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T H E VEGAN SOCIETY Founded November,


Veganism is a way of living which excludes all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, the animal kingdom, and includes a reverence and compassion for all life. It applies to the practice of living on the products of the plant kingdom to the exclusion of flesh, fish, fowl, eggs, honey, animal milk and its derivatives, and encourages the use of alternatives for all commodities derived wholly or in part from animals. Veganism remembers man's responsibilities to the earth and its resources and seeks to bring about a healthy soil and plant kingdom and a proper use of the materials of the earth. President: Dr. FREY E I . L I S , y. Deputy-President: Mrs. E . B. SHRIGLEY, 8 Old Coulsdon, Surrey. Vice-Presidents : Mrs. M U R I E L HENDERSON, Dr. CATHERINE N I M M O , Miss M A B E L SIMMONS, Miss W I N I F R E D SIMMONS, Mrs. EVA BATT, Mr. JACK SANDERSON.

Secretary Treas Librar

: Mrs.

London, S.E.I 2. whom all subscriptions should be sent), So N.14. 01-886 6408. Mr. W. H. C. WRIGHT, Enfield, Middlesex. LOUISE


Committee: M r . E. T . BANKS, M r s . E . BATT, M r . H . T . BONNIE, M r s . S. COLES, Mr. A. E L L I S , Dr. FREY E L L I S , Miss T. C . LARKIN, M r . I . SANDERSON, M r s . E . B . SHRIGLEY, M r s . G . SMITH, D r . F . W O K E S , M r . W . H . C. WRIGHT.

Minimum subscription, which includes " T h e Vegan", 15s. per annum (and 7s. 6d. for each additional member of one family at same residence); 7s. 6d. if age under 18; payable in January. Life Membership, £10 10s. Od.



The Editorial Board does not necessarily agree with opinions expressed by contributors to this magazine. Please send articles, classified advertisements and letters for publication to 123 Baker Street, Enfield, Middlesex. Advertisements must be in keeping with the principles of veganism, and the Publishers reserve the right t o refuse any advertisement, or cancel any order without explanation. Editorial Board: Mrs. E V A BATT, Mrs. SERENA C O L E S , Dr. FREY E L L I S . Editorial Adviser: Mr. JACK SANDERSON. Vega bution Secretary: Miss THELMA LARKIN, West Horndon, Brentwood, Essex. Advertisements : H. H. G R E A V E S LTD., 106/110 Lordship Lane, London, S.E.22. Rates: Whole page—£10 0s. 0d.; Half page—£6 0s 0d.; Quarter page—£3 10s. Od. Published quarterly: Annual Subscription, 10s.; single copies, 2s. 6d. plus postage. Obtainable from the Hon. Secretary.

LITERATURE " T h e Reasons for Veganism." 4 page leaflet. 3d. S.A.E. only. " Vegan Protein Nutrition." 12 page leaflet. Is. 3d. post free. " A Handbook of Practical Veganism." 24 pages with cover. 2s. 9d. post free. " T h e Vegetarian and Vegan Food Guide." 2s. 6d. post free. " T h e Vegan Kitchen " by Freya Dinshah. 5s. 6d. De luxe edition, 7s. 6d. post free. " Quick and Easy Menus " by K. Keleny. 2s. l i d . post free. " Vegan Recipes." A collection of members' favourites. 10 sheets, Is. 9d. post free. All obtainable from the Secretary. (Cheques and postal orders should be m a d e out to " The Vegan Society.")

THE Journal

VEGAN of the Vegan

VOL. 15, No. 1

Society SPRING, 1968

EDITORIAL P R O T E I N REQUIREMENTS " In chapter 5 it was pointed out that there is no evidence that any protein of , animal origin is, essential for man." (Human Nutrition and Dietetics (1966). Davidson and Passmore 3rd Edition, p. 228. A protein is a long chain of amino' acids which are joined together by peptide bonds. Twenty-one different amino acids are found in animal protein. In the human animal eight of these are termed essential as they cannot be synthesised in the body from the other amino acids. Provided the essential amino acids are present in the diet the remaining thirteen can be synthesised in the liver. These essential amino acids are, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. In infancy and childhood t w o . e x t r a amino acids histidine and arginine are regarded as essential. Proteins have very large molecules, the molecular weight of which varies between 6,000 and 1,300,000. Nutritionally proteins are assessed according to the amount of each essential amino acid they contain, and that amino acid which falls f u r t h e s t below the standard of reference protein is said to be the limiting amino for the protein in question. The limiting amino acid in wheat and millet is lysine and that in beans is methionine. If the diet contains both wheat and beans and provided sufficient of these are taken at the same meal, protein requirements will be adequate. A protein that contains all the essential amino acids in suitable proportions has a high biological value or is a high quality protein. " T h e B.M.A/ recomended that 10—14% of the total dietary calories should be derived from protein, and the F.A.O.* advised 0.5 g. per kg. of bodyweight for adults. However, stating..protein requirements as per-


centage of calories or g. per kg. body-weight is of doubtful value, unless reference is also made to the calorie content of the diet and the quality of the protein (since not all proteins are utilised to the same extent). It is useful to study protein requirement in terms of " .net dietary protein " - i.e., a hypothetical protein that is completely utilised. Net dietary protein calories percentage (N.D.P. cals. %) is an estimate of the calories supplied by the reference protein as a percentage of total calories. On this basis the calories and total-protein requirements for growth and maintenance in different groups 1 are as follows: — N.D.P.

Croup Men Women Pregnant women ... LactatLng women ... 1-year-olds 5-year-olds 15-year-olds

... ...

Calories 3,200 2,300 2,500 3,300 1,200 1,700 2,900


(g) 35 30 40 60 25 30 35

(cals. %) 4.4 5.2 6.4 7.3 8.3 7.1 4.7 (=)"

A man weighing 70 mg. will require about 35 gm. of good quality protein a day. One of the main arguments against a vegan diet is that protein requirements are not met. This is untrue as it has been shown that the protein content of vegan diets is adequate (5), (6).




= Ellis, F. R. Kurtha, A. N. Lancet, 1967, ii, 1418. Report of the B.M.A. Committee on Nutrition, London, 1950. ' F.A.O. Nutritional Study, No. 16. Rome, 1957. " Harding, M. G., Crookes, H., Stare, F. J. Am. diet. Ass., 1966. 48, 25. ° Ellis, F. R., Mumford, P. Proc. Nutr. See., 1967, 26, 205.


DIARY OF EVENTS Lectures Tuesday, March 19th, 7.30 p.m. Central Library Lecture Hall, Eastbourne. Sponsors: Eastbourne Natural Health Society. Speaker-. Mrs. Eva V. Batt, The Vegan Society. Subject: " Veganism in Practice." Wednesday, March 27th. Details from the Secretary, Mr. Wilson, Health Food Store, 23 North Street, Exeter. Sponsors: Exeter Vegetarian Society. Speaker: Mr. L. J. Cross, The Plantmilk Society. Subject: "Milk of Human Kindness." Wednesday, April 24th, 8.30 p.m. Girton College, Cambridge. Sponsors: Cambridge University Vegetarian Society. Speaker: Mrs. Eva V. Batt. Subject: " Why Vegetarians?" 2

Friday, April 26th, 8 p.m. Friends' Meeting House, Handside Lane, Wehvyn Garden City. Sponsors: Welwyn Garden City Vegetarian Society. Speaker: Mr. C. A. Ling, The Plantmilk Society. Subject : " Plamil, the dietetic Garden City." Thursday, May 2nd, 7.30 p.m. Details from the Secretary, Mr. J. N. Fallon, , Hedge End, Southampton. Sponsors: Southampton & District Vegetarian Society.  Speaker: Mrs. Eva V. Batt, The Vegan Society . • Subject: "Vegetarianism for Beginners." *


Monday, May 6th. Sponsors: Speaker: Subject:

Details from the Secretary, Mrs. C. Harley, Sheffield S 10, 4FA. Sheffield Vegetarian Society. Mr. L. J. Cross, The Plantmilk Society. " T h e Milk of Human Kindness."

Saturday, May 18th, 3 p.m. Friends' Meeting House, Rochester. Details from the Secretary, Doris E. Lamb, , Rainham, Gillingham, Kent. Sponsors: Medway Vegetarian Society. Speaker: Mrs. Eva V. Batt, The Vegan Society . Subject: " Rolling Down to Rio." Thursday, June 20th, 9.15 p.m. Attingham Park Conference. Details from Miss C. Hodgson, Inglesant, Church Stretton, Shropshire. Sponsors: The Catholic Study Circle for Animal Welfare. Speaker: Mrs. Eva V. Batt, The Vegan Society. Subject: " T h e Vegan Way of Life." GARDEN PARTY AND RAMBLE

Garden Party at Mr. and Mrs. Jannaway's House at Leatherhead, Surrey, at 3 p.m. on June (Sunday), 1968.


