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THE VEGAN SOCIETY Established November,


The Aims of the Society ate : '


T o a d v o c a t e t h a t man's f o o d s h o u l d be d e r i v e d f r o m fruits, n u t s , vegetables, grains a n d o t h e r w h o l e s o m e non-animal products a n d that it s h o u l d exclude flesh, fish, fowl, eggs, h o n e y a n d a n i m a l s ' milk, b u t t e r a n d cheese.


T o e n c o u r a g e t h e m a n u f a c t u r e a n d use of natives t o animal c o m m o d i t i e s . ANNUAL







Enquiries to The Secretary 67







Official Organ of The Vegan Society Established Editor:

VOL. 2







Quotation.—" Before the Spaniards discovered the Ladrone Islands in 1620, their inhabitants considered themselves to be the only people on earth. T h e y were deprived of almost everything that would seem necessary to the average man. There were no animals on the islands, except a few species of birds, which they left entirely unmolested. T h e y never had seen fire, and at first they could hardly imagine its effect and use. Fruits, nuts and vegetables were their only means of subsistence. They were all exceedingly well built, vigorous, and could easily carry a weight of 500 lb. on their shoulders. Disease was unknown to them, and they all l i v e d t o a r i p e o l d a g e . "

D r . JOHN M A X W E L L .

EDITORIAL Famine his recent return from a tour of the Far East, General Roy ON Hendrickson, Deputy Director-General of Unrra, said, "Unless India can obtain four million tons of cereals, which it must have, from five million to fifteen million will lose their lives in the months lying ahead." In China a similar situation prevails. Faced with such a tragedy, which compares in magnitude with what might be expected in the event of an atomic war, gluttony and other forms of food waste amount to a crime comparable with murder, and decent folk will need no legislation to keep them reminded of the fact. Taking the longer view, if we are to prevent repetition the causes of famine must be carefully studied. Sir John Orr's estimate that even in pre-war days only six per cent of the world's population were adequately fed, places the problem in truer perspective and shows that recent droughts and transport dislocation have only aggravated what was already a major unsolved problem. Admirable though it is to share the last crust with the starving, this clearly is not enough, for unless causes of shortage are appreciated and met, the present famine may be only the forerunner of bigger famines to come. Generosity, fair distribution and brotherly love are not enough to solve this problem, indeed, they become ironical when, through ignorance in adhering to extravagant traditions, many must share the needs of one. T o meet the problem of famine, the earth must be made to produce the foods which man needs, for,

4 THE VEGANb y great good fortune, these are the foods which give the highest r e t u r n p e r u n i t of land a n d h u m a n effort. N o t only that, but many of t h e m are foods which store well and would therefore guard against local harvests failing. Given a ' g e n e r a l . change in dietetic habits, a y e a r ' s supply of grains, nuts, pulses and dried f r u i t could readily be k e p t in reserve, and these, together w i t h greenstuffs and fruits— w h i c h can be g r o w n in great variety almost anywhere—would make f u t u r e f a m i n e impossible unless there were an enormous increase in w o r l d population. This would n o t be likely as nutrition became better, f o r t h e natural impulse to reproduce operates most strongly in t h e emaciated, half'Starved peoples, as w e see in India, where the a n n u a l increase in population is over six million. This important biological law is dealt with fully by Halliday Sutherland in his recent book, " C o n t r o l of Life" (Burns, Oates, 10s. 6d.). O f the m a n y factors affecting the problem of food shortage n o n e is more pressing than the competiton for grain between man and his domesticated animals. For a century the vegetarian movement has advanced an unanswerable argument to prove how uneconomic t h e p r o d u c t i o n of flesh food is, and it is surprising that even under p r e s e n t conditions governments seem to have done little to reduce drastically the consumption of flesh foods. Thus, whereas before the w a r Britain consumed 131.7 lbs. of meat per head, last year the consumption was down only to 103:4 lbs. per head, whilst in the United States the 1945 consumption was fiften' p e r cent higher than the p r e - w a r figure. Forced b y the increasing gravity of the situation, o u r o w n G o v e r n m e n t has h a d to cut feeding stuffs for pigs and poultry b y h a l f , though coming so late, this will be n o consolation to those w h o a r e starving thousands of miles away. I t has, at least, proved the t r u t h of the vegetarian argument. "The recent statement by President T r u m a n t h a t seventy-five p e r cent of grain g r o w n in the United States has b e e n fed t o animals, points directly to the greatest single aggravating f a c t o r in the w o r l d food situation. A c c o r d i n g t o the W h i t e P a p e r recently issued on the food shortage, t h e w o r l d deficit of wheat in the first half of this year is eight million tons. I t is estimated that N o r t h America will feed 114 million tons of g r a i n to h e r livestock in 1945-46, including about nine million tons of w h e a t . T h i s is approximately double the amount of wheat which A m e r i c a fed t o livestock in an average pre-war year. I n r e t u r n f o r t h e grain fed to animals, man gets back by weight o n l y a small percentage of the outlay, and most of that is in the form of w a t e r . T h e enormous economic advantages of vegetarianism over flesh eating, a n d of Veganism over vegetarianism, are clearly shown in a c a r e f u l l y w r i t t e n pamphlet, " C a n Britain Feed Herself on HomeG r o w n F o o d s ? " (3d., from T h e Vegetarian Society, Bank Square, W i l m s l o w , Manchester), by H . H . Jones. T h e writer concludes that n o t o n l y could this be done, b u t that this island could feed a population of 200 million on a Vegan diet, given reasonable time t o develop intensive methods of cultivation.

