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THE VEGAN SOCIETY Founded November, 1944 Veganism is a way of living which excludes all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, the animal kingdom, and includes a reverence and compassion for all life. It applies to the practice of living on the products of the plant kingdom to the exclusion of flesh, fish, fowl, eggs, honey, animal milk and its derivatives, and encourages the use of alternatives for all commodities derived wholly or in part from animals. Veganism remembers man's responsibilities to the earth and its resources and seeks to bring about a healthy soil and plant kingdom and a proper use of the materials of the earth. President: Dr. FREY ELLIS, Deputy President: Mr. J. SANDERSON.

Epsom, Surrey.

Vice-Presidents: M r s . E . BATT, M r s . S. COLES, M r s . M . HENDERSON, D r . C. N I M M O , M i s s W . SIMMONS, M i s s M . SIMMONS, M r s . E . SHRIGLEY, D r . F . WOKES.

, London, S . E . 1 2 . (to whom all subscriptions should be sent), Southgate London, N.14. 01-886 6408. Librarian: Mr. W. H. C. WRIGHT, Enfield, Middlesex. Committee: Mrs. E. BATT, Mr. H. BONNIE, Mrs. S. COLES, Mr. P. DAWES, Dr. F . ELLIS, Mrs. J. FUGEMAN, Miss T. LARKIN, Mr. J. SANDERSON,

Secretary : Mrs. Treas


M r s . E . SHRIGLEY, M r s . G . SMITH, D r . F . WOKES, M r . W . WRIGHT.

Minimum subscription, which includes " The Vegan ", 15s. per annum (and 7s. 6d. for each additional member of one family at same residence); 7s. 6d. if age under 18: payable in January. Life Membership, £10 10s. Od.






The Editorial Board does not necessarily agree with opinions expressed by contributors to this magazine, or endorse advertisements. Please send articles and letters for publication to 123 Baker Street, Enfield, Middlesex. Editorial Board: Mrs. EVA BATT, Mrs. SERENA COLES. Dr. FREY ELLIS. Editorial Adviser: Mr. JACK SANDERSON. Vega bution Secretary: Miss THELMA LARKIN, West Horndon, Brentwood, Essex. Advertisements: Mr. PHILIP DAWES, Caversham, Reading, Berks. Rates: Whole pag —£ s. Half page— £6 0s. 0d.; Quarter page—£3 10s. Od. Advertisements must be in keeping with the principles of veganism, and the Publishers reserve the right to refuse any advertisement, or cancel any order without explanation. Published quarterly: Annual Subscription, 10s.; single copies, 2s. 6d. plus postage. Obtainable from the Hon. Secretary.

THE V E G A N Journal

Vol. 17. No. 1.

of the Vegan


SPRING, 1970

THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF VEGANISM Karuna or Compassion The central concept, ultimate principle of summum bonum of veganism, which is at once a science, a philosophy or a religion, is " Karuna," or Compassion. Once it is accepted as the highest ideal worth of attainment and guiding principle for all actions in, everything in this world assumes a new meaning, role, character and purpose. Symbiosis and Co-Existence If the yardstick of compassion is applied to the problems and conflicts of international, inter-racial, inter-religious and interpersonal reliationship, all doubts, disputes, enigmas and knots of human ecology can be resolved instantaneously and collectively. The correct answer to all such questions, as arrived at by the practical application of Compassion may be summed up in one word, vi., " Symbiosis." It is a code of life and behaviour between the three kingdoms of Nature—human, animal and vegetable—which is superior to " Co-existence," being based on active and mutually-beneficial co-operation and not merely passive non-interference and non-exploitation of each other. Religion of Compassion The Religion of Compassion sets at rest all wrangling between the established religions of the world. It is not a religion in the accepted sense of the word, viz., ai creed, dogma or sectarian congregation of superstitious beliefs. It does not demand or enjoin blind faith, ceremonies, prayers, devotional hymns, or worship of a personal or impersonal deity. There is no fear, favour or flattery of a personal God in the Religion of Compassion. The only God it postulates is the Spirit of man or Inner Controller, whose dictates are infallible and incorruptible, pro1

vided they femanate from a purified mind and body and are based on the twin principles of Compassion and Symbiosis. The Voice of Silence The Supreme Spirit manifests its pristine purity in Nature and Man to the erttint this gi-oss material vehicles of each are cleansed of all dross and impurities so as to make them fit receptacles for absorbing and reflecting its grand effulgence. Its majestic splendour is revealed in flowers, music arid the stars ; it pef-efepfiBle in things which are good or beautiful ; it is discernible in beings which are innocent or compassionate. Its light is completely shrouded or suppressed by cruelty, wickedness, carnivorism or things which are ugly and repellent. It is the source of all Holy, sublime and elevating thoughts. It is the " Voice of Silence " in Mature and the " still, small voice " in the heart of man, which blooms forth as tHe Lotus of Compassion. Purification of the Material Body The soul, ego or mind, of man reflects and manifests the highest qualities and attributes of the all-pervading Supreme Spirit of the Universe only, to the extent of physical and vital bodies of man are purified. This means a thorough cleansing and transformation of the gross material body, the riadis " or nerves, the brain and the glandular system. In short, the very ceils of the blood and the tissues of every organ of the body must be purged of all degrading and demoralising influences by the practice 6f veganism. Transmutation of Genes . The subtle impressions; tendencies and propensities of the mind dre. determined by the constitution of the cells and the characteristic quality of the Genes, which are handed down by an infinite line of ahcestors both on the paternal and maternal brailches of thÂŁ genealogical tree. It might take several generatibns to transmute their malevolent; cruel and predatory qualities into benevolent, compassiohate and symbiotic ones by the practice of veganism. Yet the task must begin now if future generations are not to suffer from the disastrous consequences and cruel fate which await our civilisation. Conscience! and Co-Existence Whether you are ah atheist or agnostic; cynic or sceptic, materialist or positivist, you cannot deny the existence of conscience or " the still; small voice", which is developed to a smaller dr larger extent ih all cultured persons of civilised nations. The Sourcfe and origin of this moral sense is the inner controlling Spirit df iiian, whicH impels us to strive for a symbiotic life an'd 2

.ecologically perfect society, in which jnen and animals can coexist with mutual loye, trust and co-operation for the well-being and happiness of ail creatures^ Test on the Anvil of Conscience Veganism is based on the highest moral principles and supported by the latest scientific discoveries in health, disease and nutrition ; animal husbandry, agriculture and biology; genetics, psychology and physiology ; bacteriology, etiology and pathology; in short, all the' sciences "affecting human ecology, existence and evolution. All-Embracing System The chief means advocated by the Religion of Compassion for the rapid development of " conscience'' in man is'abstention from animal, foods and animal products (such as meat, fish, eggs, milk, butter, honey, leather, silk, etc.)'as these are the principal agents of corruption, contamination and degradation of the human body, miod and soyl. Thus yeganjsm is the first step in ;the spiritual unfoldjnejjt, e.thicai .evolution and intellectual ascension of the human race, it is not merely a system .of dieting. It embraces all .departments ,of human life ajad its ratifications, such as cruel spores, fishing, hunting, feather and silk industries, slaughter.-ho.uses, .pharmaceuticals, .vaccines, sera and antibiotics, bloo.d, fish and fertilisers, .oyerjbre.eding and domestication of animals, etc. It is a way of life aftd an .ethical system, which will ultimately lead mankind to happiness^ peace and prosperity by symbiosis between the three kingdoms .of Nature. Panacea for all Eyjls Veganism will root out cruelty a.nd war, eleyate ^uman nature from beastliness to godliness and je^eixe^ate mankind ,to the stature of Superman, :by eliminating th,e degrading, .degenerative and mongrelising influence pi animals fo.o$s which are ,either .dead, decaying and filthy .on the one hand ,or pathogenic, toxic and devolutionary on the other. It will eliminate poverty .a^cl disease, famines and food shortage. It will .develop selflessness and nobility ,of character in ^11 human beings. It 'is a practical philosophy and a rational ideal, which is at once realistic ajjd realisable". It will solve world problems of cruelty and exploitation, fertility and oyer-pppulatjoij. In short," it is a panacea'for all the ills and evils of the modern wiorlcl of ,men. It's .denizens are doomed to destruction 'after'a terrifying tortuous eicistenqe, unless they harken to the call of conscience "and friend their ways of predatory and callous behaviour.. <D. C . DESAI,

Retired Commissioner of Railway Safety, (Government of India. 3

MINUTES OF 25th ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING HELD AT THE CORA HOTEL, WOBURN PLACE, LONDON, ON DECEMBER 6th, 1969, AT 6 P.M. In the Chair: Dr. Frank Wakes. 18 Members attended. Apologies were received from Dr. Frey Ellis and Mrs. Freda Newmark. The Chairman opened the meeting and called upon the Secretary for the minutes of the last A.G.M. which were read by Mrs. Joan Fugeman. There being no matters arising these were unanimously adopted. The Committee's Report for 1968/9 was read by Mrs. Eva Batt after which she mentioned that a new food guide was in process of being compiled and hoped that it would be ready for publication during the coming year. Treasurer's Report for 1968/9: Copies of the Balance Sheet and Statement of Accounts were examined. The Treasurer mentioned that the Society had another successful year and the financial position was slightly improved on the previous year. Mr. Kenneth O'Brien questioned the cost of printing the journal and offered to get quotations from other printers. Mr. Arthur Ling queried the fall in the shares value of some of the Society's investments, and Mr. Alan Batt pointed out that this was in line with the average fall generally and it was reasonable to assume they would recover during 1970. The adoption of the report was moved by Mrs. Serena Coles, seconded by Mr. Harry Bonnie and carried unanimously. Election of Officers and Committeeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; Presidents: As the President, Deputy President and VicePresidents were willing to stand for re-election, Mrs. Batt moved, and Mr. Jack Sanderson seconded, that the Presidents should be re-elected en bloc. This was agreed and all present voted in favour. Nominations: It was proposed by Mrs. Henderson and seconded by Mrs. Fugeman that Mrs. Serena Coles be elected Vice-President in grateful recognition of her services to the Society over the past twenty-four years. The approval was unanimous. It was proposed by Miss Thelma Larkin and seconded by Mr. Harrie Bonnie that Mrs. Grace Smith be reelected Treasurer. This was carried. Editors: The retiring editors were willing to stand for reelection with the exception of Mrs. Batt who was not seeking re-election. Mrs. Coles and Dr. Ellis were then re-elected and Mrs. Batt asked Mr. Jack Sanderson if he would take up his 4

