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CONTENTS The Invisible Network - In the Country - Humane Slaughter B ^ Again - Recipes - Meetings - Holidays - News and Shopping with Eva


Jack Sanderson


Deputy President:

Serena Coles

Eva Batt, Jay Dinshah, Catherine Nimmo Winifred Simmons, Mabel Simmons


Eva Batt, Serena Coles, Christopher Hall, Kathleen Jannaway, Jack Sanderson, Grace Smith, Alpay Torgut


Grace Smith

Hon. Secretary:

Kathleen Jannaway, 47 Highlands Road, Leatherhead, Surrey

Assistant Secretary:

Laurence Main, 9 Mawddwy Cottages, Minllyn, nr. Machynlleth, Gwynedd, SY20 9 L W , Wales.


£2.00 yearly. Additional members at same address and not requiring extra Journal, and unwaged, £1.00.


subscriptions only: £1.60 yearly. Editors of " T H E V E G A N " quarterly journal: Jack Sanderson and Kathleen Jannaway (who do not necessarily agree with, all opinions expressed in it or endorse advertisements). Publication dates: 21 March, June, September, December. Copy dates: 1st of preceding month. The Vegan Society was formed in 1944 by a group of vegetarians who had become aware of the suffering inseparable from the dairy industry and decided to omit all animal products from their diet. Its advantages as regards human health and the wise use of the world's resources became apparent and in 1964 it was granted Charity status. In 1979 it became a Limited Company and its Charity status was confirmed. Its declared object is "to further knowledge of and interest in sound nutrition and in veganlsm and the vegan method of agriculture as a means of increasing the potential of the earth to the physical, moral and economic advantage of mankind". Veganism is defined as a way of living on the products of the plant kingdom to the exclusion of flesh, fish, fowl, eggs, animal milk and its derivatives (the taking of honey being left to individual conscience). It encourages the study and use of alternatives for all commodities normally derived wholly or partly from animals. Free from commitment to any religious, political, philosophical, social, dietary or medical group, members of the Vegan Society endeavour to co-operate with all who are seeking a positive way forward for mankind.




When we look at the dark earth during the winter months we may be unaware of the invisible network of the root systems of the trees, bushes and perennials which at different levels are preparing for the great upsurge of life in the spring. When we rise in consciousness over our great towns and cities and look down upon them, we may look beyond the moving lines of pedestrians and traffic to the in viable network of linkages of people in hundreds of ways, each person belonging to many networks and being a nucleus in his or her own right. In a city like London, there will be scores of thousands of networks : the customers of a particular shop, the people who use a particular bus route, the patients of a certain doctor, the members of a local theatre club, three or four generations of a particular family, the children at a certain school, the members of a given church, the voters in a ward, the ratepayers in a borough - the list is huge and the systems of networks very complex. Laurence Main has set up a network of Vegan Contacts all over the country so that new members can meet, 'phone or write to someone relatively near who can help them and inform them of local groups and activities of our own or sister organisations. House groups , with or without vegan meals or snacks are a growing feature of our time. A few years ago I attended a New Age Congress at Florence which the organisers hoped would play a part in ushering in a New Renaissance. Certainly many who were there are doing inspiring work in various parts of the world. Much change seems to happen by choice or chance. English has evolved into a a world language. Jeans, Elvis and the Beatles seem to have been adopted by a large part of the world"s youth; film stars are known in most countries. News papers, journals and books, travel and jet planes, radio and particularly television and satellites are speeding up and changing the habits of our thinking so that our attention can zoom from our village to anywhere on earth in a second. Consciously or unconsciously we think less of nations and boundaries and more of people, less of our differences of colour, culture and religion and more of our similarities and common humanity. More people are beginning to think and feel along symuiotic, terrestrial aid ecological lines. W e must not think that only we in our country have the forward looking groups - most countries have them and all countries have those who yearn for change. Nearly a hundred international conferences are held every week, whilst major efforts on a national or international scale are trying to cope with the world's problems - so many of which can be referred back to traditional compartmentalised thinking on national and religious lines. Such organisations as the United Nations, the Red Cross, the Friends (Quakers), the Save the Children and Help the Aged Funds, the Hunger Project Amnesty International and Aid Funds of all types are doing massive and often unsung work in every corner of the globe. This merciful and constructive work is not all concerned with people. Eradicate the Iteserts, Save the Trees, Save the Wild Life, Prevent the Pollution and Rape of the Earth, Conserve thje Resources and Recycle where possible, are all manifestations of

a new and growing awareness of our joint responsibility and stewardship of the Earth and its life and future.

Sooner or later most of those who are working in

these and allied fields become aware that they are part of a vast invisible network covering the earth, each with his or her own task, challenge and opportunity, seeking to serve others or to bring in new impulses.

Progress seems

come mostly in steps - an inspiration, an intuition, followed by a demonstration and a reluctant but slow acceptance.

Servers may be working in the orthodox

fields of religion, medicine and general healing of the mind and body, whilst a growing number are turning to alternative methods, some drawn from other cultures and some pioneered recently by aspiring adventurous souls in an evident desire to serve.

Members of this network do not necessarily wear badges or

have high qualifications, yet they will soon recognise each other and have great joy in learning of each other's work.

They will have a sense of belonging to this

active .invisible, leaderless (?) fellowship.

Characteristics of this Aquarian

Consciousness will be the acceptance of personal responsibilty for some part however small of the life of the earth, near and further afield; a desire to heal the self and others in all kingdoms; a capacity to share and work with others where co-operation is desirable; a sense of loving and caring that is tangible, joyous and infectious; and an inner strength that is courageous and tenacious and not easily deflected by discouragement and temporary difficulties. Each server in this invisible network may have an inward vision of the possible nature of a modern human being when they apply and practise all the help and information which is now available to them so that they will change from being the victims of life to its masters.

The principles of veganism for instance,

when fully applied, will provide nutrition for the body and for the whole being. The various cells of the human body may appear quite different in structure and function depending on whether they are part of the brain, a bone, a muscle the tongue or an eye. Yet all have developed from a single cell at conception, and deep down in the consciousness of each cell is the knowledge of this capacity to develop and evolve in other ways. Similarly we may be aware of our common source and togetherness in a great design. Some, but not all, members of the network become aware thai it is not limited to human beings on earth but includes invisible entities at various levels whose task is concerned with the involution and evolution of all earth life. Working with them and using our own talents and talents beyond our own, we can become co-creators - each of us a seed that becomes a growing shoot in the divine spring. J.Sanderson.

"It is almost a commonplace today to find men who, quite naturally and unaffectedly, live in the explicit consciousness of being an atom or a citizen of the universe. " Teihard de Chardin.


IN THE COUNTRY by Laurence Main Many "animal-loving" town-dwellers have a naive sentimentality about cows adorning meadows and chickens scratching in farmyards. The dairy and poultry industries exploit these images when advertising their products. Some people see the vegan diet as a direct threat to this illusion. In fact the traditional English countryside is already being destroyed by an agricultural equivalent of the industrial revolution that is well under way in chillingly Orwellian proportions. This was stimulated by the second world war, which emphasised the need for Britain to become more self-sufficient in food. Since then quick profits have become the prime motive, factory methods have been applied to farming and our landscape and its wildlife has suffered disastrously. HEDGEROW DESTRUCTION The most apparent change has been the ripping out of hedgerows and the felling of trees to create large fields without any obstructions for modern agricultural machines. These are often twenty or thirty feet wide and require considerable room to manoeuvre. With a quarter of our hedgerows (approximately 120,000 miles) removed between 1946 and 1974, our countryside is in danger of becoming a dull uniform prairie devoid of wildlife. One Huntingdon sample, quoted'in Marion Shoard's "The Theft of the Countryside", showed 80% of the hedgerow trees had been cleared between 1947 and 1972. TREES The original land-cover for most of Britain was deciduous trees. The destruction of our great forests is a major historical tragedy. The mass felling of our oaks for shipbuilding in the Napoleonic wars totally exterminated a variety of oak with a tannin-free acorn that could well have formed a staple fare of Ancient British people and was almost certainly specially selected, nurtured and propagated by them. Nowadays to reintroduce it in Britain we would probably have to import acorns from tannin-free American oaks. Our modern farmers are speedily cutting down the surviving tree population. As the trees go, so does the wildlife. There is afforestation, but factory-style greed has replaced the longerterm deciduous trees with dull blocks of conifer monoculture. These "factory-trees" are often imported species, liable to disease (and, therefore, pesticides) and fail to attract wildlife. In Dorset, for example, conifers were a tiny minority of the trees when Thomas Hardy was writing "The Woodlanders", but conifers now outnumber deciduous trees there by more than three to one. TRADITIONAL GRASSLANDS The most insidious assault on our countryside has been the ryegrass revolution. Chemical ryegrass monoculture is designed to produce milk more quickly. To the casual observer, one grass may look just like any other, but this modern aid to the dairy industry has put our riverside meadows and our chalk downland, so rich in wildlife and such a joy to walk on, at a premium. The Italian ryegrass suffers from that vulnerability to disease so prevalent in exotic monoculture species and needs careful handling, so walking is discouraged and pesticides are employed.


ANCIENT MONUMENTS Half of the Wiltshire Downs were ploughed up between 1937 and 1971. The Wiltshire Downs were once the cradle of British civilisation and are rich in prehistoric monuments. Many are now only visible as markings from the air as the county turns into a vast barley prairie. We don't know why ancient people patterned our landscape with their tumuli and standing stones. If present policies prevail, we may never have the chance to investigate them as 250 out of 640 scheduled ancient monuments in Wiltshire were destroyed or badly damaged between 1954 and 1964. Such destruction may provoke untold damage as one increasingly popular school of thought is that these ancient monuments were marking power centres and ley-lines which channel the Life-Force around the planet. We may be tampering with a system designed to promote the health and fertility of the Earth. WILD LIFE BURNS The modern farmer is achieving maximum yield, but at a cost. No time is wasted on fallow fields or crop rotation. "Big Oil" has addicted our farmland to chemical fertilisers and pesticides. Any wildlife not destroyed by such treatment has to face the new common practice of stubble-burning. Machines have replaced men. Regular full-time farm labourers numbered 563,000 in 1948. In 1979 the figure was only 133,000, explaining the decline in rural life. Country bus services, schools and shops have all disappeared, while country cottages often serve only as holiday-homes. We risk becoming a nation of battery-people. MAXIMUM YIELD The principle of national parks would seem to secure at least the best scenery from such ravages. Since Exmoor became a national park in 1954, however, its treasured moorland has been reduced by one-fifth as 12,000 acres have come under the plough. Other land is left wild by farmers in return for compensation which can only gain temporary relief and which forms an expensive precedent. The destruction of our environment is considered a small price by some farmersanxious to maximise their subsidy from the taxpayer and to contribute to the E.E.C. milk and butter mountains. Farmers are practically above the law when it comes to how they manage the land. They monopolise rural councils and have effective publicity, including radio and television programmes. Pleas from concerned bodies such as naturalists concerned at the destruction of sites of special scientific interest or ramblers wishing to clear and waymark footpaths fall on deaf ears - perhaps 2% will reply to letters. All this behaviour is given official sanction because agriculture is seen by our rulers as without question the prime use of the countryside. Tax concessions and subsidies encourage investing in huge machinery, "improving" land and erecting batterybuildings. On average, each farmer in England receives about ÂŁ8,500 a year from the taxpayer and consumer subsidiser for such work. FOR WHAT ? In spite of the destruction of the countryside by these modern agro-business methods, we still import nearly half our food. This is because of our animal-product diet. The key to economical land use is proper diet! In 1979 a staggering 92% of all U.K. farmland was devoted to feeding livestock, while ÂŁ548 million was spent on imported feedstuffs. Expert investigation at Reading University has shown that an argriculture producing food for a vegan population would enable the U.K. to become self-sufficient in food on about a quarter of our present acreage of farmland, thus releasing our countryside from its present crippling pressures. We could easily afford to cease our factory-farming malpractices, plant more deciduous trees and protect more land for wildlife and recreation.


