T H E VEGAN SOCIETY Founded
Veganism is a way of living which excludes all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, the animal kingdom, and includes a reverence and compassion for all life. It applies to the practice of living on the products of the plant kingdom to the exclusion of flesh, fish, fowl, eggs, honey, animal milk and its derivatives, and encourages the use of alternatives for all commodities derived wholly or in part from animals. Veganism remembers man's responsibilities to the earth and its resources and seeks to bring about a healthy soil and plant kingdom and a proper use of the materials of the earth. President: Dr. Deputy-President: Surrey. Vice-Presidents:
FREY E L L I S ,
Mrs. E. B. SHRIGLEY,
ey. , Old Coulsdon,
Mrs. MURIEL DRAKE, Dr. CATHERINE N I M M O , Miss M A B E L SIMMONS, Miss W I N I F R E D SIMMONS, Mrs. EVA BATT, Mr. JACK SANDERSON, B.SC. Secretary : Mrs. LOUISE D A V I S , London, S . E . 1 2 . Treas SM ould Green 6 4 0 8 . Librarian: Mr. W . H. Middlesex.
Committee: M r . E. T . BANKS, M r s . E . BATT, M r . H . T . BONNIE, M r s . S. C O L E S , Dr. FREY E L L I S , Mr. J . H O P K I N S , Miss T . C . LARKIN, A.T.C.L., M r . M . MCCULLOCH, M r . J. SANDERSON, B.SC., M r s . E . B . SHRIGLEY, M r s . G . SMITH, M r . W . H . C . W R I G H T , B.SC.
Minimum subscription, which includes " T h e Vegan", 15s. per annum (and 7s. 6d. for each additional member of one family at same residence); 7s. 6d. if age under 18; payable in January. Life Membership, £10 10s. Od.
THE VEGAN JOURNAL OF THE VEGAN
Please send articles and letters for publication to 123 Baker Street, Enfield, Middlesex. Editorial Board : Mrs. E V A BATT, Mrs. SERENA C O L E S , Dr. FREY E L L I S . Editorial Adviser: Mr. JACK SANDERSON, B.SC. Vegan ution Secretary : Miss THELMA LARKIN, A.T.C.L., , West Horndon, Brentwood, Essex. Advertisements: H. H. G R E A V E S LTD., 106/110 Lordship Lane, London, S.E.22. Rates: Whole page—£10 0s. 0d.; Half page- £6 0s 0d.: Quarter page—£3 10s. Od. Published quarterly: Annual Subscription, 10s.; single copies, 2s. 6d. plus postage. Obtainable from the Hon. Secretary.
LITERATURE " T h e Reasons for Veganism." 4 page leaflet. 3d. S.AE. only. " V e g a n Protein Nutrition." 12 page leaflet. Is. 3d. post free. " A Handbook of Practical Veganism." 24 pages with cover. 2s. 9d. post free. " Unnecessary Cruelties among Farm Animals." 8 page leaflet. 6d. post free. " T h e Vegetarian and Vegan Food Guide." 2s. 6d. post free. " Vegans and Vivisection." 8 page leaflet. 6d. post free. All obtainable from the Hon. Secretary. (Cheques and postal orders made out to " T h e Vegan Society").
THE VEGAN Journal of the Vegan Society SPRING, 1967
EDITORIAL The world of books has recently lost one of its leaders. Whenever a new group of a reformist nature sought to publish its ideas, one of the first people^ it would turn to was Victor Gollancz. He has had a tremendous influence on the life of this nation and through it, or more directly on the life ^of other nations. The concept of the Welfare State and its gradual implementation owe much to him but not all our readers will see eye to eye with him on political issues. Yet there will be few of any political or religious persuasion who will not acknowledge that he has been outstanding in his personal support and encouragement for scores of humanitarian reforms and of the general principle of caring for others and their needs. Nor does one have to look far for the source of his inspiration, for he revealed this in his anthologies, A Year of Grace and its successor, which contained his own selections from the world's great inspirational writings and books of wisdom. His place will not easily be filled. He was a successful business man and for many decades his choices of fiction and other literature produced a series of bestsellers which enabled him with reduced risk to publish other books which had a humanitarian theme or were of a reformist nature. One of the last of these was Woman Against the Desert, Tree Planting in the Sahara, a book in which Miss Wendy Campbell-Purdie (with the help of Fenner Brockway), describes her /work in the Sahara. We referred to this, in our editorial of Spring, 1966, and we are delighted that this work is now to be made known so widely. The book is honoured by forewords by Lord Boyd-Orr and Iris Murdoch. The latter certainly has a point when she refers to our self-accepted division of people into experts and nonexpertsâ€”a division sharper than the medieval segregation of priests and laymenâ€”an assumption that experts belong to a 1
superior race of beings whose ranks can only be joined by the orthodox route of a specialised education undertaken before the age of twenty-five. This book proves that conviction and determination can be the beginning of study and the achievement of technical competence. I don't know who inspired Richard St. Barbe Baker to work for the trees of the earth, but his heart must be gladdened to see the work of one. whom he had inspired receiving so much notice, (a whole column in the Guardian, February 10th; a half-column in The Times, February 13th; and many other references) and recognition from the Algerian Government, the United Nations Food and. Agricultural Organization, the Organization of African Unity and the " Freedom from Hunger " and " War on Want"' organisations. Mr. Baker , could not have known when he spoke to Miss Campbell-Purdie of his. plans for reclaiming the Sahara that she would be the cme who would carry the work forward. When we speak or write of our work we do not know what the response will be. Our job is to say the word or write it when the. opportunity comes. We cannot all be a Gollancz or a Baker or. a Campbell-Purdie, but each.of us can be a vital link in the chain of inspiration, and as Wendy,. and Ruth Harrison and Marie Dreyfus have shown there is no limit to what each of us can do, no matter how difficult or everyday or.ordinary our personal circumstances may be. J. SANDERSON.
Members will be pleased to learn that the Boutique is now open on Saturday mornings from 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. for the benefit of those many supporters who are unable to get there during the week. GARDEN
Please note that the B.W.C. Garden Party at the New Animal Sanctuary is on Sunday, July 16th. This will be a wonderful opportunity to see the creatures in their new home, and a cordial welcome is extended to you. Mrs. Jean Le Fevre will once again be the hostess. The address is: Shangri-la, Duckylls Park, West Hoathly, Sussex. Telephone Sharpethorne 429. Further details can be obtained from the organiser: Mrs. Midderigh, 173, Surrenden Road, Brighton 6. Telephone: Brighton 55933. If any vegans wish to contact others living in their area will they please let the secretary know, when she will send your address to your nearest neighbourâ€”which might be twenty miles away! 2
BRITAIN'S FIRST NATUROPATHIC i HOSPITAL Naturopathy, a form of medical treatment dating back to the beginning of mankind, is the art and science of stimulating the body's natural powers to regain health by - non-poisonous methods. In its modern form it encompasses a wide variety of methods, and in recent years there has been throughout the world a vast and growing support from the public and often from the State, especially in Germany and Switzerland. In May, 1967, there will be opened in Buckinghamshire Britain's first naturopathic hospital devoted exclusively to the treatment of illness by natural healing. This centre represents the fulfilment of an ideal which only^a few years ago was beyond the dreams of those involved in its foundation. The clinic is the first of its kind in the country and is being established by the Tyringham Foundation, which is recognised by the Charity Commissioners and the Inland Revenue as a non-profit-making organisation. ' The Tyringham Clinic, named, after the house in which it is to be established, will ultimately offer facilities..for. about ninety resident patients, and will provide a wide range of treatments, including the following: water treatment, sun and air baths, massage, exercise and diet, various forms of .electrical treatment, osteopathy, chiropractic and acupuncture. . All forms of medication will be herbal and homoeopathic. In no other system of medicine does the patient play a greater part than, in naturopathy, for attention is paid to the person as an individual and not just to the disease. In-patient treatment will be available to patients recommended by their practitioners for as long as they need it, and a special fund will be allocated to subsidise those patients who cannot afford the full fees. The purpose of the clinic is also to provide an opportunity for students of naturopathy to complete their training as interns and to offer to qualified practitioners the chance of taking postgraduate courses. Research by means of scientifically-based methods will be carried out, but not involving the use of vivisection. Thus the clinic will be the equivalent of a teaching hospital with research facilities. Qualified teaching and-clinical staff will be selected from the leading professional associations in the various branches of therapy in use at the clinic. Wholesome food is regarded as a main factor in the regaining of health, and an exclusively vegetarian diet will be provided as far as possible. Others, such as vegans, requiring more specialised diet will also be catered for. It is expected that the four acres of kitchen gardens will be able to supply the main needs of the clinic, and with the help of local farms the clinic would aim to be almost self-supporting. The local water supply 3