previous position as Editor in her place. Mr. Sanderson agreed if he could commence from the summer issue of The Vegan. Mrs. Batt said she would continue until then. The election of editors was then accepted unanimously, after being proposed by the Chairman. Committee: The retiring committee were all willing to stand for re-election and were nominated by Mr. Arthur Ling and seconded by Miss Christina Harvey. All were in favour. Mr. Philip Dawes, co-opted by the committee during the year, was nominated by Mrs. Batt, seconded by Mrs. Fugeman and duly elected. Auditor: It was proposed by Mrs. Batt and seconded by Mrs. Shrigley that the retiring auditor, Mr. T. E. Leacock, be re-elected. All were in favour and Mr. Batt also proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. Leacock for his service to the Vegan Society throughout the year. Special Resolution: It was proposed by Mrs. F. Howard that, in view of the fact that certain periodicals make a point of regularly advising their readers that veganism is dangerous to health and that many people are dropping away from veganisni as a resultâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the Vegan Journal should, in each number, carry an article explaining the health advantages of a vegan diet, and explaining how it should be balanced. Veganism should be presented as a means to improved health as well as a means to improved ethics. As there had been no mention of the names of the periodicals it was considered that the first section of the Resolution from " In view of the f a c t " to " result" should be deleted and the second part should become the Resolution from " The Vegan " to " improved ethics ". The amendment was proposed by Mr. Sanderson and seconded by Mrs. Coles. The vote was unanimously in favour. Announcements: Items of interest were read by Mrs. Batt: A booklet of poems by the late Dorothy Thompson has been published and is now ready for sale at 3/- per copy. A new leaflet illustrated in colour and published by Kraft gives a list of vegetarian and vegan foods. The leaflet has been given to students at lectures on nutrition. The address of the publishers is: Kraft Foods Ltd., 16 Regina House, Marylebone Road, N.W.I. It was announced that no photographs of the 25th Anniversary celebrations would be taken by the Society as it had been discovered that all processing of photographic material is done with animal gelatine. Any Other Business: Mr. Ling wished to express his regrets that Mrs. Winifred Jones was unable to attend the Meeting owing to an accident she had received. A "get well " card was sent to her signed by all those present at the meeting. 5

Dr. Frank Wokes offered a bound copy of his journal Plant Foods for Human Nutrition to the Vegan Library. • The Chairman declared the meeting closed at 7 p.m. there being no further business to discuss, and Mrs. Batt proposed a vote of thanks to the Chairman for so-'-.ably conducting the meeting at such short notice. J.F.

DIARY OF FORTHCOMING MEETINGS Beauty Without Cruelty.—Sunday, 12th April, 1970. The Acacia House Centre, The Vale, Acton Park, W.3. Beauty Without Cruelty Fashion Show—3 p.m. Introduced by Lady Dowding. Stall. The Vegan Society.—18th April, 1970. Alliance Hall, Westminster. Speaker: Mrs. Turnbull: " T h e Lawson Tait T r u s t " . 2.30 p.m. The International Friendship League.—Thursday, 21st May, 1970. The Meeting House, 52 St. Martin's Lane, London, W.C.2. Talk: " The Diet of the F u t u r e " a lecture on veganism. Speaker: Mrs. Eva Batt. 7.45 p.m. Visitors welcome. Beauty. Without Cruelty.—Saturday, 30th May, 1970. The Acacia House Centre's "Health, Beauty, and. Peace" Conference at , The Friends'. Meeting House, 52 St. Martin's Lane, W.C.2.. Beauty Without Cruelty Cosmetic Stall and Mini Fashion Show introduced by Lady Dowding. Particulars from Acacia House Centre, Centre Avenue, The Vale, Acton, W.3. Beauty Without Cruelty.—7th-l 1th June, 1970. , The World Federation for the Protection of Animals. 6th World Congress on Animal Welfare at Dublin, Ireland. Beauty Without Cruelty Fashion Show—introduced by Lady Dowding. Details available from Mrs. Carding, W.F.P.A. Secretariat, Alfred Escher Str. 76, CH-8002 Zurich, Switzerland. The Vegan Society.—26th September, 1970. Alliance Hall, Westminster. Speaker: Lawrence Hill: The • Henry Doubleday Research Foundation. The Vegan Society—28th November, 1970. Alliance Hall, Westminster. • A.G.M. 2.30 p.m. 6

. .

THE 25â&#x201E;˘ CELEBRATION OF THE VEGAN SOCIETY My wife and I came ifrom Holland to attend the 25th Celebration of our Society and we have, considered it not only a great pleasure but also a privilege to join all our English friends and to testify our faith and conviction in our great movement, which I feel sure will develop. The dinner has exceeded our wildest expectations and again it has been proved that not any animal food is needed to prepare an excellent meal. Mrs. Maoel Cluer deserves an honorable mention for her delicious Celebration Cake. We appreciated the interesting speeches delivered by Mr. Jack Sanderson, Mrs. Jean Lefevre and Mr. Alan Long. The cheerful spirit that reigned during the whole evening was striking and it was indeed a grand festival which will always summon pleasant recollections! During the last year of the terrible second world-war and especially during the last three months when we were almost starving in Holland and when many people were seriously ill and even died, it became obvious to me that if man could eat only whole-meal bread, fruits, vegetables, nuts, beans, peas and seeds, he would be richly rewarded and did not want at all any flesh-meats or dairy produce to remain physically and mentally quite healthy and strong. The existence of our Society has proved the truth of it during the past 25 years. I am pleased to say that shortly after this war I was fortunate to receive the Vegan Journal, Summer 1946, which appealed to me, as it confirmed in such a strong degree my own views and conviction, that I subscribed to it and later became a member of the Society, which I shall remain all my life! The Vegan Journal has provided us from the very beginning with a wealth of most important data and facts, which cannot be wondered at as the truth has been revealed to us toy enlightened people, who appeared to have understood one of the Secrets of Life. From 1944 up to the present the Editorials of the journal have been one by one most inspiring and convincing and they have not failed to be of great support to most of us. It is a sad fact that the moral and humane principles of Veganism have not yet been understood by most people and it is simply incomprehensible to me that many lacto-vegetarians, who have taken the first important step still think that dairy products are absolutely necessary and entail no cruelty or slaughter. Our Society, might have existed 160 years ago instead of 25, 7

if people had followed the advice of a great pioneer—Sylvester Graham, who propagated the use of pure vegetable food as so many prominent doctors and laymen have done after him. Dr. Graham (of Graham bread fame) wrote in his book " The Science of Human Life " that he considered a Vegetarian Diet— minus dairy products to be the best possible one for human beings. He states that he arrived at his conclusion after many years of research and practical experimentation. HENRY S. KRAMER,

Holland, December 1969.

MAGAZINE SECRETARY We regret to learn that Miss Thelma Larkin, who has been such an efficient magazine secretary for so long, will not be able to continue very much longer, due to many other calls upon her time. We are extremely grateful to her for all she has done—and it will be very difficult to replace her. The time has come when we must make an effort to get a machine for addressing envelopes, to save time for whoever does this job in the future. Let us kno-w at once please if you know of anyone with an addressograph for which they have no further use. If you cannot locate one which is for sale cheaply, please remember that, having found it we still have to pay for it. One friend, who wishes to remain anonymous, has already offered to pay for the stencils. Any suggestions?

FOOD FOR THOUGHT " There is no animal and no insect yet in the whole history of biology which ever became a pest—what we call pest—without man having been the cause of it." "Nature never yet produced a diseased organism as such. Polio, diphtheria, syphilis . . . iany of these organisms—there is no evidence to show that they were ever other than normal bacteria—normal organisms—in the life cycle of nature. It is only man and his misbehaviour, his eating wrongly, his living wrongly, that turns so many organisms from being natural cooperators in the life cycle into pathological entities." D R . HARRY LILLIE, M.B., Ch.B., B.Sc., A.M.I.C.E. 8

ABSTRACT The Nutritional Status of Vegans and Vegetarians Proc. Nutr. Soc. (1967); 26, 205. Ellis, F. R. and Mumford, P. Three groups of people were consideredâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;vegans, vegetarians and omnivores. Weighed food intakes of vegans as well as dietary calculations and clinical examinations including chest X-rays, electrocardiograms and bio-chemical tests were carried out. The findings of various authors, in this field, are discussed. The analysis of the vegan diets was normal and the average nutrient intake met recommended daily allowances. The intakes of calories, protein, fat, calcium and riboflavine of the vegans was lower than that of the omnivores, but the intake of iron and thiamine were greater. The vegans consumed a sufficient amount of useful protein. " A restricted food intake may have reduced the protein value of the diets in some of our vegans (mean daily calorie intake ranged from 1130 to 4150 kcal.), but since the subjects were in the positive nitrogen balances the diets were considered adequate." " There were slight neurological abnormalities in three male vegans, one of whom had pernicious anaemia, but the other cases were presumably due to low vitamin B 1 2 levels since corrected by vitamin B ] 2 supplements. Otherwise there were no detectable differences attributable to the diet between the clinical state of the vegans and control subjects, neither was there any difference in the chest X-ray and E.C.G. findings. Haematological and bio-chemical results were mostly normal. The average serum folate content in both male and female subjects was low (4.0 and 5.9 ng./ml. respectively). The serum vitamin B ] 2 content of the vegans ranged from 50 to 650 pg./ml. (mean 253) in the males and from 30 to 450 pg./ml. (mean 221) in the females." " T h e value of food preparations fortified with vitamin B 1 2 in vegan dietaries has been discussed by Ellis and Wokes (1967); in eleven out of our vegans using such foods the average serum B 1 2 was 260 pg./ml., and in another series of forty such vegans that we have examined the average level was 330 pg./ml. Both Smith (1962) and West and Ellis (1966) have reported abnormalities in the electroencephalogram (E.E.G.) in vegans. It appears unlikely that these abnormalities are related to chronically low levels of serum vitamin B 1 2 since large doses of the vitamin failed to correct them, whereas the marked abnormalities of the E.E.G. in pernicious anaemia and folate deficiency were corrected by such therapy." "Whilst it is generally thought that vegetarians who include dairy products in their diet are unlikely to be lacking in vitamin B 12 , unusually low serum levels have recently been reported. 9

Mehta, Rege & Satoskar (1964) have found a mean value of 121 pg./ml. in vegetarian Indian university students who accept milk but not eggs, although there was no associated neurological signs or symptoms of vitamin B 1 2 deficiency, and their weight, height, blood picture and serum protein levels were not significantly different from the non-vegetarian control. In this country, Ellis & Wokes (1967) have found six vegetarians with levels below 140 pg./ml. out of the twenty-four they examined." " It is interesting in our series of vegans that their level of serum folate is high relative to the controls (average 14.6 and 4.9 ng./ml. respectively), and in fact three of the control males had levels o fonly 2.0 ng./ml., which generally indicates folate deficiency (Patwardhan, 1966). The higher consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables by vegans could account for these differences, but the control levels indicate some cause for concern." " From this study it was deduced that the vegan diet was of adequate nutritional value for adult man, provided it was supplemented with vitamin B 12 - It was suggested that consideration of these conclusions was pertinent to the world food problem, ' since much greater yields per acre of most nutrients are obtained from vegetable crops than by animal husbandry, and yields per man-hour follow a similar pattern.' Miller & Mumford (1966) found that the cheapest foods to provide the daily requirement of three or more ' k e y ' nutrients (calories, protein, calcium, iron, vitamin A and vitamin Q were flour, bread, oatmeal, potatoes,, haricot beans, carrots, cabbage, spinach and watercress. It is possible to construct cheap, nutritionally sound, but appallingly monotonous diets from these ingredients; the vegan housewife has obviously mastered the art of providing such vegetable dishes in a palatable form."

