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T H E VEGAN SOCIETY Founded November, 1944 Veganism is a way of living which excludes all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, the animal kingdom, and includes a reverence and compassion for all life. It applies to the practice of living on the products of the plant kingdom to the exclusion of flesh, fish, fowl, eggs, honey, animal milk and its derivatives, and encourages t h e use of alternatives for all commodities derived wholly or in part from animals. Veganism remembers man's responsibilities to the earth and its resources and seeks to bring about a healthy soil and plant kingdom and a proper use of the materials of the earth. President: Dr. FREY E I . L I S , ey. Deputy-President: Mrs. E. B. SHRIGLEY, , Old Coulsdon, Surrey. Vice-Presidents : Mrs. MURIEL HENDERSON, Dr. CATHERINE N I M M O , Miss M A B E L SIMMONS, Miss W I N I F R E D SIMMONS, Mrs. EVA BATT, Mr. JACK SANDERSON.

Secretary Treas Librar

: Mrs.

, London, S.E.12. whom all subscriptions should be sent), , So N.14. 01-886 6408. Mr. W. H. C. WRIGHT, e, Enfield, Middlesex. LOUISE


Committee: M r . E. T . BANKS, M r s . E . BATT, M r . H . T . BONNIE, M r s . S. COLES, Mr. A. E L L I S , Dr. FREY E L L I S , Miss T. C . LARKIN, M r . J . SANDERSON, M r s . E . B . SHRIGLEY, M r s . G . SMITH, D r . F . W O K E S , M r . W . H . C . WRIGHT.

Minimum subscription, which includes " T h e V e g a n " , 15s. per annum (and 7s. 6d. for each additional member of one family at same residence); 7s. 6d. if age under 18; payable in January. Life Membership, £10 10s. Od.

THE VEGAN JOURNAL OF THE VEGAN SOCIETY The Editorial Board does not necessarily agree with opinions expressed by contributors to this magazine, or endorse advertisements. Please send articles, classified advertisements and letters for publication t o 123 Baker Street, Enfield, Middlesex. Advertisements must be in keeping with the principles of veganism, and t h e Publishers reserve t h e right t o refuse any advertisement, or cancel any order without explanation. Editorial Board: Mrs. EVA BATT, Mrs. SERENA C O L E S , Dr. FREY E L L I S . Editorial Adviser: Mr. JACK SANDERSON. Vegan Distribution Secretary: Miss THELMA LARKIN, West Horndon, Brentwood, Essex. Advertisements : H. H. GREAVES LTD., 106/110 Lordship Lane, London, S.E.22. Rates: Whole page—£10 0s. 0d.; Half p a g e - £ 6 0s 0d.; Quarter page—£3 10s. Od. Published quarterly: Annual Subscription, 10s.; single copies, 2s. 6d. plus postage. Obtainable from the Hon. Secretary.

LITERATURE " T h e Reasons for Veganism." 4 page leaflet. 3d. S.A.E. only. " Vegan Protein Nutrition." 12 page leaflet. Is. 3d. post free. " A H a n d b o o k of Practical Veganism." 24 pages with cover. 2s. 9d. post free. " T h e Vegetarian and Vegan Food Guide." 2s. 6d. post free. " The Vegan Kitchen " by Freya Dinshah. 5s. 6d. De luxe edition, 7s. 6d. post free. " Quick and Easy Menus " by K. Keleny. 2s. 1 Id. post free. " Vegan Recipes." A collection of members' favourites. 10 sheets, Is. 9d. post free. All obtainable from the Secretary. (Cheques and postal orders should be m a d e out to " The Vegan Society.")


of the Vegan

VOL. 15. No. 2


SUMMER, 1968

EDITORIAL In recent months, three outstanding topics have been featured in the news: the balance of payments, the foot-and-mouth epidemic and heart transplants. It is rarely realised by the average person in this country how much the payments problem depends in part upon the concentration of our agricultural system on animal production, and this is a theme which can be developed in a later issue. During the winter months, as our newspapers, radios and television sets kept us informed on the spread of the dread cattle epidemic, many felt sympathy for the farmers, and pity for the animals, most of them healthy, who were slaughtered because of foot-and-mouth. In about three months, over 400,000 cattle, sheep and pigs were killed to limit the spread of the outbreak. Even meat-eaters felt uneasy at the thought of such mass destruction. Yet the sad fact is that more than 600,000 healthy animals are killed every week (to say nothing of 4,000,000 chickens) in order to satisfy our flesh-eating habits ; but as most of us don't see the animals alive or ever witness their slaughter, we think of them as orderly displays in butchers' shops. We dwell on the end products and take pride in our cooking, and close our minds to the healthy animal in the field (or the poor unfortunate in the sweat-box). In a recent excellent article in the Guardian, the columnist, John Grigg, devoted the whole of his column to the theme of vegetarianism and wrote, " Our more civilised descendants will look back at our way of life with the incredulous disgust that we feel on reading of our ancestors' unsqueamism habits. Just as we shudder at the thought of human beings being publicly dismembered, and their heads publicly displayed, so posterity will shudder at the thought of our butchers' shops, in which the mutilated carcases of animals are hung and people gossip unconcernedly to the accompaniment of cracking bones . . . progressive humanity will probably decide before very long that eating animals and birds is wrong." 33

In the case of birds, this country at least compares very favourably with many other supposedly civilised countries. In the spring, all kinds of birds are massacred by the million in Italy, some in the name of sport, but a large proportion to eat—so much so that some bird-lovers are of the opinion that many migratory birds now deliberately avoid flying over the territory. A few months ago, a remarkable programme under the heading of " Horizon " was featured on B.B.C. 2. When the feature ended, many people would have formed the impression that it was a deliberate attempt to cash in on the current hearttransplant controversy by making a case for the use of more animals in this country for experimental purposes. The argument ran briefly as follows. Surgery is now a technical art and is mostly a team activity. Practice as a team requires rehearsals on animals rather than on men. Dexterity with animals leads to dexterity with human beings. At present Great Britain uses about 6,000 dogs, 3,000 cats and hosts of smaller creatures in vivisection and animal experiments. Many countries such as the U.S.A., South Africa, India, etc., have had enormous experience in dog surgery which has led to facility in various transplant operations on human beings. Dr. Barnard of South Africa, for instance, had much experience with dogs before moving on to men. In South Africa, stray dogs are collected in animal pounds, and there the R.S.P.C.A. help to select healthy dogs and then at 2/6d. to 5 / - per dog these then become reserves for medical purposes. In Great Britain there is no ready access to dogs and about £8 to £10 is paid per dog. The broadcast was in the main a plea by doctors from abroad who were putting the case that more animals should be made available for medical research in this country, and that since the general public derived the benefit of this research, it should agree to make it possible and help to take the sense of guilt off the backs of many research scientists. This particularly applied to the use of stray dogs and cats which instead of being " p u t to sleep" would be used for medical purposes—heart transplants and operations on other parts of their bodies—whilst, of course, dogs and other animals could then be freely bred for such purposes. Briefly, our heart transplants for your unwanted dogs. If ill-health is mostly caused by wrong living on the physical, emotional or mental levels, then many will suspect modern medicine, which tends to ignore causes, treats symptoms by suppressing them, and prescribes drugs the long-term effect of which may be the evolution of more dangerous forms of microorganisms than those now extant. Many humanitarians would, with perhaps certain conditions or reservations, leave their bodies to medical research or transplant operations, but would protest against the injustice of causing suffering to dogs and other animals in an effort to put right the results of faulty human living. 34

Christians might wonder whether a loving God had ordained that vivisection and the methods of production of our vaccines were in harmony with His healing processes. It has often been said that, " Christianity has not been tried and found wanting— it has just not been tried," the implication being that it has not been tried by enough people. How much more is this true of Christian Healing and Divine Healing? The healing principle of repairing our cuts and bruises and restoring our bodies acts in all life—humans, animals, birds, trees and grass. We can ignore it and take it for granted, or we can contact it with our thought and use it as Jesus and other great healers have used it before us. This Healing Power or Presence is not something that just existed in Galilee two thousand years ago. Je'sus, Elijah or Paul or any other healer anywhere could not use any other Healing Power than the one that is available to all. Think of the four Gospels of the New Testament without the stories of the healings by Jesus and His followers. The result would hardly have affected the lives of millions of men as powerfully as the Gospels have done. Yet the so-called miracles didn't reveal the impossible, but in fact revealed what is possible by the right use of the Healing Power that is within us all. The food that is in our baskets and cupboards can became the atoms of our bodies. The thoughts, prayers and aspirations of our mind can work on these atoms by consciously uniting with the ever-present healing forces and so enhancing them that the Divine anti-body can work powerfully and amazingly inside us, and not only inside us, but also inside those whom we love. This, I believe, is a sure path to healing and oombined with the vegan way of life offers an alternative to the mistaken path of vaccines and vivisection. J SANDERSON. RECENT EVENTS The Vegetarian May Meetings, May 10th, 11th and 12th, 1968 For those of us more or less tied to London it was a pleasure to have the Vegetarian Conference in the City this year, and we must congratulate the London Vegetarian Society, and Mr. Hall and his committee in particular, on the warm welcome extended to the delegates and the general smooth-running of the whole week-end. It was probably an historical event—not only because it was in the City of London, but because it was likely to be the last of the May Meetings to be held by the London Vegetarian Society and The Vegetarian Society as the proposed amalgamation will necessitate a new name (for the Society). Once again our Society was invited to attend and also " ViVa " shoes by Bata were on display in the Exhibition Hall, together with samples of vegan foods (not on the same stand of course!), and Plamil vegan milk. 35

