The Vegan Summer 1962

Page 1




Veganism is a way of living which excludes all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, the animal kingdom, and includes a reverence and compassion for all life. It applies to the practice of living on the products of the plant kingdom to the exclusion of flesh, fish, fowl, eggs, honey, animal milk and its derivatives, and encourages the use of alternatives for all commodities derived wholly or in part from animals. Veganism remembers man's responsibilities to the earth and its resources and seeks to bring about a healthy soil and plant kingdom and a proper use of the materials of the earth. President : Mrs. E. B. SHRIOLEY, Deputy-President: Mr. JACK SANDERSON, Essex. Vice-Presidents : Dr. FREY ELLIS, Dr.

, Purley, Surrey. Upminster, CATHERINE NIMMO,




Honorary Secretary : Mrs. EVA BATT, Honorary Treasurer : Miss WINIFRED SIMMONS, N.W.I 1. Committee : Mrs. SERENA COLES, The LADY

, Enfield, Middlesex. London,


Vegan Distribution Secretary : Mrs. S. COLES, Purley, Surrey. Commodities Investigator: Mrs. CONSTANCE W H I T E , Road, London, W.2. Minimum subscription, which includes "The Vegan," 15s. per annum (and 7s. 6d. for each additional member of one family at same residence); 7s. 6d. if age under 18; payable in January. Life Membership, flO 10s. Od.

THE VEGAN JOURNAL OF THE VEGAN SOCIETY Editor : Mr. JACK SANDERSON, Upminster, Essex. Advertisements : H. H. GREAVES LTD., 106/110 Lordship Lane, London, S.E.22. Published quarterly : Annual subscription, 7s. post free; single copies, Is. 9d. post free. Obtainable from the Hon. Secretary.


Declaration and Rules of the Vegan Society." 2 page leaflet. Free. The Reasons for Veganism." 4 page leaflet. Free. Vegan Protein Nutrition." 12 page leaflet. Is. 3d. post free. A Handbook of Practical Veganism." 24 pages with cover. Obtainable from the Hon. Secretary. 2s. 9d. post free.

THE V E G A N Journal Vol. XII

of the Vegan Summer, 1962

Society No. 8

EDITORIAL " It is time to give American men, women and children the same protection we have been giving hogs, sheep and cattle since 1913 "—President Kennedy (on Drugs Control). And the same might be asked for British men, women and children (and indeed for peoples of all nations). Recently there have been a number of appalling cases of malformation of newly born children, as a result of the mother having taken a certain drug as a sleeping tablet during early pregnancy. Well might a well-known Sunday newspaper call for " a Government-sponsored independent and authoritative body to. test fully every new product of the drug companies." We would go further and ask for suitably qualified and impartial bodies to conduct inquiries into the questions of immunisation and vaccination, into the question of poison sprays of all kinds now used on our food, and into the question of the additives now applied for various reasons to our foods. Well may a well travelled and well informed doctor, Dr. Harry Lillie, say, " We are fighting for our lives against the chemists." There may be much more than a grain of truth in his belief that if present chemical and medical trends continue that man's resistance may be so lowered, that he will become a victim to a scourge in the same way that the rabbit population was decimated by myxomatosis. The following report is very interesting with regard to : Pesticide Residues in Food— (a) The Kensington Borough Council have received from their Public Analyst, and have asked the Committee to consider the implications of, a memorandum on the danger to public health resulting from the possible occurrence in food of residual traces of insecticides, fungicides and other agricultural chemicals.

(b) We are advised that these residues cannot be detected visually and that, as there are many of them, the task of the Public Analyst is made extremely difficult. While there is no evidence that the residues have adversely affected human beings ingesting them, it is well known that those applying them by way of spray need to be adequately protected. In view of the increasing availability of these chemicals, and their potential toxicity, we consider it extremely important that there should be a research project continually examining the implications of their use ; that, in the meantime, there should be issued a list of the approved substances indicating (i) those which could be easily identified (ii) those which are more difficult to detect, and (iii) those where detection may be impossible ; and indicating against each whether or not it is considered to be potentially toxic. In Britain a man is presumed innocent until he is proved to be guilty. But is this a good principle to apply to toxic pesticides, food additives and new wonder drugs ? Should these not be proved harmless before they are used ? Or better still, is it not wiser to refrain from their use ? A man who lived over 2,000 years ago who is often referred to as the Father of Medicine, has attributed to him one of the wisest sayings of all time, " Let your food be your medicine, and your medicine be your food." Hippocrates seemed to know something that the vast majority of his successors have forgotten or never knew. That live whole food fresh from the plant kingdom is the foundation of health. All success to the O'Brien's of this world who show us how to grow it, and to the Mabel Simmons' and Kathleen Keleny's who show us how to prepare it tastefully and appetisingly. They do a greater work than they know—they are the true doctors. JACK


The Editor does not hold himelf responsible for the views expressed by other writers. VEGAN MEETINGS (Open to Members and Interested Friends) July.—On Sunday, July 22nd, at 11 a.m., meeting at the main entrance gates near to Kew Bridge, a conducted tour of Kew Gardens. Bus or Tube to Kew Gardens, then to main repair to Mrs. White's (BAY 7057), London, W.2. (On leaving the Royal Oak Tube Station, turn left, then second right.) Refreshments may be brought as a packed lunch or purchased in the Gardens. September.—On Friday, Septemb e home of Mrs. Dorothy Thomson, London S.W.10, a talk will be given by Dr. Frank Wokes on 2

" Vegans and the Vegetarian Nutritional Research Centre." (The square is about 5 minutes' walk from Earl's Court Tube Station going south across Old Brompton Road.) October.—The Annual General Meeting will be held on Saturday, October 20th, 1962, at 2.45 p.m., at the headquarters of the London Vegetarian Society at 53 Marloes Road, Kensington, London, W.8 (down the side of Pontings, Kensington). The final draft of the revised Rules will be approved so as to comply with the new laws concerning charities, and there will be the ordinary business followed by refreshments, speakers and a social evening with an excellent chance to meet old friends and make new ones. DO attend if you can, or if this is not possible, post in your ideas and suggestions or nominations to the Secretary. November.—We shall take part in the " Beauty Without Cruelty " meetings to be held at the Ivanhoe Hotel, Bloomsbury Street, on November 16th (afternoon at 3 p.m. and evening at 6.30 p.m.). Details in our Autumn issue. OTHER

MEETINGS July.—On Sa 1st, at 3.0 p.m., at Dr. D. Latto's, Lethnot Lodge, , Caversham, Reading, a Garden Party (2/6d., including tea), including " Beauty Without Cruelty " stall; Elspeth Douglas Reid; sideshows—clairvoyant, palmist, etc. Opened by Lady Victor Paget. Coach (about 9/6d.) from Mrs. White's at 10.30 ; book through The Lady Dowding or Mrs. White (BAY 7057). September.—On Tuesday, September 4th, at 7.30 p.m., the Fruitarian Discussion Group will hold their first Public Discussion at Caxton Hall, London, S.W.I, on " T h e Fruitarian Way of Life." (Contact Miss Ayers, Pinner 9743.) RECENT MEETINGS In March, the Annual Vegan Dinner was a most happy occasion and included a speech by our Guest, Dr. Bertrand P. Allinson, and numerous toasts. Dr. Bertrand P. Allinson speaking at the Annual Vegan Dinner in March. On his right is a committee member, The Lady Dowding, and on the right of the picture is our treasurer, Miss W. Simmons.


Delightful indoor social evening meetings were held at Mrs. Thomson's in February and May, and at the latter we had the added and very much appreciated attraction of Miss Elspeth Douglas Reid, who gave an excellent recital of characterisations. It is hoped to give more detailed reports of the talks given in April, (i) by Dr. F. Ellis on " The Living Stream," and (ii) by Mr. G. Ohsawa on " Macrobiotics and the Oriental Medical Philosophy," in our next issue. The Garden Party, held at the home of Mrs. Coles, on June 2nd, proved to be a very happy and successful occasion indeed. Our Deputy President, Mr. Jack Sanderson, opened the Party with a very interesting and informative short talk on the several aspects of veganism and the various reasons which draw people towards our way of life. We are extremely lucky in having such a well-informed and hard-working Editor. The weather could have been kinder, for although it did not rain we would have welcomed some warm sunshine. This did not spoil the day, however, and over 40 guests enjoyed the pretty garden, various side attractions and later a really splendid vegan meal and chat indoors. We were happy to welcome members from as far away as Rugby and Peterborough and one lady who had to miss a wedding to be with us! The considerable work of preparation fell on the shoulders of Mrs. Coles, who was helped most ably by John Coles and friends, excellent work being done on the day by young voluntary helpers living nearby. All members and friends present on this happy occasion would endorse a very hearty vote of thanks to Mrs. Coles and all those who made it possible. Everyone was in such a happy and relaxed frame of mind after such a pleasant day that the Special General Meeting, which followed at 7 o'clock, ran smoothly and happily and complete agreement was reached on the final wording of the new Rules of the Society very quickly. Some members stayed on quite late helping and advising the Secretary on the best and quickest method of dealing with the large post being received from readers of " She " magazine due to the feature on veganism in the June issue. E.B. Typical letters since received by Mrs. Coles were: " Thank you for helping to make Saturday a day to remember. Thanks also to John, and the two young ladies who did so much."—Harry Bonnie. " A few words to say it was good of you to have the Garden Party Saturday, to tolerate people invading your house and lovely garden. I can appreciate how much you must have worked to prepare for the gathering ; I am sure others thank you as I do." Marion Sump. 4