3 THE VEGAN•" Beef " f r o m Y e a s t A n acre of grassland yields about 400 lbs. of beef, with a protein content of only 60 lbs. U n d e r wheat, on the other hand, an acre will yield about a ton of grain, with a protein content of about 270 lbs. Therefore, it is not surprising that f o r ' many years scientists have been seeking a means of converting vegetable' carbo-hydrates into edible protein, cutting out the normal slow process f r o m the soil, through the plant t o the animal. T h a t they have now succeeded is due to the work of a team of scientists working under D r . Thaysen, of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. T h e field of research that has yielded this achievement is t h a t of the yeast moulds. By the end of the last century it became k n o w n t h a t brewer's yeast, though extremely unpalatable, was very rich in protein. Realisation of this led to efforts to produce a palatable yeast cheaply and in large quantities to replace the highly expensive proteins of animals. Following research work in England, the scientists moved to Jamaica in 1943, the reason being that r a w sugar h a d proved the most economic and satisfactory material for the production of the necessary mould. T h e special factory built for the purpose now produces two thousand tons of food yeast a year, and several similar plants are in course of construction. Four tons of lowgrade molasses vield one ton of food yeast, and from refined sugar the ratio is one ton to two of sugar. T h e chief properties of this remarkable substance are as follows. (a) T h e protein content is fortryfive per cent compared w i t h fifteen per cent for beef. •(b) T h e protein is of very high quality, possessing m a n y advantages over animal protein, (c) In addition to its protein, food yeast is an important source of the B vitamins, of which it contains all the k n o w n constituents. '(d) T h e cost of producing the substance is twopence a pound. T h e chief advantage over other forms of protein is the small amount required. A b o u t half an ounce a day is sufficient to cover the protein and vitamin B requirements of the normal adult. Cost is thus an insignificant consideration. •(e) Food yeast is palatable, having a n u t t y flavour. I t can be produced at 144,000 times the speed at which beef protein is produced. According to Dr. Thaysen, " u n d e r existing circumstances, beef or mutton protein would be five times as dear as food yeast protein, milk protein eight times, and egg protein twenty-four times as dear. T h e B vitamins of beef, m u t t o n or milk would be twenty-five times, and of eggs eighty times dearer than those of food yeast." •(f) T h e finished product is a pale yellow flake t h a t can be added to soups, water, broth, or any desired fluid, or to flour. Present supplies of this new Vegan speciality are being sent to ^Malaya and H o n g Kong.



W h e r e t h e M o n e y Goes T h e Chancellor of the Exchequer stated recently that the f o o d subsidies w e r e in o p e r a t i o n : <£ Eggs—fresh, frpzen and dried Meat Milk V Cheese' Butter M a r g a r i n e , Cooking Fats and Oils D r i e d and Condensed Milk Bacon N a t i o n a l M i l k and Milk in Schools Scheme A n i m a l Feeding Stuffs

following million. 37.9 30.1 24.5. 11.6 8.0 4.2 5.5 2.5 20.5 27.3

172.1 A l l other f o o d subsidies, including one of £64.9 million bread, flour a n d oatmeal, together amount to £135.9 million.


Atomic Energy Experiments T h e decision to use f o u r thousand animals in the atomic experi' m e n t s in the Pacific serves to emphasise the fact that the status of a n y t h i n g sub-human is, t o most folk, still no higher t h a n that of road stones. Governments dare act only a f t e r considering the possible reaction of public opinion, and as vivisection is legal both here and in A m e r i c a , the decision to use another f o u r thousand creatures in this n e w f o r m of vivisection was one that both Governments thought t h e y could take without risk of serious opposition. T h e measure of reaction to vivisection in both countries was known, and this doubtless influenced those who decided to place these f o u r thousand animals on the ships. Unless t h e r e is denunciation of cruelty generally, it becomes almost impossible to advance a strong case to oppose any specific cruelty. If it is right to vivisect, h o w can it be w r o n g to use animals in these atomic tests? If it is right to slaughter creatures for flesh foods, h o w can it be wrong to vivisect them? If it is right to slaughter calves t h a t men may drink their mothers' milk, h o w can it be w r o n g to slaughter old cows for meat? If it is right to use animal glues a n d leather, h o w can it be wrong to w e a r f u r s ? W h a t e v e r degree of consistency the individual may reach in practice, in theory (if h e is logical) he will not seek to justify one form of cruelty and condemn a n o t h e r . Logic forces the Vegan precept u p o n us. O n e reaction of the anti-vivisection societies to these atomic tests seems o p e n to question. W e read in one report, " C a r r y i n g out such' tests on animals seems not only reprehensible conduct but a f u t i l e m e t h o d of seeking information, as there would be no certainty

5 THE VEGANt h a t the effects would be the same in h u m a n beings as in goats a n d guinea-pigs." Though reactions are admittedly different in m a n y instances, the above argument does encourage the opponent to produce masses of evidence proving cases'where the results of experiments on animals and men are sufficiently alike to make reasonably safe deductions. For example, both on animals and men the effects of heat and cold, of varying pressures, of tying u p blood vessels, of drowning, of subjection of explosives, and in some cases of dieting, too, are identical. It so happens that evidence from Japan suggests t h a t the effects of radio-active material produced by atomic explosion are the same on animals as on man, therefore it is reasonable to suppose that carefully conducted experiments in treating the animals following the atomic tests might yield information useful in the treatment of h u m a n victims of a possible atomic war. It would seem that the antivivisection movement gains nothing but contempt from science by refusing to admit this. A f a r less vulnerable approach seems to be to ask why highly sentient animals should suffer in order to protect man against his folly. T h a t , no vivisector can answer. D.W.

VEGAN COMMODITIES By P.S. O U R leather shoes are the first thing the destructive critic picks on. All this fuss about a drop of milk in a cup of tea, he says, and there you go walking about in missionary seal w i t h a product of the slaughter-house on your feet. Never mind. You are aiming at ultimate consistency. The commercial world is not out to help you except by chance, and you have to succeed gradually, demonstrating w h a t can be done t o eliminate connivance- at animal exploitation in spite of adverse circumstances. You will have been on the look-out for those plastic shoes the â&#x20AC;˘ Americans are wearing. T o o bad they have not arrived in o u r shops yet. But Messrs. Dawson and Owen, the H e r t f o r d pioneers of humanely produced goods, whose pre-war catalogue ranged f r o m non-bristle brushes to vegetarian footballs, are hoping soon to resume m a n u f a c t u r e of their non-leather footwear. W o o l is another difficulty to be overcome.. If you have watched the lambs castrated without anaesthetics, or seen the rough shearing which cuts away the flesh with the wool, you will b e glad to hear t h a t scientists, according to a report in " T h e Evening Standard," have f o u n d a way of metaphorically cutting o u t the whole sheep. "Instead of grass being eaten by sheep and then turned into wool, grass can now be turned into wool direct. T h e sheep may one day be out of work except as a producer of meat. I.C.I, chemists have produced a new fibre called 'Ardil,' very similar to wool in appearance