A t the dinner on the Saturday evening, vegans as well as vegetarians were extremely well catered for and, as has happened in the past, there was an overflow of our members onto another table. The meal itself showed considerable imagination and in the speeches which followed Dr. Alan Long reminded us that there are three hundred million underfed children in the world, and pointed out that the quantity of milk which some had just added to their coffee would be the equivalent of the protein many of these children could expect in a whole day. The meeting of delegates was held on the Sunday morning when we were pleased to have the Marquis de St. Innocent present. ^He delighted the meeting by saying that he had enjoyed the weekend to such an extent that he hoped to come every year in future. As in 1967 the main topic concerned the unification of the two societies, and Mr. Le Grice explained that, after revising the third draft, there were now only a few legal points outstanding. It is hoped that the new constitution will become effective by the 1st January, 1969. Two coaches of members toured the sights of London on the Sunday afternoon while another party were taken to the historic buildings on foot. The exhibition was open all the afternoon and a great deal of propaganda was done on the vegan stall both on the Saturday and the Sunday. Dr. Frank Wokes was warmly congratulated on his work con-, neoted with the publication of the scientific magazine " Plant Foods for Human Nutrition " on which he and the members of the Scientific Council of the International Vegetarian Union (S.C.I.V.U.) have been working hard for many months, and of which Dr. Wokes is editor. This may well be the means of introducing vegetarian, and vegan, ideas to a vast new audience of doctors, nutritionists, and other scientists ; being a publication dealing with the facts of human nutrition in many parts of the world, and the methods to combat malnutrition which are afforded by plant proteins. *




" Veganism in Practice," was the title of a talk given to the members of the Eastbourne Natural Health Society on March 19th, while the subject discussed on April 24th at Girton College was " Why Veganism ? ". The Cambridge University Vegetarian Society was formed last year by Dilys Cluer, a student at Girton and member of a very active vegan family. *




The Society has recently sent a speaker to: The Southampton and District Vegetarian Society (May 2nd), when the talk was on " Veganism for Beginners "; The Medway Vegetarian Society (May 18th), a travel talk.entitled, "Rolling 36

Down to Rio "; and The National Council for the Abolition of Factory Farming Annual General Meeting (May 25th), on " Ways of Helping Animals." Our representative on each of these occasions was Mrs. Eva Batt, who regrets that she has been too busy to send in full reports in time for this issue of The Vegan. FUTURE ACTIVITIES The following meetings are planned: — June 20th. See The Vegan for Spring for details. Sunday, June 30th.—Garden Party at 47 Highlands Road, Leatherhead, Surrey, at 3 p.m. Preceded by short Ramble at 12 o'clock. Those going by train go to Leatherhead Station, then to town centre, taking the Dorking Road to the Old Parish Church. Go •to churchyard on the garage side ; where the churchyard ends, Highlands Road begins. Those wishing to have a short Ramble meet at 12 o'clock at Burford Bridge Hotel, which is easily reached from Box Hill Station. A member of the Jannaway family will be waiting and lead the Ramble, being back in time for the Garden Party. Saturday, September 7th, at the Nature Cure Clinic, 13 Oldbury Place, London, W.l. A demonstration, "Simple Vegan Meals," given by Mrs. M. Cluer. Admission free. Refreshments. The meeting will be at 2.30 p.m. for 3 p.m., and will be followed at approximately 5 p.m. by an Extraordinary General Meeting for the purpose of electing an auditor. No other business will be discussed at this meeting. The Plantmilk Society Annual General Meeting will be held at Friends House, Euston Road, N.W.I, at 2.45 p.m. on Saturday, October 12th. General discussion at 3.45 p.m., when all vegans arid their friends are welcome. Saturday, November 9th, 1968.—Vegan Society Annual General Meeting at Alliance Hall, Palmer Street, nearest Tube Station, St. James's Park. Business meeting at 3 p.m. Refreshments at 4.30, followed by a report of the International Vegetarian Union Conference earlier this year in India, given by Mr. Brian GunnKing, who will illustrate his talk with colour slides. Talk. Wednesday, November 13th.—"Veganism in Practice," Southend Vegetarian Society. Speaker: Mrs. Eva Batt. Further details of this meeting in our Autumn issue. Any activities connected with veganism ; meetings, lectures, etc., we shall try to include in The Vegan, so please let us know well in advance if possible. We hope our members will support any functions in their district and please make themselves known to the organiser or speaker, we are always so glad to meet members—and prospective members! 37

Dr. E. F. Schumacher

and Dr. Frank Wokes, members Editorial Board.

of the

PLANT FOODS FOR HUMAN NUTRITION This journal which the V.N.R.C. and SCIVU have been busy preparing during the last six months for publication by Pergamon Press, was launched on May 2nd at a ceremony in the Commonwealth Institute, London. Over 100 guests, including leading nutritionists and public health workers, representatives of Commonwealth countries, industrialists and many well-known vegans and vegetarians, were welcomed by Mr. G. F. Richards, on behalf of Mr. Robert Maxwell, M.P., M.C. (who was detained by a political meeting) and by Dr. Frank Wokes, Editor-in-Chief, with other members of the Editorial Board. The ceremony was held in the spacious Jehangir Room, which contained a magnificent display of fruit and vegetables from Commonwealth and other countries kindly provided by T. J. Poupart, Ltd., of Covent Garden. Samples of new texturised plant protein foods flown over from America and Holland, and enlarged diagrams illustrating the developments and use of plant protein foods in different countries were also on display. Some of these foods were made into dishes supplied to the guests amongst the vegan and vegetarian refreshments. 38

The need for more plant foods to solve the world food problem was shown in a-film, " T h e Food We E a t " ; prepared by I.T.A. from data supplied by Prof. Yudkin and his colleagues at Queen Elizabeth College, where investigation on vegans are being carried out in collaboration with Dr. Frey Ellis and others. Dr. E. F. Schumacher, a member of the Editorial Board, introduced Dr. Frank Wokes, who outlined the aims of the journal and thanked all those who have helped to produce it, including those who have co-operated in investigations in so many research centres, and those in the Pergamon Press who have put into pictures, diagrams and letterpress records of the findings. In the more developed Western countries two-thirds of the world's population is spread out over half the world's agricultural land, each person having times as much land for producing food as in the less developed mainly Eastern countries. From a given area of land we can obtain five to ten times as much plant food as animal food, and all of us must give the priority to plant foods to help to overcome malnutrition and starvation amongst millions of the less developed peoples. Dr. Schumacher in an eloquent speech summarised the philosophical basis of the project, and all present wished the journal every success. It was clear that plant foods must play a major part in solving the world food problem, and helping to ensure the peace between nations that we all desire. FRANK WOKES.



