instance might have been interested in the Bach Flower Remedies, Beauty Without Cruelty, Friends of the Earth, Faith Products, The Humane Research Trust, Homoeopathic Herbal, Lotus Foods, The National Aiti-Vivisectlon Society,aid ihe Vegetarian Society. Another feature was the well attended Vegan Cookery displays given by Kathleen Jannaway and Mabel Cluer. The International Year of the Child, the Effects of Colour; and Organic Husbandry were amongst other special exhibits. The Festival impulse is spreading. Apart from many other Festivities (one-day or longer) which are now being held all over England (many attended by the Vegan Society), large Festivals are also being held In Bristol (1-2-3 June) and New York 26th-30th September. Future Festivals are planned for 1980, in May at Birmingham, in June at London, in July at Bristol, and In September at Edinburgh and Leeds. Well done Graham - a spearhead into the New Age. Jack Sanderson "Good is itself, whatever comes. It grows, and makes, and bravely Persuades, beyond all tilt of wrong : Stronger than anger, wiser than strategy, Enough to subdue cities and men If we believe it with a long courage of truth. " From "A Sleep of Prisoners" by Christopher Fry. A passage from the same work .beautifully hand lettered by Mick Miller,was displayed on the vegan stand. 21

COURSE IN VEGAN NUTRITION ( See page 11 ) A day course is planned for Saturday November lOth. The cost will be ÂŁ5.00 including meals. Consideration will be given to helping those coming from a distance, with travelling expenses. Practical work will be voluntary. Enrolments have already been made, although the course has not yet been advertised, so book early, with the Secretary at 41 Highlands Road, Leatherhead, Surrey, if you wish to be included.

FUTURE MEETINGS L A S T T U E S D A Y S of the month 7.00-9.00 pm. at the Nature Cure Clinic, 15 Oldbury Place W. 1. 5 minutes Baker Street Underground - behind Marylebone Church. Informal gatherings - opportunity to practise public speaking. Drinks provided. Anything you bring to share to eat. THE INTERNATIONAL VEGETARIAN Union Congress is being held at Loughborough University from August 25th to September 9th - opportunity to meet vegetarian friends from many countries. Details from the Conference Organiser, Parkdale, Dunham Road, Altrincham, Cheshire. NORTH LONDON VEGANS are holding a PUBLIC MEETING'at Jackson's Lane Community Centre, Highgate N.6. on Thurs. 26 July at 7.30pm. (Opp. Highgate Tube - bus nos. 134,34,104) There will be films, refreshments and discussion. No need to book. This will be the third meeting - aimed at bringing the vegan way of life before the general public - that the group have organised. They are also shortly planning to hand out leaflets at the Broadway, Muswell Hill, and have posters and a petition table concerned with various aspects of animal abuse. At their regular monthly meeting at the end of May they decided to hold a WRITE- EN on the second Tuesday of every month at the Earth Exchange, 213 Archway Road, N6. The idea is that a number of letters to an M. P. or newspaper on the same topic will have more effect than individual letters. At a previous meeting they had been visited by a reporter from the local newspaper who is planning a write-up on the group, which was started by Alpay Torgut. If anyone would like to get together a group in their area and needs help on how to go about it get in touch with Alpay, at 133 Owen House, Brecknock Rd. Estate, N 19 who says he would be pleased to help if he can. Malcolm Pateman, of is trying to start a south L

London S W 2 (tel 01-674-3813) Anyone interested get in touch, 22

ANTI-VIVISECTION MARCH and RALLY at CAMBRIDGE May 5 1979. The people came from many corners of Britain. Some from as far away as Cornwall and Edinburgh, others on one of the three coaches from London and on coaches from Birmingham, Derby and Staffordshire. About five hundred of us gathered quietly at the appointed time with placards and giant banners on the wide stretch of green known as Parkers Piece in the illustrious city of, Cambridge. This was to be an important event, the first national anti-vivisection inarch and rally ever held in this country. We had come to show'the vivisection fraternity in Cambridge what we thought about their activities. Cambridge, the Mecca of the scientific world, is a city of laboratories, a city of animal torture. In Cambridge they bore holes in the ;skuVls of animals , then damage their brains by pushing pieces of steel wire throughthe holes and passing an electric current along the wire; they then sit back and observe what effect this has on the animals' behaviour. They give rats repeated electric shocks to find out whether this will make the animal more aggressive. They deprive baby monkeys of their mothers to find out what effect this has on their behaviour. In this city scientists are,applauded and honoured in academic circles for devising more and more sophisticated tortures for animals. We were 'ther* to tell them that we did not applaud them. Instead we look upon their activities with horror and disgust-. So we inarched, through the'narrow streets for an hour chanting "CAMBRIDGE SCIENTISTS TORTURE ANIMALS'' and "VIVISECTION OUT, VIVISECTION OUT" and "What dp we want? ANIMAL. LIBERATION". "When do we want it? NOW". We distributed thousands of leaflets containing recent reports, of experiments to the surprised on-lookers. As we swung into Trinity Street we were met by a battery of cameras - the tourists were having a hey-day; it made a change from taking pictures of colleges and churches. :