a n d properties. I t is superior in its resistance to creases, is moth p r o o f , a n d will n o t easily acquire a shine f r o m w e a r . " I n t h e meantime, there are cotton and linen and a n u m b e r of synthetic fabrics from which clothes and furnishing materials are being made. Y o u r Vegan eye will spot them wherever they appear o n sale, a n d reports will be welcome. A n d there are the old favourites like nylon stockings and toothbrushes, corduroy trousers, pseudo-fur, rexine, non-bristle brushes and non-animal studs, buttons and combs. Some curious information has come u p in the course of enquiring into V e g a n commodities. T h e Editor of "Plastics" does n o t know " h o w f a r your objection to. animal materials does in fact go. For example, although a plastic m a d e f r o m petroleum would, on the face of it, be approved by your Society, modern science believes t h a t most petroleums are derived f r o m fish residues." W e l l , that was a long time ago. A n d , as w i t h the pre-historic bones t h a t made the chalk they use in tooth-paste, the residue was not connived my m a n . T h e same applies to certain waxes. Messrs. R o n u k , Ltd., say that " O u r R o n u k sanitary floor polishesa n d R o n boot polish are entirely f r e e f r o m animal products in the generally accepted sense. T h e source of certain waxes of mineral origin of restricted occurrence a n d having abnormal properties of p a r t i c u l a r value have been damaged perhaps irretrievably, and supplies are totally unavailable. B u t the properties referred to have been f o u n d in waxes located in the hollow and dead trees of primeval forests in equatorial regions and produced over long ages by a t y p e of bee or insect of those areas; waxes f o u n d as old and abandoned masses. U n d e r present conditions, uses of these waxes is made, b u t n o use is made o r is likely to be made of beeswax produced u n d e r cultivated conditions or of a n y current material. Such wax is regarded as unsuitable for the purpose required." O t h e r manufacturers w h o make use of beeswax are apparently n o t able to q u a l i f y similarly for V e g a n acceptance. N o w here are some toilet preparations and miscellaneous goods which have been found to meet V e g a n requirements: TOILET SOAP : Natex, Palmolive, McClinton's, Cuticura. SHAVING SOAP: McClinton's, Jeyes, Potter & Clarke's "Slippery E l m . " HOUSEHOLD SOAP : Lava (Thomas Hedley 6? Co.'s all-purpose soap). D a w s o n & Owen (3, Nelson Street, Hertford), also supply a liquid household soap. COSMETICS : Burleon Laboratories ( M r . Clifford Hanleon), of 22, South M o l t e n Street, W . l , prepare creams, skin tonics, lotions, face powders, etc., f r e e from animal fats. Mrs. C. Robinson, of 28, B e a u f o r t Mansions, S . W . 3 , supplies skin foods prepared f r o m vegetable oils, waxes and herbal essences.

7 THE VEGANTOOTHPASTES : Colgate's, Forhan's, Selto Dental Salt. FLOOR POLISH: Ronuk, Johnsons, Cobra. BOOT POLISH : Kiwi, Ron, Meltonian Boot Polish (in tins窶馬ot t h e Shoe Cream). STATIONERY: Dawson 6? O w e n supply non-animal paper. A vegetable parchment is obtainable from Thos. D u n n 6? Co., Ely P a p e r Mills, Cardiff. ADHESIVES : Gloy, Durofix, Stefix, synthetic resin glues f r o m Beetle Bond, Ltd., P o p e s Lane, Oldbury, Worcester. IN THE GARDEN : P l a n t Protection, Ltd., of Yalding, Kent, write t h a t I.C.I. Garden Fertiliser, P.P. Plus National Growmore, A b o l M a n u r e and Nitro-Chalk contain "artificials" o r mineral content, and that Abol M a n u r e also contains hops and organic materials. All f o u r fertilisers are free f r o m slaughtered animal matter. A . W . Marshall i i Sons, Ltd., of Portway, W e s t H a m , E.5., supply a non-animal hop manure, and some other fertilisers also free from artificials. GARDENING BOOTS : Rubber-topped Wellington's with beechwood soles, from Tweenway, Ltd., Horley, Surrey. One coupon. N o permit. Please send in your discoveries' and help to make the V e g a n T r a d e List comprehensive. A n y commodities you are doubtful about will be gladly investigated. Address correspondence t o : Paul Spencer, 122, W o o d l a n d s Avenue, W e s t Byfleet, Surrey.


Marking of Ingredients T O U R I N G 1945, while the idea of Veganism, implying complete abstention' from all animal foods, was developing f r o m nondairy vegetarianism, a much needed revolution was silently taking place in the country's food industry, which for the first time really made Veganism within civilisation feasible. I refer to the Labelling of Food Order 1 , which was in full force by the end of 1945. Covering packaged foods only, this requires the packer's name or trade mark and the quantity to be given. But most important for Veganism, it requires a " t r u e statement" of each ingredient to be marked in a manner "calculated to indicate to a prospective purchaser the t r u e nature," and, unless quantities are given, the order of quoting ingredients to be according to proportions used, starting with the greatest. Unfortunately, the majority of traditional foods, such as bread, National flour, sugar, confectionery, foods having prescribed standards, soft drinks, canned fruits,. sauces, soups, margarine a n d