Many people are apt to be downcast and sad because of the apparent divisions between man and man, and between the lower animals and man himself. But when I look back into the remote history of Man's journey on this planet, I feel sure that there is room for optimism. I believe that Unity is as much a part of the divine plan as the first great urge that caused the singlecelled amoeba to evolve ever upward through more and more complex forms until it became the wonderful human body as it is today. When the earth was young and Man himself an infant in his evolutionary pilgrimage, he lived separate and enclosed within the secret cave. Nothing was important to him then but his mate and progeny, and every stranger was a menace to his security and had to be destroyed. Pain and pleasure alone prompted him to action, and in that embryonic state he remained for long centuries. Then at some later date it dimly dawned upon his consciousness that if a few were to join together it would afford some measure of protection from wild beasts and the hazards of primitive existence. This was the expression of the gregarious instinct, purely selfish and opposed to the instinct for unity which is the outcome of love and its intuitive awareness of the one life. The gregarious instinct is very strong in most people, for it has deep roots in fear carried over from our primordial past. Only the few who in their search for truth can break the heavy chains of conditioned thinking to set the struggling spirit free can at length as individuals realise the unity of life which is the higher aspect of the gregarious instinct. Much later, tribes were formed, villages brought about communal life and the separative instinct was left a little further behind. Eventually nations came into being, gregarious still, and without unity. As tribe used to fight against tribe, now nation fights against nation, each enclosed in its larger separation. Yet through the transferring medium of time we see through the clouds of suffering and sorrow that have overshadowed Man through the centuries the light of truth that will set us free slowly dawning. We see a gradual coming together in all directions, but it seems that only out of travail can anything new be born in this relative world—this world through which we grope our way blinded by illusion and our own imperfect reasoning. In this cyclic universe all manifested things had their source in one simple origin, whether in the world of form (from Amoeba to Man) or in the world of art and human language. Indeed, anything which the human mind can achieve evolved from the simple to the complex, from the one to the many. If, 5

from this, we draw an analogy and say "As above, so below," then from the one divine life came all the manifested world. Once, in Egypt, the two-stringed harp was the only instrument of music, but now we have a wonderful variety of instruments, and music has evolved to what it is today. The same holds true when we consider the evolution of language. We can imagine how one sound was probably produced by primitive man to express some emotion of pain or pleasure, and how he would have related sound to experience so that language came into being to enrich his mental and spiritual life. Many similar examples could be given which would take too long to relate, but it is sufficient to give only two to show the unalterable pattern and law of life. In the great cycle the many that have proceeded from the one must return to the one, to the unity we lost before we became enmeshed in a material universe. But we must return with all our garnered experiences of the physical world. Paradoxically the gregarious animal has to acquire individuality before he can know unity. At this stage he will long for truth above all else. Only in the realisation of this eternal truth, the truth of Unity, can pain and sorrow cease, for separation is the only sin. " Love first, and then do as you will " is an axiom that can liberate the world. When we see pain and terror in the eyes of the hunted animal as the reflection of our own, and feel that the very stones have the imprint of divinity, we shall be near to that sublime state. Then our energies will be directed in the path of service, the helpless and the dumb will be accepted as our brothers, and at length liberated too from the selfish exploitation that cuts them off from life's unity and love. When we see the transient forms of living things, whether of man or creature, as but the impermanent tenements of the one divine life we will have started on our journey home. The prodigal son, tired of the husks and selfish separation of material existence, will lift up his eyes to where the ending and the eternal beckon him, to find at length the peace and purity of the father's house, where all at length are one. " Sometimes there is a splendour in the air When every creature with each stone and tree No less than Man, who claims this crown alone, Bears the deep imprint of Divinity." V.C.A. Guide. The Vegetarian Catering Association have recently published an excellent guide priced at Is., which can be obtained (plus postage) from the L.V.S. headquarters or from Rothay Bank, Grasmere, Westmorland. It contains many pages of recipes (some of them vegan), lists Vegetarian Guest Houses, Restaurants, etc., names many books on Vegetarianism and Food Reform and contains much valuable information. 6






People often ask " How did ' Beauty Without Cruelty ' start?" And, " How did you discover that cosmetics could be cruel? " To those who have followed its growth one thing is very clear ; it was started by Invisible Helpers who are in charge of our progress, because mankind can never step into the golden age of peace and well-being over the tortured and slaughtered bodies of animals. And so, today, animal societies are working to awaken people to the cruelties that exist, and are trying to combat them ; both societies and individuals are doing an increasing work in rescuing and sheltering them. This is the growing trend, for we have to realise that to the animals we are the nearest they can know of God, and it is our true role to be their teachers and guardians, drawing forth their love and intelligence, instead of torturing and slaughtering them. In 1946 a small incident happened which was the seed of " Beauty Without Cruelty." Then, a war widow, I unpacked cases that had been stored and found several brands of face creams bought as presents for friends six years before when they were becoming very scarce ; I found them to be in varying degrees of decay, except for one jar which was in perfect condition. A friend in the beauty business told me the reason for this was because the firm who made that particular cream did not use animal ingredients, and, as I was thinking deeply about becoming a vegetarian at this time, it made a great impression on me. It also brought to my attention a fact which I might not have realised otherwise—that a jar of face cream can be responsible, in the same way as a plate of meat, for some poor creature's death or suffering. After my second marriage in 1951 I started to receive a number of letters on different subjects ; some—inspired by the fact that I was a vegetarian—asked for information on this subject, including animal-free cosmetics. In finding out this information for my correspondents I became interested in the subject, but with no definite plan in mind. My small contribution to the animals at this period was to care for the homeless ones that crossed my path, and at the time of my second marriage thirteen were under my roof. Then I started to follow the work of societies doing animal welfare, and my husband often lectured at their meetings. Through them I learnt of the many sufferings we inflict on the animals: five or six of those societies showed films that remained in my memory. - In 1955 I met Dr. Harry Lillie, just as he was leaving England to make more films on man's exploitation of the animals. He 7

spoke to me about the trapping of fur-bearing animals, and left a lasting and deep impression on my mind. Not long after this meeting I had two operations on my spine, followed by a slow struggle back to life and health which lasted for nearly two years. During this convalescent period I decided to study a subject that had long interested me— —astrology—and with the help of my sweet nurse and clever husband's mathematical mind I started this. But more and more my thoughts returned to the sufferings of the animals, and I wrote articles on the subject. My nurse sent them to the women's magazines, who politely returned them as not suitable for their readers. Also during my convalescence a means of communication with Unseen Helpers began for my husband and myself, and a teaching about the great need of the animals was stressed, and always the promise was given to us, "Allies to your side we will bring." Shortly after my recovery I met Miss Lind-af-Hageby, who was later to give hospitality to " Beauty Without Cruelty " at the Animal Defence and Anti-Vivisection Society, 15 St. James' Place, London, and she was to become one of the first members of the " Beauty Without Cruelty " Committee. Next the National Anti-Vivisection Society invited me to join their committee, and when " Beauty Without Cruelty " started they offered their help, dealing with medicinal enquiries, and so " Health Without Cruelty " began. Many people I met at this period were later to play a part in " Beauty Without Cruelty." Gradually the idea was forming in my mind—or being put there by Invisible Helpers—that the other side of the penny to animal cruelty was TO MAKE KNOWN THE ALTERNATIVES, AND IF THEY DID NOT EXIST TO GET THEM ON THE MARKET. I had already tried to get a non-animal face cream made by a herbal firm, and done sufficient enquiry along cosmetic lines to realise the very large job it would be, so I spoke to one or two societies who felt it was a much-needed aspect of animal deliverance. In the summer of 1959 I gathered three friends—Mrs. Sylvia Barbanell, known to many not only as the wife of Maurice Barbanell, but as an authoress ; Mrs. Olive Burton, who, in spite of her active life of healing with Harry Edwards, joined us ; and Miss Elspeth Douglas Reid, the diseuse and poetess. We had hardly started when we were joined by two doctors, Dr. Barbara and Dr. Monica Latto, an American, Mrs. Herbert Pell t and then Princess Helena Moutafian, and so the group grew until now we are 22. Each one has different assets and talents that they bring to the work in a very harmonious circle. Truly, "Allies to your side we will bring " is proving fact. But it does not cease there, for an outer band of allies have formed: men from different professions willingly give us help and advice, and sometimes visit our committee meetings. It was, in fact, a man who gave us our slogan, " Beauty Without Cruelty," and this came 8

