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Advocates living on the products of the plant kingdom to the exclusion of all food and other commodities derived wholly or in part from animals. Its members base their lives on the ethic of Reverence for Life and seek to free themselves from all forms of cruelty and exploitation. They are aware of man's responsibilities to his environment and seek to promote the proper use of the resources of the earth. President: Deputy

Dr. Frey Ellis. President:

Mr. J. Sanderson.

Vice-Presidents: Mrs. E. Batt, Mrs. S. Coles, Mr. J. Dinshah, Mrs. M. Henderson, Dr. C. Nimmo, Miss W. Simmons, Miss M. Simmons, Mrs. E. Shrigley, Dr. F. Wokes. Treasurer: Kent.

Mrs. Linda Emptage,

, Ramsgate,

Librarian: Herts.

Mr. W. Wright, Hatton House, Church Lane, Cheshunt,

Literature Secretary: Mrs. V. Farrell, Lane, London EC1.

, Golden

Council: Mrs. E. Batt, Mrs. S. Coles, Dr. F. Ellis, Mr. J. Sanderson, Mrs. G. Smith, Mrs. T. Wade, Mr. W. Wright. Secretary: Surrey.








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63p for pensioners, juniors, and full-time students. THE VEGAN Quarterly Journal. 55p per annum. FREE TO MEMBERS.

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J. Sanderson and K. Jannaway.



Dr. Frey Ellis.

Distribution Secretary: Ramsgate, Kent. Advertisement Manager: Blandford, Dorset.





, " Shoarns",


The Editorial Board does not necessarily agree with opinions expressed by contributors to this magazine, or endorse advertisements. Publication Dates: March 21st, June 21st, September 21st, December 21st. Copy Dates: 1st of preceding months.

Growth "There is a tide in the affairs of men . . . " We in the southern hemisphere are at the time of year when Nature's tide begins to flow, and if we would take part in i t , now is the time when most seeds must be sown. Whilst farmers and country folk live their lives wholly or partially in harmony with nature's c y c l e s , town dwellers are much l e s s aware of them. Those of us who are in-betweens, with gardens of various s i z e s will have been ordering our seeds with the hope that the results will look like the colourful pictures on the seed-packet or in the catalogue. The wiser ones among us will be concentrating on food growing for not only In the era of cheap energy behind us but so a l s o is the era of cheap food-. Home grown food is cheaper, fresher, and can be healthier for it can be grown in the way we would wish. Food grown using veganic methods and eaten regularly is a positive source of health, and such vegan food can gradually cleanse and transform our bodies. Hippocrates, often referred to a s the Father of Medicine, said "Let your food be your medicine, and your medicine be your f o o d " . But there are other reasons why we should grow our own food as far as p o s s i b l e . When Mr H McMillan, as Prime Minister of Great Britain, toured Africa he referred (very bravely at the time) to the wind of change that was beginning to flow in that continent. He referred to the political emergence of the African part of that great historical tide of the 20th century the urge for political independence and self-government. But it is l e s s e a s y to obtain economic independence a s this depends on Nature's bounty and natural resources as well as on human institutions and technical know-how. This emergence of nationhood will gradually alter the pattern of life in nations more materially developed, many of whom have fed themselves and their cattle to a great degree on food imported from abroad, food that the growing countries are beginning to put to their own u s e . Although our own population how has a relatively low growth r a t e , the vrorld population is still increasing rapidly, and more of the world's food resources will be diverted elsewhere as other nations become more industrialised and gradually price us out of the market. Since Great Britain buys approximately half its food from abroad, changes are obviously n e c e s s a r y : Our population must be halved or we must radically change our methods of food growing. Now the simple fact is that if we adopted a vegan economy we could-be largely self-supporting even with our present population. Whilst I think it is a sound principle to eat firstly those foods that are native to one's country, I believe that we should learn to think globally and to regard the earth's produce a s being available to all mankind, so that in a well-ordered humanitarian distribution system foods such as oranges, bananas, and Brazil nuts, e t c . , could still be part of our diet.


A v e g a n i c system of food growing will not come overnight, but it will come more quickly if we concentrate on i t , experiment and perfect it under different conditions of s o i l , temperature and rain or irrigation. Then our methods and c o n c l u s i o n s must be trumpeted from the h o u s e t o p s . This work is urgent and is one of mankind's g r e a t e s t t a s k s . Perhaps the strongest tide in the present a f f a i r s of men is that the finger of history points inexorably to a vegan economy. From being a s m a l l , unnoticed and apparently insignificant group we are emerging rapidly a s the guardians and propagators of a way of life that can transform the world. Its world-wide adoption will mean that a l l the world's people can be f e d , that the world's population (not only of human beings) can be h e a l t h i e r , that most of the world's v i o l e n c e c a n be eradicated and that pollution will be on the way out. The Vegan S o c i e t y is growing at a faster rate than ever b e f o r e , and so is the need for its members to spread far and wide the veganic f a c t s of l i f e , by speaking to groups and s o c i e t i e s and individuals, and e s p e c i a l l y by writing letters and a r t i c l e s for a l l suitable publications and making use of the phone-in programmes on radio and T . V . For too long the word 'growth' in an international s e n s e has referred to things for s a l e , and the a c c e l e r a t i n g use of the world's store of fuels and certain raw materials in the 19th and 20th centuries is presenting mankind with formidable problems that will c a u s e him to rethink his ends and m e a n s . Let us help to redirect this thinking away from a multiplicity of manufactured goods on the one hand and uneconomic animal husbandry on the other, to REAL GROWTH - of food to feed the world and of trees of which the e a r t h ' s surface is dangerously s h o r t . Not only are trees a vital part of a vegan economy - nut trees are far more e f f i c i e n t protein-providers than beef farms - but they are v i t a l to nature's purification c y c l e - the forest of Fontainbleau has to work for one day to c l e a n s e the air pollution caused by the t a k e - o f f of one j e t . It is encouraging that 1974 is designated "The World'Year of the Tree" a s well a s "World Population Year" and that the 10th February 1974 was the first "Tree Sunday" in Great Britain when churches of many persuasions drew attention to the importance of trees in our l i v e s . It is a l s o worthy of a note that the March copy of "Health for All" i n c ludes an a r t i c l e "The World Food Problem - Is Veganism the A n s w e r ? " . The word 'Vegan' is short and e a s y to remember and b e c a u s e of what it implies it will very soon become a word in common u s e . Those who c h o s e it c h o s e w e l l . It is perhaps not without s i g n i f i c a n c e that for the word 'Vegan' one dictionary g i v e s the definition "an e x t e n s i v e , fertile and g r a s s covered plain" and another g i v e s "the brightest star in its c o n s t e l l a t i o n " . T _ J Sanderson


'Grow the food you live on; Live on the food you grow' In adopting this slogan the Vegan Council is finding itself "in step" for once.' From many quarters comes the c a l l to grow more food. Seed firms are reporting s a l e s up by as much as 300%; queues for allotments grow and popular newspapers are launching new "Dig for Victory. 1 " campaigns. Britain imports half of its food - much of it from countries where malnutrition is endemic. Growing awareness of this is a c c o m panied by the fear that one day the people of the Third World will keep the food they grow for themselves. On a recent visit to Zambia, Sir Alec Douglas Home was greeted by demonstrations with placards d i s playing the caption "Zimbabwe sweat has fed British mouths for too long.'" This straw reveals the wind that will grow in intensity a s the population growth gathers momentum. Awareness of the precarious state of our food supply, precipitated by the present c r i s e s , coincides with a growing realisation of the health hazards inseparable from modern methods of food production which involve pesticides and herbicides and e x c e s s i v e processing and additives. People are realising that home grown food can be not only fresher and t a s t i e r , but a l s o l e s s polluted and more nourishing. The "magic" of artificial fertilisers is being questioned and organically grown food is being more and more sought. So far vegans are "in step" but they are required to go much further. "Organically" grown food often produced from bone and hoof and blood a s well as dung and slurry from the factory farms cannot be described as "vegan"; vegans should a l s o discriminate against the unwise use of artificial fertilisers and against herbicides and p e s t i c i d e s , not only because they imply health hazards for humans but because they damage wild life and the myriads of flora and fauna that go to make up the living soil; they should question the use of heavy modern machinery, and even the age-old plough and spade, because they are being recognised as being harmful to the life of the soil on the health of which all other life ultimately depends; vegans are acquainted with the fact that only by adopting veganism can this country hope to feed its 55 million inhabitants from its own r e s o u r c e s . So if vegans are to be true to their b a s i c insights they must do all they can to support the "Grow more food" campaigns but-with a difference - they must be guided by reverence for all l i f e , not just their own. Therefore they will use plant compost instead of animal manure and slaughter house waste, they will interfere as little as possible with the life of the soil and rear gently the plants that must die so that they can l i v e . They can demonstrate the health and joy giving qualities of a way of life that does least damage to.the land and makes the least demand on scarce r e s o u r c e s .