most of the obvious animal products, are exempt from the above. M o r e o v e r , the O r d e r is not yet p e r m a n e n t , as it was introduced by t h e M i n i s t r y of Food under emergency powers. However, it is a step in the right direction. But we have been w a r n e d by manufacturers t h a t certain foods not n o w containing animal products, such as milk p o w d . r , will revert to pre-war recipes as soon as conditions permit." S u p p o r t e r s are therefore strongly urged to make a habit of reading t h e ingredients. Let the t r a d e see that w e appreciate this O r d e r a n d even f a v o u r those firms who mark ingredients on foods exempt u n d e r the O r d e r . It is the exempt foods, including non-packaged foods, t h a t will mostly require investigation. Flour and Bread W h o l e - w h e a t , stone-ground flour and bread are Vegan. Commercial b r a n d s are Allinson's, H . 6s? F., Prewett's wholemeal, Pitman's, etc. T h e millers do not control bread making, b u t supply bakers with recipes which they are expected to follow. Dr. Bertrand P. Allinson assures us that Allinson's official bread recipe contains no milk or fats. T h e s e substances are referred to in the trade as "bread improvers," a n d are likely to be used only in fancy o r special breads. Protein bread a n d mil\ rolls generally contain milk products. 2 Flours other t h a n whole-wheat, in general, do n o t contain animal products, but t h e y do subsidise animal exploitation since the extracted portions are used as cattle food. It is important to realise that so-called whole-meal o r b r o w n flour is not whole-wheat, n o r is whole-meal bread or brown b r e a d (all the well-advertised brands, including the germ-breads and malted breads) 2 . In them the outer portion of the wheat berry is removed. , Since this bran is laxative, it leaves the remaining wholemeal constipating. Further denatured flours are National flour (80 to 85 extraction) and white flour (70 to 75), to both of which mineral calcium (chalk) is generally added 3 . In a misguided effort to improve its n u t r i t i v e value, about three-quarters per cent of milk powder was a d d e d to N a t i o n a l flour during 1943 and p a r t of 1944 3 , but this is unlikely t o be repeated. T h e tendency of bakers to use milk in w h i t e breads seems to be greater in America' 1 . Miscellaneous T h e chemicals lactose (milJ{ sugar) a n d casein are derived from cow's milk. In the production of t h e latter the chemical rennet from calves' stomachs is often used 2 ' 5 ' 6 - 7 . Consequently foods, according t o their labels, containing these, such as celery salt and Yestact, are n o n - V e g a n . T h e cow's milk in cheese and jun\et is curdled with r e n n e t . V e g e t a b l e milk made f r o m soya flour may be curdled by acid (say, lemon juice) and heat, and extraction of the whey leaves a cheese. Pemmican consists primarily of dried meat 2 - 7 . All ices contain animal products. Ice creams, mousses, parfaits, etc., contain large proportions of cow's milk or cream. W a t e r ices and sorbets contain white of egg*'8. Let us have some V e g a n recipes.

9 THE VEGANM r . George W a l k e r , of N e w Bradwell, has written to say that he has seen Italian housewives making macaroni with eggs. But, as far as can be gathered, plain commercial macaroni, spaghetti, vermicelli and Italian pastes are made from hard wheat and water only 2 ' 4 - 8 . This, of course, does not apply to egg vermicelli and egg pastes generally. Whole-wheat macaroni (brownish colour) in more normal times is obtainable from Health Food Stores. Traditionally (egg) custard consists of eggs and milk. But, although custard is normally made with milk, custard powders only contain cornflour, colouring and flavourings2. Consequently, non-animal custards may be made using vegetable milks. Information or inquiries to help in this food investigation will be gladly accepted. B.D. REFERENCES

'Labelling of Food (No. 2) Order, 1944. ( H . M . Stationery Office.) Food and theâ&#x20AC;˘ Principles of Dietetics. Robert Hutchinson, M . D . (Edin.), M . R . C . P . (Edward Arnold.) * Report on the Conference on the Post-War Loaf. (H.M.S.O.) . 4 British Encyclopaedia, 14th Edn., 1929. Articles mostly by authors associated with the trade. 5 The Chemical Process Industries. R. Norris Shreve. ( M c G r a w Hill.) 8 The Commodities of Commerceâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Vegetable, Animal, Mineral and Synthetic. J. H e n r y Vanstone. (Pitman.) ' The Universal Dictionary of the English Language. H e n r y Cecil Wyld. ' The Bread and Biscuit Ba\er's and Sugar Boiler's Assistant. Robert Wells. (Crosby Lockwood.)


(Correspondence relating to the ingredients of foodstuffs should be sent direct to Mr. Bernard Drake, "Sparthfield," 7, W a n s t e a d Road, Bromley, Kent.)

FORMATION OF A BABY BUREAU T ^ O R some time the need has been felt for a section of the Society which would concentrate on the particular needs of mothers who wish to rear their families on Vegan lines. M a n y are, of course, doing this successfully at present, and so that their knowledge and experience may be pooled and made available to all, we are very pleased to announce that Mrs. K. V . Mayo, "Braeside," Thornhifi Road, Streetly, Staffs, has consented to act as Organiser. O n e of the difficulties that will be met will be to find accommodation for Vegan children during the confinement of mothers. Those interested should write to Mrs. Mayo, giving details of their children and, if possible, enclosing good photographs suitable for reproduction. Reports on the progress of the G r o u p will appear in f u t u r e issues of " T h e V e g a n . "



M r s . M a y o is particularly well qualified to serve in this capacity for n o t only are her t w o children Vegans, b u t she too was reared w i t h o u t flesh foods or dairy produce. H e r father, the late M r . J. H. Cook, f o u n d e r of the P i t m a n Health Food Company, was singularly inspired in his condemnation of the use of dairy produce at a time w h e n vegetarians generally had not begun to grapple with the problem. In a letter to "Popular Science Sittings" ( A p r i l 12th, 1913), M r . C o o k gave details of his daughter's diet, which was proving so successf u l t h a t she was able to ride a bicycle at three years old and able to cycle ten miles a day before she was four. A delightful photograph of Miss Cook in the act was published with the letter. T h e following article f r o m Mrs. Mayo will be interesting to all w h o wish to rear children successfully without animal food. " P a m e l a is fourteen months old and is a real happy baby. She has t w o hours' sleep f r o m 10 a.m. till 12 a.m. in the garden and is taken o u t in t h e a f t e r n o o n , so she gets plenty of fresh air. T h e n she has her bath swim at 6 p.m., and sleeps every night until 7.30 a.m. W h e n she awakes she immediately chucks all the blankets off her cot. T h e n she has a glass of orange juice. I use a teaspoonful of the Government o r a n g e juice and a teaspoonful of hip-syrup to sweeten. " A t 8.30 a.m., for breakfast, she has first a small cup of raisin juice (juice f r o m ^-lb. raisins soaked overnight). T h e n her meusli, m a d e f r o m 1 tablespoonful medium oatmeal (soaked overnight), a grated apple, 10 grated hazels, 1 teaspoonful Froment, 1 dessertspoonf u l chopped soaked raisins, 3 sieved dates (soaked). During the w i n t e r months I add 7 drops of Radiostol, but if a baby can have a sun-ray lamp for treatment for a few minutes at least every three weeks d u r i n g the winter, I think this is much better than Radiostol. " A f t e r her meusli, she has fingers of Allinson bread and vegetarian margarine. A t 12.30, for lunch, she has first a small cup of carrot juice, made from r a w grated carrot squeezed through muslin. T h e n h e r salad a n d baked potato, made from a tablespoonful of grated carrot, o n e dessertspoonful chopped cress and lettuce, 1 tables p o o n f u l of cooked lentils or split-peas, cooked with a tiny portion of Yeastrel. A l l mashed together with the inside of the baked potato. Sometimes she has the lentils and one potato in its jacket and a little cabbage steamed together, then mashed with the raw grated carrot. " A b o u t twice a week she has 1 tablespoonful of N u t o Cream Soup mixed w i t h her salad and potato instead of the lentil protein. A f t e r this she has 1 oz. of Fru-Grains or V i t a n u t Flakes soaked in hot f r u i t juice, f r o m any f r u i t available. " A t 4.30 Pamela has a glass of f r u i t drink, either orange or raisin juice, o r a n g e sweetened w i t h hip-syrup or Ribena blackcurrant juice diluted. T h e n half an orange chopped up and mixed with 1 oz. FruG r a i n s soaked. T h e n she has lots of finger sandwiches of Allinson bread a n d n u t margarine and thinly spread marmalade. Altogether a b o u t three thin slices made into sandwiches with which she feeds herself. She has nothing a f t e r this until 7.30 next morning.