about almost by chance. After our first official meeting in the autumn of 1959 I asked the committee to consider what we should call ourselves, and one or two wrote some rather good ideas to me. At the time we were calling on firms that made simulation furs to see if they would co-operate in putting over the idea that furs were cruel: we suggested their garments should carry in the lining a little label with a non-cruelty motive, showing it was unlike many fur ones that are " coats of pain." I was greeted with suspicion in varying degrees, but the manager of one firm, to our utter surprise, simply asked, " What words do you want put on the label? It will take about two weeks to do." I felt this opportunity must not be lost, so I said quickly, " Beauty Without Cruelty," the only slogan I could remember, which had been suggested by Maurice Barbanell to his wife. By our next meeting the little silk label with our slogan was going on coats, and so " Beauty Without Cruelty " we became. Now five firms carry this label in their simulation fur garments. There is dreadful cruelty in the fur trade. The animals are trapped in torturing gin traps, anl left often a week, even two, in agony, terror, hunger and thirst, till the trapper returns to his traplines, bringing death. It is strange that kind and gentle women will tolerate such cruel practices, yet it is their demand for furs that keeps this vast and miserable trade in existence. It is our aim to make women conscious of this, and to show, by means of fashion shows all over the country with lovely models wearing garments, cosmetics, shoes, gloves, etc., that a woman can look beautiful and elegant without causing suffering and death to any creature. Many societies and groups ask us for lectures, which members of the committee willingly travel miles to give. Articles have appeared in various magazines. The first to appear was in the Spiritual Healer two years ago ; this went to many parts of the world, and letters started to come from many countries. We now have branches abroad. We ourselves do not know how it all happens, but national papers, broadcasts, and television have picked up aspects of our story—it is like a snowball that started in a very quiet, tiny way. While we are intent on research into beauty and domestic products, on fashion shows, lectures, and a growing avenue of work, and on getting firms to make alternatives to the products of cruelty, Unseen Powers push the snowball. People often ask us how we manage for money as we never appeal for it. We tried to remain a movement—not a society— that works with all other groups and societies, and is not in competition with any, but the snowball is rolling so fast, and interest in the work growing so rapidly, that we are now taking steps to become a registered group, and to issue a periodical news letter that will keep us in touch with our many supporters and sympathisers. The Vegan Society have had Mrs. Eva Batt and Christina 9

Harvey doing a big job of research into commodities for them. In the last century, Dr. Anna Kingsford studied medicine in Paris and obtained her M.D. in order to fight the cruelty of experiments on animals in laboratories. In her practice in London she specialised in the study of cosmetics and substances designed to advance the health and beauty of the skin, and she used no animal substances. A number of beauty preparations bearing her name were prepared and sold by a chemist appointed by her. She, herself, was a perfect example of beauty and grace, and it was said that when she entered a ballroom all the dancers stopped to pay homage to her beauty. Earlier in the century, Nina, Duchess of Hamilton, and Miss Lind-af-Hageby arranged a number of shows in London and Geneva of simulation furs: the Duchess refused to wear animal furs at the Coronation. On one occasion noisy medical students challenged the Duchess about the cruelty of the fur coat she was wearing, and she was able to show them it was simulation. Throughout time there have been women here and there who have tried to call a halt to the terrible cruelties of their day, but never was the time so ripe as now, when alternatives to the products of cruelty are becoming more and more easily obtainable. (With acknowledgment to The Voice. Copyright Beauty Without Cruelty.)





If a rewarding use is to be made of the soil of our gardens, the cultivation of it should be light—light, that is, in physical labour. The tendency of most gardeners of today is to seek to ease the " burden" of hand labour by the use of machines which emulate the spade. However, machines of this nature of recent past and present design create more work both from the point of view of the soil and also the care and maintenance of the machines themselves. Just as farmers are rarely gardeners, so gardeners are rarely mechanics! The outcome is a transference of labour, not a reduction of it. One sympathises with and understands this seeking of aid to make garden work less of a strain—the endeavour to " fight n a t u r e " as the situation is expressed in orthodox practice. " Common sense " suggests that as man has invented machines with the object of easing manual work, then use should be made of them. Common sense can induce one to accept a custom which is usual, but bias may prevent one from looking for alternative ways. For instance, with reference to the question of digging the soil. This has presumably been the practice for generations, therefore it is assumed to be common sense to continue to dig in one form or another. Yet in dispensing with 10

the spade—and machines which emulate it—one is not taking a backward step as may, at first sight, appear ; on the contrary, one is progressing towards an improvement in soil structure which comes as a revelation. In our garden, for instance, this is achieved with the lightest possible work—so light, in fact, that the word " work " would seem a misnomer to the average gardener, be he professional or amateur! We are living in an age in which many discoveries have been made which bring about entirely fresh conceptions of values, but gardening is still a Cinderalla! The desirability of adopting an alternative technique of soil cultivation—one which calls for only a light hand tool for the main cultivation and care of the growing plants—seems obvious, and when one sees the resulting remarkable improvement in soil texture there can be no doubt. The manner of actual cultivation of the soil is, of course, only part of the matter. The other is the application of a selective compost made from vegetable ingredients which have been herbally activated. This is applied either to the surface of the soil, or incorporated into the top few inches according to the particular needs of the seeds and plants. The two are indivisible for complete success. One hesitates to say which has the greater influence in the production of delicious and wholesome fruit, culinary and salad vegetables, on any type of garden soil. Moreover, this simple process is entirely veganic. Commercial horticultural holdings of today are looking to automation geared to new sources of power to solve their labour problems. Dare one hope that such new inventions will emulate surface cultivation, thereby improving the structure of the soil which deep digging and ploughing destroy? THE CATTLE TRAIN Below my window goes the cattle train, And stands for hours along the river park, Fear, Cold, Exhaustion, Hunger, Thirst and Pain ; Dumb brutes we call them—Hark ! The bleat of frightened mother—calling young, Deep-throated agony, shrill frantic cries. Hoarse murmur of the thirst-distended tongue Up to my window rise. Bleak lies the shore to northern wind and sleet, In open-slatted cars they stand and freeze Beside the broad blue river in the heat All waterless go these. Hot, fevered, frightened, trampled, bruised and torn ; Frozen to death before the axe descends; We kil! these weary creatures ; sore and worn,' And eat them—with our friends. —Charlotte Perkins Gilman 11

A SALAD MEAL By MABEL SIMMONS Tomato and Carrot Soup Mixed Salad with Lentil Balls Date Medley Tomato and Carrot Soup \ lb. tomatoes. 1 oz. vegetable margarine. \ lb. carrots. 2 pts. water or stock. 1 large onion. Seasoning. 1 potato. Parsley. Bay leaf. Chop onion, braise with cut-up carrots, add tomatoes and sliced potato, then stock, bay leaf and seasoning. Simmer until cooked, press through sieve. Garnish with chopped parsley. Mixed Salad with Lentil Balls 1 lettuce. Chicory or celery. 1 beetroot. Chives. Carrot. Nut dressing. Line bowl with lettuce leaves, place diced beetroot on one leaf, then grated carrot on another, lastly chopped celery. Put vegetables alternately on lettuce leaves until the dish is full. Garnish with chopped chives and pour over nut dressing. Serve with lentil balls. Date Medley ÂŁ lb. dates. Rind of lemon. 2 oz. mixed nuts. Coconut. 1 oz. oatmeal. Glace cherries. 1 apple. Wash loose dates in hot water, dry and mash with a fork, add oatmeal, grated apple, and lemon rind. Mix well, form into squares and dip in coconut. Place half a cherry on top. Barley-water Lemonade 2 oz. barley. 1 lemon. 2 pints water. 2 oz. brown sugar. Cook barley in double saucepan (if possible) in boiling water until the liquid is thick ; strain, add lemon rind, juice and sugar. Orange juice may also be added. When cold correct sweetness. 12

SOME ALTERNATIVE SALADS Russian Salad Cook peas, small potatoes, carrots (diced). When cold mix well together with salad dressing. Place dried pear in the centre of dish, arrange mixed salad around. Garnish with watercress. Serve with pecan nuts. Tomato and Cucumber Salad Line dish with lettuce leaves. Cut tomatoes in half, mix the centres with chopped parsley and walnuts, adding celery salt. Place tomatoes and cucumber cut in rings on alternate lettuce leaves. Sprinkle with chopped mint. Pineapple and Banana Salad Place pineapple rings in centre of dish, fill centre of pineapple with chopped pecan nuts. Place bananas and chicory, cut small, around the pineapple, pour over lemon juice and decorate with dates. All enquiries about recipes should be se Simmons (Teacher of Vegetarian Cookery), London, N.W.ll.

