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A D V O C A T E S that man's food should be derived from fruits, nuts, vegetables a n d grains, and E N C O U R A G E S the use of alternaiives to all products of animal origin.


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LITERATURE " A n A d d r e s s on Veganism " By Donald W a t s o n

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Should Vegetarians eat Dairy P r o d u c e ? " By Donald W a t s o n -


Vegetarian Recipes without Dairy Produce " B y Margaret B. Rawls


Is Milk a C u r s e ? " B y James A . Goodfellow, M . B . C . M .


M a n ' s Natural F o o d " B y D r . Sydney M . Whitaker -


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The Vegan " 1947 Numbers . Set of four complete S p r i n g , 1948 FROM



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YORKSHIRE—Mrs. Gates, Leeds. MIDLANDS.—Mrs. Streetly, Staffs. BRISTOL.—Mrs. Bristol, 4.


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M A N C H E S T E R — M i s s A n n E. Owens, Northenden. S C O T T I S H S E C T I O N . — M r . R. J. Handley, Baillieston, nr. Glasgow: Miss D. M . Sutherland, R o a d , Edinburgh. ( P l e a s e communicate with your nearest G r o u p Secretary).




Quarterly Journal of The Vegan Editor:

Vol. IV

G. A L L A N H E N D E R S O N , R Y D A L L O D G E ,

SUMMER, 1948


No. 2

EDITORIAL R E C E N T advertisement of the R.S.P.C.A. showed the pathetic picture of a calf, with the wording: " This little calf was sent to market on the day that he was born. . . . Dragged from his birthhour sleep, he was bundled, limp and helpless, into a lorry for the bruising, jolting journey to market, there to endure weary hours, foodless, comfortless, before meeting a possibly unmerciful death." The R.S.P.C.A. is doing splendid work in ameliorating the lot of these hapless creatures, but it is questionable whether its efforts will achieve much more than bring about some improvement in the transport ar>d market conditions, and perhaps take action in any reported case of flagrant cruelty. The fact remains that the birth of these calves has been arranged by man, who then plans that their natural milk shall be available for human consumption. It is all a sordid, sorry business, the details of which are realised by only a few people, yet it has developed because of the incessant demand for milk, butter and cheese, all of which are quite unnecessary to humans. It has not yet been demonstrated that dairy farming, to meet this demand, can be carried out without mass slaughter and exploitation, and the only true answer to the R.S.P.C.A. appeal is to diminish the consumption of cow's milk and its products. Each conscientious individual, appreciating the urgency of this appeal, can make an immediate response by a change in daily diet. The realisation and frank admission on the part of official vegetarianism that their definition is faulty and illogical, in permitting any animal foods whatsoever, would without doubt hasten the more general abstinence from dairy products and facilitate a national approach to the Authorities concerned for a steady reduction in the cattle population of this country. One effect would be to release considerable areas of land for the growing of vegetables and grains for direct human nourishment. Elsewhere in this issue, reference is made to the battery system of egg production, following the outspoken article by Mr. Easterbrook in Picture Post of May 15th. This disgusting practice has been deprecated on several occasions in this journal, raising a voice, not only on behalf of the creatures themselves, but also of mankind. Quite independently, however, one of our members wrote to the Prime



Minister and to Sir Stafford Cripps, drawing their attention to the Picture Post article, and received a reply from the Poultry Branch of the Ministry of Agriculture that they had "no evidence that the battery system of poultry keeping, which is used mainly for egg production on intensive lines, causes any suffering to the birds when it is carried out with due regard to their feeding and hygiene. One of the advantages of the system is that it enables a more effective control to be exercised over the birds from the point of view of disease," and also that it is open to anyone to report any particular case in which fowls are being cruelly ill'treated. It is indeed reprehensive that in official circles there is no recognition of the sanctity of life. Therefore it is only through individual efforts that we can hope to achieve any real improvement in the lives of these domestic animals which are being increasingly exploited to provide mankind with unnatural and unnecessary " food." T H E WAY OF


B y TOM W . MOULE, N . D .

E R E can be no doubt that the vegan "way of life," based on the commandment " Thou shalt not kill," is an idealogical conception of no small merit. Some seventeen years of practice in dealing with human physical and psychological problems, however, give the writer considerable doubt as to the practicability of the ideal in our world of to'day. Some of the sweeping and generalised il.iims made for vegan feeding seem to indicate a much greater enthusiasm than a knowledge and understanding of natural laws. Obviously the fundamental injunction on which vegankm is based cannot be carried to its logical conclusion, so long as Man needs food to live. The cutting of vegetables, the removal of fruit, all entail exploitation and pain to sensitive nervous systems, which, although not obvious, may be none the less real. The stirring of the soil, the very act of walking about, inevitably cause suffering and death to innumerable forms of life. One must therefore be careful that one does not become bound by an ideal or an "ism" to the exclusion of the power of discerning true fundamentals. Exploitation, suffering, misery, want, cruelty, are by no means limited to the animal kingdom, and are evidences of Man's disharmony with Universal and Divine Law. The love of the animal should surely be part of the expression of the love for the whole of creation, beginning with one's fellow-man. The exploitation of the animal is not a necessary part even of a lacto-vegetarian regime, but is an expression of human avarice, greed, fear and commercialisation. T H E S E are the true problems which face mankind throughout the world, and which face every individual, since the world is but the individual multiplied. Because this is so, every one of us is responsible in some degree for world conditions. Because we are not aware of

21 THE VfiGAN ourselves, of the action of our minds, of the habits of thought, which dictate our actions, we continue the same old beliefs, the same unintelligent thinking which has produced and continues to perpetuate the suffering and frustration so evident in our modern world. Man is continually searching outwardly for the answers to his problems; he desires leaders, teachers, authorities, who will tell him how to live, and give him a code or an ideal which will satisfy his inward craving or give him a system which will remove his fears or his necessity for self-effort. He fails to realise that all Truth, all Wisdom, all Power, •lies deep W I T H I N himself; it cannot be acquired, it must be R E L E A S E D . Thought-habits, fears, beliefs, constantly repeated without integral awareness, perpetuate the mind conditioned by the accumulations of one or many lives. Until we see ourselves as we really are—until we recognise how Mind is built up of past experiences and influences—we shall continue to act, not as free human beings, but by the dictates of habits and fears. The secret of regaining the state of harmony and well-being on all planes of life is a process of E L I M I N A T I O N , not acquisition. It is for us to recognise, by constant awareness, the artificialities, the physical, mental and spiritual obstructions which we have accumulated; such awareness is die first step to "dissolving" that which is false, and so releasing the Truth within. A clean and healthy diet, grown in accordance with natural principles, is a valuable step in removing some of the physical grossness, and for many people is the first step on the "path," but the insistence on an ideal, the development of a "cult" or- "ism" contains within itself the seeds of its own destruction. When we have freed ourselves—and we C A N free ourselves—from our litaitations, our artificialities, our beliefs, our fears, our desire to perpetuate the "self," T H E N , and then only, shall we know our true relationship with our fellows. The man who has Love in his heart, who is not bound by fear or convention, needs no force, no societies, no "isms" to persuade or educate him as to his attitude to his brothers the world over, be they human or animal. Herein, then, lies the only true Way of Life —the recognition and treatment of C A U S E S rather than effects—the elimination of that which is unnatural and artificial, and the R E L E A S E of that which is true, " the Kingdom of God " which lies W I T H I N . Thus can we find "the peace which passeth understanding," and the wisdom to act wisely in the interests of all Life. [The Editorial to the Spring, 1947, issue of this journal stated t h a t : T h e " officials" of T h e Vegan Society have hitherto deliberately avoided making any claims that the adoption of the Vegan W a y of Life would in itself result in complete health for the individual. T h e Society is primarily concerned with the cruelty, exploitation and slaughter involved by the human consumption of animal food. . . . That a measure of health improvement does nevertheless result is being continuously testified by practising vegans. Many factors contribute to gaining and maintaining sound health, and sensible, natural food is only one of them. Readers are also referred to T h e President's Log in this issue.—ED.]