Those going by train. Go to Leatherhead station. On leaving station, go to town centre, taking the Dorking Road to the Old Parish Church. Go to churchyard on the garage side; where the churchyard ends, Highlands Road begins. Those wishing to have a short ramble at Box Hill (bringing a picnic lunch for consuming on Box Hill), should meet at 12 o'clock at Burford Bridge Hotel, which is easily reached from Box Hill Station. A member of the Jannaway family will be waiting and lead the ramble, being back in time for the Garden Party. By the way, Burford Bridge Hotel has many interesting associations, e.g., the poet Keats is said to have written his " Ode to a Nightingale " there. 3

A N N U A L GENERAL MEETING (A hitch occurred at the Hall door, which was found closed in spite of the fact that the Secretary had been assured that the Hall would be open from 11 a.m. as the caretaker was going to see the Lord Mayor's show. It was possible that a self-locking device was responsible for the delay, but caretaker and key turned up at the last minute). ' The 23rd Annual General Meeting of this Society was held on Saturday, November 11th, 1967, at St. Olaf's Hall, London, E.C.3. The meeting began at 3.25 p.m. Thirty members attended. In the Chair: Dr. F. R. Ellis. In opening the meeting, the Chairman apologised for the delay and for this reason kept his remarks very brief. After welcoming the members present he explained that the change of hall was forced upon us due to the popularity of our usual meeting place, the Alliance Hall., He said we had booked the Alliance Hall for next year. Dr. Ellis told the members that to date about £15,000 from various sources had been granted for research into vegan nutrition and the relative health of vegans. The facts thus officially established would be invaluable in getting the vegan way of life recognised generally. The Minutes of the 1966 A.G.M. were read by Mrs. Grace Smith, and adopted. The Executive Committee's Report was then read by Mrs. Louise Davis. Mr. Mclntyre Smith asked that the sentence " W e are confident that Dr. Ellis will find a similar freedom from disease among vegans " should be deleted, as it gave the idea t h a t he was. prejudiced and not completely objective when beginning his research. Dr. Ellis agreed to the deletion rather than there should be any misunderstanding. Dr. Wokes expressed his pleasure at seeing so many vegans at the Annual General Meeting of the Vegetarian Nutritional Research Centre, and his thanks for the help our members have given on this and other occasions. He hoped this could be mentioned in the Annual Report. Treasurer's Report. • Mrs. Smith presented the Audited Balance Sheet for the past year and invited comments or questions. Members asked t h a t the item " Miscellaneous " be broken down into its various components next year, which it was agreed should be done. Mr. Mclntyre Smith asked whether the Income Tax refund on the covenants had been received. Mrs. Smith assured the members that the refund had been received, but after September 30th,' which would mean that this figure would appear in 1968 Balance Sheet. "The report was adopted. Election of Officers.and. Committee., Mr. Ling proposed that the number of committee members be reduced to eight but after 4

some general discussion it was thought advisable to - continue with the usual number of twelve, at least for another year. Mr. Hopkins asked that the attendance record for Committee meetings should be made available and Mr. Kelly supported this. After a very short discussion the meeting voted against the suggestion. The following were unanimously re-elected: — President, Dr. F. R. Ellis ; Deputy President, Mrs. E.- B. Shrigley; T r e a s u r e r ; Mrs. Grace Smith. Editorial Boad: Dr. Ellis, Mrs. S. Coles, Mrs. E. Batt. The eight remaining committee members were willing to serve again and five new nominations had been received. The latter were Mr. Angus Ellis, Mrs. J. Fugeman, Mr. C. Shilling, Mr. R. Mclntyre Smith and Dr. F. Wokes, all of whom had been duly proposed and seconded. This necessitated a vote and the following were elected or re-elected— Mr. Edward Banks, Mr. Harry Bonnie, Mr. Angus Ellis, Miss Thelma Larkin (Magazine Secretary), Mr. Jack Sanderson, Mrs. E. B. Shrigley, Dr. Frank Wokes, Mr. William Wright (Librarian). Scrutineers: Mr. H. Scholl, Miss C. Harvey. All Vice-Presidents remained the same, but it was the feeling of the meeting that Vice-Presidents be elected each year, in future. Apropos of this, Mr. Tester suggested that the committee draw up a clear plan of procedure for future meetings and it was agreed that this should be done and presented to the members at the next A.G.M. If agreed upon, it may be necessary to alter, or slightly add to, the Rules of the Society. 1 Motions. Mr. Kelly had given notice that he wished to read an indictment, and the Chairman invited him-to do so. Mr. Kelly said it would take thirty-one minutes to read, and the Chairman told him he could have five to ten minutes. Mr. Kelly would not do this, and the matter was put to vote by show of hands. Members voted t o let Mr. Kelly have five to ten' minutes, which Mr. Kelly refused to accept. The indictment was not read.' Next, the Chairman read Mr. Kelly's Motion which asked the meeting to' undertake that the Society would give help and publicity to any vegan community. Mrs. Batt and Mrs. Coles spoke against the Motion, pointing out that the.Society could not blindly give such an undertaking. The Society had to adhere to its status as a registered Charity and as one could not know in advance what the nature of any future community would be, each case would have to be decided on its merits. Mr. Kelly's motion was defeated. International Vegetarian Union. Miss Larkin told the meeting of her trials with regard to the proposed journey to India as 5

the delegate of the Society for the 1967 Congress of the l.V.U. The originally planned plane journey for delegates had had to be cancelled, and later efforts had been frustrated by the need for vaccination. Mr. Gunn-King kindly offered to step into the breach. He was already going as a delegate of the Vegetarian Youth Movement, and he would be willing to represent the Vegan Society. It was thought to be possible to travel unvaccinated with another airline not going on to the U.S.A. This offer was gratefully accepted. Any Other Business. Mr. Hopkins asked that the matter of committee attendances, previously discussed and voted on, should be re-opened, b u t the Chairman would not allow this. Mr. Mclntyre Smith said that every effort should be made to ensure t h a t our A.G.M. does not fall on the same day as another meeting o u r members would be likely to wish to attend. Mrs. Coles replied that, as halls have to be reserved ten to twelve m o n t h s in advance, this was very difficult, but we d o avoid such a clash if we can, and if we know which dates the other societies have booked. The business meeting then closed and refreshments were served, after which a number of informal discussions took place, some new members were introduced, and Mrs. K. Jannaway kindly offered the use of her garden in Surrey for an informal tea. This was accepted with thanks and a ramble and tea would be planned for next summer. A N N U A L REPORT Since our last A.G.M. at the Alliance Hall last year, we have had a stimulating and lively twelve months. The year began with leaflet distribution on behalf of World Animal Day. Mr. Potts f r o m New Cross. London, Mr. Crone in Bournemouth and Mr. Symes in Scotland all took part in this activity. Last November Mrs. Batt represented the Society on the panel of a Brains Trust, organised jointly by the Jewish Vegetarian Society and the Vegan Society. This was held at the Cora Hotel and gave ample opportunity to sponsor the advantages of veganism from the platform. The month also found many of us at the Animal Fair at the Royal Horticultural Halls, where we shared a stall with the Plamil Society, and had a grand opportunity to introduce veganism to people who had never heard of it but were disposed favourably towards our principles by the very fact of their interest in animal welfare. The May Meetings of the Vegetarian Societies were held in Birmingham this year, and our delegate was Mrs. Coles. She was happy to see quite a few vegans at the Meeting when she congratulated the Vegetarian Societies on the progress they had 6

made towards unification and said she looked forward to the day when the Vegetarian Societies would all unite with Vegan Societies. In June, a Garden Party at Mr. and Mrs. Fugeman's house provided a pleasant meeting place for London members, it was held by the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection, which allowed us to have a footwear and literature stall—a fact much appreciated. Also in June, quite a few vegans were able to attend the A.G.M. of the Vegetarian Nutritional Research Centre which was held, by kind permission, at the home of Drs. Gordon and Barbara Latto in Reading, and followed by a Garden Party. The weather was perfect, and the vegan refreshments were just what might be expected with Mrs. Mabel Cluer and family in charge. Vegetable milks were well represented and both Granogen and Plamil were introduced to everyone present. Altogether a most happy and encouraging occasion. In July, Mrs. Batt and Mrs. Coles did the vegan teas at the Beauty Without Cruelty Garden Party, which was attended by over three hundred people, quite a few of whom tasted Granogen " m i l k " for the first time. Most were agreeably surprised by its pleasant flavour. There too, we were allowed a literature stall and Mrs. Davis also had many interesting discussions with the visitors. Our librarian. Mr. Wright, spoke to the Southampton and District Vegetarian Society on " Vegan Children and Natural Health", and many vegans attended the tenth Anniversary Meetings of the British Natural Hygiene Society in August. We have to thank Mrs. Newman of the League Against Factory Farming for making room for our booklets and leaflets at several Sales in aid of this Society at her house in South East London, as well as at the " Autumn F a i r " at Bromley, and Mrs. Fugeman for putting leaflets announcing our Caxton Hall meeting in branch newsletters of the British Union of AntiVivisection, and also for announcing our meeting at their Lewisham film show. Finally, we had a public meeting at Caxton Hall on September 30th. when Dr. Wokes spoke on " Veganism and the World Food Problem ". The Chair was taken by Mr. W. Wright our Hon. Librarian. Dr. Wokes stressed the importance of producing proteins, economically and in large quantities and stated that the world cannot possibly provide all the protein needed by the. as yet. underdeveloped countries unless vegetable protein is used, and in such a way that all the essential amino acids are represented. Even then they cannot be used efficiently unless B,2 is also present. This vitamin occurs in seaweeds and yeast and some plants in very small quantities, but can now be cultured in the laboratory, without using animal products. It was refreshing to see so many young people using the 7