NATIONAL PURE WATER ASSOCIATION As its name implies, the object of this Association is to emphasise the need for active measures to prevent the pollution of water supplies. The growing demand for water for domestic and industrial purposes has thrown a considerable strain upon the available sources of water. This has involved an increasing amount of used water going into public water supplies. Water which has been used for industrial purposes often contains toxic chemicals or else has been heated and is returned to streams and rivers at a higher than normal temperature. Water used for domestic purposes is returned as the effluent from sewage purification works, and in recent years waste domestic water has contained increasing amounts of detergents. A further threat to water supplies arises from the proposal which has been ardently advocated by a small group of dentists and doctors to add fluorides to public water supplies. This is alleged to be a means of reducing the amount of dental decay in children's teeth. It is, however, generally admitted that the cause of decayed teeth lies in eating large quantities of sweets, biscuits, acid drinks and other errors in diet. It ought also to be known that the ill-effects of wrong feeding are not confined to the teeth, but 13

manifest themselves sooner or later in other parts of the body as well. The addition of fluorides to public water supplies is therefore calculated to lull people into a false sense of security, and to encourage the use of ill-chosen and ill-balanced diets. The advocates of this proposal say that fluorides have no effect on the teeth after they have matured, yet it involves that everyone would have to take fluorides in the water drunk from birth to death. Another strange feature is that the dose of fluoride is arbitrary, depending upon the quantity of water consumed. In both these respects this proposal is contrary to all recognized medical practice. It should be added that there is a great amount of controversy regarding the exact effects which fluorides have on the teeth, and a considerable amount of evidence that fluorides are cumulative poisons. In this connection it should be remarked that not only are fluorides by-products of certain industrial processes, but they are also being employed as insecticides and for other purposes which may bring them into contact with human beings. These risks are therefore added to the risks involved in fluoridation of public water supplies. Although fluoridation was taken up with considerable enthusiasm in the United States owing to official advocacy, it appears to be losing its momentum. In other countries, and especially in Europe, it has been looked upon with suspicion. There is naturally no reason why those who wish to take fluorides should not have them as pills or in other recognized medical preparations. If they were supplied free by the public health authorities, this would be much cheaper than putting fluorides in the public water supplies, of which probably less than one per cent, is used for drinking. This has, in fact, been done in some places. The town of Clifton, New Jersey, for example, finds that the cost is under $500 a year, as compared with nearly $9,000 for fluoridating the water supply. (Further information may be obtained from the Honorary Secretary of the National Pure Water Association, Mrs. Winifred M. Sykes, Thorpe End, Almondbury, Huddersfield—the annual subscription to the Association is 10s.)

Australian Salads. A demonstration of these salads, all Vegan, was given by Mrs. Kathleen Keleny at L.V.S. Headquarters on Friday, April 27th. She tells us that the Teaching Demonstrations she is to give for the Bristol Institute for Further Education will be practically all Vegan. She also informs us that she is running a Week's Residential Course of Vegan Cookery at her Guest House at Coombe Lodge, Wotton-under-Edge (Tel. 3165), Glos., from October 20th—27th. Tuition 2 guineas per week or 8s. 6d. per day. 14




Margarine It is with very great regret that we have to report that Alfonal margarine is no longer vegan. The manufacturers write to say that " In order to improve the spreading quality of this margarine the formula has been recently altered and it now includes a very small quantity of skimmed milk powder. . . ." We can only hope that it may be found possible later for Messrs. Alfonal to produce two grades, and we advise all interested to write to Alfonal Ltd., The Adelphi, John Adam Street, London, W.C.2. Those Fats Again A very interesting cutting from a trade journal taken from a leaflet issued by King's Corn Oil reminds us of the constant danger of hydrogenated fats, even if they are of vegetable origin. An excerpt reads as follows: " During the last twenty years the advances in medical knowledge have been so great that in civilised countries deaths from such diseases as tuberculosis, diphtheria and the infectious diseases, which were the scourge of the last century, are becoming increasingly rare, and the modern treatment of injuries and burns has reduced the mortality in this sphere as well. "As a result, the chance of an individual living to his ' allotted span ' is now greater than ever it was, but the Registrar General's statistics show that nowadays among the civilised races one person in five dies either of a heart attack or of a stroke. " Recent research has found that, although cholesteral may be found after eating any form of fat, the hydrogenated or saturated fats cause higher cholesterol concentration. Therefore, the use of non-hardening fats such as corn oil has been recommended not only for treatment designed to soften these hardened arteries, but it is thought that if their use became far more general for culinary purposes, it may well tend to lessen the incidence of hardening of the arteries and allied complaints." The same journal lists vegetable oils which, in their unhydrogenated form, help to lower blood cholesterol. They are: Corn (maize) oil, cottonseed oil, safflower seed oil, sesame seed oil, soya bean oil, sunflower seed oil. And adds: "Olive oil and groundnut oil have little or no effect, neither lowering nor raising the blood cholesterol." Messrs. Healthilife, when sending us the analysis of their sunflower seed oil, added the following details: " Cold pressed and deodorised under vacuum. There are no additives or antioxidants, and all our oils are tested by the Kreis method for incipient rancidity. Nothing is dispatched which does not meet with our stringent tests." 15

Other Vegan Foods Farley's Gluten-free Biscuits. Gilbert Harris Fruit Galaxy Conserve. Gilbert Harris Fruit Galaxy Chutney. Gilbert Harris Carrot Marmalade. Gilbert Harris Minted Cucumber and Pineapple Conserve. Gayelord Hauser Wheat Germ and Vegisalt. Heath and Heather Invalid Porridge Food and Slippery Elm Food, malted or plain. Heinz Curried Beans. All King's Soups. Libby's Sauer K r a u t ; Golden Corn, ordinary and cream style. Veeraswamy's King Curry Brand Canned Real Curry. Emvita Yeast and Vegetable Extract. Nutona. N.V. Sandwich Spread ; Walnut, Savoury, Celery, Paprika. Vesop Potato Crisps. Nu-Choc. Ovaltine Chuckles. Appleford's Raw Sugar Plain Chocolate, with or without sesame seeds. Fruit Soup Mix (Apricots, Peaches, Apples, Pears, Raisins). Natural Lemon Juice. Blackcurrant Juice. Bergene Soaps. Vitalia Sea Plant Salt. Dad's Half-Coated Plain Chocolate Biscuits. The new margarine GALA contains no animal fats, but does include some milk. Crosse and Blackwell's Red Currant Jelly. Delicia Chocolate Mould. Dietade Chocolate Mould. Dietade Corn Oil and Soya Oil. Dietade Salt-free Beans and Peas. Dietade Sugarless Canned Fruit. Elkes Seville Biscuits. Symington's Dandelion Coffee Essence and " Perco " Instant Coffee. The Chief Chemist with the Weston Biscuit Company comments in a letter: " There is, unfortunately, an inclination to a wider use of this fat (lard) since it is now competing very strongly with vegetable fats in both price and quality." While we might disagree with the last two words, it is a saddening thought that the intensive systems of animal farming must, if continued at this rate, lower the cost of all animal products. 16

Remedies Weleda Birch Elixir, Blackthorn Elixir and Sandthorn Tonic. Rational Diet Products Sea Green Tablets (iodine and other minerals). Wild Ocean Kelp Tablets. Vegetarian Vitamin B,2 Tablets (brewers' yeast and nonanimal source of B ia ). " Rich A. Rose " Brand Rose Hip Tablets (Vit. C). Dry E 50 Tablets (Vit. E from wheat germ, not in gelatine capsules). Olbas Healing Oil. Toilet and Beauty Products Messrs. Maria Burne-Jones have increased their vegan range to include a delightful speciality Complexion Soap, unfortunately rather pricey as yet at 7s. 6d. per box of two tablets. The only oils in this product are sesame seed and coconut. Also Eye Shadow in three shades at 3s. 6d. each. Moon Magick Face Cream, 10s. 6d. La Rose Foundation Oil, 5s. 6d. " Veil " Cover Cream. Optrex and Optone Eye Drops. We are very pleased to say that the British Weleda Company have discontinued the use of ordinary glycerine in their Iris Jelly, Foundation Lotion and Cold Cream. The first two items are now suitable for addition to your vegan list, but the Cold Cream still contains some beeswax. Muesli A Balanced Whole Food Beauty Breakfast from Maria BurneJones. A member writes to say that this ready-mixed muesli does not contain any milk powder and is suitable for vegans. Served with your favourite nutmilk it makes a quickly prepared and very pleasant first-meal for those very busy people who do not have time even to prepare a muesli. We have tried it, but would have preferred it without the brown sugar, as a few years on a vegan diet have quite cured our " sweet tooth." Farley's Farley's Gluten-free Biscuits are suitable for vegan babies, but the Rusks are not vegetarian (about 1% of a preparation of ox bone). Footwear We have received news from a member of a strong, waterproof, gaberdine shoe with welted rubber sole, in black or brown, which can be ordered by post from Messrs. Salter Shoe Store, High Street, Oldham, Lanes., 49s. lid., plus 2s. postage. 17