We finally came to a halt in Kings Parade and a letter of protest was delivered to the Vice-Chancellor of the University; During the: break before the meeting that was to follow a number of marchers held heated discussions with some students* who had gathered around. Later at the Students Union debating hall I had great pleasure in introducing our guest speaker, Hans Ruesch, author of "Slaughter of the Innocent". The audience rose to welcome him with a standing ovation. This important book.has made people aware of the unspeakable horrors inflicted on animals in the name of "Science". It has also shown, that not-only for the sake of animals.-, but for the sake of the human nice must vivisection be totally abolished. Hans Ruesch has proved that by following a false trail through a reliance on vivisection, orthodox medicine has not only led us away from true healing but is actually the cause of much illness. He cited the case of the thalidomide babies. Hans Ruesch spoke of the way the public had been seriously misinformed on the subject of vivisection and showed a set of slides from pictures: taken in laboratories. It was a relentless catalogue of misery and horror and,many of "us had difficulty in keeping our eyes on the screen, 23

By the end of the meeting one sensed that a new spirit of urgency had been injected into the Animal Aid movement. No time must be wasted in fighting for the total abolition of vivisection. Our task was no less than the re-education of Western Society. We plan a similar event for October 27th at Oxford. Demonstrations are planned Aug. 9 Thur. 5-7 Strand (nr. No 9 July 11 Wed. 5-7 Marble Arch Undgrd. bus-stop) July 26 Thur. 5-7 Green Park Undgrd. Aug. 22 Wed. 5-7 Chancery Lane Aug. 2 Thur. 12 noon - 3pm Demo Underground outside Medical Research Council labs Sep. 11 Tues. 5-7 Bond St. Undgrd. Woodmansterne Rd, Carshalton, Surrey Sep. 26 Wed. 5-7 Leicester Sq." Jean Pink, Animal Aid, 111 Estridge Way, Tonbridge, Kent (0732 364546)

Anglican Society for the Welfare of Animals (ASWA), Caxton Hall, Saturday 28th April 1979 Although not a member I enjoyed attending this meeting to hear members of the Establishment voicing their concern for animals. A full hall heard a full programme of speakers under the chairmanship of the President, The Very Rev. Ed. Carpenter. The address of welcome was from the new Bishop of Stepney who said he had volunteered to attend and open the meeting because he had concern for animals, but he quickly excited feelings by saying that holidays in Devon had made him wonder about foxes and foxhunting! A later speaker, The Rev. Arthur Jones, author of "A parson looks at Hunting" expressed how we, who were present, felt. There were excellent, sadly informative speeches from various animal welfare bodies and a farmer spoke of her fears of "modern" farming methods where animals are denied the right to live freely before slaughter and how man takes drastic actions and upsets the balance of nature e.g. gassing badgers and then being over-run with rabbits. Mrs. Audrey Marshall, writer and broadcaster, and the Lord Bishop of Leicester. Chairman of ASWA spoke hopefully that animals could be helped by the power of actions, words and prayer. The chairman ended the public meeting with a summing up and proposal lor a resolution which would be worked out during the AGM for members which was to follow. 24 G r a c e