But where? Young vegans - and others - dream of getting land and setting up s e l f - s u b s i s t e n t communities or homesteads where they can demonstrate that men can live satisfying lives in harmony with each other and nature, engaged in work of real significance instead of being pointlessly parasitical on a b a s i c a l l y violent culture. But in these days of inflation such land is hard to come by, and the young lack the n e c e s sary knowledge and experience, they lack awareness of the disciplined work required, of their dependence on the comforts that they take for granted. How can they be helped to gain the necessary experience in conditions which will not lead to disillusionment? How can they get the n e c e s s a r y knowledge? It is not taught in educational establishments geared to violent technology. How can they get the opportunities to develop the necessary discipline and a w a r e n e s s ? - opportunities that an education system designed to produce either academics or machine hands has failed to provide? In these young people l i e s the hope for the future; they must not become frustrated and embittered. How can they be helped? Is it possible that some older members or sympathisers have land that could be used for pilot schemes of mutual benefit? Could projects be launched in which young people could try out their strength in conditions of freedom, with the opportunities to experiment and to a c t on initiative that are e s s e n t i a l for true learning? For most of us the ventures must be on a smaller s c a l e , using gardens and allotments. The capacity of such areas must not be underestimated. It has been suggested that if a l l the gardens were to be used for intensive vegetable production, suburbia, in spite of its roads and buildings, would yield more food per acre than the agricultural areas which are given over so largely to wasteful livestock production. Moreover, the wise use of such areas with the careful keeping of records can yield immensely useful data for the establishment of the efficacy of the vegan diet; for its ability to maintain human health in the most truly economical way. Some vegans talk glibly about a vegan living on half an acre J Where can one be seen so doing today, in this country? There is reason to believe it can be done, but demonstrable proof is needed. This need not be provided by large s c a l e experiments but by the collection of careful records from many small o n e s . Charts have been published showing that intensive horticulture by hand has given maximum yields in other s o c i e t i e s . If vegans can substantiate this and a l s o show that man can live healthily on the plants thus produced without the addition of any animal products and that the land can be kept in good health without animal exploitation and without dependence on fuel o i l , they will be making a great contribution to the maintenance of l i f e . "Wise u s e " of land includes "no digging" and "compost making" techniques


such as those worked out by the Dalzlel O'Brien family. Mrs O'Brien's ' book "Intensive Gardening" is unfortunately out of print, but Kenneth O'Brien has produced an eleven paged "Veganic Gardening Guide" which gives a clear outline of the e s s e n t i a l s of their method. It is the fruit of many years of s u c c e s s f u l pioneer work. It can be obtained from him at , Reading, Berks, for ÂŁ 1 . 2 5 . Many useful ideas can a l s o be gleaned from the writings of May Bruce ("Commonsense Compost Making" is now produced a s a paper back for 50p. and can be obtained from Housmans, 5 Caledonian Road, London W l . ) and Lawrence H i l l s , of the Henry Doubleday Research Association, Booking, Braintree, E s s e x , although these writers are not vegans.. There must be other vegans with useful experience. The Vegan Society would be very pleased to hear from them. If, in future, copies of c a r e ful records giving details of type and area of land, prevailing climatic conditions, seeds and tools used, yield achieved and man hours involved, can be sent to the Secretary; they will be carefully stored for future u s e . Compassionate people have another reason for supporting the "Grow the food you live on : Live on the food you grow" campaign - their awareness of the circumstances in which some of their food is at present grown. All the food we eat was grown by someone on some land, somewhere.' This obvious fact seldom rises into the town dweller's c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Vegans rightly rate the factory farmers for importing feeding stuffs from India where people are starving. Do they know whence their r i c e , cashew nuts, pea nuts, b r a z i l s , bananas, and many other items came? Recently packets of lentils in Sainsbury's were found to be labelled "Produce of Ethiopia". In answer to inquiries a director of the firm gave the Information - "Lentils are in fact Ethiopia's major export upon which they depend for their Foreign Exchange". The I nternationalist states that peasants in Ethiopia have to give 60%-83% of their produce to the landowners. It thus becomes clear why they are dying in their thousands. Those of us made aware of the f a c t s will not be able to enjoy our lentils without being haunted by the pitiful spectres that have appeared on our television s c r e e n s . The amount of benefit they get from "Foreign Exchange" is all too obvious. Examination into the background of other foreign produce will doubtless reveal similar pictures and have a salutary effect on our-hubris and give fresh impetus to our efforts to "Live on the food we grow". The degree to which we can do this must obviously be limited by our opportunities,' but i t ' s the effort and direction that matters. We can all make some contribution, even if i t ' s only by growing-cress and sprouts on the window s i l l . We can a l l encourage others, support the campaign and spread the i d e a s . We are ethically only required to go as far a s we can in the right direction, but that far we must endeavour to g o .



Why not plant nut bearing trees? "In 1973 plant a t r e e , in 1974 plant some more.'" Why not plant nut trees? Their s e r v i c e to the environment can be a s great a s that of other t r e e s and their yield of first c l a s s protein and f a t s per acre is many times that of animal products and most vegetable, products. The labour and s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s such a s water and fuel needed to produce such first c l a s s food is so comparatively little that it is difficult to understand why man ever bothered to develop animal husbandry (except in a r c t i c c o n d i t i o n s ) . Five s p e c i e s of nut bearing trees grow in England - the h a z e l , the almond, the walnut, the sweet c h e s t n u t , and the b e e c h . . Ha zel For providing food the hazel ranks the highest with the most quickly maturing t r e e s and with nuts of the greatest food value (see t a b l e ) . Trees begin to bear at about 5 years; at 7 y e a r s they yield 5 l b s . a tree and from then on an increasingly heavy crop can be e x p e c t e d . According to the Ministry of Agriculture, l e a f l e t No. 4 0 0 , well managed trees can yield "at l e a s t 2 tons per a c r e " which is far above the average crop of 6 - 1 0 c w t . per a c r e . This compares admirably with a mutton, b e e f , or milk c r o p . * Moreover, they require no labour s a v e a yearly pruning and h a r v e s t i n g . Compare this with the constant labour day in day out, a l l s e a s o n s and weathers, of animal husbandry, or even with that involved in v e g e t a b l e production. Hazels need to be planted 15ft. apart, but the s p a c e s between can be used for shallow rooting vegetable and fruit c r o p s . The suckers which must be removed each year can be planted out to make hedges which will s t i l l yield nuts if cut carefully and not too o f t e n . H a z e l s must have a well drained soil and then they will thrive on stony ground unsuitable for other fruit t r e e s . Light s o i l s of fair fertility are b e s t ; rich s o i l s and heavy loams encourage too much sappy growth at the e x p e n s e of the nut c r o p . The chief hazard i s very cold weather in February when the pollen c a t k i n s are swinging, so a s i t e protected from north and e a s t winds is b e s t . Some wind is n e c e s s a r y to carry the pollen to female nut-bearing b u d s . Pollination can be helped by shaking branches of wild hazel c a t k i n s over the t r e e . Some authorities favour trees that are allowed to grow t a l l and straight with simple stems; others recommend pruning to give a wide cup shape of controlled height for the e a s y gathering of the n u t s . The nuts are borne on the slender side shoots of the previous y e a r . Prunings make e x c e l l e n t pea s t i c k s and the swinging c a t k i n s of February are one of the e a r l i e s t harbingers of spring. Hazel nuts are e a s i l y harvested and, after careful drying, will keep 2 or 3 years. They can be used in a great variety of nut d i s h e s .


Richard Webb of Calcot near Reading, an " e c c e n t r i c " of the last century who believed in a fruit and nut diet, raised several well-known varieties of hazel and did much in his day to arouse interest in their cultivation. A few more "nut c a s e s " like him could change the food prospects for our children. Almonds The beautiful pink blossoms of the almond tree make it a favourite choice for suburban gardens, but they are liable to be spoiled by the cold winds of March. With a mild spring and warm summer a good crop can be produced with a high food value (see t a b l e ) , but in suburbia the almonds often lie unrecognised on the ground. It is well worth planting a couple for cross pollination if you have room, for the sake of their beauty and possible crops of nuts. If there were sufficient demand, perhaps a later flowering variety could be bred. In 1942 a congenial spring and summer brought a good crop of nuts and war-time shortages made it welcome. Tests showed that most of the . suburban trees (mainly Prunus amygdalus) gave sweet almonds. The bitter ones must be taken in very small quantities only and the sweet . ones should not be given in large quantities (not more than 2 0 - 5 0 at a time) to children. Other nuts are therefore better for making nut milk. Walnuts, Chestnuts, and Beeches a l l mature into large trees of the type that Britain needs so badly to restore her tree cover which, owing to the demands of industry, profit making and two world wars has been reduced to only 6% of the total land a r e a . (Richard St Barbe Baker says that 33% is the minimum for s a f e t y . ) Few people r e a l i s e the plight of Britain. France has 26% forest cover, Germany 27% and Sweden, a major timber exporting country practising a wise "sustained yield" use of her forest resources, has 67%. Few people have room to grow these beautiful t r e e s , but they can encourage local authorities to plant them. Walnuts have been largely neglected by nurserymen in this country. Seedling trees take 1 5 - 2 0 years to begin cropping but vegetatively produced trees could bear large crops of superior nuts in 5 - 1 0 y e a r s . Again, the chief hazard comes from early spring f r o s t s . Demand could perhaps encourage the breeding of varieties that could avoid them. Now is the time to stimulate interest - for our children's s a k e . Chestnut t r e e s , too, need to be carefully bred if any but very small nuts are to be ripened in the typical English summer. Grown largely for their timber and coppice wood, they could become a source of food if demand called forth the necessary professional attention. Their protein and fat content is low compared with other nuts.