Also a ladies' elasticised " flattie " in lined Vynil, by post from Marshall Ward Ltd., 144 Bridgewater Place, Manchester, 18s. 6d. This type of shoe is also obtainable at times in the British Home Stores, where various colours and toe shapes are offered. Shoes.—A wide range of attractive and sensible French plastic shoes for ladies are available from the London agents at really economic prices. These have a good " leather " grain finish and in appearance are indistinguishable from similar footwear made from the hides of slaughtered animals. Some have a soft fleecy lining which should make them very suitable for use right on through the bad weather. Please write for illustrated leaflet to: H. P. Borg, Ltd., 10 Minories, London, E.C.3 (Royal 0455), and remember that unless we all support these new enterprises they will fail. Worse still, it will convince the trade that members are not really interested, and this will destroy confidence not only in us as customers but also in our willingness to practise what we preach! From time to time, when showing the latest models of nonleather footwear, we hear the plea " If only they were available with medium heels, they all seem too low or else much too high for me." We are delighted to report that we have at last found the answer to this. Now available from True Form, a Norzone ladies' shoe in black or white, with 2-hole lace-up front and openwork trim, with a medium (about 2") heel. Broad fitting, in half-sizes also. Part number L 9082, 2 6 / l i d . pair. A new, fully illustrated, coloured brochure from the Bury Boot and Shoe Co. Ltd., Bury, Lanes., is now ready. Once again the new styles include six vegan models obtainable by post. For ladies' shoes look up No. W 13 and W 258 (semi-sandals), 259 and 212 for walking shoes with 1 in. heels, and W 142, a broad fitting casual with crepe sole, elasticated front. For both men and women there is a fully laced canvas with cushion rubber soles in a broad fitting, No. M 34. We regret to say that Dunlop have withdrawn the looped nylon shoes. The reason is not yet known. Messrs. Saxone have a ladies' lined plastic flat shoe with bow trimming (called " Twinkletoes ") priced at 15s. l i d . DUNLOP BOOTS SAVE A MAN'S LIFE When Mr. Horace Jarvis of Wath-on-Dearne, near Rotherham, bought a pair of Dunlop " Solent" boots just before Christmas, he little thought that less than six months later he would owe his life to them. Normally, he wears leather boots to work, but because it was raining when he left home to work on a housing estate at Kilnhurst, he decided to wear his rubber boots. Later in the day he was asked to fetch a 15-feet alloy ladder and, as he was carrying it back, it struck a 66,000-volt overhead power cable. The 18

shock threw Mr. Jarvis to the ground, and he was taken to hospital suffering from shock and burns. However, although the thick seaboot stockings he was wearing were charred almost to a cinder, the boots were undamaged apart from a few scorch marks. The rubber boots he was wearing had saved his life. When the boots were bought, Mrs. Jarvis thought they were " a bit dear." Now, they are priceless. Warmth without Weight or Wool We have all seen the advertisements in the National Press for ladies' garments made from foam-backed materials ; now an overcoat for men is obtainable in foam-backed cotton. It is possible that this invention of permanently welding plastic foam to lightweight materials for warm and " h a n g " may mark the beginning of the end for wool as a material for clothing. The man-made fibres have already prbved it to be quite unnecessary for underwear, warm dresses or blankets. Non-Vegan Hazards A cutting on our desk from the Tunbridge Wells Courier, 20.4.62, says: "Board (Egg Marketing) to buy back stale eggs" and goes on to explain that: " The stale eggs would be broken out and frozen for use by the catering trade." CONUNDRUM Coat with fur, hat with feathers, Lobster boiled alive. Shoes occur in sundry leathers. How many animals have died, Hunted, trapped, and crucified, That I may dwell at ease ? Fish and fowl and beast . . . Slaughtered that I may feast. And what my caste, and who am I That I may live and these must die ? —Bertha Williams in " Luminous Token " An order banning monkey meat from Canton restaurants informs the Chinese that " monkeys possess many of the traits exhibited by men." The monkeys are said to appreciate the protective intent of the order while resenting its wording. " Christian Science Monitor." Who for God's creatures small will plan, Will seldom wrong his fellow man. —Edgar A. Guest 19

UNNECESSARY CRUELTIES AMONG FARM ANIMALS* by a Veterinary Surgeon [You are advised not to read this article if you are easily upset.—EDITOR.]

It is my opinion that the British public in general, and the British agricultural community in particular, are casual, indifferent, callous and hypocritical in their treatment of animals. I have always said that the true animal-lover in Britain is a comparative rarity. Time and again, I have seen so-called affection and love evaporate, like a drop of ether or chloroform, as soon as the animal has interfered in any way with the routine of the individual, or the household. But, compared to ordinary pet-owners, the farmers of Great Britain are as sinners to saints. They are far worse, they are more callous, indifferent, disgusting in the treatment of all their animals, even their dogs and cats. How many farmers feed their cats ? Very few—this is simple but very important cruelty. Milk ? Yes, they get a drop of milk, often dirty bastings, or mastitic cudlike filthy discharge, but rarely, if ever, food. The farmer gets away with not feeding his cats simply and solely on the grounds of the traditional old wives' tale that if you keep a cat hungry the cat will be a better hunter. This is absolute nonsense. If every veterinary surgeon in practice, on the way round, were to make a point of telling the farmer that these cats have got to be fed, then much cruelty would be avoided. Female cats are allowed to breed indiscriminately on practically every farm in the country with no food in their stomachs apart from the odd mouse or the odd bit of cattle food. A more important point, I think, is the fact that farm cats are constantly being mown down by cat 'flu. During the winter-time, on two farms out of three that I go to, I have to look at poor little kittens looking like rabbits with myxomatosis ; sitting there often close to the milk saucer, with shoulders hunched, eyes closed with purulent discharge, and their backsides occasionally red-raw with enteritis. The entire position can be said to be due to malnutrition, the virus going to town because the cats have no resistance at all. 1 would say that farm dogs are treated even worse than cats. Many of them spend most of their life tied up by the neck. This constitutes cruelty of the most vicious type. It is my opinion that no farm dog should ever be tied up. I cannot understand why farmers get away with this atrocious treatment of dogs. Not only do they keep them tied up, but often the chain is so heavy that it digs into the flesh of the neck. Often there is no drinking water * [U.F.A.W. have kindly given us permission to reprint this article which recently appeared in their own magazine.]


available and little, if any, shelter. When shelter is provided it is often completely inadequate. Something should be done about it. You can take it from me that the vast majority of farm dogs are cruelly treated, inadequately fed, kept tied up with no water available, very often on a short chain and inadequately sheltered. To my mind, there is no necessity ever to tie up a farm dog because, given freedom, it gets used to all farm animals and rarely, if ever, strays far from home. If he has to be confined occasionally, then at least he should have a draughtproof shelter, a dry bed and adequate food. And now to the larger farm animals. 1 think in order to understand the British farmer's attitude of mind to their animals one has to realise and accept the fact that the farmer's horses, cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry represent chiefly money and profit. 1 am quite sure that, if they were asked, the majority of farmers would probably say that animals have little or no feelings. If they were really honest with themselves they would admit that they have never given the matter any thought. This attitude of the British farmer is manifest everywhere. In the cow-shed it isnothing to see a cow being thrashed and battered with a stick simply because it happened to kick out at the milking machine. This type of cruelty is even more vividly exemplified in markets ; and nothing is done about it. Some of the results-of such cruelty are quite horrible. I remember having a case in the hospital not long ago, a bullock from our local market which was straining badly and passing blood. That bullock died an agonised death after five days of severe illness. We could not stop him straining and we could not stop the haemorrhage. On post-mortem examination we found that one of the drovers had pushed the end of his stick up the bullock's rectum and had punctured the wall of the bowel. The bullock died from peritonitis. Such things, are happening in this country all the time. The indifferent attitude of the British farmer towards his. animals is manifested in many other ways, in simple ways which we, as a profession, have had the opportunity to do something about and have done very little. I am thinking now of dehorning without anaesthesia, brutality at calving time, improper housing, slatted floors, veal-calf production and, above everything else, the so-called home-surgery by the farmer himself in castration and docking. First, de-horning without an anaesthetic. I do not know whois responsible for the law which allows a farmer to de-horn his own calves under one month without an anaesthetic, but to my mind it represents absolutely shocking cruelty. It is bad enough when the farmer is doing it with a hot iron but when he resorts to caustic preparations which are sold everywhere, well, the evil cruelty is disgusting. I have seen calves, 10 days after a caustic dressing has been applied, with their eyes closed, their heads swollen, suffering a high fever, and finally often dying of septic21

aemia. Surely the veterinary profession in conjunction with a wonderful organisation like U.F.A.W., can do something to stop this. I think that we, as a veterinary profession, during our rounds should openly campaign for humanity. We should give farmers a local anaesthetic and instruct them on how to use it. We should also instruct them on the correct means of de-horning calves. The law, of course, should be amended to make it compulsory for the de-horning to be done by a qualified veterinary surgeon. The evil of this present law is that a farmer can not only de-horn his own, but his neighbour can also de-horn his calves with the permission of that farmer. In my practice area there are now several farmers who go the rounds. They even charge fees ; they are not supposed to but they charge perhaps a shilling or two a calf instead of the 7s. 6d. the veterinary surgeon charges. Naturally the job is done unskilfully. I have seen calves, which have been de-horned by farmers, develop septic heads with pieces of sloughing dead bone coming out to leave cavities in the head. Brutality at calving time. Well, I've devoted a considerable portion of the last 15 years of my life trying to alleviate this brutality at calving time. But despite my efforts a very considerable number of veterinary surgeons still resort to the use of a block and tackle. Well, if you can imagine anything more brutal to cows and heifers than a block and tackle used to extract a calf then you must have a wonderful imagination. It is bad enough when a farmer resorts to a block and tackle but when it is used by a veterinary surgeon there is just no possible excuse for it. In many parts of the country farmers use not only the block and tackle but often a motor-car or even the tractor. I remember going one night to calve a heifer—certainly this farmer was a bit wrong in the head—but when I got there he had a chain fixed to two feet of a calf, on the other end of the chain he had his van (he was driving the van); a chain ran from the van to a tractor and his sister was driving the tractor. I got there just in time to see the chain snap which was holding the poor heifer round the horns. It is scarcely credible that such things can happen in this so-called enlightened country. A great deal may have been done through the medium of television and through the medium of agricultural journalism, and I think a great deal has been done. But we should continue to make sure that the farmers are educated in the correct approach to bovine obstetrics. Another simple form of cruelty perpetrated on many farms is the amazing persistence of inadequate housing for calves. I am thinking particularly of damp wet floors and ice-cold draughty conditions so common everywhere. In this respect the veterinary surgeon can help tremendously by continually meting out good advice. 22