is ..drawn from a spring, and. so will never have fluorides added to it. This beautiful Georgian mansion is surrounded by twenty-six acres of landscaped gardens and woodlands, two miles from Newport Pagnell. The house itself has some outstanding architectural and historical features, and altogether the appearance of the buildings and grounds gives an air of beauty, elegance and peace. Many facilities for exercise and recreation are being provided to keep the patients occupied while in the care of the clinic, including swimming, tennis, table tennis, gardening, a gymnasium, library and a television lounge. Restoration of health will undoubtedly be accelerated by the tranquillity of the beautiful gardens and countryside, and by the many other leisure pursuits while under the care of the Tyringham Clinic. ELSPETH DOUGLAS-REID Our dear friend and supporter Elspeth Douglas-Reid passed away on February 3rd, a great loss to all who knew herâ€”and many who did not. Elspeth will best be remembered for her brilliant " One-woman " show, which she has performed at the Edinburgh Festival and elsewhere for a number of years. Five years ago she gave a show for our members and friends which all who were fortunate enough to see it, will remember with great, pleasure. She first presented her unique show in South Africa, returning to London before the war. During the war years she was kept very busy, giving hundreds of performances to the Forces, in factories, hospitals, etc. Incidentally, Elspeth was the only artist to be sent, alone, to Scapa Floe during the war by the Arts Council and the Admiralty to give solo performances to the Fleet. But it is for her work for the animals that we particularly remember her. She always gave freely of her time for various humanitarian works and was for a long time an active member of the National Anti-Vivisection Society. Later Elspeth was one of the few who, with Lady Dowding and Sylvia Barbanell, founded the " Beauty Without Cruelty " movement. Although of a quiet and unassuming temperament, when it was a matter of suffering animals, her courage was great. It is one thing to recite a poem about the suffering of animals to a group of friends and sympathisers and quite another to introduce such a poem to a theatre-going audience, but Elspeth has done this and carried them triumphantly with her. Some of her poems (mostly produced in the small hours of the night when concern for the trapped and caged animals prevented sleep) have been published in book form by the National Anti-Vivisection Society. Elspeth will be deeply mourned by all who knew her, and it is certain that the world is that little bit better for her having lived. 4
TREES A N D LIFE The Men of the Trees is a society of men and women with a concern for trees, and I am proud to be a member. We plant, preserve and endeavour to spread the knowledge of trees everywhere. All men are dependent on vegetation, and particularly on the king of plants. Without the forests of the world we could not exist, but we are only beginning to realise this. Part of our job is to get people to understand the importance of trees in controlling our basic needs of water, food and air. The Society was first started in Africa, where farmers wastefully felled and cleared acres of forest to grow one type of cereal. Their herds of goats ate all the young trees, so regeneration was not allowed to take place, and as soon as the fertility, of the soil was exhausted, they moved into more forest, leaving behind land useless and unproductive. Our founder, Richard St. Barbe Baker, took the matter in hand, and persuaded the African farmers, through their chiefs, that the felling of trees without replanting meant disaster. He instituted the Dance of the Trees, a psychological prerequisite to action, which resulted in the planting of trees on waste and burnt-up land. All this occurred forty-five years ago, and last year he visited the same areas to see the results of his work and to receive the thanks of Kenya's present rulers. Since those early days he has not spared himself in the cause of afforestation. Perhaps the most outstanding work in this direction is the idea of reclaiming the Sahara Desert. This enormous area is spreading rapidly, especially on the southern borders, and can only be halted by planting belts of suitable trees. Once the trees are established, the desert can be made to produce food, but it needs tremendous effort, capital and goodwill in the initial stages. Last year Richard St. Barbe Baker visited every country bordering the Sahara to create and speed up co-operative action. The difficulties are great, but the hopes of overcoming them may be read in the book he has recently published, " Sahara Challenge," which may be obtained from the branches or the Society's Headquarters at 10 King's Quay, Emworth, Hampshire. The Society has a number of county branches, including Devon, to which I belong and, indeed, am the contact member for South Hams district, in which I live. The centre of the Deyon Branch is Sidmouth, which nestles in a picturesque valley on the south coast. Branch activities are varied and progressive, and many trees have been planted in various parts of the county. Sidmouth is noted for its fine trees, and there is great variety, including Beech, Chestnut Montery Pine, Redwoods, Golden Elm and Holme Oak. A notable tree is the Sweet Chestnut in the grounds of " Powys," almost in the centre of the town. It is estimated to be five to six hundred years old, and has immense girth of trunk and enormous spread of crown, and from its 5
appearance it looks good for many more years to come. When standing near to this old tree one can feel a kinship and almost a protective influence from its size and beauty. Sidmouth has the advantage of many beautiful pieces of land which, in the past, have been dedicated to the town or the National Trust. One area on Peak Hill overlooking the town was given to the National Trust by a branch committee member and her sisters. This has provided an opportunity for planting several commemorative trees. By this kind of work, planting ceremonies, lectures, film shows and talks to other societies, the Men of the Trees are endeavouring to educate the public and attract new members. Schools and youth clubs are visited and brought into tree-planting ceremonies. But our main means of communication is the journal Trees, of which three copies are issued each year to each member and which finds its way to all the corners of the earth. The world has many examples of deforestation causing great floods, erosion of the top soil, and loss of life. In New South Wales, the worst floods in living memory have occurred as a result of the tree cover being removed by bush fires and extensive tree felling. As a result there has been nothing to restrain the water, check the wind, and hold the soil; so much valuable land has reverted to desert. These floods now occur annually, and there is no cure but reafforestation. As we know, similar occurrences on a smaller scale are taking place in our own country. Vegans, especially, should be tree-minded, and make this subject one of special duty, followed by action. EDGAR B . HEWLETT.
Will members who are interested in this vital subject please communicate direct to Mr. Hewlett at " Restlea," Stokenham, Kingsbridge, South Devon, who will be glad to answer any queries and enrol new members. Enclose a stamped, addressed envelope, please.
The Vegan Society, being a charity, is not liable to income tax. Supporters who pay income tax at the full rate and who are prepared t o complete a Seven-Year Covenant, to pay an annual sum to the Vegan Society, can substantially increase £he value to the Vegan Society of their annual payment. For instance, if a supporter gives £2 2s. Od. per annum, the Vegan Society can recover income tax from the Inland Revenue of £1 9s. 6d. and so in proportion for larger or smaller payments. In the event of death the covenant terminates at once. For further information, and Form e to: The Treasurer, Mrs. Grace Smith, , London, N.14. 6
COMMENTS O N COWS MILK Letter from a new member I know why I will not drink milk (I feel it is wrong), but I find it difficult to explain to others when they ask. Could we have some " Facts about Milk " in the Vegan to help newcomers to reply to such awkward comments as " Everybody needs animal protein of some kind, that is why vegetarians must drink milk." Friends go on to quote health magazines, all of which seem to agree that milk is essential. No doubt this has already been asked and answered in the magazine, but it is all so very puzzling to me. On receipt of this letter, we poured out all our cuttings concerning milk production, nutritional value, safety, economic position, etc., and discovered that to do full justice to the subject would require a whole issue of the magazine! We decided therefore to deal with it in stages. In this issue: â€” Is Cows Milk a Safe Food for Human Consumption ? The liquid in the bottle on the doorstep is not the same thing as the milk provided by the cow for her calf. It has almost certainly been pasteurised, homogenised, sterilised, or treated in some way to "improve its shelf life " and to destroy the germs together with much of the vitamin C. Temperatures which will kill milk-souring bacteria also destroy enzymes (digestive ferments) and some vitamins. We know that young calves cannot live and thrive on pasteurised milk. Why? The process heats the milk to 150-180Â°, which kills off some of the pathogenic bacteria, but (unfortunately for milk drinkers) this method is quite unselective and the lactic organisms meet the same fate, with the result that the milk is left with practically no protection against harmful organisms which can proceed to multiply a thousandfold. These sterilising processes not only lower the food value, but effects are produced which render the system specially sensitive to tuberculosis, fourteen times more according to a five-year test on 1,500 boys reported in the British Medical Journal by ' Dr. MacDonald, Medical Officer to Dr. Barnardo's Homes. , According to another expert, pasteurised milk becomes a particularly favourable nidus for the putrefactive organisms, and is therefore a potent cause of infantile diarrhoea. Because of pasteurisation, milk that is three, four or even five days old can be sold as " f r e s h " because it does not taste sour. Laurence Easterbrook, writing on pasteurisation, said: â€” " Originally this was done to enable old milk to be sold as new. But some backroom boys in publicity h a d ' t h e 7