"If FrU'Grains or V i t a n u t Flakes are not available, Pamela has â&#x20AC;˘soaked dates and ground hazels instead, or soaked dried banana juice instead of the dates. I do not find that dried bananas, however they are prepared, are suitable for tiny tots under three years, but the juice can be used.




" T h e childrens' points are always used for 2 lbs. seedless raisins and 1 lb. dates each per month. " I t is a big jump in a baby's life to change f r o m five feeds a day taken by sucking to three feeds a day needing chewing, and these changes should be made very gradually. Pamela gave up her 10 p.m. feed at six months, was breast fed till 9J months, and then got used to fruit, fruit juices and vegetables from 9-| months to 11 months,



a n d t h e n f r o m 11 to 14 months the ground hazels and Allinson bread w a s v e r y gradually added to her diet, and now she has exactly the same as Christopher, who is seven years old, but Christopher has larger quantities. I do not say that it would be the perfect diet if all f r u i t s w e r e available. Christopher had mashed bananas, prunes and grated Brazils or nut-cream and tomato juice every day, but, under present conditions, the children certainly do very well indeed and are very h e a l t h y o n the above foods that are available. It has been difficult to keep Pamela going in apples, but I stored as many as I could last a u t u m n , and have exchanged food for apples from friends. From ten t o thirteen months she had t w o apples a day, but since then has h a d o n l y one daily. W h e n none are available I use bottled apples o r one tablespoonful blackcurrant puree. N o w , occasionally, she has r h u b a r b cooked with a pinch of linseed to counteract the oxalic acid in it. " W h e n teething, I gave Pamela a hard rusk to chew, made from a thick finger of Allinson bread baked in the oven, b u t from a nutritional p o i n t of view she has neither rusks nor toast, as the twice baking kills t h e vitamin B in the bread. Pamela has a natural and healthy a p p e t i t e and is always ready for her meals and really enjoys her food. " E v e r y baby seems to have different capabilities of assimilation,, b u t I find t h a t V e g a n babies do not require anywhere near the amount of protein t h a t children of flesh-eating parents require. "Several people have said to me lately, ' I think you are jolly lucky, you must be the only mother in Streetly whose children haven't been ill this winter,' and I answer, ' It all depends where you live; w e live at the house where the milkman never calls.' " Dr.







" I t is a striking fact that the amount of milk secreted by the breast increases with the needs of the child. It varies from a f e w ounces d u r i n g the first days to 1.5 and even two quarts a f t e r eight months. Its composition, too, is adjusted to the requirements of g r o w i n g h u m a n tissues. W o m a n ' s milk contains proteins of the same n a t u r e as those constituting the body of the child. These changes never b r i n g about the changes in reactivity, called allergy, which cow's milk m a y produce on account of its foreign nature. T h e amount of protein, phosphorous and calcium contained in mother's milk is more precisely adjusted to the child's requirements than any artificial f o r m u l a can possibly be. A s the child develops, its rate of growth decreases. Simultaneously, mother's milk undergoes a corresponding reduction in proteins and salts. In sum, the breast precisely adjusts the q u a n t i t y and the composition of the milk to the changing needs of t h e i n f a n t . Like all living organs, it reaches its complex end with marvellous accuracy." N o p a y m e n t is received by anyone for work in connection with t h e V e g a n Society.





LL Vegans should have a" particular interest in the Soya Bean, which, though one of the smallest, is sometimes known as the W o n d e r Bean. It has a double importance, the chief thing being perhaps its place in international nutrition, b u t almost equally as a source of vegetable casein which is nearly identical to that obtained from cow's milk but has the advantage of lower cost and of yielding less ash or waste. Casein is employed industrially in the manufacture of glues, paper, soap, plastics, films, glycerine, paints and varnish, inks, celluloid, rubber substitutes, linoleum, lubricants and illuminants, etc., I n a Vegan world all these could be produced from the Soya Bean. Although it is not native to this country, many years of perseverance and research have resulted in the successful acclimatisation . of a few varieties, but it is not yet widely grown here. In the Far East, however, it plays a very important p a r t in the Jives of the people, by whom it has been cultivated for more t h a n five thousand years. T h e pre-war world o u t p u t was over twelve million tons annually, the largest of any legume. It is a crop that is remarkably free from the ravages of pests a n d agricultural diseases. It is easy of cultivation in a suitable climate, taking about f o u r months, M a y to September, to reach maturity, when the beans can be used fresh as vegetables or harvested w h e n fully ripe. As a vegetable protein, it is unsurpassed, being also rich in f a t a n d oil but almost free from starch. Its relative cheapness is quite remarkable, one pound of Soya Flour, costing fivepence, being equal in food value to thirty-three eggs or twelve pints of milk. T h e edible products of the bean at present obtainable in this country are few, though the Ministry of Food have made great efforts to enlighten the general public of the food value available and to encourage a more widespread use. Soya Beans (at 4 | d . per lb.) can be bought without points, b u t require long, slow cooking and liberal seasoning to serve with salad o r green vegetables. T h e custom of "sprouting" the beans to furnish a fresh vegetable may well be tried in this country, under suitable conditions, of heat and moisture, taking about three days in summer and two weeks in winter. T h e beans are placed on a wet cloth on t h e perforated base of a deep wooden box, the top being covered with a cloth. T h e y should be watered two or three times a day and kept in a w a r m atmosphere. W h e n about t w o inches 'long, the sprouts are ready and should at this stage be exposed to sunlight for one day before use. T h e y make a delicious addition to any salad, or, alternatively, they may be lightly cooked.



