The Vegan Summer 1949

Page 1




A D V O C A T E S that man's food should be derived from fruits, nuts, vegetables and grains, and E N C O U R A G E S the use of alternatives to all products of animal origin.


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'" A n Address on Veganism " By Donald Watson " Vegan Viewpoint " By Fay K. Henderson " Man and Nature " By Leslie J. Cross " Should Vegetarians eat Dairy Produce? " By Donald Watson Vegetarian Recipes wiahout Dairy Produce " By Margaret B. Rawls ( N e w Edition) " Is Milk a Curse? " By James A. Goodfellow, M.B.C.M. Man's Natural Food " By Dr. Sydney M. Whiiakei " T h e Vegan " Complete Sets for 1947 or 1948 FROM


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LOCAL VECAN CROUPS AND SECRETARIES L O N D O N . — M r . D. Cross, , Hatch End, Middx. Y O R K S H I R E . — M r s . H . Green, , Cross Gates, Leeds. M I D L A N D S —Mrs. K. V. Mayo, " , Streetly, Sutton Coldfield. B R I S T O L . — M r s . E. Hughes, ., Knowle, Bristol 4. M A N C H E S T E R . — M i s s A n n E. Owens, , Northenden. S C O T T I S H S E C T I O N . — M r . R. J. Handley, Baillieston, nr. Glasgow; Miss D. M. Sutherland, earn Road, Edinburgh. (Please (^mmunicate with your nearest G r o u p Secretary)



Quarterly Journal of The Vegan Society Editor : G. A L L A N H E N D E R S O N . R Y D A L LODGE. AMBLESIDE

Vol. V.

SUMMER, 1949

No. 2

EDITORIAL Discernment /"~\NCE the principle of Veganism has been accepted, a determined person need not experience any real difficulty in adhering closely to this more limited range of foods, and even in poor condi' tions of supply he can usually find something to satisfy his simple needs and those of his family, especially if a garden or an allotment is cultivated. In summer and autumn this is particularly, and a glorious opportunity is then available to test out the idea of living entirely on a raw fruit and vegetable diet. It may require a certain degree of determination and it may perhaps prove rather expensive, but all who have already adopted this dietary testify to the distinct benefits that have ensued and also express a resolve not to revert to a menu containing cooked or processed foods. A number of parents, not necessarily themselves on an unfired diet, have given their children a free choice, and have been delighted that fruit has been selected in so many instances, but with regrets that the present-day shortages do not permit of a wider choice, or that some kind of fresh fruit is not available the whole year round. Many people are able to carry their discernment to the point of growing their own fruits and vegetables on composted soil, and they will most likely arrange to store surplus supplies for future use. Those without gardens can now purchase fruits and vegetables direct from market gardens using organic methods, and anyone can buy sound keeping apples to store over the winter months. Dried fruits and nuts also store well and, being available periodically, should be purchased whenever obtainable. An article which appeared in our Spring Issue on " Fruits and Vegetables," has proved encouraging to those who are already striving to follow this more selective diet. We would welcome letters of comment and suggestions, giving personal experiences of living on raw foods, as it is our intention to pursue this ideal in future issues.


T H E V E G A N -2

PROTEINS FOR VEGANS* By Claire Loewenfeld Xj^OR thousands of years animal foods have been used to an always increasing degree for the supply of the essential body-building material—the proteins. Vegans, having decided not to use animal foods for themselves and their growing children, must therefore forget these old food habits and think afresh in order to solve the problem of an adequate supply of protein of high biological value. Protein is an indispensable nutrient. Its essential nature is due to it being intimately concerned with the living protoplasm, and the right kind of protein must be available for the cell to grow and to repair any wear and tear. If it is not available, damage may happen and in children gain in weight and height may be retarded. Since this special importance has been discovered during the last fifty years, a number of scientifically based ideas have taken root and have influenced our food habits. Though the scientific approach has changed since, these habits are difficult to uproot. Before we go into details, however, here is good news for vegans: from a modern scientific point of view the problem of the provision of adequate and biologically highly valuable proteins of vegetable origin is by no means difficult to solve, provided that sufficient thought and care is given to the problem. First and Second Class Proteins All proteins originate from plants, and it appears therefore absurd that plant protein is nearly always called second class or incomplete protein, while the animal protein, which is really secondhand plant protein synthesized in the body of the animal, is considered first class protein. To understand this, we must realise that protein is not a simple substance, but a complicated chemical compound, a chain of substances called amino-acids. Up till now, about 22 amino-acids are known, but these may not be all. The more research work that is done on proteins, the more complicated their construction appears and newly discovered facts show them to be structures of nucleii rather than the solid substances which they were hitherto thought to be. Some of these amino-acids are most important, in fact, they are indispensable, and they are found with more certainty in animal protein than in plant protein. Derived in the first instance from plants, the amino-acids are arranged and combined in the animal body and the nutritional teaching at the change of the century considered as first class the ready-made safe combination of the animal * Being the summary of a talk given to the London Vegan Group on M a r c h 12th, 1949.



proteins, because a small quantity of these could supply the necessary requirements of the human body. This created on the .whole a contemptuous attitude towards plant protein, and it was thought hardly possible to feed a human being, and in particular a child, adequately on proteins of. solely vegetable origin. Recently this attitude has changed. More plant proteins have been found to be as complete and of the same biological value as animal proteins, and the modern terminology—particularly in American literature—has changed from first and second class " to " complete and incomplete " proteins. The " complete " nature of a number of plant proteins is, however, now established as well, and expressed clearly and definitely in the following sentence in " Chemistry of Food and Nutrition" by Sherman (Macmillan, 1946), one of the. standard American text. books, on. nutrition : " Also it becomes important to reform the traditional habit of speaking of • animal-protein' as if-it alone were efficient in this connection: for we know now that several of the plant-proteins are similarly effective." Supplementary Action of Different Proteins It has also been discovered that certain proteins, eaten'together, have a supplementary action, and that, for instance, a seed protein (that is, one obtained from cereals), plus a green leaf protein, or a nut protein plus a green leaf protein, can.make this combination into a ' protein of higher biological value than any pure animal . protein on its own. Amongst those plant'proteins which are considered complete, the first place is held by the green leaf. This has always been known, as strong animals of the size'of elephants or oxen can derive all tKe proteins they need for their enormous growth and strength from that source. It was always considered, however, that too much fibrous material was necessary jto supply the needed quantities, arid that the human digestive tract was not adapted' to deal with such a huge bulk of plant food. From the new findings as regards supplementary action of proteins, it has been found that the combination of different "proteins can have the necessary effect, even if taken in small quantities. Quoting from, a book On ".Nutrition and Relief Work " (O.U.P. 1945): " Mixtures of food proteins often have a higher growth value than that of the component proteins. Thus, for example, a mixture of 80 per cent wheat and 20 per cent soya beans gives a protein blend having a nutritional value nearly as high as that of meat or milk. Similarly, a mixed vegetarian diet, providing proteins from cereals, pulses,. potatoes and green vegetables, can provide an excellent protein blend for growth a:nd repair." In practical language it means t h a t :