ACTOTEM A S u m m a r y of Recent Events Edinburgh A t the half-yearly meetings The Vegetarian Society held in Edinburgh in May, indications of the vegan trend were evidenced at each session among both audience and speakers. The Cookery Demonstration given by Mrs. Fay. K. Henderson was a complete success; printed recipes were distributed, and the appreciative audience sampled the various dishes. The title " Savouries Without M e a t " and " Sweets Without Eggs and M i l k " attracted a large number of people, but it was unfortunate that so many were unable to obtain admittance. A return visit has therefore been suggested. Birmingham The Editor recently gave a talk on " The Merits of a Natural D i e t " to the British Health Freedom Society in this city, and it was well received. A n animated discussion followed, and many questions were asked concerning veganism. This again confirms that there is a growing interest in the principles of our way of living, and there is a great need for many more similar lectures throughout the country. London Vegan Group The following are extracts from the Secretary's Report submitted to the Group's A.G.M. on 13th March last: T h e year has seen considerable progress within the Group; membership has greatly increased, the great financial crisis when we were almost threatened with extinction has been overcome, the London Vegan Letter has appeared regularly each quarter, and a series of public meetings and social events has been arranged.

In conclusion, I think we may look back on the past year as one of marked progress in the vegan cause and as an important phase in the history of our Group. W e have grown from small membership and have passed through' difficult times, but we have now, I think, a solid foundation on which to build. Let us re-dedicate ourselves anew to those ideals which we know are right and make a resolution here and now to put all we know into the attaining of these values, and to make our lives a shining example of the things in which we believe. Remember that it is by example rather than by word that others will judge us and our cause.

Report by the Treasurer A t 31st May, The Vegan Society had funds in hand of roughly ÂŁ160 after meeting all obligations. During the three months to that date, the sum of ÂŁ5 Is. was received specifically for the Secretarial Fund, as against ÂŁ62 7s. 6d. in the previous quarter, and members are reminded of the appeal by the President in the Winter, 1947 issue of The Vegan. Our Life Members now total forty-five. G.A.H.

21 T H E VfiGAN





a recent number of Picture Post there were two articles which INwere apparently on entirely different subjects but which were

actually closely connected. The first was on the battery system of producing eggs, which the writer described, quite rightly, as " nasty." The second was on Henry Moore and his contribution to the open-air exhibition of sculpture in Battersea Park. We all know about the iniquitous battery system of producing eggs, which cannot be too sternly censured, and we have seen photo' graphs of Henry Moore's Battersea Park exhibit. It consists of three massive female forms with knobs for heads. The fact that such a travesty of womanhood should be offered to the nation as a masterpiece, and even accepted as such to some extent, would be laughable were it not pathetic. Some critics will object to adverse criticism. They will say, " Oh, but you don't understand! There is something in this work. You can't dismiss it as a mere absurdity." Yes, of course, there is something in it. There lies behind it the drive of a powerful personality that refuses to be overlooked and is determined to attract attention at all costs. But the creator of these monsters has no message of hope for the world. He knows nothing of the true artist's role of inspirer, spiritual leader, or revealer of life. Escape from mediocrity is not by way of the macabre, but through Life. How can we understand life except by living rightly? And how can we live rightly except by reducing the exploitation of life, as far as we possibly can, in our own lives? Mechanised exploitation of life, such as milking by electricity and the battery egg production, are logical developments of animal exploitation in a mechanising age. The appropriate expression in art of this mechanisation is a presentation of the female human form with a knob for a head. The female human form as an emblem of reproduction matters very much indeed in such a system, and her head is of little account. The woman must produce more and more children to feed the huge machine of war, which is the Fear-God of the mechanical age. If Henry Moore's exhibit is a warning in stone of man's uninspiring end, along the wrong road, well and good: such art gives no indication of the right way to salvation. That must be by non-exploitation of animal life, and this must inevitably lead to a fuller understanding of all life. This is the only door into a brave new world. It sounds simple, but its consequences reach far into eternity. Few are ready to take this first step, this A B C of life, but it is the only way, and the artists of the new age must take it as prophets and pioneers. The brightness of its prospect is dazsling. We can only lay the foundations of this New Jerusalem, but we know that its corner-stone is Veganism. We have new standards of living which must be applied to Art. Who would not take part, however humbly, in such a Great Adventure?






B y LESLIE J. CROSS T h e fallowing is an extract from the second part of a talk entitled " A n i m a l Emancipation related to H u m a n P r o g r e s s , " given recently to a G r o u p of T h e Society of Friends.

*Ti E T us consider the second broad aspect of man's relationship with - L ' the world of animals—the aspect by which man affects himself. Now it cannot be denied that when two elements, be they human, animal, vegetable or mineral, have contact, the effect is inescapably mutual. That is, that by virtue of the contact between them, each is affected. According to the nature and intensity of the contact, so is the nature and intensity of the effect. There is no act which does not have some effect, and there is no act involving two or more elements which does not affect each of them. What, then, is the effect upon man of the nature and intensity of his contact with his fellowcreatures? It is, I submit, this: that by the creation and continued employment of a code of behaviour which is cruel, parasitical and selfish, man injures not only those upon whom he inflicts his cruelties, his parasitical practices and his selfishness, but he inflicts restraints upon iris own evolution. By fastening himself as a parasite upon his fellow-creatures he creates an anchor, as it were, at which the upwardaspiring element in his nature drags in vain to be free. In specialised instances, of which the slaughterer is one example, he inflicts upon this element not merely an inhibition: he drags it down in chains. It has been said by witnesses that in the shambles of Chicago it is difficult to believe that the men whose daily work is perpetual killing have the spark of humanity left within them. If that is an extreme example, it is nevertheless a symbol of the depths to which man may sink as the result of fundamentally immoral behaviour. *