Soya Flour is easier to use and may be added to bread, cakes, p u d d i n g s , soups, sauces, etc., greatly increasing their nutritive value, or it can be used t o make alternatives for dairy milk, butter, cheese, eggs, etc. Soya Butter is made b y Mapletons and is sold hy Health Food. Stores a t elevenpence a p o u n d , against the margarine registration. I t is equally good f o r table use or for cooking, and is a welcome occasional change f r o m n u t butter o r vegetarian margarine. Soya Sauce can still be obtained occasionally, and adds great savour to soups, sauces and dressings. I n the U n i t e d States t h e use of Soya and its products have been, m o r e widely developed. Soya Oil is in extensive demand for salads a n d cooking. Piquant sauces w i t h a Soya base are in general use. Successful experiments have been made with Soya Milk for i n f a n t feeding, while recently Soya fibre has been utilised in the m a n u f a c t u r e of fabrics and shoes. I n t h e F a r East, Soya milk, cheese, and other products are used habitually and largely take the place of meat and dairy produce in t h e national diet. I n this country, initiative is being displayed by a number, of people in experimenting at home to obtain satsifactory alternatives to' the orthodox dairy produce. Reports of progress i n this direction would be welcomed for publication in " T h e V e g a n . " R e c i p e s w i t h S o y a Flour 1. Soya Mil\.—2 ozs. Soya flour whisked into one pint of w a t e r makes a mixture suitable for custards, milk puddings, cakes o r puddings. ( T h r e e level tablespoons Soya'equal o n e ounce. M . of F . ) *2. Soya Mil\.—|-oz. N u t t e r or Suenut; 2 rounded dessertspoonsSoya flour; 1 rounded dessertspoon Barley flour; -^'teaspoon sugar; 1 p i n t hot water. P u t all the dry ingredients into a pan with half the water a n d whisk over moderate heat for a few minutes. T h e n add the: rest of the w a t e r and cook for a full twenty minutes. Pour intoa jug to cool and use as fresh milk. (S.K.K.) 3. Soya Cream.—2 ozs. Suenut; ^-pint w a r m water; 1 tablespoons. Soya flour. M e l t the f a t in the water and mix in the Soya flour. W h i l e still w a r m p u t through a cream machine to emulsify the mixture. If desired add a little brown sugar and vanilla essence. Thiscream is of good quality and keeps well. (From " V e g a n Recipes.") 4.

Soya Cheese.—£-oz. carrageen moss; 1 pint water; 4 ozs. Soya, flour; V e s o p to taste; 4 ozs. sage and onion stuffing ( A s h w o r t h ' s is V e g a n ) . Soak t h e carrageen in w a r m water for ten minutes. W a s h well and pick over, then cut u p finely and boil -in the pint of w a t e r

15 THE VEGANfor 'fifteen minutes. A d d the Soya flour and continue to boil. T h e n stir in the packet of stuffing. A d d a little Vesop to taste. T u r n into mould and leave till next day to set. W i l l slice thinly w h e n cold. 5. Soya Batter.—2 parts of whole-wheat meal and 1 part of Soya, flour. * Blend well together and whisk to a cream with cold w a t e r . A d d a little brown sugar and a pinch of salt if desired. F r y insmall quantities in hot fat—making crisp round pancakes, or bake in t h e oven in a flat greased dish with suitable additions such asapples or onions. For either sweets or savouries. 6. Soya Salad Cream.—Mix 4 tablespoons Soya flour with a c u p f u l of cold water and bring to the boil. Simmer for a f e w minutes till creamy—adding more water if necessary. Season w i t h sugar and French mustard to taste and add Vesop until well flavoured. Re-heat until the mixture curdles—and then allow to cool. Serve as a mayonnaise with green salad o r w i t h coldcooked vegetables. 7. Soya Biscuits.—7 ozs. whole-wheat meal; 1 oz. Soya flour; 3 ozs. n u t fat. M i x the flours and r u b in the fat, then make a good p a s t r y dough with cold water. Roll out very thinly and cut into t w o portions. T o make a filling take some hot black treacle and stir into it sufficient Soya flour to make a paste. Spread one p o r t i o n of the pastry with this filling paste and cover it . with t h e o t h e r portion. Roll lightly together. Place on a greased baking sheet and cut into fingers. Bake quickly in a hot oven. W h e n cool, keep these biscuits in a tin. 8. Soya Sweet:—2 ozs. milled almonds or other nuts; 2 ozs. Soya flour; 2 ozs. soft brown sugar; 1 oz. n u t fat. Melt the f a t in very little hot water and then stir in the o t h e r ingredients to form a stiff paste. Flavour with almond o r vanilla essence if desired, and then knead well. Form into little balls and use as sweetmeats with raisins or dates. (Correspondence relating to recipes should be sent to Henderson direct at 25, Park Lane, Wembley, Middlesex.)


POINTS FROM LETTERS '. . It is really surprising, as one sits down and considers t h e question of man's exploitation of the animals, how very m a n y articles and commodities to-day are derived from the animal kingdom. A n d when w e sit listening to Albert Sandler's enchanting music, h o w many think about the material from which some of those strings are made? . . . "





( I t is n o w possible to dispense with gut strings, using metal o n e s instead. A t the May Meetings of the Vegetarian Society, which •were held in Leicester in 1945, violin solos w e r e given on an instrument fitted w i t h all metal strings. W e understand that the Leader of the Griller Q u a r t e t t e uses all metal strings and a bow strung with steel h a i r instead of the usual horse hair.—ED.) 6

" . . . I ' w o n d e r if you would be interested to k n o w that our son— h e is n o w just over fourteen month? old—has had no dairy produce, n o r eggs—with the exception of C o w and G a t e Food—until he was seven m o n t h s old. A t that stage w e changed him on to n u t milk and soya flour, and he is now a remarkable specimen, commented upon v e r y f a v o u r a b l y by all shades of opinion f r o m the general public to t h e medical profession. (I think I am being objective, in spite of being his f a t h e r ! ) A n y w a y , he is a source of joy to me on this c o u n t alone, t h a t h e has proved the scientific correctness of a course t a k e n originally u p o n moral grounds." L.J.C. (Uxbridge). " . . . Besides, is man a drinking animal at all? I venture to suggest t h a t he most definitely is not, and in support of this I would p o i n t o u t t h a t m a n is the only animal that must have a container, b e it only his c u p p e d hand, from which to drink, as distinct from all o t h e r animals, w h o are physically built to enable them to lap to their h e a r t ' s content. If man were to attempt to drink in this natural fashion his nose would be submerged before his mouth, and he would b e u n a b l e to breathe. No, surely all the fluids necessary for the well' b e i n g of man can be obtained from a sane raw vegetable diet." S. GODFREY ( K e n t o n ) .