(1) A raw salad should contain a considerable part of green leaves, such as lettuce, chopped spinach or spinach beet, or grated or chopped cabbage, chopped parsley and herbs. (2) The salad is of higher protein value if taken— Either with milled nuts or a dressing made from nutcream diluted to a creamy consistency and mixed well with lemon and chopped herbs; Or with a nut savoury; Or with wholemeal bread and butter; Or followed by a cooked course, combining a green cooked vegetable with some soya flour, supplemented by potatoes, whole rice, etc., bread or nut savoury. Incomplete protein dishes are : Either salads without the addition of nuts, potatoes or wholemeal bread; Or salads, not followed by a cooked course including the additions mentioned above; Or nut savoury or cereals or pulses without being preceded or accompanied by a raw salad, containing green leaves, or accompanied by green cooked vegetables. If, however, salads precede or accompany the main meal daily, and therefore the protein is not exclusively supplied by nut or pulse or cereal food, these need not and should not be taken as frequently and in as large quantities as sometimes considered necessary by vegans. If a nutrient is essential for a certain purpose and a food containing it therefore good for you, more of it than is required by the body is certainly not better. How much Protein is Necessary Another factor which has changed the scientific attitude, though up to now not the attitude of the general public, is the change in the quantity of protein considered necessary as a daily intake. In 1890 this was placed at about 4 ozs. per day, while at present ozs. is considered satisfactory. Furthermore, protein requirements do not vary with muscular activity as most people think, but mostly with body-weight and age. Growing infants need the largest quantity, and with increasing age protein may be reduced with advantage. But all these figures will probably vary a lot in the future, as it has now been established that it not only depends on how much and what we take, but also on what our body does in utilising the intake, and this again depends very much on our general diet and on a number of interacting factors. Soya Hour and Nuts W h i c h are the plant proteins of highest value? It is probably known to all vegans that soya flour is of a very high protein con-


centration and that t h e soya flour protein is one of the most coinplete. On the other hand, it is not advisable, because of its concentration, to take too much soya flour at any one time, but it is very valuable in combination with vegetables. The nut proteins are most important for vegans, but their value varies., The one most complete is that of the almond, and as almonds also, contain a large quantity of fat and therefore produce an emulsion, they are most suitable in combination with freshly expressed fruit juices for feeding infants and small children. It is, however, important always to keep in mind that almonds or soya flour or similar protein should be taken in combination with a diet containing quantities of other plant proteins, in particular green leaves. Further, the juice of the latter can be extracted and, if mixed in small quantities with other freshly expressed juices of more attractive flavour, can be, given to infants and invalids. Green Leaf Protein , The one plant protein which certainly has been under-rated so far, but which owing to its completeness and its possibilities, of combination is of the utmost importance for a vegan diet, is the green leaf protein. Curly kale, brussels sprouts, spinach, parsley, and most other green leaves contain good quantities of valuable proteins and, in combination with potatoes which have a small quantity of protein of high biological value, or small quantities of soya flour, for instance, in combination with a spinach puree; they can produce excellent blends. Also in combination' with- bread rolls* which contain the valuable though not complete proteins from \jyheat, and with nut savoury, green vegetables^can provide a good blend. , , T




• '

Cereal Protein , It is rather important to consider whether a food has an alkaline residue as a surplus of alkaline minerals as contained in fruits and vegetables; this, as well as a liberal intake of the vitamin B complex, being necessary for the full utilisation of the protein by the body. Both these factors have thus a protein-saving effect, according to German research workers, who advocate the intake of liberal quantities of fruit and vegetables, as well as the exclusive use of wholemeal bread and whole cereals. In a country where there is no shortage of foods, such as U.SA., it is interesting to realise that most American families derive more than a third of. their protein intake from bread and other grain products. It is, however, con ; sidered in U.S.A. that 30 per cent of the protein is lost in fine * Made by mixing together soaked stale bread, squeezed and fried, in Suenut with onions, tomatoes and herbs, then formed into, dumplings and placed in boiling vegetable - stew for some minutes before, serving. Alternatively the mixture can be baked in the oven.


milling and therefore it is all the more important to use mainly wholemeal products. Plant Protein In Germany there is at the present time a particular interest in vegetable protein, and there have been a number of attempts to make available for human consumption in the cities the very high class protein content of the sweet lucerne which is being specially grown for this purpose. This protein is considered to be as rich and as valuable as soya bean protein. In statistics from Germany it was found that in 1939, before any shortage, 250,000 tone of pure protein were obtained from vegetables, including potatoes. Fungi There is another plant protein which has been very much under-rated in this country, and this is the one derived from fungi. Though not all the protein contained in fungi is available for human utilisation, and though not all this protein is complete, it nevertheless can, in combination with potatoes, wheat products, and green leaf protein, add considerably to the total protein intake. More than 20 to 30 varieties of good, easily found fungi can be collected in this country, and a much larger market of cultivated fungi could be developed if, as in France, they were not as expensive in comparison with other vegetables. Further, mushrooms can be successfully and easily grown in compost in a shed or under some greenhouse staging. It has been worked out that in Germany 500,000 tons of dry substance could be obtained from dried powdered fungi and mushrooms, and these fungi meals could be used as an addition to other vegetable foods to provide not only flavouring, but also protein. T h e fungi in a fresh state have very valuable flavouring qualities ; fried with herbs and onions they can make any vegetable dish more tasty and interesting, and it is most important that the combinations of proteins which are suggested here, and of which there are many to give variety to the menu, should also be prepared and combined in such a way that they are fully utilised by the human body. Preparation and Utilisation It is well known that appetising food has a greater digestibility and is better utilised than poorly cooked food, owing to the secretion of pre-digestive juices which contain digestive enzymes, but which are only secreted if look and smell as well as flavour are enjoyable. Thus, attractively prepared and well combined dishes, in which green leaves, nuts, potatoes, soya flour, cereals and fungi are contained, can satisfy the protein requirements and be enjoyed


by the family. It is not at all necessary to have a special protein dish like a nut savoury or pulses every day, as most people imagine. Much more important, however, is that the cooked course at the main meal of the day should, if possible, be preceded by fresh fruit) or a salad to provide some of the green leaf protein in an uncooked and therefore not denaturalised form. This would also help to maintain a: rich and varied population of beneficial intestinal bacteria which can help to synthesise and utilise the protein. Not only is the intake of the actual protein foods of .importance, but the general combination of the diet; as well as having fully 50 per cent, of the daily intake in an uncooked state. If all the available sources of plant protein are used for combining varied and attractive meals, if the green leaf protein is' regarded seriously, and if sufficient uncooked food is taken daily, there is no doubt whatever that a vegan diet can supply adequate proteins for growth and repair. . .