brilliant idea of selling this device to that section of the medical profession that regards human health as an obstacle race with the germs, with the odds heavily on the bugs." And Dr. Hugh Nicol, assistant bacteriologist at the Rothamsted Experimental Station, is quoted in the Kingston Chronicle as saying: — " Pasteurisation is a boon to wholesalers because it enables them to handle originally dirty milk." But, as J. C. Thomson has often said: — " Cooked dirt is still dirt." On the other hand, according to the consumer magazine Which?: — " Milk that has not been treated . . . can be a source of brucellosis (undulant fever), food poisoning and dysentery." It also refers to the " Hundreds of people a year who get brucellosis from raw milk." It adds, however, that pasteurised milk can also produce food poisoning and dysentery to a greater degree than untreated milk. Dr. Douglas Latto has been quoted in the Kingston Chronicle, reminding us that the cow is over-stimulated with hormones in order to over-produce. It is also doctored with antibiotics. As a result, not only are we liable to get penicillin and streptomycin in our milk, but it also plays a great part in such conditions as catarrh and asthma. ; Antibiotics in milk. Extract from the Journal of the Society of Dairy Technology, 1964: — " On the average, every gallon of milk sent to market in this country may contain 80 international units of penicillin ; since 2,000 million gallons of milk were produced in 1963, the penicillin extracted in this milk probably amounted to some 160,000 million I.U.s and this, of course, can only be a fraction of the amount injected." Prevention for May, 1966, states: — " The problem with penicillin and other antibiotics which occur in milk is that many people are sensitive to these drugs, and even the slightest contact with them can bring anything from a mild rash to sudden death." The increase in penicillin sensitivity is generally considered to be due to the large amounts of the drug consumed in cow's milk. The standard dose for a cow on the least suspicion of mastitis is 1,000,000 units, 49 per cent, of which comes through in the milk. Measurable quantities have been found in 96 per cent, of samples of commercial milk tested in one survey. (Murray C. Zimmerman in The Archives of Dermatology.) Barbara Cartland has this to say in Here's Health, September, 1966: — "Milk used to be a food we all believed in, but the Ministry of Health has admitted that 50 per cent, of the 8
national herd carries antibiotics: This means that when a cow has mastitis in one udder, the farmer treats the diseased udder with penicillin, but milks the other three, the milk from which is put into the churn with the milk from the rest of the herd for market. Of course, the farmers are told not to do this, but most farmers in this country are . . . struggling to make a living . . . . It is therefore against human nature to expect a farmer to throw away two or three gallons of what appears to him to be good milk." Perhaps surprisingly, it is the highly prized cow which yields the most rich and generous supply of milk which is the most likely to become tubercular. This is an inescapable fact, whether the poor overworked beast produces the classical symptoms of T.B. or degenerates in any other way. That excellent magazine from the Kingston Clinic produced a full and most comprehensive article entitled " Mutilated Milk " a couple of years ago which is far too long to reproduce here, but it throws considerable light on the much-publicised " tuberculin t e s t " and how unreliable this is in selecting tuberculin-free cows. A comment from this journal gets to the core of the matter: — " The reason is not far to seek. Always the mother animal does all possible to provide ideal nutrition for the next generation. Even if, in this case, the mother cow has neverv experienced suckling by her own calf, she still goes on, month after month, producing excessive quantities of rich milk for her insatiable foster-children. Her physiology cannot understand that the milk is being diverted from its natural recipient, and continues to do. its best to supply the demands of the phantom calf. To meet the need for organised calcium and phosphorus salts essential to provide strength in the tissues of the young animal, the cow's own body is robbed of these elements. Her structural and vital tissues are leached in a desperate attempt to maintain the bovine race, and the more successfully, the deluded animal rises to this challenge, the more certain are her own vital reserves to be exhausted. Her tissues lose their toughness and firmness ; lungs and other vital organs begin to break down. There is much more work for the scavenging bacteria ; and these flourish and multiply. The bacteriological investigator moves in with his specialist equipment and—surprise!—finds tubercle bacilli at work." Consider this report from a sanitary inspector: — " The worst case of T.B. I ever saw in my life was in a cow that had been certified as free from disease for four years by the Health Department.. It would not have been discovered only the animal broke her leg and the veterinary surgeon said she was so badly infected that she would not react to the test." 9
And what is the much-publicised tuberculin test? In simple terms, it consists of injecting a small quantity of tuberculin (a substance produced from laboratory cultures of the tubercle bacillus) under the skin of the animal, at its neck, rump or tail. If the animal is tubercular, within a short time a reaction appears taking the form of a swelling around the site of the injection and a slight rise in temperature. In a healthy animal no such reaction should occur. However, this beautifully clean-cut picture is blurred by several complications. For instance, a cow which has produced the typical tubercular reaction will, after the temperature has subsided, be unable to respond to a repeat of the test within a period of some weeks. It is claimed that an unscrupulous farmer who wishes ,to avoid the risk of losing a " g o o d " animal can protect his property by anticipating the official test. He can do this, at least ten days before the visit of the inspector, either by giving an unauthorised injection or by rubbing some of the cow's own dropping into a scratch in its skin. Should the inspector arrive without adequate warning, there are other ways of preventing the appearance of a " positive reaction." Again, the official time limit for the reaction is usually forty-eight hours, yet it has often been observed that really sickly animals respond slowly ; the typical " positive reaction " appears after the inspector has gone on his way. . . . Almost no one among the general population has any inkling of the menace of D.D.T. It has three characteristics which combine to give it particular virulence: it does not decompose rapidly ; it " travels " easily ; it has a special affinity for fats. In practice, this means that D.D.T. in a spray used to kill flies in farm buildings may hang about for many months and then enter the cow's body on fodder. Some will remain in the cow's tissues, but some also passes out in the cream of her milk. The contaminated milk may then enter a human body, where once again it accumulates in the fatty deposits. One hundred tubercle bacilli may be found in one drop of cow's milk, and the disease can be conveyed to another animal after being diluted one thousand times. The tubercle bacillus is frequently found in milk produced by a hand which has consistently shown negative reactions to the tuberculin test. D.D.T. and other chlorinated hydrocarbons, which are used freely in agriculture as pesticides, tend to find their way into the feeding stuff of cows and other animals and to be absorbed by them. Cow's milk has been found to contain up to 3.5 ppm. of lindane and 2 ppm. of D.D.T. Dr. Franklin Bicknell calls cow's milk the "outstanding example of a food contaminated by antibiotics " and also insecticides such as D.D.T. and lindane. In reply to a question on the matter, the Milk Marketing Board wrote in 1960: â€” " We do not know of any regular tests made by the dairy 10
industry in this country of D.D.T. in milk . . . and therefore no limits for the use of this insecticide in connection with the milk have been prescribed." Let us not forget that Strontium 90, which finds it way into human diets does so through dairy produce. In 1954, the ratio of Strontium 90 to calcium in milk was 0.5. Ten years later it was 9.6 and has been as high as 14.89 in Cornwall. Vitamin C in milk. Bottled milk which stands in the daylight for one hour loses more than 90 per cent, of its vitamin C. It was, of course, never intended to see daylight. Bernard Cooke, L.D.S., F.R.H.S., writing in Health and Vision recently, says this:â€” " Health reformist Brunn finds little merit in exhortations appearing in newspapers, magazines, posters and on T.V. to drink more milk. While accepting the view that refined carbohydrate is detrimental to the teeth, he points out that sugar soon disappears from the mouth, while milk clings to the oral tissues as a disagreeable greasy layer which is difficult to remove. As the dentist to a large National Dairy Clinic in Sweden, where the employees were allowed to drink as much milk as they liked free of charge, he reported that many individuals had completely decalcified teeth, were pale-faced, sickly and suffered from pustules on their face and body. With the help of the more co-operative of these people he found that after a few weeks' abstinence from milk they were healthier and devoid of skin lesions. With this experience behind him, he took particular note of the effects of milk-drinking on both children and adults in Sweden and Denmark and reached the conclusion that the teeth of those who had drunk milk from childhood were poor as compared with those who had been averse to drinking it. - In South American and Southern Europe, he found, as in Sweden and Denmark, that the teeth of rural children were inferior to those of city dwellers who drank less milk." Percy Wells Cerutty, famous trainer of international athletes at-Portsea, Victoria, Australia, writes: â€” " I tried to drink a pint of milk a day. It made me feel sick. I had to cut it down to half a pint. Even then I felt that it did not agree with me. I abandoned milk so many years ago now that I cannot remember. Down here I seemed to observe that the lads who come with a milk addiction were the least likely to become champions. A leading swimming coach in Sydney told me that the young people who came to swim early in the morning and who were fed on milk were so choked up with mucus they couldn't breathe properly." According to Dr. Paul Dudley White, heart specialist, heavy milk-drinking among teenagers, plus other animal fats (butter 11
