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T H E VEGAN SOCIETY Founded November,


Veganism is a way of living which excludes all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, the animal kingdom, and includes a reverence and compassion for all life. It applies to the practice of living on the products of the plant kingdom to the exclusion of flesh, fish, fowl, eggs, honey, animal milk and its derivatives, and encourages the use of alternatives for all commodities derived wholly or in part from animals. Veganism remembers man's responsibilities to the earth and its resources and seeks to bring about a healthy soil and plant kingdom and a proper use of the materials of the earth.

President : Mrs. E . B. SHRIGLEY, Surrey. Deputy-President: Mr. JACK SANDERSON, Upminster, Essex. Vice-Presidents : Dr. F R E Y E L L I S , Dr. CATHERINE N I M M O , Mr. DUGALD SEMPLE, Miss W I N I F R E D SIMMONS. Honorary Secretary : Mrs. EVA BATT, , Enfield, Middlesex. Honorary Treasurer : Mrs. SERENA N . COLES, Purley, Surrey. Committee : Mr. H. T. BONNIE, Mrs. P. M. COLLINS, Mrs. M. DRAKE, T H E LADY DOWDING, D r . F . E L L I S , M r . M . M C C U L L O C H , M r . M . S H O L L , M r s . D. T H O M S O N . Vegan Distribution Secretary : Mrs. S. COLES,


Purley, Surrey. Minimum subscription, which includes " T h e Vegan," 15s. per annum (and 7s. 6d. for each additional member of one family at same residence); 7s. 6d. if age under 18; payable in January. Life Membership, ÂŁ10 10s. Od.





Editor : Mr. JACK SANDERSON, Upminster, Essex. Advertisements : H . H . G R E A V E S LTD., 1 0 6 / 1 1 0 Lordship Lane, London, S.E.22. Published quarterly: Annual subscription, 7s. post free; single copies, Is. 9d. post free. Obtainable from the Hon. Secretary. LITERATURE

" The Reasons for Veganism." 4 page leaflet. Free. " Vegan Protein Nutrition." 12 page leaflet. Is. 3d. post free. " A Handbook of Practical Veganism." 24 pages with cover. 2s. 9d. post free. " T h e Vegetarian and Vegan Food Guide." 2s. 6d. post free. " Unnecessary Cruelties among Farm Animals." 8 page leaflet. 6d. post free. All obtainable from the Hon. Secretary (cheque and postal orders made out to " The Vegan Society.")

T H E VEGAN Journal

of the Vegan


SUMMER, 1963

EDITORIAL I know a girl who married a farmer. I asked her if she had got a good husband. " I have indeed," she replied, " but you know before I married him I noticed how kind and patient he was towards the animals, and this gave me every confidence in h i m ! " How wise she was! (Letter to the Daily Express, May 13th, 1963). The value of kindness in our everyday life cannot be overstressed. Professor T. Manson, a learned New Testament professor of one of our greatest universities, gave a series of lectures to a Youth Fellowship I attended some years ago on the essertce of Christianity and his chosen title was " Kindness." This could well be the chosen title to represent not only many other world religions but also the essence of most humanitarian movements that have brotherhood as their theme and also of many animal movements where kindness is directed towards our younger brothers in evolution. One of the outstanding articles to have appeared in our journal in recent years was that on " Kindness," by Dr. Ellis, and I hope that we shall soon be able to print this as a leaflet. In this article Dr. Ellis speaks of the " Power of Kindness." In the minds of many people, the words Power and Kindness do not go easily together—to them Kindness is something rather feminine which is indulged in when it is practical, whilst power is masculine and suggests science and politics. But surely Jesus and many other teachers taught that Kindness was all powerful—a positive force which had the backing of the Intelligent Forces that control the Universe. In this issue I am pleased to say that Dr. Ellis has developed this theme in a further article and I commend it to all our readers; members and friends. The above letter to the Daily Express must have had quite a good effect on many readers, and it cannot be stressed too often what a useful and powerful way is open to us through the correspondence columns of the national and local Press and maga-

zines, etc. Whilst the more venturesome of us can have a shot at radio, television, and larger books. Beginning with the next issue I shall award 5 / - each issue to the writer of what I believe to be the best letter published by a member in the Press, and to guide other readers who would like to try. The winning letter will be printed in our journal. Please send the actual printed letter on the page of the paper so that the date and name of paper can be seen. The holiday season is now upon us, and this may present an opportunity to write that " Letter to the Editor " you have been thinking about for some time. Below is a copy of what I consider to be the best letter to the Press we have had in recent years. J. SANDERSON.

(The Editor does not hold himself of other writers.) CHEMICALS



for the



(Printed in the Enfield Weekly Herald on May 25th, 1962.) The British housewife and her doctor are becoming justifiably concerned at the ever increasing use of chemicals in food, but far too little is known, even now, about some of the one thousand odd additives which are in common everyday use. . You think you are eating apple pie, but in fact the fruit, flour fat and even the sweetening agent have most probably all been doctored with some of the chemical bleaches, preservatives, softeners, dyes, anti-foaming agents, anti-oxidants, anti-caking agents, binders, mold inhibitors, emulsifiers, maturing agents, improvers, dough conditioners, stabilizers, sequestrants, texturizers, flavourings, metal scavengers, bactericides, thickening agents, buffers, dispersants, leavening agents, bulking agents, colour fixatives, fungistats, flavour dispersants, anti-sticking agents, candy polish, stimulants, neutralizers, germicide washes, browning preventers, peeling agents, firming agents, drying agents, anti-browners, curd washers, plasticisers, deodorants, adjusters, water correctives, anti-biotics, extenders, etc., etc. Fertilisers Plus the residue of chemical fertilisers and poisonous sprays; some of which, like DDT., are cumulative in the human system. W e may be lulled into apathy by assurances that " The amount is too small to do severe damage," but who says so? Not the consumer, not the doctor. Some chemicals prohibited elsewhere as cancer forming or dangerous in other ways, are still commercially exploited here, and vice versa. Need we look farther for the cause of some of our. present ill-health, especially of the " degenerative " diseases? 2

If you value the health of your family, ask your M.P. why it is that these chemicals are, by the laxity of our food and drug regulations, still permitted to be used. Over 1,000 chemical additives in our daily food are assumed to be innocent because not yet proved guilty. Surely this is carrying an excellent judicial system just a little too f a r ! — E V A V. BATT (Mrs.). Baker Street, Enfield. VEGAN MEETINGS (Open to Members and Interested Friends) July.—The Vegan Society will be having a stall at the Beauty Without Cruelty Garden Fete to be held at the home of Drs. Douglas and Monica Latto at , Reading, Berks., on Sunday, July 14th, at 2.30 p.m. Members who like to may either make their own way there, or go by special coach as last year. (Ring Mrs. White, BAY 7057 immediately to book your seat). Mrs. Drake will also have a stall of Vegan and Vegetarian goods. September.—The Vegan Society (and other Societies) are holding a joint meeting at Kensington Public Library in Campden Hill Road (close to High St. Kensington Underground), on Wednesday, September 18th, at 6.30 p.m., when there will be a " Discussion on Vaccination." The pros, and cons, will be put by representative speakers (probably announced at the above July meeting) and as this is expected to be a large and important meeting, members are asked to arrive in good time. (Collection for expenses). December.—Advance notice of the A.G.M., 1963, to be held on Saturday, December 14th at the Caxton Hall, Westminster. SOME ASPECTS OF VITAMIN B12 The talk that was to have been given by Dr. Ellis on this theme on May 17th was postponed because of the short notice that could be given owing to the delay in our Spring Number. It is expected that this talk will be given during the coming season. Our sincere apologies to Mrs. White for inconvenience caused her. J.S. PUZZLE CORNER Our secretary received 10/- from Australia with no letter or address. Probably a disappointed member is waiting for a badge or some booklets, and he should drop a line to the secretary giving his name and address. She also asks us to say that the article " Freedom " appeared in the Spring issue of The Vegan in 1953; the author was Vera Stanley Alder. The secretary has a few copies left.



There is often a great deal of controversy upon the prudence of one openly admitting to being a vegan to those not yet vegetarians. I believe that this can only be a question of discrimination. I often wonder if I could have so successfully converted several people to vegetarianism if I had told them to be vegans. I feel that if this had been done they would still be eating meat. T h e problematic question is, " How far can we go in expressing unreservedly our own inner convictions, and how much do we use psychological " perception in this difficult and delicate situation? " I have only been a vegan (myself) for three years, and I would not be so presumptuous as to say that one should take this step before an adjustment has been made by a preliminary change over to vegetarianism. In my own case I was never proselytised to, neither did I meet any vegans before I myself became one, but I felt the need, or I might say more accurately the urgency, to leave out dairy produce from my diet after being a vegetarian for many years. It came to me like an inner voice that would not be stilled until I had obeyed. I believe that when one is ready to be a vegan this urgent voice will speak until there is a response. T o eat food which is not cruelly produced is not sufficient; it seems to me that like a diamond that catches the sun's rays at every point, we must respond to life itself in every form if we would have a better world. W e all are aware that some people love animals but despise their fellow-men, forgetting how capacity for good can make a man God-like, as the same capacity for evil can drag him to the depths of degradation. Others love their fellow-men, despising the sweet innocence of creatures who obey the law of their being, unconscious of sin, with neither pride nor acquisitiveness that bring such suffering in their wake. ' The animal has not wandered so far from its source or developed the concrete calculating mind as man has done; when, we press upward to the realms of intuitive thought we transcend ourselves and our environment. Our greatest stumbling block is pride which can cloud the understanding. Spiritual pride sometimes lurks unseen and unrecognised even in the purest heart, and like the Jack O' Lantern can lead us further away from the goal to which sweet humility alone can point the way. Some who were never vegetarians come to the vegan way of life at once, but they are not the norm, and most people need a gradual adjustment. It is not. always wise to talk veganism to a meat-eater who is genuinely interested in vegetarianism and is reluctantly feeling his way before the change over. 4