opportunity for questions after the talk, and satisfying to know that they got the best and fullest answers possible from the lecturer. The event also provided a get-together for vegans and wouldbe vegans, and we were pleased to greet our new members, Miss Hunnard and Mr. Campbell. The room, which seated thirty-five, was filled. Mr. Wright took along some samples of vegan shoes for men, (a problem only recently solved for most of us) which created considerable interest. Refreshments were available after the lecture and vegan literature and badges were on sale. Commodities Although first introduced in 1966, this year has seen our " ViVa " brand vegan shoes firmly established, although as Mrs. Batt has frequently reminded us, if we wish them to remain on the market we must support the venture by wearing them, and by sending for the excellent free " ViVa " booklet (which all our members in the U.K. have) to give to others. The range has been extended during the year and now includes men's shoes as well as several different designs in the ladies' styles and fittings. The new high quality poromeric materials, Corfam and Clarino are incorporated as well as the super comfortable Velvon. Also the number of Bata shops stocking " ViVa " shoes has increased and the British Bata Shoe Co. will supply direct from the factory if desired. A REMINDER Kindly make a note of the dates by which we must receive your letters and reports for inclusion in The Vegan. For the Spring issue—before February 1st. For the Summer issue—before May 1st. For the Autumn issue— before August 1st. For the Winter issue—before November 1st. Please do not leave your letter until the last day, avoid disappointment and help us by posting as early as possible. The Editors. An Extraordinary General Meeting will be held at 53 Marloes Road, London, W.8, at 7 p.m. on Monday, May 6th. The only business of the meeting will be to elect an auditor.

Owing to pressure of space, Mrs. Batt's " C o m m o d i t y and Footwear News " must be held over for this one issue, sorry. 8



New Delhi, Madras and Bombay, India November 18th to December 6th, 1967 I had the honour to represent The Vegan Society at the World Congress in place of Miss Thelma Larkin, who unfortunately was unable to attend. My total costs" soared to £390 due to vaccination problems, devaluation of the pound and an air strike, which made me most grateful for the financial aid from the Society and the lavish hospitality of our Indian hosts. I represented also the B.V.Y.M. and Vegfarn, which, with the inspection of town-planning projects and sightseeing made for a crowded programme. Ninety-five foreign delegates from fifteen countries attended the Congress in addition to Indian delegates. The Calcutta Session was cancelled due to political unrest. Vegans present were: Mr. G. J. Bacrents (Holland); Mr. H. ]. Dinshah (U.S.A.); the Rajkumar of Vezianagram ; Mr. D. C. Desai (Bulsar); several near-vegans of the Jain Sect and Professor Scott and Helen • Nearing (Main, U.S.A.). The Scotts have written many books and lectured and travelled the world extensively for. vegetarian and vegan causes. Prof. Scott Nearing was the Chairman of the Bombay meeting on December 6th; 1967, on the "Animal and Population.Explosion " on behalf of Mr. Desai. He was also on several panels at Business Sessions and at the International Vegetarian Writers' session in New Delhi. He and his wife are farmers on natural veganic methods and he is .an economist. ' . Veganism occasioned much surprise in India but enrolled sympathy with its aims. Most Indian vegetarians avoid eggs in their diet. After discussions on " setting " agents most will also avoid cheese, in future. Milk, curds, Yoghurt and butter (ghee) are used extensively though, the latter for frying The cow is revered in the Hindu faiith and forages at will. Perhaps when the incidence of coronary thrombosis is related to the intake of these super-saturated fats and the death rate amongst the wealthier Indian vegetarians, more attention will be paid to veganism. The Congress, was was inaugurated at New Delhi on the evening of Saturday, November 18th, by His Holiness the Dalai Lama (recently turned vegetarian) and the Deputy Prime Minister of India (Shri.M. Desai), a staunch vegetarian. A large open-air Vegetarian Fair and Cookery Exhibition was inaugurated by the Minister of State for Food and Agriculture the following day and it was possible t o sample chapattis, puras, samosas, etc. (fried in groundnut oil). 9

During the New Delhi Session there were two morning business meetings at which veganism was discussed and compared with vegetarian and flesh-eating in relation to the land it could save. I gave the' aims of the Vegan Society and Mr. Dinshah discussed " Ahimsa," The American Vegan Society and Natural Hygiene. General concern was expressed by the delegates at the amounts of refined white sugar, flour, and polished rice consumed by Indian vegetarians. It was noted also that artificially preserved and coloured jams, synthetic drinks, etc., were used on a wide scale in a country where wonderful fruits such as mangoes, papayas, guavas, custard apples and bananas are abundant. Large artificial fertilizer and pesticide works were being built unfortunately, instead of the intensive use of natural composting being advocated. Vegfam was publicised as an alternative to Oxfam in the provision of high-protein nuts, pulses, and seeds for famine-stricken areas rather than the introduction of alien tinned foods. Plant milks, soya bean products, ground nuts, millet and natural rice together with more raw vegetables and fruits were advocated by myself and Mr. Dinshah at this and subsequent Business Meetings at Madras and Bombay. W e were both elected to the Executive Committee of the International Vegetarian Union at the last meeting which may be useful for the vegan cause ultimately. Vegan issues both in nutrition and the saving of land were discussed at both Youth Sessions at Madras and Bombay Universities. The vegan way of life was extolled at the inaugurations of the Madras and Bombay Sessions. Miss Patching and I had the good fortune to meet Mrs. Indira Gandhi (Prime Minister) to hand over copies of The Vegan magazine amongst others. Delegates enjoyed delicious open-air evening bouquets at all sessions and had many fine lunches provided by their Indian hosts. Three-day Food Exhibitions were held at both Madras and Bombay and I was pleased to be one of the judges at the former. Many of the typical (Thali) meals shown were partly composed of vegetable waste products of high nutritional value for cheap, well-balanced meals to avoid the famine level. M y sight-seeing at Delhi included a Buddhist Temple ; Nehru's residence ; the Buddha Gardens (having natural Indian shrubs and trees); the National Museum; the Red Fort with a " Son et Lumiere " show in the fine grounds ; and two private houses for Indian meals. The President (Dr. Zukir Husain) gave a reception at his palace. Bombay was reached on 2nd of December after a 635-mile flight over the Deccan Plateau. Sight-seeing included a sea trip to Elephanta Island to see temple sculptures in hillside caverns. W e also visited the Hanging Gardens ; the Nehru Park ; the International Tourist Fair ; the Museum and the Aquarium. Religious meetings were attended in a Jain Temple. A fine Hindu 10

film was seen called " Upkar," based on Indian country life. Although the Congress ended on 6th December, I was held up by a B.O.A.C. air strike and experienced the worst earth tremor in Bombay's memory, on a fourth floor. It was followed by forty more tremors in the following two days. We all came back with gifts of mementos from all sessions, also films, literature, and memories of the fine hospitality of our Indian hosts. It was a memorable Congress which saw the establishment of the Indian Vegetarian Youth Organisation on a large scale and it is hoped that the resolutions passed will have a far-reaching and favourable impact on the Government. The 20th Congress will be held in Israel in November, 1969. B. J. GUNN-KING, Dip.T.P. (Nottm.), A.M.T.P.I., F.R.H.S., M.R.S.H.





Unfortunately there is not space to give a full report of the above function but the panel consisted of Dr. Douglas Latto, Mrs. Joyce (Rupert) Davies, Mr. W. Fliess, a Rabbi, a Naturopath and Mr. Pick in the Chair. The meeting was very well attended and obviously there is a need for the type of gathering as the questions were many and varied. Mrs. Davies assured the audience that, providing the parents believed in what they .were doing, there was no difficulty in bringing up children as vegetarians. (This answer would apply the the upbringing of vegan children as well). She added that when entertaining there is no need to tell guests what they are eating and if they are interested, they will ask you ; if not, they are not interested. Dr. Latto spoke about vitamin B, 2 and, concerning vaccination, reminded us that smallpox had disappeared because oi our sanitary engineers and not because of our doctors. Factory farming was discussed and the unhealthy state of the creatures being raised in this way. We were pleased to hear that the " Beauty Without Cruelty " stall once again attracted a great deal of interest. Members will be interested to learn that the book, Crimes Against Creation by Marie Dreyfus is now available from the secretary at the reduced price of one guinea. We sincerely hope that all our readers will take every opportunity to make this work known in any way possible. Is there a copy in your local lending library?—If not, why not introduce it to the Librarian ? 13