Slatted floors. Here again is another classic example of how the farmer completely disregards the comfort of his animals if he sees a possibility of saving a shilling or two by economizing on some other form of bedding. I like to think that through journalism I may have put a brake on slatted floors but there is still a considerable amount of work to be done by our profession in discouraging this barbaric housing of animals. For some reason or other—I think it is because cattle are cloven-hoofed animals —cattle, sheep and pigs develop a neurosis when forced to stand on a slatted floor. They are obviously uncomfortable and develop not only neurosis but also sickle hocks and swollen joints. It is most unfair that slats should be permitted and encouraged. Veal calf production. I am sure we have made some progress in reducing this atrocity but there is still a great deal to be done. When we enter the European Common Market I foresee an intensification of all factory methods of animal production. Competition is going to become very, very keen and so-called progressive farmers are going to go in more and more for a high concentration of animals in a small space. We must be very careful to see that they do not get away with it. There is no doubt about it, veal calf production is cruel. It is unjustifiable however one may look at it. It is unnatural and it is cruel: Up to the present the brake has been put on by the National Press. I think the National Press is our greatest ally in our fight against cruelty. When I think of the tremendous impression the Nationals made with veal calf production, I find myself wondering what they could do with the true story of the evil cruelty of castration and docking without anaesthesia. There is no doubt that the present methods of castration of farm animals are a disgrace not only to the agricultural community but to our profession and to our country as a whole. Castration and docking. I feel terrible—and so I ought to do— I have just wittingly inflicted the most indescribable suffering on a batch of 36 bulls. Have you ever jammed your finger in the door of a car ? Have you ever had a leg or an arm crushed by an iron beam ? Have you ever been kicked on, or had the full force of a cricket ball on the vital parts of your anatomy ? If you have, then you will have some idea of the agony that these bulls—I beg your pardon, they are now technically bullocks—are experiencing right now. I must admit I feel sick at the thought of it. Yes, sick, and thoroughly ashamed of myself for being ruled by tradition, convention and economy; and castrating these bulls by the barbarous and inhuman method of the " bloodless castrator." In Roman times they used to castrate horses and bulls by trussing the creatures up and beating the testicles between two stones—does that make you feel sick ? If it does then so also should the "bloodless castration " because it is just as cruel and 23

just as barbarous. It seems appropriate somehow that the grotesque bloodless instrument—the Burdizzo—was invented by a Roman. I ask myself; when are we self-professed " animal lovers" going to cast off our mantle of hypocrisy and be honest with ourselves? Why do we continue unthinkingly to practise the evil " a r t " of castration without anaesthesia, not to mention the barbaric docking of sheep with a red-hot iron and other equally vicious pain-provoking methods ? Is it not time that all of us farmers and veterinary surgeons wakened up and re-orientated our ideas on castration and docking ? I think it is, and I am writing this in the hope that everyone will start thinking on similar lines, and that something will be done to remedy these disgusting and degrading habits of tradition. Common sense and public opinion are all that are needed to promote castration and docking to the realms of aseptic and painless surgery. To my mind there is no earthly reason why any animal should suffer pain and I think it is our duty as human beings to act immediately in this matter. It is bad enough when Burdizzos are in the hands of skilled professional men but in the hands of lay people the cruelty can be fantastic. Last week we had a case at the hospital where a lay castrater had caught the penis in the Burdizzos—the bull couldn't pass urine, and his bladder filled up and ruptured —and it took three days for this to happen—three days of indescribable agony before we saw it. What an atrocious death —and this cannot be an entirely isolated case. Perhaps I might start by declaring that a very high percentage of castration and docking in sheep, and castration in pigs, is completely unnecessary—why ? Docking in sheep is only justified when Iambs are being kept for breeding, and even then, with the Deildrin dips to completely control fly-blowing (and without doubt they do) a very strong case can be made for the complete abolition of sheep docking. Personally I would compromise by saying that docking all potential breeding stock should be permitted provided it is carried out, under a general or local anaesthetic, by a veterinary surgeon, using a knife or a scalpel. Red hot irons, elastic bands, and other barbaric methods should be banished and any person found practising them should be severely punished. The scalpel is the answer in surgery because with it, as soon as the amputation is completed, the pain is gone, and it doesn't come back unless secondary sepsis intervenes. We now have a closed circuit apparatus for general anaesthesia in sheep, and I anticipate in the not too distant future batches of potential breeding stock being brought to hospital for aseptic surgical docking. Will this be economical ? Of course it will, because the numbers requiring doing will be infinitely less than at present. Remember also that an undocked lamb is bound 24

to weigh more at grading time, and extra weight means extra profit. Castration in lambs—how often is this necessary ? Scarcely ever, especially these days where there is an increasing demand by the butcher for the small 40 lb. lamb. I say that every progressive farmer in the country can produce a 40 lb. lamb before it reaches puberty, and until the lamb reaches puberty, its testicles have no adverse effect on its growth or on the quality of the meat. There never has been any evidence of " taint" in the flesh of a sexually immature tupp, and not only so but the retention of the testicles in the early growth period together with the lack of castration set-back means a 40 lb. lamb in an appreciably less period of time—and this of course means more profitable grazing. When I have propounded this argument at several sheep conferences even the hard-bitten sheep breeder has had to agree that there is much in what I say. Their only moan concerns the odd tupp lamb that has to be kept after puberty. They say such lambs are a " . . . . nuisance," and because they can't guarantee getting them all off early, they must resort to mass castration. All right, let's compromise again—let us have aseptic surgical castration of all such odd cases that have reached the nuisance age of six to seven months. Economical ? Of course it would be because the few cases would get fewer with the continuation of progressive grass land improvement. And now to pigs. We have all heard the screeching agony of pigs subjected to cold steel : personally I can't bear the sotind, though the scream of hog castration had nothing on the blood curdling howl of the old fashioned gilt cutting. The evil barbarism of that brought home to all of us the futility of gilt castration when the gilts were going off before they reached sexual maturity. Why then has the only slightly less evil hog castration not brought the same point home to us ? The Lord only knows, but this is certain—it is high time we all realised the stupidity of hog castration because, believe it or not, the vast majority of hog pigs, and by that I mean at least 999 out of every thousand, are slaughtered before they reach puberty : and this is .probably the most important point of all—so far, several protracted experiments carried out, there has been absolutely no evidence of taint in the pork and bacon of these uncastrated males. Bulls ? Well of course castration will have to be continued, but it should be done surgically with the scalpel under a general anaesthetic, and here again of course, the clinic and closed circuit anaesthesia will come into its own. All other methods of castration should immediately be declared illegal—the vicious rubber band, the agonizing Burdizzos, and the shocking red hot iron. As in docking, the only method where the pain disappears 25

as soon as the operation is completed is the scalpel method, i.e., the complete surgical removal of the testicles. Of course we all know the food laws relating to entires and rigs—or do we ? Let's just consider them. In sheep, apart from the fact that there is no prejudice, economical or otherwise, against an undocked lamb, the butchers do not consider lambs as rams until the first two permanent teeth appear, i.e., round about the age of nine months. In other words, there would be no economic penalty to the farmer who presented a 40 lb. lamb complete with testicles. And so far as the flock danger is concerned, a ram lamb does not become a " . . . . nuisance " until he is nearly seven months old (i.e., the age of puberty), incidentally, a ewe lamb is also technically a lamb until she puts up her first two permanent teeth at nine months. In pigs, the position is a little more complicated. If the male pig has one or two testicles, it is classed and graded as a boar, and the price drops accordingly, despite the fact that there is no evidence of " taint " or flesh variations until a boar is over seven months. Obviously therefore it is high time that the law relating to uncastrated pigs be amended, and that the traditional but unwarranted butchers' prejudice be broken down. As I said earlier, the prejudice against the open gilt has vanished and there is no reason why the young boar should continue to be penalised. Bull calves are accepted with testicles up to the age of nine months. Between nine and 12 months they are classed as stags, with a slightly lower price, but from 12 months they start to acquire the characteristics of, and are classified as, adult bulls, so we can say, therefore, that bull castration should be done surgically under a general anaesthetic between the age of nine to 12 months. The persistent cruelty of indiscriminate primitive castration is inexcusable and the law should be amended immediately to measure up to our more enlightened attitude and to banish all wanton cruelty. Make no mistake about it, we are all guilty men so far as castration is concerned. We must correct this at once and try to become worthy of our heritage and responsibility in the care of animals. [Such information as is contained in this article is hard to come by, and we are deeply grateful to the writer for being outspoken enough to reveal it.—EDITOR.]