IAMBLICUS' LIFE OF PYTHAGORAS Translated by T H O M A S TAYLOR In the next place, therefore, association with men introduces justice; but alienation, and a contempt of the common genus, produce injustice. Wishing therefore to insert this familiarity from afar in men, he also ordained that his disciples should extend it to animals of the same genus, and commanded them to consider these as their familiars and friends; so as neither to injure, nor slay, nor eat any one of them. He therefore who associates men with animals, because they consist of the same elements as we do, and participate with us of a more common life, will in a much greater degree establish fellowship with those who partake of a soul of the same species, and also of a rational soul. From this also it is evident that he introduced justice produced from the most proper principle. 10

MY COLUMN Veganic Gardens We hear excellent reports from members using Acta-Bacta fertiliser and soil conditioner which is made by Easi-Gro Products at Buckfastleigh in Devon. Acta Bacta, is a natural organic compound, of which 85% of the dry weight is humus. It is designed for the ' no-digging' school of gardening and in a few weeks, will improve the texture both of heavy and sandy soils. With the choice of several vegan fertilisers now easily available, we expect to hear from many more novices who have decided to grow at least some of their own food. Like Mr. T. W. Cox who is cultivating nearly, an acre of moorland by entirely veganic methods. Beginning'with salad, vegetables, strawberries and other soft fruits he plans to experiment with beans and sunflower seeds as he gradually develops his land—he has 6 acres which have never been treated with chemicals. Naturally he grows more than he needs and would like other members to take advantage of the surplus at reasonable cost. Transport is always the difficulty with perishable goods of course, but we would recommend anyone living in or : near Bodmin to contact Mr. Cox with a view to sharing or planning disposal of the surplus. The address is Ashram, Redmoor, Bodmin, Cornwall. Good News As we went to press with the winter issue of The Vegan, we received the happy news of the birth of a baby daughter to Jay and Freya Dinshah, founders of the American Vegan Society— on December 31st. We now know that her name is Anne Claire and that she is thriving and happy, putting on weight as she should, and bringing great joy to the family. Happy Anniversary While our thoughts are in America; there is another cause for congratulation, for in May the American Vegan Society celebrates its 10th anniversary. And what an active 10 years it has been! The Vegan Society sends congratulations to the American Vegan Society and best wishes for the success it surely deserves. Thank You! Still on a happy note. At the beginning of the year we received £5 from a very kind anonymous donor, and' we should like to take this opportunity of-expressing our deep appreciation. 11

The Treasurer would also like to thank all who have sent donations, from the members who include an extra shilling or two with their subscriptions to the generous friend who recently sent £20. Every letter, whether or not it contains a gift, is heart-warming and so encouraging. One Life Member, showing great thoughtfulness wrote: — " Quite a few years ago I became a Life Member, but the cost of living (and running a society) has increased considerably since then, and I feel it is time I sent you a little more. Please accept the enclosed £5 with my thanks for all your help and encouragement over the years." Another tells us that, every time she is reminded by reading about cruelty to children or animals, she puts a shilling in her ' Vegan Box If it happens to involve cruelty to cows or calves she makes it two shillings. World-wide Fruit-Growing Campaign Dr. W. S. Fernando, Ph.D., Principal of the Universal College, Panadura, Ceylon has several ideas for the annual celebration of Ahinsa, one of which might well be adopted here. He writes: — " In order to increase food in the country and to help our fellow men gradually away from taking flesh-food, we kindly request all to plant as many fruit trees as possible on May 1st at 6.30 a.m. every year." How about it? Or how about one fruit tree? Or a raspberry bush even? Think about it. And remember too that others are planting for health, Ahinsa, and mankind, and thinking about you at the same time. One of our members criticises our movement for not putting enough emphasis on the power of collective thought. Here is an opportunity to take part in what we hope will become a worldwide day of thought—and action—for the future. Milk-from-the-cow outdated ? " I would forecast that there will be little liquid milk sold in Britain in ten years' t i m e " said Mr. Michael Leyburn, deputy editor of Farmer's Weekly, at a conference recently. Pointing out the waste of labour in delivering liquid milk, 87% of which is water, he envisaged the dairy industry adopting the practice which is fast-growing in America, of encouraging the use of spray dried milk which would effect considerable savings in time and labour. At the same time^Mr. Leyburn warned farmers that, once it was established that milk could be sold in powdered form this would open the door completely to ' artificial' milk. (Vegetable Milks.) He gave the- milk-from-the-cow industry a maximum of 12

another twenty years, though he thought this might be erring on the generous side. - " It could be that brucellosis and mastitis will kill it off before that and, even if we get rid of these noxious substances in the product, something else will probably crop up," he said. In reminding dairy farmers (he mis-called them ' milk producers', entirely overlooking the activities of the cow!) he said that if they wanted to stay in the milk business they should seriously consider the production of non-animal milks, and that the Milk Marketing Board ought to be concerned in vegetable milk research. In Mr. Leyburn's opinion there are four main reasons for the British preference for meat and milk: Habit, desire to titillate the sense of taste and smell, social consideration, and need for a balanced diet. (ED.) Butter into Soap Referring back to our remarks about the over-production of milk in the Common Market Countries (Autumn 1969, p. 6) we now learn that some of the excess butter, 90,000 tons of it actually, is to 'be used for making soap and pig food in Brussels. " EVITA."

DEED OF COVENANT The Vegan Society, being a charity, is not liable to income tax. Supporters who pay income tax at the full rate and who are prepared to complete a Seven-Year Covenant, to pay an annual sum to the Vegan Society, can substantially increase the value to the Vegan Society of their annual payment. For instance, if a supporter gave ÂŁ2 2s. Od. per annum, the Vegan Society can recover income tax from the Inland Revenue of ÂŁ1 9s. 6d. and so in proportion for larger or smaller payments. In the event of death the covenant terminates at once. For further information and Form e to: The Treasurer, Mrs. Grace Smith, , London, N.14

YOUR LETTERS We welcome controversy on any subject relevant to veganism, but claims on space are heavy. Please, therefore, be as brief as possible. Full name and address must be given, although a, pseudonym may be provided for publication. Contributions for publication should ibe typed (or clearly written) on one side of the paper only. Please enclose a stamped, addressed envelope if return is requested. 13

A VEGAN IN ICELAND It all came about because of an introduction to a doctor's wife, who was visiting New York, this city being the place of my residence at the time; she had come to study Yoga at the studio of a friend who was the instructor of Yoga at this centre, which the instructor owned and operated. She stressed to her pupils the necessity of following the vegetarian diet, and at her invitation introduced to her pupils the vegan diet, with a food demonstration and also talks about the nutritional value of the food, at the same time expressing the humane side of the vegan way of living. This is not difficult in a country like the U.S.A. where footwear and clothing made of man-made materials are available. The doctor's wife was conducting a health school with many assistants in Reykjavik, the capital city of Iceland, and hearing of my intention to return to England, invited me to visit Iceland on the way and be a guest at their home, which was at a seaside place about two miles from Reykjavik; it will eventually be absorbed into the city, when boundaries are extended. So instead of travelling by ship from New York, I changed my booking to air, and travelled by plane to Iceland, and was met at the airport and taken to their home, after a sight-seeing trip of the surrounding country, which is mostly volcanic. It is still emitting boiling water, which is utilized by the city, being piped to large storage tanks on the summit of a hill and fed into the homes of the residents for use in the heating and also for domestic purposes, it is not used for drinking having a high sulphur content. Their homes are modern and mostly flat-living in six to twelve story apartments, the temperature is around 50 to 60 deg. F. in summer, the Gulf Stream keeps the winters mild, there is also continuous daylight in summer, one eventually gets accustomed to the twenty-four hours of daylight. Vegetables are grown in greenhouses, heated by the abundance of hot water available from the ground. On a visit to one of these places, I saw a banana plant growing. It is a land without trees. Not all the students understood English. This meant translating the recipes and meal suggestions into Icelandic. A doctor who is a member of the staff did this, he also keeps a check on the health and weight of those attending the classes. During a stay of two months in this country it was possible to visit many of the places of interest, accepting the very friendly hospitality of the people. One place visited was a hospital about one hour's drive by car from Reykjavik. It was started by a doctor who introduced a vegetarian diet to his patients who were mostly rheumatic, utilizing the hot water available from the ground, fed into swimming pools, also baths. It was used in the glass houses where vegetables were grown, the steam issuing from 14

the ground was fed into an oven where bread was baked, made from flour ground from whole wheat. Meals in the hospital were served buffet style, the patients and their visitors helping themselves, uncooked food was available, also dishes local to the country. It would accommodate about fifty patients, and was completely self supporting. A statue to the doctor's memory is in the grounds of the hospital. Here in England it has been possible for me to attend the committee meetings of the Society, and I will commence my return journey back to Australia later this month, attending the International Vegetarian Congress in Tel Aviv as a delegate from that country. It has been pleasant visiting my homeland again. F . C . WHITTLE WALK