COMPARATIVE FOOD VALUES OF FIVE NUTS, EGG, DRIED WHOLE MILK According to "Practical D i e t e t i c s " -''A F Pattee, Mount Vernon, New York Protein

50 grams. Hazel

50 grams

Walnuts Almonds




CarboPhosCalcium hydrates phorus




. 150g









lOg 7k



2 k








Dried Milk " (reconstituted 6}c



. 175g .0020g

Calories l.u.s 3601.u.s













' 22k




.090g .0015c

. 41 Og

. 31 Og

1251.u.s 701.u.s 2501.u.s

figures not to hand




Human Milk



Cow's Milk



Nut Cream (7% solution)



Solids Beef steak


Nuts (average .excluding chestn Jt)


13.6 50.0

Hazels yield 9 0 - 4 4 8 l b s . of protein per a c r e . Beef and mutton a c c o r ding to Dr Wokes (Plant Foods for Human Nutrition V o l . 1 . ) 4 0 - 5 5 l b s . per acre . g

Beech nuts make excellent food for those who have time and patience to deal with their small s i z e . Heated, husked, pounded, mixed with water and pressed through linen b a g s , they yield a sixth of their weight in excellent o i l . It is prized in parts of Germany for salad dressing and a s a butter substitute but in England usually lies neglected on the ground of our a l l too few beech woods. While most of us will not have the land to grow even h a z e l s , we can all help to encourage the awakening of " T r e e - S e n s e " in this country and to turn attention to the particular contribution to the future that nut bearing trees can make.

GARDENING NOTES Landcress Makes an excellent addition to salads especially in January and February. Seed from Chases Ltd.. and henceforth will seed itself freely. Leeks These are similarly valuable^and delicious too, cooked in a variety of ways. They are one of the e a s i e s t vegetables to grow, but should be sown as early in spring a s p o s s i b l e . Mushrooms Has anyone had s u c c e s s in growing mushrooms without animal manure? Please share your e x p e r i e n c e s . Sunflowers Has anyone managed to ripen a good crop of Sunflower seeds or found an e a s y way to extract their o i l ? And From R-Dalziel O'Brien Some Springtime Tips S u c c e s s i o n s of sowings of salad crops are advised, s e e that the soil is moist and warm at the time of sowing - water the evening before if necessary. Careful attention to the watering of vegetables is worth while; the quicker they mature the more succulent they a r e . This is particularly noticeable with lettuce, radish and early carrots. The occasional spray with compost water or soot water a l s o promotes growth. Thin lettuce, radish and carrots when they are about inches high. Mulch the rows of peas and beans with compost when they are about 9" high and s e e that the soil is moist before applying it; the nutrients from the compost will then be more quickly available to the plants.


No Digging Gardening I find that the average gardener puts far too much u n n e c e s s a r y work into his garden.. Normally he digs an area for planting and then promptly walks on 3 / 4 of it'. In the vegetable garden at the hospital where I worked I had ten planting strips of well riddled soil mixed with compost and sedge p e a t . The strips were abour 9 i n s . wide and were never dug, only lightly hoed before planting. They were bordered with lengths,of weather board held to a uniform width by 9 " nailed c r o s s batons at intervals. Boarding like this is not really n e c e s s a r y , but it prevents the s t o n e s and weeds getting in from the paths and the precious compost spilling on to the p a t h s . The paths were two f e e t wide but of course some crops like beans and peas spread over them. I had plenty of land to play with. Otber gardeners might find wider planting strips more suitable; they should make sure they are not so wide that they have to tread on them. A v e g e t a b l e garden laid out like this t a k e s a fair amount of detailed original labour but once made is e a s i l y maintained. Compost making, replenishing the strips with compost and peat mixture, sowing', planting, h a r v e s t i n g , hand pulling the weeds from the strips and hoeing them from the paths are light and pleasant j o b s compared with digging. The method s e c u r e s maximum use of the compost and maintains a fertile soil with good t e x t u r e . Other points worth remembering a r e : All plants d i s l i k e draught and wind, so give what protection you can without depriving of s u n s h i n e . Put low growing crops on the sun side of high growing crops so that they are not shaded. Make sure that germinated s e e d s are kept moist until at l e a s t an inch or so high b e c a u s e one hot day c a n dry them a l l up. Rotate the crops from year to y e a r . Interspace crops - a c l u s t e r of about 6 lettuce s e e d s at 10" intervals with a c l u s t e r o f , s a y , carrots between; parsley with spinach; c a b b a g e between sprouts, e t c . Leave the strongest when thinning. W e l l rotted compost on the surface i s the b e s t growing medium but if you haven't any, then use a liquid seaweed f e r t i l i z e r for c o n v e n i e n c e but keep s t r i c t l y to directions b e c a u s e it i s very strong. G r a s s cuttings and a l l green l e a v e s and stems are good tor compost, but don't add c a b b a g e and sprout stems - they take a g e s to rot down. Only use b e e c h and oak l e a v e s in the heap; other tree l e a v e s are a doubtful a s s e t . Wilfred Crone


Minutes of the 29th Annual General Meeting of the Vegan Society held on 15th December 1973, 2 . 3 0 - 4 . 3 0 at Friends House, Euston Rd, ; London NW1. In the Chair:

Jack Sanderson, Deputy President of the Vegan

Society. Chairman of the Council, Eva Batt, Council Members, Serena Coles and Grace Smith, and over 40 o t h e r s . Apologies had been received from Frey E l l i s , Frank Wokes, Richard St Barbe Baker, and Donald S c o t t . Chairman's Opening Remarks Jack Sanderson gave a warm welcome to the 4 0 - 5 0 members who had managed to attend in spite of the travelling difficulties caused by the railwaymen's "work to rule" and the fuel c r i s i s . Some members had travelled from as far as Hull, Bournemouth, and Devon. This was encouraging evidence of the vitality of the Society. The Chairman gave a special word of welcome to Wilfred Crone who, with his. c o l l e a g u e s , was doing such excellent work in the newly formed Bournemouth Branch. Jack Sanderson suggested that the key word for 1974 should be - "GROWTH". Members Present:

The Society must work for growth in membership, in influence, in knowledge, and in the spreading of knowledge. The Chairman read from the Society's Rules the passage setting out its o b j e c t s - "To further knowledge of and interest in sound nutrition and in the veganic method of agriculture a s a means of increasing the potential of the earth to the physical moral and economic advantage of mankind." In 1974 the Society must turn its attention e s p e c i a l l y to the actual growth of food. The world's economy was geared to the production of animal food most of which was consumed by a small proportion of the world's population. The wastefulness of this procedure was being r e a l i s e d . Members had a great responsibility to educate themselves; the two new Journals "Plant Foods for Man" and "Oualitas Plantarum - Plant Foods for Human Nutrition" and the booklets and leaflets being published by the Vegan Society would help them. They must then seek every opportunity to spread their knowledge and understanding by personal witness, by writing, by speaking, by radio and television, and by every means p o s s i b l e . The trend towards a vegan economy was gathering momentum: the forces of evolution were with i t . Minutes of 28th A . G . M . Winifred Simmons proposed that these be taken a s read; Mabel Simmons seconded the proposal which was carried without opposition.. THE REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL for the Year 1973 was then read by the Secretary. Its adoption was moved by Serena C o l e s , seconded by Mabel Simmons, and carried unanimously (It was published in the previous Journal - Winter 1973).


Treasurer's Report The Chairman then c a l l e d on G r a c e Smith to present the Accounts for the year and took the opportunity to thank her for her long period of s e r v i c e in the post that she was now r e s i g n i n g . Grace Smith explained that she was able to present a good b a l a n c e this year b e c a u s e of the extra large donation referred to in the Annual Report. The adoption of the report was moved by Eva Batt, seconded by Wilfred Crone and carried unanimously. Y . V . S . Report Robert Colby, Secretary of the Young Vegan Section was then dalled upon to read its Annual Report, but a s this had already appeared in the Winter Journal, h e , i n s t e a d , c h o s e to make an appeal to members to go out in . a spirit of love to people telling them what a good way of life veganism was Commenting on the Y . V . S . Report, Karl Farrell said that there was a need for more young people with ideas and the a b i l i t y to apply them. The adoption of the Report was moved by Thelma W a d e , seconded by Karl Farrell and carried unanimously. ELECTION OF THE OFFICERS AND COUNCIL The r e - e l e c t i o n of the 1973 President, Dr Frey E l l i s , the Deputy President, Mr J Sanderson, and the Vice Presidents ( s e e cover) was moved by Joan Bray, seconded by Harry Bonnie, and carried unanimously. Treasurer Eva Batt proposed that Linda Emptage should be appointed Treasurer in place of Grace Smith who had been wanting to retire from this position for several years. Linda Emptage had been A s s i s t a n t Treasurer for some months and the Council had every confidence in h e r . Serena C o l e s seconded the proposal which was carried unanimously. Council The members of the 1973 C o u n c i l , e x c e p t for Tony W i l l i a m s , were willing to stand a g a i n , and Mrs Thelma Wade (formerly M i s s Thelma Larkin) had been newly nominated. Their e l e c t i o n was proposed by Harry Bonnie, seconded by Robert Colby, and carried unanimously. Editors of the Journal Taking the C h a i r , Eva Batt said that Jack Sanderson and Kathleen Jannaway had been nominated a s co-editors.. Serena C o l e s proposed that they should be e l e c t e d . The proposal was seconded by Christina Harvey and carried unanimously. Auditor The approval of Mr Leacock a s Auditor'was moved by Robert C o l b y , seconded by Harry Bonnie, and carried unanimously. Trustees The Council had appointed Eva Batt, Chairman of the C o u n c i l , Grace Smith, the Treasurer, and Frey E l l i s , the President, a s T r u s t e e s , and now sought the approval of the members. This was moved by Serena C o l e s , seconded by W Crone, and carried unanimously.