In order to keep our thoughts largely upon the transcendental aspect of the relationship, I do not want to divert much attention to those physical results which, though of relative importance, are in fact incidental. But it does need to be stated that, if one accepts that there is order in the universe, it follows that ethical error cannot be scientific veracity. A number of diseases and ailments are no doubt traceable to ethical error in that they are brought about or intensified by the consumption of foods which have an immoral basis in that their production involves cruelty or violent death, or both. The coarse and heavy protein taken into the human body in the form of animal flesh and animal milk is a source of trouble, and it is significant that the incidence of cancer is highest in those parts of the earth where most animal milk is drunk. Milk-borne diseases are recognised even by those who take no account of the inevitable

21 T H E VfiGAN

cruelties involved in dairying. Many indeterminate ailments may ultimately be traced at least in part to the use of immoral foods. There are, in addition, influences more subtle and less obvious than protein of the wrong kind. As the result of the terror which suffuses many animals at the moment of death, the ductless glands pour secretions into the blood. These glands are in some ways the link between the psychical and physical nature of all animals, including man, for, though their activation is primarily psychical, their effect is physical. The secretions aroused by terror cannot fail to affect adversely for him the flesh which man ultimately consumes. There are also further subtle influences only now beginning to be seriously studied—the non-physical, or vibrational, properties of food. While at the moment it would be unwise to base one's arguments largely upon these studies, it is probably not irrelevant to connect the modern habit of pumping animal milk into schoolchildren with the revelation by more than one educational authority of a noticeable increase in mental dullness. Certainly, it is not irrelevant to set against this the clear evidence that one of the characteristics of vegan children (who do not take animal milk in any form) is outstanding mental alertness. *




In the sphere of fundamental principle we have to consider the violence which is inevitable in the existing relationship. If violence, with its culminating peak in war, is undesirable, it is so because it is a principle withholding man from the attainment of higher and purer states of being. If violence between men is undesirable, how much less desirable is violence done by men to utterly helpless creatures? Again, the cheapness of human life cannot in a complete analysis be separated from the cheapness of animal life. "The only sin," said Emerson, " is limitation." We err, and we err greatly, when we limit the application of abiding principles to one section of the world's inhabitants. Animals share with us the habitation of this globe, and they are as entitled as we to the benefits of a natural and developmental evolution. We who might learn much from them and who might with love aid them in their evolution, offer them not love, not even tolerance, but a philosophy which is exemplified by the steel of the slaughterer's knife and of the bit in the horse's mouth. We conduct against them a war of aggression even less principled than the wars between men. Truly, he who says he loves peace cannot love peace wholly if he turns upon his fellow-creatures in an act of slaughter. One of the experiences of one who humbly and deeply seeks the truth is that, when higher feelings pervade his mind, he is unable to confine their application to the human race alone. When Paul Brunton, writing of man, refers to "the immeasurable Infinite that pervades his measurable being," he goes on to say that it speaks to him "of his oneness with all that lives, whether in the human or animal



kingdom, and hence inculcates the primary duty of universal compassion." In the sphere of positive evidence, there are those rare but revealing glimpses of the way in which man's evolution is aided as the result of a reformed relationship with nature. Man has somehow slipped in this relationship, with undesirable consequences to both nature and himself. H e is out of trine with nature—he bears a relationship to her which might be likened to a geographical fault. If he could return to his rightful place, if he could approach her as a friend and a lover instead of as a dissecting botanist and a murderous overlord, the resultant harmony would constitute a tremendous and incalculable evolutionary gain. One of those rare occasions when this has taken place is described by Adams Beck in his Book " The House of Fulfilment." By an act of unpremeditated love, the author found himself in momentary friendship with the wild creatures in a Himalayan forest. He never had, he says, " a pleasure so pure and selfless as that perfect trust of a wild thing." It was a high point in his evolution, and while it lasted it overwhelmed him with an intensity of feeling whose effect never left him. " Does it seem much," he asks, " t o spring from a small cause? How can I tell? I \new in that moment that I would break truce no more. Those wild bright eyes looked up into mine, and my shooting days were done." W e cannot, even if we would, escape our kinship with all that lives. W e may violate it—as we do—but in the end we shall learn that the price of violation is paid not by the animals alone, but also by the soul of man. QUOTATIONS " H e will be regarded as a benefactor of his race who shall teach man to confine himself to a more innocent and wholesome diet." THOREAU.

" M a n will never be himself until he seriously works for that end, which the earth awaits from him; the harmonious union in peace and brotherhood of all living creatures." MICHELBT. " If nnimals could talk, would we then dare to kill and eat them? How could wr then justify such fratricide?" VOLTAIRE. " I'm truly sorry man's dominion H a s broken Nature's social union, A n ' jus ifies that ill opinion Which makes thee startle At me, thou poor earth-born companion, An* fellow m o r t a l ! " " T o a Mouse," by ROBERT BURNS. " T h e behaviour of men to the lower animals and their behaviour to each other, bear a constant relationship." HERBERT SPENCER—" Social Statics."


WASTES ". . . mightily and sweetly ordereth all things " By T. W .


" 1 7 E G A N S have divergent views about using animal manure. I hold * that the true solution of such problems is a mighty, sweet and orderly integration of all the right principles involved; and that such a solution must always exist. Nor will it be a compromise; each principle will reinforce every other. In this case the true solution must be compatible with commonsense, the workings of unfettered nature, and mutual help among animals and man and all the other kingdoms. Practical solutions must also take things as they are into account. To that extent only will there be compromise. What happens in unfettered nature? Return to the soil is seldom made to the exact source of the animals' (including man's) food, or to the source of food of the same species; must indeed goes to no current source of food at all. Most waste matter travels a few yards or miles—a small proportion goes to another continent, some into the sea, some to guano islands or barren rocks. A much larger proportion in the form of gaseous waste (carbon dioxide from animals, oxygen from plants) is spread all over the world; other gasess are, under natural conditions, immediately sweetened by dilution—the "wind" has gone with the wind. Distribution of gases is fairly uniform, except in towns and near coasts with prevailing sea winds. Thus the importing of animal manure, whether by spade and bucket from the road or by purchase, does not violate nature. It certainly conforms with the criterion of mutual help, but the importer (or the whole body of importers) should recognise and discharge the obligation either automatically or of set policy. It surely makes sense. If manure from improperly fed animals can harm soil and plants, the case against commercial methods is strengthened, not that against animal manure as such. The only other question is a quantitative one: how much, if any, is needed in each case? This depends on the state of the soil, the true needs of the crops, and the amount of current losses to be made up. In practice, experience must guide: if human and plant wastes are fully used, losses will be small and the needed amount of animal manure small (unless the soil is impoverished or unequal to the needs of the crops being grown), and the harm to soil and plants due to improper feeding of animals will probably be negligible. Summarising, I suggest that manure from wild or properly fed tame animals may be used freely, but manure from commercial animals should be used very sparingly. In the latter case, full use of human and plant wastes become imperative; in the former, such use is also desirable on general grounds, and greatly reduces the amount of animal manure needed.