On Sunday, May 24th, the British. Vegetarian Youth Movement is organising a sponsored walk in London in aid of Vegfam— a charitable organization which ensures that, in providing relief for the victims of hunger and famine, vegetarian and humanitarian principles are meticulously observed. The route, which is expected to be confined to roads in and around London parks, will cover a maximum distance of 30 miles, and participants and supporters will be asked to enlist as many sponsors as possible who will pay an agreed sum for each mile completed by his or her nominee. Thus a " stake " of Id. per mile would cost the sponsor 2s. 6d. if the full distance is covered, and pro rata for larger stakes—or shorter distances. The V.Y.M. is anxious to receive offers of help from anyone who is prepared (a) to take part in the walk, (b) to act as a steward at checkpoints, (c) to sponsor one or more walkers, (d) to publicize the walk, or (e) to make a donation towards the cost of organizing the walk. Enquiries and offers should be sen Regional Organizer, Mr. Christopher Phillips, , London, N.15 (telephone 01-808 2553). A


Kindly make a note of the dates by which we must receive your letters and reports for inclusion in " The Vegan." For the Spring issue—Before February 1st. For the Summer issue—Before May 1st. For the Autumn issue—Before August 1st. For the Winter issue—Before November 1st. Please do not leave your letter until the last day, avoid disappointment and help us by posting as early as possible. THE



HOLIDAYS ABROAD For strict vegans, holidays abroad can be a problem where food is concerned. We have found that renting a flat, apartment or villa is a very happy solution, especially in countries with a warmer climate than ours. In October of the previous year we rented a small studio in an apartment block on the Costa del Sol, Spain. The apartment block was situated on a quiet beach at Carvajal near Torremolinos. The weather was warm and sunny the whole fortnight. There were several supermarkets within walking distance, apart from the one in the apartment block itself, where a good range of foods were obtainable with prices clearly marked. We found shopping in a foreign supermarket one of the interests of the holiday. There was always good whole rye bread available because of the demand by the many German visitors. Nuts were plentiful particularly almonds and Barcelona nuts at prices similar to those in England. Vegetable oils and pure fruit juices, particularly grape juice were good and cheap. Fruit and vegetables were reasonable in the supermarkets, but we were very fortunate to have a mobile fruit and vegetable van which parked each evening at the beginning of the drive to the apartment block where we could buy a wonderful variety of good fresh fruit and vegetables including grapes, melons, peppers, aubergines, tomatoes, beans and carrots, etc. We took some tins of nutmeat and vegan margarine with us, from England, and so, as you see, fared very well. This year we had a studio flat in Majorca at Palma Nova, about nine miles from the large port of Palma. Here, as in Spain, there were plenty of local supermarkets, and again plenty of whole rye bread. Vegetable oils, nuts and fruit were plentiful. Vegetables in the local shops were not so good as in Spain. However, we had a trip to the central fruit and vegetable market in Palma where a tremendous variety of fruits and vegetables were on display. One street in Palma is known as the Melon Market where there are heaps and heaps of melons to choose from. We also discovered in Palma a health food store which had been open about a year and was a branch of a large health store in Barcelona. The address is Casa Santiveri S.A., Calle Baron Santa Maria Del Sepulcro 41 (off Ave. Jaime III), Palma, Mallorca. Amongst other health products, this store sold wholemeal bread, brown sugar, nutmeat, almond butter, tinned vegetable milks and tinned almond milk. The tinned almond milk was really delicious and we wish it could be imported into this country. Many inclusive holiday tour firms are now operating flat and villa holidays which include linen and all equipment. Some include maid,service if wished. M.



COMMODITIES Footwear News Spare a little sympathy for the one who, to find and collate this column, has to wade through trade magazines, hide import details, descriptions of super-soft kid skins, the current price of Nigerian goat, and fellmongery—the various methods of dressing, glazing, dying and generally treating the raw skin of an animal to transform it into the glossy, elegant, colourful leather which meets our eyes in every store. We are inclined to leap with joy every time a new or improved simulated leather is introduced, only to learn that, in spite of all the activities in this direction in the last few years, the rate of slaughter the world over is on the increase. More—it is increasing at an increasing rate, as the developing nations are encouraged to emulate the eating habits of the . West, which results in a greater supply of leather, which means that it must be sold to the public one way or another. Thus we get the current attempts to get us all into leather jackets and slacks. Lotus have a ladies' court shoe with Petershal bow in softee vinyl, foam lined, with a 2" heel, sizes and Half-sizes .3—8. Black 8P 343P. Navy 344K. 4 5 / l i d . The current Marshall Ward catalogue again contains a number of shoes suitable for vegans; Here are a few samples: — Ladies' Norvic shoe in white Corfam, a T bar court with 2" heel. Style 1 G ' in the M.W. catalogue. 8 9 / l i d . A Lotus ' Softee' court shoe, wide fitting, 2" heel. (Model ' K ' ) Foam lined, 4 9 / l i d . Black vinyl panet, wide fitting, foam lined, 2" heel, court style (L) again by Lotus, 4 9 / l i d . Sling-back vinyl shoe with low heel in Black, Brown or Stone, (model'C'), 39/lid. Vinyl sling-back court shoe* punched high tab and pearly button. heel. Skinfit lined. (Style ' D ' ) in camel colour, 45/lid. Low-heeled NorzOn casual shoe. Foam lined, wide fitting, very comfortable, rubber soled. (Model ' E '). Ballerina type casuals. Foam lined, in stone or black patent. 29/lid. Wide fitting Vinyl court. Foam lined, heel. Black Sizes and half sizes 3—7. 8P 35IP. 3 9 / l i d . Patent Vinyl Court, foam lined. Tiny, bow trim. 2" heel Black. Sizes and half sizes 3—7. 59/lid.. 17

Tan casual in (Grained) Vinyl with apron front. Crossover vamp bar with raised piping. Vinyl sole. set back heel. No. 8P 926K. Sizes and half sizes 3—7 inclusive. 4 9 / l i d . Moccasin type Brown punched vamp. Laced, bow trim. Skinfit lining. Sizes 3—8. No half sizes. Very low heel. No. 8P 878Y. 3 9 / l i d . Another "Lotus" shoe in the M.W. catalogue is a Matt Vinyl Court with rounded toe. Petersham trim. heel. Sizes and half sizes 3—8. Black—8P 127A. Stone—8P 276R. 3 9 / l i d . Men's shoes from Marshall Ward with poromeric uppers. Three styles in sizes and half sizes 6—11. Black Gusset casual shoe, 75/-. 1P8270P. Tan Punch design Gibson, 75/-. 1P8322F. Fashionable no-cap boot. Black— 1P8105J. Tan— 1P8106T. (We have no news regarding the linings of the last three so far, it will be necessary to enquire.) Warning Lotus " Bucks", the company's wide range of injection moulded shoes for men are, with the exception of the soles, made of leather. Leisure Shoes As usual the Dunlop range of summer casuals and sports shoes are well-made and comfortable. We cannot spare the space to mention them all, but one in particular we found most attractive is a four eyelet ' sneaker' in a striped pattern with terry towelling lining and a ripple pattern compound sole. It is made in all women's sizes from Junior 10's (15/lid.) to women's 8's (19/lid.). Children's Shoes Curtess Shops can usually provide something. Recently we were able to get lace-ups for the 4—8 year old in Brown. Marked ' Empire Made ' these were quite suitable for school wear and cost 9/6d. P^rt No. C 2221. Hiltons also stock non-leather shoes for children but could not give us details as the stock is constantly being changed. Again, unfortunately not in the quality class, these sell at around 15/-d. to 20/-d. a pair. NEW MATERIALS Corfam Dr. Jenkins, a Director of DuPont, says that this year will have seen 2\ million pairs of Corfam shoes on the British market. 18

Of more interest to us though is that, according to Dr. Jenkins, next year sixty-nine British shoe manufacturers will be using Corfam, that over 40% of all British shoe shops will be stocking shoes of Corfam, and that the world's largest shoe retailing organisationâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;British Shoe Corporationâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;have already decided to turn one of their factories over to making Corfam shoes exclusively. They plan to sell these shoes, again according to Dr. Jenkins, through the Manfield, Dolcis, and Saxone shops. (So far the B.S. Corp. have " No comment" on this.) A new spun bonded poromeric lining by la Gutta-Percha uses two DuPont materials. It is based on Reemay, a versatile polyester fibre, and coated with one of the Elvax vinyl resins. The manufacturers claim that the " breathing " quality and the resilience of the Reemay are not impaired by the coating . . . if successful, this will be a great step forward in porous rotresist material unaffected by perspiration. Rucaire is another permeable urethane coated fabric by Hooker Chemicals of U.S.A. Hush Hush. A mystery poromeric (British) is being wear tested on forty postmen by Clarks of Street. The postmen will cover about 40,000 miles in the three month test. The name of the material has not been released. Walker Chamberlain have produced three new upper materials made in France. " Derby ", " Falcor " and " Cordoshoe ", all variations of the very adaptable expanded vinyl. " Derby" is recommended for children's shoes and " Cordoshoe " for ladies' fashion shoes as it is metallised. "Aeropreen " is a Polyurethane foam made by Dunlop for the footwear trade. Polyurethane, or PU for short, appears to have some remarkable qualities. PU is used as the surface layer of poromeric materials such as Corfam, Clarino, and hi-Telac, while Porvair, a new poromeric, is made entirely of PU. As a soling material the trade feels it will have many advantages. Arlington Plastics have given us Arlan 2000, particularly designed for hard wear, and British Vita are introducing a range of air-permeable simulated leathers, called Vita-thane, for clothing, footwear, upholstery and baggage. Also a new lining, Roy Poreda, comes over from Germany. It is absonbent, and permeable to moisture and air. The makers, Benecke of Hanover, already produce a range of materials for uppers, soles, linings, quarter linings and insoles. " Chenett" is a fine kid-like synthetic made in Germany. Wallets made of this material are on sale in the Beauty Without Cruelty Boutique at 49 Upper Montagu Street, London, W.l. They cost 21/-d. each, in Black or Maroon and really are as soft, smooth and pleasant to handle as the finest kidskin. So much so that each one comes with the manufacturer's printed guarantee that it is not leather! 19