REPORT FROM PLANTMILK LTD. On the cheerful s i d e , Arthur Ling was able to announce the production of a " c h e e s e " flavoured spread called " V e g - e e z " . It could be sampled at teatime, and jars could be bought. It would be available in the New Year and members were asked to encourage their Health Stores to stock it. Plamil Chocolate was back in production (dummy bars for display were available), and the salad dressing was being well received. On the gloomy s i d e , Arthur Ling told of the terrific rise in the price of raw materials. The cost of soya protein had risen from £460 a ton to £560 in the autumn,, and was now £ 6 2 0 . Everything had risen in price even the packaging which was a l s o hard to come by. Moreover, Plantmilk Ltd. was subject to unfair competition - e . g . cow milk producers benefit from subsidies to the tune of £70 million per annum; there is a free supply of cow milk to expectant mothers. Arthur Ling asked the meeting to appeal to Her M a j e s t y ' s Government for c o n c e s s i o n s to help redress the unfair b a l a n c e . After some d i s c u s s i o n , the following resolutions were passed: 1) "That this A . G . M . of the Vegan Society requests Her M a j e s t y ' s Government that alternatives to dairy milk be made available to a) expectant mothers, b) child health c l i n i c s , for the consumption by those who for medical or ethical reasons cannot tolerate cows' m i l k . " 2) "That the A . G . M . of the Vegan Society regrets that Plantmilk a l t e r natives to dairy milk are not subsidised in any way and requests Her M a j e s t y ' s Government that manufacturing companies of such plantmilk be de-rated in the same way a s factory f a r m s . " (See note on page ). The first resolution would be sent to the Ministry of Health and Social Security, and the second to the Minister of Agriculture. The importance of members writing supporting letters to their own Members of Parliament was emphasised.

EDITORIAL NOTE FEBRUARY 1974 It was reported in the press recently that a £145 million subsidy had been awarded to the dairy industry to help farmeis meet rising c o s t s . Plantmilk Ltd. is meeting the ever increasing need for a plant a l t e r native to cows' milk without any help with rising c o s t s . Is this fair 3 Agriculture has benefited from derating since 1929 An the ground.that farmers required for their business an amount of property larger in proportion to their annual income than is required by other c l a s s e s of business ratepayers; land itself is one of their principal raw materials. Intensive farming units housing animals that are fed on brought^-in foods (much of it imported from overseas) and have no a c c e s s to grazing lands obviously come into another category. They a r e , however according to the 1971 Act - derated providing they are "continguous" to five a c r e s of land.


FUND TO HELP ELDERLY VEGANS Serena Coles spoke of elderly vegans, many of whom had done much for the c a u s e during the last thirty years and some of whom were coming to the point when they could no longer live a l o n e . The difficulties involved in opening a Home were very great and it would be a long time before they could be overcome, but she proposed that a fund be launched to give such help a s seemed practicable. After some discussion during which the difficulties involved were emphasised, Karl Farrell proposed that the Fund be launched. The proposal was seconded by Serena Coles and carried unanimously. (Please send donations to the Secretary.) NOTICES The Secretary gave notice of the 1974 A . G . M . which was fixed for 2 . 3 0 p . m . on 16th November at Friends House, and would be followed by a celebration of the 30th Anniversary of the founding of the Society until 9 . 3 0 p.m. Members' ideas for this celebration would be welcomed. A suggestion had been received from a member that A . G . M . s should sometimes be held in the summer and In the provinces. As the 1974 A . G . M . was already fixed the proposal would be considered for 1 9 7 5 . Bournemouth, where there was an active local branch might prove a suitable meeting p l a c e . Mabel Cluer was organising a Vegan Cookery Course to be held on Tuesday evenings from 19th February to 26th March at the Wimbledon Community Centre. NEWS OF MEMBERS Birth

We are delighted to announce the arrival of Simon Peter to Dianne (nee Cox) and Michael Taylor, , Wilmslow, Cheshire. Brother for Delia Jayne.

Vegan Brain and Brawn Trevor Ling ('11 yrs) who gained a place in the Grammar School last September, has now been chosen to represent his school in c r o s s country running. T . V . Flash from Northern Ireland Jack McClelland, Brian and Margaret Gunn-King were invited a s participants in Ulster Television's "Gordon Burns Hour" (a weekly live discussion in colour) at 1 0 . 4 0 p . m . on Saturday, 24th November 1 9 7 3 . Health Craft Shop Our members, Tony and Margrit BbcK have opened a combined Health Food and Craft Shop in Northampton - "The Good Taste S h o p " , 173 Wellingborough Road.


Past and Future Meetings January 20th Twenty-one members of the newly formed North London & ' District Branch (Secretary : Myra Kelly, Southgate, London N14 4LL) met at the home of Joan and Philip Bray, enjoyed talking with each other, an excellent t e a , and listening to a tape recording of the Southampton Phone-in Programme on veganism. The tape recording is available for other groups. March 17th Sunday, 2 . 3 0 p . m . at Serena C o l e s , Purley, Surrey. Telephone : 6 6 0 . 7 5 1 8 . Discussion on the S o c i e t y ' s 1974 slogan "Grow the Food you Live on : Live on the Food you Grow". April 21st Sunday, 2 . 0 0 p . m . for walk, 4 . 0 0 p. m. for tea at Jenny -and Harold Blands, , Welwyn, Herts. Telephone : Welwyn 5 8 2 1 . Discussion as March 17th. Tune 30th Sunday, 2 . 3 0 p . m . Garden Party somewhere in Surrey. Details next Journal or from Leatherhead 7 2 3 8 9 . For details of meetings in Cornwall please contact : C Shilling, "Timberley", Crellow Hill, Stithiam, TRURO. In Bournemouth area : W Crone, Boscombe, Bournemouth. Will Secretaries of other groups please send permission to publish names and a d d r e s s e s . LECTURES BY EVA BATT 23rd April,Tues. 2 . 3 0 p . m . Tuesday Club, Boys' Club Premises, Manor Farm, RUISLIP. 6th May, Mon. 8 . 0 0 p.m. National Childbirth Trust, Junior Pub. Lib. (new bldg.) STOURBRIDGE, ( W o r c s . ) . 17th May, Fri. 7 . 3 0 p . m . Vegetarian Society, Friends Mtg. H s e . , Hardside Lane, WELWYN GDN. CITY. 18th June, Tues. 7 . 3 0 p.m .Vegetarian S o c i e t y , Chaplaincy Centre, Forrest Road, EDINBURGH. 20th June, Thurs. 7 . 3 0 p.m .Vegetarian Society, Friends Mtg. H s e . , 7 Whitehall Cres . , DUNDEE. SPEAKERS We are having to refuse invitations to speak to small groups at long d i s t a n c e s from London. If you can so speak and are experienced vegans, please let us know. Full help and support will be given. For larger audiences and where help can be given with travelling e x p e n s e s ; the Society will gladly send s p e a k e r s . Please make every effort to get them Invitations.



NON-STEAK & KIDNEY PUDDING Ouite often when I have been speaking about the vegetarian d i e t , someone will say "I know my h u s b a n d / s o n s would want something more ' f i l l i n g ' , like a steak and kidney pudding." I have therefore been trying my hand at n o n - s t e a k - a n d - k i d n e y puddings which would ' f i l l ' someone accustomed to such food and would t a s t e not unlike i t . My third attempt (we will skip lightly over attempts 1 and 2) was highly s a t i s f a c t o r y . This is e x a c t l y what you do for 4 people: For the filling: 2 o z . T . V . P . (I used Vitpro Natural Chunks) 1 l g e . or 2 small carrots 1 l g e . or 2 small l e e k s (other similar v e g s . could be used) 1 level leaspoon Yeast e x t r a c t (I used Barmene) 1 or 2 t o m a t o e s . A few mushrooms (optional) 2 teaspoons D e l i c i a gravy mix. 4 t b s p s . oil for c o o k i n g . For the Pastry 8 o z . s e l f - r a i s i n g flour (Wholemeal or 81%) 3 o z . Suenut or Nutter. Make a stock with the Barmene and i pt. hot water. Put Vitpro to soak in this (10 m i n s . or longer). Meanwhile thinly s l i c e the root v e g s . and fry lightly in a covered saucepan with the o i l . Remove after a few minutes and put the tomato into the pan to c o o k . (This is the b a s e for a very t a s t y gravy). Strain Vitpro and use ÂŁ pt. of the stock to mix the gravy powder. Stir into the v e g . flavoured oil and c o o k , adding more stock a s n e c e s s a r y (rather more gravy is required than would be used in a 'meat' pudding.) S e a s o n to t a s t e , remembering that the Vitpro is not flavoured. Pastry : Rub the fat into the flour and mix with 4 t b s p s . water. Roll out fairly thinly and line a pudding basin (about 5 ^ " ) . Fill with the vegs . and Vitpro and top up with gravy. Cover with pastry, s e a l e d g e s , and cook in pan half full of boiling water for at l e a s t one hour. It must not go off the b o i l . Cooked this way the T . V . P . will be tender, t a s t y , and j u i c y . Serve with green v e g e t a b l e s and p o t a t o e s . It is a good idea to have some extra gravy in c a s e it is needed on serving (The T . V . P . s o m e times seems to absorb more moisture while it is cooking).