Although we as vegans know what an -abundance of really healthy appetising food can be enjoyed, a person who is just told that he may not eat meat, fish, eggs, cheese, butter or drink milk may through lack of knowledge be left floundering in a sea of negation. It is well to bear in mind that this idea is new to him and alien to all his earlier conditioning; he could not grasp it and would probably say, " I can't possibly do this," and so would continue to eat meat. I feel that our magazine is our best source of propaganda; it is well-balanced and factual, and expresses the ideals of our cause—and truth will always prevail. With the present knowledge of the harmful effects of dairy produce and the cruel methods of producing it, it will not be long before even the most biased will see the advantages of a more harmless way of life and the logic of vegan reasoning. - The time will come when they will hesitate to drink the milk meant for infant calves (slaughtered at birth), the milk from cows that are treated as machines possessing neither soul nor life, cows that end their miserable days in filthy abattoirs—the last gesture of contempt by man for a creature unable to plead its own cause. We know these things are so, but in this imperfect world there must always be temporary compromise on the path to ultimate good. Each individual must come to the truth himself. One can implant knowledge in the mind, but not compassion in the heart for this is already there. It is not we who bring a person to compassion—all we can do is simply shed a glimmer of light upon the surrounding darkness and the compassionate soul sees and responds. I feel that many vegetarians would be vegans if it were not for the yet hypothetical B.2 problem. It may well be that some vegans are not yet able to manufacture B,2 in the intestine. But throughout the annals of natural history we find it is the organism which adapts itself to its changing environment, not the reverse, that eventually establishes equilibrium. The question is when does the change oyer with its preliminary complications begin? Assuming, of course, that they exist, for I imagine that at this stage of investigation they are still hypothetical. How many creatures were sacrificed when the tiny trigolites, the first pioneers, swept by the mysterious surge of evolutionary life, left their watery bed to face new and alien experiences upon the earth? ' If this had not been so, where would human evolution be today—life must ever struggle in its state of becoming? Every urgent seed must force its young shoots through the soil and struggle to the sun—this is life's inexorable law. If man at some earlier period of his development was a fruitarian he must have partly adapted his body to eating animal matter. T h a t he has not yet completed this is evident'by the poor health of 5

modern man, and also by the unaltered structure of his intestine which is still long for the digestion of vegetarian food. If this is so it should be simple for man to return to .his original diet at this stage. It should require little adjustment for he has never completely fallen from his original state. Only his early conditioning stands in the way and produces the psychological barriers to a fuller and healthier way of life. Our bodies have reached a high stage of physical evolution and if we nourish them with pure food we should also speed up our mental and psychic evolution too. A s Julian Huxley postulates in his book, Evolution in Action, " Man has evolved his physical body to a state of perfection, and now his evolution is turning inward." But can this inner evolution proceed when the body is nourished on the bodies of slaughtered animals which m u s t bring from the depths of man's unconscious a feeling of guilt. If life is a unity then consciousness must also be one in the subtler levels of being which means we can never be liberated f r o m remorse and guilt until the animal kingdom which is a part of the one life is liberated from our cruelty and oppression. H o w can this be brought about? Veganism is the path to that Holy Mountain where nothing shall h u r t or kill and all things dwell in peace and harmony together. But vigilance, tact and extreme awareness must be exercised in our methods of practising the vegan way, lest we delay the day when this ideal will come to pass. Let us go on giving the facts but using discrimination as to when to speak and when to hold our peace. If we can further the vegetarian cause, then as surely as day must follow night, in some far distant future veganism will come to this planet— it is part of the divine plan. In time when animals are no longer bred for food the whole planet wiil be be vegan, for where will dairy produce come from? W e should not be unduly disturbed if we are dubbed cranks and extremists, knowing that we act in all sincerity in a cause which we believe to be just and true, heralding the dawn of a better day. We do not have to look embarrassed when our meateating opponents point to our shoes and ask if they are made of leather and ask us whether we drink milk. W e look them squarely in the face and say we do not for we cannnot avoid truth; it is at these moments when discrimination has to play its part. Vegetarianism is sometimes the aspect to emphasise with an avoidance of vegan propaganda. By all means let us write our views, never avoiding truth, for people will more readily accept the written word; for no personality comes in between. If I myself have been too candid, I beg your tolerance. I have but one desire which is to use the strongest weapons we possess to fight cruelty in this world—intelligence and love for life in all its manifestations.




In response t o several requests from vegan mothers who have enquired how other mothers feed and bring up their children, I am using a letter from a mother in Sussex as the subject matter of this article. She wrote giving a very full account of the way she is feeding her family. There are three boys—Jonathan 5 years, Roger years, and Simon 2 years. They have unwittingly been the objects of experiments in veganism as their parents have only been vegan for three years.


5 years.

Roger, 3 years (standing),

Simon, 2 years.

When their eldest son Jonathan was born the parents were completely orthodox except for using " wholefoods." Jonathan was born at home and his mother was given the usual injections and gas and air. He weighed 9 lbs. He was healthy but cried more than the other two. He was breast-fed for three months 7

only and then weaned on to cows' milk and the usual cereals. Later he had eggs, cheese, meat gravy and vegetables with some fruit. Very little of his food was raw. His progress seemed to be average in comparison with orthodox methods. When changing his nappies his mother found they smelt strongly of ammonia especially in the mornings, indicating an excess of protein in the diet. She did not have this experience with the other two. Jonathan also developed a small patch of eczema on his back and as this trouble persisted his parents started keeping goats. (They had heard that goat's milk would cure the eczema.) One goat was due to kid at any time and they could not face the thought of killing the kid if it had been a billy—so their path to veganism began. Then Roger was born. While pregnant with him his mother was still on only a wholefood diet, but this was a better balanced one than when she had Jonathan. Roger was als6 born at home b u t this time the mother only had one injection and no gas and air. Roger was also 9 lbs. He was breast-fed for five months and then he was weaned on to goat's milk and Holle. Later on he had f r u i t : apricot puree, dates and banana being very popular. Vegetables were not so favoured and he is still a great fruit eater. It was noticeable that he would always eat more dates before a teething spell. He has been a more contented baby than Jonathan on the whole, "although his toilet training has been a nightmare, probably due to his passion for fruit." By the time Simon was on the way the family were having a completely vegan diet with plenty of salads and raw fruit. While the mother was pregnant she was able to continue all her normal activities and felt very well. For his birth they were able to have an excellent Natural Childbirth Trust Nurse and it was a very happy family occasion with only the nurse and her husband present. Everything was completely natural and it was the most enjoyable confinement of the three.. Simon was 7 lbs. 15 ozs., very content, just eating and sleeping. He was breast-fed for seven months and .then weaned ;on t o A l m o n d n u t milk freshly prepared at home and Holle, also fruit juices and purees. He is a really happy child, always laughing and very good. All the family are now completely vegan and have plenty of energy. The children especially are on the go from waking till sleeping. " In fact sometimes we threaten to put them on bread and water." They all have bright eyes and clear skin and take a very intelligent interest in life. The questions are unending. They seem to have a good resistance to disease for in the past year they have been to Australia by sea and back by air without any innoculation or vaccination. The only thing they caught was a cold, which they think was due to the poorer diet. Here is one of their typical menus which is modified according to the seasons: — 8

Breakfast—Muesli, nuts and raisins, dates. Dinner—Soup, salad and baked potatoes. Tea—Wholemeal bread and Tomor savoury spreads, fruit, sometimes nuts and raisins or wholemeal fruit cake. A piece of apple always follows each meal to help clean their teeth. "It has not always been easy to stick out against the opposition and bring the children up this way but the results have made all the hard work infinitely worthwhile. Nothing could change our way of life now." When I received this letter it occurred to me that it was a typical example of a family who had progressed from an orthodox way of life to the vegan way with most beneficial results. There are some cautious mothers and mothers-to-be who are hesitant to turn vegan in the early stages of motherhood. This letter showed that a change to veganism has most successfully been carried out while raising a family, and I hope it will serve as an assurance to those who need it. If I can be of any further help to any who come into this category, please do not hesitate to write to me at , Coulsdon, Surrey. Tel. UPL 9166.

VIOLENCE A N D CONSCIOUS EVOLUTION " There is a path which no bird of prey knoweth And which the vulture's eye hath not seen, The lion's whelps have not trodden it, Nor the fierce lions passed it by." Job

XXVIII 7 a n d 8.

Man can exist in four stages of consciousness. The first is the unconcious state experienced when asleep, under anaesthesia, or in a state of coma. Probably the state of sleep is different from coma or anaesthesia but the intellect cannot recollect such states and so w& are unable to describe them. The second state is that of the semi-consciousness or waking sleep. It is in this condition that the vast majority of mankind exists. In this state man is under the law of accident and is subject to any external or internal stimulus that reaches his awareness. Violence plays a great part in his life and he has no control over himself, what he does, his destiny or his further evolution. He is unaware of his condition and ascribes all kinds of untrue attributes to himself, such as compassion, cleverness, will and strength-. In this condition man has no will, no freedom of choice, cannot recognise truth and hence is constantly lying. He can do nothing of himself and all his actions are mechanical. There cannot be any creative thoughts or actions in this state. Everything that is said


and done has no real purpose or meaning because in this condition there is no conscious direction and without such direction everything happens and is subject to mechanical laws. " M o s t of our actions are prompted by involuntary motives. The whole of life is composed of small things which we continually obey and serve. Our ' I ' continually changes as in a kaleidoscope. Every external event which strikes us, every suddenly aroused emotion, becomes caliph for an hour, begins to build and govern, and is in its turn as unexpectedly deposed and replaced by something else. And the inner conciousness, without attempting to disperse the illusory designs created by the shaking of the kaleidoscope and without understanding that in reality the power that decides and acts is not itself, endorses everything and says about those moments of life in which different external forces are at work, ' This is I, this is I ' . From this point of view ' the will' can be defined only as the ' resultant of desires '. Consequently, as long as desires have not become permanent, man is the plaything of moods and external impressions. He never knows what he will say or do next. Not only the next day, but even the next moment, is hidden from him by the wall of accident. W h a t appears to be the consecutiveness of men's actions finds, its explanation in the poorness of motives and desires, or in the artificial discipline grafted by the ' education,' or, above all, in men's imitation of one another. As to the men with a so-called ' strong will,' these are usually men of one dominating desire, in which all other desires vanish."—(In Search of the Miraculous). The third stage of consciousness is that of intermediate consciousness, a stage which progresses from semi-consciousness to the beginning of consciousness. In this condition man realises his true state and having done so wishes to awake. The fourth state is that of consciousness. In this state man begins to have will; he has escaped from the law of accident and hence is not subject to violence. If progression in the conscious state is maintained a state of conscious evolution is reached. Man is then able to direct his own evolution consciously and eventually becomes a conscious man. Such a man is whole or complete; he has the power to use universal forces and to do what is necessary, receiving his direction from the endless and absolute creative intelligence. It is this man who has been given dominion and to suggest that any other stage of man is given such authority is madness, and yet such madness is taken for normality in the world today. According to this stage of consciousness man may be divided into four types; the sleeping man, the semi-conscious man, the intermediate man and the conscious man. There are in each type many grades as one is not a semi-conscious man in one moment and an intermediate man the next. The transformation of one type into another does not happen by chance but requires effort 10