VitatHane is the name of a range of man-made leathers for which to watch. It is air permeable and various grades will be used f o r footwear, clothing, upholstery and baggage. STOP PRESS Footwear Some outstanding good news for men! The manufacturers of ' Gluv ' and ' T u f ' shoes have increased their range of quality vegan shoes from one style to five! Furthermore, they have introduced in the ' Gluv' range a Corfam suede which, unlike suede made from the skins of animals, is extremely easy to keep clean. In fact a soapy nailbrush will remove not only mud but ketchup, oil, or even raw egg (should you happen to get one of these dropped at your feet!) These Gluv shoes in suede Corfam are all entirely free of all animal leather (soles, linings, etc.) and we can recommend thern to our members with every confidence. Part No. V 64 Black Cavalry Gusset shoe, sizes 6 to 12. Part No. V 61 Brown three hole tie shoe with plain toe, sizes 6 to 12. Part No. V 62 As above in Black. Men's GLUV shoes in Suede Corfam. Part No. G 59 Step-in Casual in Stone Colour. Part No. G 58 Cavalry Gusset style in Brown. Part No. G 57 Cavalry Gusset style in Stone. Part No. G 61 Modern style three hole tie in Stone. The fact that ' T u f ' arid ' Gluv ' shoes are widely distributed in Great Britain will be a considerable advantage when shopping for Vegan shoes, and there is now no reason at all why every one of us should hot be well and smartly shod in humanely produced footwear. Please Note All these GLUV and T U F shoes for men have poromeric (air permeable) linings b u t the models listed above are the only styles to Which this applies; So be careful to ask for the correct part number, and accept ho other. Âť




A recent letter from Smith's Foods tells us that only the unflavoured ready salted crisps are vegan. This is contrary to an earlier report which we quoted in The Vegan a year ago. Tartex. News from Mapletons Due to obscure labelling and conflicting information, the position of Tartex savoury spreads has never been absolutely clear. However, the manufacturer in Switzerland, has now stated 20

that all Tartex Savoury Spreads contain caseinate, i.e. milk solids. We deeply regret that, in good faith, we have passed on incorrect information in the past, and Dyna Ltd. have assured users in this country that the ' mix u p ' over labelling will be corrected. Plamil Abroad. A prospective importer of Plamil plantmilk in Australia has unsuccessfully tried to get Plamil exempted from the Australian Imitation Milk Act 1969; and is now appealing to the Australian Minister of Agriculture against the decision in order to market Plamil there. The position there is confusing because supplies had already been despatched, and it would be interesting to know if any readers in Australia have (or are continuing) to buy Plamil. Repeat consignments of Plamil have recently gone to Holland (despite 60% importation duty!) and New Zealand; and resulting from five years' correspondence with a Swedish importer and distributor of health foods (and overcoming multitudinous regulations with Swedish authorities) Plamil labels are now being printed in Swedish, and the first shipment to the Scandinavian world will be taking place very shortly. PLAMIL PRICE. Plantmilk Ltd. has over the past months been facing increased production costs because every one of its ingredients has risen in price. Due to the price of steel, the cans are now to cost 10% more, plus higher delivery charges. All these factors must be taken into account in a review of the general price structure, because 1965 prices will not cover 1970 costs, and there has only been one minor increase in the price of Plamil since 1965. Regrettably therefore, but understandably, an increase in the price of Plamil plantmilk appears inevitable in the near future. Bread To members in the Isle of Wight who asked about Island Bakeries bread, we can only say that the manufacturers tell us none of this is suitable for vegans. Wax. One of the advantages of wearing non-leather shoes is that these, as a general rule, require little or no polishing. But polish of one kind or another we are pretty sure to buy from time to time and here a difficulty often arises because, even if we know what waxes are included among the ingredients, we may not know whether they are animal or vegetable. I had this difficulty at first. If the label states " contains beeswax," we know where we are. One of the most important uses for beeswax today is in the making of church candles. Cheaper, more everyday candles rarely contain beeswax now. 21

Most polishes will contain more than one kind of wax. By and large the harder the wax, the most costly it is. Wax has been used for polishing woodwork for thousands of years ; one writer says it was certainly in use in Egypt in the First Dynasty, and others say even before that. Bees are not the only living suppliers of wax ; another insect wax is made by the Coccus Coniferous, a native of China. (The story is of interest, but rather too long to include here.) The most widely used vegetables waxes are: â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Candelilla wax from Mexico. This is obtained by drying and then boiling the reed-like plant. Esparto grass wax. This is similar in texture to candelilla wax and is sometimes called fibre wax or reed wax. The esparto grass, or reed, is used in the manufacture of cardboard, etc. The wax is a by-product of this. Pisang wax from Java. A hard, pale-coloured wax obtained from the six-foot-long leaves of a kind of banana plant. Carnauba wax comes from a palm tree which is indigenous to Brazil. In this case the wax forms on the surface of the great fan-like leaves and, as a fine white dust settles in the crevices, from where, after lopping it can be beaten off, boiled and exported in lumps which look rather like white coal. It is both hard and brittle and highly prized as an ingredient for car or furniture polish. There are several other vegetables waxes which are obtained from the leaves, and sometimes the flowers, of shrubs, but these are not considered as true waxes as they are more like very hard fats. The names of some of them are: Japan wax, Cape Berry wax and Myrtle wax. Other vegan waxes are of mineral origin. These include Ozokerite, a soft, black substance before refining. It comes from Germany, Poland and Russia. Monton wax, sometimes called Hoechst wax, is obtained from coal, usually in Germany. We are told it is a hard, black, brittle wax of peculiar odour, but can be purified by chemicals. There are also several others. If any readers know the names of other waxes, particularly those we should avoid, please send details. We shall be glad to pass on any helpful information to other readers.

An Apology ' T h e editors express their deep regret that the Winter issue of The Vegan was seriously delayed. This was partly the result of a combination of minor difficulties just before Christmas, and partly a transport problem when the consignment of journals was delayed en route to Miss Larkin. 22;

POINT AND COUNTERPOINT " Has there been any attempt to isolate the protein from other cereals than wheat? " Experiments have been made with rice and maize. A product called maize-germ has been isolated, but is not yet used commercially. With rice, a part of the protein surrounding the kernel is called " polish ", (not to be confused with " polished " rice) and this and the part called bran,—also surrounding the kernel—have been isolated together. Again, this product is not available here. In America, the Riviana Food Coy., Texas, make a product caller Protex/X-M, which is made from a combination of rice, bran and wheatgerm, in an attempt to create a proteinenriched cereal. We are indebted for this last item of information to the research department of Messrs. Kelloggs Ltd. " Have you a recipe for a fruit loaf made in minimum time, without fat or separate raising agent? " This recipe from Mrs. Lipkowski from Torquay should suit your requirements: — 1 cup All Bran or wheatgerm. 1 cup mixed dried fruit. 1 cup Barbados sugar (or less). 1 cup vegan milk. 1 cup S.R. 100% or 81% Wholemeal flour. Mix first four ingredients together and let stand for one hour. Then mix in flour, put into greased tin, bake for 90 minutes at No. 4 (326 F.). " Is Pollen Vegan ? " The Pollen advertised here and taken internally is collected by the bees and stored separately from the honey—therefore it is not Vegan. But a Swede called Carlsson has perfected—-with great patience—a method to collect pollen without the aid of bees. After many experiments, this has now become a valuable ointment available to hospitals all over the world. Pure pollen extract has also proved valuable in helping children to overcome severe malnutrition. " Soyaflour—cooked or uncooked? " In your Summer '69 journal you say on page 23 that a quick salad cream can be made with uncooked materials including soya flour. In your Autumn journal you stated on page 23 that " soya flour should always be cooked ". Answer: Soya beans should always be cooked, and actually need high temperature treatment—which has been given to those available in tins. 23

Soya flour has already had this treatment—e.g., on the bags containing " soyolk " soyaflour, you will find the notice " Intensively heat processed ", and other brands should not be bought without this reassurance.

RECIPES Vegans living alone often ask for ideas for one-person meals. Freda Newmark sends us the following suggestion for a simple day's menu for one person: — Breakfast M U E S L I ( 1 ) . — O n e grated apple (or any other fresh, ripe fruit), brown sugar and wheatgerm with Plamil. M U E S L I (2);—Soak about ten dates in a little water the night before. Add boiling water at breakfast-time and Marriage Wheat Germ t o absorb most of the liquid, and plenty of Plamil. M U E S L I ( 3 ) . — F o u r large prunes, washed and soaked overnight—not cooked. Add undiluted vegetable milk, grated fresh lemon rind and wheat germ. A few grated cashew nuts can be added to any of the above recipes with advantage.

Dinner Bring to the boil half a pint of water with ozs. Golden Block margarine and salt. Sprinkle in 4 ozs. millet and cook gently for fifteen minutes. Flavour with Vesop and nutmeg. Arrange on plate* put two skinned raw and sliced tomatoes round Sprinkle grated cashew nuts over it. D E S S E R T : Mapleton's Nutolate, dandelion coffee. Supper Put scraped carrots, apple and any kind of nuts through Mouli shredder, mix with plenty of sunflower or olive oil, salt and a dash of garlic salt if liked, and arrange on washed lettuce or cos leaves. One or two slices of wholemeal toast with margarine and Barmene. The rest of the cooked millet can be used next day by putting dots of margarine and grated nuts on top. Heat thoroughly through under a gentle heat of grill. SIMPLE

1 breakfastcup brown breadcrumbs 1 Spanish onion



1 breakfastcup any ground nuts (these can be mixed) Nutter

Grate the onion, discarding tough pieces and use this to mix the nuts and crumbs to a paste. Alternatively tomatoes may be used in place of onions. Fill a greased pie dish with the mixture and put a few dabs of


Nutter on top. Bake until brown." Cold cooked lentils may be used in place of breadcrumbs. NUT


Prepare as for Nut Roast adding a dessertspoonful of herbs before mixing. Form into rissoles and roll in oatmeal flour. Shallow fry in vegetable oil. CHESTNUT

I lb. chestnuts i lb. tomatoes


Short crust pastry

Boil the chestnuts for half an hour and shell. Skin tomatoes and cut in slices. Well grease a small pie dish, put in the chestnuts and tomatoes in alternate layers. Cover with short crust pastry and bake until pale brown. Serve with parsley, tomato or white sauce. (Mashed potato can be used in place of pastry.) QUICK APPLE PUDDING 1 lb. cooking apples, peeled, cored and sliced 3 ozs. self-raising flour 2 ozs. grated Nutter or Golden Block cooking fat

4 4 A A

ozs. brown sugar cloves pinch of salt little water

Put the apples in a saucepan with the sugar and a little water, on a gentle heat. Mix flour, fat and a pinch of salt with enough water to form a dough. Roll out the dough into a circle and put on top of the apples in the saucepan. Put the lid on the saucepan and cook slowly for about twenty minutes, putting a sheet of cooking foil under the lid if this does not fit tightly. EASY








In a small pan warm to melting point only: ozs. of vegan margarine } pint Plamil (neat) 6 teaspoons of sugar In a separate small container dissolve ÂŁ level teaspoon of Agar or Gelozone in three dessertspoons of tepid water. (Nothing should be allowed to get really hot.) Pour milk and sugar mixture into dissolved Agar and stir all together. Whizz for 45 seconds, in liquidiser. Flavourings such as vanilla may be added if desired. (The original recipe called for white sugar, but we used soft brown, which is quite satisfactory. However, if planning to serve it to non-vegans, white sugar would make it look more like cow cream.â&#x20AC;&#x201D;ED.)