MODIFIED "GRANT" LOAF For one large loaf you require: 1 l b . stoneground 100% wholemeal flour 13 fluid ozs . water @ 100째F 1 tsp. seasalt 2 full t s p . Allinson's dried y e a s t , (sugar and fat are not necessary) In the a b s e n c e of a thermometer mix 3 f l . o z . boiling water with 10 f l . o z . cold water. Grease and flour the bread tin and put in a warm p l a c e . Mix the salt and flour in a large bowl and, if the weather is cold, leave in a warm place while the yeast d i s s o l v e s . Stir the yeast into the warm water and leave t h i s , a l s o , in a warm place for about 7 - 1 0 mins. when it should have dissolved and begun to froth. Pour the liquid into the flour and mix well, first with a spoon or fork and then with the hands (warm these a l s o if necessary) - mixing and turning until all the flour is thoroughly mixed and you have a ball of ' e l a s t i c ' dough (this will take 3 - 4 minutes). Shape dough and put into warm tin, cover with a cloth and l e a v e , out of the draught, to r i s e . In a VERY low oven if the kitchen is not particularly warm. This will take about 30 minutes. Remove cloth, turn heat up to 4 5 0 째 F (gas mark 8) and test bread after 35 minutes. It should have shrunk a little from the sides of the tin and, when tapped with the knuckles, sound 'hollow'. .If not, return to oven for a further 5 minutes. CUSTARD A very ordinary type of custard can be e a s i l y and quickly made with "Plamil". Make thin smooth cream with undiluted Plamil and custard powder. Pour in boiling water stirring rapidly until a thick custard r e s u l t s . Add sugar if desired. Stir in more undiluted Plamil until required c o n s i s t e n c y and creaminess is achieved.

LOCAL GROUPS AND CONTACTS We are doing our best to comply with the many requests received to put members in touch with each other. Where local groups e x i s t or members have given permission for their names to be used as contacts this is e a s y , but sometimes several letters are involved. In future we must ask for requests for contacts to be accompanied by three threepenny stamps.


I was delighted with mine so- xV please send a copy to my friend Why don't you send your friend a copy of

WHAT'S COOKING? by Eva Batt The unique Vegan cookery book with over 250 recipes for d e l i c i o u s , nourishing and economical savouries, puddings, c a k e s , bread, b i s c u i t s , e t c . , and a l s o helpful information and advice on vegan nutrition. Written with clarity and verve that makes it a pleasure to read. "Its outstanding quality" one appreciative member writes " i s that with its help a person could jump straight from flesh eating to a vegan d i e t . " Another writes "I must congratulate you on 'What's C o o k i n g ? ' . So many of the recipes are quite unusual. I think i t ' s the best cookery book I have ever seen."'

To : THE SECRETARY, THE VEGAN SOCIETY, 47 HIGHLANDS ROAD, LEATHERHEAD, SURREY. or : For an autographed copy:To : MRS E BATT, 123 BAKER STREET, ENFIELD, MIDDX. Please supply the book "WHAT'S COOKING?" for which I e n c l o s e my cheque/Postal Order for ÂŁ 1 . 4 5 to include postage and packing. Date : Name Address BOOKSHOPS AND HEALTH FOOD STORES SUPPLIED. WRITE FOR TERMS.

YoungVegan Section The YVS AGM held at Tyringham Clinic last November was well attended, 19 people attending the whole weekend plus 2 others on the Saturday. Much of the meeting was spent discussing future a c t i v i t i e s and ways in which we could spread the "Vegan" m e s s a g e . Some of the ideas suggested were a float in a carnival, cookery demonstrations, hiring an empty shop for a few days, and having an exhibition, members attending speakers courses and giving t a l k s . The committee elected for the coming year is - Robert Colby, Karl Farrell, Bridget Middlemas, Michael Mott, Claire Richardson, John Strettle, and Ian Tolley. On the Sunday morning-a ramble was enjoyed and in the afternoon a short talk on the c l i n i c ' s history and functions was given. Many compliments were received on the quality of food provided at the weekend for which my partner, Tom Schutte, was largely responsible and to whom I give thanks. Since the AGM we have' had our first committee meeting and the subject of YVS newsletters was r a i s e d , as it had been at the AGM. We decided not to try to produce a newsletter at present but to try to contact people personally through e v e n t s . It was felt that another piece of 'bumph' in our already 'bumph-ridden' society may not serve a very useful purpose at present. SPRING EVENTS 26th-28th April

Weekend at Mick Mott and John including " t a s t e - i t " evening on Come just for Saturday s o c i a l if Ring John : 01 . 5 2 7 . 6 8 7 6 , 1 2 . 0 0 I . 1 5 p.m. only on weekdays.

Strettle's, Saturday. you wish. noon to

Sunday, 26th May

Walk through the Kentish Orchards. Meet I I . 0 0 a . m . at Kemsing Station (trains from Victoria) for ramble from Kemsing to Borough Green via Pilgrim's Way (10 miles). Please bring packed lunch. LIVING THE MOMENT

Most of us spend some of our time living in the past, cherishing memories of a "good time h a d " . Again, most of us .spend time pondering the future and making plans. But really, isn't any time we spend not "living the moment" a waste of time? Life is vibrating within us at every moment, and to live life to the full every vibration should be known. To have that knowledge is to know the mystery of life and that which for want of a better word we call God. Bob Colby

WORLD FORESTRY CHARTER GATHERING "The leaves of the Tree will be for the healing of the Nations" (Revelations) quoted Richard St Barbe Baker at a gathering held on February 1st to mark the World Year of the Tree. Delegates from many countries were present at the reception and heard Dr Baker speak of his l i f e ' s work with trees - and of the trees in his l i f e . Once again he impressed his audience by his absolute sincerity, s i n g l e n e s s of purpose and devotion to the work to which he had given his long l i f e . He told of the s u c c e s s f u l battle to save the Great Redwoods of California and of the continuing fight to reclaim the Sahara. He insisted that the re-afforestation of the Sahara Desert is p o s s i b l e , for water has been located below the surface and help with the project had been offered by the "Green Front" ( U . N . ) , the "Food for Peace" ( U . S . A . ) and other organisations. But world-wide help i s needed and not much time remains for "unless we make the world a fit place for everyone to live in, it will become unfit for anyone to live i n " . By working together on this giant project to make the desert produce food for the millions, men can forget the i s s u e s that divide them and "by their exertions" bring peace to Egypt, Israel and the countries surrounding the Sahara and "by their example" to the whole world. Dr Baker took advantage of the opportunity to introduce his new book "Famous Trees of Bible Lands" published by H H Greaves (see Book Reviews, page 26 ) . TOINT MEETING AT LEICESTER An exceptionally interesting meeting was held at the Friends Meeting House on the evening of Wednesday, 30th January. It was jointly organised by the Leicester and Shires branch of the Vegetarian Society and the Soil Association. A packed house listened to three speakers and took part in a long and fruitful discussion under a most e x c e l l e n t chairman. The general title was 'The Quality of L i f e ' , and Mr Robert Waller, a Norfolk farmer and writer put the viewpoint of the Soil Association. (His most recent book "Be Human or Die" published by Ch. Knight at ÂŁ 4 . 5 0 should be in every public library). Mrs Pamela Brown of Cheshire followed with an admirable statement of the contribution that vegetarianism makes in improving the quality of living. Finally, Mr Jack Sanderson stressed that there was not enough quantity and very little quality for nearly two.thousand million people and that even this state would deteriorate unless the gradual move to the principles and practice of the three s o c i e t i e s was a c c e l e r a t e d . He suggested that the worldwide adoption of veganic principles was the healthiest and soundest and quickest way of producing a quality life for a l l . (He and Pamela very much enjoyed the overnight hospitality ot "Peter and Anthea Gough - I believe it was Peter's idea to.hold such a joint meeting, an idea that might be repeated elsewhere).