cheese, cream), could play an important part in the early development of clogged arteries or atherosclerosis. Infants ted on cow's milk can develop antibodies to the protein in the milk, showing that this protein is not acceptable to all human babies. The medical profession is concerned at the increasing number of sudden and unexplained deaths of young babies, nearly all without apparent illness. These puzzling " crib " deaths may have been caused by milk allergy. (Dr. Frances E. Camps of the London Hospital Medical College believes that the majority of babies are sensitive to cow's milk from the age of 7 to 97 weeks.) This obscure complaint is not merely a local problem ; fifty babies a year are lost in the State of Minneapolis, while in Minnesota 220 unexplained baby deaths occur each year. No explanation has yet been found for this alarming and puzzling state of affairs—could it be that the unnatural methods of milk production, plus the drugs which are fed to our babies via the cow's milk, may yet be proved responsible? The fact remains that more and more babies are suffering from milk allergy, and another very interesting fact appears to be that no breast-fed babies have been affected. One reasonable deduction from all this is that, if the safety of cow's milk is at least questionable and can only be made usable by pasteurisation, then such milk is quite unsuitable for human consumption— especially for babies. An infant's blood cholesterol may double in the first three to six months if fed on cow's milk. Regular warnings in the national Press against feeding young babies on cow's milk are now too frequent to arouse comment. It is true that more and more children are allergic to the strong protein in this calf-food. (In this respect as well as in others, cow's milk is entirely unlike human milk.) Dr G. L. McCullock in The Journal of the College of General ' Practitioners, wrote: — " Is it not probable that the most fundamental early nutritional error in modern civilised life is the introduction of cow's milk? Bovine milk, to begin with, contains the wrong protein, and in order to correct its carbohydrates deficiency, has added to it the wrong sugar. . . . Moreover, if bovine fats have a tendency to raise the blood-cholesterol level, the basing of an infant's sustenance on cow's milk would appear to be starting this process at a very early stage of life. . . ." N.C.P. has this to say in Health for All: — " It may be that the Milk Marketing Board and the other agricultural authorities, having persuaded the farmers to produce so much milk, now have to use sales talk t o get rid of it . . ." and " . . . the catarrhal child, with his swollen adenoidal and tonsil tissue, will probably go on to surgical interference if the milk-drinking habit is continued. 12
For those who are troubled with sluggish bowel action, the habit is likely to make matters worse, and in the British Medical Journal, April, 1963, a surgeon maintains that the use of milk in diverticula of the colon is to be discouraged." The Daily Mail, November, 1965: — " It costs the Ministry of Agriculture something like £50,000,000 a year to vaccinate against, and compulsorily slaughter, cattle with brucellosis—the disease known as contagious abortion. Drinkin'g the milk of infected cows causes undulant fever in human beings and kills about twenty of the annual 1,000 cases." Let we are inclined to think that all the above applies only to the past, perhaps we should close with a warning from the Ministry of Health. Peter Bullen in the Daily Mail last month wrote: — " Ministry Acts over Cattle Disease. Two moves were made yesterday to stop the spread of brucellosis cattle disease, which can cause undulant fever in humans. The Ministry of Health sent a circular to all health officers giving details of the steps to be taken to ensure that milk is free from the disease. And on the eve of the four-day Royal Dairy Show at Olympia an appeal was made that farmers who produce milk from cows free from the disease should be paid more for it." Three ominous words to note in the above are " TO STOP THE SPREAD." Why not be on the safe side? No need to worry about whether your dairyman is supplying your family with a safe food or the makings of a very nasty illness (or worse). Betta Stopa Pinta NOW, and remember that Happiness is Health Shaped. ' CO-OPERATION
Mr. Wright, our naturopathic committee member, would like to know what vegans eat. He has drawn up a simple chart for one week only, and all members are invited to send for one of these in order to assist him in ,his enquiries. You just write down what you eat and drink for mple isn't it? Write to Mr. W. Wright, Enfield, Middlesex, for your chart. \ , BLOOD
So far twenty-three donors' names have been received, but of these only twelve have sent their blood group. Will the other eleven please let Mr. Bonnie know to which group they belong. Many more volunteers are still required, as vegans are so widely scattered. Please send to Hanwell, W.7. 13
SECRETARY'S REPORT AT ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF THE VEGAN SOCIETY, 1966 Many of you may recall what happened the very next day after last year's A.G.M. I am referring to the 21st Anniversary Dinner at the Cora Hotel, which had been organised by Mrs. Batt. This was a real reunion of founder-members, members and friends of the Society. The hundred-and-forty people who were able to attend had an interesting time, enjoying the dinner, the cake made by Mrs. Cluer and listening to the speeches from Jack McClelland, Geoffrey Rudd, and Ronald Lightowler. In June we had another social occasionâ€”the garden party at Serena Coles' house in the beautiful Surrey countryside. This, too, was successful and brought many together in an enjoyable way. Both " Beauty Without Cruelty" and the Plantmilk Society had a stall in the garden. Between these times, the Society's work received a boost .from a lecture tour given by two visiting representatives of the American Vegan Society, Mr. and Mrs. Dinshah. In August, one of our own member, Mr. Gunn-King, ran a motor-cavalcade with several members of the Vegetarian Youth Movement. They toured the South of England and joined up with a protest meeting against factory farming at Exeter. Several of those who took part in the cavalcade have become interested in veganism and may become members. It is encouraging to learn that our friends in New Zealand are also very active. Mrs. Kathleen Peace writes that, following a lecture-tour from an American Naturopath, she found it easy to form a housewives' group and educate them in the vegan ways â€”or at least to see that the milk served with the coffee or tea was a vegetable milk. She hopes to found a branch of the Vegan Society as soon as possible. LIBRARY. We are happy to announce that the Vegan Library has been re-established and is presided over by Mr. W. Wright. The full list was printed in The Vegan tor Autumn, 1966. PRESS. The Press has not been oblivious to vegans and last March the national weekly Weekend carried an article about vegahism featuring a picture of Mrs. Batt. / Members might like to know that Miss Marie Dreyfus, whose book Crimes Against Creation, was reviewed Ln the summer edition of The Vegan, is a member of our Society and that another member, Captain Oliver, has sent Miss Dreyfus' book to the library of the House of Commons with a note saying that he hpped they would pass legislation to remove some of the stains on our civilisation mentioned in the book. Captain Oliver received a note of thanks from the librarian. 14
A paper on B12 was written by Doctors Ellis and Wokes and read by Dr. Wokes at the Vegetarian May Meetings. BLOOD BANK. Mr. Bonnie now has nineteen volunteers on his list—twelve vegetarians and seven vegans—but he cannot forward the lists to hospitals because he does not yet know their blood group. Will people wishing to donate their blood in emergency, please find out their blood group and let Mr. Bonnie know. SPORT. Jack McClelland has once again brought home two trophies for champion swims. You might be interested to learn that Jack finds the vegan diet helpful—in fact he says that he used to need a fortnight for recovering after a record swim before attempting the next one when he was a lacto-vegetarian. Since he has been a vegan he only needs one week. SHOES. One remark which vegans and lacto-vegetarians always hear is, " What about the shoes you are wearing?" Mrs. Batt was able to counter this remark in a speech she made at the A.G.M. of the Medway Vegetarian Society at Rochester, Kent, on September 24th. She told the meeting that Bata Shoes were now making mon-leather shoes called " Viva," for both men and women, and that these would be available all over the country— though they may have to be asked for repeatedly. The stamp " Viva.," guaranteeing the complete absence of animal products, would 'be stamped clearly on the insole. VEGANIC GARDENING. An unexpected boost for vegan methods of gardening came from the Stobhill General Hospital in Glasgow, Scotland, which had conducted a survey of bone meal fertilisers. This showed that 94 per cent, of all samples contained bacteria which could cause food poisoning. N E W MEMBERS. We are happy to say that we have sixty new members and nine new journal subscribers—sixty-nine altogether. Not a great deal — but the increase is steady — and so is our influx of letters and enquiries. AFFILIATED SOCIETIES. ' We. are glad to relate that two vegetarian societies have affiliated to us — namely, the Friends' Vegetarian Society and the Exeter Vegetarian Society. MEMBERS ALL OVER THE WORLD. Those of you who sometimes feel isolated through your adherence to vegan principles, please remember that we have members not only in England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland', but all over the world—in Holland, Sweden, Monte Carlo, California, India—is short—in twenty-six countries altogether! ANIMAL FAIR A sub-committee is to be formed to organise the arrangements for the Animal Fair in November, 1967. Would volunteers kindly send their names to Mrs. Louise Davis as soon as possible. You will be pleased to know that the sum of £11 was raised at the last fair. 15
FROM THE SECRETARY'S POINT AND
What are Alfalfa and Comfrey, and how can they be used for food? They are two of the most miraculous plants ever known to mankind. Alfalfa (also called Lucerne or Purple Medick), has been used as a forage plant for over 2,000 years. It is most useful for countries suffering from drought, as its root can grow up to fifty feet longâ€”even seedling plants can have roots seventytwo inches long at only five months of age.