In response to many requests, we hope to have an article on this subject in cur next issue, written by an expert. In the meantime, a member with his first garden asks about " safe " insecticides. Although the safety of all herbicides is questionable, there are herbal and vegetable sprays which would certainly be preferable to the pesticides so often used which are persistent in their toxic action, cumulative, or a danger to other species. The herbicides of vegetable origin are Pyrethrum, quassia, ryana, nicotine, derris, etc. Of course once the veganic. gardener has his soil in a good bacterial condition—arid therefore strong, healthy plants — he should not need even these. The method of doing this is described in detail in the book, Intensive Gardening, by R. Dalziel O'Brien. We do not like to think of vegans killing anything, and fortunately it is not necessary if the veganic no-digging method is followed. 39

DOROTHY THOMSON Most of Our readers outside the London area W i l l learn with surprise and a deep sense of loss of the passing of Dorothy Thomson On Friday, 29th March, 1968. She was full of life arid in good health when on the previous day she was knocked down on a pedestrian crossing near her home by (I am told) a leafner-driver. After being a vegetarian for some years she became a vegan in 1960. Three years later she wrote: " In my own case I was never proselytised to, neither did It meet any vegans before I myself became one, but I felt the need, or I might say more accurately the urgency, to leave out dairy produce from my diet after being a vegetarian for many years. It came to me like an inner voice that would not be stilled until I had obeyed. I believe that when one is ready to be a vegan this urgent voice will speak until there is a response." Since 1960 she has served the vegan cause with a sincerity that has been matched by very few, for although she had many societies and causes dear to her heart; she realised that Vegariism was the key and the solution to most of the problems related to harmony or conflict between the human, animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms of the earth. Among the services she had freely and gladly given were as Vegan Committee member, hostess and provider of delightful refreshments at meetings held at her flat, gentle and persuasive propagandist at all manner of meetings and conferences, stewardess and stallminder at many kinds of functions and perhaps most valuable of all, writer of articles and poems for the Vegan Journal This last service—as a writer—was I think her most valuable one, for she was herself, well and widely read, had poetic insight arid deep wisdom and regarded the material outward evolution as secondary to the inward soul evolution in which everything living (or apparently dead) has a place. Most of all, she had compassion and an abhorrence of cruelty in all its forms and this tod allied principles are enshrined in her writings. For many years, as I found her a kindred soul, I would call upori her every few weeks for an evenirig or just half an hour, as opportunity offered, and we would discuss matters of mutual interest. She would show me articles or poems she had finished or was engaged on—not all were suitable for our journal—and often we would search together for the right word or phrase to express her thought. It was perhaps because of this closeness of thought that I was asked t o write this notice and I decided to read all her writings as far as I could, and when I could, so as to select samples that would indicate the width and depth of her inspiration, imagination, wisdom, knowledge 40

and compassion. However this would have filled <th.e whole journal, so the following is a selection from a selection, and I hope that other gems from her writings may appear from time to time in later issues: â&#x20AC;&#x201D; From " Veganism & Evolution " (Summer, 1961), "Although the complete compassion of veganism can redeem humanity from the dark abyss into which it has fallen, we must not fall into the error of feeling that we are superior to others, for as the whole potentiality of the flowering oak tree is in some mysterious way latent in the tiny acorn awaiting its unfoldment, so is the potentiality of perfection in every human soul, however limited may be its present expression." On the path of the pioneering vegan, " There is among a group of people working towards some universal good, a communion that makes relationship a truly joyous thing." " Let us be continually aware and sensitive. Surely this is life's greatest gift, for it opens the eyes of the spirit." From "Upon Unity" (Summer, 1962)â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a paraphrase: We must break free from the herd instinct, born of mutual protection, and acquire individuality. When we seek truth we eventually find the truth of unity, the truth of the oneness of all life. Then our energies will be directed in the path of service. In "The Monad" (Autumn, 1965), this theme of ONENESS is pursued with a rare beauty of expression and in verse that is truly sublime. Yet she bravely addressed her talents to practical and often puzzling questions that are openly faced by some and swept under the carpet by others. From " Sensitivity in Plants" (Spring, 1963). " Not yet has the plant a degree of consciousness that possesses a brain with which to register its own responses to the outer world and relate them into inner experience. . . . That animals suffer we can have no doubt at all, so when we have to compromise with life, let us at least choose that form not possessed of'emotions and feelings akin to our own." In "Broiler Calf" (Autumn, 1961), she wrote of the confined and twilight life of the broiler calf and from " Baby C a l f " (Autumn, 1963), I extract: â&#x20AC;&#x201D; " The calf looked out from limpid eyes Beneath their silken fringes where It viewed a world where pity dies, Where creatures are but flesh and bone A substance without mind or life . . . . " . From " Upon Predators" (Autumn, 1962). Phrases like " Nature red in tooth and claw" and " the survival of the fittest," only apply to some animals and are not laws of nature . . . The animals that are preyed upon multiply at a far greater 41

rate, than those that are not. If some species were not preyed upon'it is my belief that Nature, in her wisdom, would in time regulate the balance." A poem which had point and not a little humour was " Sounding Brass " (Winter, 1962), which contained reflections on a conference: — " They studied metaphysics And the Wisdom of the E a s t ; One knew the date Atlantis sank ; And this was not the least, • For all of them in former lives Had ranked among the great— A Roman Senator, a King or an Initiate. Yet just a little while ago, Before the talk began, The longest speaker of them all, A most ambitious man, To find Nirvana for himself— And never mind the rest— Refused a simple act of love, The tiniest request, To sign a paper which he knew Might save some creatures pain, And though he preached of Brotherhood He would not sign his name. For one thing he had never learned In spite of all he knew, That every creature crucified Is yet a brother too." In " Discrimination " (Summer, 1963), she discussed the question' of how far one should express vegan convictions to those who are not even vegetarians. She included the following thoughts: — " One can implant knowledge in the mind, but not compassion in the heart." " Some who were never vegetarian came to the vegan way of life at once, but they are not the norm, and most people need a gradual adjustment. It is not always wise to talk veganism to a meat-eater who is genuinely interested in vegetarianism and is reluctantly feeling his way before the change oyer." " By all means let us write our views, never avoiding truth., for people will more readily. accept the written w o r d ; for no personality comes in between." We are deeply grateful that Dorothy. wrote her views and are sure that her personality was as effective as her writings. 42

Both wiir remain a living force in our movement for a long time to come. Our thoughts go out to her family whose loss is greater than ours. j. SANDERSON. TREE FARMING In 1961 I wrote an article for the Winter number of the Vegan about Vegan farming, raising the question of food production without the use of animals or chemicals. At that time I was thinking in terms of annual crops such as wheat, oats and potatoes, and their production by orthodox methods of cultivation and the use of machinery. Since then I have done a lot of reading, thinking and experimenting, and have come to the conclusion that the ideal way of Veganic food production, is to use the O'Brien strip bed method for the intensive growing of vegetables and soft fruit, and to have permanent tree and bush crops of fruit and nuts on a much larger farm scale. These tree crops include apples, pears, plums, cherries, peaches, figs, walnuts, cobnuts and sweet chestnuts, all of which, except the last, can be eaten with enjoyment in a raw state, straight from the tree, and would seeem to be an ideal food for vegans or, for that matter, anybody else. Once the land has been cleared and the young trees planted, little or no further cultivation is required, provided.that the trees are well mulched. The ground between the trees can then be sown to a mixture of perennial clovers, grasses and herbs to keep the ground covered to build up fertility and to provide future mulching material. This method of food production is working with nature by not disturbing the soil and by keeping it covered with plants and trees. On the other hand modern farming is a continual struggle against nature as it is always trying to prevent the land reverting to its natural state of woodland. As Richard St. Barbe Baker has said many times, trees have a very beneficial effect on their surroundings, influencing the purity of the air, the local climate and the soil water. Also, when their productive life is over, they will provide materials for building, furniture, and firewood. What could be more beautiful and at the same time so useful as a countryside planted to tree crops and what a wonderful place to live. GEOFFREY MOLINEUX.

Reminder from the Magazine Secretary CHANGE OF ADDRESS Will members who are moving please let Miss Larkins have their new address as soon as possible to avoid delay in. delivery of the magazine. 43

EDGAR B. HEWLETT From JACK LUCAS, Hon. Secretary, S.C.I:V.U. Members will be sorry to learn that the Society has lost one of its oldest members. Edgar died peacefully in Plymouth Hospital on May 4th after a short final illness. He had not enjoyed the best of health for a year or two, but his own willpower and an unswerving faith in veganism had helped to sustain him in adversity. To many he will perhaps be remembered best for his thirty-five years of devoted service to the Scout movement, and for the encouragement and valuable advice he gave to many young men at the start of their life's adventure. He became a vegetarian at the beginning of the Second World War and later became identified with the Vegan Society shortly after its formation. He was a member of the Committee for some years and an occasional contributor to The Vegan. He was totally against all forms of animal exploitation, having a deep reverence for all forms of life, and an abiding love of Nature. In a letter some months before his death, recalling a camp at Whitsuntide, he wrote: " W h a t a lovely season of the year! It is called ' the sweet of the year.' All is life and growth and song. There is little we require. We have so much. Health, Happiness and Youthâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;life and hope and friendship. How lovely is the great river which flows past our camp, and how grand the rugged hills all around! Who would not wish it to remain as it is for much longer? Alas it cannot beâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;for time, like our river flows on, and we with it."