( H o w e v e r t r u e the last statement may be, it does seem that the p r o t r u d i n g j a w and flattened nose of early man would have allowed f o r d r i n k i n g in a natural w a y without a container. H o w f a r is man's receding lower j a w due to the use of drinking vessels? More imp o r t a n t still, w h e r e is this evolutionary recession going to end?—ED.) " . . . M y husband and I have been non'lactic since last M a y , and b a b y w a s born a t Stonefield M a t e r n i t y N u r s i n g H o m e on November 7th. She is fine, and is certainly an answer to those who criticise o u r w a y of living. Incidentally, my husband, w h o for the past fifteen y e a r s has suffered from chronic bronchitis, has so f a r this year been free." E.H. (Bristol.) " . . . I am very much in sympathy with your aims, though I keep a small f a r m , w i t h six dairy cows. I am, nevertheless, very dissatisfied •with such methods of farming and I think humanitarian farmers should come together and confer how w e could proceed to be a bit more consistent w i t h o u r ideals. I got over the difficulty of dangerous milk, f o r m y o w n household, by keeping goats, b u t the business of killing t h e kids so disgusted me that I am giving them up. T h e r e as o n e t h i n g in which I do not agree w i t h V e g a n principles: I don't

17 THE VEGANsee that the keeping of bees need involve any h a r m f u l exploitation— and they are -undoubtedly so beneficial to one's garden and orchard. Also, honey seems to be an exceedingly valuable foodstuff—possibly w e might derive the same benefit by eating flowers! T h e r e is a n attractive book on ' Flowers as Food,' by Florence W h i t e , w h o f o u n d e d the English Folk Cookery Association." PEGGY GOODMAN


(The \eeping of bees certainly need n o t involve h a r m f u l exploitation. I t is the stealing of the honey that Vegans object to. T h e Society has endeavoured to locate a bee-keeper w h o can guarantee that he takes only that honey which is superfluous t o the bees' requirement, but none can be found. W e believe that the increase in disease among bees is due largely to the substitution of white sugar f o r honey.. .In a Vegan world the relationship between man and bees would b e symbiotic. T h e bees would fertilise the blossoms and, in exchange, for this service, man could guard the colonies f r o m starvation i n the event of hard weather or late spring.—ED.) " . . . I have been in conversation with an interesting old miner,, who informed me, among' other things, t h a t : (a) It is a fallacy that f u r n a c e workers and miners need salt toreplace that lost in perspiration. This, he says, is an American idea. Giving salt water, beer, etc., was tried at his mine f o r some time, but the men got more and more thirsty, so they had. to return to their pure w a t e r — o n e bucket per man per shift. (b) T h e only food that tastes decent down a mine is bread and jam or bread and dripping. Miners do not usually take meat because it does not refresh them. (c) His son, aged thirty-two, is one of the biggest men in his regiment,, a n d has refused meat from birth." E.C. (Mexborough). ". . . Before ' Vegan ' was thought of I f r u i t until it was impossible to get it and I have kept perfectly well without fats of any but fruit, and when that was unprocurable

lived absolutely on fresh, I had -to be vegetarian. kind—absolutely nothing a diet of unfired food.""



( W i l l others who have lived for reasonably long periods without, fats please forward particulars of results?—ED.) Seasonal H e a l t h T i p Never drink from a damp cup. "Is Milk a C u r s e ? " by Dr. Goodfellow, is also available at 3d. post free. It will help to restore the Society's depleted f u n d s i f readers will order quantities of this pamphlet for redistribution. T h e pamphlet sells at 2d., and is obtainable f r o m the Secretary at Is. 6d.. a dozen copies.



REVIEWS VEGAN RECIPES, b y Mrs. F a y K. H e n d e r s o n .

T h i s book, long delayed in publication owing to difficulty in • o b t a i n i n g suitable paper, is now available a t 2s. 8d. post f r e e through t h e Society. Its sixty-eight pages represent years of study and experim e n t a t i o n on the part of the author, and in them she has compressed all t h e useful knowledge so f a r available relating to the choice and p r e p a r a t i o n of Vegan meals. Being the first book of its kind to be published in this country, M r s . H e n d e r s o n s work will be invaluable both to established Vegans a n d t o those wishing to make the change. Orthodox cooks, too, w h o feel t h e i r style is cramped by present shortages of animal food should s t u d y t h e book to learn h o w readily tasty and nourishing meals can '.be m a d e f r o m foodstuffs, most of which are always in plentiful supply'. M r s . H e n d e r s o n has produced not merely a book of recipes but, w h a t is f a r more valuable, a book of n e w ideas and instructions to •guide those w h o are accustomed only to traditional methods of catering. In an appropriate Forword, Oliver Warnock-Fielden summarises t h e p u r p o s e of the book b y s t a t i n g : . " T h i s w a y of life is healthier i n a bodily way, wiser in a n occult way, and kinder in a humanitarian way." .SOIL AND HEALTH. Edited by Sir A l b e r t H o w a r d . Quarterly.. 5s. a year. Subscriptions to Miss Kirkham, T h e Rise, Milnthorpe, Westmorland. T h i s n e w magazine incorporates the N e w s Letter on Compost, w h i c h w a s edited by Dr. Lionel J. Picton, the Hon. Secretary of the C o u n t y Palatine of Chester Local Medical and Panel Committee. T h e first issue (February, 1946), r u n s t o sixty-two pages and is devoted -exclusively to problems of soil management, advocating, compost in place of artificial fertilisers. T h e work of Sir Albert H o w a r d and others seems to have proved beyond question that unless serious a t t e n t i o n is paid to restore more natural methods to agriculture, •civilised communities can expect no r e t u r n to t r u e health. All else is palliative, f o r unless plants are healthy they succumb to an everw i d e n i n g r a n g e of diseases, and, of course, they cannot pass on to animals a n d to men powers of resistance which they do not themselves possess. T h o s e of us w h o must confine o u r farming to a small back •garden or allotment can prove in a f e w months the magical restorative p o w e r of compost to a heavy and sour soil. "Soil and H e a l t h " tells the beginner everything h e or she can wish to know, and it will keep t h e more advanced student informed of all current development in this vital aspect of healthful living. T h e spring number of " T h e V e g a n " is out of print. A f e w copies •of t h e t h i r d and fourth issues are still' available at 7d. post free f r o m t h e Secretary.