Salt T h e use of salt in cooking or on the table is entirely optional. Some who like the taste of salt prefer to use rock sea salt or the rough block cooking salt, a s it is nearer the natural state than the varieties of refined table salt. O t h e r s who h a v e been living on natural f o o d s for s a m e time can easily dis' p e n s e with the use of salt entirely. Instead of salt, dehydrated powdered vegetables such as celery, parsley, dulse (sea lettuce) or kelp may be used. A n o t h e r g o o d akernative for salt is V e s o p , which is prepared entirely from hydrolised wheat and green vegetable matter with no added salt whatever. It is v e r y convenient to use, being in liquid form and readily added to sauces, s o u p s or cooking dishes. Notepaper A s a n u m b e r of our members were anxious to ensure that their notepaper w a s free of any animal contents, we approached one of the largest manuf a c t u r e r s a n d have received this r e p l y : — T h e basic raw materials of p a p e r a r e : Vegetable rags, i.e. cotton, etc.; grass i.e. e s p a r t o and straw; wood, i.e. spruce. T h e only animal substance used in the m a n u f a c t u r e of paper is the size u s e d as a surface dressing for the be'ter qualities of paper. All other p a p e r s are sized with alum; thus you need have no hesitation in using any p a p e r which is not described as " Animal T u b S i z e d . " Train


W e have recently had occasion to travel by train from Euston to Windermere, and by telephone arrangement the previous evening with the Train M e a l s D e p a r t m e n t a: Euston Station we have been served with a vesre'arian l u n c h without eggs, cheese, or milk, at the ordinary charge. T h e m^a' consisted of special lentil soup, a generous variety of vegetables, fresh salad of l e t t u c e and t o m a ' o , stewed fruit with " s y n t h e t i c " cream, black coffee. We w r o e to the Bri'ish Railways Hotel Services expressing our aDnreciaf'on of t h e meal and the special arrangements that were made, and received a courteous reply. Readers need have no hesitation in following our example. Kosher


O n e of our Vice-Presidents recently wrote to the Ministry of Food concerning th ; s product, and received the following letter: — R e p l y i n g to your letter of the 17th A p - i l . aHHrested to the Ministry of F o o d , L o n d o n , I h a v e to say that vegetable oils only are used in the p r o d u c ' i o n of v e g e t a r i a n A o s h e r margarine, the oils being chiefly cocoanut a n d g r o u n d nut. T h e r e is n o milk or sMt used as ingredients, but the margarine is fortified by the addition of Vitamins A and D . Unusual




T h e following has been received from " L . D . , " D o r s e t : It would be interesting to k n o w what o'her vegans put in their salad bowl besides the ordinary cultivated c r o p s — I mean things that you can e n c o u r a g e in an odd corner, like tansy or fennel, or can allow to come u p ( i n m o d e r a t i o n ) amongst other crops, like fumitory and chickweed. I enclose my own list. M y own feel'ng is that even a small quan'i y of things like this does one more good than a much larger a m o u n ' of tired lettuce f r o m a shop. W h a t do you think? A n d to get the full value of a b r e a k f a s t salad one wants to g o out and pick it f o r oneself in the morni n g sunshine.





First C l a s s : Dandelion, sorrel ( l a r g e and small), tansy, garlic mustard, winter cress, bitter cress, black mustard, thinnings of almost any Second Class: Fennel, rosebay, yarrow, orache, fumitory, chickweed, wood sorrel, tender young leaves of blackcurrant, sweet briar, hawthorn and, when met wi.h, salad burnet and samphire. T h e same reader has also sent us this suggestion for a vegan r a r e b i t : Fry lightly, or toast, two pieces of bread. Spread one with horseradish sauce, the other with Marmite or Yeastrel. P u t the spread sides together and soften (if desired) with a little boiling water. P o u r over a thick sauce made with slippery elm, or fine oatmeal, and seasoned with nutmeg a n d / o r mustard. S e r v e very hot. Vegan


M r . A l f r e d D o g g e t t , whose address is 6 5 , Mill Lane, W e s t H a m p s t e a d , London, N . W . 6 , is now in a position to supply ladies' house slippers of nonanimal materials in a variety of styles and fittings. W e have been given an opportuni.y of examining specimens of these and can vouch for their obvious durability and good workmanship. W e can therefore recommend them a n d would suggest to any of our readers who may be interested that they write direct to M r . D o g g e t t , who will be pleased to send further par.iculars, with prices and the number of clothing coupons required. M r . D o g g e t t also has available men's slippers, sizes 6-10 ( n o half sizes) and expects to be able to provide a full range as soon as he can obtain the necessary lasts.





The following is the Translator's Note to " A Scientific Investigation into Vegetarianism," by Jules Lefevre, published in 1920: D r . Jules L e f e v r e has been compelled to coin a new word " vegetalien," which I feel I too must render by a new word " vegeta'ian " in order to make a very necessary d's inction between the three principal variet'es of a non-flesh dietary; the fruitarian, which is self-explanatory and quite unambiguous : the ordinary accepted vegetarian, which i n d u d s the use of the animal products—butter, cheese, milk and e g g s : and that diet which includes vegetables and fruit but rejects all animal products whatsoever. It is this latter diet for which it is now necessary to use the word " vegetalian," the lack of some such term having increasingly been felt f o r many • years by f o o d reformers. I here express the hope that it may be accorded a place, seeing that it is the on'y expression which has hitherto been suggested as applying exclusively to this special category midway between the fruitarian and the vegetarian regime. W o u l d that some linguistic genius would speedily supply us wi h a new word for the much abused and widely misunderstood term " vegetarian " itself.

W e understand that for some years the word " vegetalien " has been used in France as both adjective and noun to denote abstinence from all animal food. In English-speaking countries the word "vegan" has now been accepted as having the same meaning. In Holland, however, where separate words are necessary for noun and adjective, "veganist" and "veganistisch" have been adopted. W e invite our readers to submit suggestions for words with the same meaning in other languages, including Esperanto.