We know that our readers will be pleased to hear that our member, Mrs. Muriel Henderson, has extended her activities for the cause toy opening another Health Food shop, this time in Chiesmans Stores in Lewisham. Those who remember all the work she has done often under the most trying conditions to further the cause of veganism will not be surprised that she has undertaken this extra responsibility. Being in a large store, where a cross section of the public passes daily, is an ideal position from which to reach a much wider public, and after only three weeks, we understand that the number of non-vegetarians who have stopped to enquire about the products has been considerable. Your committee, and all who have worked with her in the past (for some years Muriel was the honorary secretary of this Society), send her their heartiest good wishes for the success of this new venture. .44

THE KERNEL OF THE WORLD SHORTAGE OF FOOD SUBSTITUTE OF ANIMAL PROTEIN In the Dutch Vegetarian Messenger of January last an Editorial was published, pant of which may be considered as an addition of what in the course of years has already been mentioned in The Vegan. The translation runs as follows: â&#x20AC;&#x201D;As the proteins of animal origin are absolutely insufficient to provide in the need of the World Food Shortage a greater interest is urgently required in relation to the possibility of making use of protein that the vegetable world can supply. As regards the latest researches in this respect, protein obtained from the " Green Leaf" is particularly going to draw the attention., Abundance To begin with, the necessary raw material is not only available in abundance, but may also be cultivated in a simple way. Many crops can be obtained with short intervals dependent on the time they want to mature. The produce of protein per kilogram per hectare is therefore relatively high, the cost reasonably low and the quality of the protein as regards the relation of the amino-acids very satisfying. The Green Leaf consists of proteins which differ in the composition of their animo-acids and which supplement each other in an exact harmony with essential standards of feeding. Rothamstead Experimental Station has excited great expectations for the future in this respect. Dr. W. N. Pirie, head of the Biochemistry Department of this station has succeeded in extracting proteins from wasted leaves, of cereals and other plants, and has produced a. basis substance for further use in the technology of feeding, the composition of which agrees with 76% proteins and 20% multiply unsaturated fat of a very good quality. In producing, most of the protein is excreted into the sap squeezed out. Taste When the above-mentioned "basis-substance" is mixed with an equal part in weight consisting of milled grain, lightly improved in taste, an excellent dry-produce is obtained of high food-value, which may be easily crumbled to a powder, ready for use. The composition is then about 40% protein, 10% fat, 40% carbohydrate and 10% remaining rest-product. At Rothamstead finally two definite types of mechanical units have been designed and built as apparatus for mechanical extraction. Both types-are now continuously in use;:â&#x20AC;&#x201D;: The first is a so-called. " village unit " of simple construction 45

and easily to- be tended. This engine can work up 100—200 kilogram leaves per hour and is moved by a 1—2 h.p. motor. Cost ±£400. The second type is a so-called " pilot plant " and can work up 500—2,000 kg. per hour, and is moved by a motor of 25—30 h.p. Cost ±£1,500. The time of delivery for a complete pilot plant is estimated at six to eight months. Future Very probably research with far-reaching consequences will take place in the future in this direction, conducted by Prof. Dr. Ir. H. A. Leninger, Head of the Department of Foodstuff-Technology of the Agricultural University at Wageningen (Holland), in co-operation with Dr. N. van Eekelen, Head of the Feeding-Organisation T.N.O. in The Hague. Storck and Co.'s Plant of Apparatuses Ltd. and the Institution of Fishing-Produce at IJmuiden, both in Holland, are very important industries of good reputation, who are not only interested but have already started serious research. The Institution at IJmuiden lately produced with much success a very appropriate isolated protein of 96% of high quality (colourless, tasteless and odourless) from fish-remainder and offal (with which we cannot sympathize), but they now intend to produce a similar product derived from the " Green Leaf." This latter new produce has the particular attention of the Dutch Government, and the necessary financial support for this research may be expected. The study of the extraction of " Leaf-protein " has already begun too in Sweden by Prof. Hans Burstrom, director of the Institution of Phijsiology of Vegetation at Lund, and Prof. Ragnar Nilsson at Upsala, Head of the Royal University of Agriculture " Ultuna." Here too direct personal contact and exchange of thought with Rothamstead has taken place. H.K. THE INTERNATIONAL VEGETARIAN UNION It has just been brought to our notice that the two members elected to serve on the Executive Committee of the I.V.U. (to fill vacancies caused by the decease of two members) at their meeting in London last May, are both vegans. They are, of course, Mr. Brian Gunn-King and Miss Nixon, who was the British representative of the Vegetarian Society at the I.V.U. Congress in India last winter. We are very pleased to know that vegans are so well represented in the various aspects of vegetarian and animal welfare work. 46


Vesta Vegetarian Curry Now that vegetable fat has replaced the " edible f a t " (of animal origin) this is quite vegan. We have an assurance from the makers that the hydrolised protein is, in this case, also vegetable. Dried Fruits A letter from the Australian Dried Fruits Association in the Australian magazine Health and Vision states, " Quite definitely no preservatives are used in the processing of Australian prunes." The letter goes on to explain that a " shiny " appearance does not necessarily mean that the fruit has been treated with paraffin oil, although this is often used for raisins and sultanas to give a free-running effect. The use of sorbic acid in the processing of dried fruits is permitted in some countries, but not in Australia. The Association also explains that sulphur dioxide is used for all dried fruit to prevent it from turning black, which it would otherwise rapidly do, but that in cooking, or even with a good rinse in hot water (over 70° F.), this would be dissipated. On this same subject, Messrs. Alfonal explain, " When fruits are sun dried it does not preclude the possibility of a sulphur salt being used, in fact most of the following fruits will, even if sun dried, contain a sulphur preservative unless otherwise stated: fruit salad, pineapple, pears, peaches, apricots, apple rings. But cooking does remove all traces of sulphur dioxide. " Raw fruits which may or not contain a preservative are dates, figs, raisins, currants and sultanas. Prewetts are very careful and selective in their purchasing of dried fruits, and they endeavour to buy only those which have no added preservative, but it is not always possible to do this." " Ready-Mix " Pastry Jus-Rol shortcrust pastry and Jus-Rol puff pastry marked " vegetarian " are entirely free of any kind of animal product. Also the potato croquettes and EE -tas fluted potato fries from the same company are vegan. Note: This applies only to the puff pastry marked "vegetarian," otherwise it is not guaranteed to be free of animal fats. Sainsbury's Tomato Soup We are assured that this product contains no animal ingredientâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the fat and' the monosodium glutamate content is' vegetable in origin. 47

Baby Foods. All Galattina baby foods contain some dried milk. Bio-Strath from the same company is, however, completely free of any animal products and is also guaranteed to be " free from chemicals, preservatives, additives, colouring and any synthetic substances at all." Ready. Mixed Mueslies " Familia " Muesli and " Familia " Baby Food are two of the very few products of this kind which do not contain dried milk. Now Brown's muesli base, from the Barley Kernel people, is available and this contains no milk, sugar, salt or adulteration. The packet does, however, contain a handy booklet of suggestions for use. Bird's Dream Topping. Synthetic " creams " of this type are sometimes assumed to be vegan, but this is rarely the case. This one shows in the list of ingredients on the packet " sodium caseinate," which is, of course, derived from milk. Telma Vegetable Soup in packet form. This is suitable for vegans ; the monosodium glutamate content is made from gluten, the sticky substance of flour, although it could be a by-product of the sugar industry. FOOTWEAR Headed " More Shoes in Synthetics," a recent trade magazine commented on the Board of Trade figures for 1967 which show a drop of 13% in the home sales of ladies' shoes with leather uppers, while the sales of non-leather ones rose by 77%. At first glance this looks very encouraging indeed, but we must remember that practically all the better-quality non-leather shoes are leather-lined, and also the apparent improvement is being offset by the fact that " real " leather is 'being increasingly used in women's fashions—suits, etc. Even suede has been treated to give it machine-washability. We can only hope that economic, if not humane, considerations will encourage more manufacturers to use instead one of the many excellent man-mades specially produced for this purpose, such as Cirrus, Aerpel, or Vistram (which is air-permeable and can be scrubbed—and ironed!) Soon pocket diaries will be on sale made from genuine " Clarino " (as used in some ViVa brand shoes) and as this poromeric material takes gold-blocking very well, we may, by next winter, see Clarino gold evening shoes in the shops. Yet another high-quality upper material—" Kanebo "—is now being made in large quantities in Japan by Kanegafuchi Spinning Co. This will be the fifth major man-made to be produced in that country, the others being: Clarino, h'i-Telac, Patora, and Eikas. The last two are not yet being used here. 48