Invocation to Richard St Barbe Baker T Hooley

You spoke of the Redwoods Your e y e s questing beyond your audience' To some unimaginable vast sanctuary Of peace inviolate. You s a i d : 'If only I could show you If only you could share . . . "


What spell Primal, beneficient, enormous Did you evoke, that suddenly The lecture room lost time, s p a c e , dimension Burgeoned and pulsed into a forest Huge corridors sun-green-dappled, primeval fern slow waving Perfume, ritual, magnificence, power So.that one.hearing you Shared . . . Saw . . .

Redwood Reunion — Grove of Understanding, Crescent City, , Del Norte County, California — 1st to 29th August, 1974. To mark the Golden Jubilee, Men of the Trees Great Britain and WORLD YEAR OF THE TREE.


Rearguard Action From a p e s s i m i s t i c point of view the future may be with the v e g e t a r i a n s , but there is good reason for the omnivore to fight a strong rearguard action.

(Modern Development in Animal Breeding

. Lerner & Donald)

"The Milk of Human Kindness" - so Dencant Ltd. d e s c r i b e their m i l k replacer food for calves. 1 And they advertise it complete with pretty pictures of a girl feeding a c a l f . (Dairy Farmer . Nov. 1973) Breakthrough in ova transplant techniques aids the breeding of .twin c a l v e s by means of surgical implantation of f e r t i l i s e d ova into a 'foster mother' cow. Egg transfer will a c h i e v e the multiplication of g e n e t i c a l l y valuable stock but "twinning for extra beef will prove its greatest gift to the world." (Dairy Farmer . June 1973) Manure for F e e d . A ÂŁ 2 | million programme to build at l e a s t s i x f a c t o r i e s in Britain to process poultry manure into l i v e s t o c k feed i s announced by. W & S B Eastwood Ltd. A similar factory in Norfolk caused so much discomfort to l o c a l r e s i d e n t s - a farmworker becoming i l l from the fumes and a s c h o o l having to c l o s e down - that it became s u b j e c t to a High Court Action. ' (Farm & Food Society Newsletter . January 1974) Farming without Land.- Pig production is no longer a farming operation. It can be done without land, a s it is p o s s i b l e to keep 250 sows and their progeny to bacon weight on 2 a c r e s of c o n c r e t e . (Farmers Weekly . 1 1 . 5 . 7 3 ) Brilliant New Idea . "Cut out c o n c e n t r a t e s , limit f e r t i l i s e r usage to bare e s s e n t i a l s and let the land carry what cows it can and let t h e s e produce what milk they c a n . " (Dairy Farmer . June 1973) And Better S t i l l . Commenting on coming competition from ' s y n t h e t i c ' meats Mr Moyle said that New Zealand should forget the idea that it produces meat, wool and dairy produce and adopt the attitude that it is in the "protein b u s i n e s s ' . Already r e c i p e s are appearing in the New Zealand press for m e a t l e s s "meat" loaves and Mr Moyle spoke of the prospect of New Zealanders eating g r a s s a s a source of protein. Some radical farming opinion b e l i e v e s that New Zealand should m a s s produce plant-protein yielding v e g e t a b l e s to c a s h in oh the market. (Evening Star . Dunedin, N . Z . )


What does membership mean to you? You belong to a unique Society based on a supremely important ethical principle common to all great religions and all great humanitarian movements and yet, as a Society, committed to the dogma of none, but committed instead to personal action, here and now, in everyday living. YESTERDAY-The example of vegan living during thirty years and more is there to encourage those of today. As part of our 30th Year Anniversary C e l e brations we want to contact as many long standing vegans a s possible and to learn from them how they have managed, e s p e c i a l l y a s regards their d i e t . A symposium of their contributions will be published as a booklet, companion to the "Vegan Mothers and Children" produced last December. It should prove of great value in clothing the reports of s c i e n t i f i c investigations with the warm fabric of personal stories of living experience. Please will they write at once to the Secretary. If they can do nothing save state that they have maintained their vegan stand,that alone will be of great value. If they can write fully that will be warmly welcomed. If they would like a questionnaire to guide them that will be s e n t . If they would like someone to visit them that will be arranged if at all passible. But please write soon. TODAY. The Society and your fellow members need to know that your witness is being maintained. We are always being asked "How many vegans are t h e r e ? " Help us to quote a s large a number as p o s s i b l e . The most useful way to let us know that you are still with us is to send your subscription if you have not done so forthis January and are too busy or otherwise unable to write a letter, please use the slip at the bottom of this a r t i c l e . h a v e j^p^ o u r membership subscription low ( £ 1 . 2 5 per annum, 63p. to pensioners and juniors) so a s to encourage people to maintain their membership, and we are always willing to reduce s t i l l further rather than lose touch b e c a u s e of financial difficulties. Such lower subscriptions we are confident will be balanced by the generous giving of those able to spare more. If you have lapsed, it would be a great help to know why. SUBSCRIPTION RENEWAL SLIP I enclose £ for my subscription* for 1974, and a donation*, which' is all I can manage at p r e s e n t . * I am a practising v e g a n * , progressing towards veganism*, a sympathiser*. I would like to be put in touch with other vegans in my area and e n c l o s e three threepenny s t a m p s * . NAME ADDRESS

* Please delete that which does not apply. Send to Mrs Emptage, , Ramsgate, Kent, or to the ' Secretary, 47 Highlands Road, Leatherhead, Surrey.

LETTERS PLANT SUFFERING & THE VEGETARIAN ETHIC I feel it would be correct to assume that virtually all deep-thinking vegetarians, even those who originally became such for reasons of health, have nurtured a philosophy which s t r e s s e s the need for human beings to revere animal life - a philosophy which condemns the n e e d l e s s , unnatural slaughter and exploitation of our friends, the b e a s t s . 'If you love animals . . . don't eat them' reads the much discussed vegetarian slogan; and it is surely this desire to live without killing which enables the movement to gather new members with increasing momentum. Unfortunately, or so some devotees of the cause might be inclined to think, this ethical b a s i s of vegetarianism is being Indirectly challenged, at least up to a point, by experimental physicists and others. This challenge is contained in findings, recently given much publicity through well-documented books and through the national media, which show that it is not just animals of one sort or another who can suffer pain and register emotions, but plants as w e l l . In fact I am waiting for some wily meat-eater wishing to justify his own habits to catch up with the times and produce his own slogan proclaiming the attractions of a nothing-but-meat diet - 'If you love plants - don't eat them 1 . Apparently the research which has provided us with this somewhat unapDetising food for thought has been going on since the beginning of the century. George Bernard Shaw, a. lifelong vegetarian, was acquainted with the harsh facts and felt rather uncomfortable upon digesting them. Recently, however, more detailed and revealing studies have taken place with remarkable r e s u l t s , and information has reached a large number of n o n - s c i e n t i f i c e a r s , e s p e c i a l l y behind the iron curtain. Indeed, people with sensitive hearing are listening for the now not so mythical shriek of the mandrake with a certain degree of expectancy.' It is not my intention here to present a detailed report of all the a s t o n ishing f a c t s which have been brought to light, but it is perhaps n e c e s s a r y to outline some of the b a s i c findings. In 1966 Cleve Backster, an interrogation s p e c i a l i s t working in New York, discovered almost by accident that a potted rubber plant produced a polygraph response representative of a high level of stress when threatened, and that it was the mere thought of harming the plant which produced the alarm signal. Through carrying out various experiments Backster discovered that plants, fresh fruit, and vegetables all register this s e n s i t i v i t y . They will even become 'upset' or 'apprehensive' if they are forced to witness the suffering of a member of a totally different s p e c i e s . Other research has shown'that plants are equally sensitive to love and kindn e s s , and quite often become attached to particular people. The fact


that up in Scotland the Flndhom community is raising on very poor ground a wealth of thriving plants may be explained in simple s c i e n t i f i c terms.. . . • • .  It is up to each and every one of u s , however, not to ignore the s u b j e c t , nor to pass it off with frivolous comment, but to consider the moral and ethical position carefully and to try and arrive at a satisfactory philosophy which cannot be shaken. If someone comes up to me and a s k s me why l a m a vegan, I find myself stuck for an answer. I could embark on some logical explanation with e a s e but I am very much aware of the fact that in this world, of duality every argument can pr.oduce a counter-argument, and that we can never be completely logical in either what we say or do. Plant-suffering illustrates this point a l l too c l e a r l y . The best way for the vegetarian to spread the word is for him to set an example, but in setting it he must r e a l i s e that vegetarianism is a beginning and not an end, and that h e , the vegetarian, has a great many things to learn. It i s , perhaps, humility which counts for more than anything e l s e in the end. Hugo Stearn. References : Love Among The Cabbages - Harper Magazine 1972 (reprinted Radionics Quarterly Vol. 19 No.4); Supernature - Lyall Watson - Hodder & Stoughton. HEALTH & HAPPINESS Is it possible for a vegan, who does not eat f i s h , meat, honey, or any animal by-products like milk, cream, or butter, to have such a healthy body, and keep a s well a s a person who e a t s these t h i n g s ? From my own experience I cam say ' y e s ' , arid since I have been a vegan my health has greatly improved. However, keeping well and having a healthy body depends not only on what we eat and drink, but a l s o on the way we think, because everything we eat and drink, a s well a s every thought, movement, emotion, action and reaction, c a u s e s a chemical change in the physical body. Therefore a vegan who is eating in accord with the laws of nature, can undo all the benefits he has gained from his eating habits, by his negative thinking which creates disharmony in his body. Whatever you e a t , if you are always living on your nerves, and are in a state of fear, or worry, sooner or later it will manifest i t s e l f in some form of s i c k n e s s or disease.* I have discovered that true lasting happiness and peace does not come from any of the s o - c a l l e d pleasures of the world but from within myself, from living in harmony with the physical, mental, and spiritual laws of life and from awareness of the oneness of all l i f e . William Stanford