The Romans brought it to Italy from Greece in the first century, and the Spaniards took it to South America in the sixteenth. George Washington and Jefferson tried to introduce 16
it into the Eastern States of America, but without success, but the soil in California was just right for it. It also grows wild in Russian Turkestan. The green leafy plant consists of 16% protein and carries the vitamins A, E, D and K. Here in England we use the seeds for sprouting for human consumption. The Comfrey plant was brought to England from Russia in 1870 by Henry Doubleday, a Quaker who lived at Coggeshall in Essex. He found it so interesting that he studied it for thirty years. And no wonder. When fresh, it contains double tihe amount of protein than cabbage, and in the dried leaves the protein content can be seven or ten times higher. It has many minerals and vitamins. It can be eaten raw in salads or cooked' like spinach, and the dried leaves are used as tea. It also contains a healing agent called Allantoin. The study of this valuable plant is continued at the Henry Doubleday Research Association, 20 Convent Lane, Bocking, Braintree, Essex, where plants for food (" Bocking No. 4 ") can be obtained'for 8/- per half dozen. Mr. Lawrence D. Hills, Hon. Secretary of the Association, asks me to point out that seeds are not available, but the plant is a perennial and can be used in the same year as planted. Its yield can be increased later with sudh vegan fertilisers as Marinure and Alginure—both derived from seaweed. (I am now able to get Comfrey Meal from my Health Food Store. It is quite inexpensive and can easily be sprinkled into soups, etc.—E.B.). Have you got a recipe for a vegan cream cheese ? Our member Mrs. Joan Fugeman makes the following "cheese" every week at request of her husband—so it must be good! 6 oz. Soyolk Salt to taste % cup cider vinegar Finely chopped herbs whichFinely chopped onion or ever preferred garlic or both Cook soyaflour for seven or eight minutes in a little water, keep adding water until mixture takes on a creamy , texture; take off heat and leave for a few minutes, add vinegar. The mixture will Chen curdle. Pour into a muslin bag and strain overnight. When the cheese has dried, whip up with a fork and add a little vegan margarine or cooking oil. Finally add the other ingredients. Have you a recipe for a fruit loaf—preferably made without the use of baking powder? 17
10 oz. flour 6 oz. mixed dried fruit | pint vegan milk \ \ oz. dried yeast or 3 oz. vegan margarine 3 oz. fresh 2 oz. brown sugar i teaspoon iodised or sea salt 1 teaspoon spices Dissolve margarine in the warmed milk, cool, add one teaspoon of the sugar, then add yeast and let stand for four minutes. Stir with fork, add to mixture, flour, sugar, and salt. Knead till smooth, put in warm place to rise till twice its size. Add dried fruit and spices, knead, smooth into oiled loaf tin, return to warm place till risen again. Bake for sixty minutes in a hot oven of 380 to 450 degree F. Leave for a few days before cutting, but remove from baking tin. MORE SHOE NEWS New, Improved Quox. Messrs. Gourtaulds expect their simulated shoe upper material to do to leather what nylon did to silk. They have reported a sudden increase in enquiries. So far Quox has gone mainly into soles, tongues and linings. Now it is being seriously tested for uppers. They tell us that Quox allows increased automation since it can be made uniform without the defects that affect leather such as the warble-fly and barbed wire damage. It will fill the need for a hard-wearing shoe at a low price for the basic cost is only one-third that of best calf leather, yet it will stand up to quite a bit of hard wear. We shall welcome it is an alternative to the poromeric materials such as Corfam and Clarino which cost more to produce, at the moment, than calf of a similar standard. By post only at present—a man's plastic bootee, sizes 6—11, black, zip front, broad fitting. Cotton fleece lining. Suitable for gardening, etc. Available by post from Messrs. H. P. Borg Industries Ltd., 64 Smitham Downs Road, Purley, Surrey. 42/plus postage. \
The people who make the well-known " Kent " brand brushes, now also make a very good nylon bristle paint brush for home decorating. These sell at competitive prices and come with a useful slide-over transparent cover, just right for keeping bristles straight and flat while not in use. E.B. CLOGS FOR OUR GARDENERS Did you know that there are as many as 500 different types of clogs? Messrs. Walklev of Huddersfield Common Road, Bay Hall, Birkby, Huddersfield (Telephone 23132), can make clogs with uppers of canvas-backed rubber with various kinds of soles according to your individual wishes. • Write direct to them for 18
further information stating the purpose for which you require the clogs when they will quote you a price. PLAMIL
Once again we hear of our friend Jack McClelland, the Vegan champion swimmer. This time as dietetic adviser to some of the athletes who took part in the Commonwealth Games when he gave priority of place to Plamil Fudge. The makers, Plantmilk Ltd., say it is accepted as ideal food for competitors taking part in endurance races (e.g., long distance swimmers and cyclists), as it provides an easily assimilated form of energy for the competitors. For this reason, Plamil Fudge became an integral part in the " e q u i p m e n t " that was sent to Jamaica. ANOTHER NON-DAIRY MILK-STYLE MILK The "Weekend Telegraph" of the 15.12.66 stated that there is now an artificial milk on sale in California called Farmer's Daughter, of which the vital secret is " a catalytic chemical process . . . which welds vegetable oil, water and other ingredients, including vitamins." Dairymen, already beset by coloured oleomargarines, are not taking the threat calmly, we are told. (I was unable to find any " Farmer's Daughter " in Florida, when 1 was there recently. Also we have not yet had an assurance that this " milk " is free of any ^animal ingredients. Readers will remember—The Vegan, Autumn 1965—that the last " nondairy " milk from the U.S.A., Coffee-Mate, contained sodium caseinate—from milk—and mono-glycerides which are made from animal fats!—E.B.) CONGRATULATIONS We have recently learned that Mr. Kenneth O'Brien, the expert and consultant on veganic horticulture, has had great success in his second-string activity as an artist. He has two paintings in the present Paris Salon, and has recently exhibited at the Royal Society of British Artists (R.B.A.) and at the International Boat Show in London. Mr. O'Brien is also an accomplished lecturer and has a splendid collection of colour slides and films on veganic gardening. We wish him many more , successes in his varied accomplishments. A substantial grant has been made by the South-West Metropolitan Regional Hospital Board to Dr. F. R. Ellis and Dr. J. D. West to enable them to continue with their researches on vegans. Volunteers are still required for this work, whether or not they have previously taken part, and Dr. Ellis will be pleased to hear from any vegan willing to assist in this way. 19
A WARM WELCOME TO ALL NEW MEMBERS INCLUDING Ian and Sylvia Edwards, of St. Leonards-on-Sea, Sussex, (pictured here), who own 38 years between them. They write: "At last we can send you our filled-in application forms. Prev i o u s l y we h a d difficulties with our parentsâ€”now that we are married we can please ourselves. It has been interesting experimenting w i t h different foods and making up our own recipes." Sylvia adds that meals are great funâ€”especially as Ian is a very good cook, too!
PROTESTS We are indebted to Mr. Harry Bonnie for the following information. On Thursday evening, October 27th, a lecture was given to about one hundred people at the Spanish Embassy. As was expected, after about thirty minutes concerning the history of Spain, the lecturer began to speak on bullfighting. It was interesting to see the reaction of the audience at this point. About sixty members of the " International Council Against Bullfighting," led by Mrs. Crombie, stood up, protested, and walked out. The " League Against Cruel Sports " organised a meeting for Boxing Day in which one hundred and fifty members marched with banners among the huntsmen and supporters of the Essex Union Hunt at Brentwood, after which they returned to London by coach and marched down Whitehall to Downing Street, where a petition for the abolition of hare coursing was handed in for Mr. Wilson. Both of these protests were shown on televison on the I.T.N, programme. We are glad of the publicity, but we shall be even happier when the slur on the British nation has stopped and such things will not be necessary. 20
MEAT FROM VINES Of all the first-class protein foods which the vegan should consider, the low-priced, humble soya bean easily takes first place. Being high in protein and fat, the soya bean supplies much of what the body requires for growth, heat, energy and repair. Soya bean flour contains twice as much protein as cheese, two to three times as much as meat or fish, four times as much as eggs, and twelve times as much as milk. It has a high cystine content which may, after addition of vitamin B12, help to overcome its lack of methionine. Its high lysine content may enable soya flour to balance vegetable protein foods low in this amino acid. Add a little therefore to all flour for baking, bread, cakes, pies, sauces, gravies, etc. Because, soya flour is so rich in proteins it^should not be taken in large quantities, for over-consumption of proteins, whether of animal or vegetable origin, could be injurious to health. It is always advisable to eat fresh green vegetables and fresh fruit with soya to provide the vitamin C and provitamin vitamin A which soya lacks. Use soya regularly, but not lavishly. Say 1 oz. to 1 lb. of flour when cooking. Furthermore, soya oil contains useful antioxidants and the valuable phosphatide, lecithin. Lecithin is an excellent source of the two B vitamins choline and inositol, but.when oils are hydrogenated/lecithin is lost. For this reason we would do well to rely mainly upon margarines made from soya, nut or seed oils for our fats, as these are not hydrogenated as in the case of animal or fish oils. An approximate analysis of the soya bean would show: â€˘â€” Protein (N.X. 6.25) ... 41% Oil 20% Phosphatides (lecithin) 2% Sugars 10% Cellulose 1.8% Other carbohydrates 13.7% Ash 4.5% Moisture 7% Starch Nil ' With the ever-increasing demands made upon the fertile acres of the world, there is one other reason, the economic one, for including the soya bean in every diet programme. Anything up to 350 lbs. of soya bean protein can be produced annually on one acre of land, against 54 lbs. of protein from beef or mutton. To all who really care about how the " other-half " lives, this alone is reason enough to encourage the wider use of this valuable all-round protein food. In the American publication Today's Food, we read " Today in the Orient we face the problem of supplying skim milk solids. Unfortunately, cow's.milk has two shortcomings: that of the 21
allergy-causing reactions and, secondly, most orientals are prejudiced against drinking milk from an animal." " Today soya beans can rightfully lay claim to the honour of being one of the most concentrated and nutritous protein foods known to man. They can make a poor diet good, a good diet better, and add zest and variety to any menu. Not only is their protein high in quality, but it is of good quality. Chemical analysis shows that soya beans contain in nearly maximum proportions the amino acids essential in the diet of man and animals. They are the best source of protein from the vegetable kingdom. No wonder they are called ' the meat that grows on vines.' " E.V.B.