THE VEGAN IDEAL The vegan ideal is for fruits, vegetables and cereals to be grown in small fields, in proper rotation. These would be surrounded with fruit and nut trees to give protection, check erosion and create micro-climates. Fertility would be maintained by plant composting and green manuring. The use of human labour would provide an answer to unemployment and • the decline in physical health associated with working in factories. This could form the basis of a resettlement of the countryside in small, human, units. There is no need to replace the tractor with the horse, which would cost more in terms of money, attention and land to feed than a tractor run on alcohol produced from plants. The move towards the consumption of a wider variety of locally-grown foods would avoid wasted energy in transport, packaging and marketing, while less land would be needed for roads. LAND TO SPARE About half of our 47 million acres of agricultural land is suitable for growing crops, so we would have plenty of land to spare after using the 1 0 - 1 2 million acres that the experts, such as Kenneth Mellanby, author of "Can Britain Feed Itself?" and Professor Watkin Williams, Head of the Dept. of Agricultural Botany at Reading University, agree on being enough land to feed a vegan population. This figure does not include some of our best land which is now covered by towns. Allotment and garden produce has yeilded more food per acre than comparable farmland. We could barter our surplus of wheat, for example, for the enjoyment of foreign foods, but our 5.6 million acres of barley will not be needed unless we are still addicted to alcohol. Grapes could become as familiar a sight in southern England as has maize in recent years. Grown mainly as a cattle feed crop, maize is becoming an increasingly popular food for people, perhaps it could also be used as a source of cooking oil. Oil seedrape is already an established crop and varieties of lupin, linseed and sunflower could also provide oil. DECIDUOUS TREES There would be land to grow more of the broad-leaved trees which formed the original soil-cover and which can be a haven for wildlife and a source of recreation, as at the Queen Elizabeth Country Park, near Petersfield, Hampshire, today. Employment would be given to foresters, wardens and the tourist trade. A more dispersed population would encourage our diminishing rural public transport system and other services. The lowland farmer who has invested in animal husbandry will need help but government intervention has been prominent in our agricultural policy in the past and the switch to a vegan argriculture should pose few problems for the lowlands. The resettlement of unemployed townspeople of large country estates is a political problem, with one answer being John Seymour's land tax, as outlined in his book "Bring Me My Bow". Schemes for the reclaiming of disused industrial land for allotments are already being seen as an answer to the problems of innercities, with Liverpool taking an active lead. TREES FOR ENERGY Half the British sheep population of 28 million is now grazing on the upland half of our country, which also grazes some cattle and a few deer. Experiments in farming sheep "humanely" for their wool only, as practised by Peter Segger in his non-dairy vegetarian hill-farm in Wales (see "Resurgence", September-October, 1977) are worthy of note, especially as by selecting the best wool breeds he has made enough money from the sale of wool to compensate for not selling his sheep for their mutton. Sheep graze where trees once flourished, however, and a vegan culture would allow the sensible return of this natural tree-cover. Trees offer a practical, safe and renewable solution to our future energy problems. Storing energy for use at will, they allow versatile conversion and products. Bio-

fuel production can proceed dependent on the technology already available and with the minimum capital outlay. Individual farmers could grow and make their own, free of the stranglehold of international companies anxious to extract the last drop of fossil fuel from the Earth. The added tree-cover, would check increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. LAND FOR THE RAMBLER Trees have lost favour with the very people who should gain most from a vegan countryside, however. Both the Ramblers' Association and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds have warned against increased afforestation. Their campaign against afforestation is an understandable reaction to the imposition by central government on some of our most beautiful landscapes of dark, geometric, unappealing plantations of spruce and pine, regarded as a "strategic reserve" after the first world war had underlined the U.K.'s dependence on imports. What ramblers "...have always opposed is the dead hand of monoculture, especially the blanketing of our countryside with conifers..." (Howard Hill, author of "Freedom to Roam", writing in "The Great Outdoors",My 1980). Monoculture is the problem, not trees! Such plantations are an expression of the factory-farming on our hillsides, with its priority being greed in the short-term. Such an attitude is the very antithesis of veganism. A vegan culture is in favour of variety and afforestation that is ecologically managed on the long-term sustained yeild basis. It is possible to follow contours and avoid hard lines when planting. Broad-leaved trees can be mixed in with conifers thus aiding wildlife, recreation and avoiding clear-cutting of large areas simultaneously. As well as a more aesthetic tree-planting policy, better public access, by foot, should be provided through the trees to the unplanted mountain tops. UNLEASHING THE SHACKLES A vegan diet is just one aspect of a better way of life. As a practical expression of our general attitude to the whole of life, it releases us from so many of the shackles that threaten to bind the predator in man to the destruction of himself and his environment. It is vital that all who realise this work together now to save our original and most precious national asset from destruction.






From the vegan point of view the most important evidence given at the Windscale inquiry in 1977 was by Professor DaVid Hall of Kings College. He spoke of the energy, in the form of gas, electricity and liquid fuel that could with modern technology be derived economically from plants. Now the idea of growing crops for energy is widely accepted and it is beginning to be realised that the necessary land would be available if it were not used for livestock. According to Godfrey Brown writing in "The Telegraph" there was last summer a meeting of the Common Market farm ministers ar- which, according to Peter Walker, "one of the topics discussed was the longer term role for European agriculture in the provision of energy. " Professor Hall spoke of growing "alder, poplar, sycamore and eucalyptus " in England. W e plan to make this topic a major feature of our publicity this summer. Our leaflet of the above title,published in 1977 is available again. K. J.





Firstly, very many thanks to all those who have sent in their subscriptions.

The generous donations that accompanied many of them are much appreciated and will prove most useful in launching new projects.

It will be understood that,

since postage is so high w e cannot acknowledge subscriptions unless S. A. E. are enclosed. I would like to emphasise again that the witness of those who cannot afford the full subscription is much appreciated, which is why we keep subscriptions so low. Thankyou for the many encouraging letters that accompanied the subscriptions. I very much value them and wish 1 could answer them all, but I know that memthat

bers would rather

I spent precious time promoting veganism.

I regret that the subscription forms had no address on them. Requests for literature should be sent to Laurence Main, 9 Mawddwy Cottages, M I N L L Y N , Dinas Mawddwy, M A C H Y N L L E T H , SY20 9 L W . All other correspondence should be sent to 47 Highlands Road, L E A T H E R H E A D , Surrey,KT22 8NQ All cheques should be made payable to The Vegan Society Ltd. and for those who wish to remember us in their wills our Limited Company No. is 1468880 and our Registered Charity No. is 279228. I have several commitments for the Society in various parts of the country this summer so please mark letters P E R S O N A L and U R G E N T where relevant. W e get very few letters of criticism; we welcome constructive ones but please remember our particular function as a Vegan Society which is to promote a way of living on the products of the plant kingdom. The adoption of such a way of life would do more than any other reform to relieve the suffering Of animals, to achieve the right use of the world's resources and to forward the ideals preached by the founders of all the great religions and philosophies but discredited by the actions of their followers. W e co-operate with other groups where possible (providing they are strictly non-violent - violence is self-defeating) but see no sense in duplicating their work. •We are planning a new film or video tape. Would parents of vegan children who woulcTbe willing for them to appear ( at a location near London) please let me know. Courses in Richmond and London have been very well received. W e would like them to be available in other parts of the country. Would any potential teachers who would welcome a weekend residential course in Leatherhead pleases write to me. In "Food for a Future" Jon Wynne Tyson said "the logic of the vegan case is absolute". The literature we publish and sell gives and supports that case. Please buy, study, sell, present it. With members help the £50.00 donated by G. Mc Cleod for providing copies of "Food for a Future" to libraries has been used up : the Society is willing to continue the project, so please contact the libraries in your area and ask them if they will accept the book (paperback only) Similarly please ask your libraries if they will display, (not shut away in a drawer) "The Vegan1' and we will gladly send it free. Kathleen Jannaway

" V E G A N DIETS SAFE F O R CHILDREN1 The " N e w Scientist" of December 10th reported on the survey of the health of pre-school vegan children conducted by Dr. T . A. B. Sanders from the Department of Nutrition Queen Elizabeths' College University of London.


survey was sponsored by the Vegan Society and a report by Dr. Sanders appeared recently in The Journal of Human Nutritioa

A report is included

in the Vegan Society Publication "Vegan Mothers and Children" 70p. incl. p. & p.

together with reports on research into vegan pregnancy and lac-

tation. The " N e w Scientist" writer accedes that there were no signs of malnutrition" - "but the parents of the children were well educated in the nutritional requirements of their offspring and were able to provide a well balanced diet" - "nutritionists recommend that all vegan parents seek the advice of the Vegan Society". A similar report appeared in "Here's Health" January 1982,

with the Vegan

Society's address. "BREAST FEEDING DOUBLES RESISTANCE" Both the above reports emphasised the fact the Vegan Society and vegan mothers attach great importance to breast feeding.

It has been strongly advo-

cated since the early days of the Society and is now being recommended by most paediatricians and encouraged in hospitals - not long ago it was difficult for mothers to breast feed in hospital. feeding appear frequently.

Reports on the advantages of breast

"Further confirmation that breast-feeding of

babies is associated with their health comes from a study in Central African country of Rwanda.

Of 2,339 children under the age of two, those, who were

admitted to a hospital in Kigali whilst still on the breast had double the resistance to diarrhoea, measles and respiratory infections, and half the death rate of those already weaned on admission.