NUTRITION We asked Jack McClelland for his recommendations for a vegan, wholefood, balanced diet which would ensure adequate nutrition for a sedentary worker or an athlete. The following appeared in " The Sunday News " (Ireland). First, the diet should be built around natural foods— vegetables and juicy fruit, as far as possible. Fatigue, and a general condition of " sluggishness " are brought about by wrong feeding habits and lack of proper outdoor exercises. Acid is the main cause of fatigue. Meat and other flesh foods are the highest acid producers of all. Instead of eating flesh foods, poultry and fish, and all processed, tinned or " cooked" hams, or meat or fish pastes, one should eat beans, nuts, lentils, dried peas, etc. Instead of white bread or any bread or cakes containing white flour, like biscuits, scones or pastries, and certain breakfast cereals, eat 100 per cent, stone ground flour (wholemeal); bread and cakes if desired can be made with wholemeal flour. Instead of white sugar, sweets, chocolates, jams or bottled drinks containing white sugar, eat dried fruits (raisins, figs, dates, etc.) or raw brown sugar. Instead of coffee and tea—drink unsweetened fruit juices, vegetable juices (plenty of carrot juice) and water. Breakfast—One or two kinds of juicy fruits like grapes, apples, pears, grapefruit (no sugar added), along with raisins, dates, figs or apricots. Slice of wholemeal bread (toast if liked), with vegetable margarine and marmalade, or maple syrup if desired. Lunch—Large raw salad (no salad cream or vinegar), along with a protein dish of nut-meat; apple or pear. Lemon juice or cider vinegar and a good salad oil may be used on the salad. Evening meal—Steamed vegetables, potato (in jacket), nut rissoles or cutlet. Brown rice dish along with dried fruit (such as soaked raisins). Never eat or drink more than enough to satisfy—social eating and drinking is bad—eat slowly, chew thoroughly, and never begin a meal " i n a flap ". Wait until you are more relaxed— no matter how long that takes! J. McC. BLOOD IN MILK Milk containing more than 20 ppm blood should be rejected. In a recent survey of 131 cases of blood-in-milk, 43 were due to physical injury (e.g. cuts and bruised warts); 53 from cows calved less than a week, and 18 from cows calved more than a week, but less than a month. ALAN LONG.


TWENTY-FOUR YEARS OF VEGANISM In 1945, one year after the Vegan Society was born, Muriel Drake joined the society and soon afterwards she was co-opted on to the committee. You now know her as Muriel Henderson. Early in the Society's history a Vegan Diet Group was formed, from which emerged the broader Health Council, with Dr. Frank Wokes making a whole range of tests on many of the first vegans. Muriel was appointed secretary of the Group and Council and worked with Dr. Wokes in classifying the data derived from three questionnaires sent out to members of the Vegan Society. As a result of this she wrote a series of articles for " The Vegan ", covering vegan alternatives to animal products; hints on the change-over to a vegan diet and several other aspects in an effort to help those who felt ready to adopt veganism. During 1953 the International Vegetarian Union Congress was held in Sweden and Muriel went as a vegan delegate and the stall at the Animals' Fair was arranged by her for several successive years, as well as a number of social activities both at her home and outside. From 1951 to 1956 she served as Deputy President and from 1952 to 1959 she was on the Editorial Board. She was also a member of the Nutrition Council from 1957 to 1959 as well as acting as Honorary Secretary from 1956 to 1959. Muriel was also one of the original committee members of the Plantmilk Society at its inception in 1956 and, in 1960/61, she assisted Dr. Hugh Franklin in his research work on Plantmilk. By this time she had already opened her first health food store at Anerley, in South East London, but, after two years gaining valuable experience in her completely new venture, she moved to Blackheath, where for several years she had a small juice and snack bar in addition to a health food store from where she sent post parcels all over the world. Only pressure of time induced her to give up the postal work. After eighteen years' service to the committee, Muriel reluctantly resigned having decided that she must give her full time to her health store and, it was at this time in 1963, that she became a Vice-President. A few months after re-marrying in 1967, her husband, Harry, joined her in the health store, thus enabling her to begin her next venture at Chiesmans, in Lewisham where she was asked to inaugurate a health food and herbal section within their store and to give advice as required. It was too great a challenge to refuse and, with Harry agreeing to continue the good work at Blackheath, Muriel now finds herself dealing with the general public and not only those who only visit health stores. By the 27

time this is in print she hopes, to havei a larger juice and snack bar at Chiesmans and to be a'ble'to show the public the delights of a vegan diet. After " going it alone " at Lewisham for the first two months she was able to obtain the valuable assistance of one of our most enthusiastic members, Cyril Fugeman. Only those who have known Muriel through the years and have seen her struggling through her adversities can ever begin to realise the work she has done for the vegetarian and vegan way of life. We, as a society, would like to offer our sincere thanks to all those who have so loyally helped her and 1 feel that this is the time when we would like to send our good wishes to Dr. Franklin and his wife. Not only was he responsible for research on Plantmilk but we have to thank him for providing the now famous Barmene with its B r j content. It is hoped that this short biography of Muriel's life will revive memories for the older vegans and will help the younger ones to realise some of the work that has gone before. S.N.C. THE VEGAN SOCIETY Membership of The Vegan Society—Annual Subscription 15/Associate Membership • •• 15/Life Membership £10 10s. Od. The Vegan quarterly journal is free with membership: — Single current copy 2/6d. plus 4d. postage Vegan Badge in chrome 10/- post free

LITERATURE Handbook of Practical Veganism 2/6d. plus 4d. postage Vegan Protein Nutrition I/- plus 4d. postage (These two books plus The Vegan magazine together weigh under 4 ozs., so only one 4d. postage need be allowed.) Here's Harmlessness 7/6d. post free Quick and Easy Menus for a Fortnight, with recipes— by K. Keleny 3/Id. post free Vegan Recipes (100 on ten sheets) 1/lOd. post free Aids to a Vegan Diet for Children 1/- plus 4d. postage Vegan & Vegetarian Foods & Commodities Guide ... 2/- plus 4d. postage Festive Recipes lOd. post free Why Kill for Food? by Geoffrey L. Rudd 5/- plus lOd. postage Crimes Against Creation, compiled by Marie Dreyfus ... £1 plus postage •Book of poems by Dorothy Thomson 3/- post free The Vegan Kitchen by Freya Dinshah 5/6d. De Luxe edition 7/6d. post free Intensive Gardening by R. D. O'Brien 25/6d. post free Here's Harmlessness, an anthology of Ahimsa 7/6d. post free Free leaflet—Reasons for Veganism S.A.E. only Personal Cards 8d. post free Obtainable from the Secretary at 82 Brightfield Road, London, S.E.I2. (Cheques and Postal Orders should be made payable to " The Vegan Society ".) •This new publication includes a wide range of the most popular of Dorothy's poems. Compiled by her friends, the profits will all go to animal welfare groups in which Dorothy was particularly interested.


BOOK REVIEWS Not many of us, T should think, are readers of poetry and if ever we have read works other than the great ones we might be put off by a dryness and lack of colour in words. But after reading the selection of poems in Child of Earth .by Jenny Gage, I was struck by the Spring-fresh impression put over by these teenage contributors. The variety of poems set out in this collection is wide ranging and well worth buying; even if you do not normally read poetry I do indeed recommend this book to lift a dull heart on a dreary day. See classified advertiseMENT



Eating Your Way to Health by Ruth Bircher—translated by Claire Loewenfield. Published 1961—Faber, 10/6d. This book contains sound advice on every aspect of food reform, and for every circumstance and condition, e.g., for pregnancy, childhood allergies, etc. It includes a section on vegan diet and much in the general sections can be used by the vegan in menu planning and food preparation. The lacto-vegetarians and meat eaters are catered for so that they need not feel that this bdok is not for them—and it can be safely recommended to non-vegan friends. However, vegan diet is not condemned, indeed it is justified, so that vegans reading this book are confirmed in their view that the vegan diet is adequate. Like all other diets, a vegan diet can be inadequate, but with careful thought it can be completely adequate and produce health and happiness. FRANCIS HOWARD. I can highly recommend to readers of " The Vegan " the book Kinship with All Life by J. Allen Boone and published by Harper and Row, price 32/6d. (or ask at your library). This is not a new book, but was published in 1954. Humans and animals did at times in the past " move in full accord not only with one another but with the Cosmic Plan as well". "Humans, animals, snakes, birds, insects—all shared a common language." Mr. Boone recaptures the ability to communicate with all creatures. In America rattlesnakes seldom harm an Indian but "delight in sinking, their fangs into a white man ". As with the irritation of flies, the reason is the same. We are brought up to regard snakes as deadly, loathsome creatures, fit only to be killed, flies are viewed in the same way. Being highly sensitive to the 29

human state of mind the snake, fly â&#x20AC;˘ or other creature reacts as we expect it too. A most stimulating and thought provoking book. It will be difficult to throw out all our ideas about the " l o w e r " creation and to view them as equal but different forms of life. W I N I F R E D BARNES.