Shoes generally available In April, Norvic produced a range of five shoes in the new " Ceeval " material from â&#x20AC;˘ Germany which were excellent. So much so that we have just heard from them that all but one style has sold out completely. This one is " Penny " in the Topflite range. However, there will be six styles in the autumn range, which we have not yet seen of course,' which will be suitable for our readers. They will be called "Annabel," "Alison," " Cheryl," " Tracey," " Gail," and " Gwindoline." The last two named will also be made in leather, and the numbers of the leather styles are L.60402 and L.60502 respectively. George Wa;rd A few styles in the "Dollies" range are all-synthetic and generally available under that brand name. This manufacturer is also using the new Quox, but we do not yet know whether any styles will 'be entirely leather-free. " Gluv " shoes with Corfam uppers are leather-lined. In the last few weeks I have visited two Exhibitions, one in London and one in Leicester, and seen many beautiful manmade shoe materials, each surpassing the last in texture, colour, durability or the ability to behave exactly like leather as far as porosity is concerned. (In very many cases these materials are considerably more durable than animal leather and they will accept dyes of any shade down to the palest pink.) One really outstanding " suede " is Pushkin, made by Nairn Coated Products. Its polyurethane-fibre surface very closely resembles suede, one can even finger-mark the " bloom " as with the animal product. Manufacturers using this at present for shoes are: Devonshire Shoes (a very elegant fancy court style with no leather) and Veldetta Shoes, several models allsynthetic. The boots in this material, knee high, fleece lined, and unlined, are made by Percival & Co., George Ward, and Edwards & Holmes. The palest colours can be worn in any weather as they easily come clean with soap and nailbrush. I fancied a pale lavender pair myself. Clarkes are planning a neat little plain black court in Pushkin for next spring. The new Quox is a great improvement on the original, being finer, softer and in greater variety. Some manufacturers using it are: Lotus, Etoughs, Premier Footwear, George Ward, and, for the children, Kiddy Shoes. However, I have not yet been able to find out if any of these shoes are entirely without leather. I expect to find suede heel grip's, etc., in some, but readers might like to look out for them and make their own enquiries. Often only the heel grip is in suede, which is quite unnecessary ; there are several excellent man-mades for this purposeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Porolux for instance. 49

I also understand that K Shoes are using Chamolux in their ." Rainmaster " range for men, but have yet to check this. Here again members might ask the retailers. The new designs for Corfam seem to be inexhaustible, and manufacturers currently using this are Van Dal, Edwards & Holmes, and Diana Shoes. I hope to have checked all the above for linings, etc., by the next issue. Many otherwise vegan shoes are spoiled simply because of the lining, which is quite unnecessary. There are excellent porous synthetic linings also now. One, Skinfit, ensures both comfort and hygiene. It is a thin layer of Poly foam which is " flame-welded " to the " Celon " lining. This process makes them inseparable and ensures there will be no discomfort through separation of the lining and interlining. Skinfit is the only lining which is treated during manufacture with Acti-fresh for added hygiene. Several new styles have been introduced into the Beauty Without Cruelty Boutique recently. All vegan, of course. Rather broader fittings, with medium or low heels, and that comfy Skinfit lining are the most popular. I was tempted to buy a pair of the new cork-soled saindals and also some off-white, broad-fitting courts in softee vinyl, with foam lining and 1" heels. These are " r o o m y " and come in half sizes, so one can get a really good fit. At 3 9 / l i d . they are excellent value. The. " ViVa " brand quality shoes will still be available, of course, and a new " ViVa " shoe for men in corduroy is now in stock. This is ideal for summer wear, or as a slipper shoe later on. The promised Dunlop slipper shoes for men are also in stock now. Did you know that Dunlop now make football boots for boys which are entirely without leather? CLOTHING Levi's Sta-Erest (need no ironing) sportswear slacks are available in various blends of Polyester Terylene and cotton and viscose rayon in many stores in the U.K. They are machinewashable and guaranteed not to shrink more than 1% by the way. Made by F. J. Gertler & Co. Ltd., Avon Trading Estate, Block L, Avonmore Road, W.14. TOILETRIES Last winter a member in America kindly sent us the maker's name of a lipstick which, she had been assured, was suitable for vegans, together with a request that we investigate further. This was the beginning of considerable correspondence, culminating in the letter quoted below. This demonstrates how very difficult it is, both for the manufacturer and us to be sure how 50

" vegan " a product really is. How much easier it would be if more manufacturers would be as helpful and detailed in their replies. But I fear our lists of " vegan " products might suffer considerably. " I have held your recent letter for some time in order to wrestle with my conscience. There is, of course, a great temptation to answer your question with a clear and quick no, since when any derivative of lanolin is used it is an ester. This means that its form is so removed from the lanolin source as to be virtually indistinguishable. On the other hand, I must consider and acknowledge the importance of your Society's stringent beliefs. You may be sure that those cosmetics which apparently do fall into your desired category are those which have chosen to , place their own interpretation upon this matter of lanolin derivatives in the ester category. I will not do so. It is your . decision with respect to the beliefs of your Society. We value your interests in our products, of course. We value integrity more."



When Friedenstern and Frances Howard wrote to tell us of the birth of their baby girl Sophia last November (who, with their son Russell, makes two third generation vegans in one family), they asked us to draw the attention of our members to The Family Maternity Home, West Farm, Emberton, Olney, Bucks., where the baby was born. Frances says their grateful thanks are due to Miss Olive Rogers, S.R.N., C.S.M., for the excellent care and advice she received. She and the two children were the first vegan family to be cared for in this home. Miss Rogers is a vegetarian food reformer and coped admirably with the vjegan meals. We are assured by Frances that the Home can safely be recommended to vegans, vegetarians, food reformers and nonvegetarians. A


Kindly make a note of the dates by which we must receive * your letters and reports for inclusion in The Vegan: — For the Spring issue—Before February 1st. For the Summer issue—Before May 1st. For the Autumn issue—Before August 1st. For the Winter issue—Before November 1st. Please do not leave your letter until the last day, avoid disappointment and help us by posting as early as possible. THE EDITORS.


THE WOODHOUSE NIGHT CLUB In a two-hundred-year-old house on the Massachusetts coast, with thick woods behind it, lived a little woman with a very big heart. She knew the art of being a friend of ALL LIFE, animals and people. Thornton Burgess, the well-known writer of wonderful animal stories, had this to say about her.* " T o her door there was a beaten path made by feet from all walks of life—doctors, judges, educators, humanitarians, men and women of wealth and high attainments in many fields and ' just folk.' This was before as well as after she became known and loved as Aunt Sally by thousands all over the country, when they learned of her wonderful humane work that endeared her to all who love animals." She, like others who took time and interest to get acquainted with wild life, found some remarkably interesting facts. Animals, when fear of danger is removed, want to be friendly. They have a wonderful appreciation of human affections. The mother, of Aunt Sally, who died still active in mind and body at one hundred, taught her two girls never to turn a hungry or homeless creature from their door, and always there were pets and animal guests of unusual kinds there. One evening, more than thirty years ago, they found a skunk, injured by a car, in their front yard, brought it into the woodhouse adjoining the kitchen, and fed and nursed it back to life. It was a beautiful and affectionate pet, and was never deprived of its freedom, the cat-hole in the woodhouse always being left open at night, so that the skunk might go and come at will. Having absorbed some of the spirit of the home, it soon began bringing other skunks to share the bowls of milk, platters of cookies, and bread sweetened with molasses, left for it every night on the woodhouse floor. Seeing the new visitors, Aunt Sally prepared for them, spreading newspapers over the floor, and increasing the supply of food. She also put a dim light in the woodhouse, so that she could observe, through a peephole in the kitchen wall, what went on. At first all the guests were skunks, and happy ones. Then, one night, a new face appeared in the cat-hole—a face with a black mask across it—that of a raccoon. Skunks and 'coons are not on one another's visiting lists, and the skunks grumbled and growled quite a bit at the unwelcome sight. But the first skunk had acquired better manners, and more hospitable spirit, from his hostess. He quieted the others, saw that there were no breaches of etiquette, and the 'coon entered and ate. The next night a whole family of 'coons joined the Woodhouse Night Club. Seeing their enjoyment, Aunt Sally decided she must become one of the happy company. Bringing in a low chair, and setting beside it two shallow wooden boxes for stair-steps, she put bowls 5-2