"News Line" 29.9.81

The study lends additional weight to the demands for stringent controls on the marketing of artificial baby foods in the third world, and for an adequate diet for the mothers. " "BATTLE OF THE BREAST" In spite of wide knowledge of the importance of breast feeding British makers of artificial baby foods are still promoting their products. A report "Breast or Bottle" published by " W a r on Want" and obtainable from them • 467 Caledonian Road, London N7 9 B E for £1.00 cites nearly 1700 violations of the voluntary code of practice endorsed last May by the World Health Authority under which baby milk companies would only advertise in specialist grounds. By wide and varied advertisements - and free gifts - the idea that bottle-feeding is normal in the modern family is being promoted.


HUMANE SLAUGHTER & I Plans to extend ritual slaughter facilities in this country are meeting growing opposition. It is doubtful whether the petition forms being assiduously circulated will have the desired effect but one welcome result may be to make people more aware of the connection between the living animals they like to see decorating the countryside and the meat they habitually consume. Some may well be led to find out what happens to transform the legs of the skipping lambs of their poems and hymns into the joints they carve for their Sunday dinner. They will then discover that there is little justification for believing that the animals subjected to so called "humane" slaughter die without pain or stress. They will have to face the fact that modern slaughter house methods help the slaughtermen and the self deception of consumers more than they relieve the sufferings of animals. Let us hope that it will bring some of them to consider the vegan way of life. Lacto-vegetarians will discover that baby calves, the inevitable byproducts of the milk industry, often suffer more than most animals. Painful though the exercise may be, it is necessary that those concerned to lessen animal suffering should study the slaughter methods commonly used. Comparatively few people are deliberately cruel to animals, most are ignorant, sometimes wilfully so, of the degree to which their eating habits depend on animal suffering. The chief function of the Vegan Society is to dispel that ignorance, to raise consciousness to the point of revulsion and to promote a better way of living. The information that follows has been gleaned from sources that cannot be suspected of bias towards veganism. (see referencesI Slaughter Methods in the United Kingdom Legislation in the United Kingdom makes obligatory the use of stunning pens in the slaughter of adult cattle, it prohibits the slaughter of animals in the sight of others and states that either a mechanical or electrical stunning device must be used, o r , in the case of pigs, a carbon dioxide stunning unit. The laws are relaxed in deference to the customs of certain religious groups who are allowed to engage in "ritual slaughter". Ritual slaughter involves the throat slitting of concious animals. So called humane methods require stunning before the throat slitting. The ritual methods were devised originally to reduce the barbarity of butchery. Similarly, considerable thought and effort has been given to inventing devices by means of which animals can be rendered unconscious of the death cuts. In practice, especially in view of the growing millions of animals involved, both methods fail to prevent the suffering of highly sentient creatures, suffering that is quite unjustifiable now that vegans have successfully pioneered a way of living that brings great advantages to humankind and the whole of life. Mechanical Stunners Captive bolt pistols are most commonly used for larger animals. If used efficiently the bolt pierces the skull and destroys part of the brain. However if the slaughterman fails

to position the tool carefully, if the animal moves its head at the last moment, if, as in the case of boars and sows, the skull bone is extra thick, then the bolt may not reach the brain effectively. This means that the animal may suffer the pain of being shot through the head and still go on to suffer the "sticking" i.e. the throating cutting, while conscious. Thus it will have had to endure two death blows. An article in the "Meat Trades Journal" July 31st 1980 says "Captive bolt stunners can be quite effective (in the proper hands) but can equally be the cause of unnecessary pain and suffering if used badly". Ritual slaughter if done effectively requires only one death blow, the throat cutting, but the period of consciousness probably lasts longer than with efficient use of the captive bolt. Concussion stunners which deliver heavy blows without actually penetrating the skull are used in some countries. They do not spoil the saleability of the brains but considerable experience and skill is needed to estimate the correct force of the blow. Too little means that the animal regains consciousness during sticking, too much shatters the skull and causes excessive convulsions. Success depends a lot on method of restraint and although stunning pens are obligatory for cattle, it is difficult to design them so that the slaughtermen can stand in a convenient position to aim the stunning blow. The Midas bulletin No. 4 on "The stunning and bleeding of Cattle, Sheep and Pigs", published by the Meat Research Institute and Meat & Livestock Commission, admits that "the design of a high proportion of pens is unsatisfactory". The Ammerdown Report (see below) states "Restraint of calves to ensure accurate and effective stunning is difficult and this may lead to their being stuck whilst still conscious". Electrical Stunning Stunning by the use of scissor like electric tongs is used extensively for sheep, pigs and sometimes for calves. The Midas Bulletin emphasises that the apparatus must be positioned correctly on the animals head, must be kept in position for sufficient time, the correct voltage and frequency must be used, details like the thickness of a sheeps wool, the presence of horns, the need to immerse the tongs regularly in saline solution, the heed to keep the electrodes free of corrosion must be attended to - "otherwise the animal may be paralysed without being rendered unconscious and may suffer severe pain". Alternatively the animal may be insufficiently stunned and regain consciousness before or during being "stuck". The article in the "Meat Trades Journal" referred to above says "Electrical stunning should be effective if the electrodes are positioned correctly, if the current is held for an adequate period". Two "ifs" in less than 10 seconds of operator time is not quite good enough especially if workmates want to keep their headage rates upl Paralysis of the animal without producing a state of unconsciousness is unfortunately common and lack of training is a contributory factor." "The present arrangements in the U.K. for operator training is both varied and at times little more than abysmal". Carbon Dioxide The rendering of pigs unconscious by immersing them in a mixture of carbon dioxide gas and air is little practised in the U.K. Although it makes it easier to stick the pigs, the units are expensive to instal and during the early stages of anaesthesia the pigs show extreme agitation. To quote the Ammerdown Report "there is considerable evidence that stunning by this method is a stressful procedure", and the Midas Report states


I 'v

"After Co2 stunning the pigs are in a relaxed anaesthetised state which allows shackling and sticking to be carried out easily and quickly but it is difficult to avoid stress while moving pigs into the gas. Observation of the animals during the onset of anaesthesia shows a succession of events which include panting, general agitation, convulsions of extensor muscles and squealing". Transit and Marketing Slaughter comes at the end of what can be a very long period of stress and fear during transport from farm or factory farm to slaughterhouse. For 50% of cows and calves and 70% of sheep there is the additional trauma of the auction markets. Badly designed vehicles and loading ramps, excessive use of force and inadequate understanding of animal behaviour, all contribute to physical damage and stress. At best some degree of stress is unavoidable because animals are separated from familiar surroundings and companions. Frightened animals are often difficult to control. "The stick is gradually giving way to the electric goad which has placed a powerful tool in the hands of the drover. It is tempting to prod the part of the animal nearest to you and while it may relieve the tension in the operator it increases stress in the animal (Meat Traders Journal 20.8.81)" "The pre-slaughter handling of baby calves is particularly difficult because of their immaturity. This makes droving time-consuming and renders the calf liable to physical damage when being moved", states the Arnmerdown Report. These baby animals are often only a few days old and yet, according to an article in "The New Scientist" 10.12.81., they may be "shunted from market to market" if they fail to find a buyer the first time offered. Many slaughtermen complain at the slaughter of cal.ves. "They suck your fingers looking for milk. They're just babies". However, most become hardened by the practice of their trade and are more concerned to kill as many animals as possible per hour. Fully conscious calves may be stuck and bled - the violence of their death throes ensures a good bleed out and makes the veal fashionably white. These babies are the inevitable by-products of the industry that deposits the innocent looking bottles of milk onto so many doorsteps. No mention of lambs is made in the reports but they must suffer similarly. It is difficult to get the electrode to function properly through their wooly curls and, since such babies are easy to over-power, slaughtermen are tempted to dispense with stunning procedures. Inspectors are few. Remember the newspaper reports on the Salisbury slaughterhouse a few years back? The Meat and Livestock Commission has estimated that 10% of all fat lambs have carcass damage and the Meat Research Institute has calculated that current losses due to physical damage to livestock costs the industry ÂŁ3 million per annum and this figure takes no account of losses due to stress. Pigs are particularly susceptible to stress - some literally die of fright before they reach the slaughter pens. "A 1977 report estimated that acute stress deaths cost the U. K. industry about ÂŁ780,000 per year, and in the rest of Europe the losses are even more serious. (New Scientist 22.11.79)" As with many of the evils of modern society the responsibility must lie at the doors of consumers. Many millions of highly developed animals with feelings all too human-like suffer and die annually for no better reason than to provide habitual palate satisfaction.


Reports in the meat industry press reveal that farmers, dealers, slaughtermen and others who have to witness and manipulate the driving and the butchery are not unaware of or entirely insensitive to the suffering involved, but the trade will go on until a drop in consumer demand takes the profit out of it. Many people still believe that animal products are necessary for health. Vegans have a heavy responsibility to show that they are not. They have proved that they can bear and bring up children healthily and live to a vigorous old age without using animal products. They must spread this knowledge. For far too long self-respecting meat eaters and lacto-vegetarians have deluded themselves that their eating habits do hot cause suffering because "the animals are killed humanely." Knowledge will soon destroy their complacency. In supporting the petition against ritual slaughter they will lay themselves open to the jibes "People in glass houses shouldn't throw stones" unless they discipline themselves to follow the vegan way. Lactovegetarianism though its motives may be commendably compassionate, is completely illogical in view of the cruel exploitation of calves and cows necessary to produce milk products. Some immediate relief for the animals may be gained by the work of "The Council of Justice to Animals and Humane Slaughter Association", which work hard to promote the more efficient use of pre-stunning methods and to get better conditions for animals in transport and slaughter houses. They welcome support for their work details about which can be had from 34 Blanche Lane, Potters Bar, Herts. But, however, successful, they can only bring minor relief to the animals. Only veganism can bring freedom from dependence on the slaughterhouse and the end of cruel exploitation of animals for food. K. Jannaway References 1. Report of "The Ammerdown

Croup" April 1980. Convenor Alastair Mews, School of

Veterinary Science, University of Bristol. 2 . Midas Bulletin No. 4 1978. Meat Research Institute and Meat Livestock Commission Bristol. 3. "Survey of Transport and Marketing Conditions of Slaughter Cattle, Sheep and Pigs in the United Kingdom".

1976 Animal Health Trust, 24 Portland Place, London, W I N 4 H N

4. Articles in Meat Trades Journal July 31 and August 20, 1981

(Copies of the above article in leaflet form and with a picture of a cow being slaughtered, are available from both the Leatherhead and Machynlleth addresses. Also revised versions of What Happens to the Calf?" and "Two Population Explosions", and "Trees not Nuclear Power Stations" see page,! 6 )

"And I will make for you a covenant on that day with the beasts of the field and the birds of the air and the creeping things of the ground, and I will abolish the bow and the sword and war from the land so that all living creatures may lie down without fear.' Hosea 2.18.