19 THE VEGANMISCELLANEOUS (Id. a word. Establishments


Maximum 6 0 words.



diet is

10% reduction for 4 insertions.)


P E N A R T H . — " Vegetarian H o m e , " Rectory Road. Rest, change, relaxation. Ideal situation. Pleasant holiday resort. Overlooking sea. Attractive, generous catering. Comfortable, peaceful. Children welcome. Moderate. LAKE D I S T R I C T . — D o n a l d and Muriel Crabb have opened a n e w small guest house on the Cumberland coast. T h e house, " Greenhaven," Haverigg, nr. Millom, Cumberland, is conveniently situated for beautiful unspoilt coast with miles of sand. Friendly. Comfortable. Modern conveniences and homely atmosphere. C A M B R I D G E . — R e s i d e n t i a l rest and recuperation on V e g a n diet with or without treatments. Massage, colonic irrigation, infra red and radiant heat. Mrs. E. Jepp (late Champneys), 19b, Victoria Street. 'Phone 2 8 6 7 . S O M E R S E T . — G u e s t house, 16 acres fruit and vegetables. 8 mins. 'bus for Weston-super-Mare ( 7 miles). Cheddar 4 miles. Lovely views and local walks. Vegans, and those wishing to sample Veganism, especially welcome. All vegetarians catered for. A m y Little, Uplands, W i n s c o m b e . 'Phone 2257. A T T I C CLUB, 144, H i g h Holborn, W . C . I ( H o i . 1068). Food reform vegetarian meals only. Quick service, peaceful atmosphere, modern lighting, heating and decorating. O p e n daily from 10 a.m. t o 8 p.m. Membership, 5 / - per annum. N A T U R E C U R E H O M E , ' I N V E R E S K (six miles from E d i n b u r g h ) . — Scientific Fasting ; Alpine Sun Ray ; Radiant L i g h t ; Bergoni Therapy ; Spinal Manipulation ; Electrical Massage ; Colonic Irrigation ; Baths of all kinds ; sun-bathing enclosure ; central heating. Fully qualified physician in attendance. Illustrated brochure from the Manageress. L A K E D I S T R I C T . — B e c k Allans, Grasmere. A n attractive guest house for strenuous or restful holidays amid some of England's finest scenery. First-class vegetarian and V e g a n diets. Modern conveniences. Write: Isobel James. ' P h o n e : Grasmere 129. S T O N E F I E L D M A T E R N I T Y H O M E . — Kidbrooke Grove, Blackheath, London, S.E.23. „Tel.: Greenwich 2121. Established 25 years. M o d e r n • methods of infant management taught ; vegetarian food ; resident physicians ; two acres secluded garden. B R I S T O L . — M r . and Mrs. T . J. Elliot have reopened Towerleaze for patients and will continue as before to adhere to a vegetarian regime. Enquiries to Towerleaze, Bristol 9. T e l . : Bristol 81150. ST. C A T H E R I N E ' S S C H O O L , Knole Park, Almondsbury, nr. Bristol".—Progressive coeducational boarding school for children of all ages, specialising in music, arts, crafts, etc., in addition to usual academic subjects. 400 feet up, overlooking Channel and W e l s h Hills. S w i m m i n g pool. O w n produce. Qualified Food Reform dietician as cook, willing to cater for Vegans as well as vegetarians. 35 guineas per term. C O R N W A L L . — " Atlantis," Polperro Road, nr. Looe. T h e Mecca of V e g e tarians and V e g a n s who appreciate what's good. ILFRACOMBE.-—Holiday accommodation. Entirely vegetarian. Vegan diet on request. Central. 1 minute from sea. Terms moderate. Mr. and Mrs. F. C. Burton, Parkway, Oxford Grove. Tel. 85. N O R T H C O R N W A L L . — N e w Guest H o u s e n o w open. Can receive guests all the year round. Excellent position, with extensive views of moors and Atlantic. V e g a n diet if desired. Write Mr. and Mrs. Osborne Swain, "Tremorrab," Tintagel, Cornwall. Enclose s.a.e. for reply.




R E A D E R , widow, would like to correspond with another on points o f interest. Reply Mrs. Violet M. Schwab, Cully House, Newport, C o . Tipperary, Eire. . B I R T H . â&#x20AC;&#x201D; O n March 4th at 42, Horsa Road, Southbourne, Bournemouth. T o Kathleen and Edward Carysfort, a daughter, A n t h e a Rosemary, sister to Faith, Truda, Christopher and Theta. J A N E T O P P I N G continues to get excellent results by her methods on natural lines, including baths, packs, massage, dieting, etc. Meals are carefully balanced, artistically served, and are strictly vegetarian. Guests welcome. T h e Gateway, 10 George V . A v e n u e , W e s t Worthing. Tel. 2097. ( W h e n replying to Advertisements, please mention The

Literature available






" Vegetarian Recipes Without Dairy Produce" B Y MARGARET B .


Contains successful recipes for 13 savouries and 11 sweets. 2d. post free.

"Should Vegetarians Eat Dairy Produce?" By



An eight-page pamphlet dealing with the question from several points of v i e w . 3d. post free.

"Is Milk A Curse?" B Y JAMES A .




A pamphlet in w h i c h the well-known doctor advances deeply scientific and philosophic arguments warning against the use of animals' milk. 3d. post free.






"Vegan Recipes" BY FAY K.



the non-dairy


2/8 post free from T h e Secretary,. T h e Vegan Society, 67 Evesham



PITMAN H E A L T H FOODS L T D . Pioneers in the Preparation without Dairy

of Vegetarian Foods Produce

A wide range of specialities, including Nut Meats, Brawn, Rissole Powders, etc., are available to suit the taste, and consistent with the principles of Vegans and Vegetarians. Ask at your Health Food Store for all "Pitman" products, or, if unobtainable in your locality, write to the sole manufacturers at the address given below. PITMAN H E A L T H FOODS ARE CHEAPER T H A N ILL-HEALTH


Printed by H. H.




Lordship Lane,


Profile for The Vegan Society

The Vegan Summer 1946  

The journal of The Vegan Society

The Vegan Summer 1946  

The journal of The Vegan Society