and preparation. It is not possible to start on the process of change until there is awareness of the stage in which one is. This process of change cannot be achieved alone; it is necessary to have instruction from those who have already attained a higher state of consciousness than our own. We are unable to contact such individuals, and even if we did we would not recognise them. They, however, have the ability to draw to them those who are ready and willing to receive instruction. If then there are other states of consciousness awaiting man, what must happen to him so that he may know them? He cannot with his present anatomical and physiological make-up experience such states. Therefore a change has to take place inside the body, the external characteristics of which have ceased to evolve. This change occurs in the internal cellular structure of the body. There is a qualitative alteration of the body cells, particularly those of the nervous system. In the latter system, also, whole groups of cells, previously dormant, are allowed to awake. They can then assume the natural function previously denied to them and another state of consciousness is born. This alteration of the body cells and the awakening of various areas of the nervous system is referred to as the 'new birth ' or the ' transformation '. " For rebirth there is an exact science, the greatest in the world."—(Gurdjieff). " The great science of transformation — the birth of the soul, that conscious ' second birth ' which parallels automatic (physical) birth and for which Gurdjieff had a marvellous phrase: ' T h e arising of the presence of man ' . . . this transformation demands years of study and practice for its incorporation. ' Past joys,' he said ' are as useless to man in the present state as the snows of last year which leave no trace by which one can remember what they were. Only the imprint of concious labour and intentional suffering are real and can be used for obtaining good '. " This good comes to you step by step, in great ' discoveries ' —for instance like the one that teaches you why anger is so often an expression of self love."—(Margaret Anderson—The Unknowable Gurdjieff). For this transformation to start a man must be discontented and then see himself as he is. Having done so he will wish to change; this wish starts the process of transformation and allows food to reach the embryo soul. This wish to change—a conscious wish—has tremendous power, and nothing can prevail against it. " If you wish you can. Without wishing you never can. Wish is the most powerful thing in the world. Higher than God. Of course I speak of conscious wish, and with conscious wish, everything comes."—(Teachings of Gurdjieff—The Journal of a Pupil). From then on he learns the technique of conscious growth, according to his own individual needs. 11

A t a certain stage of this transformation man escapes from the law of violence. Then no form of external violence can alter his course and he is no longer subject to any internal violence such as anger, hatred, jealousy. When this stage is reached man can start ' To do ' that is, he is capable for the first time in his existence, of changing things. In order to reach this stage all forms of violence must cease to be utilised by the body and mind. This means that physical and mental food must be free from violence. As conscious evolution proceeds the importance of the ingestion of invisible psychic foods grows. Jesus spoke of the invisible food in these words: " Every one who drinks of this water will thirst again, but whoever drinks of the water that I shall give him will never thirst; the water that I shall give him will become in him a spring of water welling up into eternal life." In order to absorb such food the relevant reception areas of the nervous system must be in a pure state and this is impossible as long as they receive any substances that have been produced by violence. Hence the ingestion of any animal products will at once prevent these centres from fulfilling their proper function. T h e deliberate absorption of violent impressions from reading, films or plays or any visual matter based on jealousy, hatred or sex as it is presented today, will produce the same result. In the Buddhist scriptures we read: " Down to the very last I saw the nations die. They killed for food and drink, how pitiful."—(Buddist Scriptures translated by Edward Lome). T h e death that Buddha saw was not bodily death but the death of the soul, and the food and drink applies to mental food as well as body food. The killing of mental food means distorting our sensory perceptions in such a manner that they become food for o u r sensual appetites. The wonder and awe of real life are corrupted into food and drink for anger, hate, jealousy, greed, envy, and lust. There is nothing left over to develop those centres which are essential for the process of conscious evolution. This again blocks the use of the invisible psychic foods and man in this condition can go no further. The perversion of mental food causes, and has caused abnormal bodily desires which result and have resulted in the killing of other animals for food and drink. Ouspensky says of violence: " And the second thing was that somewhere very deep down inside me I understood the esoteric principle of the impossibility of violence, that is, the uselessness of violent means to obtain no matter what. I saw with undoubted clarity, and never afterwards did I wholly lose this feeling, t h a t violent means and methods in anything whatever would unfailingly produce negative results, that is to say, results opposed to those aims for which they applied. What I had arrived at was like Tolstoy's non-resistance in appearance but it was not at all non-resistant because I had reached it not from an ethical, but 12

from a practical point of view—not from the standpoint of what is better or what is worse, but from the standpoint of what is more eSective and expedient."—(In Search of the Miraculous). This conclusion is of immense importance. The fundamental reason why non-violence has such great meaning is that it is the only practical method of living. " If we were to grow children again in the environment of the temple garden, the number of sad faces would begin to decrease; happiness would become the rule; and art would have a chance to develop on a far wider scale."—(Recovery of Culture—Henry Bailey Stevens). Medical research into the effects of violence on the body and psyche would undoubtedly show that the basis of most diseases is in the violation of kindness. Here there is a vast field for preventive medicine, so far untouched. The most infectious and virulent invaders of the human body are ' violent thoughts '. These kill and maim millions yearly and yet for some unknown reason, man is oblivious of, or chooses to ignore, this fact. " Forty-nine days and nights Gautama spent in contemplation thus, sinking deeper and deeper in thought until he grasped the perfect understanding of the chain of causation, which is the origin of all evil. Mara batters the mind of man, with a shower of evil thoughts—anger and lust and greed; and when they have once gained entry, they grow and spread, causing the man to speak evil and at last to do evil. So Mara works among the trees and among men."—(Recovery of Culture). Such thoughts always have violence as their basis. Henry Bailey Stevens describes their effect in the following words: " Certainly Buddha and Jesus were right that the evils in the mind of man are caused by evil thoughts imparted by the' old corruptions of the immediate past. As with the infection on the leaves of a tree, it is at first difficult to detect such thoughts in the stream of consciousness, but when they settle and begin to develop areas of destructiveness, their nature becomes clear. There are many forms of these evils, but they are all parasitical in nature. In the normally constructive, growing mind they form centres which are obviously destructive; and new spores, shooting out from these centres, spread quickly to infect other areas and other minds. Thus, in a short time a mind can be corrupted and even a whole nation can be turned from useful industry to calculated violence."—(The Recovery of Culture). Violence in any of its many forms is complete negation, blaspheming against the Holy Ghost, or the denial of that which is good in everything. " Verily I say unto you, all sins shall be forgiven unto the sons of Man and blasphemers wherewith soever they shall blaspheme: But he that shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost hath never forgiveness but is in danger of eternal damnation." (Mark III, 28-29). 13

T h e Holy Ghost is the power of kindness that may manifest within us. Conscience is that internal mechanism which alerts us whenever we are about to deny this power. It we ignore this warning we then harden our hearts. Every time this is done an internal destruction occurs until eventually the centre for this process is destroyed. Then no longer can this power aid us and conscious evolution is not possible. This is the state of eternal damnation. Every time we admit into our life anything that has been produced or has any association with violence, we are denying the living power of kindness. It is evident that life based on conscious non-violence can take us towards the possibility of altering our circumstances. Such a way of life does not come as a gift that we are entitled to; nothing is obtained without payment. It is necessary to know the correct currency and the method of paying. " We, who are parts of Adam, heard with him, The songs of angels and of seraphim. Our memory, though dull and sad, retains Some echo still of those unearthly strains." —(Rumi selections from the Writings, by Reynold A. Nicholson). Our first payment is to remember.

THE VEGAN LIBRARY T h e Librarian is Mr. -John Heron, and he houses the books at his h o m e at , Tunbridge Wells. The Library continues to grow gradually, and we now have over 200 books and pamphlets. W e would remind members that gifts of books on a wide range of subjects broadly related to living reform and humanitarian ism will be gratefully received. Also needed are text-books and reference books on all aspects of science, particularly botany, zoology, and bio-chemistry. Further subjects of importance are psychology, new thought, yoga, and so on. The Committee allocates a small sum of the Society's money each year towards building up the library, so that there will be a comprehensive and useful selection of books available to members when we eventually become established in our own premises. How to Borrow a Book Members (only) are asked to send l / 6 d . in stamps of small denominations, with their request for a book, and to return the book within three weeks of receiving it. Only one book at a time may be borrowed. Lists of library books will appear in The Vegan from time to time. The letter (P) indicates a booklet or pamphlet for which only 6d. in stamps need be sent. 14

FOOD AND DIET Back to Eden Be Your Own Doctor Children's Diet Chemical Composition of Foods Diet Reform Cook Book Does Bread Nourish? Diet Reform Simplified Diet Does It Eat Nature's Food and Live Long Everyday Food (P) Food for Health Food Values in Wartime Food the Deciding Factor Food Values Chart Fruit Dishes and Raw Vegetables Foods for Good Health Food Values at a Glance Food in the Early Church Food, Health and Vitamins Food Science for All Foodway to Health Food for the Golden Age Health and Pleasure from the Kitohe Herbal Manual Health-Giving Brews How to Eat for Health Is Milk a Curse? (P) Indian Multi-P,impose Food Look Younger, Live Longer Maniual of Nutrition Mazdaznan Science of Dietetics Minerals Essential for Health ... Natural Foods Nutrition and Food Service Conven tion Report Nutrition Potatoes as Food and Medicine (P) . Processed Plant Protein Foodstuff Perspektiven zur Eiweissfrage ... Romance of Sugar Simple Guide to Healthy Food (P) . Sensible Food for All ... Strontium 90 in Human Diet ... Simple Attractive Food Reform Sunflower Salads for All Seasons (P) Things that Count in Diet The Elixir of Life The Fountain of Youth The Salad Road to Health Vegetarian Recipes Vital Vegetables Vital Facts about Food What to Eat for Health Wild Foods of Britain Wholemeal War Time Recipes Your Diet in Health and Disease Your Child and Diet

J. Kross D. Semple M. Bircher-Benner ... McCance & Widdowson V. Quick Dr. E. Pfeiffer S. Lief Gayelord Hauser ... Dr. T. Oldfield ... H. Wyndham I. R. & J. E. Thomson V. G. Plummer ... Dr. F. Wokes B. Amies M. Bircher-Benner ... D. A. Wright V. G. Plimmer ... Rev. O. N. Drinkwater R. A. Plimmer ... M. Bircher-Benner ... J. R. Sneddon F. Wilson R. F. Miller H. Ward K. Rawnsley S. Lief J. A. Goodfellow ... C. F. & R. I. Mysore... Gayelord Hauser ... H.M.S. 0 Dr. H. Gilbert (2) D. & P. Weaver

... ...