Nestling under the green southern slopes of the Great Smoky Mountains, the outward peace of Caroline's home belies its round-theclock activity within. The forty rabbits - like so many of the Sanctuary's inmates "unwanted pets", have expanded to over one hundred. This not in the accepted manner, for no breeding is allowed on the Sanctuary, but because the fame of this haven has so spread that its catchment area now extends over a fifty-mile radius. Extra "pens" ("hutches" in "English" English!) have been built, so that shortly an extra barn is to be added. Each rabbit has separate living quarters, apart from one or two who shaxe with a guinea-pig, i t having been found, that these active little creatures have a considerable therapeutic effect on an ailing rabbit. A number of large exercise-runs, each complete with long and short grass, bushes and a large wooden "toadstool" to provide interest and natural surroundings, now enable each of eight rabbits in turn to enjoy a week's "holiday". The alteration in personality with this transfer from the hutches is particularly noticeable with the does, most of whom start building warrens! Gibber, the tame vixen, now enjoys a landscaped enclosure some 5 metres by 3i her previous domain being occupied by a skunk. Again, the change in Gibber brought about by this comparative freedom is astounding. She bounds about each time you pass, and licked my hand and forearm through the netting as I photographed her. Five small turtles,rescued from attempting to cross the local highway, share the patio at the side of the house, along with the chipmunk who calls twice daily for his nut-ration, and with the Sanctuary's latest resident, a young blind mallard. In these past two years, the animal liberation movement has firmly taken off throughout the U . S . A . and Canada, spearheaded mainly by young people. I t is gratifying to see there, as in Europe, the concern of today's youth for conservation. To this end, Mrs Gilbert has mounted an attractive audio-visual presentation with which she tours schools. In this, Mrs Gilbert stresses the possibilities of bringing up a l l domestic animals on a vegetarian regime, particularly important in an area, where so much food is animal-based. Not content with local communication, Mrs Gilbert travels considerable distances, often with members of the Sanctuary as "demonstrators" to speak at conventions in support of all forms of animal activism. She has been dominant in counter-measures to the Draize Test (the use of rabbits for testing toiletries), a major victory being that one of the principal cosmetic houses has agreed to co-operate regarding this. Mrs Gilbert's present crusade is against the American RabbitBreeders' Association, who are promoting throughout the U . S . A . rabbitmeat as the "Food of the Future", aiming the rabbit-production to take


the place of the battery-hen. Currently producing ^ to 5 thousand rabbits daily for the table, their goal is for factory-production throughout every State, turning out in excess of one million each working day, destined for the freezer! Fortunately to counter-balance this, many responsible people with access to "the media" have taken up the cause of animals. Not only have numerous public figures whose professions, such as sport or showbusiness, make them doubly health-conscious, proclaimed their practice of vegan/vegetarianism, but such dominant personalities as radiopresenter Gary Null wage wax over the air on a l l aspects of the meat industry. Maxsha Pearson, much-photographed model, refuses to show garments made of fur or leather, and has repeatedly advertised her use only of animal-product-free cosmetics. Even "Snoopy" recently scored with animal conservationists when in cartoon-caption-form, he announced, "Only nasty people eat bunnies." All of which seems a million miles from this corner of South Carolina where the assortment of birds, rabbits, possums, racoons, goats and horses live in blissful ignorance of the greed of Man. The health and well-being evident in bright eyes and glossy coats would surely s t i l l the doubts of any who question the wisdom of feeding this conglomeration only on natural foodstuffs with no chemical additives, curing any minor ailments only by commonsense and herbal remedies, and when the end comes, to grant them sleep in a quiet corner of the wood. Marrion Welles.

The Simpsonville Animal Sanctuary is one of several throughout the U . S . A . under the umbrella of the Fund For Animals, New York City. The Fund pays for foodstuffs and building materials; a l l labour and day-to-day running is carried out entirely by Caroline Gilbert and her family, with a few local supporters.

"AN ALLERGY COOKBOOK" is a recently published work by Patricia Carter compiled especially for those people who are allergic to milk products, eggs, wheat, salt, chocolate or sugar (cane or beet). I t would also be very helpful to any vegan unfortunate enough to have a system unable to cope with any of the last four items as none of the recipes contain dairy milk/"butter/cheese/cream or eggs. Some are based on meats though (axe any people allergic to meat and flesh products I wonder? - other than morally I mean) but they are grouped together and so easily discounted. I have not yet had an opportunity to test any of the glutenfree cakes etc. but I am very glad to see that Plamil, Delice 'cream' and Vitaquelle margarine are frequently recommended for use. Published by Ian Henry Publications Ltd. at ÂŁ ^ . 9 5 .






AVON: Margaret Woolford is holding a garden party (indoors i f wet) at n, on Saturday, 8th May, starting at 2 . 3 0 P.m. (telephone Clevedon 877129 for information of public transport). BUCKINGHAMSHIRE: at 3-00 p.m. on Sunday, 28th March. This meeting will hopefully be followed by a picnic in Alexandra Park, London N22, on 1st May, when members can also visit the "Health and Leisure" exhibition. Meet at the main entrance to the exhibition (wearing your vegan T-shirts) at 3-30 P>mCUMBRIA: has kindly offered his services as the county's Local Vegan Contact. HUMBERSIDE: Please note that the correct address of our Loca,l Vegan Contacts i s :


We have a new Local Vegan Contact for the Bromley area:


Please get in touch with our new Local Vegan Contacts:

STAFFORDSHIRE: Vegans in Stoke are asked to rally around a potential new local group being formed by

TYNE & WEAR: John is very keen for local vegan groups to raise funds by collecting used postage stamps and selling them to him. John will send full details of this fund-raising scheme on request. WEST MIDLANDS: We have a fairly large vegari population in the West Midlands but nobody willing to organise local vegan group activities. I f you can help, please contact Laurence Main, 9 Mawddwy Cottages, Minllyn, Dinas Mawddwy, Machynlleth, SY20 9LW. Our present caretaker LVC, Wendy Zimmerman, is organising our stall at the Leamington Festival of International Understanding and. Peace, to be held in the Pump Room Gardens in the centre of Leamington, from 11.00 a.m. to 5-00 p.m. on Saturday, 12th, and Sunday, 1 3 t h June.



WILTSHIRE: We have a s t a l l at the Swindon Animal P a i r , held at Drove Road School, near Swindon Town Football Club, on Saturday, 27th March, from 11.00 a.m. to 4 . 0 0 p.m. SOUTH YORKSHIRE:


Please help to spread the message in YOUR area. A valuable job i s to distribute "The Vegan" to your local wholefood shops. Please write to Laurence Main, 9 Mawddwy Cottages, Minllyn, Dinas Mawddwy, Machynlleth, SY20 9LW, Wales, i f you can help.




Many vegans feel that i t is becoming increasingly important to prove that vegan self sufficiency is a viable l i f e style. We would like to establish The Vegan Self Sufficiency Network. I f you are seriously interested send S . A . E . now to Alan and Elaine Garrett, , Portsmouth, Hants. ************************ ALSO Laurence Main writes that there is a group already looking for properties in Wales. I f you are ready to co-operate write to Bronwen Lee, , Aylesbury, Bucks. HEALTH WITHOUT CRUELTY DAY Sheffield Sat April 24th at the Merlin Theatre, off Cherry Tree Road, Nether Edge 2 miles South West of city centre. Organised jointly by Animal Aid and N . A . V . S . to demonstrate the alternatives that exist for achieving good physical and mental health without vivisection. Alder is the subject of our cover picture for a special reason-see p. 6.



We regret that the word "herbal was accidentally omitted from the reference to First Aid. remedies in Frances Howard's article in the Vegan Camp in the last issue of the Vegan. We hope to give more details about these in the summer issue. We have also had a request for information on herbal remedies for animals. Can anyone help?



1982 Dr Frey Ellis Memorial Lecture C. ROBBINS Director Coronary Prevention Group, Central Middlesex hospital formerly at Centre for Agricultural Strategy, Reading.

TUESDAY MARCH 30th, 7.00pm

EATING FOR HEALTH or FARMING FOR WEALTH Westminster Quaker Meeting House, 52 St. Martins Lane, London ( entrance Hop Gardens ). Few minutes Trafalgar Square and Leicester Square. ( Regret no buffet)




DISCUSSION meeting, Thursday, March 25th, 6.45 p. m . at Westminster Friends Meeting House see above. Come and decide whether to continue these meetings through the summer. D A Y C O U R S E V E G A N D I E T , May 15th, Richmond Adult College, outer London. Details Kathleen Jannaway, 47 Highlands Road, Leatherhead, Surrey. Northern Festival. L E E D S , Queen's Hall. W e hope to have a stand if we can get enough local help and offer of hospitality. Easter April 8th-13th. Write soon to Kathleen Jannaway. INTERNATIONAL


C O N G R E S S July 22 - August 2, 1982, U L M

West Germany. W e hope to be well represented, to have lecture time and a stand. Why not join us ? Write as soon as possible to Maxwell Lee, , Cheshire. G A R D E N P A R T Y informal gathering for members and their friends. June 13th 2.00 p. m . Please bring food to share. Drinks provided. At 47 Highlands Road, Leatherhead, Surrey. 15 mins walk from station. Trains from Waterloo and Victoria and London Bridge. By car B2033 off A24 See also page 20.


HIGH V A L U E "CHEESES" 11 oz Tahini sesame Spread

( 1 jar)

5 j oz. soft ( polyunsaturated ) margarine. ( Vitaquelle ) oz Tastex or Barmene. 5-g oz Soyolk or similar heat-treated soya flour. Melt margarine over gentle heat.

Stir in Tastex, soya and Tahini in that order

The above was sent in by Jim Betts who also sent a very useful analysis showing that the cheese, compared very well with cheddar in food value, especially with regard to vitamins.

It was also much higher in unsaturated fats and of course

quite free of cholesterol.

The Tahini greatly improved its calcium value.

W e experimented and recommend

the following recipe even higher in polyunsat-

urated fats with the same high calcium and protein advantages and much cheaper. It lacks the A and D vitamins of the margarine but also its disadvantages.

S E C O N D V A R I E T Y O F HIGH V A L U E C H E E S E 2 oz. oil - sunflower 1 - 2 oz. sesame seed (clean hulled variety)

2 - 3 oz. heat-treated soya flour Flat tsp. or to ta ste of Barmene or Tastex. Grind sesame seeds finely and beat with Barmene and oil into a smooth cream. Add soya flour. By pressing in as much soya as possible a "cuttable" cheese can be achieved. I further harden the texture by putting in a plastic bag and kneading more soya flour into the "cheese". K.J.