The Churches' Treason towards the Animals. By Carl A. Skriver. Publishers: Starzwenski Verlag GMBH, Muenchen 22, Germany. Mr. Skriven, who has been a Vegan for 19 years, is a protestant vicar, now 63, who was discovered to have a bad heart at twenty and given 20 years to live " if he was lucky ". However, he became first lacto-vegetarian, then vegan, abstained from alcohol, tobacco, tea arid coffee, and is now hale and hearty. Mr. Skriver points out that the animals must feel like human beings would if suddenly enslaved by cannibals. He traces conscience about killing or even about drinking cow's milk back to 2100 years B.C. and tells us of an Egyptian relief which shows a cow grieving at having her milk stolen while her calf goes w i t h o u t He is at a loss to understand that the Churches have not stood up against flesh-eating and have ignored the plight of the animals. He quotes the Bible and philosophers and writers like Schopenhauer and Albert Schweitzer, Saint Francis of Assisi and many others who share his horror of this treachery as he calls it. He quotes the passage in the Bible saying that man has been given the animals to look after, and is appalled at the mess he made of it. He also prints a collection of poems by different authors (Rainer Maria Rilke, Peter Rosegger, Freidrich Hebbel, etc.) which fight and plead for the lives of birds, flowers, lambs, spiders, gazelles, deer, swans. Finally, he presents the readers with reproductions of famous pictures showing, among others, a picture of Hieronymus, who lived in the 16th century and was vegetarian. The whole book bristles with indignant impatience and horror at man's inhumanity to animals and expresses his disappointment at the utter " couldnot-care-less " attitude of the Churches, their representatives, and the majority of their followers. This book is in German and is available to members from the Vegan library. The Call of Compassion, edited by J. P. Vaswani; an anthology of love and compassion towards all Living Things, Gita Publishing House, 10 Sadhu Vaswani Path, Poona-I, India, price 4/6d. .This is a collection of quotations, mostly against meat-eating, one, or two mentioning living on fruit and grains and nuts-and 30

vegetables. One quotation allows milk and honey, but in general this also is a spirited plea for " reverence for life ". Quotations are from Eastern and Western writers, and there is a plea for an Animals' Charter and a foreword by J. P. Vaswani. Live Foods, Nature's Perfect System of Human Nutrition. 192 Recipes by George and Doris Fathman, publishers: Sun Hayen Publishers, Route 9, Box 968—A, Tucson, Arizona 85705, price 2.95 dollars. Produced in large print and opening flat, it tells how " Live Foods " have cured G.F. of hay fever after learning of them through Professor Ehrat's teachings in his book " The Mucusless Diet Healing System ". Gradually—in the sunshine of Arizona!—they replaced cooked foods by raw ones, using all the fruits available—and this includes papayas, avocados, cactus cubes, plus nuts and seeds, carob powder, soya flour, dried fruits, vegetable oils, and—helas!—a little honey, but this can be replaced by maple syrup or molasses by Vegans. Their recipes include fruit-and-nut cakes and " pastry "—cases—all unfired! One of these unfired pastrycases is made from oatmeal, soyaflour, coconut, dates, and oil and water, another*from peanut butter and carob flour. Our member Mr. Sivakumar who donated the book (which can be borrowed from the Vegan Library by members), says it is " just the ticket " for a lone bachelor who cannot be bothered to cook. L. DAVIS.

OPERATION HABITAT RESCUE Some practical steps you can take to help conserve our countryside and improve the ' living conditions ' for the wild life. Volunteers are needed for the following holiday or week-end activities: Tree planting: preparing nesting areas for wading birds: Clearing streams; counting deer, planting vegetation on the banks of ponds: and many other similar healthy out-door activities. You can work, learn, and spend your leisure time in a helpful and constructive manner. The cost is negligible (30/- for a week, 7/6d. for a week-end) and your fare will be paid by the Organising Council. You should be over 16, but there appears to be no limit at the other extreme. Write to The Organiser, Conservation Corps, Council for Nature, Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park, London, N.W.I. We shall be pleased to hear from any of our readers taking part, either this year or last, when the scheme was launched. HAPPY HOLIDAY! Omission in " The Vegan," Winter, 1969 The letter from Plantmilk Ltd. (page 7) was written by Mr. Arthur Ling, and his name should have appeared at the end. 31



It was with great sorrow that we learned of the passing of Air Chief Marshall Lord Dowding, G.C.B., G.C.V.O., C.M.G., on Sunday, the 15th February at the age of 87 years. He was the head of Fighter Command in the Battle of Britain and only those of us who lived during that period can possibly realise how much we owe to him. After the war he devoted much time to animal welfare. In 1964 he introduced the Protection of Animals (Anaesthetics) Act into the House of Lords. Amongst its numerous provisions this Bill made it illegal to castrate or otherwise operate on farm animals without the use of an anaesthetic. Together with many more reforms, Lord Dowding strongly supported the Humane Slaughter Bill which made compulsory the stunning, before killing, of sheep and lambs throughout the country. In the Summer of 1968 Lord Dowding became President of Beauty Without Cruelty, a Charity in which he had been keenly interested and closely connected since its inception. To those who were privileged to hear him speak concerning his spiritual beliefs, he gave comfort and food for thought. He was a truly great man. We send our kindest thoughts and sympathy to Lady Dowding, his family and friends.

THE PURE IN HEART (From " T h e Crest Jewel of Wisdom " by Charles Johnston (Trans.).) Page 60. To him who is utterly free from self-indulgence, soul vision comes; to him who has gained soul vision, illumination is confirmed; to him who has gained illumination of the Real, comes liberation from bondage; for him whose soul is freed, there is experience of eternal joy. For him who holds himself in sway, I see no engenderer of joy more potent than ceasing from self-indulgence; if this be accompanied by the purified awakening to the divine, Self, it will bestow on him kingly dominion over self. This is the door of the ever-young spirit of lasting liberation; therefore do thou, seeking what is beyond this world, ever follow after wisdom, in all things unallured, ever in the true Self, seeking the better way. Cut off hope from sensuous things which are as poison, for this is the cause of death; giving up concern for birth, family and stage of life, free thyself utterly from ritual seeking after reward. Cast away the delusion of selfhood in the things of the body; seek thou after wisdom in the true Self; for thou art the Seer, thou art other than the emotional mind, thou art in truth the partless Eternal. 32

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Over a period of time the idea of forming a new kind of advertising agency based on a high standard of morals has gradually dawned and I think it is now time to start the matter going by inviting people to discuss ways and means of going about it. For instance, some people may consider smoking to be harmful, others might consider alcohol to hinder the progress of man, another group may be concerned with the welfare of animals and others may believe that chemicalised food is causing the form of man to deteriorate, and yet others may concern themselves with the morals of advertising standards, and again more may be concerned with business ethics. All these types can come together under a common aim. The purpose would be to handle the advertising of products of a high moral and humane standard for the well-being of man which has not gone through the process of exploiting the animal kingdom to reach the consumer. In foodstuffs for example we would devote ourselves to advertising the products of the health food business with special emphasis on wholefoods and on vegan lines, and others which have not been devitalised and where there is no unnecessary use of chemicals. There must be hundreds of like-minded people in all manner of jobs and professions and in the vegetarian and health food world who would be interested in the principles of such an advertising agency. Would it not be possible for those who are interested in these high advertising principles to meet to discuss ideas and ways of eal into practice. Please contact: Philip Dawes, , Caversham, Reading. Comment on the Reith Lectures by Frank Fraser Darling I agree with Dr. Frank Fraser Darling that starch is a bad food for man. It is unattractive in its raw state and degraded in its cooked state. However, I do not agree that the natural food of man is flesh meat. Some tribes may be healthy on it, but keeping cattle tends to become an end in itself and is terribly destructive of the environment. For instance, take Kenya, there the cattle of the Masai tribe and the natural fauna of the forest are gradually destroying the forest. For political reasons, the elephants and not the cattle are slaughtered and made into pet food. Comparison with other species shows man to be most anatomically similar to the apes, which are naturally frugivorous, eating fruit and nuts, and only occasionally resorting to young tender vegetables or small animals such as eggs or grubs as food. (The gorilla is completely frugivorousâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Schaller.) Dr. Weston 33

Price found very healthy tribes in the South Sea Islands who ate animal foods only once in three months, when they ate shell fish. The exploitation of vertebrate animals, fish, birds and mammals as food for man consumes vast resources of the environment. Horses, used for transport, used to eat the crops grown on a quarter of the land. No motorway can compete with horses for land consumption. Four-fifths of the food produced by man is eaten by animals intended for human food, but much protein is lost in the process. To produce animal food, man carves up the landscape into large fields with no room for recreation or wilderness. How much more beautiful would be a landscape of orchards of fruit and nut trees. Modern technology has given us the opportunity to produce all the food, clothing and other things we need without the exploitation of animals. The phase of man's total dependence on animals for work, food, clothing and transport is at an end. Factory farming is unnecessary, and in the long run, all animal farming is uneconomic. (Animals need no longer be regarded as a crop to be cultivated and profited from, but as co-workers in maintaining our environment and restoring it where necessary, to harmony). The above excepted, I am extremely grateful to Dr. Frank Fraser Darling for giving to the listening public such a broad and deep message of love of the environment, and constructive ways to work for its conservation and renewal. FRANCES H O W A R D ( M R S . ) B.A.

Letter read out over the air on Sunday Listening Post 28.12.'69.



Edward Harvey passed away a few weeks ago at the age of 92. Many of the older people in the London Health food trade will remember him with respect and affection. He had been a vegetarian food reformer for over 50 years and was without question a ' character'. Completely unselfconscious and an eccentric, he had an ' impish ' sense of humour. A man of integrity he wanted little for himself, but he was helpful to all his friends in the trade. The writer spent many years with him helping to develop Mapleton's in its early days and we were in close touch for 45 years. Most people in the Vegan Society, and the old London Vegetarian Society and Vegetarian Social Club know his daughter Christina, who will continue to further the cause which her mother (who died some years ago) and father espoused. I for one will miss his forthright comments on people and affairs. They were never malicious and he could extract humour from the worst situations. EDWARD T . BANKS.


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" This little story may interest you and be useful. It was not until I was 50 that I was persuaded to become confirmed in the Anglican church. A dear old friend of mine, had urged me for a long time to become confirmed which I did and I must admit it was partly to please him. The following Sunday I drove him to church and it was a great pleasure to him that he was going to give me my first Communion but when his wife handed him a piece of bread to put in a tin box which he was taking for Communion I asked him if there was any fat in the bread and he said, ' Well, my wife got it at the shop so 1 am afraid there may be '. ' Well,' I said, ' I regret I cannot take Communion this morning'. But he said, ' I t is infinitesimal, the tiny portion of fat they will have put in this piece of bread '. ' Well,' I said, ' It is either vegan or it is n o t ' . So the next Sunday 1 went to church again and 1 took a piece of brown Hovis in my pocket and all the congregation took Hovis bread for their Communion that Sunday. I do feel we must be very strictâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;we are either vegan or we are not vegan." A L F R E D BRJSCO,

The Home of Rest for Horses, Carlisle. [Although not mentioned in the above letter, we know that Mr. Brisco had previously made enquiries from his baker about the kind of fat used in his bakery. Members should remember that, although Hovis flour is vegan, the bakers using it may add any kind of fat they choose.]