ANIMAL WELFARE The International Conference on -Animal Welfare was held at Barcelona under the auspices of the World Federation for the Protection of Animals. It was very well attended and delegates came from many countries including Morocco, Argentine, Canada, U.S.A., France, Holland, Switzerland, Germany, etc. The Canadian delegateâ€”Mr. Brian Daviesâ€”showed films on Sealing. These pretty and intelligent baby animals were seen being skinned alive, hooked through the mouth and mown down by ships. The mothers are devoted to their young and will often suckle the skinless corpse in an effort to restore life. All this suffering is to enable people to wear the skins and eat the oils. Bull Fighting obviously came up for discussion and we were told that if a bull mills a matador the mother of that bull is punished for having, given birth to such an animal. Considerable interest was shown in the British idea of medical research conduoted on human lives as exemplified by the Lawson Tait Memorial Trust. Many other countries expressed the hope of starting similar organisations as an alternative to the growing practice of vivisection. The rearing of animals for food in intensive battery units was brought up by several delegates. Many countries have already banned this practice. The conference provided excellent facilities for the exchange of ideas at international level. One particular point was that no one regards Great Britain as a nation of animal lovers except the British! Several non-British delegates quoted our Cruelty to Animals Act as an example of what to avoid in legislation. The British delegates were treated with great kindness but there is little doubt but that we have long since lost our reputation as the leading nation in the promotion of humane treatment for animals. JEAN L E FEVRE. 22 1
VIEWPOINT FROM HOLLAND During the past decades, many educated and interested laymen have, by logical reasoning and ethical insight, come to the conclusion that the basis of human feeding should consist of nuts and fruits. Many prominent experts have confirmed their views. â€˘I greatly appreciate such unprejudiced views, which already have been expressed so well and so many times by my English friends in The Vegan. I have purposely spoken of the basis of food as I can quite imagine that many people will justly have objections to the talcing only of such articles of food. This, however, is not necessary at all, as the vegetable world ofiers us so great a variety of the noblest food, which can satisfy most of our wants, that we really need not restrict ourselves, however useful restriction for the rest may be! In his " natural" state at one stage it could be argued that primitive man was sometimes obliged to take animal food to subsist. In such a case, where man had become to some extent an " animal" himself, necessity justified his acts. But in civilised countries, where there is plenty of vegetable food to satisfy all our wants, man is certainly not entitled to take any animal food. When one sees the enormous quantities of dairy produce that are sold in this country every week in shops and markets, it is indeed a little alarming. Moreover, these buyers have not the slightest notion that anything is wrong and that they pollute their bodies by eating these products. Ethical arguments are not even considered. If they had to choose between dairy-products and flesh-meat, they would undoubtedly prefer the first. Consequently, it can easily be imagined that it is simply impossible to make these people abjure milk and cheese, etc., unless excellent and appetising substitutes can be proviided, and, if possible, at a lower price! Also, the opposition from those who are financially interested will be almost insurmountable! Man is ungrateful, selfish and gluttonous. He does not shrink from the ridicule of people who have pity on fellow-creatures who are unnecessarily exploited and slaughtered. The late war taught us how much we could achieve even on " p o o r " food, that diid not contain suffioient fat, vitamins and minerals, and now that we are so richly provided with all kinds of complete vegetable foods, should we have to take recourse to dairy products ? I am convinced that, generally speaking, it is not necessary at all! From one of my friends I recently received the correspondence conducted with the Nutrition Counoi] in this country concerning the fat content and the use of milk. Though his opponent recognized that there are many people who, without taking milk, feel quite fit and that from a natural 23
point of view it is indeed not logical that an adult should drink milk, yet it was not deemed objectionable to propagate milk which contains food that is destined especially for weak persons and that has proved its use ! This view was based on the fact that man has lost his " natural power " and, in consequence of this, the use of milk for adultsâ€”1 pint per dayâ€”had become advisable. I thought this argument so interesting that I will consider it a little further. It seems so plausible that many people will accept it without objection, and lacto-vegetarians will gladly catch at it to justify their use of dairy-products. For necessity is necessity, and vegans, too, will remember that until recently they too were forced to exploit the animal by the use of shoes and dress, however much they were against it for ethical reasons. Nobody will deny that cow's milk contains valuable elements, for the young calf grows up on it. People whose nutritive state is bad and who for some reason or other cannot, or will not, take vegetable food instead of it, may to some degree take advantage of Lt, but this certainly does not imply that healthy man, generally speaking, cannot do without it or could not gradually abjure it. I would agree that man no longer possesses his original " natural power " and perhaps does not require it as fully in the drastically modified circumstances of today. Yet he is closer to nature than is generally supposed and he, is certainly able to regain an important part of his lost physical powers and to obtain good health by a way of living and feeding more in accordance with natural laws. It is well known that healthy young people can gain better results in competitions after a period of training. He who likes nature and goes camping during his holiday, and who will not or cannot permit himself too much luxury, can in an astonishingly short time increase his resistance against all kinds of changes of temperature and obtain a wonderful state of health. This he owes to the beneficial influence of fresh air, sunlight, water, movement, etc. Our way of feeding, too, whlich should be as " natural " as possible, plays in many respects an important part, to which fact those prominent in our movement have continually drawn attention. In the beginning of this century, Bircher Benner strongly recommended the use of unfired food, with which he has since registered great success. Before him others had done so, too, e.g., Sylvester Graham, who already in 1852 held conferences in toe United States and drew attention to the great importance of the use of raw fruit and vegetables. His influence has been great. After Bircher Benner, I would mention Shelton, Nolfi, Arnold de Vries, Thomson, etc. Bircher B. has experienced much opposition as is generally the 24
case, not least from colleagues who called his method " unscientific." What is the modern view ? The great therapeutical value of raw food is fully recognized not only by naturopaths but also by many medical men. This draws attention to the very simple but nevertheless important fact, that raw food is nearest to natural food. One should bear this in mind ! I have already pointed out the great importance of other natural faotors., To summarise, for the maintenance of his health and in deference to his ethically-justified relation to the animal, man should make use as much as possible of natural means which, fortunately, are still to hand, if he takes the trouble to find and use them. Under the term " raw food," many laymen understand only a few vegetables and fruit, but, as is well known in our circles, there are many more articles of food which, after simple preparation, can be eaten unfired and which are strongly recommended by naturopaths. I repeat: Milk is indeed an ideal and natural article of food for the very young calf, but this detracts nothing from the fact that for man it is unnatural, with all the ethical objections and horrible consequences connected with it (e.g., maintenance of abattoirs). To the lacto-vegetarian this should be, I think, a point of serious consideration. In England nowadays there are a growing number of people who are advocating the use of unfired food. Mr. Brierley's raw food bulletins provide much interesting data. On the other hand, many experts point to the growing tendency in recent years to use all kinds of unnatural means, such as injections, chemical medicines, synthetic vitamins, poison sprays, etc., which lead to the degeneration of the body. For those who are interested, I may close now by quoting Mr. Alexis Carrel, the winner of the Nobel prize, who says in his " Man the Unknown": " I t is a strange thing, that we adjust ourselves without a murmur to most of the conditions of modern life. But this accommodation causes organic and mental changes which constitute a real deterioration of the individual." H. S. KRAMER. The Hague, Holland. " When a man wants to murder a tiger he calls it sport; when a tiger wants to murder him he calls it ferocity." G.B.S.