Americans are well known for their love of statistics, and Guy Murchie, writing in the " D i p l o m a t " magazine, gives some facts about trees which may not be familiar to everybody. The longevity of the redwoods is well known, but Murchie tells of a " b a l d " cypress at Tule, near Oaxaca, Mexico, the age of which is estimated at 5,000 years. While it is only 110 feet high, it is 108 feet round its fluted trunk at breast height, and more at ground level. The banyan spreads by dropping roots from its branches, which grow into new pillars, until the whole looks like a dense grove. One of the world's most famous banyans is in India, and is supposed to have been reported by Nearchos, the admiral of Alexander the Great. It has a mother trunk of 43 feet in girth and has 246 offspring trunks. The whole organism covers more than an acre of ground, and it is said that a full brigade- of 7,000 soldiers could sit in its shade. Trees breathe through pores in their leaves at a regular rate, like animals, and the number of pores in a leaf may vary from a few hundred to a hundred thousand, according to its size and structure. A single leaf's daily requirement of carbon dioxide is equal to the volume in a column of air standing 150 feet upon its surface. Microscopic studies have revealed that the leaf is not only a breathing organ; it is an automatic food factory, full of tubes, retorts, chambers, valves and shutters, operated by countless thermostats, hygrostats, and other feed-back and catalytic controls. It is estimated that a good-sized elm has about 15 million leaves, with a superficial area, if spread out evenly, of about ten acres. Most- of the leaf's spongy green interior is air, and botanists have calculated that there are approximately fifty square feet of surface inside a leaf for every cubic inch of its bu|k. Thus, if the internal light-absorbing air-breathing surfaces of these fifteen million leaves were all unfolded they would cover some twentyrfive' square miles. T h e average tree in leaf is said to evaporate more than a hundred gallons of water daily. How does a tree raise such a vast quantity of water, often hundreds of feet, into the air? The force necessary to do this work is now believed to be vertical pressure differential inside the tree, a force that may exceed a quarter of a ton per square inch. In spring this force pushes the sap up the tree, but as soon as the leaves sprout and begin to consume, as well as evaporate, water, the negative pressure thus created pulls the sap from the roots at speeds that sometimes exceed two-thirds of an inch a second. An Indian botanist has discovered that in India the average plant grows about an inch a day with a slow pulsing motion, but the rate of some plants is much faster than this. For example,


bamboo tips have been reported to grow' as much as three feet in one day. Men serving in' Burma during the war sometimes had to hack their way through the jungle, only to discover that they were unable to return by the same route a week later because of the tremendous volume and stubbornness of the new shoots that had sprung up immediately the cutting stopped. Mr. Murchie instances the story of an army truck parked beside the road on a Tuesday morning during a monsoon, which could not be moved on the following Friday night, because, as the driver explained, it had been " bamboozled " by the bamboo, which in three and a half days had literally staked it down to the ground. While the tree is stretching its leafy arms towards heaven, its thirsty roots are driven downwards with a force strong enough to split boulders weighing tons. At the tip of each advancing thread of root is a cap, a sort of shovel or pointed shoe, made of tough bark-like self-lubricating material, which the root pushes ahead of itself, and replaces constantly by cell division inside, as the outside is worn away. The root-cap is the first of several specialized zones which, working together, enable the root to steer its zigzag or spiral course, skirting serious obstacles, groping for grips on the more congenial rocks, secreting powerful acids to dissolve the uncongenial ones, and generally heading down : wards in its search for water and minerals. The tree drinks in a deliberate manner, gripping and sucking at the same time with its billions of advancing root hairs, which bind it securely,, to the earth and daily add many miles to their total length. In fact, the root system as a whole is a reflection of the upper tree, the central taproot corresponding to the trunk, surrounded by great branchlike primaries often more outspread than their counterparts above, lesser secondaries, slim tertiaries, twiggy " o b l i q u e s " , and finally the threadlike capillaries that hold.the root hairs which correspond to the smallest veins in the leaves above. Many of us have experienced the benign influence of trees, and in some instances this influence is of a very practical nature. For example, the Gliricidia sepium of tropical America, while its leaves, seeds and roots are apparently poisonous to rodents, is so obviously helpful to neighbouring cacao and other crops, that it is widely known as " cacao mama ". Nevertheless, other trees appear to have a baneful effect, such as the black walnut, which excretes a' toxic chemical into the soil, and so stands alone, and the guayale of Mexico whose roots exude cinnamic acid sufficiently toxic to poison even its own seedlings. Does a tree have any kind of consciousness? The primeval belief that every tree had its own spirit lingers on in the attitude of old-time woodsmen in many parts of the world, who beg a tree's pardon before they chop it down. Modern science may yet prove that their superstitions are not so far-fetched after all. (Reprinted by kind permission of the author and " Trees.")


OF INTEREST T O VEGANS Plantmilk Limited — whose products are entirely vegan — announced in early February (i.e., prior to the Budget) its endeavour to hold current prices despite the effect of devaluation, increasing production costs: e.g., packaging, cleaning and other materials having risen in cost. The Company is keenly aware, and appreciative of, its support by vegans ; and the major consideration in its decision to try to hold prices has been the effect any price increase would have on the weekly household budget of the many vegans who purchase several cans of Plamil at a time. Unfortunately, Plantmilk Ltd. works at a disadvantage in that although its main line—Plamil plantmilk—is a vegan alternative t o cow's milk, it does not receive any Government subsidies such as the dairy industry enjoys. The Company hopes, however, t h a t its steadily increasing growth may enable it to absorb the higher production costs, although it is naturally having to review the position from time to time, especially in the light of f u r t h e r increases it is likely to encounter with, e.g., vegetable oil, cans, fuel. Exports. Plamil exports have been made to Belgium, Holland, South Africa ; and negotiations are in hand with a number of prospective importers in different countries. Labelling regulations are solely responsible for the hold-up in supplies reaching Canada and U.S.A. Health Stores. In the home markets, supplies of Plamil products are available anywhere in the country. If any vegan should experience any difficulty in obtaining supplies, and will write to the Company, every endeavour will be made to overcome any breakdown in deliveries, between the Health Food stockist and distributor concerned. In theory such difficulties should not exist, but the Company is aware of " handling" problems which arise in the trade—outside its control—and it will do its best to smooth them out if they are reporteed to Plantmilk Ltd. Restaurants. Vegetarian restaurants are now stocking Plamil lines, e.g., in the London area: Country-life, Ludgate Circus; Vega, Leicester Square; Raw Deal, York Street, W . l ; Cranks, W . l ; and Nature Cure Clinic Restaurant, Oldbury Place, W.l.

" Though boys throw stones at frogs in sport, the frogs do n o t die in s p o r t ; they die in earnest." PLUTARCH. 14

POINT A N D COUNTERPOINT " I cannot find a vegan ' Digestive Biscuit' either to buy or make. Perhaps you have got a recipe? " DIGESTIVE BISCUITS

3 oz: medium oatmeal Pinch of salt 3 oz. 81% extraction flour, 1 teaspoon Agar-Agar (disS.R. solved in one dessertspoon 2 oz. 100% wholemeal flour cold water) i} oz. raw Barbados sugar 1 dessertspoon soya flour 3 oz. vegan margarine METHOD: Cream the margarine and sugar, add all other ingredients, form into a pliable dough. Sprinkle the pastry board with oatmeal or 100% wholemeal flour, roll mixture out to about one-eighth of an inch. Cut into round shapes with a 2\ in. metal biscuit cutter. Bake for 15—17 minutes at Regulo No. 4 or 350°F. on a greased tray. Cool slightly before lifting with a broad knife, cool completely on a wire tray before storing in a tin.

" / would like a recipe for an Apple Tart with the minimum of pastry and the maximum of fruit, and nice enough to please non-vegans visitors." " A P P L E S GALORE " TART

8 oz. 81% extraction pastry flour 4 oz. vegan margarine 1 dessertsp. Barbados sugar For first filling: 2 lbs. cooking apples 2 oz. raw Barbados sugar 2 or 3 cloves Piece of fresh lemon rind

Pinch of salt Pinch of cinnamon 3 tablespoons made-up vegan milk For upper filling : 3 eating apples Half-a-pint apple liquid made from stewed skins of all apples used A little sugar For the topping : 2 teaspoons agar-agar or 4 teaspoons arrowroot

METHOD : Make pastry in the usual way, using rubbing-in method, put into 10 in. flan ring. Prick with fork and put into a cool place while preparing first filling. Stew the cooking apples with the ingredients as given, in a little w a t e r ; when cooked remove cloves and lemon skin, make smooth with a fork. Fill pastry flan with cooled apple mixture.