- high protein for lunch box

8 oz. wholemeal flour 1 oz. soya flour 1 oz. sesame seeds 1-2" oz. oil

flat tsp. Cream of Tartar \ flat of soda tsp Barmene or Tastex 4 oz. water \ tsp. dry mustard if liked.

Toast sesame seeds under grill until they begin to jump. Cool & grind. Mix dry ingredients together thoroughly. Whisk together oil, Barmene and water to make a soft dough. Roll out to \ in. thick. Cut into rounds. J or press on to tray and mark into sections) Bake in hot oven - 425 -450 for about 20 minutes. Olive Jones MORE RECIPES W E L C O M E D BUT PLEASE ]


>ES N U T M I N C E -very quick to make, and tasty. 3-4 servings 4 oz. any kind of nuts

1 tsp. Barmene or to taste

3 oz.porage oats or Jumbo oats 2 oz. onion 1 - 2 oz. oil

Herbs to taste Half pint water or veg. stock -hot

Fry onions in oil until pale brown. minutes.

Stir in nuts & oats and heat for a few

Stir Barmene and herbs into water, add to mixture and mix well

Cook gently for a few minutes.



3 - 4 servings

4 oz. barley flakes 3 - 4 oz. onion 2 sticks celery 1 yellow pepper \ pint water

8 oz. frozen sweet corn 4 oz. walnuts 1 - 2 oz. oil Salt or Barmene to taste.

Fry chopped onion and celery lightly in the oil. Add water and cook 10-15 minutes until barley is soft and all the water taken up ( add more water if necessary) Stir in coarsely chopped walnuts. Valerie West SPICY L E N T I L L O A F

4 servings.

8 oz. lentils 4 oz. onions Small green or red pepper 4 oz. grated carrot 2 oz. oil

1 tbs tomato puree | tsp ground mace 1 tsp mixed herbs \ tsp cili powder garlic, crushed & chopped

Gently cook onion, pepper & garlic in oil.

Add grated carrot, tomato puree

and seasonings.

Cook slowly for about ten minutes.

drained and slightly mashed lentils. hot or cold.

Stir in well cooked,

Bake | hour in moderate oven. Serve Hilary Craddock

BANANA D A T E PUDDING 3 bananas - ripe 1 cup chopped dates \ cup chopped walnuts

5 cup oil 1 tsp pure vanilla essence 2 cups porage oats

Mash bananas and add dates, walnuts , oil and vanilla. Mix well. Stir in oats well and let stand for a few minutes so oats can absorb moisture. Place in greased dish and bake at 4 0 0 ° F for 25 mins. Serve with soya custard or nut cream. â&#x20AC;&#x17E; Terry Janes YOUR NAME AT T H E B O T T O M O F E A C H .







Health and Leisure 1 9 8 2 , Thursday, April 29-Monday, May 3, Alexandra Pavilion, Alexandra Park, London, N. 22. W e have booked a stand in the Diet, Nutrition and Beauty section of this exhibition instead of at the Mind & Body & Spirit Festival at Olympia in 1982. With the facilities of London's newest exhibition hall and outdoor attractions in the surrounding park, it should attract many visitors. Offers of help at the stand should be sent to Serena Coles, Surrey. Animal Rights Symposium, May 6, 1982, at the Commonwealth Institute Theatre, Kensington High Street, London, W . 8.

Tickets (El. 50) and details from the

Vegetarian Society, 53 Marloes Road, London, W . 8. First Alternative Medicine Exhibition, Saturday 17 and Sunday 18 July, 1982, at Kensington Exhibition Centre, Derry Street, London, W . 8. Interest in alternatives to orthodox medicine is growing rapidly and veganism has a contribution to make. Progress against vivisection can be made by providing non-violent alternatives. Offers of help at the stand to Serena Coles (see above). Nature Cure Clinic - Annual Outing, Saturday 17th July to " A R T IN A C T I O N " at Waterperry, Oxfordshire. Coach leaving Allsop Place, London, N W 1 Details A . E a d y , Nature Cure Clinic, 15 Oldbury Place , London W 1 M 3 A L (opportunity to observe many different craftsmen at work at close quarters) Vegan Social Gathering APRII. 3rd Sat. 1. 30 London Vegans meeting & evening social. 25 Tabley Road I ondon N7. Buses 2 5 3 , 2 9 , 1 4 , 2 7 1 , 4 3 , 4 5 . Tube-Caledonian, Holloway Road. Tufnell Park. Please bring Foodfe Juices. Non-vegans welcome. A.Torgut.

V E G A N S O C I E T Y A. G. M. Saturday, October 23rd in L O N D O N .

Details later.

E X P O R T O F LIVE ANIMALS. This continuing, and in some parts of the world, expanding trade is one of the worst abuses of animals used for food. A recent letter from the Australian Federation of Animal Societies asks for help in its campaign to have the live animal export trade from Australia banned. It is believed that letters from overseas to The Rt. Hon. Malcolm Fraser, Prime Minister, Parliament House, Canberra A. C. T . 2600 Australia, may influence him. Over 5-2 million animals were sent from Australia to the Middle East last year - some ships carry up to 127,000 sheep per load. Suffering from overcrowding, neglect and many bad practices is immense.


B12 AGAIN Our attention is being frequently drawn to B12. I t is referred to every time we show the film or give a lecture and in many letters of inquiry. Yet very few vegans through the 37 years of the Vegan Society's life have had any difficulty over the vitamin. I t is probable that most vegans nowadays take the Society's advice and use a food like Barmene to which B12, obtained from bacteria grown on plant material, has been added. Some take tablets or drops similarly provided but possibly some manage by using the vitamin synthesised by bacteria in their own intestines. I t is a pity that the few who refuse to take the Society's advice and develop the early deficiency symptoms-usually tingling sensations in the extremities followed by a loss of sense of touch - scuttle back to dairy produce on the advice of ill-informed doctors instead, of taking drops, Barmene or injections. Among dairy products only Cheddar cheese has an appreciable amount and Barmene has far more. Government publications can be unreliable on the subject. One gives "yeast extracts" as a source and one mentions "Maxmite" specifically but only Barmene and Tastex yeast extracts obtainable from Health Food shops have sufficient to be any use ( 0.5 micrograms per gram so that a teaspoonful daily should suffice). Doctors can be very ignorant in the matter. One is reported to have said on the Radio that whole cereals were a source of B12, and a writer in the "New Scientist" gave margarine as containing the vitamin. The latter was corrected in a subsequent issue and the former has been written to. Vegans must be patient with such ignorance because dietary lack of the vitamin is likely to occur only among members of their fraternity. Most people who suffer from B12 deficiency do so because they lack an intrinsic factor in their intestines without which the vitamin cannot be absorbed. Doctors and health visitors should be given copies of the Society's publications "Vegan Nutrition" by Dr. Sanders and "Vegan Mothers & Children" with reports of his research work and thus be enabled to help any vegans who f a l l into their hands. These should be very few but expectant mothers can be vulnerable groups: the vitamin is vital for the proper development of the unborn child. Recently, practically a whole issue of "Ahimsa", the American Vegan Society's publication, (see Classified Adverts, p 32) was given over to contributions from different writers on the subject. Some were emotional and biassed and obviously speaking from prejudice rather than wide experience. They added up to the conclusion reached years ago i n England that individuals vary greatly in their need to have a dietary source. The only sensible course of action seems to be to take the recommended 3-.5 micrograms daily - more is probably wasted as the body can only utilise a minute quantity at a time - or else to have regular blood tests to check their need. But pregnant women should not take chances.


The stability of the vitamin is sometimes questioned. I t is destroyed to a certain extent by boiling in alkaline solutions. The pH of Barmene is in the vicinity of 5 . 5 which means that it is just slightly acid rather than alkaline, so add to soups and stews just before serving. I f the B12 is in the form of Hydroxycobalamin it is destroyed by Vitamin C but the B12 in Barmene and Spirulina is in the form of Cyanocobalamin which is not affected by Vitamin C. I t is wise not to take either vitamin B12 fortified foods or tablets at the same time as foods containing Vitamin C. Frequently members write to say that they have seen various foods described as sources of B12. So fax such reports when followed up reveal that the food has not got appreciable and reliable amounts. For example one wrote to say that miso had kept Japanese Buddhist monks in good health. The figure given for B12 content was only 0.03 micrograms per tablespoon which suggests that a very high intake of the product would be necessary to get anywhere near the recommended intake of 3 to 5 micrograms daily. Perhaps the recommended intake is too high for some people but why run the risk when Barmene and other supplemented foods are now easy to obtain in the West ? I t is a mystery to me why products of human skill common in the Far East are regarded as "more natural" than those produced in our own culture. Seaweeds,also often described more properly as a "natural" source axe generally regarded as unreliable as to the amount they contain. Some research workers maintain that they only have appreciable amounts when growing in estuaries high in sewage! A much richer and more reliable source is Spirulina, a blue green algae found growing in lakes in Northern Africa and Central America. I t is now being harvested on a large scale by American firms and being made available in England - and probably other countries. I have recently received a book on the subject for review. It is "SPIRULINA, Natures Diet Supplement Rediscovered" by Maurice Hanssen, published January 21 1982 by Thorsons*. I t makes interesting reading. Claims axe made for the algae as capable of making a valuable contribution to a solution of the world food problem because it is very high in balanced protein. I have some doubts about this preferring, as in my article in the last "Vegan", to advocate release of land to local farmers to grow traditional crops instead of being monopolised for trading purposes by multi-national companies. The book presents clearly other analytical details which show the algae to be a valuable source of other essential nutrients. It also makes much of the claim that Spirulina is "the slimmer's answer to will power". Apparently i t acts as an "appetite suppressant"! The book gives recipes and addresses from which the product can be obtained in England. As to palatability this, as with all food items, varies considerably with individuals. Some I have spoken to *

see page



enthuse about its flavour, others cannot abide i t . For those who find the flavour of Barmene unpleasant and who dislike taking drops and tablets, Spirulina could be very useful, especially as it comes in easy to carry containers of powder or small cakes. I t is expensive but hopefully the price will come down when it comes into more general use. Kathleen Jannaway.