An anonymous donor of two dollars with a Los Angeles postmark is warmly thanked by the treasurer. 25
VEGANIC GARDENING Vegans are well aware, or should be, that " organic " compost can, and frequently does, contain slaughterhouse products— hair, blood, hoof and horn, skin, bones, condemned meat, etc. Now we have been warned that these animal ingredients, as well as being aesthetically objectionable, can be dangerous. Writing in the Daily Mail on December 3rd, Charles Derby wrote: — " Danger in Those Fertilisers There has been a bit of a furore in medical circles because a group of scientists in Glasgow have found that fertilisers such as bone meal, dried blood and hoof and horn, all based on animal by-products, are potential sources of food poisoning. Various types of salmonella, a group of bacteria, several of which can cause food poisoning in human beings, were found on most of the samples of bone -meal examined. They were found to a lesser degree in the hoof and horn, and to a slight extent in the dried blood." Just another reminder to us all of the great debt we owe to those few expert vegan gardeners who have devoted their lives to the study of food production by vegetable organic (veganic) methods. Members who have' not yet learned the art, and the value, of vegetable compost-making are reminded that the book " Intensive Gardening " by R. Dalziel O'Brien is available from the vegan library. E.B. LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Thank you for the pamphlet "Cruelty to Farm Animals "—it has shocked my friends. They just could not believe that such cruelty existed. Alas, that is as far as it goes—they would not even join the S.P.C.A. But whether they like it or not—their subconscious has been upset, and a seed of doubt has been planted in their minds as to the manner of their dealings with the animal world. Perhaps something will grow out of this. If I were able to purchase a Vegan milk fortified with B12 over here, I would be a full member instead of an Associate one. J. SAUISBY, South Africa. We would remind friends that the pamphlets are available free of charge although money towards the postage is welcome. Also those of us who were members in the early years survived very well on nut milk made from n u t creams. With reference to the letter from E. Bradford of Torquay, published in your winter issue, may I say that Plantmilk Ltd. agrees with his sentiments though there would appear to be a difference between dictionary definitions and. legal definitions. 26
Brand names are subject to the law — unfortunately not to the dictionary. The Company fought for some months against changing the name of Plantmilk to Plamil but (without going into wearisome details) it eventually became clear that we were obliged to meet the request of the authorities. We were, for example, advised that impending legislation would probably make it illegal to use the word " milk " even as part of another word unless it referred specifically to cows' milk. The milk industry has enormous power and resources and protects its interests. I have just seen reference in the press to the National Dairy Council embarking on a three-million pound publicity drive this year! Mr. Bradley can rest assured that the change was made reluctantly and in the face of official pressure. To resist this pressure would most likely have brought us into the courts with no guarantee (and indeed probably the opposite) that we would succeed. The name and label may be changed, but the product is the same, in fact it is better simply because with greater experience and practice we are able to improve with every batch, and Plamil plantmilk is a good and valuable alternative to cows' milk. It is, moreover, the only liquid vegetable milk manufactured in Great Britain and the humanitarian motives which promoted it are still behind it. C . A . LING, Secretary, on behalf of Plantmilk Ltd. We hope that the following letter will encourage those who are hesitating to become vegans: — I feel sure you will be pleased to learn that I have become, at last, a vegan to the best of my advantage. I say this because I find there are so many loopholes one can step into without realising it. I am not absolutely adept at knowing the contents of certain foodstuffs and clothing although I am trying very hard and am discarding a number of my old trying habits. I am most exhilarated by this way of life even after such a short time and I feel it gives one an object in life—certainly a clean, pure feeling. I am thirty-one years old and have been a lacto-vegetarian since the age of fourteen years—not due to my parents' influence. We, as human beings I feel, have a standard to set and that standard should be harmlessness. Goodness only knows we all have it in us and if we as human beings cannot take this attitude, it is a poor show for we cannot expect instinct-driven animals to adapt their minds to such a course. I have had the greatest admiration for vegans for many years and it was bound to happen to myself at some point. Of course it is not quite so easy for us in Manchester as it is for Londoners, as we do' not even have a vegetarian restaurant here, let alone a vegan one, and " Beauty Without Cruelty " products are only first find27
ing their way into the smaller health food stores, so of course eating out serves as somewhat of a problem when a good hearty meal is required. Of course I do realise that a vegan life does not only entail eating but also our dress. The Kosher household products are fairly helpful too and, now that I am looking more closely into the matter, it is surprising what I am finding out about the everyday products that are on the markets and I am all for supporting the companies that avoid animal matter totally. It surprises me greatly that a company such as Heath and Heather are using gelatine in their table jellies! While more and more dairy cafes and steak houses open in Manchester we are given little hope for even the smallest vegetarian restaurant and the object seems to be cater for the masses rather than the minority which, I guess, is understandable to some extent, but it nevertheless tends to annoy one at times. However, when all is summed up, I must add again that I am glad I have taken a right hand turn and am able to say with confidence, " Yes, I am a vegetarian "—and mean it. J.
From our member G. T. Hart, who is a teacher with Voluntary Service Overseas in Guyana. " Being a vegan out here is very enjoyable from the food point of view, as there is such an enormous range of vegetables and fruits to choose from. I have gained many new ways of preparing food, too, from our Indian cook. ' So far, though, I have not tackled the problem of toilet soap, and neither have I looked into the sources of margarine, which I do not use anyway. The only ill-effect I have observed from this my first year as a vegan, was severe muscle cramp. This became worse over the first few months here in Guyana — much to my surprise as I expected to gain enough salt for my needs from ordinary food. Apparently this was not so, because as soon as I added salt to my diet, the cramp stopped. So I am feeling fit and well, and very happy to know that all the fears about B12 deficiency have so far proved groundless." from Dollis Road, Finchley, to , Barnet, Herts. Over many years in Church End, Finchley, I succeeded in getting vegans and vegetarians to ask for the foods required from local shopkeepers and when I left the district a number of shopkeepers—including the Co-operative Stores and Boots — obtained for me and others vegetarian and vegan foods. Please can you put me in touch with vegans and vegetarians in this vicinity—Cockfosters, East and New Bamet—who would be interested in joining forces with me to get at least one shop willing to order the goods we need. There ds no Health Food 28
EFFECTIVE PURIFIER CATARRH BRONCHITIS
.. The ..
This neat, attractive and dignified symbol incorporates the Vegan emblem with blue surround.
Supplied with pin or charmring fitting as ' illustrated in quality chrome and enamel.
10/- post free From
THE VEGAN SOCIETY 123 Baker St., Enfield, Middx." Contains Charcoal to absorb toxins and Garlic for internal purity Catarrh and Bronchitis are conditions of the mucus linings and bronchial tubes. The chief cause is bacterial infection which impure blood cannot clear. This is why the new CHARLIC tablets are so important. They contain a combination of two of the most powerful ingredients for the treatment of Catarrh and Bronchitis . . . Charcoal and Garlic. Charcoal to absorb impurities from the body and Garlic to act as an internal germicide to attack and conquer harmful bacteria. If YOU suffer from Catarrh or Bronchitis, you should start a course of CHARLIC tablets straight away. 5/6 per'100, 12/6 per 300 6? 38/- per 1,000. Post 9d. extra.
H. H. GREAVES LTD Printers & Publishers
Food Stores & Herbalists, or direct from the makers:
RATIONAL DIET PRODUCTS 7 CHANTRY LANE GRIMSBY
106-10 LORDSHIP LANE LONDON, S.E.27 Telephone:
01 - 693 1231/2
Specialising in Natural Vitamin Products
Shop near, but instead of ordering from distant suppliers of vegan and vegetarian food, it is good advertisement to make known to shopkeepers that there are people who live in the vegan way or as vegetarians. I would be most grateful for any suggestion or introduction you can make. Miss VIOLET I . MITCHELL. It is hoped that there will be some near neighbours who will be able to join forces with Miss Mitchell. Please communicate direct with her. All of us are aware that some unfortunate children suffer terribly due to ignorance, neglect, and sometimes even intentional brutality, and that this shocking state of affairs continues is a grim reflection on all of us. Yet not until one comes face to face with a particular case does it really hit home, and our complete inadequacy make itself felt. My first reaction to such an incident was an increased interest in the work of the N.S.P.C.C., and because of this I learned about their fund-raising scheme which carried a first prize of a fur coat. How these kind people who devote so much time, money and effort on this admirable work to aid ill-treated children could remain unaware of animal suffering surprised me, and so I wrote to them suggesting more humanely-produced prizes be offered in future. I have now received a friendly acknowledgement and been assured that my comments have been noted and " will most certainly be borne in mind in the future". Nevertheless, two days later I read of another N.S.P.C.C. fundraising scheme; this time a fashion show of fur coats! Doubtless this and otther similar shows which are being held on .their behalf up and down the country, have been organised long ago. However, we shall continue to hope and pray for real enlightenment in this field of otherwise very worthy endeavour. V.F.D., Paignton. Do you ever wonder " What is in it?" when purchasing Soup, Soap or Margarine? Don't ' hope for the best' in future, send for
THE VEGETARIAN AND VEGAN FOOD GUIDE WITH HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTS and know which are the humanely produced articles. This 40-page booklet' lists hundreds of items conveniently grouped for quick reference. 2/6d. post free, from: THE VEGAN SOCIETY, 123 Baker Street, Enfield, Middlesex
Change to 'Alfonal' 'Safety First' Health Foods Heart disease now accounts for more than one out of every two deaths in civilised countries. In a report the American Heart Association says: " The reduction of fat consumption with reasonable substitution of Poly-Unsaturated fat for Saturated fats is recommended as a possible means of preventing atherosclerosis and decreasing the risks of heart attacks and strokes This Alfonal range of safe, hearthelping foods is hospital tested and medically approved. Ask for them by the brand names.
" SUN-iO-LIFE " Sunflower Oil Margarine—even higher in Poly-Unsaturates—offers you the ultimate in low cholesterol margarines. It also contains Alphium (stabilised Wheat Germ Oil) for added protection. You will love the delicious new flavour and spreadability. Makes even better-tasting sandwiches . . . better for cooking and frying, too. per 1 / 8 i lb.