In 1968, 5,212,215 animals of all descriptions were used in experiments in British laboratories (this figure is calculated under the provisions of the Cruelty to Animals Act, 1876). For five years from 1964 to 1968, British laboratory vivisectionists used 23,828,908 animals in experiments, which is less than half the estimated experiments made on these creatures in the United States of America for last year alone. In comparison, our country is many times smaller and we have lawsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;scanty as they may beâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;for a degree of protection to animals. America has no such legislation. It need not be stressed enough that the Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876 is a little out of date, but then that is not abnormal when one considers that most laws in this country are archaic. There are apparently no figures available for the number of animals used in laboratory experiments in other countries. The United Kingdom is the only country which publishes official Returns. But I will hazard a guess and put the present world-wide use of animals in experiments at 500,000,000 per year. And I do not think that this estimate is far out. 36


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A New Profile for an Established Organisation In November, 1969, the organisation * Promoters of Animal Welfare'—P.A.W. for short, changed its face—but not its character, to ' Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments '—FRAME, for immediate recognition. FRAME is now a Registered Cjbarity. It is futile to wage war on the vivisectionists if we cannot offer them an alternative to the laboratory animal. When we do find alternatiyes, as is the task of FRAME to collect and inform, then our yoices will carry more weight. To quote an extract from a letter from one of the Trustees of FRAME: " The subject of replacements for animals iij medical experiments is so highly technical that it is clear no lay society is ^capable of handling so important a ^natter. Whilsjt jyp .axe expertly advised by scientists who help us in their spare time, in view of the growing interest, we are in urgent need of funds in prefer to be able to employ" some professional help as soon as possible and it will be our purpose to work as closely as we can' with the scientists. It stands to reason that only with the full ,co-operation of the researchers th.e19se.lyes wijl ,the .alternatives .adopted with the least amount of vdejay." Their task is immense, is it not! A Few Alternative Techniques It will be interesting to quo.te extracts from one of their leaflets: — " Tissue, Cell and Organ jCulturfi-. These cultures can be put to many uses in medical research and SLre pi particular value in Toxicology and Immunology where the majority .of animals are at present used. Other areas in which they are well suited for application are in Cancer research, Genetics, Embryology, Pharmacology, Endocrinology, Pathology, Virology and Radiobiology. Gas Chromatography. This is an important method for detecting minute traces of drugs in humans with complete safety, eliminating ,the need for animal studies. Lower Organisms. These organisms also have their uses in the screening of drugs for side effects and in nutritional studies. Anaesthetics. ;Satisfactor.y alternatives to animals may soon be available for testing purposes in the form of robots instrumented in the head and chest. -Even a ' lump of dough ' could have its uses in ithese situdies. ' Dummies'. With .anatomical features and simulated flesh and muscle structures (these can now replace animals in carcrash studies. Oestrogens. Tfrese- cap ibe produced from human urine and placentae which make :it l quite unnecessary to obtain these hormones from animal sources. 38

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Virus Identification. A relatively new technique has been developed which, does not directly require animals in order to test the suspect viruses. It is hoped eventually that animals will be dispensed with altogether in these tests." There are many other examples listed; some of the new methods have been known for a number of years and others are relatively new. Other Countries Their leaflet ' Is the Laboratory Animal Obsolete' is contlnu- ously under review and has been translated into various languages and widely circulated throughout the world. Some of those countries include France, Germany, Italy, India, Australia, Canada. Japan and the U.S.A. It is evident that FRAME is filling the very important gap that other animal welfare societies have left open. From their November report: " . . . we would hope for support from the Animal Welfare Societies whom we would like to regard our Fund as supplementary to their own efforts rather than in a competitive light." There is a great stimulus throughout the world forcing mankind to become conscious of himself and his surroundings, it shows itself in many lights and in many profiles. FRAME is but one of these organisations resulting from this esoteric stimulation in order to prepare humanity for the new age. A Fitting Ending It will be appropriate to finish with an extract from their letter: " . . . our Fund is unique in that it was established for the benefit of both humans and animals alike and we shall be emphasising the benefits that will be derived to the human race as a result of the early adoption of the substitutes." JOHN JAMES.

MORE SUSPICIONS OVER COW'S MILK More than 2,000 babies die each year in England and Wales of a baffling complaint. It usually claims babies of under 6 months, who die in their cots during the night, after they have been bottle-fed. They show few symptoms of illness at feedingtime. Research in the U.K. and U.S.A. has drawn a blank over the cause, and Professor Camps, professor of forensic medicine at the London Hospital, has called a meeting in April at Cambridge to review the situation. Cow's milk is under suspicion, and Professor R. Coombs, of Cambridge, is intensifying his research on this theory. Cotdeaths give another hint of the advantages of breast-feeding and of the doubts that attend the administration of cow's milk to babies. A l a n LonG) 12th Feb., 1970. 40

••r~ •.-.•.-




Terms: Cash with Order to Mr. P. Dawes, 10 Derby Road, Caversham, Reading, Berks. (Ad. per word: minimum 5/- per insertion; 10% discount on four consecutive issues.) A CALL TO ALL commercial artists and those who are interested in furthering the ethics of health through and within the advertising world, who are vegan, vegetarian and health food conscious, with a view to forming an advertising studio/age asis of these principles. Please contact: Philip Dawes, , Caversham, Reading. BRITISH VEGETARIAN YOUTH MOVEMENT. An organisation for people 12—35. Social gatherings, holidays, monthly magazine, etc., organised. Further particulars from Secretary, B.V.Y.M., c / o The Vegetarian Society (U.K.) Ltd., 53 Marloes Road, London, W.8. CHILD OF EARTH—a selection post free from: Jenny Gage,

oems. Illustrated. 3/6d. Axminster, Devon.

GENTLEMAN, 52, vegan, will require one week's full board during next twelve months Course) Southend or Westcliff-onSea. A. J. Pettitt, Bromley, Kent. HEALTH through NATURAL HYGIENE. Are you interested in Health achieved naturally and without the exploitation of other human beings and animals? Natural Hygiene is a system of health preservation and restoration which meets these requirements. For literatu to: The Secretary, British Nat. Hygiene Soc., Norwich. Norfolk. HEALTHTWAYS HEALTH FOOD SHOP, Lower Ground Floor, Chiesmans Ltd., Lewisham, S.E.13 (Tel.: 01-852 4321, Ext. 111). Nutrition without Cruelty—wholesome vegetarian and vegan foods; Science without Cruelty—harmless herbal remedies; Beauty without Cruelty—exotic perfumes, soaps and cosmetics. Wide range of health books. Ofreta Healing Oil, a unique combination of natural oils, wonderfully penetrating in the relief of sprains, burns, rheumatism, bronchitis, etc. 3/6d. and 6/9d. plus l/6d. postage. Plantmilk, nuts, seeds and grains a speciality. Compost-grown produce as available. Stone-ground wholewheat flour, bread and cakes. V.C.A. Member. KINDRED SOUL is a remarkable book which no progressive person can afford to be without. It reveals the eternal truths of naturalism and conservation—man's most powerful weapon against ignorance, superstition, and the subtle evils of civilisation. In an inspiring way it mends the broken link between man and his true heritage. Send $4.00 or 25/- to Essence of Health, P.O. Box 2821, Durban, South Africa. Other publications available on request. THE COMPASSIONATE DOCTRINE OF AHIMSA is stressed in the monthly publication "AHIMSA" (nan-killing, harmlessness). Full year, 10s. in British stamps or coins. THE AMERICAN VEGAN SOCIETY, Malaga, N.J. 08328, U.S.A. VEGANIC GARDENING. COMPOSTING A N D NO-DIGGING. Grow your vegetables in the purest way known. POSTAL TUITION. S.A.E. for terms. Veganic Gardening, 4 Ainsdale Crescent, Reading, RG3 3NG. VEGFAM. Famine Relief by vegetable foodstuffs, crop irrigation, leafprotein processing—The Sanctuary, Lydford, Okehampton, Devon.

WORLD FORUM. The leading international Vegetarian quarterly. Edited by Mrs. Esme Wynne-Tyson. Advocates the vegetarian way of life for physical health and a true relationship between the human and creature kingdoms—without exploitation and crudty. 2/-, plus 6d. post per copy. 10/- per year, post free —H. H. GREAVES LTD., 106/110 Lordship Lane, London, S.E.22.

ESTABLISHMENTS CATERING FOR VEGANS BROOK LINN.—Callander, Perthshire. Vegetarian and Vegan meals carefully prepared and attractively served. Comfortable guest house. Near Trossachs and Western Highlands Mrs. Muriel Choffin. Callander 103 EASTBOURNE. Very good self-catering facilities ; single and double. Every comfort and convenience. Pleasantly situated outskirts of town. Easy access shops and sea front. P ace. Margaret Fisher, Edgehill Vegetarian Guest House, . Telephone: 30627 and 21084. V.C.A. Member. EDSTONE, WOOTTON WAWEN, WARWICKSHIRE (near Stratford-onAvon). Modern Nature Cure Resort and Guest House with every comfort, and compost-grown produce. (Phone: Claverdon 327.) LAKE DISTRICT Rothay Bank, Grasmere. Attractive guest house for invigorating, refreshing holidays.—Write Isabel lames. Tel.: 334. " WOODCOTE ", Lelant, St. Ives, Cornwall, is a high-class Vegetarian Food Reform Guest House in a warm and sheltered situation overlooking the Hayle Estuary. Composted vegetables; home-made wholewheat bread; vegans catered for knowledgeably. Mr. and Mrs. Woolfrey Tel.: Hayle 3147. Early bookings for Summer very advisable. WOTTON-UNDER-EDGE, GLOUCESTERSHIRE. Coombe Lodge is a Manor House set in a two-acre garden on the southern slopes of the Cotswold Hills, overlooking Coombe Valley, where most fruit and vegetables are home-grown. Demonstrations given of Vegan Cookery Apply Kathleen Keleny. Tel.: Wotton-under-Edge 3165.

Do you ever wonder " What is in it?" when purchasing Soup, Soap or Margarine? Don't ' hope for the best 1 in future, send for

THE VEGETARIAN AND VEGAN FOOD GUIDE WITH HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTS and know which are the humanely produced articles. This 40-page booklet lists hundreds of items conveniently grouped for quick reference. 2/6d. post free, from: THE SECRETARY, THE VEGAN SOCIETY, 82 Brightfield Road, London, S.E.12.

Printed bjr H. H.



106/110 Lordship Lane. East Dulwioh. London, S.E.22

The Vegan Spring 1970