C u t eating apples into thin slices and arrange on top of flan. Start at outer edge and work towards the centre, placing the slices in circles. Place flan into oven at Regulo 6 or 400°F., bake for 40 minutes. While the pie is cooking, put all apple peelings into a saucepan with enough water just to cover them, add a piece of lemon rind. Let it simmer till pie is cooked. While the latter is cooling, take half-a-pint of the apple juice.and thicken with four level teaspoons of arrowroot (dissolved in a little water), or sprinkle two teaspoons of agar-agar into the simmering juice and cook gently for two minutes. . Cool a little, then spoon carefully over the whole area of apple flan. Slide pie from baking tray on cake plate. If liked, serve with a level dessertspoon of whipped nutcream on each portion. " Every Spring we put up several non-vegan visitors for family anniversaries. While I ivas an Associate member only I did not mind getting non-vegan food for them.. Note, however, 1 am a full member and the thought of catering as usual for them is repulsive to me. Have you any suggestions for pleasing my friends as well as my palate and principles 7" I think we can take this particular hurdle by remembering t h a t N a t u r e is fond of repeating patterns in different realms: e.g., cooked sesame seeds look exactly like hard fish roes, marrows and aubergines when sliced lengthwise have a similar shape to fillets of fish. Not only that, but when cooked in batter or milkand-breadcrumbs or vegan milk and seasoned flour, their texture is similar, and so is their skin in appearance. Likewise, mashed potatoes with round almonds and a little soya flour can be given the round shape of cheese-and-potato or fishcakes. The Sunday N u t Roast can have roast potatoes and roast parsnips, packed around it to please your friends as well as yourself, and chips with vegetable patties, and a fresh salad one day will do no harm. R e the fried and " Something-on-Toast "—fry steamed sesame seeds with onions and tomatoes for the fishroe-lovers, and give fried mushrooms with onions and tomatoes to the others. Instead of beefburgers, the usual nut, or other rissoles can be given a flat round shape, and for " something to nibble " you might like the following recipe: — NUT


4 ozs. Sultanas ^ lb. sugar. Less if you do not 4 ozs. Walnuts like things too sweet 1 oz Vegan fat—nutter or 4 ozs Almonds margarine 2 to 4 ozs. Hazel nuts. 3 ozs. dessicated'coconut . METHOD: Dissolve sugar in a clean frying pan using water. T h e dissolved solution should be like a thin gravy. Add about


1. oz. fat and let it boil on very low heat for about two minutes. After washing sultanas, mix all the fruit and nuts separately. Add all the nuts and sultanas to the frying pan and stir until properly mixed. Switch off the heat. Transfer the mixture on to a plate which should be greased with a very small amount of fat. Remember, too much fat may spoil it because almonds release some oil when heated. Sprinkle with dessicated coconut while the cluster is still hot. This makes a deliciously different sweet which has all the qualities of Crunchy, Bounty or Picnic and really tastes superb. R . K . SETHI.

" 1 don't see how vegans can have good hot dinners," wrote one of our correspondents recently. In case there may be others who are similarly puzzled about how to provide hot, tasty main meals, we include a couple of " F a m i l y Favourites" which are enjoyed equally by our non-vegetarian friends. CAULIFLOWER CASSEROLE

... I head cauliflower teaspoon salt 4 oz. fresh mushrooms teaspoon paprika ] 2 cup water cups milk (Plamil or \ small onion finely minced Granogen) 6 tablespoons margarine £ cup coarse dry 4 tablespoons flour breadcrumbs METHOD: Wash cauliflower and break into flowerets. Cook, covered, in small amount of boiling, salted water until t e n d e r ten to twelve minutes. Drain. Wash mushrooms well and slice caps and stems together lengthwise. Simmer in \ cup water for ten minutes; drain mushrooms, saving £ cup liquid. Saute onion and mushrooms iri margarine until golden brown. Stir in flour, salt, paprika, milk and mushroom liquid. Cook over low heat until mixture bubbles. Arrange cauliflower in casserole; cover with mushroom sauce. Sprinkle with crumbs, dot with margarine, and bake 350° F. Regulo 4 for thirty minutes. STUFFED MARROW OR AUBERGINE

(For four people) oz. lentils 1 tablespoon oil small onion 1 oz. fresh breadcrumbs teaspoon dried sage 1 teaspoon lemon juice teaspoon Gelozone or (optional) Agar Seasoning METHOD: Cut four thick (about one inch) slices from the centre of a fairly large marrow. Wash but do not peel. Bake in well oiled tin for \ hour at 300 p (covered with greasepaper). Alternatively a small marrow can be cut through the centre lengthways. In both cases remove centre pips, of course. 4 .1 £ I


While baking: Wash and cook the lentils and onion chopped small in about ^ pint of water. Use a covered saucepan but stir from time to time. Add more water- if necessary. Should be just " r u n n y " when cooked. Dissolve Gelozone in a little water and add to mixture with the breadcrumbs, herbs, seasoning and oil. Fill partly cooked marrow with the stuffing and return to oven for another £ hour. Cook without the paper this time. T o brown it may be necessary to raise the heat for the last ten minutes. Publicity O u r member Miss Barbara Edwards had two letters read on the B.B.C., one on April 27th and 28th on the programme "Any Questions " in connection with hunting, and one on July 22nd in the Home Service programme " Home This Afternoon " in connection with vivisection. We then had an advertisement in " To-day's Food "—thanks to the generosity of the editor Mr. Ed ward y—and received one hundred and fifty replies straight away, followed by a thin but regular trickle right up to the present month, following in the wake of the paper's journey round the world. Blood Donors Committee member Harrie Bonnie has succeeded in making arrangements for vegan blood donors to be separately listed in the National Blood Transfusion Service. Athletics Jack McClelland again made history by being the first person to swim the twenty miles, against the tide water of Belfast Lough, from Queen Elizabeth's Bridge, Belfast, to Pickle Pool, Bangor, Ireland. He accomplished this feat in nine hours. Medicine and Research The article on vitamin B, o by Drs. Ellis and Wokes was translated and made available to people in Holland by our very active member, Mr. Kramer, and led to several people there learning about veganism and becoming members or subscribers to the magazine. Many vegans present at the July Meetings of the Science Council of the International Vegetarian Union (S.C.I.V.U.) were indirectly re-assured of vegan principles by the great amount of time which was spent on discussing the importance of plant foods. T h a t protein, energy, minerals and vitamins should be obtained in abundance from plants was endorsed by many of the scientists attending. The intention of S.C.I.V.U. to publish a journal dealing with plant foods, jointly with the Vegetarian Nutritional Research Centre, again emphasised the increasing recognition of plants as a solution to the world food problem. 18

Our President, Dr. Ellis, has received a grant from the Lawsoo Tait Memorial Trust, to investigate the incidence of disease in vegans and a control-group of meat-eaters. In connection with this you may remember that a number of years ago, a meat-eating religious order and the 7th Day Adventists, who are vegetarians, were investigated about this very subject and that the 7th Day Adventists were found to be healthier in every respect. One factor is generally forgotten, namely that people often come to veganism in order to cure something they have been unable to cure otherwise, and that later remnants of the disease, often partially cured, are laid at the doors of veganism. In this connection, we would like to quote the letter from our member, Mr. Richard Newton of Warwickshire, who writes: — " After being a vegan for over ten years, I find that any ' incidence of disease' has, in my case, quite failed to manifest itself. On the contrary, I am healthy, active and happy." Let us look forward confidently to receiving similar letters in ten years' time from all our sixty-four new members and ten new subscribers. " Where can vegans and their families go for holidays ? " In addition to the establishments listed on the back cover of this journal, there are the following addresses: — "Ahimsa," 72 llsham Road, Torquay, S. Devon. Tel.: 27019. Proprietors, Mr. and Mrs. Crocker. Medhope Grove Guest House, Tintern, Monmouthshire. Tel.: 253. Mr. and Mrs. H. Wood. Dorrny House, Tekels Park Guest House, Camberley, Surrey. Tel.: OER 66 3723. " Sandy Point," Esplanade, Frinton-on-Sea, Essex. Tel.: Frinton 691. Mr. and- Mrs. Vezza. Sharuna Hotel, 107 Great Russell Street, London, W.C.I. Tel.: LANgham 997. . Millwood House, International Vegetarian Hostel, 31 St. Charles Square. London, W.10. Mrs. and Mrs. M. Black. L.D. " Look at man's treatment of animals. The wild creature still moans through bitter nights of suffering in the steel trap set by money-seeking traders, dead in heart and conscience, who fatten and flourish out of satisfying the passion of silly women to wear furs. The poor stag is still torn, shrieking, limb from limb by a pack of hounds for the amusement of a handful of depraved men and women. Vivisection is still widely—nay, increasingly-— practised, although it is of dubious utility and ethically objectionable. And there flourishes still the slaughterhouse, casting its silent but grim shadow over the fair face of even the sunniest land." From an article in The Freethinker. G. I. BENNETT. 19

WELFARE MILK W e are glad suggestion that vision be made vegetable milk. for itself: —

to see that another member has taken up the vegans write to the Ministry asking that prowhereby welfare milk coupons can be used for W e reproduce the correspondence which speaks

To the Vegan Society. Dear Friends, In his article " A Toast to the Future," Mr. C. A. Ling raised the question of the Welfare Subsidy on cow's milk for expectant mothers and children under five years. Because it is relevant I enclose the correspondence I had with the Ministry of Health on this topic. I have little doubt that their reply is firmly based on existing legislation, but do feel, with Mr. Ling, that something ought to be done about it. Fairminded non-vegetarian friends agree that the present state of affairs is unjust. W e can ill-afford to sacrifice what amounts to 7 / - per week in " welfare " tokens ; but at the same time of course we wouldn't take cow's milk again at any price! , Oxford.