of milk and plates of food on the steps, and, well wrapped up and with the dim light burning, she sat motionless in the chair awaiting the guests. Nervous, at first, at the sight of her, ready to dart out at her slightest movement, they lost their fear after the first skunk climbed to her lap and began eating from the pan she held. Soon all were eating with their usual zest, not only from the plates on the floor, and from those on the steps beside her, but even from her lap. Before long Aunt Sally began talking to them in low, gentle tones, and they seemed to like this. A beaten path made by small feet was soon to be seen between woods and woodhouse. Ever since then, Aunt Sally has made a point of sitting with them for hours nightly during the summers and falls. In the summers the Woodhouse Night Club becomes a sort of nursing home, where mothers leave their babies with Aunt Sally while they forage for delicacies of the seasonâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;wild fruits and berries, which both skunks and 'coons dearly love, fat grubs of harmful insects such as army worm, white grub, hopworm, tobacco worm, cutworm, beetles locusts. These the skunks dig every night when the ground is not frozen, and then the 'coons also enjoy them,although their preference is for the crustaceans and molluscs for which, with their little black hands, they literally comb the streams and sands. Then in mid-September, the guests, young and old, come in in large numbers to fatten themselves for their long winter's sleep, which begins around Thanksgiving, when the 'coons. retire to tall tree-dens, and the skunks to warm burrows in the ground beneath the snows. During these fall weeks, Aunt Sally frequently buys twenty large loaves of bread a day, cookies and cakes by the bushel and milk by the gallon. At these times, too, she sometimes admits a human friendâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;one who is willing to don some of her garments and to sit motionless for hours. It was in this way that Thornton Burgess made acquaintance with the Woodhouse Night Club, and in his Bedtime Story Hour began telling children the stories of the guests. For Aunt Sally knows each 'coon or skunk by name, whose children they are, and their varying characteristics. . If one is absent for a night or two, she misses it and becomes alarmed. " N o one will ever see the pictures I see when I entertain alone, and so many animals crowd around me, eat from my hands, sit on my lap, and listen eagerly to what I say. Never in the thirty years has any of them misbehaved in any way ; no skunk has caused the slightest odour, no 'coon, high strung though they are, has shown a bad temper. Air have gentle . manners and loving hearts, are eager to be loved, and lavish with their affection. I am sure they understand what I say to them." Certainly, Aunt Sally, they understand your tones, if not your words. Love is a language all living creatures know, and respond 53

to. Not only the 'birds, squirrels and rabbits made their abodes with St. Francis of Assisi, but the hitherto fierce and destructive wolf that became his devoted attendant, valueing love so highly that it was willing to live on the saint's meagre diet of porridge and bread-crusts in order to be near him. "Anyone," Aunt Sally continues, " could do as I do, provided he or she was not nervous." Not just anybody, I fear, for few of us, alas, possess loving hearts. But Aunt Sally's relationship with her guests is not all happiness ; tragedy always underlies it. Time and again a skunk has come in minus a leg or tail, or a 'coon has disappeared, never to return. One night, years ago, a mother 'coon, followed by five little ones, entered and was promptly named Crippy. Like the skunks, she had been caught in a steel trap, and had chewed off her own arm to escape the unendurable agony. How she could be the good mother she was, with only one arm to provide for her babies, and to climb to their tree-den, one could not imagine. But for five years Crippy continued coming, each summer with a new set of children. Then one May, when she was again a nursing mother, she was struck by a car, and her hind quarters were paralyzed. The man in the car had a heart; took her to the Animal Rescue League in the nearest large town. There an advert, was put in the papers, and ten days after the accident the .news reached Aunt' Sally. During these days Crippy had neither eaten nor drunk. When she was claimed by her friend, and found herself again in the woodhouse and in the familiar lap, she at once ate some sponge-cake and drank some milk. But there was no hope of her recovery, and a few days later she died. Her body lies beneath one of Aunt Sally's tall pines. Her babies could not be located, and perished of starvation. Another handsome 'coon disappeared and was gone three weeks. " Then," says Aunt Sally, " I saw him one evening coming slowly, painfully along the path, hopping, not walking, and so thin he was hardly recognizable. I went to the woodhouse and sat in the chair. He entered and hopped very slowly until he reached my side, and lay there exhausted, too weak to eat or drink. I shall never forget the shock I had when I saw only a black, bloody stump close to his body where the hind leg had been. The steel trap again! Oh, that God might waken the hearts-of men and women to pity and love our little wild brothers and give them kindness, or at least a swift and decent death, instead of horrible torture. Amiel says, ' If we were truly good, all the animals would love us.' ' But how can they, when we kill them needlessly in the name of sport, and hideously torture them for the poor little coats God has given them against the cold? This, too, when the smaller furnbearers are the farmers' best defence against the two destructive pests, insects and rodents. 54

. " What a pure joy we miss because we do not befriend the wild creatures, not only racoons and skunks, but many others. Near Little Falls, New York, lives a lady who for years has made pets of the beavers on her farm. They sit on her lap, and put their arms about her neck just like children. The original pair have never left her place ; but each, year the two young ones go away in the spring to find mates and build dams and homes of their own. And then she suffers the same anxiety I suffer in regard to my guests. The red fox also makes a fascinating p e t ; there is a beautiful one with which a small girl plays as safely as with a pet dog. And yet this most sensitive and intelligent of all the wild things frequently dies in the trap of burst ventricles of the heart from the excessive pain. " Ever since the fur trade launched the craze for cheap, processed, native furs early in this century, when the finer furs were almost exterminated, the demand of women has been such that our woods, fields, farms, and streams everywhere have become in winter the scene of millions of tiny hells. There helpless creatures chew off their own legs to escape the unendurable pain, or, unable to escape, suffer for hours, days, weeks, not only from the pressure of the trap jaws, but from freezing, fever, thirst, or gangrene, until the careless trapper comes and knocks them on the head. " The manner of their capture has all along been purposely hidden by the trade from the women who buy furs. During the 'twenties, one hundred million skins were sold each year on the North American market, and the making of fur garments became a billion-dollar business. No magazine, and few newspapers, dared print the facts, because of loss of advertising. " In the same way, the egret atrocity of the late nineties was hidden from women by the millinery trade, until the Audubon Society made it known to the world, when, in a few years, it was abolished by federal law." The vastly larger cruelty to the fur-bearersâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;largest organized cruelty of historyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;could soon be done away with if no animal furs are ever used. Now beautiful man-made furs, which have all the glamour of animal ones, and none of the suffering involved, are for sale. These are much less costly and require no special care in summer. , "Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany have for years had national laws against trapping. Even harmful (predators in those countries cannot be trapped, but must be shot, a swift and decent death." Thornton Burgess* has this to add to Aunt Sally's list of friendly day-time visitors. ." Up in the pasture back of the house lived Polly Chuck. Polly discovered that there was bounty to be found at the foot of the steep bank just back of the house, and: she and Aunt Sally became on the best of terms, so much so that Polly would 55

come down and scratch on the screen door. Aunt Sally would open the door and Polly would unhesitatingly enter to breakfast with her. By means of empty boxes, Aunt Sally arranged steps that would bring Polly up to the level of the table and there the two would breakfast together, one on one side and one on the other." • " N o w I Remember," by Thornton W. Burgess. Company, Publishers). Reprinted by permission.

(Little, Brown and

(" Lucy Furman passed on in her late nineties. She, frail in body, but endowed with a powerful sense of justice, love and undefeatable courage, started the anti-steel trap movement here. A devoted and inspired lady."—L.E.H., California.)



Plamil plantmilk in the unopened can will keep, for an indefinite period if stored in a cool, dry place. Before opening, it is advisable, as with all canned foodstuffs, to wash the lid with hot water—and shake the can. An ordinary can opener, or a wall can opener, can be used ; but the most hygienic method of opening is to pierce the lid with two holes with a can piercer. Then pour the contents into a clean, dry jug. The UNdilulted Plamil will keep fresh in the jug in the refrigerator for a week or longer provided.the refrigerator is efficient. Please note: — (1) Do NOT dilute the plantmilk until the actual moment of use (leaving the remainder UNdiluted). . Tap water unavoidably adds some bacteria and therefore reduces keeping time. (2) Do NOT cover the jug in such a way as to exclude air. This would have an effect somewhat similar to incubation and would reduce keeping time. Allow the plantmilk to " breathe." If you do not have a refrigerator, keeping time depends upon the pantry conditions and temperature. Observe the two hints (as 1 and 2 above) and keep in as cool, clean and airy a place as possible. Under these conditions, Plamil should keep for two of three days most of the year, but in warm weather and stuffy conditions it may (like dairy milk) sour overnight. USES. In general, Plamil may be used for all the purposes for which cow's milk is normally used. People differ in their tastes, e.g., some prefer to use Plamil neat in tea, others dilute it with water first. Some like a very creamy rice pudding; others less creamy and so dilute the Plamil with more water. Dilution one-to-one provides a plantmilk in which protein and fat percentage are approximately equal to cow's milk. COFFEE. Occasionally, coffee with Plamil may have a mottled appearance on the surface of the beverage. This is because 56

COFFEE IS EXTREMELY ACID, and the acidity can separate the protein in Plamil. - This is more likely to occur when the coffee is made strong. To overcome the undesired effect, reduce the strength of the acid by adding undiluted Plamil to the cup of coffee and stir it in. There comes a point when the addition of undiluted Plamil causes the protein to return into proper solution, and at this point the beverage takes on a normal appearance. RECIPES. Plamil can be used, with excellent results, in all recipes where milk is mentioned.