N his book, ",Road to Survival," William Vogt surveys with scientific care M a n s relationship to his Total Environment, but its pages have about them • none of the chilly atmosphere of the research laboratory.. Instead they contain a fascinating account of all that affects the life and happiness of human beings, but they also provide irrefutable evidence of a rapidly diminishing supply of food in the world and of a rapidly increasing number of hungry mouths ; while we are left in no doubt that our own mouths will know hunger unless the problem is tackled quickly and on a worldwide; scale, In a sentence, the author shows us Man destroying 'the very ground on which he stands. It is, however, disappointing to find that, amongst the remedies "suggested to save mankind from starving to death as populations increase and fertile land diminishes, the author virtually ignores the great contribution which diet reform (and particularly veganism) "could make towards filling the World's larder. Vegans will consider that he is mistaken in regarding a change in food habits as necessitating a lowering of our standards of living. By all true comparisons, veganism could, only result in improved living conditions, since it would use to the best advantage the world's precious resources of soil,and water; it would raise the general level of health in soil organisms, in crops and in man ; it would result '•in higher food yields per acre, establish a contented, sturdy, rural' population largely freed from the urban sickness which with its false values is afflicting mankind, and it would banish many occa-


sions for exploitation, violence and greed leading inevitably to war on beast—and man. T h e author realises that some modification of the meat-eater's diet is inescapable. " Enjoy your steaks now, for there will be many less of them," he says, adding that " flesh-eaters get their food second-hand from the herbivores." Strangely enough, he makes no reference to the modern craze for' milk-drinking, with its vast dairy herds, wastefully using land and foodstuffs that should be nourishing man direct. His assertion that one-third of an acre " cannot decently feed a man " is only true if man's insistence o n having his pound of flesh and his pint of milk is considered decent. A vegan could very well be fed on less than the third of one acre, and if the conscience of the British people prompted them to adopt the vegan way of living, in compassion for the half-starved, backward races who send us food they can ill spare, then this country would have no need to import food, and might even become able to export food again. However, before vegans become smug in the knowledge that they are not involved in cruelty and exploitation of meat-eating and milk-drinking, let them read " 111 Fares the Land " by Carey McWilliams, and ask themselves what their cotton goods, their dried and canned fruits have cost in human misery, in the destruction of soil fertility, in sweated labour, in unbelievable poverty and downright oppression of the migrant workers in the U.S.A. and elsewhere. Considering the revelations in such a book as McWilliams", and also in " T h e Grapes of W r a t h , " and realising (as one soon can) the extent to which our food supplies are tampered with and adulterated by chemists and others, one is driven more and more to the conclusion that the only course open to an earnest man, desiring honest food, properly produced, is to eat only what he can grow himself. That this simple piece of advice need not mean long hours of drudgery is borne out by the writings of such men as F. C. King, A. Guest and E. H. Faulkner, where there is to be found that " fresh approach to the management of arable land " advocated by Vogt, with its new techniques of no digging, no ploughing, the composting of all wastes, including sewage, and so forth. In recommending these books to readers, I would without complacency express the view that veganism appears to be leading comfortably along the Road to Survival.


" R o a d to Survival," by William Vogt ( 1 5 / - : Gollancz). " 111 Fares the Land," by Carey McWilliamJ (Faber &? Faber). " P l o u g h m a n ' s Folly," by E. H. Faulkner (M. Joseph, Ltd.). " G a r d e n i n g without Digging," by A. Guest ( 1 / 6 : Wigfield and Co., Doncaster). " T h e Compost Gardener," by F. C. King ( 1 / 6 : Titus Wilson).






Many vegans consider that the ideal diet should consist of ripe fi-uits and nuts, which can be taken without destroying the life of the tree or plant, and these should be eaten uncooked. People who have been accustomed to cooked and highly seasoned food may prefer to make a gradual change to this more natural diet, and it is hoped that these recipes will be found helpful. .In our next issue, a selection of raw fruit, nut and vegetable dishes will be given. Tomato Rissoles \ lb. tomatoes, 6 crushed Granose biscuits, 3 ozs. milled nuts, 1 finely chopped .shallot or small onion, 1 dessertspoon, finely chopped paisley, £ oz. nut fat, and Vesop. Scald, skin and chop up the tomatoes, add the fat and the other ingredients: : mash well with a fork. The mixture should be firmenough to form into rissoles, which- should be rolled, in bran or Granose flakes, and they do not require cooking. . Cauliflower Pie 1 large cauliflower, £ lb. tomatoes, 2 large onions, £ lb.. milled nuts, 6 oss. wholemeal breadcrumbs; 1 oz. nut. fat, 1 teacup water or vegetable stock, Vesop to taste. Roughly cut up the cauliflower and onions, and cook in die boiling water or stock: cut up the. tomatoes. , When the cauliflower and bnions are almost, cooked; remove from the water and arrange iri layers with the tomatoes- in a. baking dish. Mix' the: breadcrumbs, nuts and fat with the vegetable water, adding Vesop, and spread, over the vegetables. Sprinkle a few dried crumbs over die top, grate a little nut fat over, and bake in a hot oven until brown. Broad Beems If picked when-young and tender, the , pods as well as the beans can be eaten. They should be tied in small-bundles aind cooked like runner beans./ Serve, with pjursley sauce. .. „ ., ,. Mixed Vegetable Salad, About 1 lb. of mixed cold cooked or raw vegetables, (such as peas, beans, carrots, turnips, potatoes, etc.), . . . 1 large tomato,. 1 tablespoon finely chopped parsley, 2 or 3 chopped spring onions, 1 tablespoon nut or olive oil, juice of 1 lemon, 1 tablespoon nutcream or peanut butter and'Vesop. •....•>Put the peanut butter into a glass dish: gradually stir in the oil. Add a. little hot water and, the lemon juice slowly and stir until the mixture is smooth arid creamy. Add Vesop to taste: Dice the vegetables and stir them 'into''this mixture with parsley.