S m i t h

A Question

of P r i n c i p l e ,


I don't know why, but it always seems to me to be somewhat precocious and embarassing to answer when I am asked, "What made you decide to become a vegetarian/vegan?". I have found the answer which causes me the least discomfort is, "Someone sat me down and told me what went on in a slaughter-house", which also happens to be the truth. I had always been against hunting, which was all my young mind knew of cruelty to animals in those naive days. Even though someone had, lightheartedly some years earlier, suggested "If you are against hunting, why don't you stop eating meat?", I had never given it serious consideration. I had thought of the remark as one of those flippant things adults say in order to be clever or amusing at the expense of us poor ll-year-olds. Of course meat was different. It was natural, wasn't it? I had been eating it all my life- everybody ate it. But as soon as I was told, some 5 years later, what happens to those big brown sensitive eyes on the other side of the field gate (if they were lucky), my life-suppressed instinct of abhorrence surfaced. What miseries had I been responsible for over the past 16 years? I knew I could never, whatever the consequences, be the cause again of so much suffering and injustice. I gave up meat, there and then. My parents received the news more calmly than my school teachers. While the former doubtless regarded it as possibly another teenage 'fad', the latter (I was at boarding school) were of the opinion that my fellow converts and I were deliberately practising and preaching vegetarianism as some sort of pseudo-Marxist insurgence; to 'get at the system', to rebel against established and tried custom and authority. They didn't welcome our enlightenment: By some token of bad planning on their part and fortune on ours, one term they assembled all the 'rebel vegetarians' on the same table in the dining room. Ignoring our protests of waste and expense, they doggedly set down on the table every mealtime, every day, a plate of dead animal disguised (as only schools are able to do) to look like scrapings from the kitchen floor. Each day, every day, the muck was returned, untouched, but by now covered with a greasy cold brown scum. And so it went on - for a whole year! Surely they weren't hoping to tempt us to abandon our resolutions with these 'enticing' carcasses?

The school, far from supplementing our diet (despite a willing caterer and offers of help and advice - free - from the Vegetarian Society) would, I feel sure, have starved us had it not been for regular outside provisions of brown bread and cheese supplied by a few generous parents and shared out between us by our equally-generous fellow veggies. Eventually it reached the stage where one young lad was even threatened with expulsion if he did not 'conform' to the school's ideas of nutritional bliss. Had we been vegans, who knows what we might have suffered at that place??: Even in those days I thought vegans were cranks. What could possibly be wrong with drinking milk? The cows produce more than they need etc. . etc. All vegans, if they existed - I had my doubts were surely crackpots! And then one day I met one. A real, honest to good vegan, in the shape of that well known activist Ronnie ' I break for animals' Lee. I had just left school and had discovered and joined the Hunt Saboteurs Association (not as a profession, you understand - it sounds rather like an Army recruiting notice!) Ronnie and I had just finished sabotaging an otter hunt, and were rather peckish. While discussing possible eating places, I learned Ronnie's terrible secret, and the next step in my education took place. "Okay, then," I said, resigned to what I knew would be a terrible revelation, "convince me I should be a vegan". He did, and I did. But it was a difficult and daunting step, it seemed. I was now aware of the horrors of the dairy and egg industries. But how would my parents take it ? I was still dependant upon them for support and sustenance. It took me 6 months, until that Christmas, to take the plunge. I broke the news at a Christmas party, that I was making a New Year's Resolution to give up all animal produce - to become, shudder.shudder .. .a vegan. "I see." said my Mother with amazing calm, "then you'd better start practising now". Upon which she promptly pinched my half-eaten Ritz cracker! Of course there were times of tension in the family when I became a vegan. It is something every prospective vegan must face. But in my experience the fear of the difficulties is worse than the giving up of the milk, cheese and eggs! My parents are, 6 years later, now reassured that I am not about to fall to bits as a result of vitamin or calcium deficiencies, and they accept my cranky ways with good grace and tolerance - and I get smashing meals when I go home! 26

The only difficulty still facing me is one facing all vegans - eating out. Sometimes it means living on nothing but crisps and peanuts (and some of those you have to be wary of! ). The number of times I've yearned for (even a British Rail's) fruit pie! But that situation won't change while people submit to it, or continue to use it as an excuse for not becoming vegan.


This epistle rather resembles an article about someone 'coming out' (i. e. a gay person admitting to the world that he or she is such) for the first time. That is not totally surprising; an admission to being a vegan still brings out the same fear, suspicion, ignorance and amusement that faces other small groups, such as gays, coloureds, faith healers and naturists!! ("Oh, you're a vegan are you? Hear that Ethel, she's a vegan. I don't approve of all that sort of thing myself, you know.. i . . By the way, what exactly is a vegan?"..) The increasing interest in veganism as a way of life for those concerned about animals' rights should help to counter that sort of attitude. Become a vegan. Join the cranks arid change the world'.'