VEGAN B L OOD DONORS The "Vegan Society" is re-compiling a l i s t of vegans willing to give blood to fellow vegans in an emergency. Will those interested please send particulars, including blood type and group to Harry Bonnie, 20 Stephenson Road, Hanwell, W7 1NW. Your doctor will determine your blood type and group. PLAMIL -GOOD


Due to the ever increasing demand for Plamil soya plantmilk, the Company is stepping up production by producing it in tetrapak longlife cartons - size 500 ml. From the beginning of April these cartons will gradually be seen in health stores throughout the country and eventually replace the existing 4-10 ml. canned version. The same popular and sound nutritional formula will remain unaltered, though there is every indication that the B12 content may be greater. Trials already taking place suggest that the loss of B12 in processing through the new UHT (ultra high temperature) treatment with the longlife tetrapak cartons appear far less than by the sterilisation method employed with the canned version. More detailed information on this good news for vegans will be available in the next "Vegan" (summer issue). Additional good news is that although the Plamil soya plantmilk in the cartons will (at 500 ml.) represent a volume increase over the canned version (of 4-10 ml.) the 500 ml. carton will only cost 5p more, so that it w i l l , in effect, be a CONSIDERABLE REDUCTION in price per ml. This reduction is due entirely to greater output and sales, and is a reward to vegans who have so faithfully supported the Company by their custom. Plamil Foods is having a stand at the Helfex health food TRADE fair ( i . e for the trade only) at Brighton 4-6 April incl. so that the health food store proprietor's attention may immediately be drawn to the new tetrapak carton and also to the new Plamil carob fruit & nut bar, and so ensure that these are soon in the health stores up and down the country. Plans are also in hand to re-introduce from the end of April the once popular Plamil pease pudding, which is an economical and versatile standby for vegans - ideal for savouries, spreads, snacks and soups.


Arthur Ling.

VIVISECTION ? - a selection from the many letters received in answer to Peter Singer LESS SUFFERING -? I n answer to Peter Singer's letter, I wonder how it could ever . be 'clear' that experimental suffering would be less than the suffering it prevented. How could one predict how many experiments would be needed? And how does one quantify suffering on either side? Among humans pain and distress thresholds seem to vary greatly, perhaps also among animals. As a person with two disabilities (asthma and paraplegia) no doubt I am using remedies developed out of animal suffering. A l l I can do is avoid where possible those I know to involve further pain and death to animals ( e . g . a new anti-pressure sore lotion containing a shark-derivative). What about those without which I would die? I use them like someone who uses bridges built by slave labour, yet suspecting that there was some other humane way to build those same bridges. Every disabled person finds herself brought up against animal suffering as medical research continues. Spinal cord injury research is now proceeding ie the spinal cords of able-bodied cats and sheep axe being damaged causing paralysis. I do not give my support to this because I am prepared to continue as a paraplegic with all the attendant difficulties e . g . incontinence, pressure sore problems, rather than have healthy animals damaged. Should I be thinking about the suffering of other humans, disabled now or in the future? I feel it is up to them individually to condone this research or not. All I know is I do not agree to it and would not accept any benefits from i t . Incidentally, to read the 'Vegan' you'd think that vegans with disability did not exist! Come on, let us have the access details of meeting places, holiday accommodation etc - how many steps, doorwidths, loo access. A lot of disabled people are very active in the animal liberation movement. Elsa Beckett. THE USE OF ANIMALS IN MEDICAL RESEARCH My husband and I axe both f u l l members of the Vegan Society and have been vegan for five years. Whatever happens we and our four children will continue to live on products of the plant kingdom alone. As the wife of a doctor working in medical research I feel there should be a clear distinction made between vivisection for commercial reasons, i . e . testing cosmetics, paints, weedkillers, detergents, fly sprays, e t c . , aimed at making large profits, and medical research aiming to help humanity by curing many of the remaining incurable diseases and reducing the suffering caused by disease.


Many anti-vivisection supporters do not make any distinction. Of those I have met most have been extremely healthy. I feel only those who have first hand experience of disease are in a position to judge whether medical research is necessary. As vegans we axe greatly indebted to medical research. Many years of careful research led to the final isolation of vitamin B12 in the early 1 9 ^ 8 . The initial work was done with ox liver. We may not like this fact but must accept it squarely. As vegans we must have a daily s ,pply of vitamin B12, now synthesised by bacteria to ensure good hf ilth. We live in a society protected from the ravages of infectious diseases by the work of medical researchers in the immunisation f i e l d . Even those who refuse to be immunised are protected since the infections are wiped out amongst the rest of the population who are immunised and infection not passed on. Those who have worked in a hospital know the suffering that human kind s t i l l endures. Prom personal experience I know there are still parents with children who will die with incurable diseases. Would it be right for the parents to refuse a possible new cure discovered by medical research because of the testing of drugs or treatments carried out on mice or rats? Other children may not die but without the marvellous discoveries of modern medicine would live crippled, painful, unhappy lives. Would i t be right to refuse the help of modern medicine? There are children and adults whose lives depend on a maintenance dose of drugs or continuous treatment. Are there any insulin-dependent diabetics who axe actively against medical research using animals? Acute onset diabetes in young people is a life-threatening condition and cannot be initially controlled by diet. Would it be right to refuse treatment when it is available? For those of us who have seen our children suffer and pass into the: spirit world at an early age or have seen the quality of our children's lives transformed with modern drugs or have our own lives continued with a maintenance dose of drugs there is only one answer. Thank God for modern medicine! (writer's name withheld by request) Editorial Comment : - This letter presents an unduly rosy picture of â&#x20AC;˘ drugs and ignores their secondary and in some cases definitely harmful effects. J.S. THE ABOLITION OF EXPERIMENTS ON ANIMALS There is no moral justification for torturing in any shape or form other members of the Animal Kingdom, and the animals certainly would not think there was justification. Animals have no choice and cannot speak for themselves. I t is up to us to speak out for them. To justify cruelty on the so-called basis that we have dominion over animals or that they have no souls is arrogance - how do we know what


animals have or feel - they may well be more sensitive to pain than we are. In the next world the roles may be reversed with the animals experimenting on their tormentors! We hold the Animal Kingdom in trust. The so-called scientific world should set its house in order. I t is not comparing like with like. Experimenters should experiment on themselves, on each other and on volunteers for the sake of animals as well as for humankind this would be the highest morality and sacrifice. Blair E . Morrison MORAL DILEMMAS I found Peter Singer's letter in the winter edition of 'The Vegan' in response to Valerie Rudderham's article "What Would You Have Done?", alarming. I agree with Mr Singer that it is impossible to avoid the kind of moral dilemmas described by Valerie, but for the author of 'Animal Liberation' to say he can imagine circumstances in which some animal experimentation is justified - where the greater good would be served is quite shocking. The first objection to such thinking is that it was this very thinking which was behind the 1 8 7 6 Cruelty to Animals Act; an act which currently permits four and a half million animals to die each year through experimentation yet requires "every painful or potentially painful animal experiment to be performed with a view to the advancement by new discovery of physiological knowledge or knowledge which will be useful for saving or prolonging l i f e or alleviating suffering". Secondly, it must be borne in mind that once axe delivered into the hands of so-called scientists there can be no effective way of knowing how much suffering is inflicted for it to be weighed against the suffering avoided. Thirdly, is it moral for man selfishly to derive benefit for himself by torturing animals even i f that benefit is a great good?; i f it is moral, than the same reasoning logically justifies experimentation on humans, particularly on mental defectives, prisoners inter alios. I am convinced vivisection is an evil and that the only ethical and practical response to it is to call for its total abolition^ any retreat from this position leaves the flood-gates wide-open - as they are at present. Richard Savage I refer to Peter Singer's letter on Moral Dilemmas in the winter edition of the "Vegan". I believe that the utilitarian principle cannot be applied per se but must be divided into two specific cases: I n the f i r s t case, moral dilemmas like the ones posed by Valerie Ruddenham would be included whereby the situation demands a decision. The ethics in choosing the remedy bearing the lesser evil would be correct. In the second case we have animal experimentation, not as a remedy to a situation demanding a decision, but as the testing of a hypothesis.


Since this infers:- a measure of doubt, arbitrary judgement, premeditation, organisation and a victim I do not feel that it could be defended morally. I f we applied the utilitarian principle in defending such actions it would be ethically correct to sacrifice nine human animals on the assumption that it might save ten. I feel that the moral dilemma facing vegans comes within the first category, an example would be the number of small animals and birds accidentaly killed in arable farm production. I t is impractical to believe that we can live totally without contributing to animal exploitation, even the additives in our drinking water have at some time been tested on animals. I t must surely then be the aim of vegans to minimise exploitation and suffering by adopting the ethics of the first case and rejecting the notion of contrived violence for any purpose. Barry Hodgson.





Following a suggestion from our member Julie Togni we are planning to make a collection of tips for household cleaning and other jobs that are free from the vivisection connections that make proprietary brands unacceptable to vegans. Our great grandmothers must have known many and they were probably comparatively non-polluting. When we get enough we will publish them in a booklet. Example below. Please send others to Julie, 16 Marsh Close, Crick, Northants. OVEN CLEANER: Thoroughly clean oven, then smear with a solution of 1 teaspoon bicarbonate of soda in a tablespoon of water. Use your rubber gloved hand as applicator. Leave this solution (which Will dry to a white film) on oven. When oven needs cleaning. Wash off solution with hot water and apply again. Use under grill and hot plate and on oven racks. Olive Jones W O R L D





The B U A V are organising a pilgrimage to Porton Down Research Station where animals are used in testing connected with chemical and biological weapons of war. M E E T at the coach station, Castle Street, S A L I S B U R Y from 11 a. m . on Saturday, A P R I L 24th. The march will move off at 12 noon. It's a long march so you are advised to come suitably dressed and provisioned. C O A C H E S will be available to help those in need and to carry demonstrators back to Salisbury. F U L L D E T A I L S Kim Stallwood, B . U . A . V . 143 Charing Cross RoadLondon W C 2 OEE The B U A V is producing a wide range of propaganda material. Help make this the largest Animal Rights Demonstration ever I THEY











by Eva Batt. Cookery book and food guide.

W h y ? and H o w ?


by 10 very different vegans with

recipes and menus




(reprint) - Reminiscences of 12 early vegans.

I N T R O D U C T I O N T O P R A C T I C A L V E G A N I S M by K . Jannaway. With recipes and section on "The Vegan Dairy". F I R S T H A N D : FIRST R A T E


by K . Jannaway. Sixty simple recipes &

ideas for economical, healthy living (savouries, cakes, etc., with oil and no sugar), plus towards self-sufficiency gardening hints.


V E G A N N U T R I T I O N by Frey Ellis, M . D . , F . R . C . Path., & T . Sanders, Ph. D . (Nutr.). Scientific assessment of vegan diet based on research. 90p V E G A N MOTHERS AND CHILDREN.

Booklet by 10 vegan mothers plus

reports of recent research.


IN L I G H T E R V E I N by Eva Batt. Verses to amuse and arouse pity.


SA L A D I N G S from the garden and hedgerow, by Mabel Cluer.