Sandwich Spread 1 cup cooked green peas, 1 oz. Suenut, small bunch of chives or a green onion, some chopped fresh mint and Vesop. W a r m the fat and peas, mash well together and add the onions and Vesop. Leave to set. Spread the mixture on to the bread (no butter is necessary). Date and Nut Loaves 2 lbs. wholemeal flour, 3 ozs. brown sugar, 2 oz. nut fat, 1 oz. yeast, 4-6 ozs. chopped dates, 2 ozs. chopped nuts (walnuts preferred), 1 j pints warm water, or thin nut milk. Put the flour into a mixing bowl and warm a little in the oven. Cream the yea,st in a basin with half the sugar. Well grease two large bread tins and into one put the remainder of the fat to melt. Make a well in the flour and add the yeast, and gradually the water to make a dough. Quickly stir in the .sugar, fruit, nuts and then the melted fat. Stir well together and put the mixture in the warm tins. Place in a moderate oven with the door unfastened and leave to rise for 20 minutes. Then cook in a fairly hot oven from 40 to 50 minutes. Fruit Cream 1 lb. fresh ripe soft fruit, ^ lb. dates, pint thick nutrreanv Chop up the dates and mash with the fresh fruit, gradually adding the cream. A little sugar may be necessary if the fruit is not very sweet. Scatter a few chopped nuts over the top and decorate with glace cherries. Lemon Jelly 1 pint citrus stock (made by soaking orange or lemon peels in cold water for 24 hours or more), juice of 1 large or 2 small lemons, 2 teaspooas finely powdered Agar Agar, 2 heaped tablespoons sugar. Put the water and Agar Agar into a pan and bring to the boil, stirring all the time. Add the sugar and strained lemon juice. Pour into a dish and leave to set. Fig and Date Rolls ÂŁ lb. figs, | lb. dates, 4 ozs. milled nuts, a little cinnamon and grated lemon peel. Put all the ingredients through the min<Ser two or three times. Form into rolls and coat with milled nuts, or press the mixture into a flat tin and cut into fingers. (All enquiries and suggestions on food preparation should be addressed to Mrs. Rawls, at Sale, Cheshire.)





THESE articles are usually based on interesting information received in letters and on the practical experience of vegan parents in bringing up their children. The article in the spring issue dealt with the information available from those vegan parents who are endeavouring to feed their children mainly on homegrown foods supplemented by a limited quantity of imported fruits, as obtainable. , Some parents have been successful in making the supply of last year's apples keep until June, when gooseberries are ripe. Consequently their children are able to enjoy muesli for breakfast and " tea " (or sliced apples and Vitanut Flakes, or grated apples and chopped dates), until they can have gooseberries either fresh, or stewed with brown sugar and made into muesli, or " fool " (£-lb. gooseberries heated until soft and 1 dessertspoon each of nut cream and brown sugar beaten in). The gooseberries are'followed by strawberries and raspberries which are picked daily until the early plums are ready. The plums when ripe can be stoned, sliced and sprinkled with milled nuts. In August the early apples are ready." If keeping apples are picked carefully in October and stored on apple racks, this fruit cycle can be achieved, and thus by careful planning and fruit cultivation many vegan children can now have fresh home-grown fruit daily throughout the year. Dried fruit should be soaked in water for 24 hours, stoned when necessary, and put through a mincer for making mueslis Thus tinned and bottled fruits need never be used. To quote from Dr. Bircher-Benner in his book based on the conclusions of modern nutritional research : — " W i t h regard to tinned preserves, these foods sterilised by heat are dead food, whose food factors have been largely damaged. So many changes of substance occur in the preserved products that they have to be reckoned as defective foods. Therefore! these foods are not suited to - the normal diet' of children. Only in case of need are they permissible, for* they are certainly better than nothing. This conclusion applies with almost equal force to home bottled preserves. -They, too, are only emergency foods."

The midday meal can either' be steamed vegetables with a slice of. nut savoury or a salad with either peasj beans, nut brawn, or uncooked nut rissole. Of course, for toddlers the salad can be very finely chopped and mashed. To quote again from Dr. BircherBenner:— . " T h e diet here recommended for children is simple and frugal; but. it has quality. My own seven children have been brought up oh such a diet. O n e need not be well-to-do in order to feed children in this way! " Children require a natural, whole and non-artificial diet; one which God arid Nature and the living principle have compounded and created. Fresh fruit and vegetables, these wonderful harmoniously 'attuned, atomic




and molecular structures charged with light, these never fully fathomable eternal riddles of chemistry, these formations of air, water, light, life and spirit—these are designed for us as food. Should not reverence prevent us from changing them?"

T h u s , home-grown fruits and vegetables contribute towards an ideal diet, but one of our membecs (Mrs. Enid Hunter, of Slymbridge, Glos.) refers to the difficulties experience^ by vegans who are living in towns with no facilities f o r growing any produce. Mrs. H u n t e r also criticises the quantities mentioned in the previous article and f u r t h e r asks: " Can veganism be a successful diet w h e r e money is short and the family large ? " It is acknowledged that with no facilities for growing o n e s own produce, purchases of fruits and vegetables must be resorted to, and these are rather costly. In any case, a diet of unsubsidised foodstuffs is certainly more expensive than t h e subsidised diet of the orthodox. P e r h a p s I should have made it clear that the diets recommended above and in previous articles are rather an ideal to be accomplished w h e n possible, and that individual parents with their particular domestic and local difficulties will require to make modifications t& suit their own circumstances. For example, the following can be recommended as acomparatively reasonably-priced diet for a ten-month vegan child:— ON

R I S I N G — 1 teaspoon each of soaked fine oatmeal and Froment, 3 sieved soaked dates, mixed with sieved fresh fruit as available, followed by crust from home-made wholemeal

1UU !AJ U11L.W. M E A L — M a s h e d steamed vegetables (including peas) mixed with 1 teaspoon each of raw grated carrot, finely chopped lettuce and olive oil, and 1 sieved raw tomato. (Quantities of carrot and lettuce can be gradually increased, with a corresponding decrease of cooked vegetables.)