Book reviews Famous Trees of Bible Lands' - by R St Barbe Baker. Pub. H H G r e a v e s , 1 0 6 - 1 1 0 Lordship Lane, London SE22. Obtainable from Secretary £ 3 . 0 0 + 20p. postage. This book, the fruit of 50 years of travel, study and tree planting, will bs recognised as a standard book for students of the bible and of trees and at the same time it is a clarion c a l l to a l l men everywhere to rise above narrow loyalties of colour, race and creed and become citizens of the world. Dr Baker believes that when man uses his immense knowledge with wisdom and understanding in the service of a l l , then will the prophet M i c h a e l ' s vision be f u l f i l l e d . . . "They shall sit every man under his vine and under his fig-tree; and none shall make them a f r a i d " . The book is illustrated with 31 studies which alone make it a source of inspiration and refreshment. NEW "Vegan Kitchen" - by Freya Dins hah. Pub. American Vegan Society. £ 1 . 0 0 + 7p. postage from Literature Secretary, 8 Basterfield House, Golden Lane, London EC1. A new improved presentation with many more photographs of a book that many vegans have found most valuable. Full of r e c i p e s , menus, and practical hints. Advocates diet according to principles of the Natural Hygiene Movement. "First Hand - First Rate" - produced by Vegan S o c i e t y , 25p. + 4p. postage. Obtainable from the Secretary. An economical recipe book planned to replace long popular " 1 0 0 Recipes" which i s now out of print. Gives 5 dozen r e c i p e s , hints, ideas for trulv economical livino from mostly home-produced ingredients. Ready Mft / "Nature's Foods" - by Peter Deadman and Karen Betteridge. £1 . 5 0 + 20p. postage, and obtainable from them NOT the Vegan Society. Produced by Unicorn Bookshop + Infinity Foods, 25 North Road, Brighton. A most attractively produced book, hand written and beautifully illustrated with informative and imaginative line drawings; - packed with i n t e r e s ting information, i d e a s , r e c i p e s , advice and most apt, inspiring quotations; - biased towards macrobiotic system but refreshingly free from dogmatism. ALSO OBTAINABLE from the SOCIETY "Sahara Conquest" 45p. + 7p. ) . . , , "My Life, My frees" £ 2 . 0 0 + 20p. > ' "Caravan Story" 25p. + 4p. ) "Civilised Alternative" £ 1 . 7 5 + 13p. - Jon Wynne Tyson "Vegan Mothers & Children" 30p. + 4p. - by ten vegan mothers. "Health of Vegans" 25p. + 3p. - by Drs Frey Ellis & Montegriffo (suitable for s p e c i a l i s t s ) . "Introduction to Practical Veganism" 7p. + 3p. a n d < o f course "WHAT'S COOKING?" - the super vegan cookery book and indispensable guide to the change-over. See page IS .


SHOPPING WITH EVA NEW PRODUCTS Interesting news from Yin Yang Natural Products. Their product 'Soyanq' is vegan and another soon to be launched - 'Soyan' (pronounced 'Sowan') is a l s o vegan. We a l s o have an assurance that any future products from this company will certainly be vegan. TEXTURED VEGETABLE PROTEIN We are pleased to recommend the new 'Vegetarian Meat' from Marigold Foods. It has a very good texture and takes up any flavour added such a s Barmene. We have used it in 'steak pie' and'goulash' with considerable success. Even meat-accustomed guests cleaned up their p l a t e s . Courtauld's 'Vegex' is a vegetarian version of their 'Kesp' (which is not vegetarian). We tried this once and found it rather tough, but once is perhaps not a fair trial, so we shall report again later. We did not find the claim that 'it t a s t e s like b e e f substantiated. VITAMIN D The Carnation Foods Company have been good enough to explain in detail the variations of vitamin D . This vitamin occurs naturally in animal and human t i s s u e s as a result of the action of sunshine on the oils in the skin. The man-made, non-animal variety - used in margarine and some vegan foods - is known a s vitamin D2, or c a l c i f e r o l . To make t h i s , ultra violet light is used t<? activate the sterols in vegetable o i l s . Vitamin D3 is the result when animal sterols are irradiated UVL and this is therefore not vegan . There is no'vitamin D1. MARGARINE We all have to cater for non-vegans at times and it may be useful to remember that, of the popular margarines. Co-op Gala contains the least milk solids - under 1%, and Flora contains the most with 16%. We are always happy to learn of a new vegan margarine. It is 'Mechaye' Kosher Soft Margarine in 8 o z . t u b s . It is made in Holland and distributed in this country by Eliko Distributors, 13 Kingsland Road, London, E . 5 . BREAD 'Bread Fat', normally used by commercial bakers is composed of various oils and fats which will vary from time to time according to a v a i l a b i l i t y . Often the baker will not be aware of the fats he is using which could include lard, beef fat and various fish oils as well as vegetable o i l s . (Weston R e s . Labs. Ltd.) Therefore, only from those bakers who s p e c i a l i s e and give an assurance that the fat they use is 100% vegetable can one buy vegan bread.


Why not be your own baker? Bread-making is not difficult, and it gives great satisfaction to both the cook and the family. The making of fancy breads is an art in which many husbands e x c e l , but for the busy mother/housewife ^ t c . e t c . , who must have a quick, simple, foolproof recipe, I think nothing surpasses our adaptation of what has become generally, and affectionately, known as the Doris Grant Loaf. For recipe s e e centre page. Helpful Hint from a Reader The flavour of the Vegan c h e e s e spread, Veg-eez - made by Plantmilk Ltd. - has been found by some members to be too pronounced. Such problems are all a matter of individual preference of course, and t h o s e , like myself, who prefer a more delicate flavour should simply add a few ground nuts. Treated to this little extra, Veg-eez is truly d e l i c i o u s . N . B . The strong flavour of Veg-eez means that it is most economical in u s e . BEER (To whom it may concern) The publication of a letter in 'The Vegetarian' recently on the subj e c t of beer has brought us a number of enquiries about which, if a n y , a r e vegan. One practical member has been making his own enquiries, and has helpfully forwarded the replies to u s . As a result, we learn that the modern tendency is towards clarification by filter rather than the traditional method of using i s i n g l a s s 'finers' (a fish product) t o ' s e t t l e ' the yeast and protein in the barrel. Finings are sometimes made,from Carrogeen M o s s . When they are it is referred to as 'auxiliary f i n i n g s ' . Those beers which can be listed as vegan are: Harp Lager (a very long cold storage period makes any finings unnecessary),. and bottled and keg beers only by Lees Breweries of Manchester. "Most bottled, keg, and tank beer is now filtered" say Whitbreads. However, finings are still used for Guinness, B a s s , Watney Manns b e e r s , and by Boddingtons of Manchester, while the Unicorn Brewery of Cheshire is "not in a position to d i s c u s s " the matter. I s i n g l a s s : A glutinous substance made from fish bladder (mostly sturgeon) and used in the manufacture of j e l l i e s and as a clarifying medium for wine and beer. TOOTHPASTE Stafford-Miller give us a firm assurance that their Sensodyne toothpaste contains'no product or by-product of an animal nature.


ANSWERS TO ENQUIRIES Still Vegan: Although the label on Barmene has been slightly changed, we have Mapleton's assurance that Barmene is unaltered, and therefore s t i l l an e x c e l l e n t vegan yeast e x t r a c t , and the only one with B12. Marks & Spencer - Bread and Biscuits : The M & S 'Crusty' range of loaves is vegan, a l s o the M & S Ginger Nuts. But no other kinds. Not vegan: Energen Starch Reduced Digestive B i s c u i t s . Yorkshire Biscuits Ltd. do not make any vegetarian biscuits . These are often sold in Hea lth Food Stores many of which, we should remember, are not vegetarian. Trebor Mints and Polo Mints are not vegan. Because we still get many enquiries concerning Kraft margarines we must repeat that none are vegan. WRITING & PRINTING PAPER It is some time since we wrote about this but one of our members has been diligently collecting up to date advice for us . Condensed, into the space available the information shows us that: Most of the writing and printing papers today are made from wood f i b r e s , very little rag being used. (Tub-sized paper is not vegan but a s it was usually rag-based it is unlikely that we shall be offered any nowadays). Additives used in paper processing may include any of the following: china c l a y , titanium, dioxide, resin s i z e , synthetic s i z e , starch, polyvinyl alcohol, and gelatin. Only the last is of animal origin and i t s use has been decreasing over the y e a r s . Now it is principally used for the more expensive writing papers. Bowaters Paper Co. say that only wood pulp and china clay is used in the making of their papers and Reed & Smith assure us. that no animal product is used in their standard litho paper. The general information from the Research Association for the Paper Board, printing and packaging industries tells us that casein (from milk) is ' frequently used for pigment coated papers and that animal glue and size are used 'very o c c a s i o n a l l y ' in the processing of a limited range of high quality papers. Our advice, therefore, must still be to avoid the more expensive papers. Mr Christopher Budd (of the Thal-jantzen-Budd Partnership who deliver organic produce to customers in the London and southern counties) will be pleased to deliver Plamil products - in c a s e lots - to customers who send orders direct to him atMarion House, 29