I,N.R. F Dr. E. Kolisko H. V. Knaggs A. M. Altschul .... Dr. R. Bircher ... H. V. Knaggs L.H.C. E. J. Saxon Agr. Research Council E. I. Saxon E. F. Hart London Health Centre H. V. Knaggs Arnold de Vries ... Arnold de Vries ... Dr. H. V. Knaggs ... Ivan Baker L. Powell O. Carqu6 B. T. Fraser (2) ... I. Hill E. A. Homi'brook ... Harry Benjamin (4) ... Dr. C. V. Pink ...

1939 1946 1946 1952 1933 1953 1953 1924 1938 1941 1941 1926 1954 1935 1955 1928 1928 1946 1954 1937 1936 1955 1933 1945 1951 1955 1914 1939 1954 1930 1958 1956 1931 1945 1939 1958 1948 1956 1945 1921 1952 1948 1916 1947 194b 1933 1944 1939 1927 1945 1938 1939



HEALTH Attacking and Arresting Arthritis Appendicitis A New Era of Medicine (P) A Philosophy on Healing Abundant Health A Physician's Posy Aluminium Utensils Be Your Own Doctor Biochemistry Constipation Can Nature Cure? (P) Chest Complaints (P) Cancer Consumption Constipation Digestive Troubles (P) Epilepsy (P) Everybody's Guide to Nature Cure ... Epsom Salts First Steps to Fitness Food or Drugs Food Health and Vitamins Grow Old and Stay Young Guide to Scientific Living Healthy Hair How I Cured Myself by Fasting Human Life and the Body Homoeopathic Vade Mecum H o m e Treatment of Constipation Human Body H o m e Cures for Co-mmon Ailments ... High and Low Blood Pressure How to Live 100 Years Help for Chronic Sufferers How to Avoid Cancer Healthful Living How to Lose Fat Hydrotherapy Hygienic System Hypnotism Health and Radiation Human Health In Perfect Shape Kenny Treatment of Infant. Paralysis (P) Minerals, Marshmallows and Mankind (P) Male Methods of Birth Control Mucusless Diet Healing System Mazdaznan Leaflets (8) My System Nursing Mother Nature Cure Explained Osteopathic Polemics Progressive Biochemic Therapy (P) .. Physical Training for Women Popular Guide to Nature Cure Practical Treatment for that Inferior Feeling Psycho-Physiopathy Prolong Your Youth


P. A. Robinson J. C. Thomson R. B. Taylor F. Watt F. G. White Dr. D. Shepherd H. Tomlinson Dugald Sample (2) Dr. Schuessler E. J. Saxon A. Gold M. Powell M. B. Bayly G. A. Richards J. C. Thomson (2) G. Dewar (2) J. C. Thomson H. Benjamin (2) H. V. Knaggs E. J. Saxon Dr. P. M. Koonin R. H. A. Plummer V. Dane Szekeley J. C. Thomson Rev. W. Wynn A. Rabagliati H. Ruddock ]. R. Sneddon E. G. Martin D. Semple J. C. Thomson L. Cornaro H. V. Knaggs F. Mackenzie J. F. Williams S. Lief A. C. Barthels H. M. Shelton F. M. Bramwell Dr. M. Ash P. Weaver A. Abplanalp E. Westacott

1940 1935 1930 1949 1951 1958 ... 1917 1937


1945 1952 ... ...

1938 1944 1928 1930 1939 1920 1878 1948 1881 1939 1951 1934 1944 1935 1903 1937

Dr. H. Gilbert G. R. Scott A. Ehret

1947 1924

J. P. Muller F. Daniel A. Moyle L. C. Floyd McKeon Dr. H. Gilbert H. F. Bush S. Davidson T. Gilbert Oakley T. de la Torre W. Hill

1936 1943 1943

1939 1925 1950 1938 1945

... 1948 1948

The Mischief of Milk Truth About Smoking The Elixir of. Life The Fountain of Youth The Common Cold Therapeutic Fasting Unorthodox Healing Why Chronic Disease? Wise Parenthood Why Aluminium Is Dangerous (P) Ventilation and Health Yoga for Everyman Your Vegetarian Baby

J. Hewitt C. Jeffery P. Egglemont E. Szekeley D. Semple (2) C. Scott P. Roche Dr. H. Gilbert Dr. H. Gilbert K. Basham H. Lindlahr R. O. McClintock ... E. C. Clifton Den man H. V. Knaggs Dr. J. H. Manas ... Arnold de Vries ... Arnold de Vries Dr. P. H. Sharp Arnold de Vries ... H. Benjamin J. C. Thomson ... M. Stopes E. I. Saxon (2) ... T. D. Wood D. Dunne ... ... Dr. P. Rotondi (2) ...

VEGETARIANISM Addresses and Essays on Vegetarianism Commonsense Vegetarianism No Animal Food On the Vegetable System of Diet Scientific Basis of Vegetarianism The Recovery of Culture ... Vegetarianism in the Nursery (P) Vegetarianism and the Growing Boy (P) Vegetarianism for Beginners Vindication of Natural Diet (P) Vitamins and Vegetarianism Why Kill for Food?

A. Kingsford H. Benjamin R. H. Wheldon . . . . P. B. Shelley (2) ... M. B. Bayley H. B. Stevens Dr. C. V. Pink W. A. Sibly M. Baines P. B. Shelley F. Wokes G. H. Rudd

Relax and Be Successful Rheumatism Self Health Sexual Harmony Sunfood Way to Health Sleeplessness Science of Medicine Trace Elements in Soil and Food (P) ... The Precious Things of the Earth (P) ... The Nature Cure Plan for Constipation The Practice of Nature Cure The Dawn of a New Life

ANTI-VIVISECTION A Century of Vivisection and AntiVivisectdon Millennium Guild Essays Spotlights on Vivisection This Must Not Happen in Britain Wihy I Condemn Vivisection World League Report SPIRITUAL HEALING Commission to Heal Everyman's Mission Healing Through the Power of Christ Healing the " Hard-Times " Consciousness Spiritual Healing The Key to Healing T.he Pathway into Healing The Healing Light

E. Westacott M. Beddow Bayly H. Metcalfe R. H. Perks


1951 1948 1950 1947 1956 1932 1956 1932 1920 1955 1952 1948 1951 1951 1947 1923 1939 1927 1952 1954 1912 1950 1955 1949 1930 1932 1930 1952

1949 1933 1946 1955 1909

F. L. Wyman P. Beard I. Wilson

1948 1950 1946

H. T. Hamblin ... The Spiritual Healing Centre ... E. H. Salmon ... ... Rev. H. A. Madge ... A. Sanford

1936 1946 1953 1949


GARDENING AND FARMING Agricultural Statistics, 1955 Compost for Gardening Plot or Thousand-Acre Farm Colonial Plant and Animal Products ... From Vegetable Waste to Fertile Soil... Farming and Gardening Food and Farming (P) F.A.O. Yearbook Gardening with Compost Green Glory Good Food from Healthy Soil Intensive Gardening I Planted Trees Is Digging Necessary? Let's Join the Human Race (P) Living the Good Life Man's Search for the Good Life Soil Fertility The Manuring of Soils on No-Animal Lines The ABC of Vegetable Gardening The Restoration of Peasantries The Wheel of Health Tables of the Amino Acids in Foods and Feeding Stuffs The Soil and Everyman The Earth's Green Carpet The Fair Garden Plot MISCELLANEOUS A Dog's Tail (P) All Things Beautiful Animals' Champions Bezzari Freshly Remembered Grace Hawkins

H.M. Stationery Office F. H. Billington H.M.S.O. May E. Bruce .. A. Howard H. H. Jones .. F. C. King R. St. Barbe Baker E. J. Saxon Dalziel O'Brien R. St. Barbe Baker F. C. King S. Barr H. & S. Nearing Scott Nearing ... E. Pfeiffer H. Valentine Daimes BSc. ... W. F. Shewell-Cooper G. T. Wrench . G. T. Wrench . D. E. L. E.

Harvey Westacott . E. Howard . Pfeiffer & E. Reise

Shakespeare and the Animals St. Francis of Assisi Songs of Wendover The Evolution of Continuity Ten Years of Community Living

M. Twain E. Westacott ... C. A. Westacott S. De Caspianya C. A. Westacott United Humanitarian League J. Allen Boone V. S. Alder Macpherson Lawrie .. Todd Ferrier A. Brisco E. Dingwall & E. A Heard C. A. Westacott R. Whitwell K. Humphreys David Russell The Wheathill Bruder

The Unending Quest The Unity of Being Tarka the Otter Things New and Old The Kingdom Beyond the Eyes Joy in Living Substitutes for Leather

P. Dukes E. Wynne-Tyson H. Williamson E. Dingwall M. Everley D. Semple H.M.S.O

Kinship with All Life New World Civilization ... Original Good On Behalf of the Creatures Quest's End Pennsylvania, 1681-1756 ...




Prewett's Malt and Molasses Tea Loaf. We are very pleased indeed to be able to assure our readers that this is completely vegan—it makes a very useful and tasty addition when entertaining. English Grains Co. Ltd. Yeatex Yeast Extract, Hoi-Gran Baby Foods, Granary Bread Mix, Yeastamin Dried Brewers' Yeast, Yeast Tablets and Yestor Brand Torula Yeast. Horsfield's 100% Wholewheat Meal, 85% Wholewheat Flour, Wholewheat Porridge Meal, Rolled Oats, Oatmeal, Rye Meal, Barley Meal, Maize Meal, Bran, Enervite Wheat Germ Food. Smith's Potato Crisps, all kinds. Hanworth Food Products. Low Calorie Salad Dressing, SaltFree Beans, Salt-Free Peas, Tomato Ketchup. We have just been introduced to Charles Perry's Avocado Hand Cream and found it to be pleasantly perfumed and satisfactory in use. Of course, like all other Charles Perry products (with the exception of those marked "wild honey"), it is completely vegan. Cloggees, the ideal Gardening Shoes. These have been highly recomimended by one of our members who is a professional gardener. He has had excellent service from them and finds them very easy to- slip on and off. 20/- per pair, plus 2 / 6 d . for carriage, from E. }. Woodman & Sons (Pinner) Ltd., 19/25, High Street, Pinner, Middx. Pinner 0262. Please mention The Vegan when ordering by post. For those who have written in to ask if Hymosa Balm is vegan, the manufacturer states that it contains 3% of wool alcohol (Lanolin). Speaking for themselves Extract from a letter we received recently: — " . . . I feel I must also write to thank you for telling me about the Merry-Girl 100% vegetarian shoes made by Bata. I ordered a pair right away and when they arrived I could not have been more pleased with them. Soft and supple 'patent' uppers and, what is becoming quite rare in a fashion court style, a roomy, comfortable fit. " I had ordered almond toes and medium heels as you suggested and I have been wearing theim continuously since. When you write about them in The Vegan you may add my wholehearted recommendation. (I have now learned that they can be had in off-wihite, red and blue as well as black.)" V.F.D., SouChend-on-Sea. 19

There is no need for me to " write about them " now, is there? Except to say that my own are also giving every satisfaction, and to say that they cost 49/6d. a pair and will ibe sent C.O.D. if desired. From The >Bata Shoe Store, 151, Oxford Street, London, W . l . E.V.B.