To the Ministry of Social Security, Tyndale House, Cowley Road, Oxford. Dear Sir, I am the holder of welfare milk tokens on behalf of my two children aged three and four years, but as we are now vegans from conscientious conviction we consume no-animal foods and are therefore unable to use the tokens for the purchase of cow's milk. W e use instead one or other of the proprietary brands of plant milk which are'nutritionally comparable yet ethically unquestionable. The only disadvantage is that they are, so far, m o r e expensive and therefore we feel all the more need for whatever State assistance is available. I would thus be much obliged if you would explain what provision is made for the exchange of these tokens for plant milk in lieu of animal milk by vegetarians such as ourselves. Also of relevance is the fact that one of our children was visibly allergic to fresh cow's milk and unable to take it even before it became morally, suspect to us. I enclose for your information a leaflet entitled " The Reasons for Veganism " and another leaflet describing " Plamil," a liquid plant milk, the others being obtainable in powdered FORM




Letter from the Ministry of Health, Elephant and Castle, London, S.E.I. WELFARE FOOD SERVICE

Dear Mrs. Fowler, Your letter of 11th August, about the supply of plant milk has been passed to this Department as we have overall responsibility for the Welfare Foods Service. The Welfare Foods (Great Britain) Order, 1954, makes provision only for the supply of liquid cow's milk as sold by milk retailers of National Dried Milk in exchange for Welfare Milk tokens. It is not possible therefore for arrangements to be made for tokens to be used for cow's milk substitutes. Yours faithfuly, etc. [We agree that it may not be possible without an amendm e n t to the 1954 Order, and the person to write to about this is your M.P.—ED.]. LETTERS




1 was very interested in your Editorial in the W i n t e r issue of The Vegan. I wonder if you could give a short list of famous Vegans ranging from the time of Apollonius of Tyana, as mentioned in your Editorial, to the present day. I am sure just a short list of famous people, who really lived according to Vegan ideals, would be of interest to many of your readers. L o n d o n , N.16.







[It will be appreciated that even a short list of famous men who were practising vegans will require considerable research. One difficulty is establishing t h a t a person was actually a vegan and not merely preaching veganism because he was convinced of the general superiority and ethical soundness of this way of living. Until recently the word veganism was loosely used to include vegans and l a c t o / o v o / v e g e t a r i a n s and even now that a distinction can be made there are still vegans who call themselves vegetarians (as they have every right t o do for that is w h a t they are) although they use n o dairy or other animal products. Perhaps some of our readers may know whether such a list as Mr. Leverton asks for has already been compiled? W e shall be. glad to hear from you.—ED.]. W h a t a joy to hear Aldabra Island in the Seychelles G r o u p of Islands has been saved and not turned i n t o a military base. So many islands have been completely ruined for the bird and animal population who inhabit thenv—clearing of woodland—mining for Guano—tourists resorts—military bases or research. 21

Aldabra has no attractions for man, except military purposes, very little water, fearsome beaches, high cliffs instead of the usual coral sands, thick scrub, hardly any landing places. The Frigate birds of the entire Indian Ocean breed here. The white throated orange coloured Aldabra Rail, full of gentleness and curiosity, also completely flightless, would soon become extinct with men, cats and dogs about. Cannot we leave this island entirely to the large communities of animals, birds, fish and insects, whose true home it is for all time. They all come under the British flag, let us treat them with great respect. KENNETH FORD SMITH.

How I sympathise with Mr. Matthew's difficulties as a beginner to our way of life but, take heart—" Practice makes perfect." Fortunately, I have learned to live without the use of milk in tea or coffee but-1 have noticed that an increasing number of people appear to have these black without being involved in any principle so I think that, on that score, he will not be any different or awkward when with friends. I know of some vegans who carry a small bottle of Plamil or Granogen around with them and tip it into the black ooffee. If I want a snack meal I usually ask for tomatoes on dry toast. Of course, it is not wholemeal bread, b u t I console myself that the unsavoury elements have been burnt o u t ! When desiring a h o t meal 1 generally ask whether nut or vegetable oil is used for cooking. This is not an unusual request these days now that so many people have been warned off animal fats on account of thrombosis. I find that most restaurants keep mushrooms these days and with peas and tomatoes, these with chips are quite a meal to convince any friends that we are not starving ourselves. Unless there is a plain fruit salad, I do not usually succeed in finding-a sweet but one can generally say that you prefer another drink in preference. It is n o t necessary to give our reasons unless we are with people who are sincerely seeking and thinking. Green salads are easy if we say we want one without egg, cheese or meat. W e will have to go without our protein but for one meal it won't hurt. I had a pleasant surprise at a small cafe the other evening, when the waitress informed me t h a t she attends the Caxton Hall meetings of the Fruitarian Society. I had ordered tne mushroom dish and was asking what kind of jelly was used. She then asked whether I was a vegetarian. It was encouraging to both of us to meet somebody who understands, so venture forth with courage. In this same cafe, about a year ago, there used to be a cook who hadbeen a Buddhist. Unfortunately, he was no longer a vegetarian b u t he was.pleased to meet my friend and me and was astonished to think that I had been a vegan for twenty years. We 22

do not know/what seeds we are sowing—we can only hope and P RA Y-


I can wholeheartedly sympathise with Mr. Matthews after reading his article in the Winter journal. I took my first holiday as a Vegan in October, and spent two weeks of frustration and hunger, I had not anticipated that eating would be such a problem as it proved to be, and I can only suspect that all Vegans face such problems when straying from home. Previous to beginning my holiday I had enquired as to whether Ostend had a vegetarian h o t e l ; they had not, so I made up my mind I would settle for bed and breakfast, but my troubles began in Dover, where I was turned away from a cafe because of ordering all vegetables with no main course, actually, the amount of vegetables I had chosen added up to more than the fixed meals when I checked the prices, b u t no restaurant seemed prepared to look at it from this point of view. In Belgium my troubles really began. I was unable to obtain a substantial meal anywhere except for a small Health Food Store where the owner served a light mid-day lunch which was n o t sufficient to keep me going for the day. I trembled at the thought of entering a restaurant and being charged high prices ; there was just no alternative, I had to be satisfied with an unimaginative salad and some chips or boiled potatoes. While in Ghent I had ceased to look upon cafes and restaurants as places I could confidently and happily walk into, and in that town I shall never forget the misery I experienced. I had of course from time t o time smuggled various food items into my hotel bedroom which I cooked on a spirit stove but I always hate to cook while on holiday, it is therefore no change for me. However, when I arrived in London on my way home I tucked into a good hearty meal in the Vega restaurant, there seem to be no provisions made for a main-course-less meal in the average restaurant. I have found that quite a number of cafes will serve a tramp with a plate of chips but when it comes t o my ordering the same with the addition of every vegetable on the menu I am turned down, " refused."! I love dining out but I fear my days of doing so are over ; this is not a discouragement to me, I refuse to be beaten. But it isn't surprising that we have these problems, we are taking the world by surprise, a world very meat, dairy, and fish conscious, and it would have to be in the first place, people with the interest to introduce alternatives to the main course of any savoury dish. J GREENWOOD. P.S.—I always wear the Vegan badge hoping that it will be understood, instead I get some rather inquisitive faces peering at my jacket lapel and the strangest questions come forth, for 23

instance, one chap recently asked me after close examination, "is that some kind of secret society? " In answer to the letter from Mr. Matthews, I would like to say t h a t I have had no difficulty and I toured Corsica, staying at many inns and hotels and always I told the proprietor exactly what I ate, and took just nuts and Granogen with me, and as I drink wine and water it was easy. I was given salad for first course, and cooked vegetables and sometimes a cooked cereal with it and raw fruit (a bowl of it to choose what I liked) as dessert. In Switzerland on the cheap " Cosmos " tour, the proprietress was charming at " Hotel Sonne," said she would welcome vegetarians and vegans if they told her exactly what they wanted, she would do her best. (They own the hotel), and I had lettuce, four cooked vegetables and raw fruit, I took my nuts, but 1 noticed nuts in the shops there at Inerlarken. I do not agree that it is an insult to take some of your own foodAll my friends know about veganism and accept me and my nuts. If I invite guests I always ask at the time, " d o you eat white or brown 'bread, do you like salad," and often 1 give them cheese and ham,, etc. I do not expect them to sit and chew nuts just because it is my diet. Last week I went to a wedding and when I replied to the invitation I told h e r I was a vegan and what I ate. The staff were informed and I was given a lovely salad. What is the use of h a v i n g a conscience a n d n o t o b e y i n g it.