TEA—The juice from wild rose hips soaked in water for 24 hours and crushed, sweetened with brown sugar, sieved soaked dried fruit and finely milled hazels and Romany Rye. ( W h e n baby is older, this can be followed by wholemeal sandwiches of sieved tomato.) W h e r e nut cream can be afforded, Dr. Bircher-Benner recommends a nut-milk drink made with gruel and fruit juices at tea time. T h e gruel is t h e water from two tablespoons of whole cereals soaked overnight in two pints of water and boiled in the same water for half-an-hour. A fuller dietary was given in " The Vegan " for Summer, 1947, and a week's suggested meals for one-year-olds appeared in the A u t u m n , 1947, issue. (Kindly address all Baby Bureau correspondence direct to " Braeside." Thornhill Road, Streetly, Sutton Coldfield.—K.V.M.)




CLEARING THE GROUND The present stage in the'development of The Vegan Society is characterized by a centering of attention upon the implications of the question, " What is veganism ? " . There is more—much more—behind this disarmingly simple query than at first appears. To begin with, we have to clear our~ minds of certain assumptions ;; to realise, for example, that when> we saiy, " Veganism is this, or that," what we are really saying is, " My idea of veganism is this, or that." For there is nothing in the constitution of The Vegan Society . which states what > veganism is., The fact tha,t the Society has reached its present position with-, out having defined in any precise way the light it attempts' to reflect need not disturb us. There were good, if perhaps, unrecognised, reasons why definition should not be attempted until the Society reached a certain point along its road. What, however, must give us' food for thought is the growing feeling that such a point is now not far off—that the; limited period during which lack of definition is useful and desirable is approaching exhaustion. The way in which our movement may be provided with an" agreed definition is, of course, by the majority consent of an annual or special general meeting, and by the inclusion of that consent (in the form of a short definition), either as one of the Society's rules, or as a preamble to the rules, or by some other constitutional device. Although this procedure appears to be a simple one, the task; of finding and recognising the right definition is more complicated than might at first be thought. For the Society has evolved a long way in, a short time, and if we are to provide ourselves with an adequate picture of what is involved, we must glance at least briefly at the ground we have already covered. In July, 1943, there appeared in " The Vegetarian" Messenger a letter about the use of dairy produce by vegetarians. Correspondence on the subject was maintained for something over twelve months, after which there appeared in the same journal a request, signed by Donald Watson, of Leicester, asking vegetarians in-1 terested in living without dairy produce to write to him, and he received about 50 replies. In subsequent negotiations, The Vegetarian Society declined to agree to the formation of a " non-dairy'" group within its ranks, and itself suggested such a group .might he formed outside The Vegetarian Society. This small group of persons brought together by Mr. Watson thus became the embryonic organisation which eventually became known as The Vegan Society. -.



In November, 1944, there appeared the first issue of " T h e Vegan News." The organisation had a few dozen members, and the word " vegan " had just been adopted by Mr. Watson as one suggestion for the name of the new group. As a matter of passing interest, other suggestions included Dairyban, Alvegan, Vitan, Benevore, Bellevore, and some complicated titles like Total Vegetarian Group. ( W e should indeed feel relieved at the final choice!) T h e editorial of the first " Vegan N e w s " stated, " W e can see quite plainly that our present civilisation is built upon the exploitation of animals, just as past civilisations were built upon the exploitation of slaves . . ." (This was an early hint that non-dairy vegetarianism was destined to be no more than one part of the general philosophy of the new movement.) The third issue (May, 1945) stated that veganism was the practice of living upon fruits, nuts, vegetables, grains and other wholesome non-animal foods. (It would perhaps have been more accurate to have said, not that veganism is, but that it involves, living upon such foods.) T h e fourth issue (August, 1945) stated, " The object of The Vegan Society is to oppose the exploitation of sentient life, whether it is profitable to do so or not." (This is a considerable widening of the original " non-dairy " motivation.) T h e Vegan Society was formed in the constitutional sense on March 15th, 1947, when a special general meeting adopted for the first time a set of rules. There was, however, still no attempt to find an agreed definition of veganism. Rule 2, which laid down three of the many possible " aims " of the Society, was—and is— quite silent about many other aims which might equally be regarded as being " vegan." The stated aims refer only to diet, commodities, and the spreading of vegan teaching. They do not mention other aims which might equally be regarded as being vegan—such aims, for example, as opposition to hunting, vivisection, performing animals, and the castration and enslavement of animals for transport and other work. Above all, they are not, nor do they pretend to be, a definition of veganism. T h e Vegan Society is therefore to the present day a group of persons who have come together in response to an intuitive stimulus which has not yet crystallised into words. Although the immediate cause of the emergence of veganism was the compelling desire of a few persons to make their vegetarianism logical, nondairy vegetarianism was in fact no more than the trigger that released veganism into the world of everyday affairs. The omission of a binding definition of veganism at that date was a historical necessity if it was to have the time it needed to emerge in completeness and strength. It is, however, when we turn away from the past—but without forgetting it—that we are compelled to consider whether the


critical point in time at which the entity " veganism " may besaid to have emerged fully is not close upon us. If it is, then the conclusion that a definition is now necessary is inescapable. For the Society will be approaching one of those cross-roads which every evolutionary organisation finds itself approaching from time to time. Of the roads ahead, one will be the road of an indefinite " veganism," depending for its meaning upon a host of individual interpretations unchecked and uncheckable by any agreed standard definition; the other the road of a definite, clear and precise " veganism," which shall have the consent and allegiance of every person who joins the Society. The looseness of organisation which has so far characterised the vegan movement has no doubt been the right type of organisation for the early .stages of a movement which seeks to express so new and so vital an idea as that which does undoubtedly lie behind the name " vegan." But if I am right in. my view, the significance of the present position is that looseness of organisation and absence of definition are approaching the point at which they not only cease to be useful and even essential, but are in danger of becoming agencies of reaction. If it is true that it was necessary in the early stages for the differing aspects of veganism to be held, as it were, " i n solution," it is equally true that if the process is to continue upon its natural course, crystallisation must follow within a reasonable time. Above all else, this means the emergence of an accepted definition of that which gives us being as a Society—a definition which shall be constitutional, and therefore binding upon all who join our movement. The nature of the development of The Vegan Society suggests that the form in which definition should be accomplished is the form of a principle, from which certain practices logically devolve, and not in the form of a set of practices, or aims. At its highest level, veganism cannot be both practice and principle, and to make it a set of practices will involve unending argument as to what type of practices shall be included and what omitted, and will at the same time fail to provide any agreed standard of reference by which their eligibility can be checked. The search for such a principle is not an inventive task, but a voyage of discovery. The principle exists—it is our job to find it, perhaps the most important job we have on hand. If my belief is justified, it is a principle which will one day impact upon the world in much the same way as did the movement to abolish human slavery. I hope, in a 'subsequent article, to suggest how it may be discovered and—what is perhaps more important—to suggest how it may be recognised as representing the destiny of the vegan movement. But whatever our individual views, we must give thought to this task, for we must be certain that what we finally decide is the best of which we are, jointly, capable.