Robin Howard Editorial Note Definition of "crank" - "a little tool that makes revolutions."

The aim of Vegan Views is basically to act as a forum for readers' opinions, ideas and thoughts - arid to increase contact between vegans. VV comes out quarterly arid includes articles, letters, recipes, poems, artwork, etc, all of which we try to put together in an informal and attractive way. In the current Summer issue, for example, there is an account of a vegan's dietary experience in hospital and also an article on natural toiletries, plus many other features. A subscription to W is ÂŁ1 for 4 issues or, alternatively, send 25p (stariips will do) for the current issue. In the Autumn issue we will be printing a complete Contacts List of names and addresses of all our subscribers in Britain and abroad and we will include new subscribers (up to July 14th) on this, unless they wish otherwise. Please write to Valerie & David, VEGAN VIEWS, 1 Gincroft Lane, Edenfield, Ramsbottom, Bury, Lancashire BLO QJW. Malcolm Home 27

B r e a k t h r o u g h in the n o r t h e r n I s l e s . Last summer we sailed over 2,000 miles and visited nearly 30 different islands. For nearly two months we crused around the Orkney and Shetland Islands and, during this time, we met quite a few 'natives' and 'immigrants' and also lea nit something about the way these northerners live. The Orcadians are generally regarded as crofters who do a bit of fishing the islands are generally fairly fertile. The Shetlanders are said to be fishermen who do a bit of crofting - their islands are generally rocky and barren. However, nearly all of these northern crofters depend to some extent on livestock and, in fact, we were astounded to find that nearly all home-grown vegetables are used as feed for the animals. If fruit and vegetables are required for human consumption, they are imported. Asa result of this system, fresh fruit and vegetables are generally scarce, expensive and of poor quality. We were frequently frustrated at the sight of a field of good vegetables which were destined for animal fodder. What a waste: Changes are Coming. The lives of the people in these Northern Isles are rapidly being changed by three major influences - oil is bringing in outside labour and money .tourists are bringing in money and 'immigrants' are bringing in money and, more importantly, ideas. It is generally regarded in this part of the world that fish and meat are the mainstays of everyone's diet. A Shetlander would regard you in the same way as would an Eskimo if you suggest that he become vegetarian. Trees are almost non-existent and. in most areas, bracken is the tallest plant for miles around. The native people believe that trees and bushes will not grow because of the winter gales which cause such severe wind-burning. However, a few people who have moved into these islands from mainland Britain have tried to grow some larger plants - with varying degrees of success. It is significant, though, that trees and bushes which are sheltered from the wind for the first few years will survive provided that they are grown in clusters (providing mutual shelter) and t hat they are protected from animals - especially sheep and goats. It is fairly well-known now that the main reason for the barren state of much of upland Britain, and of the Northern and Western Isles, is that the original forests were cleared for grazing. The sheep have ensured that trees cannot regenerate to re-establish themselves. This is very noticeable 28

in areas where protected tree-plantations have been established - especially in the Inner Hebrides (Mull, Rhum and Eigg are very good examples). A Long Fight. We generally kept quiet about our views on food and its production. This was partly because we did not wish to upset the locals, and partly because it can do any cause a lot of harm if it is pushed too much - especially in a community which is far from receptive. In fact, we had a few embarrassing times when friendly fishermen offered us fish, lobster or even 'come over and have a fish-supper'. Most of these people accepted our polite refusals with some degree of humour, but there were a couple of occasions when offence was taken. We feel that we have undoubtedly influenced a few people in these northern areas with regard to our way of life. We have certainly not converted anyone, but a few people have shown some considerable interest in our ideas and we are sure that, in some cases, these ideas will be developed further and there will be an alteration in the dietary pattern. All that is needed is for more vegetarians/vegans to visit these islands to show that we're not all that rare! We can certainly recommend the Northern Isles for a holiday if you like people. These people are incredibly friendly - despite their carnivorous habits: See page 36. Brian and Wendy Burnett W H A T V E G A N I S M H A S D O N E F O R ME "Although it is early days for me yet, I am convinced I could not regress to my old mode of eating because my conscience has matured enough to be stronger than my appetite, and I would like to say what veganism has done for me so far. Firstly, as I have stressed so often, my 'mental health' has improved - I really do have a clear conscience in at least one area of my life, and it is a beautiful, refreshing feeling, which I have no desire to abandon. Veganism has become quite a social talking -point, and for the first time last week, a more enlightened acquaintance actually congratulated me on becoming vegan, saying that it was a sure test of will-power and strength of principle. I have found some more curious friends willing to taste the foods I cook and admitting that they are both tasty and wholesome soon I am throwing my first vegan meal for six people. I personally have retaken to the kitchen, thinking up more colourful, tasty, healthy and imaginative meals, making full use of my 'A' -level in domestic science. My food bills are also much cheaper than before and I am looking forward to ut ilising fully the seasonal fruits of Summer." Dawn Robinson 29