r p H E Registrar-General's return for the quarter ending 31st -*- December, 1947, contains the following facts relating to a sickness survey taken last August: Of 2,553 men interviewed, 1,410 reported some illness or injury and had 862 consultations with doctors. Of 3,175 women interviewed, 2,071 reported illness or injury, and had 1,154 consultations with doctors. During July, August and September, illness or injury was reported by 62.5 per cent of all persons interviewed. Among housewives, illness or injury was reported by 96.8 per cent. Thus the standard is not high which the vegan must beat if he or she is to justify reform from a physiological standpoint. The Questionnaire issued to members of The Vegan Society some months ago was an attempt to discover, among other things, any changes that had been noted in the health of people who had turned vegan. A s organised veganism in this country commenced only in 1944, the propaganda of The Vegan Society, insofar as it has concerned physical health, has necessarily been confined to theories and to instances of vegan or almost vegan races living under conditions very different from ours. At the time of the inception of The Vegan Society, it would have been wrong for us to ignore the possibility that the use of animal food for many centuries by people in these climes may have led to changes within the body necessitating the continued use of such food, at least in moderation. The experience gained during the past four years does not, however, give any support to this theory. Of the eighty-four people who returned completed Questionnaire Forms, none reported feeling any the worse for having abstained from animal foods. Several continue to suffer from conditions that had troubled them for long periods before they were vegans. Twenty-nine reported no noticeable change, while the remainder have all benefited. Sixteen feel stronger and have more energy than before; eight have been cured of catarrh; eleven have ceased to have colds, and five have cured constipation. Other improvements noted are : clearer skin (three), cessation of dental decay (three), relief from headaches (one), less acidity (two), loss of superfluous fat (two), and cure of gastric trouble (four). Several members report an increased zest for life and a greater capacity for work. Several forms were accompanied by informative letters stating that illness had been cured completely and that no explanation other than the change to vegan diet could be found. This was particularly so in the case of catarrh. Those who completed the forms have between them an aggregate of 380 years' vegan practice. Several are between seventy and ninety years old. The result of this enquiry is encouraging in view of prevailing difficulties in obtaining man'- foods which vegans would welcome. The question whether vegan diet had been found to be more expensive or more trouble to prepare brought a variety of replies.





which show that the answers depend upon the type of vegan diet chosen. Some said it was more trouble to prepare and more expensive; others have found it has simplified their lives enormously. As we are living in an age of expensive food of poor quality (through wrong methods of agriculture) vegans will naturally feel an increasing desire to establish themselves with gardens big enough to supply most of their food needs. It is clear from a study of the returned forms that the main problem confronting the vegan is not one of health, nor expense, nor domestic labour; it is the social upheaval necessary to practice strict veganism. Man is by nature a gregarious creature. He reaches his highest (and his lowest) when mixing freely with his fellow-men. In any case, hermits make bad propagandists. Some vegans, whose enthusiasm and sincerity are beyond question, have decided that more is lost than gained for the cause by a too rigid adherence to principle under certain conditions of social life. The Vegan Society, realising the great difficulties of achieving its ideal in a world organised to cater for orthodoxy, does not ask members to pledge themselves to any degree of consistency, save that of serving in the way they think best under prevailing conditions. The social difficulty, involving as it does an almost constant conflict between principle and courtesy, lends itself well for discussion among Local Vegan Groups. The social implications of rearing vegan children presents an even more fertile field for debate. There are many vegan children, but they are widely scattered. Their playmates are children living on orthodox diet. The tea party figures prominently among the high lights of a child's life, and obviously this cannot always be in the home of the vegan. What shall be sacrificed—the vegan principle or the tea party? Most students of child welfare, whether vegan or not, will doubtless come down heavily in favour of the child having its party. Childhood is brief and reactions to the impositions of parents follow almost inevitably when freedom is reached. There would seem to be a strong case for taking the long view on such matters. Better a partly vegan child who in its years of mature thought chooses to follow the example of the parents it loves, than a fully vegan child who lives the life of a prisoner and hates those who imprison it. It is doubtful whether the average child would for long respect an order that it must not buy ice-cream. Those of us who spend our lives among children are struck by the universal attraction which forbidden fruit has for the child, who will have it in the end whatever the parent says. A further difficulty arises when one parent is not vegan. Here, in the wider interests of world peace, the only solution would seem to be to grant the child free choice of all food used by the family, while giving the relevant facts in a way suited to the child's age. Among intelligent parents, this could be achieved without friction; indeed, the discussions and the child's reactions could be highly interesting to everyone. DONALD







Cold Nutmeat 8 ozs. ground nuts, 8 o&s breadcrumbs, 1 large grated onion, 1 teaspoon mixed herbs, 1 tablespoon finely chopped parsley, Herbolite salt or other seasoning, i-pint vegetable stock or water, 2 small teaspoons Gelozone. Mix the Gelozone very carefully with the liquid until it is quite smooth, then bring it to the boil, stirring all the time. Allow to boil for about a minute; remove from the heat, and stir in all the other ingredients, press into a flat dish and when cold, cut into squares. Savoury Rolls Short pastry, and ÂŁ-pint Yeastrel gravy or well-seasoned vegetable stock, 1 large grated onion, 1 grated carrot, 1 teaspoon mixed herbs, small quantity ground nuts and Savormix. Have the gravy ready in a pan, add the grated onion, carrot and herbs, then stir in sufficient nuts and Savormix to make a fairly soft mixture. Roll the pastry out as thinly as possible, cut into squares, put a spoonful of the mixture in the centre of each, fold the pastry over to make the edges meet at the top and press well together. Bake the rolls on a flat baking tin in a hot oven. Nutmeat and Vegetable Mould 1 pint of water or vegetable stock well seasoned with Yeastrel or other flavouring, 2 teaspoons Agar Agar, large cup of mixed cold cooked vegetables, a few finely chopped green onions or chives, some squares of cold nutroast or tinned nutmeat. Mix the Agar Agar with the seasoned stock and bring to the boil. Arrange the nutmeat and vegetables in layers in a mould or basin and pour over the liquid. Leave to set, then turn out and garnish with slices of tomato and sprigs of parsley. Savoury Balls J-pint vegetable stock or water, 2 tablespoons Rolled Wheat, i'lb. chopped fresh tomatoes, a few chopped green onions, a little Yeastrel or other flavouring, 1 dessertspoon peanut butter; ground nuts and breadcrumbs. Bring the stock to boil, stir in the Rolled Wheat, cook for a few minutes, stirring well. Remove from the heat and stir in flavouring and peanut butter, then add the chopped onion and tomatoes. Now mix in just sufficient ground nuts and soft breadcrumbs to make a firm mixture easy to handle. Make into balls and roll in ground nuts.