All Living Things. The first issue of a new bi-monthly journal especially for children has just been issued by the Articles include Crusade Against All Cruelty to Animals. " Britain's Birds in Danger," " The Miracle of the Honey Bee," " N a t u r e ' s Riddles," etc., whilst the quality of the material is indicated by the following excerpts: — " The world today is full of examples of man's wonderful mechanical achievements But are we any kinder to each other—and to the animals? Yes, you will probably say, most people are very kind to their pets. Do most people, however, give much thought to the countless animals which are not their pets and yhich suffer a very great deal still at the hands of man? Isn't it so often a case of out of sight, out of mind? " " A s the Director of the Nature Conservancy remarked at a scientific conference: ' It must be understood that it is an outof-date approach to beat up nature with every conceivable modern machine and chemical and to seek to get the best results by short cuts. In farming and forestry, as in nature conservation, we must learn to work with rather than against nature, and we can only do this if we understand how nature works and if we adopt a somewhat more humble attitude '." (For further information write to Miss M. Cooper, , London, N.ll.). Jack McClelland. We understand that our good friend and member, the well-known long distance swimmer, is to open a Health Food Store in Belfast. W e wish him every success in this venture and also in his projected attempt to win a 62 mile race across Lake Michigan on August 20th. Bees. In recent years many " food reformists " have taken to eating " royal jelly " obtained from bees. Now in the U.S.A. where most " modern progress " begins, it has been discovered that bees can be a tasty and healthy food. It is claimed that they have more of certain vitamins than eggs, meat or cod liver oil. They have been french fried, baked, and cooked in butter and their taste has been likened to breakfast cereal and to shrimp. (News from Ahinsa of the Amer. Veg. Society). The Coat that Cries. Individual survival of domestic animals is said to have been proved countless times, but what is the spirit fate of those regularly slaughtered for human consumption? An 20

attempt has been made to answer this question by interrogating the guides of three famous mediums. The replies are given in this booklet which owes its title to a striking incident narrated by Lady Dowding. A medical man knowing that she is a vegetarian mentioned that his four-year-old son would never eat meat. When some relatives and friends visited their house, the boy was invited to sit on the knee of one guest whom he knew very well. He declined the invitation and would not go near her. Naturally, she was hurt and puzzled by his action. Later, asked the reason for his refusual, he answered, " Because she was wearing a coat that cries." To the others it was merely a fur garment. To the little boy it was impregnated with the terror of the animal whose skin was responsible for it. {The Coat That Cries. Price 2/4; from the Psychic News Bookshop, 23 Great Queen Street, London, W.C.2.). But It Couldn't Happen Here ! British farming is still very respectable in the eyes of most townsfolk, but we receive reports from all over the country of cases of cruelty to farm animals and one such is given briefly below. A Leigh, near Worcester, farmer was recently fined)ÂŁ20 plus ÂŁ27 costs for unlawfully permitting unnecessary suffering to a pig and failing to exercise due care and supervision. A vet. said that on arrival at the slaughterhouse a pig was emaciated and had probably suffered great pain. Three of its feet had dropped off and one was hanging off. It was further stated that the limbs were raw where the feet had fallen off, that the rawness could have been caused by the pig trying to stand up, and that there were marks on the pig which indicated that it had attempted to walk on the hocks and not on its feet. (From a report in the Worcester Evening News of Feb. 20th. 1963). Sickening as the above story is, it is surely an unusual case that is not reported very often. But cruelties just as revolting are practised legally on hundreds of farms all over the country. Full information is given in our new leaflet, " Unnecessary Cruelties Among Farm Animals." (Price 6d., post free from the Secretary). Keep a few copies by you to hand out t o the unbelievers who see British farming through rose coloured spectacles. Bull Fighting. There may ibe some readers who are not yet aware that a definite attempt is being made in this country to glamorise bull fighting and many avenues are being tried to introduce this diabolical " s p o r t " in an effort to create a suitable atmosphere for its introduction. These interests may have been behind a recent Independent T.V. show in " The Man of the World " series put on with glamorous artists at peak showing time, Saturday evening, June 8th. Members are invited to oppose this attempt and similar attempts by every means in their power, e.g., letters to I.T.V., B.B.C., newspapers, etc. J.S. 21

VEGAN FARE (Some recipes by Mabel Simmons selected by the Editor). Salads ! Salads ! Salads ! " A salad a day should keep the doctor away." M a k e a salad attractive but do not put too many things into it. The following are a few health-giving salads: Green Salad Lettuce Mint (fresh) Spring onions Tomatoes Watercress A few washed dates 1 oz. nuts. Method: Place lettuce in circle, cut tomatoes in thin slices, place on lettuce, garnish with watercress, spring onions and chopped mint and dates, sprinkle ground walnuts on top. Mayonnaise made with n u t milk, olive oil and lemon juice is a good addition. ^ Summer Salad Lettuce Chives Carrots Stuffed Tomatoes Young green peas. A few sultanas or chopped prunes Method: Place lettuce leaves on dish, put grated carrot on alternate leaves, also new green peas. Chop chives and sprinkle on top also sultanas or chopped prunes. Stuffed Tomatoes (un-fired) 4 tomatoes 1 tablespoon chopped parsley 1 small grated carrot Grated rind of lemon Method: Cut tomatoes in halves, remove centres, mix centres with chopped parsley, lemon rind, carrot, put mixture into tomato halves, garnish with chopped parsley. Nut Balls (un-fired) \ lb. mixed nuts (milled) Mixed herbs Spring onions or chives Thyme, etc. 2 tomatoes i lb. cereals (Weetabix, etc.) Method: Chop onions finely, peel and mash tomatoes, mix all ingredients well together, roll into balls, cover with Weetabix crumbs. All enquiries about recipes should be sent to Miss Mabel Simmons (Teacher of Vegetarian Cookery), London, N . W . l l . 22


It was during the great freeze-up in January, 1963, that Mr. Batt and I left Southampton docks on a vacation which allowed us a short visit to Teneriffe, Trinidad, Jamaica, New Orleans, Haiti, Martinique and Lisbon. The decks of the Polish vessel Batory, on which we were to travel, presented a most un-ship-shape appearance, decorated as they were with dirty snow; but this was not surprising. We too had been fighting a losing battle with the elements for three weeks, but now the worst of the winter was over, or so we imagined, and we could relax and enjoy the sunshine of the West Indies, the calm of the Caribbean and the excitement of our first visit to Louisiana. When we returned, nearly six weeks later (with reams of scribbled notes!), England was still adorned with basically the same piled-up frozen snow (although it now had more the appearance of coal dust) and it was bitterly cold! After the initial excitement of making up one's mind to take a trip abroad come the little doubts, and probably the foremost of these is, " How about vaccination? " Ignoring all the pessimistic forecasts from well-meaning friends who knew we must be vaccinated, we went ahead and obtained a note from our local Medical Officer to state that Enfield was not a smallpox-contaminated area, and one each from our respective doctors, and kept our fingers crossed. I might add here that nobody was the slightest bit interested until we got to America, although on boarding we were warned that without vaccination certificates we might be refused permission to land, but it was agreed that this was unlikely. When we happily shook the frozen snow from our (plastic) shoes we thought we had left all our weather problems behind but no sooner were we out of Southampton water than a " battendown-all-the-portholes-and-movables " storm warning went out and this very rocky state of affairs lasted until we reached Teneriffe in the Canary Islands nearly five days later. Indeed there was some doubt if we should be able to land at all, but eventually, an hour later, we disembarked via the garage in the bowels of the ship. It was that, or climb through a porthole and swim for it 1 Probably most of us have experienced rough going at sea at some time or another but this went on for nearly five days, and some things could not be put off any longer to wait for smoother seas. Imagine having a shampoo, for instance, when half the time your head is not even over the basin, let alone under the tap! Even a simple thing like dressing has to be taken carefully and deliberately a step at a time or hooks will never meet eyes or buttons go through the right holes. Our cabin had two long 23

mirrors on the insides of the wardrobe doors so that, when fully open, the mirrors would give one a good view of hems, stocking seams, etc. This pleased me mightily when I first saw them but it was a long time before I could take advantage of them. Once undone the heavy doors behaved like mad things, banging back and forth with every movement. I tried fixing them with two chairs b u t these they easily pushed away in their wild abandoned swinging. The floors were highly polished and covered with two large mats b u t of course these spent most of the first week under one or other of the beds. Empty'cases must also be kept under beds (unless one has a stateroom) and these made a " S w i s h - B o n k " sound in the night as they travelled from one side of the cabin to the other. Once open, a simple thing like a packet of washing powder must be firmly wedged, in an upright position, before one lets go of it. I learned this the hard, and messy way. One item of especial importance to vegans is to arrange a supply of suitable food, so I saw the Chief Steward shortly after boarding. He was very interested and immediately arranged for us to have a salad every day as well as a strictly vegetarian savoury at night, coconut margarine (although we had our Cashewn u t t a with us anyway) and our cooked vegetables served without butter. Fortunately our waiter was an energetic and cheerful young man and made it appear that he enjoyed having " special guests." The poor chef struggled vainly with the evening meal, for all he could think of that did not contain eggs, milk or cheese was a pasta, and we had about everything wrapped up in a macaroni-like paste—mushrooms, onions, stuffing, mixed vegetables, and one night—plums! I have never cared for pastas, but felt obliged to make an effort, with the result that I could not eat all the salad I felt I needed. Of course, I put on weight, but what can you do when a handsome young man with a most engaging smile proudly uncovers his masterpiece with a flourish reminiscent of Mrs. Mop (" I've brought this for you, sir! ") and says, " Buttered butter beans—but no butter madam." Like all the stewards he was a Pole, by the way, and he has now added one more word to his, very limited, vocabulary—vegan. Later on, the kitchen staff applied some imagination and we had some excellent cooked vegetable dishes such as stuffed onions, and mashed potatoes with chopped cucumber and onion added, then dry fried like a pancake. Plain boiled potatoes were made more interesting by the addition of dill. There were the little language difficulties, but on the whole we got more fun than anything out of these. We soon knew that " scrambled Haggs " and " Stewed Peers " had nothing to do with exotic cannibal foods! While digressing on this matter of pronunciation, I should like to mention the lecturer. He gave a short talk before each 24