We'd like to put forward our view of Veganism, firstly let's remember why we're Vegan. I hope this is because we are against animal abuse, so why are Vegans so often afraid to stand up for Veganism; just because we're different? We owe it to the animals to proclaim to all the alternatives to flesh-eating, and to make vegetarians feel like second class citizens, and flesh eaters total outcasts! There is little or no difference in people getting pleasure out of killing a fox for sport or killing a lamb for the taste; both are totally unnecessary and both have the same result. To us Veganism is solely about stopping suffering, and, to this aim, converting others to the diet. So where do health foods come in, how does the use of brown rather than white flour help animals ? What do you imagine the average flesh eater would think of having bean flan, nut loaf, carrot juice and bread spread with vegetable oil? It makes us feel ill, and we're Vegans! No doubt it's very healthy, but that's surely by the way, we are already looked on by many as cranks and by pushing health foods we seem even more weird. Like most people we live on a trash diet, living a hectic life and eating almost entirely out of tins, the deep freeze and the local chippy as do most of the young Vegans we know. We have neither the time or the self interest to worry about health foods, and only eat nuts at Xmas. The flesh eaters having dinner with us get a Protoveg meat and veg meal, only differing from their fare in substituting animal products with the closest substitute. They are usually impressed enough to try using soya meat themselves. We don't infer i t ' s a healthier diet, just a less cruel one. I know we would remain Vegan even if it were proved less healthy. We are practical about flesh eating, theoretically what objection is there to eating a cow, horse, dog or even another human so long as its death were either natural or accidental and not designed for our benefit? Only sentimentallity would say we should waste a valuable protein source that could be used for humans or animals. As atheists we also feel too much emphasis is put on the supposed religious and spiritual benefits gained from a Vegan diet. Again surely we have a reason enough in stopping the slaughter. We are not animal lovers, we don't love them, but we do respect their right to a place on the earth, unmolested by humans. Animal lovers are invariably animal eaters and this obnoxious term suits such hypocrites. So come on Vegans, let's shout not whimper our Vegan views.


Jo & John Hicks Animal Activists


ANIMALS' RIGHTS - A SYMPOSIUM Edit. D. Paterson and R. Ryder. Pub. Centaur Press 1979 £6. 50. In August 1977 over 150 people attended a two day symposium arranged by the R. S. P. C. A. at Cambridge. "Animal Rights" has since become the slogan of animal activists and the subject of heated debate among academics. The27 papers presented have now at last been published in book form. As Peter Singer says in the foreword, all can now share in the wealth of ideas.

Richard Ryder outlines the history of speciesism and John Aspinall looks forward to the day when richly deserved catastrophe will bring to an end man's cruel dominion. Theologians, philosophers, writers, including Brigid Brophy, Stephen Clark and Andrew Linzey give the bases of their belief in Animal Rights. Those concerned with various areas of exploitation - farming, wild life, experimentation - "sport", "entertainment" express their hopes and fears for future developments. John Wynne Tyson offers vegan farming as a practical alternative to both traditional and factory farming. Practical men assess strategies. Probably more than half the writers are vegetarians: three at least are vegan. If you are one of those who can spend £6.50 (+ 60p postage) on a book, buy this one from us; anyway get your library to stock it and thus spread the idea that ANIMALS HAVE RIGHTS. RICH CHRISTIANS IN AN AGE OF HUNGER Ronald J. Sider Pub. Hodder & Stoughton (paperbacks) price £1.00. This book is a superbly presented case that the God of the Bible (OT & NT) demands that the RICH ensure justice for the POOR in ALL aspects of life, if necessary to the point of self-sacrifice. He shows, with many Biblical examples, how the Bible teaches that "corporate sins" e.g. partaking of the benefits of (WITHOUT endeavouring to change) an economic system which exploits the poor, is just as much a sin as, for example, the "personal" sins like immorality, jealousy etc. And he cites us in the West as an example; and of even INCREASING W>rld hunger by reason of our methods of living. He points out how inefficient all animals are at converting plant food to meat but seems to indicate the use of less inefficient animals - pigs and chickens. (Unfortunately he quotes from parts of the Old Testament which ordain the killing of animals.) In a list of ideas for a simpler life style, he says "substitute vegetable protein for animal protein" and if vegans could get into the house groups he advocates, this would give them an opportunity to introduce their ideas. R.B. Hudson (shortened and edited K.J.) 31