I have just started to read the Summer 1967, issue of The Vegan. It is excellent—so much of real interest in. it! As yet 1 have not had time to read all of the articles, but before I do any more I must respond. The enclosed cheque is to be used if possible to help a fund to supply help for vegans outside England to have a subscription to The Vegan and to help defray their expenses while visiting. T h e " Hands Across the C u r t a i n " is so nicely written. W h e n I think that living the vegan way is hard at times in the U.S.A., all I need t o do is to think of people in less developed countries. They surely need our support and encouragement. Your article " Commodity and Other News," is most informative. Here in California it seems very difficult to find a 100 per cent, vegan shoe as either the upper or lower part is leather. There are very low-priced Japanese produced shoes (at least some are Vegan). You may enjoy reading " The Woodhouse Night Club." I had it printed in its present form after holding my old copy since 1948.* I am hopeful of positive education. I give free talks with pictures in schools on care of pets and understanding of wild life. This last addition is a very well accepted programme in 7th and 8th grades and a few high schools. Of course it is 24

eagerly listened to by all lower grades. I am able to pack in a lot of ideas which are new to my audiences. If . we can get children, to understand and appreciate all animals, they will surely tend to respect and help them when they are adults. I live in Southern California—forty miles north of San Diego and ten miles from the ocean. Now a desert area made nice by irrigation for large groves. Yes, wherever we. are there is so much to do. Best wishes to all the vegan staff. LESTER HARWOOD. * We certainly did enjoy reading the article " T h e Woodhouse Night Club " and we hope to find space to include it in our next issue. Unfortunately, we shall not be able to reproduce all the beautiful photographs of the night creatures. Would one of your readers, with more experience ot veganism than I, give me their opinion of the pros and cons of a particular situation? What is troubling me is that 1 attended a function last night which is a South Indian festival of thanksgiving for abundant harvest and was served some special dishes prepared at this time. I knew for certain that the dishes were strictly vegetarian, but I also knew it was likely that butter or ghee and possibly some milk entered into the preparation of the food. I was faced with a dilemma, for it would have been very rude not to partake of the food served, which I solved by accepting and eating it. In this and similar situations where it is certain that the food is strictly vegetarian although possibly not vegan, what do you believe most vegans would do? .It is unfortunately quite another thing from preparing one's own food or for that matter going to a public eating place and ordering according to vegan requirements. Courtesy does not really enter into such matters. But as a guest at a function where food is served without one being able tp make detailed enquiries as to the type of fat used in vegetarian dishes, the problem is made more difficult of solution, in my opinion, because of the courtesy due the hosts. California, U.S.A.




I feel constrained to write to tell you that after more consideration of the problem mentioned, I am convinced that I ought not to have done as I did by accepting non-vegan vegetarian food. Granted that it would have been somewhat difficult to explain so. that a refusal would not have been thought rude. I nevertheless should have declined the food, even though such action might have offended my hosts. No doubt an occasional slight veering from the path of strict veganism does little harm, but in matters of principle it seems to me very important that the principles should be upheld. q § 25



In the review of a book about oil I read, " Meat, fish and eggs contain protein, b u t plants and vegetables do not contain enough or the right kind of protein." I have now been a vegan for one year. Two years ago I became a vegetarian. So far I haven't suffered from protein deficiency, nor do I expect to. In fact, I have never felt better! Until I joined the Beauty W i t h o u t Cruelty movement just over two years ago, I had never heard of vegans. Vegetarians— yes ; but people living completely without the use of animal products—no. And from my own experience as a vegan, I find this is true of . . . well . . . everyone I've m e t ! All my relations are meat-eaters; indeed many of them are farmers, and foxhunters. They just don't understand me at all. Meat-eating has always revolted me, and fittingly enough my decision to go vegetarian happened at Christmas. I continued eating a normal diet minus meat. Plenty of egg and cheese dishes instead. After six months, my husband also decided to become a vegetarian. He still is a lacto-vegetarian. Then I discovered an advertisement for the London Vegetarian Society. I joined up and so found there was such a thing as food reform. It took m e many months to locate the nearest Health Food Store. But having done so, I went on a threeweek spring-clean diet, and stocked up on brown flour, sugar, etc. I m u s t admit, when I first learned about veganism, my reaction was, " They must be crazy ; I'll never do that." A few m o n t h s later I joined the Vegan Society. So don't despair about anybody! A t first wholewheat flour made me feel sick. But on the advice of our local Health Food Store, I mixed it with white flour, gradually increasing the brown, until I enjoyed pastry, etc., made entirely from 81% or 100% flour. N u t m e a t s took some getting used to. We both hated our first tin of nut sausages. After a lapse of several months, we tried them again, and liked them. Eating out is, I feel, a marvellous opportunity for others to learn about veganism. A t a twenty-first birthday party we attended, I drank fruit juice and ate peanuts. But for the actual meal served buffet style, we said, no meat with our salad ; it was delivered with salmon! " Well, fish isn't meat," we were told. On various occasions, people learning we don't eat meat have s a i d : " Well, you eat fish a n d poultry then." Friends are interested, though. A lengthy discussion on the what and why of veganism usually follows my admission that I d o n ' t eat eggs, cheese, milk, butter or honey either. I have found two reactions to veganism: " I eat very little m e a t " (guilty conscience?), o r " Oh, / couldn't give it up. I love meat." A novel viewpoint was put to me by a friend. T said people 26

were offended if you don't eat or drink' What they pressed onto you. " No," she said, " they feel guilty because deep down they know you are right." At the beginning of this article I said I had never felt better. Looking back over one year as a vegan I find other changes. I am happier, more aware of spiritual things, have a much greater feeling for animals, nature and the elements. I now regard eating dead animals in the same way that a meat-eater regard cannibalism. I am also against keeping animals as p e t s ; they are not things, but living creatures. Seeing a goldfish swimming round and round in a dirty bowl, a rabbit or hamster imprisoned in a tiny space, and birds behind bars unable to fly horrifies me. What is the use of being a vegan? I am just one person ; I have never met another vegan. But we are all just one person. The public never read about us. But they can meet us in our daily life. Example is, after all, better than words. And we do have The Vegan to let us know we are not alone. WINIFRED


" Custom will reconcile people to any atrocity ; and fashion will drive them to acquire any custom." G.B.S.

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RE-DISCOVER RICE Extracts from an article in "Herald of Health" As a food, rice has been grown and used before recorded history. The earliest mention of rice appears around 2800 B.C. when a Chinese emperor established a ceremonial ordinance for rice planting. T h e word " rice " in Chinese means " culture " and '•' agriculture ". Some nutritionists have discovered rice being used even back in 3000 B.C. when it appeared as a plant called Newaree that was grown in India. The ancients knew of the value of rice because it served as chief nourishment for so many early civilizations. Rice was also a major cultivation in the Euphrates Valley, near the Persian Gulf, in 400 B.C. The Greeks learned of rice from the Persians. The classical Greek poet, Sophocles (495—406 B.C.) mentions the precious value of rice in his famed Tragedies. During medieval times, the Saracens brought rice to southern Europe where it became established as a vital crop. Whole armies and nations subsisted almost exclusively on rice in time of food shortages; it is known that starvation was averted because of the nourishing power of rice. In the year 1694, a ship sailed from Madagascar, bound for England. A storm arose, forcing the ship olf its course, compelling it to land at Charleston, South Carolina, for repairs. When the ship was finally ready to resume its voyage, its captain was so grateful for being sheltered that he presented the Governor of the colony with a small package of rough rice grains as a token of his appreciation. From this humble beginning, rice production was born before the American nation, itself, came into being! Today, a whopping seven billion pounds of rice are produced in an average year. We share its value with the Chinese who have always held it in. veneration. When two Orientals greet one another and ask. " Have you eaten your rice?" it would be the same as if we would ask, " H o w are you?". This reverence for rice is seen throughout much of the world today. Nutritional Aspects This is a staple food in a number of countries, often providing up to 8 0 % of. the total calories. The cereal is a fairly good source of the B group of vitamins; calcium, iron, and protein (the latter being of good biological' value). Rice is devoid of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and has only traces of vitamin A. The pericarp, aleurone and scutellum (outer layers of the rice grain) contain about 8 0 % of the total thiamine (vitamin B J of the grain. Similarly the outer layers contain most of the other B vitamins. Serious losses of these vitamins .can occur if the rice is highly milled, therefore unpolished should be eaten in preference to 28

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polished rice' especially in countries where it is the major source of calories in the diet. The laxative effect of unpolished rice is probably highly exaggerated. Cooking offers another major source of loss of the vitamins f r o m the grain. Traditionally, rice is soaked in water prior to cooking and the water then discarded. The B group of vitamins are leached into this water, owing to their high water solubility, and hence lost. Since rice often provides about 80% of the calories in the diets of many communities, the loss of vitamins by milling and cooking can be ill afforded. Hence the high incidence of beri-beri in these countries, excepting where the rice is parboiled or enriched. Parboiling is an effective means of retaining the vitamins in the endo-sperm of the rice. It simply involves steaming or boiling of the unhusked grain after preliminary soaking and probably has the effect of driving the vitamins into the interior of the rice grain. The danger of beri-beri does not, of course, exist in this country, since it never constitutes a major part of the diet. Rice can be cooked in a variety of ways, and if eaten with other articles of a diet, it can offer very palatable, nutritive and economical dishes. M i s s K. MITCHELL (R.S.P.C.A., Bath).