port of call, and they often contained details about Kings who had been " bitten," by their enemies. We heard about "ungent " monuments, " stipp stritts," " flooded " rivers and Jamaica's beautiful bathing bitches. N o t to be outdone I picked up a few Polish words of course, mostly from walls and menus. One of the first and quite important, is to know whether one is a Panie (lady) or Panowie (gentleman). Our first stop was at Teneriffe, in the Canary Islands. It was to Teneriffe that banana roots were first brought from China in 1840, since when they have become the staple industry. Bananas will not grow above 1,000 feet but on the lower slopes and in the valleys they flourish almost without attention. Each plant (they are not trees), produces only one bunch of bananas and is then cut down. Beside each fruit-bearing plant is next year's growing up—it will have just one bloom, the stamens of which form the fruit. The ideal climate often produces three crops of tomatoes and two of potatoes each year. Teneriffe has no woods or forests and some rivers dry up completely every summer. It is intensely cultivated by terraces wherever there is a foothold on the slopes, with many dykes and reservoirs. Jacaranda trees, poinsettias, bouganvillia, and a.little local violet grow in great abundance. Of considerable interest were some giant dragon trees said to be some 2,000 years old. They are similar to the tree-sized succulent plants seen on Gran Canaria nearby. There are still a few wild dogs living up in the bare hills. Goats are kept for milk, and so, we are told, are cows but these are never seen by the visitors as they are kept in barns and backyards. There is no ground to be spared for grazing. Teneriffe has two bull fights a year which are but poorly attended as the bulls must be brought over from Spain, two days by boat. They often have very little " fight" left in them if the crossing has been bad, and so provide only poor " entertainment." After eight days at sea, getting ever warmer, we arrived at Trinidad in the apparently ever calm Caribbean. Here we were greeted with reed heat, 94°F. in the shade! We could watch the Cashewnutta melting at breakfast time! and even relaxing was an arduous task. We landed at Port of Spain, and discovered very quickly that tropical sunshine, coconut palms and steel drum bands do not necessarily spell heaven. In fact there is much about these islands that tact has left unsaid. My first impression was of general unkemptness, presumably the result of local inertia. The shops in Port of Spain were mostly windowless and conspicuous for their lack of enthusiasm, or even order. One might expect a little of the naturally prolific countryside to colour the towns but these remain an unfulfilled post-card promise. A very few European style shops exist, where native labour is exploited by selling locally produced goods at high prices to mementohungry tourists. A few cinemas showing American films, no 25

d o u b t add to the acceptance of drug-store food as a sign of progress, while Coco Cola and Hot Dog signs in practically every village explain the general lowering of resistance to the white man's diseases. A drive into the country rekindled our enthusiasm, where we saw nutmeg, cocoa, coffee, orange and coconut trees and a riot of vividly coloured blossoms both wild and cultivated, each more beautiful than the last. W e had the pleasure of drinking coconut milk straight from the tree. Green coconuts contain about 20 ozs. of almost tasteless milk, tepid of course. The edible part of the nut at this stage is in a soft jelly state and can be eaten with a chip of the coconut shell used as a scoop. It is most welcome and refreshing in this intense heat. We also visited Maracas beach with its soft, hot, white sand, warm sea (actually warmer than the air) and ownerless near-starving dogs. Also luxury hotels and clubs with privately owned beaches which, it seems, only the most wealthy tourist can enjoy. Unfortunately we did not have time to visit the Pitch lake as we had a business call to make on this day, but the Trinidad Asphalt lake is, I understand, quite unique and we were sorry to miss it. It is believed to have been formed millions of years ago by volcanic activity. This dry lake, made of a mixture of asphaltic oil and volcanic mud, churned up by gas under pressure, was mentioned by Sir Walter Raleigh- as being a suitable material with which to caulk his ships. This was in 1595 and it is used for that purpose still, as well as for roads all over the world. The extraordinary thing is that in those 400 years the level of pitch has dropped hardly at all. It covers about 100 acres and is still nearly 300 feet deep in the centre (but we feel this can only be an estimate). The whole guey mass is in a constant state of movement due to the evolution of gas in the centre and the continuous influx of new material. Its supply of asphalt seems to be inexhaustible. It is removed by digging ditches with tractors (yes, lorries may be driven on the surface in places) which fill up again in a few days with new pitch being pitched up from below. Local historians estimate that 15 million tons of asphalt have been removed in the last 17 years and the level of pitch has not dropped as much as 6 inches in that time! Trinidad's history has been one of almost continuous exploitation by white people. The climate and the pitch lake have made it the envy of the Spaniards, English, Dutch, Portuguese and the Germans, all of whom held it at different times. There are now no traces of the original inhabitants—the Carib Indians. T h e last invaders were the British who owned it from early in the 16th century until its independence. It now has an American Army base (naturally). The present inhabitants are descended from African slaves imported by the Spanish and Dutch to work 26

the lake and mines. This importation of slaves was so profitable that the King of Spain levied a 25 per cent, tax on all slave sales. The Traders still made fortunes, however, and the Royal family as well did very nicely out of this traffic in human misery. Rather like our Government making profits out of lung cancer by taxing tobacco. Four more days at sea brought us to Jamaica, a beautiful island 100 miles south of Cuba. - There is what I can only describe as a " British atmosphere " here still, which is perhaps not very surprising as Jamaica won her independence only last Summer. The island contains the volcanic Blue Mountains, the highest of which is 7,000 feet above sea level. We did not see Kingston Harbour (seventh largest in the world) as we landed 120 miles away at Montego Bay, another millionaire's playground, with its hotels on private beaches and its Calypso singers and Limbo dancers. This is the original home of both. Calypsos were once " working songs " and are still used in this way by banana loaders, road menders, etc. Every task has its own song and rhythm. When Columbus landed in 1494 the island was inhabited by the Arawak Indians—they called it Xaymaca, which means " plentiful woods and streams," a fitting description, for the mountains, unlike Trinidad and Teneriffe, are all wooded right to the top, and in the lower slopes the coconut palms reach down to the sea. Because, again, there is very little tide, it is possible to build hotels and houses right to the sea. A road along the north side travels many miles only a few feet from the constantly breaking surf. Like Trinidad, the past history is black, but on the whole, the people seem happy enough now. Oliver Cromwell added Jamaica to the British Empire in 1655, when British buccaneers were invited to settle there to protect the island from counter attack. They preyed on Spanish ships and swarmed into the capital (which was then Port Royal) adding greatly to the already evil reputation of the place for lawlessness. Jamaican economy also was based on the slave trade for many years and great fortunes were made. It was abolished only a little over a century ago. The Maroons, who still live in the interior (the cockpit country), are descendants of slaves who escaped from the Spaniards and avoided recapture by great cunning, the ability to live rough, and the reputation of taking ruthlessly cruel reprisals on any of their oppressors if caught. They are rarely seen—no one else can live in the cockpit country—they have their own king and never mix with other tribes or acknowledge any ruler other than their own. Until quite recently they also opposed British rule in every possible way. Legend has made bogeymen of them, but we have it from the widow of a missionary who has met one or two when nursing, that the women at least are gentle and kind, though terribly afraid of strangers. 27

Here again the Caribs were wiped out completely by the Spaniards, and most of the Arawak Indians also. Once again we saw sugar cane in great abundance, bananas, tobacco, coffee, cocoa, whilst raspberry canes which were introduced a few years ago have now become a weed nuisance in places. The venomous snakes, which were once an occupational hazard for banana workers, have been eliminated by the introduction of the mongoose, which, in turn, has become a pest and raids chicken runs. The pimento tree is peculiar to Jamaica and supplies the little black peppers. Cotton trees are simply enormous and night-blooming orchids and lilies are both parasites on this tree. T h e Royal poinciana has fine feathery leaves and seed pods 18 inches and more long. Natives dry these and use them in calypso bands with maraccas. These latter are the seed pods of the calabash tree. We saw them growing and they are so hard it is difficult to imagine how the seeds could ever germinate. Breadfruit, poinsettias in great profusion, bouganvillia, ackee, flame of the forest, shower of gold, hibiscus, anthuriums and many more, all " outsize " and vividly coloured made up a very colourful landscape. (To be