'What you say when you smash your You are the people. thumb with a You are this season's people. hammer tells There are no other people this season. how close you If you blow it, it's blown. are to enlightenment." * * * * * "Do what you know is right. Look at a situation and, without being attached, decide what is right and do it. Never mind your head trips. Decide what is right and do it. When you learn how to do that, it's a great refuge and a grtat peace."



"If you get into high states of consciousness you can become "Religion only seems different compassionate with your brother. when you're dealing with a retailer. You can feel the man next to you If you deal with a wholesaler or the lady or the child or the dog they all get it from the same or the tree or whatever next to you, distributor." you can feel them, and if you get pretty stoned, you can feel everybody in the room. You can get stoneder and you can feel everybody in the house. You can get stoneder and you can feel everybody on the block. You can get high and you can feel everybody in town, and if you get higher, you can feel everybody in the country. And if you get a little higher, you can feel everybody in the world. You can feel them all. That's where the catch is. When you can find yourself feeling everybody in the world, you suddenly notice that about a third of your brothers and sisters are starving. About a billion people are starving on this planet, and you are no better than those folks are. It is purely a geographical accident. There is only one way you can go to that level and be able to stand it. That is to know in your heart of hearts that you're doing everything you possibly can to help out." "Start a large project - like saving the world. Keeps you busy. Guaranteed for a lifetime. That's what the Vow of the Bodhisattva is about: The deluding passions are inexhaustible. I vow to extinguish them all. V^jP^ Sentient beings are numberless. I vow to save them all. ^ The truth is impossible to expound. I vow to expound it. The way of the Buddha is unattainable. I vow to attain it."

i j k

"Helping man is a good place to start your search for God."

Some of my favourite quotations from Stephen Gaskin's book of spiritual teachings "This Seasons People" published b^ the Farm and available froin the Vi.-gan Society. Price ÂŁ1. 25 20p (p p) Maggi Taylor +



Please send to the Secretary, 47 Highlands Road, Leatherhead, Surrey, by August 1st. for the next issue. Rate - 4p a word. Box Number lOp extra. NORTH WEST VEGANS - We have a new, up and rs. Write to or telephone 2. "AHIMSA" - quarterly magazine of the American Vegan Society. VeganismNatural Living - Reverence for Life. Calendar year subscription - $8 or ÂŁ4 includes 5 issues of North American Vegetarian Society's "Vegetarian Voice". WHY NOT DO SOMETHING about circuses, fur shops, vivisection etc. Actively fight all animal abuse with ANIMAL ACTIVISTS, the only animal welfare society to restrict membership to vegans and vegetarians.

WANTED by gentleman who enjoys work - work on a Vegan market garden which would suit me better than working on this Vegetarian market garden. Terms here are - free accommodation in worke 4 hrs. work a day. Anyone who is interested write to , Oakcroft Gardens. Cross o' Hill, Malpas, Che

HALF SHARE small home Paignton manent for suitable person. TRAINING COURSES IN SYSTEM 3 VEGA NIC GARDENING. Why not enjoy part of your summer holiday in the lovely Cotswolds or the pleasant countryside of Buckinghamshire learning the art of growing salads, vegetables, and fruit without digging. No organic animal dung or sewage used. Short or extended courses available under the guidance of Instructors. For prospectus and scale of fees send s.a.e. to the Principal, System 3 Veganic, 36 Granes End, Great I.inford, Milton Keynes, MK14 5DX, Bucks. MAKE BREAD WITHOUT YEAST? Read: THE PRISTINE LOAF. The therapeuti cipes. From Healthfood shops or^ , LEEDS 8. Send 50 pence inc. p. & p VEGFAM feeds the hungry via plant-based foodstuffs, leaf protein, seeds irrigation, etc. Trustees, The Sanctuary, Lydford, Okehampton, Devon. Visitorr welcome. Tel: L yd ford 203. A NEW ACTION GROUP is being animal exploitation. Contact :-