V E G A N S H O P P E R S ' G U I D E compiled by Eva Batt


Y O U T H H O S T E L L I N G A N D B A C K - P A C K I N G the vegan way. Leaflet with recipes. 25p

FOR BOOKS F O R SALE NOT PUBLISHED B Y THE V E G A N SOCIETY F O O D F O R A F U T U R E by Jon Wynne-Tyson, a comprehensive case for vegetarianism and veganism, vividly expressed, with facts, figures and tables. £1.75 SPIRULINA

by M. Hanssen

(see p. 22 )


T H E V E G E T A R I A N H A N D B O O K - complete guide to vegetarian (including vegan) nutrition by American author Rodger Doyle. FOOD

Need, Greed & Myopia. Review of world food situation.

S T A N D A N D D E L I V E R . Invaluable guide to public speaking.

£3.35 £1- 75 90p

M A I N G U I D E S by Laurence Main, Assistant Secretary, Vegan Society. A Wiltshire W a y , A Somerset W a y , A South Coast Way, A Bristol Countryway, King Alfred's W a y and A South Coast W a y . Large scale strip maps, footpath routes, details of accommodation at youth hostels and campsites. £ 1 . 0 5 each F R O M 9 Mawddwy Cottages, Minllyn, Dinas Mawddwy, Machynlleth, SY20 9 L W Cheques payable to Vegan Society or International Money orders.


SHOPPING WITH EVA ^ V E G A N F O O D N E W S . (Items in capitals below are vegan.) Buitoni T R E X C O O K I N G F A T , O I L and SOLED C O O K I N G OIL, SAUCE, RATATOUILLE, P E P E R O N A T A , T O M A T O PUREE,





Country Basket F R U I T B R A N BISCUITS, and SOYA-NUT



Imported vegan Foods. Health Valley Baby Foods Shin 1 Foods

B R O W N R I C E C E R E A L with F R U I T .


Edward & Sons

A Chinese canned soya savoury.

B R O W N RICE S N A P S (Tamari & Sesame among the ingre-

dients). China Natural Cereals PA P A O CHAI Pagoda Brand

Mostly beancurd, shoots, roots, mushrooms, nuts, flowers. F R I E D C U B E S - G L U T E N with Soya Bean Sauce.

Yung Chun Canning Co. Heinz Baby Foods


Fried bean curd with soy sauce.

no longer make the C A R R O T S & L E N T I L S strained


Since '.listing Epicure Mincemeat in the V E G A N Shoppers' Guide No 3 this Company now have another mincemeat which contains brandy and suet. Be sure to read labels when shopping whatever our lists say, changes without notice can be made. Members have been, quite rightly, puzzled by conflicting labels on the packs of Elite S E S A M E H A L V A especially as I had listed it as vegan. The explanation is that the Company continued to use cartons with egg on the label after they had replaced the egg albumen with soya protein. However, it has been vegan for some time now and the ingredients correctly stated.


Allied Bakeries.

Thanks to all of you who have, apparently, been writing

to this Company about the use of lard in bread.

The latest news is that

Allied Bakeries are now using vegetable fat in their HOVIS loaves as well as both kinds of their A L L I N S O N S bread.

Whether our readers are partly res-

ponsible we cannot say, but it never does any harm to let manufacturers know of your preference. While on the subject of bread Gearys Bakery (North London) also use only vegetable fat in their breads. Other than foods One member has been making enquiries about the materials used in the 'Tetra Pack1 containers for liquids such as soya milks etc. and we are happy to pass on M s findings which are that Tetra type packs are quite suitable for holding vegan foods as the paper is laminated with foil and polythene which makes any land of wax unnecessary. Henna Hair Health

All ingredients used are from plants and therefore no

testing on animals is necessary - or practised.


» / ; /

W e have good news for those chappies with 'over 11' feet. T U F S H O E S now make some of their non-leather styles for men in size 12. For your nearest stockist write to Britton of U. K. Ltd., Lodge Road, Kingswood, Bristol SB15 1JB

Eva Batt.


T O T A L L Y SYNTHETIC "CB" WALKING BOOT Light weight yet robust, non-rot, maintenance free materials. New Klets tread . Cushion insole for extra comfort. Send £24. 95 plus £1. 50 p&p and we will rush you a pair. If not entirely satisfied, return unused within 14 days and wewill refund money. Access or Barclay card accepted. F U L L SIZES 4-12 O N L Y . W E S T S P O R T S 17 Fleet St. Swindon Wilts. Tel. 0793 32588






Please send to the Assistant Secretary, 9 Mawddwy Terrace, Minllyn, Dinas Mawddwy, Nr. Machynlleth, SY20 9LW Wales, try May 1st 1982, for the next issue. Advertisers are asked to note that we are unable to deal with box numbers. Rate: 5P a word. PLEASE NOTE, the following advertisements have been accepted i n good f a i t h and the Vegan Society cannot take responsibility in the event of any complaint. VEGFAM feeds the hungry via plant-based foodstuffs, leaf protein, seeds, irrigation etc. The Sanctuary, Lydford, Okehampton, Devon. Tel. Lydford 2 0 3 . AHIMSA - quarterly magazine for the American Vegan Society. Veganism Natural Living - Reverence for L i f e . Calendar year subscription $ 8 or £4. Address:501 Old Harding Highway, Malaga, N . J . O8328. THE NATIONAL CENTRE FOR ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGY i s n ' t just an awardwinning tourist attraction. We s e l l books through the post too. Please ask for our mail order booklist ( 2 5 p + s . a . e . ) , details of our courses, and a leaflet for tourists to v i s i t us. We have our own wholefood shop and restaurant in Machynlleth. Write now to: N . C . A . T . , Llwyngwern Quarry, Machynlleth, Powys, Wales. WEST COUNTRY VEGAN (businessman, 5 1 ) , somewhat introverted yet very loving Capricorn with young outlook/appearance, a non-smoker/teetotallerwith varied interests including yoga, dancing, music, jogging countryside, home l i f e , children and pets. Wishes to meet a kindred spirit (20-40) with sense of humour: a pleasant, non-smoking, vegevegan woman with whom to begin l i f e anew - 30 Marlborough Buildings, Bath, Avon, BA1 2LY. WHAT ARE LEY-LINES? How do they affect man and his environment? Can we learn to live more in tune with Nature by studying how the LifeForce is channelled around our The men who erected Stonehenge left valuable messages for us. Read about these and other Earth Mysteries i n : The Ley Hunter, P . O . Box 13, Welshpool, Powys. Send £ 1 . 0 0 for the current issue or £ 3 . 8 0 annual subscription. VEGETARIAN MATCHMAKERS. Discreet inexpensive postal introduction service, solely for vegetarians/vegans throughout the U.K. from 18 to 80 & a l l walks of l i f e . Dreams could become reality by requesting details from: V.M.M. (Dept. VQ), Freepost, Weyttridge, Surrey, KT13 8BR (no stamp needed). LIVE ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION, slaughtering of baby seals, factory farming, bloodsports - i f you care about animals and want to help stop these atrocities "Flesh and Blood" magazine will show you how! 75p or £ 3 . 0 0 subscription to: Caroline Publications (Dept. V ) , P . O . Box 3 2 , Stevenage, Herts, SGI 3SD. Flesh and Blood - "The Voice of Exploited Animals" cares - do you?


ANGLING - please help us to end this most cruel of all blood sports. Write Dept. A, CPGA, P . O . Box 14, Romsey, SQ5 9NN. COMMUNAL VEGAN HOUSEHOLD (but no food faddists or animal activists) with two children has space for new people. We axe involved in the development of a co-operative village community outside London to be started in about 2 years. Write: FUTURE VEGAN VILLAGE: You can make it come true. Would you like to be self-sufficient and live on the land with other vegans? I f you are sincere and willing to work and shaxe, please write and tell me your own ideas on how you think you could make i t work, what could make it f a i l and your ideas on growing food. People needed for the Spring. Please write ( s . a . e . please):

. MODERNISED COTTAGE near Portreath, Secluded garden with fruit trees. position near shops, buses, wooded £14 500. 6 Wills Row, Park Bottom,

Cornwall. End terraced 1 bedroom. Large workshop. Quiet semi-rural walks to coast. Rates £?8p.a. Redruth.

MOUNTAIN FARMHOUSE in South West Eire. Very good outbuildings and 20 acres of mixed land with streams. £30 000. Contact:

D . I . Y . EXPERT sought to help impractical female with renovation of semi-detached cottage. Possible half-share when finished. Full details please c/o NVS, 9 Baker Street, Northampton. PURE VEGAN PROTEIN POWDER. Top quality Soya protein isolate, over 90$ protein. 500g - £ 2 . 9 5 , 1000g - £ 4 . 9 5 , or sample from Protein Supplies, One Riverside, Shoreham, W. Sussex, BN4 5RU. TWO MEN wish to start CHRISTIAN VEGAN COMMUNE in Wales, possibility of acquiring land but participants must help purchase, easy terms payments house. Otherwise persons needed to cultivate land, for business may have to provide themselves with accommodation. Write Norris & Johnson 139 Slade Road, Erdington, Birmingham B23 7QU. LIQUID CONCENTRATE exclusive to JANC0 SALES is a biodegradable liquid soap derived from coconut oil, which is free from animal products and animal testing. LIQUID CONCENTRATE can be diluted to serve many purposes, pleasant in use as a bubble bath or hand wash, perfect for washing woollens and fine fabrics, ideal as a washing up liquid or to cope with heavier cleaning tasks such as washing walls or floors. Full details by return on receipt of S . A . E . direct from: JANC0 SALES, 11 SEYMOUR ROAD, HAMPTON HILL, MIDDLESEX, TW12 1DD. 32

VEGANIC - A NEW CONCEPT OF HARMONY WITH NATURE NEEDS a pleasant, active, enthusiastic and business-like person to organise lectures, prepare publications and assist with giving tuition to those on the Veganic Gardening Course. Some typing/office experience an advantage. Initially on a part-time basis. Small wage and free accommodation provided. For application form, please send STAMPED ADDRESSED ENVELOPE to the Secretary, Veganic, 3 6 Granes End, Great Linford, Milton Keynes, MK14 5DX, Bucks. INTRODUCTORY COURSES IN VEGANIC GARDENING AND VEGAN LIVING are to be held during May, June and July, with each session lasting two days. This is a: unique opportunity to gain first hand knowledge from the Co-Founder of Veganic Culture, and an insight into a way of l i f e that is humane, healthy and creative. For details of Courses, accommodation and fees, etc, send a STAMPED ADDRESSED ENVELOPE to the Secretary at the above address, and mark the top left hand corner with the letters VVL. QUARTERLY NEWSLETTER ON VEGANIC AND QUALITY OF LIFE. A l l the latest news, events, articles on creative living. Readers question and answer page, plus many more related features. Subscription £2.50 post paid, in the United Kingdom. Overseas subscribers £3.50. General enquiries SAE. Send Cheque/money/postal order made out to Veganic, and address to Veganic, 1 Gincroft Lane, Edenfield, Ramsbottom, Nr. Bury, Lanes. BLO OJW. VEGAN SUPERFOQD, SPIRULINA PLANKTON, of protein and natural B12, minerals this important new food, send S . A . E . Road, Liss, Hants, GU33 7NU, or send pages, 75p + 20p p&p.