Apple and Date Mousse 1 lb. apples, £-lb. dates, 1 tablespoon nutcream, juice of an orange. Stew the apples until soft, cut the dates into small pieces and mash well with the apple. Add the orange juice and beat in the nutcream while the mixture is still hot. Pour into a dish, leave to cool. Blackcurrant Mould 1 tin Blackcurrant Puree or £-pint thick blackcurrant pulp, 1 pint of citrus stock or water, 2 heaped teaspoons Gelozone, 1 tablespoon sugar. Put the pulp or puree into a dish, mix the Gelozone and sugar with the liquid until quite smooth and free from lumps. Bring the mixture to the boil and cook for about a minute. Pour into the blackcurrant and mix together. Leave to set. Decorate with thin slices of fresh banana and grated coconut cream. Banana Biscuits 4 ozs, fat, 4 ozs. wholemeal flour, 4 ozs. rolled oats, 2 oss. sugar, 1 dessertspoon syrup. Filling: 6 minced dried bananas, 1 tablespoon ground nuts, 1 tablespoon jam or marmalade, 2 tablespoons water. Mix together very thoroughly. Beat the fat, sugar and syrup together until soft. Add the flour and oats to form a soft crumbly mixture. Put half the biscuit mixture into a shallow baking tin and press down evenly. Spread the banana filling all over and then cover with the remaining crumb mixture. Press down well and smooth with a knife. Bake in a moderate oven for about half-hour. When cooked, cut into squares and leave in the tin to cool. Mixed Fruit Jelly 1 pint chopped fruit (fresh, stewed, bottled, or minced and soaked dried fruit), about 3 ozs. sugar (some fruit will need more, some less), 6 minced dried bananas, 1 pint water or fruit peel stock, 3 teaspoons Agar Agar. Mix the minced bananas with fruit and put into a dish. Put the Agar Agar, and sugar into a pan with the water and bring to the boil, stirring all the time. Allow to cool a little and then pour over the chopped fruit in the dish and leave to set. {All enquiries and suggestions on food preparation should be addressed to Mrs. Rawls, at 220 Northenden Road, Sale, Cheshire.] " I would not enter on my list of friends ( T h o u g h graced with polished manners and fine sense Yet wanting sensibility) the man W h o needlessly sets foot upon a w o r m . " T" *

COWPER—" Winter W a l k at N o o n . "








T h e Future Generation f I i H E R E are several babies arriving this year to vegan parents, who are anxious that their children should, from the very beginning, be brought up entirely free from animal foods. Unfortunately, neighbours and relatives keep advising the mothers to drink cow's milk now, otherwise both they and the babies will suffer from a deficiency of calcium which will cause the loss of teeth and a delay in the babies' teeth coming through. I do want to assure these mothers that, if they are on a wellbalanced vegan diet, there is no risk whatever of calcium deficiency, and that many babies have been born of vegan parentage who have shown no signs of this deficiency, for their teeth have come through in good time and been strong. I would recommend expectant mothers to have most of their food uncooked and to avoid white sugar and white flour: the latter is a deficiency food and acid-forming, while the former would largely neutralise the natural calcium intake. They should take lots of fresh fruit and salad, and thus obtain enough calcium " for two." I would further suggest that Yeastrel or Betox should be included in the diet instead of jam or marmalade. On the advice of Dr. Bircher-Benner and Gaye-Lord Hauser, and from my own experience, I would suggest that a well-balanced diet would be on the following lines: O N R I S I N G . — H a l f - p i n t apple juice. BREAKFAST.—Muesli m a d e with two large grated apples, rolled wheat, raisins and lemon juice, Froment on fresh fruit of any kind, followed by wholemeal bread and cashew nut butter and Betox. M I D MORNING.—Tomato juice or cup of V e c o n or home-made vegetable water. LUNCH — S a l a d of grated carrot, watercress, tomatoes with nut savoury. A n y f r e s h fruit with nut cream. EVENING M E A L . — S a l a d of fresh fruit and chopped dried fruit. Sandwiches of wholemeal bread, nut butter, ample watercress, and Betox. O N RETIRING.—Drink of vegetable water or tomato juice.

On a diet such as this, which was also approved by the late Dr. White of Stonefield, beautiful babies have been born easily and happily, and assuredly this can happen again, especially if the mother will adopt this diet for some months before the birth. She will thus give her baby a wonderful start towards developing into a splendid child, both physically and mentally. The address which Dr. C. V. Pink delivered to the International Vegetarian Congress last year is now available in pamphlet form.* • " M o her, C h i l d and D i e t , " price 7d., post free, from T h e Secretary, R y d a l L o d " e . or from M r s . K . V . M a y o , " d, Streetly, S t a f f s , t o whom all B a b y B u r e a u correspondence should b e sent.




It is a most instructive talk, in which many extremely interesting issues are discussed, and the following extract, which we have been permitted to reprint, is of especial significance in view of the advice given in this article: " . . . We have seen that babies when classified according to health and vigour fall into three categories. Those fed on— 1. Cow's milk with the addition of bone broth, white fish, etc., as recommended by orthodox pediatricians. 2. Cow's milk modified according to the Truby King formulae combined wi.h much fresh food and with flesh foods excluded—the majority of Stonefield babies are so fed. 3. Vegetable milk, fresh fruit and other vegetable foods. Of the second and third group it may be said that— ( a ) They reach a standard of health definitely above the average ( s o much so that previously hostile relatives delight to show them off!), they are radiantly healthy. (b) They seem completely free from sepsis such as impetigo, appendicitis and mastoid abscess and relatively free from the common infectious diseases: if they catch measles it is often difficult t o diagnose for they are not ill, and there is no risk of serious complications such as bronchitis. (c) They are noticeably free from allergic diseases such as asthma. ( d ) Their growth has been entirely satisfactory, though in the second and third years some of them grow more slowly than the average,, making up for it later. (e) They are more alert, but less irritable. In the above respects Group 3 is ahead of Group 2 and Group 2 is far ahead of Group 1 . "

CORRESPONDENCE A Thriving Youngster I am enclosing cheque for one guinea for my subscription to The Vegan Society. You will be pleased to hear that I have been entirely vegan since baby was born and that I am able to feed her myself very easily, with just a little diluted fruit juices. She is coming on finely. Baby (Janet) is now 18 lbs. nett at six months old. She is strong and sturdy with a lovely complexion—like peach bloom, and kicks and exercises vigorously—she can sit up for short periods and can turn over on her tummy now. I think the nuts, raw salads and fruit which I have eaten, with wholemeal bread, have been the main factors in making her such a fine baby—everyone remarks on her fine build and colour—even strangers. I mention all this because I think it a great tribute to vegetarian and vegan diet, and hone you will not think it just the everlasting maternal pride which can be rather boring. When the local doctor called, he could hardly credit she was a vegan baby, but, of course, that is only because they do not understand unorthodox ideas. One feature about Janet that we attribute to her good health is that every night without exception since she was not quite three weeks old she has slept through from her 10 o'clock feed until her morning feed round ?bout 6 a.m. W e think this rather unusual among babies. D.T., Prestwich.