VEGETARIAN COOK-HOUSEKEEPER would find appreciative consideration with two friends. Sunny bed-siuing room. Good help provided. References essential. Tel. 883725. 2 Milton St. Westcou. Dorking. Written reply preferred. NEDERLANDA VEGA NO, 49 jaroj, indi kun veganaj esperanlistoj: N. C. Schenderling, 3038 S N Roterdamo, Nederlando. COME IN Inf.: Mr. Nederland.

ole world: LEARN ESPERANTO 8la, 3038 SN Rotterdam,

"MOI ES CAFE" - basement 14 George St., Bath 331359. VÂťgan and vegetarian. Open 11.0-6.0. RESPONSIBLE, practically minded person to maintain small range of food processing machinery (initial training given) with general duties in most pleasant atmosphere of fellow vegans. Job provides considerable work satisfaction. Nice locality. Plamil Foods Ltd. Plamil House, Bowles Well Gdns., Folkestone, Kent. PERENNIAL CROPS FOR SELF SUFFICIENCY Robert de J. Hart, co-editor of "Forest Farming" is preparing a book on the above subject and urgently needs volunteers to participate in research: anyone with access to a small plot of land could assist. Write to him at High Hill, Rushbury, nr. Church Streeton, Salop. (Tel. Longville 342) SCHOOL DINNERS TEACHERS Dr. Turner is investigating into the value of school meals. Will teachers willing to give detail of me nus please write to me for a form- No names of schools to be mentioned. Kathleen Jannaway N A L I f I stands for NATURE, LIFE, TJ*UTH, HEALTH. We are willing to support practical ideas to further mental, moral and physical * improvement of humanity, based on a vegetarian way of life, so as to Ceaie a more harmonious worid. We are calling on all like-minded individuals, groups, or societies to submit their ideas and suggestions lÂŤr the furtherance of such ideals, the practical organization of which niav have been held up through lack of funds. One idea f. i. is to support tne training of individual exemplars. There may be many other proposi- * lions based on g oup wo k. You now have a great opportunity to put your ideals into practice. Write to us about your ideas, y o u r plans and your- * sell. Please allow us time for reply to your letter. NALITH iRUST, * o t> Vegan Box No. 36 r





SOUTHPORT Delicious vegetarian meals and accommodation in modern bungalow. Guests welcome March onwards. Southport 78776 or Box No. 35 PENZANCE. Self-catering accommodation or vegan/vegetarian meals by arrangement in home 2 miles from Penzance with large garden, sea and country views. Car-shelter. Tel. Penzance (0736) 2242. DEVON, Ilfracombe - "Fairwynds" Vegetarian Guest House offers healthful holidays with natural whole foods, compost grown produce and home baking. Vegans are welcome. Elizabeth Burton (V. C. A. Member). Tel. 62085. NEWQUAY. Accommodation and self-catering facilities are available for up to three vegans/vegetarians in a clif 6 ac ad ood tourist centre, walking, golf course, sea, beach near by. Guests welcome all year. Croy 352. VENTNOR, Isle of Wight. We have rooms to let in our house overlooking the ly atmosphere, & good food on request. Barbara Fawcett, Ventnor, Isle of Wight, (0983) 852112. SMALL PRIVATE cottage on organic smallholding offers simple accommodation and homegrown balanced wholefood/vegan meals as required. In the heart of Little Holland, seven miles from Gpringfields Bulb Festival. Glorious fields the sea nearby. Open all year. , Sutterton, Boston, Lincolnshire, SOMERSET, Burnham-On- Sea. Vegetarian/Vegan cuisine. Delightful area. Sea, sand, hills, caves, history, sport. Holidays, weekends, families welcome. Open all year. S. A. E. Oxford House, 65 Oxford Street, Telephone 785954. YOGA HOLS. July - August. Slumpy, grumpy, out of condition. To return your glow is just my mission. In my little house so small and neat I'll Yoga you back onto sprightly feet. Margaret Szawejko, Yoga, Reflexology Dipl. Listd ISB NNB - Dance. Stourport - on - Severn, Worcs. Tel 029-93 SCARBOROUGH holiday flat available for letting to vegan/vegetarian members only. Most dates presently free. For details, SAE to 18 Bar St. , Scarborough or telephone 71976. SHOPPING WITH EVA