O W strange are the workings of the scientific mind. Scientists make dietetic experiments on rats, and conclude from these experiments that rats cannot live without animal protein. They then assume that human beings also cannot live without it. W h e n ordinary practical laymen object to this conclusion and point out that a large number of people, like the Chinese, the Indians and the Hunzas, live most healthily with little or no animal protein, the scientists, instead of accepting finally this direct evidence of the falsity of their conclusion as regards human beings and scrapping their experiments, go back to their rats and further torture these wretched animals. This time they want to find out how the facts of human food can be demonstrated in the laboratory. It is very much as if a mother with a red-haired child is told by the scientists that the child's hair ought to be brown according to the theory of genes, and so, though it looks red, actually it must be brown. Absurd ? Yes! But not much more absurd than the way of science in dietetics. So the scientists continue their experiments on rats until at last they find that only those in a poor condition of health need animal protein. Rats in good health can do well on vegetable protein only. They now assume that most civilised human beings are in this poor condition of health, which explains why they need animal protein. They are tremendously pleased with this result, for at last they have made the rat experiments tally with human experience. Yet, years before, Dr. Bircher-Benner, working in his Sanatorium in Zurich, had found out all this. Thousands of invalids passed through his hands and he realised that most civilised people are in what he called the " incubation period " of ill-health due chiefly to their devitalised food. The scientists would not listen to him, as his evidence did not come from the laboratory, but directly from his work with his patients. They called him unscientific, but now that their work corroborates his views, he is being reinstated. In fact, the general recognition of the efficacy of his raw-fruit-and-vegetable remedial diet started with the discovery of vitamins. Dr. Bircher-Benner's experience alone proves the futility of these terrible experiments on animals, for the cause of medical science is not one whit advanced thereby. In fact, the scientists are much more unscientific than the layman, for they can only reach their conclusions on the human plane by assuming that what is true for rats is true for human beings. This tremendous assumption is absolutely unprovable. T h e gulf between human and animal life is so wide and so deep



that no bridge has ever yet spanned it except the bridge of evolution, which has taken many millions of years to build and which breaks down at the most important point. Moreover, evolution itself is only a theory. So we see that the stronghold of the scientist is by no means invulnerable. Of all the animals, human beings are the most intelligent and the most stupid! " Lord, what fools these mortals be! "

FOOD INVESTIGATION Renewed enquiries into the ingredients used in sweets, chocolate and biscuits have made it clear that the contents of these foods are still largely determined by the Ministry of Food allocations to manufacturers. Because of the variations in the allocations, biscuit manufacturers will not guarantee their goods to be free from animal substances, with the following exceptions: — Carr's Small Luncheon Crackers, Cream Crackers, Table Water, Bath Rusks and Cafe Iced. Ryvita and Chocolate Ryvita contain no animal substance whatever, Ryvita itself being made solely from rye grain, without fat or leavening. Peek Frean's biscuits, at present, all contain vegetable fats, except their Custard Creams, Digestives, Garden Creams, Petit Beurre and Princess. Enquiries about wholewheat flour in biscuits have not yielded satisfactory answers. B.B. Biscuits say their Falcon Digestives are " nearest to vegan requirements." It may be worth noting here that compost-grown wholewheat can now be obtained direct from growers, for home milling, on licence from the Ministry of Food. The following sweets and chocolates are at present free from animal matter, and are not very likely to vary: — Nestle's Superfine Chocolate lines. Needier's Barley Sugar Drops, Glace Fruit Drops, Cascade Mints, Paradise Fruits, Royal Fruit Drops and Dessert Nut Chocolate. Terry's Bitter Chocolate, Oliver Twist Chocolate lines, Almond Dessert Chocolate, marzipan filled blocks, and boiled sweets. Beech's Mint Discs, and their Muscatel, Grapefruit and Coffee Chocolate contain .25 per cent, of lecithin, which appears to be an animal substance. Scarcely any of our food is not tampered with in some degree by growers, cooks, food-chemists, scientists, millers or get-rich-quick business men. With the best of intentions, some of them think that they are thereby improving and purifying the people's food, but the increasing digestive troubles of the people do not support this belief. S.D.S.



will be observed in the preliminary notice of this year's Annual Conference, the subject is to be " Veganism and Agriculture," and so these notes have a close relationship to our big brother— agriculture, the basic occupation of human life on this planet, and the keystone of all things. The relationship between veganism and agriculture is an extremely close one, hence the importance of this Conference, for, if a system of agriculture which does not rely upon the exploitation of animals cannot maintain a healthy soil and a healthy people (and there are those critics who are satisfied that it cannot), then our whole vegan case and ideal must fall down. The attitude of the vegetarian who still requires his dairy produce is a sad compromise, the facts of which are sufficiently obvious to trouble the conscience of many people, and no further comment is necessary here. It may be that a vegan horticulture must be established first: that is, the smaller unit of a more individual and intimate culture of greater variety, as against the large areas of a few types as favoured by agriculture. Indeed, it seems that vegan agriculture might not emerge, but that " agriculture," as we now know it, may be superseded by " vegan horticulture." As has been pointed out before, the only way to know just how a plant has been produced and grown is to grow it oneself, and this truth, coupled with the fact that vegans are tending to move away from cereals, which require grinding and cooking— and cereals are the chief product of agriculture—to the more varied and raw diet of a garden or market garden, seems to indicate that vegan horticulture may well be the answer to a great problem. This would mean the dispersal of the population of large towns and cities to homes and gardens scattered over the large areas at present devoted to large-scale agriculture, and thus provide a solution of many of the problems at present troubling the thinking man. A correspondent has associated the word " waste" with the unconsumed food left on the plates by customers in restaurants. Discriminating vegans would probably say that most of the cooked food in such places, whether eaten or left on the plate, is rather wasted, but it is not wasted from the horticultural point of view, even if it does get back to the soil via the pig-bin. The waste we deplore is the result of systems which dispose of residues by the incinerator or by sewage being emptied into the sea. It would appear to be impossible under our present economy to return to the soil of the large agricultural areas the necessary material to keep the soil in good heart, either with or without the use of animals. The produce is conveyed to the industrial areas, sometimes hundreds of miles away, and nothing much in the way of return is made.