(Director of Research, Plantmilk Society; Technical Director, Plantmilk Ltd.) Although vegans do not believe that animal milk is at all necessary in the human diet, a satisfactory vegetable milk would nevertheless have distinct advantages, e.g., it would help them particularly in their social life, as they would be able to serve visitors with a cup of tea containing milk which would not offend vegan principles. To vegans who have achieved a satisfactory and nutritious diet it wouldn't matter very much whether vegetable milk had the same nutritional value as cows' milk or not, since to them it would merely be an adjunct to an already satisfactory diet. However, it has to be remembered that one of the reasons for trying to produce a completely satisfactory vegetable milk is to make it easier for non-vegans to make an approach to the vegan diet. For this reason among others, both the Plantmilk Society and Plantmilk Ltd. have as their goal the production of a vegetable milk which will be not only palatable and useful in beverages and 28

cooking'generally, but also satisfactory from the nutritional point of view. The vegetable milk which was pioneered by the Society and which will be commercially manufactured by the Company is called Plantmilk, and is distinct from all other vegetable milks in that it is based upon protein obtained from the same source as the natural food of the cow; that is, green leaves. The idea of a leaf-protein vegetable milk was conceived by the Plantmilk Society in 1957, after the failure of its efforts to arrange for the manufacture in this country of soya milk. The difficulties from a scientific point of view of inventing a machine which could turn green leaves into white milk were at that time considered by good authorities to be probably insuperable. However, the Plantmilk Society decided to make the attempt and it has now almost achieved its goal. That such a revolutionary effort has been at all possible is a tribute not only to the technical and scientific staff, but also to the faithful support of about 200 people who constitute the Plantmilk Society. The cost to the Society of its support of the laboratory and technical research has been about ÂŁ2,500, and it has also had to pay its way in other respects. This is no mean achievement for so small a band of voluntary supporters. All the research and development of Plantmilk has been carried out in small premises at Fulham, London. Starting with a few simple pieces of apparatus, the machinery has been invented as work went along. The limit has now been reached at Fulham and more scope is needed. This is where Plantmilk Ltd. comes seriously into the picture. This Company has purchased certain rights in the Plantmilk process, and is now building a commercial pilot plant at a site in Buckinghamshire. In order to concentrate upon bringing the new premises into operation, the production of research samples at Fulham will come to an end. One of the disadvantages of the limited facilities at Fulham has become apparent in the fact that the palatability of the research samples varies considerably. Some samples are excellent, others are by no means as good. Constancy of palatability can he ironed out at the new premises, where facilities to overcome inconsistency in this respect will be available. Nutritional values have received and are receiving attention at every stage, and the goal of making Plantmilk not only the equal of cows' milk nutritionally, but superior to it for human use is now not far off. It is in fact possible that Plantmilk will in some respects exceed the nutritional value of cows' milk, par-, ticularly in trace elements, iron, and the Vitamin B group. A nutritionist of eminent standing has been appointed as the Company's chief scientific consultant. His qualifications are D.Sc., Ph.D., F.R.I.C., M.I.Biol., F.R.S.H. While he is not a vegetarian, he has expressed his appreciation of the nutritional value 29

of a vegetarian diet and of plant protein. He has also been impressed with the work so far done in bringing Plantmilk to its present stage. A m o n g the achievements of the laboratory research by the Plantmilk Society was the invention of a method of obtaining more than 80 per cent, of the protein contained in green leaf as a near-white protein. Older methods produced only about 15 per cent, of white protein. The figure of 80 per cent, obtained by the Plantmilk process is well above the efficiency of the cow. Of the protein contained in the cows' diet, only about 18 per cent, goes into her milk. T h e Plantmilk process avoids spoilage of the protein, the nutritional value of which is retained. The addition of soya protein adds among other nutrients the essential amino acid methionine, while a yeast-process stage adds further protein of high value, amino acids, and Vitamins Bi, B*, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, and nicotinamide. Also added to Plantmilk will be Vitamin B,„ Vitamin D, calcium, and iron. Maize and soya oils, with their, richness in unsaturated fatty acid esters, provide the fat complement. There is no cholesterol, regarded by many medical practitioners as a dietary factor associated with thrombosis. Plantmilk is likely to be produced at first in triple-strength in half-pint cartons, and later (also concentrated) in cans. Diluted with the appropriate amount of water it resembles cows' milk in appearance and can be used in the same way. This is the picture so far. Although clinical and other experience must be awaited before a final verdict can be given, it can be stated categorically that Plantmilk is produced from natural food sources, of non-animal origin, blended into a liquid food of much potential value. In such an article as this the intention must obviously be to indicate the value of Plantmilk to vegans and would-be vegans, b u t there are many other facets. For example, at a later .stage it should be possible to teach the undernourished countries how to set up Plantmilk factories and produce Plantmilk from their own native crops. Since this is a product which does not require cattle grazing it will be a proposition with economic as well as moral inducements.

DETERMINED DINERS, UNLIMITED W e know from your many letters that the ever-present problem of vegans compelled to " eat out " frequently is a serious one with which we are most concerned. During the last twelve m o n t h s I have taken every opportunity to sample the willingness and ability of restaurants to provide suitable food — often with most disappointing results. 30

It is all very well to carry nuts, raisins and an apple for the odd .day here and there, but those who spend much time away from home cannot get the necessary nourishment from most hotels and restaurants. Taking the set meal and by-passing the soup, sweet, fish and meat is all very well now and again, but with what does it leave us? During last winter's terrible fog I was unable to get back to London on one occasion, and had to stay in Bournemouth overnight. Although I was on time for the evening meal the potatoes had obviously been kept hot for hours (may even have been warmed up from the previous meal), the other vegetables were also grossly overcooked and quite tasteless, and when one omitted the non-vegan items there was nothing else but so-called " bread " of rubbery consistency and a very sad lettuce, tomato and vinegary beetroot salad. Naturally all the " sweets " contained milk, and cheese was " out," so the waiter kindly offered some fruit. I perked up at once and waited for the dish of apples and pears in pleasant anticipation, only to be quickly disillusioned when a serving of tinned pineapple and cherries arrived. The latter glowing a rich shade of shocking pink never supplied by nature! (By the way this " m e a l " went on to the bill at 13/-). Breakfast was approached with some misgiving but as radio warnings were still reporting dense fog in parts of the Thames Valley and I was attempting the last 120 miles immediately after, I decided to give the dining room another trial. However, the prunes and porridge were both quite good considering there was no nutmilk, and this was just as well for the grilled tomatoes, fried potatoes and white toast which followed were a repetition of the night before — stale and overcooked. True it was a bad time of year for tomatoes and the potatoes had been cooked in vegetable oil, but this had been used often enough to make it a positive health hazard. How I looked forward to some home-made wholemeal bread, vegetable soup with wheat germ and sprouted grain when I got home! The result of this experience was to make me decide to put into operation an idea recently put forward: that volunteers be asked to investigate, sample, and report upon, their local hotels and restaurants with a view to helping those unfortunate food reformers who must travel frequently. So let's hear from you Determined Diners from Lands End to John O' Groats. Send in your experiences of local restaurants and hotels and help us to build up a list of places where members can get vegan food of reasonable quality. We would still recommend, however, the " iron rations " of a few nuts and raisins to supplement meals eaten out!




" Back to Nature \ " Publishing House; Fresno, Cal., U.S.A. A T E E N A G E R TALKS TO TEENAGERS When one opens a book with a provocative title and learns t h a t the author was fresh out of high school (where he graduated, quite easily at sixteen years), is a life vegan and an accomplished public speaker with a cantagious sense of humour, one might be prepared for a fairly interesting, if perhaps vehement, condemnation of one or two aspects of parental shortcoming. But Mr. Scharnhorst (now just pushing twenty-one) gives us very much more than this, quoting a sample of his own experience when a radio station was booked t o broadcast a talk which, because of its forthright " back-to-nature " approach, was " withdrawn " at the last moment. Here in this off-the-cuff work we can feel the intensity, the enthusiasm and the exasperation of youth and must sympathise even where we may not whole-heartedly agree. T h e author started life wisely by selecting the right parents and so has had the advantage, denied to many of us, not only of a healthy vegan upbringing from birth, b u t also the helpful cooperation of loved ones in what the family calls a " garden existence." To this knowledgeable and most fortunate young man veganism is therefore the normal way of life and it is quite natural that he should be an ardent naturalist and student of ecology and forestry, which, by the way, he hopes to make his life's work. Written for the average young person, this book contains little t h a t is new but much to interest young members and is a mine of thought-provoking ideas for any teenager who is beginning to feel t h a t something must be very wrong somewhere but has been mass-conditioned to believe that there is no possible alternative. T h a n k s to the power of persistent reiteration many people really believe that if they do not eat meat, drink milk, and get their regular and frequent " shots " of vaccine they will suffer and die prematurely. Further, we have ,met girls in their early teens who " did not realise that there were still such places as slaughterhouses"! Goodness knows how they imagined the liver, steak and chops arrived regularly on the dinner table! The story of the little girl who said, " We don't get our milk o u t of a dirty old cow, the milkman brings it in nice clean bottles," may have started as a joke but demonstrates how the desired soporific effect can be produced by simple means. lust rename the slaughterhouse a " packing station " and the unpleasant picture of agony, terror and gore ceases to exist, does it not? The 32

man-debasing work of taking innocent and helpless lives all day and every ".working " day continues to increase yearly but the squeamish have a nicer word for it now. Anything which may halt the present surge of masterly inactivity and inspire a little action in defence of humanity have helped to retrieve the world from total annihilation, whether it be by sudden conflagration or the somewhat slower method of chemical poisoning. If " Parental Delinquency" can inspire some people to d o something about almost anything it will have earned our gratitude and helped to avert the extinction of life as we know it, and future generations (assuming that there are any) of whatever else they may be accused, will hot be guilty of "never having tried." Beginning with teenage " delinquents " the book goes on to mention smoking, fluoridation of public water supplies and other water contamination, food additives, the misuse of the soil, air pollution, insanity and what it calls " The Shot and Pill Craze." As a sample we should like to quote from the last paragraph of the radio-talk-that-never-was: " Fellow teen-agers! Let question the wisdom of our habitridden parents, the wisdom of commercial advertising and the wisdom of ministers and doctors. . . . Take nothing for granted any more! Doubt everything, especially what you see on T.V., hear on radio or read in newspapers. . . . Teenagers! Wake u p ! Let us pardon our delinquent parents! But let us not play their game! After all, we will be responsible for the next generation! " For the sake of our grandchildren and great-grandchildren let us hope that many " teenagers " show more commonsense and compassion than their " Delinquent Parents " of our generation. V. D.