B y " EVITA "

I have enjoyed vegan meals in two London restaurants recently. For Indian curry addicts I can recommend Hussain's Restaurant, at 6 Crawford Street, W.l. Nearest tube, Baker Street. Open Sunday from noon until 10.30 p.m. and other days to midnight. The Cornucopia, 57a Ridinghouse Street, W.l, is a vegetarian food-reform place which can supply several vegan dishes and salads. Also open all the week, 10 a.m. to midnight. As always, it is necessaTy to explain first that you require a milk-and-eggfree meal. David Herbert at The Cornucopia welcomes vegans and can supply vegetable milk for us, and Tomor margarine. Non-Stick Pans From time to time the safety, or otherwise, of the lining materials being used to coat saucepans is questioned, and no absolutely definite reply is possible yet. At first, J. J. Rodale in " Prevention," stated that Teflon (one of the best known coatings) would release noxious odours if heated above 400°F., thus making it unsuitable for cooking though ideal for all other purposes because of its hard, completely non-porous surface. We understand, however, that this difficulty has now been overcome, but to what extent is still unknown (to me). There are so many brand names of non-stick coatings now, that it would not be possible to list them all, even if we know the degree of safety in every case, which, it seems, nobody does. While we recognise that all plastic materials can be dangerous in certain circumstances (they are made from one or more toxic materials) improvements in the coatings are continually being made. My advice to anyone thinking of buying non-stick cooking utensils would to beware of one which does not state what the coating is, and do hot buy one of the cheapest makes, especially if the pans themselves are non-branded ones. Sometimes the coating on these has been known to raise itself in a bubble when water reaches boiling point. Also, although 57

branded saucepans are, we believe, reasonably safe — unless severe overheating is permitted—it is doubtful if any of the coatings are yet good enough t o stand up to frying pan use. I turned up a report on the subject in Which, printed in 1962. It reads: — " The risks from PTFE (polytetra-fluoroethylene) were associated with the fumes given off when the pan gets very hot. We found that, even at the temperatures at which PTFE begins to decompose rapidly (about 730°F.) the fumes would not be harmful. You could not let a pan get as hot as this without burning the food badly." In reply to.a letter I sent recently they wrote: " W e have no further evidence which could make us come to any other conclusion." I shall, of course, continue to watch and listen, anything new of interest I shall certainly pass on. In answer to the gentleman who asked about paprika ; there are two kinds, Hungarian, which can be strongly irritating, I am told, and the Spanish, type which is more highly coloured but not irritating. Cheese Some comments I saw recently in Today's Food: — " The fitness or unfitness of cheese is largely dependent upon the organisms involved, the stage of ripening and the degree of decomposition that is taking place. Cheese falls into two main groups: unripened and ripened. The wholesomeness of the fresh cheeses such as cottage and cream cheese is generally accepted, provided high sanitary practices are maintained from farm to consumer. But various questions arise about the ripened varieties. Ripening is accompanied by the action of micro-organisms that causes a series of chemical changes in the curd. During the process of hard curd cheese ripening, various bacteria and moulds, the kinds depending upon the type of cheese, are allowed to slowly ferment the milk sugar and putrefy the protein. The resulting decomposed substances provide the characteristic flavours, textures and smells, of cheeses. In certain kinds of ripened cheese, such as limburger, the process is permitted to continue to an advanced stage. There are more than 400 varieties. Only a few are unripened. Cheeses are a public health concern because they are possible carriers of disease-producing organisms. This risk is less from cheeses made from pasteurized milk under sanitary conditions. There is growing evidence that certain products developed by the action of micro-organisms, such as moulds, are toxic to various 5S

experimental animals. In this regard, milder cheeses are less objectionable than sharp, strong ones. As the stage of putrefaction advances, the fitness of cheese as a food decreases. Dr. Robert F. Harris, professor of biochemistry of nutrition at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is blunt in his appraisal of cheese. He says that in this country we react unfavourably to the eating of grass-hoppers, worms, roasted ants, decayed eggs, and guinea pigs, which are articles of food in the diet of some people, yet we relish decayed, cheese and are surprised when other nationalities react to these foods with disgust." It seems we are not missing so very much! Beware of Italian Wines, if you would avoid non-vegan ingredients in your drinks. It has been reported (Daily Express, March 2nd, 1968), than one-third of the wines made in Italy contain no grapes at all and, apart from the colouring in this flavoured sugar water, may contain residues of veal bones, milk, wood, bone marrow, arsenic, lead, metallic cyanides and/or chalk. Suspicion was first drawn to the business of wine-making when it was realised that Italian manufacturers were producing far more wine than their French contemporaries â&#x20AC;&#x201D; from considerably fewer grapes! In recent years manufacturers in Italy have been arrested for mixing pig slops and banana peel in cheese making, labelling animal fats as olive oil, painting stale steak with ox blood to make it appear fresh, making butter from animal bones and mixing grated plastic with grated cheese. It all sounds terribly far-fetched, I wonder if Italian manufacturers are so'much worse than others or whether their Inspectors are more thorough? Presumably the establishment of a common market will bring more continental foods into our shops, for the sake of all nonvegans especially, I sincerely hope that legislation compelling the marking of all foods is in operation before then. As for us, I say thank goodness it is not yet possible to adulterate an almond (I think?) or inject bone marrow into an apple (I hope), I was very interested to read that Smt. Rukmini Devi Arundale in his address of welcome to the delegates at the I.V.U. Conference in India said: â&#x20AC;&#x201D; " Many of us in India, including myself, consider eggs as non-vegetarian, and unhealthy as well. Many of us also feel that taking milk leads to cruelty and slaughter." Is your Barbados sugar sometimes delivered in a hard block? I have suffered from this for years and only recently-learned how to deal with it easily. Just put it in an open jar and lay a wet 59

cloth over the top. The slightly damp atmosphere will be quite enough to make the sugar easily manageable in less time than it takes the cloth to dry out. The following resolution was passed at a meeting of the Board of Governors of the British._College of Naturopathy and Osteopathy: " It is resolved that animal experimentation in any form shall not be used on the College premises." We are pleased to ibe able to reprint this letter, written by one of our members and printed in the Southern Evening Echo: â&#x20AC;&#x201D; REVERENCE



The recent vast but consequential outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in this country should, it is hoped, profoundly shake the conscience and apathetic indifference of this nation and the rest of the world to the unnecessary cruelty and exploitation of animals by man. As a nation we proudly proclaim that we love animals as our friends and then . . . we eat them! How illogical, how sad, how degrading and hypocritical. We force-<breed them in unnatural conditions (factory farming and so on). We hunt and shoot for pleasure and call it civilised sport where, in fact, the animal has little chance of survival. Dead animals' flesh as a source of food for man is not only unethical, but grossly overrated nutritionally and dangerous, due to decomposition and doubtful origin. It is really second-hand food and much more uneconomic than food direct from harvesting the land. Manmade fibres now provide an excellent choice of clothing and footwear. This depressing melodrama between man arid animal, with all the unpleasant consequences, reveals once again man's folly and his persistently wrong attitude towards the world of animals over whom he has dominion. This is particularly so in a so-called " civilised and Christian Society," where, surely, reverence for the life of any living creature should be much greater. Unfortunately, conditioned as we are, we seem to lack the courage to look the naked truth in the eye and come to our own unbiased conclusions. With reference to the epidemic or other mass killings in abattoirs, the painful truth is that neither of those huge numbers of animals needed to be bred and killed for man's survival if only he cared to amend his unethical eating habits. This truth is proved beyond any doubt or question by large communities living in this country and other parts of the world who abstain from the consumption of animals' flesh and by-products. Ours is a clean, happy, healthy life without the cruelty or exploitation of animal life. Surely a step forward in human evolution to a better world. W. BRYNIAK. Southampton. 60