Regrets. The Editor regrets (i) that much good material and many letters have had to be deferred until later issues ; (ii) that he is unable to acknowledge all the letters received, but he does try to answer as many as he is able. 26

CRUSADE AGAINST ALL CRUELTY TO ANIMALS May we urge readers of The Vegan to add their weight in making a strong appeal to the Government to ban the import of pate de foie gras? Britain at present imports £80,000 worth yearly from France—the biggest producer of this " delicacy." Yet to obtain the pate, geese are forcibly stuffed with huge amounts of corn until their livers swell to many times the normal size. The poor birds live in bloated agony for a month. Then they are killed and the pate de foie gras is made from the fatty, swollen livers. Formerly this cruel practice was done by hand, but now with the need for increased production a new method of machine cramming has been introduced, making it possible for experienced operators to deal with 60 geese an hour. To quote from an article which through the courtesy of Odhams Press Ltd. we published in the March/April issue of our magazine, " With Sword and Shield " : " No less than 80 lb. of salted, fatty, cooked corn is forced down a goose's throat over a month until its body becomes horribly distended and its liver swells. This is like making a man eat 28 lb. of spaghetti a day. The goose is held between the knees and the neck is stretched. A funnel is inserted in its beak and the quota of corn is rammed down its throat.. After 20 days of this torture the poor goose is so distended it can hardly move. It is in terrible pain ; it can breathe only with difficulty. After 25 days of agony comes merciful relief—the goose is killed." Following our publication of this article many of our members wrote at our suggestion to the Board of Trade expressing strong objection to the import of a product known to involve such cruelty. The reply received reveals once again the greatest handicap to the removal of many forms of cruel animal exploitation, namely, the insidious power of money. The Board states that although it does possess general powers to regulate imports, it has always been its policy to use them for economic reasons only—for example, for safeguarding the balance of payments. Their reply continues: " There are, of course, a number of other reasons for banning imports of specific goods—for example, in the case of goods considered to be dangerous, special legislation has been introduced. In the present instance, however, the Government would not feel justified in intervening or in changing its licensing policy." By importing such a product from France the British Government is condoning an act of cruelty which would not be permitted here and is therefore equally guilty with the perpetrators 27

of the deed who would not continue if there were no markets for their products. In response to tremendous demand we have published the article on geese-cramming in leaflet form, and these are available free of charge from Crusade H.Q. We ourselves have already circularised every Member of Parliament with a leaflet and covering letter. Will YOU please write to your Member of Parliament asking that prompt action be taken to ban this import? We urge you to send for supplies of this leaflet and to use them widely in enlightening and arousing the public to action (Free literature and a specimen copy of our journal will gladly be sent upon request.) Please do your utmost to make the facts widely known. Humanity must prevail against the indifference of officialdom! MARGARET A. COOPER, Secretary, Green Road, London, N . l l . NEWS AND COMMENT " She." One of the finest, most objective and most impartial articles on Vegetarianism and Veganism ever to appear in a large circulation quality magazine appeared in the June issue of She. Our congratulations to the reporting journalist, Mary Mitchell, for the careful way she had carried out her investigation, and to the editor, Joan Werner Laurie, for featuring this splendid and knowledgeable article. Having heard Justine Glass deliver an excellent talk recently on another theme, I was rather surprised to find that she had accepted the task of putting the case for meat. It was only fair that someone should, and in our next issue we hope to take up some of her points. But if you did not see the article, which occupied two large pages, DO write in for a copy (Is. 6d. plus postage) to She, 30 Grosvenor Gardens, London, S.W.I. You will rarely see a better case for V. and V. put by an outside writer. Thanks to The World League Against Vivisection for a free space advert, for our society in their January-March issue of The Animals' Champion (2s. 6d. per annum post free from 5, North View, S.W.19). Protein. A new edible protein plant was opened at Plymouth in early April. It is designed to extract valuable edible protein from peanuts, grass seeds, etc., in about 15 minutes. (More details in our next issue.) Fox-Hunt. The Master and huntsman of the Hertfordshire H u n t were recently fined over ÂŁ95 for causing a fox unnecessary 28

suffering. It was stated that the fox was dug out of a ditch and then seized and killed by the hounds before the huntsman could shoot it. Bull-Fighting. An excellent leaflet entitled " British Tourists: We beg you not to patronise Bull-Fighting" may be had on application to Alfred Brisco, Blackwell, Carlisle, England. Errata. Mr. Kramer has kindly pointed out the following errors in our printing of his article in the Spring Vegan: — Page 11. " O n e such wholesale t r a d e r " should be " O n e of such wholesale trades." Page 12. " Coccidiostatics " should be " Coccidiostatica." Page 12. Mr. Clintock in " Feedstuffs " (this word should be " Foodstuffs "). Page 19. risk " they occur" should be " they run."

READERS' LETTERBOX Dear Sir, I want to praise you for your Vegan magazine, which reflects so much honesty, good will and breadth of mind. Such articles as " The Power of Kindness " and " Moment of Truth " (Winter, 1961), need no comment from me. Your editorial and everything else are just wonderful. I strongly hope that The Vegan will never disappear but, together with the society, grow stronger and stronger. I am a Swiss exchange-student finishing the exchange year here in the United States ; I came in touch with your society through World Forum and I was received with great generosity by Mrs. Eva Batt. I could hardly tell you all my enthusiasm and admiration for your wonderful movement; I am so happy to have discovered The Vegan Society that this fact is perhaps the most important and decisive acquisition in my American experience, and now I am interested in founding a Vegan Society in Switzerland. I have been welcome for one year in an American family ; in a country where nature is so abundant there is little excuse for continuing to exploit animals. The Americans are terrible meateaters and milk-drinkers ; in school when I ask a classmate why she eats meat, the general answer will be " Because it is healthy, it gives protein "; then, even if they admit that meat is not only not necessary but harmful, they will say " But I like it." Most of the people like meat for the satisfaction they get by the taste of it, and even the children are taught very early to like the animal products which become as demanding as a drug. Are you interested to know about the situation of vegetarianism in my country, Switzerland ? There are some good vegetarian societies and associations of healthy food producers. 29

Many products are Vegan but, generally, the people are adept of the lacto-vegetarian diet—cause of many failures—and there is no equivalent to the Vegan ideal. What we need is Veganism in all its logical applications, its missionary spirit which will awake our somnolent vegetarians and Christians. It is time for them to accomplish this new step in their evolution. Perhaps I am naive but I strongly believe that if Veganism is really God's will, and the way in which He wants His children to live, then Christianity will soon be on our side. My family is vegetarian and I was raised in these ideas ; I stopped eating animal products like milk, cheese, eggs and honey, four years ago for two reasons : after having cured a crisis of appendicitis by fasting I wanted to prevent the return of this trouble and, secondly, I wanted to eat the wheat RAW and my body could assimilate it only if free from traces of animal products. Now I am 19 years old and I never suffer from headaches as most of my friends do ; fasting is the only remedy I use to cure rare colds and for interior cleansing. Thanks to your teaching, my horizon has been greatly enlarged. What I appreciate most is your successful attempt to justify the animal's existence in other terms that " food," " source of profit," " field for experiments," etc. Many vegetarians who have turned away from animal food, turn away their interest from the animals. I owed my knowledge of the Vegan diet to " La Vie Claire," the courageous French journal. Today, I think that Veganism is the highest form of the Truth. Cheshire, Conn., U.S.A. PAULETTE W E Y E N E T H . [One of the most delightful letters we have ever received—we hope to hear more.—EDITOR.] Dear Sir,—The Winter Number of The Vegan is very interesting. I have been in touch with Mr. Molyneux—he once thought of fanning in N. Wales. I hope the day is not too distant when it will be possible to arrange a gathering of practical farmers to discuss what are the initial first steps which might reasonably be taken to plan for stockless farming. I am not at all sure that entirely stockless farming is the answer, n o t for a very, very -Jlong time to come, anyway. If we could get it accepted that it is right and reasonable to farm, with some domestic animals kept for the purposes of maintaining the fertility of the land, as they have done for man throughout the whole period of recorded history, but NOT to be eaten, we would have taken a big step. People trying to set up such a regime on the land today face not only ridicule, but possible persecution from the powers that be, and exclusion from all the Government help available in the form of subsidies, etc. They would really need to be in the position of the wealthy 30