T T would be much better for everyone if The Vegan were published daily, or at least weekiy, for a three-monthly interval is a big time-lag between writer and reader. Much can happen in a garden in that period, and indeed does, even when left to nature's own slow, sure self. So these notes cannot attempt to deal with immediate problems but must be limited to generalities and ideas for the future. T h e mail must be our medium for the more urgent matters, and, as a result of these Notes, a steady stream of information has been arriving and been passed on. It is impossible to read, or to obtain, all the literature which has a bearing on the vegan approach to the production of good, varied food from a healthy, virile soil; so there is a responsibility for vegans to share their knowledge and discoveries. W h a t is trivial to you, may be the crux and solution of a problem for someone else. One striking fact that emerges from the diverse methods and ideas is the abounding generosity of long-suffering nature, even after she has been cruelly abused. Be it the bombed site or the most unpromising impoverished piece of land, nature strives to restore the balance, and the practising vegan (and a non-animal diet is not the whole of the practice of veganism) works with nature in a spirit of co-operation and not of exploitation. All tracks and trails in the garden lead to the compost heap, and from this focal point it is distributed when mature. The compost heap also is the focal point of our co-operation with nature, just as this magazine is the focal point of the vegan movement, utilising material in variety from here and there to be distributed again. Your idea or method or even lack of method (for many ideas are just crazy to the orthodox), your contribution may be the one ingredient to complete the perfect balance. N o one records failure or disappointment with natural methods of gardening; most have the satisfaction of growing better produce than that of their more artificially minded neighbours. Methods are diverse, that is to be expected, but as long as the idea of co-operation with nature is kept to the fore, all is well. Not easily " well," for it is much simpler to apply " ounces per square y a r d " of this or that, as and when prescribed by those who wish to sell. No, the easy way is not often nature's best way, or the world indeed would be a very different place to-day. W e hear of one super-optimist who, after producing excellent vegetables in a garden of brick clay by the method of composting in trenches, is now setting about winning a garden from the encroaching bracken on a hillside. The recognised period for the eradication of bracken is stated to be seven years; has anyone suggestions to offer to shorten this sentence of seven years' hard labour? W e have no experience of bracken, except an appreciation of its beauty in the




winter mountain scene, but we have an intimate knowledge of a near relative, the Horsetail, Marestail or Catgrass, Equisetum Arvense, which has defied the cultivation of over four times seven years and comes up smiling from every onslaught. Fortunately, it does not seem to harm the crops, but just makes things look untidy; bracken is much more of a problem: it swamps everything, and is creeping back into the land from which it was driven many years ago. So much for weeds. On the other side, many vegetables are being brought to public notice which do not normally find a place in an ordinary garden. Many of these are worth a trial if there is space available, but others are a waste of time and space. Batavian endive can be recommended; it seems to do better than lettuce in dry weather and matures earlier, with less losses than lettuce sown at the same time and given cloche protection. Black winter radish is a useful addition to the Christmas salad, and the small custard marrow, the squashes and pumpkins, when young, are a change for the better from ordinary marrow, having firmer flesh and more flavour. By the way, if you should hear of the formation, in America, of a Society for the Prevention of the Exploitation of Earthworms, you will realise that the use of the humble worm has gone too far. In a monthly magazine published in the States are numerous advertisements for underground mules and other hybrid worms: the use of the worms, apart from digging the garden, being also for fishing —the bigger the worm, the bigger the fish, we presume. The average organic gardener has neither the time nor the inclination for fishing, and it is a pity to see such conflicting purposes mixed up in the same advertisements. We prefer to help our worms with compost and sawdust. Of the latter, more anon; as a preliminary, the asparagus is pushing up through six inches of weed-free sawdust, clean and tasty. [Kindly address all correspondence regarding the soil and food cultivation direct to Mr. Alec Martin, at " , Bishop's Stortford, Herts.]



It has been decided that this year's Annual Conference will be held on the afternoon of 27th November at Friends' House, Euston Road, N . W . I , the subject being, " Veganism's Contribution to Health," and the platform will be occupied by a number of doctors and others Well qualified to speak on this important aspect of our case. On the evening of that day the Annual General Meeting of The Vegan Society will be held in the same room, while, as before, a vegan tea will be served immediately after the Conference. Offers of hospitality for these occasions will be most welcome and should be submitted to the Secretary at Rydal Lodge, giving details.


A New Vegan



I read an article enti led " Vegan Values " in " T h e Vegetarian " a fortnight ago and realised that until then I have broken a natural law, without any wish to be cruel, in drinking milk and eating cheese. From that time, however, even the bee may produce the honey I have enjoyed with no fear of my ever wanting more. T h i s explains my interest in the vegan movement. Would you send me the next four issues of The Vegan? I enclose 5s. S.F.P., Surrey. One Meal a Day M a n y thanks for your letter with enclosures, which I found very interesting. Y o u will be amused to hear that, though the thought of no cheese alarmed me so, I have consumed since seeing you no dairy products or honey and am doing very well wi hout. I have not added anything in their place and simply eat the other constituents of my one meal more slowly. If I can join T h e Vegan Society without signing a pledge of too drastic a nature, I should like to do so. I fully expect to continue without animal products from now on and am sympa hetic to its aims. So I enclose 5s. as a first subscription. Is it possible to become a life member? Later. I shall be glad to become a life member and will try to write something about my own curious habits for The Vegan in due course. I enjoyed reading the copy you sent me and would like the back numbers. I enclose a cheque for £ 5 : the odd 5s. will cover the literature you have sent me and will be sending. R . W . G . , Edinburgh. " W h a t Would You D o ? " — a n Answer T h e letter from your correspondent, " A . A . , Somerset," reminds us of the difficulties experienced by many vegan and vegetarian wives (and husbands), but I feel that in this case the writer is partly responsible. If her husband knew from the first that she was a vegetarian why did she ever start to cook meat for him? It would seem that she made no effort to make him genuinely interested in a sane diet for his own sa\e during the time they were living apart, otherwise he would have remembered his promise. This gentleman must understand that veganism and vegetarianism are not " f a d s , " but a matter of principle, and this being so your correspondent should take a firm stand and refuse to have any further dealings with corpses, ei her for her husband or anyone else. A s " A . A . " has only just become a vegan herself, she might supply h'm with milk, eggs and cheese in small quantities until his own conscience b-'ds him take the further step. Let " A . A . " take courage, and without being aggressive or didac'ic take the lead on moral issues. M.C., London. A Good Example M a y I be enrolled as a Vegan life member? Enclosed please find £5 5s. Od. T h e odd money refers to an appeal in the Winter, 1947, issue of The Vegan, suggesting we give a hundredth cart of our income to help. This I have gladly done and will continue to do. I am afraid it is very little, but when I mention that I am a music teacher in a very small way you will understand very little comes in. With best wishes for " T h e Greatest Cause on Earth." B.C., Sussex.

H E A L T H ADVICE BUREAU "\7"EGANS who desire information on health and diet are invited * to state their case fully through the Editor, and Mr. C. C. Abbott, the well-known Health Practitioner, will give advice.