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On Maundy Thursday I made a visit to Thaxted Church where the Rev. Jack Putterill is Vicar. Just inside the main entrance door to this church is a table upon which is displayed an assortment of Animal Welfare literature, also petition forms against blood sports, for visitors to sign. It was a most encouraging sight to see six petition forms completely filled in with signatures against bull-fighting. Top marks to the Rev. Jack for his compassion to God's creatures! GEORGE E. WOODS. _ „. Some Comments on a Vegan Lecture Dear Sir, I am always very pleased to see a speaker on the subject of veganism billed to speak to vegetarian societies, natural health and social clubs, or gatherings of any kind where non-vegans can be expected to be present. Nevertheless I should like to think more vegans would also attend. I know I always came away refreshed and with renewed enthusiasm. Somehow, in spite of Mrs. Batt's entreaties for greater consistency, and her insistence that we could do much more to further. the cause of humane living, she manages to make us laugh—sometimes at ourselves, b u t usually at her description of her own experiences. A few remembered quotes from recent meetings: — " In the past it was sometimes a matter of plimsoles or Wellingtons if we wanted to be consistent, b u t now good alternatives to all animal products are available and we should take advantage of this opportunity, if our aims are to reduce the suffering of the animals." " Personally I do not see that it matters one jot to the lamb being led to slaughter whether his butchers are going to eat his flesh or wear his hide, he dies just the saine." ; Answering a question about the possible danger of giving up milk and eggs she said, Yes, there was a very great danger: — . " You may get so enthusiastic when you find how well you can manage that you will become like me a crashing bore on the subject, only waiting to leap in at the drop of a head-scarf." On the difficulty of eating in restaurants, but no—you must hear this from her—with the actions. I hope I have not given the impression it is all laughs. I have seen tears too, and here and there a person feels anger or resentment because she has managed to touch a tender spot in an already troubled conscience. FROM ANOTHER VEGAN. Dear Sir, I was particularly interested in your editorial in the Winter issue, and in your comments on a letter on the subject in the current issue. I think there is internal evidence that all the truly 62

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great ones were â&#x20AC;˘ vegans, rather than mere non-meat-eaters, certainly those in antiquity. Many of therri must have held views similar to those of Apollonius of Tyana. This is not to say that we do not also need the modern research you call for. I suspect, also, that there was one great difference between the habits of the ancient followers of true eating and those of most vegans today. The classical vegans almost certainly partook only of uncooked foods, and certainly of unprocessed, unfrozen and unpreserved (except sun-dried), also uncontaminated with chemical additions of any kind at any time from sowing to eating. Szekely shows very clearly that the Essenes (The Gospel of Peace of Jesus Christ) eschewed all cooking, calling it " killing of food by fire." Certainly the Nazarene exhibited great clarity of mind, and was " free from envy, malice, hatred, calumny and hostile feelings, and has his name inscribed among the race of those who've won their freedom"â&#x20AC;&#x201D;these being the attributes demanded by Apollonius of his disciples and imputed by him to stem from the vegan way of life. In recent years, A. T. Hovannessian, a Soviet Armenian, has cogently put the case for " Raw Eating." (I hope that copies of his book are available at Headquarters.) It is important that we learn about the evidence for inducing " a clear mind" and " freedom from envy . . . and hostile feelings," and whether this leads to greater sensitivity, etc. Certainly many have claimed that it does. I personally would be glad to contribute what information I have gleaned to the suggested study group, but even more would I like to participate in their findings. It seems very evident that in our ethical approach to veganism (which is, of course, more important than the mere health aspect) we should extend our rightfully held compassion towards animals, to the human race itself, and endeavour to demonstrate the truth of the claims made by those who surely knew. HAROLD WOOD.

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Cash with Order to The Vegan Society, 123 Baker Street, Enfield, Middlesex. (2/- per line', minimum 2 lines; 20% discount on four consecutive issues.) BLACKHEATH'S HEALTH FOOD STORE. An impressive selection of Health Foods. luice Bar and Refreshment Room — small and cosy, with personal attention. Tasty snacks, generous salads and appetising hot meals. Nutrition without Cruelty — vegetarian and vegan foods; Science without Cruelty — herbal remedies. Also Beauty without Cruelty — harmless soaps and cosmetics. Plantmilk, nuts, seeds and grains—a speciality. Wholewheat bread and cakes. Compost-grown produce. Large selection of health books. Afreta Healing Oil, a unique combination of natural oils, wonderfully penetrating in the relief of sprains, burns, rheumatism, bronchitis, etc. 3/3d. and 6/3d„ plus l / 6 d . postage. HEALTHWAYS, 5 Tranquil Passage, London, S.E.3. LEE Green 5811. BRITISH VEGETARIAN YOUTH MOVEMENT. An organisation for people 12—35. Social gatherings, holidays, monthly magazine, etc., organised. Further particulars from Secretary, B.V.Y.M., c / o London Vegetarian Society, 53 Marloes Road, London, W.8. FREE FURNISHED ACCOMMODATION, etc.. offered to enthusiastic Vegetarian Couple (with or without children), or House Mother, with a view to the development of the Vegetarian Children's Home at lars from the Hon. Secretary, Miss M. O. Amos, , Hoylake, Cheshire. HEALTH through NATURAL HYGIENE. Are you interested in Health achieved naturally and without the exploitation of other human beings and animals? Natural Hygiene is a system of health preservation and restoration which meets these requirements. For literature, send 6d. stamp to: The Secretary, British Nat. Hygiene Soc., 40 Foxburrow Road, Norwich, Norfolk. LADY (vegan) requires Unfurnished Room and and humanitarian activities. LARGE COMFORTABLE MODERNISED COUNTRY HOUSE. produce. Beautiful peaceful setting. Vegans and raw eate Wood, Food Reform Guest House, Tintern, Mon. (Ass. Vegan Society.)


MAN, aged 51, requires Board, Lodgings, with Vegan Diet. Reply to N. J. Colborne, Wyvern Unit, Roundway Hospital, Devizes, Wiltshire. THE COMPASSIONATE DOCTRINE OF AHIMSA is stressed in the monthly publication "AHIMSA" (non-killing, harmlessness). Full year, 10s. in British stamps or coins. THE AMERICAN VEGAN SOCIETY, Malaga, N.J. 08328, U.S.A WORLD FORUM. The leading international Vegetarian quarterly. Edited by Mrs. Esm6 Wynne-Tyson. Advocates the vegetarian way of life for physical health and a true relationship between the human and creature kingdoms—without exploitation and cruelty. 2/-, plus 6<L post per copy. 10/- per year, post free.—H. H. GREAVES LTD., 106/110 Lordship Lane, London, S.E.22.

ESTABLISHMENTS CATERING FOR VEGANS M A J O R C A . — F o r retired couple is offered comfortably furnished flat in English widow's h o m e with kind climate and beautiful views at reasonable rent f o r permanency. Further particulars with reply coupon please, f r o m : RITCHIE, Salud, (153) Palma de Mallorca. B R O O K LINN.—Callander, Perthshire. Vegetarian and Vegan meals carefully prepared and attractively served. Comfortable guest house. Near Trossachs and Western Highlands. Mrs. Muriel Choffin. Callander 103. E A S T B O U R N E . Very good self-catering facilities ; single and double. Every comfort and convenience. Pleasantly situated outskirts of t o w n . Easy access shops and sea f r o n t . P ace. Margaret Fisher, Edgehill Vegetarian Guest House, . Telephone: 30627 and 21084. V.C.A. Member. E D S T O N E , W O O T T O N W A W E N , W A R W I C K S H I R E (near Stratford-onAvon). Modem Nature Cure Resort and Guest House with every comfort, and compost-grown produce. (Phone: Claverdon 327.) L A K E DISTRICT. Rothay Bank, Grasmere. Attractive guest house for invigorating, refreshing holidays.—Write Isabel James. Tel.: 334. " W O O D C O T E " , Lelant, St. Ives, Cornwall, is a high-class Vegetarian F o o d Reform Guest House in a warm and sheltered situation overlooking the Hayle Estuary. Composted vegetables; home-made wholewheat bread; vegans catered for knowledgeably. Mr. and Mrs. Woolfrey. T e l . : Hayle 3147. Early bookings for Summer very advisable. W O T T O N - U N D E R - E D G E , G L O U C E S T E R S H I R E . Coombe Lodge is a M a n o r House set in a two-acre garden on the southern slopes of the Cotswold Hills, overlooking Coombe Valley, where most fruit and vegetables are home-grown. Demonstrations given of Vegan Cookery. Apply Kathleen Keleny. Tel.: Wotton-under-Edge 3165.

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The Vegan Summer 1968