AVAILABLE NOW. Highest source etc. For more information on to for SPIRULINA by M. Hanssen, 6^4-

"ENVIRONMENTAL THERAPY RESEARCH", kO West Cromwell Road, London SW5 9QL. Anybody interested in the improvement of human health is invited to submit ideas and reports about actual or supposed connections between illness and foods, drinks or other environmental influences to the above address. In addition, abstracts from professional and other journals, at minimum cost are available on request. WANTED HOME IN SPAIN OR ITALY for loveable young DOG rescued by two travelling young vegans who will not be allowed to bring her back to England when they return in 5 months time. Contact through Secretary, 47 Highlands Road, Leatherhead, Surrey. "PRACTICAL VISION FOR THE WORLD TODAY" - Conference at Hayes Centre, Swanick, Derbyshire, June 25-27th. Speakers:- Fred Blum, sociologist and psychiatrist of New Era Centre, Johann Quanier, Editor New Humanity, James Robertson, economist of Turning Point and John Wynne Tyson, writer. Programme of creative activities too. Cost - Friday 6 p.m. - Sunday ^ . 3 0 p.m. £17.00, vegan and vegetarian catering. Organised by Fellowship of Friends of Truth, Sec. Ruth Richardson, Birmingham B29 ifflE. Chairman Kathleen Jannaway.


HOLIDAYS ON THE EDGE OF DARTMOOR for a relaxing holiday. Vegan and vegetarian exclusively. Up to six guests maximum. Dinner, bed & breakfast £11.00 per person per day. Ullacombe House, Nr. Bovey Tracey, S. Devon, Tel. Haytor ( 0 3 6 46) 242. (Specially recommended for district and cuisine by G i l l & Chris Langley). FRENCH RIVIERA. Mobile homes, Lavandou area. Lovely location, superb beaches. Resident vegan owner. Car ferries/insurance arranged at bargain rates for own clients and independent travellers. Mrs Mather tel. 0202 - 7614-28. CORNWALL. Self-catering luxury f i r s t floor flat for vegans/vegetaxians overlooking Hayle Estuary. Sleeps 4 / 6 . Vegan meal available. S . a . e . please to Blackaller, "Meadowlands", The Saltings, Lelant, St. Ives, TR26 3DL. Tel. Hayle 0736 752418. S.W. SCOTLAND. Small self-catering accommodation in our quiet cottage for vegans and vegetarians only. Evening meals available by arrangement. Easy access to sea, walks, etc. S . a . e . to Wigtownshire, DG9 9EB. VISITING GREECE? Vegans will find all they want at Lan Tao health food store, Patmos, the small, peaceful, island best known through its monastery and the Cave of the Apocalypse, where St. John wrote the Revelations. - an informal magazine for vegans and sympathisers in which readers share their views and ideas. Subscription £2.00 for 4 issues - 50p single issue - from Gincroft Lane, Edenfield, Ramsbottom, 3URY, Lanes BL0 0JW.



Prom 31st July to 8th August at

Newpark Camping and Caravan Park, Port Eynon, Gower West Glamorgan tel: Gower 292 or 478. Bus 18 from Swansea. This is a luxury campsite on one of the most beautiful coast lines in the British Isles. Safe beach 7 minutes walk and many places of historic interest. Swansea has good health food shops and a restaurant that caters for vegans. Dates coincide with Eisteddfod in Swansea. The site owner, Mr. Loosemore is reserving an area for vegans so PLEASE BOOK WELL IN ADVANCE site charges £4 a day plus V . A . T . will organise vegan activities. Send him details of your family - and suggestions. Youth hostel near. Don't forget your vegan T-shirts - see p.36.


INVERNESS. Vegan/vegetarian accommodation in charming cottage on high road between Inverness and Nairn. Good tourist centre, walking, golf course, sea, beach nearby. Guests welcome all year. Tel. 066 ?8 3 5 2 . PENZANCE: Self-catering accommodation or vegan/vegetarian meals by arrangement in home two miles from Penzance with large garden, sea and country views. Car shelter. Tel. Penzance 224-2. NCRTHUMBRIA. Vegan D. B.&.B., quiet riverside village, beautiful ealkinh country, convenient Durham, Roman Wall. Children welcome. No dogs, no smoking. S.a.e. Crompton, 19 Beech Grove., Blackhall Mill, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE17 7TD (0207 561104). ST LEONARDS. Terraced house close to sea, shops, station, self-catering; 3 bedrooms. Also summer holiday chalet in Battle. S.a.e. Squirrel Farm, North Trade Road, Battle, Sussex. SNCWDONIA. Six-berth caravan, all mod. cons., including heating, carpeted, newly-decorated, H & C (spring water) beautifully situated in secluded position adjacent to "Olde Worlde" cottage in 3 acre grounds. Camping also available (tents or caxavanette) in grounds. Flush toilet/wash room available. This is a listed site by the Camping Club of Great Britain. Ideal vacation for peace, wildlife, walks, climbing and spectacular scenery. Numerous places to v i s i t . Send s . a . e . to N, Wales ('phone 0766 770907). SOMERSET I S GOD'S COUNTRY. Discover the old county of Somerset by walking from Minehead to Bath via Cleeve Abbey, Quantock Forest, Muchelney Abbey, Glastonbury Tor, Wookey Hole, Wells Cathedral and Priston Mill, A SOMERSET WAY is available for ÂŁ1.08 inc. postage from the Vegan Society, 9 Mawddwy Cottages, Minllyn, Dinas Mawddwy, Machynlleth, SY20 9LW, Wales. CUMBRIA. Vegan/vegetarian accommodation in private house. B/breakfast and evening meal if required. Close to Lake District and safe beaches. "Greenbank", 96 Hawcoat Lane, Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria. Tel. 0229-22957




Sauna, solarium, etc.


full or slimming menus 17 Burlington Place, Eastbourne, BN21 4 A R Tel. (0323) 23604 'Once or twice a year we all need true relaxation to ease away stress'


VEGAN T -SHIRTS Superior white cotton, emblem as below. Green on white. Small. Medium. Large. £3. 50 each incl. p&p. L. Main, 9 Mawddwy Cottages, Minllyn, Dinas Mawddwy MACHYNLLETH SY20 9LW V E G A N


with Brian & Wendy Burnett on their 36 ft., 7-berth yacht " X I M "

No experience necessary. No age limits. Caul, coastal and offshore cruises. All catering vegan or vegetarian. SPRING - French canals, Channel Islands and Brittany. SUMMER- French and Belgian coasts, Dutch Inland waterways (canals , rivers, meers ) Frieslan Islands English South Coast, Devon and Cornwall. AUTUMN - Plymouth to France, French Inland waterways I Rivers Seine, 9aone and Rhone plus canals } via Parts Lyon and Avignon to the Mediterranean. WINTER - France and Sfcjain where the winter Is better than the English summer. PRICES £70 - £120 < with extra discounts for small groups, children and longer bookings ) Full board l> all neoessary boat charges included. Please send stamp for details to Brian It Wendy Burnett, c/o 51 Main Road, Klnnerton, Chester, CIM 9AJ or telephone >244 660 267

GREENWAYS GUESTHOUSE 24 Marian Ave. Mablethorpe, Lines (Tel. 7508) Chris & Chris Phillips members of Vegan Society welcome vegans. Home baking, wholefoods, safe sandy beach. Send S A E for brochure. CORNWALL WOODCOTE


( Queen of the English Riviera ) BROOKESBY HALL HOTEL Hesketh Road. TQ1 2LN Tel. 0803 22194 350 yards from Meadfoot Beach, enjoying glorious sea views across Torbay, the hotel is situated in the exclusive Lincombe Conservation area, generally considered to be the loveliest part of Torquay. We offer restful holidays in beautiful surroundings coupled with imaginative and delicious Vegan and Vegetarian meals. Some rooms have private showers. Fully centrally heated. Full details from the Vegan Proprietress Mrs. Hilda Baker (stamp only please.)

Vegetarian / Vegan Hotel WHY NOT BE OUR GUESTS ? and for once experience a truly relaxing holiday in the West Country ? WOODCOTE stands In its own grounds overlooking the tidal estuary and bird sanctuary of Hayle, and is within easy reach of many fine beaches and coastal walks - the ideal centre from which to explore and discover the beauty of Cornwall 1 On a personal note, those with tired and jaded palates need not despair for, as attentive hosts we ensure that you are offered an imaginative cuiBine supported by a goodly measure of old fashioned personal service. Also available, SELF _ CATERING CHALET sleeps four. Stamp appreciated for brochure - John & I'amela Barrett, The Saltings, Lelant, a . Ives, Cornwall. TR 26 3DL Tel. 0736 753147


Lakeland's strictly Vegetarian Guest House offers a warm and hospitable welcome t o Vegans. Come t o us to relax, t o walk and climb, t o absorb the tranquility of Orchard House and the Lake District. We have a peaceful garden, a warm and comfortable home, delicious and different food and we are situated in superb Lake District country. We ask .Vegans to give us a week's notice if possible.

Brochure from (Stamp appreciated)



Monty Alge and Keong Wee, Orchard House, Borrowdaje Road, Keswick on Derwentwater, Cumbria Tel.(0596) 72830

It's 100% vegetable ... made from the soya bean and packed with protein and goodness. Its production involves no exploitation of animals. The flavour is quite deliciousâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;all the family, particularly the children will love it. You can drink it on its own as a super health drink or use it on breakfast cereals, in coffee or tea or in dishes such as milk puddings and custards. What's more it will keep in tne can just as long as you want to keep it. A wonderfully versatile and nutritious food ... Golden Archer Beanmilk by Itona. It's at your health food store.

'Golden Archer*

BEANMILK The Milk That's 100% Non-Animal

C R A N K S HeALTVI F O O D S William Blake House, Marshall Street, London


C R A N K S at Heal's, 196 T o t t e n h a m Court Road, W.1 C R A N K S at Shinners Bridge, Partington, Devon C R A N K S at Peter Robinson, O x f o r d Circus, W.1 C R A N K S at The Market, Covent Garden, W.C.2 C R A N K S at 3 5 High Street, Totnes, Devon



not instead of breast-milk, but on weaning and through the rest of life provides important nutrients including B12, CALCIUM & PROTEIN. High in polyunsaturates. All Plarinil products are guaranteed exclusively vegan. List and recipes (SAE please) from Plamil Foods Ltd. Plamil House, Bowles Well Gardens, Folkestone.

The Vegan Spring 1982  

The magazine of The Vegan Society

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