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P R I N T I N G . — O n non-animal-sized papers.-—Write for quotations and free s a m p l e s , D . Kinver, , London, W . 1 4 . " V E G A N R E C I P E S . " — B y Mrs. Fay K. H e n d e r s o n . Appetising and N u t r i t i o u s F a r e without animal or dairy products. Revised Edition, price 2 / 8 , ready soon, from R y d a l L o d g e , Ambleside, W e s t m o r l a n d . R E A D E R S O F " T H E V E G A N " who can further the development of Sunflower ( H e l i a n t h u s a n n u u s ) cultivation in the United Kingdom are invited to w r i t e : T h e Secretary, Solflower Limited, 45 Newhall St., Birmingham. L A D Y , business all day, wishes to share vegan household, L o n d o n or near, o w n f u r n i t u r e . — W r i t e B o x D 4 3 , T h e V e g a n Society. T Y P E W R I T E R , Standard M o d e l , urgently required by T h e V e g a n P l e a s e a d v i s e Secretary of condition, price, etc. ESTABLISHMENTS




A M B L E S I D E - -English Lakes. R Y D A L L O D G E is now open as a V E G A N GUEST CENTRE. A comfortable and convenient house with a large g a r d e n , delightfully situated on the River R o t h a y in the heart of lovely Lakeland. T e l . Ambleside 208. C A M B R I D G E . — C o l o n i c irrigation, massage, infra-red radiant heat, diets, etc. — M r s . E . J e p p (late C h a m p n e y s ) , 19B Victoria Street. T e l . 2867. L A K E D I S T R I C T . — B e c k A l l a n s and Rothay Bank, Grasmere. Attractive guest houses for strenuous or restful h o l i d a y s . — W r i t e : Isabel James. L I G H T B E C K Vegetarian G u e s t H o u s e , U n d e r b a r r o w , Kendal, is happy to offer c o m f o r t s and delights of home with the added interests of lovely books, charming country and new friends. Children welcome. P h o n e K e n d a l 578. P E N A R T H . — " Vegetarian H o m e , " Rectory R o a d . Rest, change, relaxation. Ideal situation. Pleasant holiday resort, overlooking sea. Attractive, g e n e r o u s catering. Send f o r new Brochure. S U R R E Y H I L L S . — V e g e t a r i a n C o u n t r y Club, 3 acres 7 0 0 ft. up. Holidays or short visits. All comforts. NO EXTRAS. Moderate.—Upwood House, Caterham. SOUTH D O W N S . — V e g a n s welcomed on small fruit farm. Composted p r o d u c e . — M r . and Mrs. Everett, Castelmer, Kingston, Lewes. T e l . 524. S C O T L A N D . — W e s t Highland Coast. V e g a n s welcomed in private house in g r a n d situation overlooking sea-loch. D o n a l d and Muriel Crabb, A c h a g l a c h g a c h , W e s t L o c h , T a r b e r t , Argyll. D U B L I N . — R o o m and Breakfast in private h o u s e . — M r s . H e n r y , Ranelagh.




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S i












IDEAL CUEST HOUSE for q u i e t a n d recuperative holidays. V e g e t a r i a n and Vegan. Apply V I O L E T H. W R A G G , A . M . I . C . A . OVER KELLET CARNFORTH LANCS Telephone: C a r n f o r t h 2 1 2 .



Dehydrated, Pasteurised 5

and Vitaminised



and V E G E T A R I A N


3/- per 500 gram, tin Specially prepared for persons averse or allergic to cows' milk

? }





Refer your H e a l t h Food Store f o r supplies a n d recipes t o :


SOYA FOODS LTD. 4 0 St. M a r y A x e , London, E.C.3

NEORAN N e w i n n a m e o n l y ; N E O R A N is t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f m a n y years' research i n t o t h e possibilities o f garlic as a p r e v e n t i v e a n d d e s t r o y e r of infection, b o t h external and internal. Of v e g e t a b l e o r i g i n , N E O R A N c o n t a i n s g a r l i c , t h e a c t i v e p r i n c i p l e o f w h i c h is a l l i c i n , w h i c h has u n i q u e p r o p e r t i e s as an a d j u n c t t o the n a t u r a l d e f e n s i v e powers o f the b o d y . N E O R A N has g i v e n n o t a b l e results i n such varied c o n d i t i o n s as g a s t r i t i s , i n f l u e n z a , r h e u m a t i s m a n d c a t a r r h , a n d t h e r e is every i n d i c a t i o n t h a t i t w i l l prove o f considerable v a l u e i n a w i d e range o f disorders. A s k at y o u r H e a l t f i Food Store f o r i n f o r m a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e a b o u t N E O R A N ; or i n case o f d i f f i c u l t y w r i t e t o t h e sole m a n u f a c t u r e r s :

PIERCE A. ARNOLD, M a n u f a c t u r i n g and C o n s u l t i n g POLLARD



F.C.S. Chemists SURREY

Yotar Health Food Store has NEORAN in liquid, tablet and ointment form.




4 'Summer

salad and delicious savoury I »»



Here's the answer to the problem of summer-time meals . . . tempting, tasty, savoury dishes . . . served hot or c o l d .. . . made w i t h one of the three M a p l e t o n ' s Savoury N u t Powders. A l l d i f f e r e n t ; all nourishing; all economical and health giving. There's no " sameness " about the d i f f e r e n t flavours and you'll find r e a d y - m i x recipes on the packets ! R e a d y - t o - m i x recipes on every p a c k e t .

Three " No Points " Savoury Favourites from Mapleton's ivith Quic\-time Recipes.

S A V O R M I X 1 - l b . .. 2 / 2

(Regd) i - l b . .. 9 i d .

MAPLEMEAT l-lb. „ 1/10


" i - l b . .. 7 i d .

FRITTAMIX l - l b . .. 1 / 6



i - l b . ..

Unrationed from Health Food Stores and many Grocers.

Made by Mapleton's Nut Food Co. Ltd. (Dept. V.2), Garston, Liverpool 19.

Reap t h e b e n e f i t s of t h e HIGH NUTRITIONAL VALUE



F R O M E N T , made f r o m t h e living w h e a t germ, is a rich and natural source o f V i t a m i n s (especially V i t a m i n B,), protein and oil. Nutrit i o n a l authorities have long acknowledged its high value in supplying the essentials for a l l - r o u n d fitness, good digestion, strong and vigorous nerves and bowel activity. I t is a source o f vital nourishm e n t for all, and is strongly recommended for nursing mothers and young children. Simply add i t t o your everyday f o o d s — t o cereals, soups, puddings, milk, etc., and b u i l d up your physical a n d m e n t a l energy reserves. T h e farmer reaps the w h e a t f r o m w h i c h you can reap the benefits of a l e r t ness, good health, and sound v i t a l i t y . F R O M E N T is sold in cartons by all Health Food Stores, price 2 / 9 (18-ozs.) and 1 H i ( 8 - o z . ) . T h e m a n u facturers regret that they cannot supply consumers direct. Sole Manufacturers: JOHN H. HERON LTD. Hook Road Mills. C o o l e . Y o r k s . Printed by H. H.



106/10, Lordship Lane. London. S.E.22.

The Vegan Summer 1948  

The journal of The Vegan Society

The Vegan Summer 1948  

The journal of The Vegan Society