This is the crux of the matter, because man and land can only be really healthy and whole when there is an understanding and an intimate connection between, them, and when the garden, with the home, becomes part of the harmonious family unit, mail, soil, and health—another eternal triangle, from which no part can be separated or the perfection of the triangle ceases to be. It is not intended to anticipate here the findings of the Conference, but merely to consider some of the lines of thought that may emerge; the keynote may well be " Waste not—want not." •


(Vegans can assist one another greatly by an interchange of methods, ideas, exp Please submit these direct to Mr. Martin at " Bishop s.Stortford, Herts.) IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT In order to be free to .resume his prbifessional work and to devote more time to The Vegan Guest Centre, Mr. G. Allan Henderson, C.A., has resigned from the positions of Secretary and Treasurer of The Vegan Society. The Committee have appointed as his successor, Mr. Bruce Litten of "Steepholme," Shipham, Winscombe, Somerset, to whom therefore all general correspondence should now be addressed, including the payment of. subscriptions. • Mr. Henderson is retaining the Editorship of The Vegan and all letters in this connection should therefore continue to be sent to him at Rydal Lodge, Ambleside. THE ANIMALS FAIR This is held regularly in London towards the end of the year and TheVegan Society have had a Stall there on two occasions, Mr. and Mrs. Henderson being in charge in 1947 and Mrs. Muriel Drake in 1948. A great deal of interest was aroused and, the Society's funds derived .much benefit from the sale of literature, calendars and gifts. Besides being personally responsible for the management of the Stall, Mrs. Drake (and some other members) made a great many vegan cakes for sale, as a demonstration of good fare without eggs or milk. Members will" be advised in good time of any arrangements that, might be made again this year.

i T h e Vegan Society—Preliminary Notice Saturday, 26th November, at 2.30 p.m. Annual Conference on " Veganism and Agriculture " at Friends' House, London, N . W . I . The 1 speakers will include Mr. Wilfred Wellock. Followed by tea and Annual General Meeting of the Society.

GOOD FOOD Our Members, Walter and Amy Little, of Uplands, Wihscombe, Somerset, are able to supply compost-grown vegetables and fruits to anyone desiring these. Kindly write direct for particulars.







Australia (1945)

r P H E coconut, in the minds of most people, is associated with tropic shores, waving palms, or the humble fibrous nut that is obtainable from the grocer. But the coconut of commerce and industry has a far richer and more romantic background than that. W h e r e this prolific palm (Cocos nucifera) originated, nobody knows. It is said that South America may have been the birthplace, but the more general opinion is that the Malay Archipelago was the centre from which it was propagated. T h e first recorded observation on the coconut palm in the Western world was probably made about 300 B.C. by Megasthenes. Although the coconut palm was recognised at that time for its usefulness, it was not until 2,000 years later, after the beginning of the nineteenth century, that the copra nut and the oil extracted therefrom became of great economic importance. This rise to prominence, generally due to the development of ocean transport, was more particularly a result of the growing demand for vegetable oils —a direct result of the flood of inventions which was making it possible to manufacture soaps and margarine from the raw product. A n English patent for making soap from coconut oil was taken out in 1841. This was the forerunner of a great many processes for converting vegetable oils into useful commodities. The French v/ars of the mid-nineteenth century stimulated the search for a substitute f o r butter, and it was the Frenchman Tissier who, in 1897, first registered a patent for hydrogenating or hardening vegetable oils so that they might be used in margarine. Subsequent to this and other discoveries, particularly those making deodorising possible, rapid progress was made, until to-day coconut oil stands third on the list of the world's most important vegetable oils. A s the oil expressed from the copra is by far the most valuable product of the coconut palm, it would be as well to pay attention to the manner of its extraction and afterwards glance at its byproducts and their uses. T h e manufacture of copra involves the removal of the husk, splitting the nut into two halves, and a drying process effected either in the sun or in ovens or in both. The copra is assayed according to its maturity, and then subjected to a disintegrator that breaks up the oil-laden cups into gratings. It is then pressed in powerful hydraulic or screw-type expellers after a preliminary heating in giant kettles designed to rupture the oil-containing cells still f u r t h e r . T h e half-expressed meal is again disintegrated and passed between heavy steel rollers which completely break up the cells before the final heating in the kettles and subsequent pressure. The residual cake that is left after expression is used as cattle fodder and



has a very high protein content as well as a small but important proportion of fats and minerals. Strange as it may seem, coconut oil, before being ready as an edible oil, either in the form of margarine or as vegetable butter, is first made into a soap to remove the free fatty acids and the albuminous and mucilaginous matters. It is then freed from moisture and bleached by treatment with Fuller's earth or activated charcoal which, incidentally, is prepared by burning up the coconut shell. This fine white oil is then charged in a sealed cylinder with superheated steam and all the odoriferous substances are blown out. By a series of complicated chemical and physical processes, certain oleins in the oils are forced to adopt an additional hydrogen atom, and the resulting product is termed a hardened oil. Subsequent congealing and expressing in hydraulic presses yields solid stearines, and liquid oleins separate out. The solid matter is melted at a low heat and churned with a little oil and water, and perhaps a certain proportion of artificial flavouring or butter itself is added. This hard fat or coconut stearine is used largely in the manufacture of chocolate, to replace the coco butter that is somewhat dearer and more difficult to procure. The liquid portion is used extensively in the preparation of baking fats and cooking oils, and in the manufacture of certain soft sweetmeats, such as caramels. Coconut oil is one of the most complex chemical oils known, and certainly one of the most useful. Laurie acid, constituting about fifty per cent of this oil, is responsible for its remarkable cleansing properties when made up into a soap with alkalis. Liquid shampoos are invariably made up with coconut oil, and their profuse lathering properties are well known. Marine, scouring and floating soaps, shaving creams and cold creams may all owe their existence to the humble coconut. It has been proved that coconut oil in the form of margarine is more easily digestible than butter or any other type of prepared oils or fats. Although freshly grated coconut will not keep for any length of time, it keeps almost indefinitely if it is dried. It is in the form of desiccated coconut that most people become familiar with the delicious taste of this vegetable " meat." The milk of the coconut contains approximately twenty-seven per cent of oil in an emulsion form, and its sweetness is due to the fifteen per cent of sugar contained therein. Although it could be used as a substitute for cow's milk in certain instances, it lacks the nutritionally important fat-soluble vitamins A and D and certain necessary minerals. Taken all in all, the coconut must be recognised for its very c valuable contribution to the welfare of mankind in both human and animal diet and for the provision of that very necessary article, soap. There is more value in the romantic palm than one might think.