^% Sun-O-Lijje Sunflower Oil M SUN-O-LIFE " Sunflower Salad and Cooking Oil is coldpressed from sun-ripened Sunflower seeds—even higher in Poly-Unsaturates. Brings you the full food value of Sunflower seeds harvested at their peak Poly-Unsaiurate potency. Taste this new light and exciting flavour in your home cooking. Use it for new taste delights on salads, as a Mayonnaise and for frying. 2 / 4 per j pint. 4 / - per pint. 7 / 9 per 2 pint. 3 0 / - per gallon.
SuntHf . l\ i ,« t»
r*. From all Health
if an/ difficulty write direct to Alfonal Ltd., C h u r c h Road, W o r c e s t e r Park, Surrey G.F.C.
Vegan Shortbread 5 ozs. Allinson's wholemeal 4 ozs. Maizy oil margarine cake flour 2 ozs. Barbados or white 1 oz. medium oatmeal pieces sugar M E T H O D : Put all ingredients into mixing bowl and knead , together until mixture is a complete ball. Place into sandwich tin and spread out evenly with a fork. Cook for twenty or twenty-five minutes at 425°. SERENA COLES.
Small Rye Cakes ozs. rye flour 1 teaspoon agar-agar oz. S.R. wholemeal flour dissolved in two teaspoons ozs. vegan margarine water ozs. brown sugar 5 tablespoons vegan milk ozs. mixed dried fruit M E T H O D : Cream the fat and sugar, mix with all other ingredients. Spoon into small eclair tins, bake in moderate oven (325° F.) for twenty-five minutes, or till light brown and firm to the touch. The protein content of rye is higher than that of wheat —in the proportion of four to three. 3 1 2 2 2
Almond Buns 4 ozs. wholemeal flour (81%) 4 ozs. brown sugar 4 ozs. ground almonds 3 ozs. vegan margarine 4 ozs. ground rice " Milk " to mix (slightly Little cinnamon under £ pint) M E T H O D : Rub fat into dry ingredients. Add "milk" to make a dropping consistency, mix well and place in small tins. Bake at 400° for about twenty minutes. This mixture could be used to make a bakewell tart. Line sandwich tin with short-crust pastry, spread on a layer of smooth jam, then spread with almond mixture (half the above quantity) on top of jam. Bake in a moderate oven. GOLDIE LAMBERT, Sanderstead, Surrey. Try this when someone in the family has a cold 1 raw Spanish onion 2 teaspoons Barbados sugar (chopped) Juice of half a lemon Plantmilk (undiluted) Tomato Ketchup to taste Mix all together and serve to the whole family. It will ease a cold, fortify the sufferer, and protect those who do not have one! from V.D. Southend-on-Sea. 32
Terms: Cash with Order to H. H. Greaves Ltd., 106/110 Lordship Lane, London, S.E.22. (2/- per line: minimum 2 lines; 20% discount on four consecutive issues.) ACCOMMODATION VACANT. Attractive bed-sitting room, large and newly decorated with balcony in mansion flat. Use of kitchen and bathroom. Vegan only. CHIswick 3565. BLACKHEATH'S HEALTH FOOD STORE. An impressive selection of Health Foods. Juice Bar and Refreshment Room — small and cosy, with personal attention. Tasty snacks, generous salads and appetising hot meals. Nutrition without Cruelty — vegetarian and vegan foods; Science without Cruelty — herbal remedies. Also Beauty without Cruelty — harmless soaps and cosmetics. Plantmilk, nuts, seeds and grains—a speciality. Wholewheat bread and cakes. Compost-grown produce. Large selection of health books. Afreta Healing Oil, a unique combination of natural oils, wonderfully penetrating in the relief of sprains, burns, rheumatism, bronchitis, etc. 3/3d. and 6/3d„ plus l / 6 d . postage. HEALTHWAYS, 5 Tranquil Passage, London, S.E.3. LEE Green 5811. BRITISH VEGETARIAN YOUTH MOVEMENT. An organisation for people 12—35. Social gatherings, holidays, monthly magazine, etc., organised. Further particulars from Secretary, B.V.Y.M., c / o London Vegetarian Society, 53 Marloes Road, London, W.8. HEALTH through NATURAL HYGIENE. Are you interested in Health achieved naturally and without the exploitation of other human beings and animals? Natural Hygiene is a system of health preservation and restoration which meets these requirements. For literature, send 6d. stamp to: The Secretary, British Nat. Hygiene Soc., 40 Foxburrow Road, Norwich, Norfolk. PLAMIL PLANTMILK is the complete vegan answer to animal milk. Canned as a double-strength liquid and ideal for use as a cream or diluted as a milk. PLAMIL Chocolate and PLAMIL home-made style Fudge are quality confections without dairy produce or any other animal ingredient. Ask for these three vegan products at your Health Store. They are made by the only firm producing nothing but vegan foods. PLANTMILK LTD., High Street, Langley, Bucks. PLEASE HELP the Anglo-East European Fund for Animal Welfare. Please send a donation to help us to help the unfortunate animals in Hungary. Miklos Bandi is working alone ther es help urgently. Send for details t o : Roy M. Pattison, Bladeheath Village, London, S.E.3. RAW FOOD RESEARCH BULLETINS are now continued as Raw Food Notes in each issue of " The Fructarian ". Annual subscription 10s. 6d. to be sent to The Fruitarian Guild, 1 Camden Row, Cuckoo Hill, Pinner Green, Middlesex. THE COMPASSIONATE DOCTRINE OF AHIMSA is stressed in the monthly publication "AHIMSA" (non-killing, harmlessness). Full year, 7s. in British stamps or coins. THE AMERICAN VEGAN SOCIETY, Malaga, N.J. 08328, U.S.A.
VEGAN COMMUNITIES MOVEMENT urges radical social reform through creation of free communities based on Ahimsa. We oppose exploitation, both capitalist exploitation of human labour and general exploitation of the weak—especially the animals—and all suppression of the other-thought. Community life offers the only practicable way of combating loneliness, encouraging companionship and living the vegan ethic without compromise. Information, 2s. 6d. from Selene Community, Brynbach Fields, Rhydcymerau, Llandeilo, Carms. W O R L D FORUM. The leading international Vegetarian quarterly. Edited by Mrs. Esme Wynne-Tyson. Advocates the vegetarian way of life for physical health and a true relationship between the human and creature kingdoms—without exploitation and cruelty. 2/-, plus 6<L post per copy. 10/- per year, post free.—H. H. GREAVES LTD., 106/110 Lordship Lane, London, S.E.22.
MAJORCA.—For retired couple is offered comfortably furnished flat in English widow's home with kind climate and beautiful views at reasonable rent f o r permanency. Further particulars with reply coupon please, f r o m : RITCHIE, Salud, (153) Palma de Mallorca. BROOK LINN.—Callander, Perthshire. Vegetarian and Vegan meals carefully prepared and attractively served. Comfortable guest house. Near Trossachs and Western Highlands. Mrs. Muriel Choffin. Callander 103. EASTBOURNE. Full or part-board, or self-catering. Bright and comfortable. Pleasantly situated, outskirts of town. Easy access shops, sea front. Parking facilities. Margaret Fisher, Edgehill Vegetarian Guest House, 6 Mill Road. Tel. 30627 & 21084. V.C.A. Member. EDSTONE, WOOTTON WAWEN, WARWICKSHIRE (near Stratford-onAvon). Modern Nature Cure Resort and Guest House with every comfort, and compost-grown produce. (Phone: Clavcrdon 327.) INTERNATIONAL VEGETARIAN HOSTEL. 31 St. Charles Square, London, W.10. Vegans expertly catered for. Food reform/no smoking. (Temporary or permanent.) Details from Tony and Margrit Back. Tel.: LAD 2869. L A K E DISTRICT. Rothay Bank, Grasmere. Attractive guest house for invigorating, refreshing holidays.—Write Isabel James. Tel.: 334. NEWQUAY, CORNWALL. Lowenva Vegetarian Guest House, 182 Mount Wise. Mrs. P. Lapham. Home-baking. Brochure. Tel.: Newquay 2764. " W O O D C O T E " , Lelant, St. Ives, Cornwall, is a high-class Vegetarian Food Reform Guest House in a warm and sheltered situation overlooking the Hayle Estuary. Composted vegetables; home-made wholewheat bread; vegans catered for knowledgeably. Mr. and Mrs. Woolfrey. Tel.: Hayle 3147. Early bookings for Summer very advisable. WOTTON-UNDER-EDGE, GLOUCESTERSHIRE. Coombe Lodge is a Manor House set in a two-acre garden on the southern slopes of the Cotswold Hills, overlooking Coombe Valley, where most fruit and vegetables are home-grown. Demonstrations given of Vegan Cookery. Apply Kathleen Keleny. Tel.: Wotton-under-Edge 3165. Printed by H . H . GREAVES LTD., 106/110, Lordship Lane, East Dulwich, London, S.E.22.