week-end-businessman-farmer, who tries to get a bit back on income tax that way. Otherwise they may very well be ruined by the experiment. I just don't know how the poor farmer, desiring to be humane and to have a clear conscience (as, believe me, so many DO today), can hope to bring in better ways, unless he has the wholehearted support of the British housewife. It is on her conversion that it all depends. She exercises a power greater than she dreams of—whatever she declines firmly will cease to be produced, whether it be broiler calves or chickens, lobsters, or any other table horror. All those things can be replaced by something better and more humane—and many in farming would be happy to do it, if they could be sure that they would not be ruined in the process. Discussion amongst those who know would be useful, for so much that is logical in the present-day situation is on our side—the more we can make this plain to people, the easier it will be to break down all of the prejudice that exists against a change of diet. The rate at which we are losing good agricultural land for building, etc., should urge us to bring about those very changes we long to see. Possibly some annual meeting could be arranged to coincide with meetings of kindred societies, so that some of us could afford to come to London to discuss and pool our ideas. Marketing problems loom pretty large—and have to be faced. There is another subject which I would be glad to consult you about. I was in Italy recently and was horrified to learn how general it seems to be to adulterate olive oil, etc., with donkey fat. This is not a bad joke ; it apparently is the truth even with some firms with well-known names—it is hard to detect, I suppose—and modern methods of milling olives, like those of flour-milling, lend themselves to all kinds of abuses, not possible in the small country mills of long ago. The term "Pure Olive Oil" and so forth does not seem to be any safeguard whatsoever. One notices they carefully omit to say exactly what percentage is really pure oil of the kind stated. P.S.—Possibly you have already gone into that question with olive oil and with sunflower seed and other kinds of oil recommended on health grounds. It is extremely important if we are not to be deceived. N. Wales. ( M R S . ) PEGGY GOODMAN. Dear Sir,—You may be interested to know—and no doubt sorry—that the School of the Rose Cross, of Tucson, Arizona, recently had to close. In a letter to me, Mr. John P. Scott (Costa Rica) writes: — " The School of the Rose Cross had to be closed because of persecution through enemies and the American Medical Association (because we were helping people with their health). Our mail was stopped without trial or notice, and, to be able to use the mails, we had to close our school. The American P.O. 31

said only drugs and surgery could help health, and anyone helping others through astrology and nutrition were frauds." This case almost makes one ask, " What hope is there?" Fortunately, medical persecution in Britain is not so bad, as far as I know, or is it? The antagonism towards the vegan way of life—the natural life—extends even to the ranks of vegetarians. A herbal practitioner I know describes vegans as " extremists," an obvious euphemism for " cranks." I also met an unsympathetic attitude at a vegetarian guest house some months ago. If we cannot convert vegetarians, there is little hope at present of converting our meat-eating countrymen. Incidentally, if you could put me in touch with any vegans in my town or district I should be very grateful. Keighley. HOWARD WILLIAMSON. MISCELLANEOUS


( 2 / - per line: minimum 2 lines; 20% discount on /our consecutive issues.) A C A R A V A N H O L I D A Y in Dartmouth, South Devon. Privately owned new caravan for five ; beautifully appointed, built-in separate kitchen, gas cooker, radio if required. On quiet, private site. Close to the River Dart, in beautiful D e v o n countryside. A perfect all-in holiday with full amenities and complete peace. Free car park. Ideal centre for exploring South D e v o n . A f e w summer dates still ence given to vegan members. Write Mrs. Batt, Enfield, Middx. "AHINSA."—Non-slaughter, Non-Violence ; the monthly magazine for Vegans, ethical vegetarians, pacifists, Hygienists. Special overseas rate : 7s., in coin or British stamps, for full year.—THE A M E R I C A N V E G A N SOCIETY, Malaga, N e w Jersey, U.S.A. C O S M O P O L I T A N V gan C mmunity proposed ; if interested please write, Ruth Howard, London, S.W.I6. DIFFICULTIES I N W R I T I N G S S P E A K I N G . — H e l p given through correspondence and lts. Matthews, B.A., E N G L I S H and Continental Scooters and Mopeds, most makes. Motor cycles, new and used. Three-wheelers, Powerdrive, Bond, Reliant. Exchanges. Terms. Models bought. Please write, 'phone or call. Your own dealer, R O N M c K E N Z I E (Proprietor: R. McKenzie Butterworth, Vegan Food Reformer), 961 Chester Road Stretford, Manchester. Longford 2100. H E A L T H F O O D STORE. A wide variety of vegan and vegetarian foods is available, including the new plantmilk. Every effort will be made t o acquire those vegan f o o d s which are not easily obtainable, so if you have any difficulty in purchasing certain products, please write to Mrs. Muriel Drake with your requirements and suggestions. G o o d s willingly l terms and comprehensive price list sent o n request. Blackheath, London, S.E.3. (LEE Green 5811.) H E A L T H through N A T U R A L HYGIENE. Are you interested in Health achieved naturally and without the exploitation of other human beings and animals? Natural Hygiene is a system of health preservation and restoration which m e e t s these requirements. For literature, s e n d 6d. stamp t o : Registrar (G), British Nat. Hygiene Soc., 49 R a v e n s w o o d Ave., Tolworth, Surrey.


PINEHAVEN, SILENT THEOSOPH1CAL V1HARA for all religions. For meditation, study and prayer. " They shall all this holy hill." Enquiries, Mrs. Cumming, Farnham, Surrey. Tel.: Runfold 2046. RAYVTT SEAWEED TABLETS are ALL seaweed, with nothing added. They will make good any mineral deficiences in your diet and keep you up to scratch. 100 Tablets 3s. 6d., 500 Tablets 14s. 7d. Rayner and Pennyoook Ltd., 16v Oatlands Chase, Weybridge, Surrey. TRUE BEAUTY COSMETICS. We bring you Beauty without Cruelty. Don't damage your skin with harmful synthetics ; care for it with superfine cosmetics made from pure oils, herbs and vegetable extracts. Your skin needs what Nature provides. Brochure 6d. from: Stella Marten, 22 Woodfield Road, London, W.5. USE RAYVIT SUNFLOWER OIL for salads and all your cooking. 7s. 6d. pint. 27s. 6d. {-gallon. 50s. Od. gallon. Rayner and Pennycook, Ltd., 16v Oatlands Chase, Weybridge, Surrey. WORLD FORUM. The leading international Vegetarian quarterly. Edited by Mrs. Esme Wynne-Tyson. Advocates the vegetarian way of life for physical health and a true relationship between the human and creature kingdoms—without exploitation and cruelty. l/6d. plus 4d. post per copy. 7/6d. per year, post free.—H. H. GREAVES LTD., 106/110 Lordship Lane, London, S.E.22.

ESTABLISHMENTS CATERING FOR VEGANS ( l / 3 d . per line; 20% discount on four consecutive issues.) BROOK LINN.—Callander, Perthshire. Vegetarian and Vegan meals carefully prepared and attractively served. Comfortable guest house. Near Trossachs and Western Highlands. Mrs. Muriel Choffin. Callander 103. COTSWOLDS & CHELTENHAM SPA—Hazel Garth, Noverton Avenue, Prestbury, Cheltenham, Glos. Convenient hills, parks, shops. Excellent transport. Ideal touring centre. Highest quality fare. Home baking and produce. H. & C. bedrooms. Every comfort. Mr. & Mrs. Willis. Tel. 7431. EASTBOURNE.—General nursing, convalescence, rest and nature-cure. Out-patients treated. Edgehill Vegetarian and Vegan Nursing Home, 6 Mill Road. Tel.: 627. EDSTONE, WOOTTON WAWEN, WARWICKSHIRE (near Stratford-onAvon).—Modern Nature Cure Resort and Guest House with every comfort, and compost-grown produce. (Phone : Claverdon 327.) FREE Holiday Accommodation (furnished room) in artist's flat offered to vegan couple or lady in exch r one man. Write J. Belohorsky, Sea, Sussex. LAKE DISTRICT. Rothay Bank, Grasmere. Attractive guest house for invigorating, refreshing holidays.—Write Isabel James. Tel.: 134. MAJORCA.—Charming flat for two offered. Vegetarian, non-smokers. All comforts. Tranquillity and beauty. Some meals pr arrangement. International stamp please. Mrs. Ritchie: Palma de Mallorca. NORTH WALES.—Vegan and vegetarian guest house, nr. mountains and sea. Lovely woodland garden. Brochure from Jeannie and George Lake, Pias-y-Coed, Penmaen Park, Llanfairfechan. Tel.: 161. "WOODCOTE," Lei ant, St. Ives, Cornwall, u a high-class Vegetarian Food Reform Guest House in a warm and sheltered situation overlooking the Hayle Estuary. Composted vegetables ; home-made wholewheat bread ; vegans catered for knowledgeably. Mr. and Mrs. Woolfrey. Tel.: Hayle 3147. Early bookings for Summer very advisable.

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