T H E V E G A N -22


lines, 4 / - : extra lines. 1/6 ea.; 20% allowed on four consecutive issues.)

W H O L E W H E A T FLOUR, grain, fruit, vegetables and seeds—grown without chemicals. Whole Food Society members (JEI initially, annual subscription 10/6) receive produce direct from qrganic_growers. •Dept. " K," Goosegreen Farm, Bridgwater, Somerset. L E A R N T O SPEAK A N D WRITE.—Lessons by v ( 5 / - ) . Classes (1/6).—Dorothy Matthews, B.A., London, N . W . 3 . PRImrose 5686.


" V E G A N RECIPES."—By Mrs. Fay K. Henderson. Appetising and Nutritious Fare without Inimal or dairy products. Revised Edition, price 2 / 8 , ready soon, from Rydal Lodge, Ambleside, Westmorland. K A T H A R I N E M A C D O N A L D , D.P.Sc.; Dietetist. Specialises " K i n d n e s s " in thought, word, deed. Postal advice. Health House, 6 Lansdowne Crescent, Kelvinbridge, Glasgow. BOOKS O N L O A N sent by post, send S.A.E. part health, travel and nature books.—A. Salmon, Gorleston, Gt. Yarmouth, Norfolk.

g ,

N E W Q U A Y . — W o u l d readers who wrote to Box 52 " T h e Vegan," and received no r e ply kindly write again? ESTABLISHMENTS C A T E R I N G FOR VEGANS. CAMBRIDGE.—Colonic irrigation, massage, infra-red radiant heat, diets, etc. one or two resident guest patients taken.—Mrs. E. Jepp (late Ghampneys), 19B Victoria Street. Tel. 2867. LAKE DISTRICT.—Beck Allans and Rothay Bank, Grasmere. Attractive guest houses for invigorating, refreshing holidays.—Write: Isabel James. P E N A R T H . — " Vegetarian Home," Rectory Road. Rest, change, relaxation. Ideal situation. Pleasant holiday resort, overlooking sea. Attractive, generous catering. Sun Lounge. H. & C. Send for new Brochure. SCARBOROUGH.—Vegans welcomed in pr district. Generous diet.—Miss V . Carr,

good residential .

S C O T L A N D . — W e s t Highland Coast. Vegans welcomed in private house in ng sea-loch. Donald and Muriel Crabb, , Tarbert, Argyll. S U R R E Y HILLS.—Vegetarian Country Club .700 ft. up,, grand views and walks. Cent. Htg., Garage. From £ 4 / 4 / 0 p.w. N O EXTRAS. Illus. brochure.—Upwood House, Caterham. Tel. 3633.. . ST.

C A T H E R I N E ' S SCHOOL, Almondsbury, Nr. Bristol. — Progressive co-educational boarding school for children of all ages, specialising in music, dancing, crafts, etc., in addition to usual academic subjects. 400 ft. up, overlooking Channel and Welsh Hills. Own produce.

N. D E V O N . — F o u r Winds, Westward H o ! Details Vegan V., No. 1, page 9. Brochure now ready. Telephone Everett, Northam 405.



SOMERSET.—Why not spend' a happy, healthy holiday at Uplands, Vegan, .Vegetarian and Food Reform Guest House, which is situated in a'lovely position in own 16-acre composted fruit farm. Bread, cakes and biscuits homemade from 100% wholewheat. N ° chemicals used in either growth or preparation of food. Excellent centre for places of interest—Cheddar, Weston-S-Mare, Wells, etc. Putting, Tennis, provided. Stamp for brochure to Amy Little, Uplands, Winscombe, Somerset. Tel. 2257. W ESTG ATE-ON-SE A, KENT .—-Small private Guest House, vegan and vegetarian. No smoking; One minute sands, near station. All rooms h. and c. basins, single beds, in tresses. Terms 4.-5$ guineas weekly.—Mrs. Arnaldi, ..


NATURE CURE H0ME& HEALTH HYDRO Inveresk House, Inveresk, Midlothian

("6 miles from Edinburgh) Treatments include: Fasting, Dietetics, Colonic Irrigation, Spinal Manipulation, Massage, Bergonie1 Therapy, Radiant Light1 and Heat, Baths, etc. Dieting is on non-flesh food reform lines, sympathetic towards Vegan i . principles. A fullv qualified physician is in residence.





In the heart of the English Lakes.



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H O T E L !



Fragrant Himalayan Deodars and Lebanon Cedars surrounding six acres of Green Lawns. 3 6 acres Tropical Gardens and rare flowering shrubs gently sloping to the sea. Fruit Orchards a n d Vegetable Gardens entirely compost grown. A haven of shelter w h e r e mimosa, rhododendrons, camellias and roses bloom in winter. Delightful in summer. Ideal for- week-ends. Only half hour from • Portsmouth. . Terms 3-2-8 gns., according to room and season. S . A . E . Brochure: 'Phone: Ryde 2152.



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Some Further S t r a i g h t f o r w a r d Facts I n my previous T a l k s to y o u British Housewives, I stressed the need of " F r o m e n t " to build up your shattered nerves, a n d I now give y o u a f e w more s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d facts about this wonderful V i t a m i n Bi n e r v e restorer : — " F r o m e n t " is prepared solely from the L I V I N G S E E D in t h e wheat-grain, t h e embryo of the wheat-to-be. T h i s wheat-ertibryo is amazingly rich in F I R S T - C L A S S P R O T E I N , t h e substance essential for t h e repair and r e n e w a l of t h e b o d y ; w h i c h means t h a t it helps to m a k e good any present or possible shortage of such foods as cheese, eggs, nuts, etc., a n d it is more readily assimilated t h a n any of these. T h e w h e a t - e m b r y o is k n o w n to be T H E R I C H E S T N A T U R A L S O U R C E OF T H E B i V I T A M I N , w h i c h is essential to t h e brain a n d nervous system, to good digest i o n a n d normal b o w e l a c t i v i t y . I t c o n t a i n s L I T T L E OR N O S T A R C H ! F R O M E N T is so prepared t h a t the invaluable oil c o n t e n t ( V i t a m i n E) remains unimpaired. " F r o m e n t " has a noticeably f i n e F L A V O U R a n d a n a t t r a c t i v e T E X T U R E , and its G O L D E N C O L O U R truly indicates its sterling w o r t h . " F r o m e n t " is M O S T E C O N O M I C A L , the i / - C a r t o n contains 18 ounces n e t t , w h i c h w o r k s o u t a t approximately O N E P E N N Y A D A Y . I t is ready for use. FROMENT


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