Hoathley Hill, West Hoathley, EAST GRINSTEAD



m w

From time to time we recommend certain footwear made by British Bata and later readers are disappointed when they cannot get them in the nearest Bata shop. Bata - and Marbot - shoes may be found in many stores.other than Bata shops. Because the shops buy and s e l l independently of the Bata f a c t o r i e s , they may sometimes be stocking few Bata styles. FOR MEN Men and boys should look out this spring for the Marbot 'Guards' range of s h o e s . Made on the Flowmould system these do an excellent job of keeping out the weather. They come in four smart s t y l e s ; look for them in any shop. The Timpson Shoe Shops carry a good range of men's shoes with uppers of Porvair from ÂŁ 3 . 5 0 . Some, if not a l l , of the following will be in your nearest branch. Ask for them by number a s others may have non-vegan linings or heel grips. Style No. 134-164 139-112 138-168 138-268 138-146 138-246 138-147

& &

134-264 139-212

& 138-548


138-247 138-151 138-251 138-132 138-232 138-152 138-252

Timpson's a l s o stock three 'TUF' brand shoes which contain no leather and carry a 6 month guarantee. The 'Tretorn Jogger' boots for men are vegan but we are not a b l e , at this time, to give d e t a i l s . FOR WOMEN Once again 'K' Shoe Shops and s t o c k i s t s have a good selection of women's vegan shoes in their spring c o l l e c t i o n . In the Kendal range only, look for: Lady X Rachael, Kirsty, or June. Miss K E l s a , Monica, Lucilla, Nyrene, Debbie, or C o l e t t e . Miss K Sunseekers Ibiza, Catania , Tavira, Lipari, or Savona. Skips Sonya Perf, Sonya, Solar Perf, Solar, Suzette, Samantha, S a l , Sonata, or Suzanne. Middles Piper, Piper Perf, Velma, Velma Perf. Shophounds Diablo, Alassio, Zarak II, Campana, Tripoli, Villosa, or Venice.


The popularity of Porvair, the British-made simulated leather, continues to i n c r e a s e and the demand from footwear manufacturers has now outgrown the production c a p a c i t y of the factory at King's Lynn in Norfolk. A major expansion programme is under way and the new plant - the only one of i t s kind - should be in production later this y e a r . Although it is little more than four years s i n c e Porvair was introduced to British shoe manufacturers, the chairman of the company, Sir Joseph Hunt, i s quoted a s saying that it now supplies 85% of the poromeric materials being used in the U . K . A new catalogue of Dunlop 'Lovers' and ' H i - L o v e r s ' has arrived. In the 'Lovers' (low h e e l s ) range, a s k for Lincoln, S i b i , Ledbury, S i r a c u s a , Simba, Sirana, and Sikkim. These have a lightweight s o l e . Sorong, Sydney, Sunray, S i n c l a i r , and Sundance have a heavier s o l e . The ' H i - L o v e r s ' (with a higher heel than the 'Lovers') are Samba, Shani, and Samoa.


All have vinyl uppers in a variety of c o l o u r s , mostly t w o - t o n e , and are a v a i l a b l e in s i z e s 3 - 8 . Many stores stock Dunlop s h o e s . SHOE POLISH Reckitt & Colman state that ' a s far a s can be a s c e r t a i n e d ' none of their shoe p o l i s h e s contain any animal-derived ingredients, not even b e e s w a x .

To the best of our knowledge we a r e the only p r o d u c e r * of P U R E A P P L E J U I C E in the Country made f r o m ORGANICALLY GROWN UNSPRAYED A P P L E S with NO ADDED CHEMICALS or P R E S E R V A T I V E S . We crush a s we pick - no cold s t o r a g e - no l o s s of flavour. And we supply n e a r l y 500 shops all over the UK ( 50 in London alone). We can supply your Health Shop - a s k them. Or you d i r e c t by B r i t i s h Road S e r v i c e s . Enquiries t o : T H E C Y D E R HOUSE, Aspall Hall. Stowmarket, Suffolk


CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS Rate : l p . per word (min. 2 5 p . ) to D S c o t t , " S h o a r n ' s " , B e l c h a w e l l , Blandford, D o r s e t . Situation Vacant Lad and young lady required from August onwards (but earlier appointment considered). General factory duties and a s s i s t processing vegan f o o d s . Modest s a l a r i e s until Company e x p a n d s . Congenial atmosphere. Nice l o c a l i t y . Apply : Mr Ling, Plantmilk L t d . , Plamil House, Bowles Well Gardens, F o l k e s t o n e , Kent. Common-sense Living How much more disunited can our S o c i e t i e s b e c o m e ? If you would like to meet to d i s c u s s ways in which we could give a more a c t i v e example of common-sense living, p l e a s e write to : John Winder, " S t o l " , , Redhill, Surrey RH1 3AD. "FREE EARTH MAGAZINE" A c c e s s to a l t e r n a t i v e s . (Catalog and communication) 14p. + 4 p . p o s t a g e . Year's s u b . £ 1 . 0 0 - Bi-monthly, 72 pages A5. 103 South S t r e e t , Lancing, S u s s e x . AHIMSA (Bi-monthly magazine) - Veganism, natural living, n o n - v i o l e n c e , organ of the American Vegan S o c i e t y . Annual subscription $ 3 . 0 0 or £1.25. Write for free sample, book l i s t , information : The American Vegan S o c i e t y , P O Box H, M a l a g a , New J e r s e y 0 8 3 2 8 , U . S . A . ACCOMMODATION DUBROVNIK Vegan lady offers accommodation in her c o t t a g e . Selfcontained pavilion, s l e e p 2 to 5 a l s o a v a i l a b l e . C o - o p e r a t i v e employment a v a i l a b l e . Write Mrs Lowne, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia. ' DEVON - ILFRACOMBE 'Fairwynds' Vegetarian Guest House offers h e a l t h ful holidays with natural whole f o o d s . Compost grown produce, home baking. Vegans w e l c o m e . Elizabeth Burton. V . C . A . M e m b e r . T e l . 2 0 8 5 . DORSET - WEYMOUTH p l e a s e to: Mrs C o x ,

Vegetarian and Vegan f a m i l i e s welcomed. S . A . E . , Weymouth. T e l . Preston 2 4 0 2 .

LAKE DISTRICT - ORCHARD HOUSE, Borrowdale Road, K e s w i c k . Small Vegetarian Guest House in good centre for walking, e t c . , lovely views from the b a c k . Home baking and some home grown produce. M i s s Delia Ryall. T e l . Keswick 7 2 8 3 0 . PERTHSHIRE - BROOK LINN C a l l a n d e r . Vegetarian & Vegan meals c a r e fully prepared and a t t r a c t i v e l y s e r v e d . Comfortable Guest H o u s e . Near T r o s s a c h s and Western Highlands. Mrs Muriel Choffin. T e l . Callander 30103 (STD 0 8 7 7 ) . FOR UP-TO-DATE LIST of Vegetarian Guest Houses and Restaurants p l e a s e send stamp to Secretary of Vegetarian Catering A s s o c i a t i o n r- Kathleen Keleny, Coombe Lodge, Wooton-under-Edge, G l o s .





LIVING THE GOOD LIFE by Helen and Scott Nearing

A book of Vegetarian Homesteading in U.S.A. Send £1 for this invaluable pioneering book to



Since its introduction five years ago our V . C . (Veganic) compost fertilizer has beccme widely established amongst animal lovers and vegetarians. It is a 1 0 0 % organic, compost and is guaranteed to contain no animal ingredient whatever. It is of the same high quality as our other products and is backed by our 4 5 years' experience of manufacturing and supplying organic composts to commercial growers, nurserymen and gardeners. For full details and sample w r i t e to



HOLIDAY ACCOMMODATION FOR VEGANS CORNWALL—"WOODCOTE", The Saltings, Lelant, St. Ives. Overlooking Hayle Estuary. C.H. & H & C in all rcoms. W e take pleasure in catering for Vegans.


Tel. Hayle 3147

CRANKS HEALTH I FOODSI Marshall St London W1 Our shop offers you the best selection of unadulterated and unrefined vegetarian foods. open Monday to Friday 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. Saturday 9 a.m. to I p.m.


(dairy milk replacement) •


(cream replacement) •



(cheese spread replacement)

all f r o m Our restaurant offers you a continuous buffet service of fresh salads, fruit and vegetable juices and vegetarian savouries. open Monday to Friday 10 a.m. to 8.30 p.m.


P L A M I L VEC-EEZ at moment in short supply • Informative literature (5.A.E. would oblige):-

PLANTMILK LTD. Plamil House, Bowles Well Cardens, Dover.Road, Folkestone, Kent.

The Vegan Spring 1974  

The magazine of The Vegan Society

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