Of the some 500 known species of onions, most of them aren't eaten at all but are prized as lilies, such as amaryllis, narcissus, and tulips. During World War II the Dutch actually ate tulips worth $5 a bulb to stave off starvation. Raw and dehydrated onions are an excellent source of potassium, provide more actual food energy than spinach, and the yellow varieties are a fair source of vitamin A. Their main claim to fame, however, is not in their high food value but in the zesty flavour they give to countless entrees. The Babylonians taught the Eg yptians that the onion is a symbol of perfection because it is a sphere, and one can travel the line around a sphere throughout eternity. The Egyptians immortalized onions by placing a bouquet of them in a mummy's hand to guide the deceased to the afterlife. Fifteen years ago, an antique collector discovered eleven cans of dehydrated onipns in an old warehouse in Alaska. The bulbs had been grown in Watsonville, California, dried in the sun, and placed in screw -top containers t o accompany gold seekers on the trail to Skagway in 1889. Oiled paper was wrapped around the threads of the cap to provide a tight seal. Opened half a century 30

vegan vitamins

.. The

Vegan Badge This neat, attractive and dignified symbol incorporates the Vegan emblem with blue surround.


p r o t e c t i v e vitamins A, C a n d D. O n e a day p r o v i d e s all y o u n e e d . F r e e of fish oils. 28 day 3 / - . 100 d a y 9/- ( p o s t 3/6 and 10/-).

Supplied with pin or c h a r m r i n g f i t t i n g a s i l l u s t r a t e d in quality chrome and enamel.

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123 Baker St., Enfield, Middx.

Rose Hip Vitamin C T a b l e t s — high p o t e n c y 100 m g . I n v a l u a b l e ' all t h e y e a r r o u n d ' aid t o h e a l t h . 100 t a b s 6 / - , 300 15/- ( p o s t 71- a n d 16/6).

BE-RICH YEAST TABLETS— t h e b e t t e r y e a s t — n o t b i t t e r . 500 t a b s 5/9, 1,000 10/- ( p o s t 6 / 6 a n d 11/6).



Printers & Publishers

t h e m i n e r a l - r i c h sea p l a n t s t h a t p r o v i d e essential n a t u r a l iodine, 100 t a b s 3/9, 300 9 / - ( p o s t 4/9 a n d 10/6).

DRY E 50 TABLETS o f - n a t u r a l Vitamin E f r o m w h e a t g e r m . ( N o t in g e l a t i n e c a p s u l e s . ) High p o t e n c y 50 m g . vitamin E. 100 t a b s 18/-, 250 39/- ( p o s t 18/9 a n d 4 0 / - ) .

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later, the onions are still edible, and as pungent in aroma as they ever w e r e ! Notes: Chewing on a sprig of parsley after you've eaten raw onions will restore baby-breath freshness we are told. —Extract from " Today's Food."




The Vegan Society, being a charity, is not liable to income tax. Supporters who pay income tax at the full rate and who are prepared to complete a Seven-Year Covenant, to pay an annual sum to the Vegan Society, can substantially increase the value to the Vegan Society of their annual payment. For instance, if a supporter gave £2. 2s. Od. per annum, the Vegan Society can recover income tax from the Inland Revenue of £1 9s. 6d. and so in proportion for larger or smaller payments. In the event of death the covenant terminates at once. For f u r t h e r information and Form of Covenant please write to: The Treasurer, Mrs. Grace Smith, , London, N.14. RECIPE





T a k e a large grass afield. Half-a-dozen children. Two or three small dogs. A pinch of brook and pebbles. Mix the children and dogs well together ; put them in the field. Stirring constantly, pour the brook over the pebbles. Sprinkle the field wiith flowers. Spread over all a deep blue sky. Bake in hot sunshine, and when well browned remove to the bath-tub. —From Health and Vision.

marinure powdered



Marinure is pure powdered seaweed, nothing added and nothing taken away. It is a natural veganic manure, soil conditioner and compost activator. Bieds 4 oz. sq. yd;: Lawns 2 oz. sq. yd. 14 lbs. 17/6d., 56 lbs. 40/-, 1 cwt. 60/-. All carriage paid, including full descriptive leaflet. Or please send for free leaflet, mentioning " The Vegan."

WILFRID SMITH (HORTICULTURAL) LTD., Gemini House, High Street, Edgware, MIDDLESEX 32



Cash with Order to The Vegan Society, 123 Baker Street, Enfield, Middlesex.

(2/- per line: minimum

2 lines; 2 0 % discount on four consecutive


BLACKHEATH'S HEALTH FOOD STORE. An impressive selection of Health Foods. luice Bar and Refreshment Room — small and cosy, with personal attention. Tasty nacks, generous salads and appetising hot meals. Nutrition without Cruelty — vegetarian and vegan foods; Science without Cruelty — herbal remedies. Also Beauty without Cruelty — harmless soaps and cosmetics. Plantmilk, nuts, seeds and grains—a speciality. Wholewheat bread and cakes. Compost-grown produce. Large selection of health books. Afreta Healing Oil, a unique combination of natural oils, wonderfully penetrating in the relief of sprains, burns, rheumatism, bronchitis, etc. 3/3d. and 6/3d., plus l / 6 d . postage. HEALTHWAYS, 5 Tranquil Passage, London, S.E.3. LEE Green 5811. BRITISH VEGETARIAN YOUTH MOVEMENT. An organisation for people 12—35. Social gatherings, holidays, monthly magazine, etc., organised. Further particulars from Secretary, B.V.Y.M., c / o London Vegetarian Society, 53 Marloes Road, London, W.8. FREE FURNISHED ACCOMMODATION, etc.. offered to enthusiastic Vegetarian Couple (with or without children), or House Mother, with a view to the development of the Vegetarian Children's Home at lars from the Hon. Secretary, Miss M. O. Amos, , Hoylake, Cheshire. HEALTH through NATURAL HYGIENE. Are you interested in Health achieved naturally and without the exploitation of other human beings and animals? Natural Hygiene is a system of health preservation and restoration which meets these requirements. For literature, send 6d. stamp to: The Secretary, British Nat. Hygiene Soc., 40 Foxburrow Road, Norwich, Norfolk. LADY (vegan) requires Unfurnished Room and Kitchenette ; preferably Sussex, near sea and humanitarian activities. Dreyfus, The Sanctuary, Lydford, Devon.

THE COMPASSIONATE DOCTRINE OF AHIMSA is stressed in the monthly publication "AHIMSA" (non-killing, harmlessness). Full year, 10s. in British stamps or coins. THE AMERICAN VEGAN SOCIETY, Malaga, N.J. 08328, U.S.A. WORLD FORUM. The leading international Vegetarian quarterly. Edited by Mrs. Esme Wynne-Tyson. Advocates the vegetarian way of life for physical health and a true relationship between the human and creature kingdoms—without exploitation and cruelty. 2/-, plus 6d. post per copy. 10/- per year, post free.—H. H. GREAVES LTD., 106/110 Lordship Lane, London, SE.22.



MAJORCA.—For retired couple is offered comfortably furnished flat in English widow's home with kind climate and beautiful views at reasonable rent for permanency. Further particulars with reply coupon please, f r o m : RITCHIE, Salud, (153) Palma de Mallorca. BROOK LINN.—Callander, Perthshire. Vegetarian and Vegan meals carefully prepared and attractively served. Comfortable guest house. Near Trossachs and Western Highlands. Mrs. Muriel Choffin. Callander 103. EASTBOURNE. Very good self-catering facilities ; single and double. Every comfort and convenience. Pleasantly situated outskirts of town. Easy access shops and sea front. Parking space. Margaret Fisher, Edgehill Vegetarian Guest House, Mill Road. Telephone: 30627 and 21084. V.C.A. Member. EDiSTONE, WOOTTON WAWEN, WARWICKSHIRE (near Stratford-onAvon). Modern Nature Cure Resort and Guest House with every comfort, and compost-grown produce. (Phone: Claverdon 327.) L A K E DISTRICT. Rothay Bank, Grasmere. Attractive guest house for invigorating, refreshing holidays.—Write Isabel James. Tel.: 334. " W O O D C O T E " , Lelant, St. Ives, Cornwall, is a high-class Vegetarian Food Reform Guest House in a warm and sheltered situation overlooking the Hayle Estuary. Composted vegetables; home-made wholewheat oread; vegans catered for knowledgeably. Mr. and Mrs. Woolfrey. Tel.: Hayle 3147. Early bookings for Summer very advisable. WOTTON-UNDER-EDGE, GLOUCESTERSHIRE. Coombe Lodge is a Manor House set in a two-acre garden on the southern slopes of the Cotswold Hills, overlooking Coombe Valley, where most fruit and vegetables are home-grown. Demonstrations given of Vegan Cookery. Apply Kathleen Keleny. Tel.: Wotton-under-Edge 3165.

Do you ever wonder " What is in it?" when purchasing Soup, Soap or Margarine? Don't ' hope for the b e s t ' in future, send for THE



and know which are the humanely produced articles. This 40-page booklet lists hundreds of items conveniently grouped for quick reference. 2 / 6 d . post free, f r o m : T H E VEGAN SOCIETY, 123 Baker Street, Enfield, Middlesex

Printed by H . H . GREAVES LTD.. 106/110. LordJhip Lane, Ealt Dulwich, London, S.E.22.

The Vegan Spring 1968  

The magazine of The Vegan Society

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