Eva 's pa t quarter when she has settled into her new homeBournemouth. All communications to her there p A D E X O L I N drops are V E G A N We are glad to have received an assurance from Farley Health Products Ltd. that their Adexolin drops are suitable for vegans. 35


COME SAILING with Wendy & Brian Burnett on their 6-berth ketch 'Peanut' Vegan/vegetarian diet. Optional instruction in Seamanship/Navigation, Photography, Natural History, Painting/Sketc hing. Visit Iona, Staffa, Skye and other beautiful islands. See Dolphins, Porpoises, Seals and Seabirds. Sleep on board in secluded anchorages. Sea-sailing for the adventurous or canal/ loch cruising for the sea-wary! E50-E70 p. w. Children welcome. S. a. e. 51 Main Road, Kinnerton, Chester CH4 9AJ. *





under (he personal supervision of the l'rincip;il NORMAN EDDIE

I he clinic specialises in the Naturopathic approach to health problems including'. Gynaecology Arthritis Skin complaints Gastro Intestinal Degenerative Diseases and all forms of disease affecting tht Nervous System. M'Ar not write or telephone our receptionist lor appointment -


133, GATLEY ROAD, GATLEY, CHEADLE, CHESHIRE SK84P Telephone: 061-428-4980













CORNWALL. "W'OODCOTE", THE SALTINGS. LELANT, ST. IVES. Tel: HA YLE 314 7* Vegetarian Vegan Holiday Centre overlooking Hayle Estuary. , C. H. and H. 6 C. in all rooms + SPIRITUAL HEALING by arrangement * (John Blackaller D. C. H. A.) Brochure ctc. from vegan Proprietors- John & Miss Hazel Blackaller.* *









C.REENWAYS GUEST HOUSE 24 Marian Avi: Mabletnorpe. Lines (Tel 7508) C^n-n Mav 27(h 15179. Christine and Christopher Phillips, active members of the Vegan Society, S)H'ciallv welcome vegans. Wholefoods, homeiw:.infi. s:»lf sandv beach, fine for children. Scn<! ii. I. tor brochure. 36










M U R E OAK INN Crossways Green Stourpo rt -on- Severn Worcester VEGAN MEALS SERVED Tuesd -Sat 7. 30-9. 30pm (nut roast, vegetable curry casseroles etc.)

Natural Fragrant Flower Creations PERFUME ROSE P E T A L SKIN F R E S H E N E R A V O C A D O SATIN L O T I O N : PINE F O A M B A T H LOTUS FLOWER S H A M P O O EYE MAKE-UP TOILET SOAPS .: D E O D O R A N T FACE POWDER & TALCUM C U C U M B E R CLEANSING MILK & A F T E R S H A V E NEW: GENERAL PURPOSE SOAP & WASHING-UP LIQUID Obtainable from Health Stores or Beauty without Cruelty Boutiques in: ENFIELD . LEEDS . LONDON . EDINBURGH . DUNDEE & STANFORD (Lincolnshire) BWC, 1 CALVERLY PARK, TUNBRIDGE WELLS, KENT It's 100% vegetable ... made from the soya bean and packed with protein and goodness. Its production involves no exploitation of animals. The. flavour is quite delicious—all the, family, particularly the children will love it. You can drink it on its own as a super, health drink or use it on breakfast cereals, in coffee or tea or in dishes such as milk puddings and custards. What's more it will keep in tne can just as long as you' want to keep it. A wonderfully versatile and nutritious food . Golden Archer Beanmilk by itona. • It's at your health food store. 1



'Golden Archer'

BEANMILK The Milk That's 100%


C R A N KS-H6ALTH-FOODS William Plokf Hum AtmMlStrut' Umien Wl 35 Castle Strut-C/uiUfpnl - Sumy I 3 fixs Stmt' - Vartnuni th^Drvwv 35 Hi'^v Strat - Tctnes' Dcvm



range is exclusively vegan



CAROB-EAN (CAROB SOYA PLAMIL) Please place a regular order with your HEALTH STORE Literature available—S.A.E. please.

PLAMIL FOODS LTD. Plamil House, Bowles Well Gdns. Folkestone, Kent

The Vegan Summer 1979  

The magazine of The Vegan Society

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you