CRUSADE AGAINST ALL CRUELTY TO ANIMALS " One of the four horses carrying four lions on their backs round the ring swerved and threw his mount off its back. Instantly the lion turned on the horse. Claws and teeth flashed and the horse went down. Only the head and shoulder trappings the horse was wearing saved it from a horrible death. Amid uproar from the crowd, the two Hon tamers in charge of the act — Alexander Bonslaev and his wife Tamara — rushed to the defence of the horse. Their whips and cries had no effect on the lion. In the end it was driven off with hoses." This barbaric incident took place in Brussels during a visit of the Moscow State Circus at Easter. 33

T h e report in The People, April 14th, 1963, from which the above extract is taken, states that the horse was put in an animal clinic and had a good chance of survival. The act will go on just the same. Madame Bonslaev is reported as saying: "It has taken us five years to perfect the act because our lions live on horse meat and horses hate the smell of lions." It is not beyond the bounds of possibility that attempts might be made to bring such an act here. If so, it is to be hoped that humanitarians will rise up in full force to effect a ban. N o humanely-minded person can countenance the capture and harsh training of a wild animal, the complete deprivation of its liberty, the daily repetition of tricks and the constant travelling in cramped cages which for a performing animal lies behind the glittering fa?ade of the circus ring. Unfortunately public opinion on this issue has not yet proved strong enough in this country to make legislation possible against the exploitation of animals in this way. It is long past the time that Britain should have followed the progressive example of Sweden, whose legislation has virtually banned the touring of wild animals in circuses, and now Denmark whose enlightened new legislation, laying down the following, took effect as from January 1st, 1963. " Animals must not be trained or used for shows, circus performances, films or the like, if injury or severe pain is thereby inflicted on the animal. Wild animals must not be used for performances in circuses, music halls, and similar establishments. Animals must not be on show in travelling menageries. No zoos, zoological parks, etc., must be established without police permission. The Ministry of Justice may give further directions as to the supervision of such establishments, the animals' housing, their cages, etc." Britain has yet to earn the title of a " nation of animal-lovers " through the enactment of humane legislation concerning many aspects of animal exploitation. All of us can help to create an informed body of public opinion regarding the practice of making animals perform by raising the subject whenever possible in conversation and in letters to the Press. Excellent work can also be done through local Councils by encouraging them not to let land to visiting circuses. (Please send for our free leaflet, " What you can do about performing animals.") Most important—and probably most effective in the long run because they are potential future circus audiences—is the task of opening the eyes of girls and boys to the objectionable nature of performing animal acts. Man cannnot improve upon the natural grace of an animal. By attempting to do so he degrades not only the animal but also himself. Let us lose n o opportunity of fostering in the minds of the young an appreciation of the beauty and wonder of wild life in its natural state — an appreciation which is t h e first step towards awareness of the interdependence of all


life and thence to man's responsibility as guardian—not exploiter of it. The Crusade considers its work with children of the utmost urgency and we are pleased to announce the recent publication in printed form for the first time of our junior section magazine under its new title, " All Living Things." It fulfils a longfelt want and is a tremendous step forward in our endeavours to make young people of all ages aware of the vital importance of the humane way of life and of learning to live in harmony with the rest of Earth's family. Membership of the Young Crusaders is still only 2 / 6 a year inclusive of six issues of the junior magazine, a badge and a Certificate of Membership. May we urge all humanitarians to give their support to our adult and junior Crusades? Specimen magazines and free literature gladly sent upon request. MARGARET A . COOPER,

Secretary, Crusade Against All Cruelty to Animals. 3 Woodford Way, Bounds Green Road, London, N . l l .

READERS' LETTERBOX (An Extract). Dear Sir,—A burning issue of our time concerns the fluoridation of water. I should value an article in The Vegan on this theme. London. C. E. H. An article on this will appear in the Autumn issue.—Ed. Dear Sir,—Could you explain to me the strangely limited publicity which the Vegan and the Vegetarian Societies embank upon? There is many a humanitarian organisation with far less resources which manages to make a great impact on public opinion.. Two other small points too: not all vegetarians—and therefore prospective vegans—are rich and I personally know many a young person not on the books through finding the subscriptions too high. And not all are religious—all of us within my circle (i.e., mostly C.N.D.) are atheists, but none the less humane. I say this because there always seems so much emphasis on the spiritual and Christian approach to the subject in vegetarian and vegan literature. (N.B.—These are friendly criticisms.) Hawley, Kent. MRS. GARCIA. 35

D e a r S i r , — P e r h a p s m i n e is a n u n u s u a l letter, b u t I h o p e y o u c a n p r i n t it as I a m s u r e the a d v i c e is g o o d . W e all realise t h a t v e g a n s a r e not likely to be t r o u b l e d b y c o n s t i p a t i o n but t h e a v e r a g e d i e t is c o n d u c i v e to this t r o u b l e a n d all of us m u s t k n o w s o m e o n e with this p r o b l e m . I h a v e found t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g s i m p l e p r o c e d u r e will c u r e t h e t r o u b l e as well a s i n t r o d u c i n g t h e s u f f e r e r to s o m e good e a t i n g habits ! 1. A large r a w salad a t least o n c e every d a y , with vegetable oil dressing. 2. N o white b r e a d , s u g a r o r pastries. 3. A t least twice as m u c h a l k a l i n e f o o d (fruit, veg.) as acid f o r m i n g f o o d ( b r e a d , p o t a t o e s , cereals). 4. Visit the toilet a t t h e s a m e t i m e every d a y a n d d o n o t be in a hurry. N o t m u c h to d o , but it w o r k s ! ANON.

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2 lines; 20% discount on four consecutive


"AHINSA."—Non-slaughter, Non-Violence ; the monthly magazine for Vegans, ethical vegetarians, pacifists, Hygienists. Special overseas rate: 7s., in coin or British stamps, for full year.^—THE AMERICAN VEGAN SOCIETY, 206 Kalmia St., San Diego 1, Calif., U.S.A. BRITISH VEGETARIAN YOUTH MOVEMENT. An organisation for people 12—35. Social gatherings, holidays, monthly magazine, etc., organised. Further particulars: Secretary, G. Barwick, 35 Wenalt Road, Fonna, Neath, Glamorgan. LESSONS IN SPEAKING AND WRITING.—Visit, correspondence (5/-) for ordinary, business, or Dorothy Matthews, B.A., P R I 5686. 36

ENGLISH and Continental Scooters and Mopeds, most makes. Motor cycles, new and used. Three-wheelers, Powerdrive, Bond, Reliant. Exchanges. Terms. Models bought. Please write, 'phone or call. Your own dealer, R O N McKENZIE (Proprietor: R. McKenrie Butterworth, Vegan Food Reformer), 961 Chester Road Stretford, Manchester. Longford 2100. H E A L T H F O O D STORE. A wide variety of vegan and vegetarian foods is available, including the new plantmilk. Every effort will be made to acquire those vegan foods which are not easily obtainable, so if you have any difficulty in purchasing certain products, please write to Mrs. Muriel Drake with your requirements and suggestions. Goods willingly al terms and comprehensive price list sent on request Blackheath, London, S.E.3. (LEE Green 5811.) HEALTH through N A T U R A L HYGIENE. Are you interested in Health achieved naturally and without the exploitation of other human beings and animals? Natural Hygiene is a system of health preservation and restoration which meets these requirements. For literature, send 6d. stamp t o : Registrar (G), British Nat. Hygiene Soc., 49 Ravenswood Ave., Tolworth, Surrey. MAKE new friends, U.K. and Overseas. Join V.C.C., 34 Honeywell Road, London, S . W . l l . WORLD F O R U M . The leading international Vegetarian quarterly. Edited by Mrs. Esme Wynne-Tyson. Advocates the vegetarian way of life for physical health and a true relationship between the human and creature kingdoms—without exploitation and cruelty. l / 6 d . plus 4d. post per copy. 7/6d. per year, post free.—H. H. G R E A V E S LTD., 106/110 Lordship Lane, London, S.E.22.

E S T A B L I S H M E N T S C A T E R I N G FOR V E G A N S ( l / 3 d . per line; 20% discount on four consecutive issues.) BROOK LINN.—Callander, Perthshire. Vegetarian and Vegan meals carefully prepared and attractively served. Comfortable guest house. Near Trossachs and Western Highlands. Mrs. Muriel Chomn. Callander 103. EASTBOURNE.—General nursing, convalescence, rest and nature-cure. Out-patients treated. Edgehill Vegetarian and Vegan Nursing Home, 6 Mill Road. Tel.: 627. EDSTONE, WOOTTON WAWEN, WARWICKSHIRE (near Stratford-onAvon).—Modern Nature Cure Resort and Guest House with every comfort, and compost-grown produce. (Phone : Claverdon 327.) FRANCE.—Open all year (ideal climate), admirable view, good food, strictly vegetarian, all mod. con., happy atmospher mation write in French to Mr. J. P. Goubeau, (Dordogne), France. (Tel. 27 Plazac). LAKE DISTRICT. Rothay Bank, Grasmere. Attractive guest house for invigorating, refreshing holidays.—Write Isabel James. Tel.: 134. MAJORCA.—Charming flat for two offered. Vegetarian, non-smokers. All comforts. Tranquillity and beauty. Some meals provided by arrangement. Also rooms with facilities for self-cat near beach. International stamp please. Mrs. Ritchie: ; Palma de Mallorca. N O R T H WALES.—Vegan and vegetarian guest house, nr. mountains and sea. Lovely woodland garden. Brochure from Jeannie and George Lake, Plas-y-Coed, Penmaen Park, Llanfairfechan. Tel.: 161. " W O O D C O T E , " Lei ant, S t Ives, Cornwall, is a high-class Vegetarian Food Reform Guest House in a warm and sheltered situation overlooking the Hayle Estuary. Composted vegetables; home-made wholewheat bread; vegans catered for knowledgeably. Mr. and Mrs. Woolfrey. Tel.: Hayle 3147. Early bookings for Summer very advisable.

The most useful jar in the pantry I

ah/W\QA\Qj COMPOUND YEAST EXTRACT B a r m e n * if u n i q u e ! It is t h e first product of its kind to incorporate fresh vegetable a n d h e r b juices, cold pressed to conserve their dietetic qualities. B a r m e n * is delicious! It h a s a bland, appetising flavour, greatly enhancing the appeal a n d f o o d value of soups, savouries, etc., to which it is added. Try it, t o o . spread thinly on bread and butter o r unsweetened biscuits, and on jacket potatoes.


B a r m a n * it h e a l t h f u l ! Its salt content is biochemically balanced with other important ingredients—and it contains l.S microgm. Vitamin B12 per ounce. Less than a teaspoonful in a cup of boiling water m a k e s a a t t a i n i n g drink. B a r m a n * is e c o n o m i c a l ! It comes in three sizes: 3 i - o z . and 8-oz. polystyrene jars at 2 / 2 & 3 / 9 respectively, and a 16-oz. glass jar at only 6 / 9 . Use sparingly to m a k e the most of its delicate flavour.

Manufactured by Graham Dene Ltd., and obtainable at Health Food Stores Managers: L E W I S A. MAY (PRODUCE DISTRIBUTORS)


.. The ..

LTD., 1641)

Vegan Badge


T h i s neat, attractive and dignified symbol incorporates the Vegan emblem with blue surround.

Printers & Publishers

Supplied with pin or charmring fitting as illustrated in quality c h r o m e and enamel. 1 0 / - post free From the Secretary, T H E V E G A N SOCIETY 123 Baker St., Enfield, Middx.

406-10 LORDSHIP LANE LONDON, S.E.22 T e l e p h o n e : TOWnley 1231/2.

Please support our advertisers and mention THE VEGAN

to them.

P r i n t e d b y H . H . GREAVES LTD., 106/110, Lordship Lane, East Dulwich, L o n d o n , S.E.22.

The Vegan Summer 1963