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Veganism is a way of living which excludes all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, the animal kingdom, and includes a reverence and compassion for all life. It applies to the practice of living on the products of the plant kingdom to the exclusion of flesh, fish, fowl, eggs, honey, animal milk and its derivatives, and encourages the use of alternatives for all commodities derived wholly or in part from animals. Veganism remembers man's responsibilities to the earth and its resources and seeks to bring about a healthy soil and plant kingdom and a proper use of the materials of the earth. President: Dr. FREY ELLIS, Epsom, Surrey. Deputy-President: Mrs. E. B. SHRIGLEY, Old Coulsdon, Surrey. Vice-Presidents: Mrs. MURIEL DRAKE, Dr. CATHERINE NIMMO, Miss MABEL SIMMONS, Miss WINIFRED SIMMONS. Acting Honorary Secretary: Mrs. EVA BATT, , Enfield, Middlesex. Honorary Treasurer: Dr. FREY ELLIS, Epsom, Surrey. Assistant Treasu GRACE SMITH, (to whom all subscriptions should be sent), Epsom, Surrey. Committee: Mr. E. T . BANKS, Mr. H . T . BONNIE, Mrs. SERENA N . COLES, Mr. J. HOPKINS, Miss T. C . LARKIN, Mr. JACK MOCLELLAND, Mr. M . MOCULLOCH,

Mrs. E .




Mr. W.



WRIGHT, B.Sc., N.D., D O., M.B.N.O.A. Vegan Distribution Secretary: Miss THELMA LARKIN, West Horndon, Brentwood, Essex. Minimum subscription, which includes " The Vegan", 15s. per annum (and 7s. 6d. for each additional member of one family at same residence); 7s. 6d. if age under 18; payable in January. Life Membership, £10 10s. Od. THE JOURNAL






Editor: Mr. JACK SANDERSON, Upminster, Essex. Advertisements: H. H. GREAVES LTD., 106/110 Lordship Lane, London, S.E.22. Rates: Whole page—£10 0s. 0d.; Half page—£6 0s. 0d.; Quarter page—£3 10s. Od. Published quarterly: Annual subscription, 10s. post free; single copies, 2s. 6d. post free. Obtainable from the Hon. Secretary.

LITERATURE " T h e Reasons for Veganism." 4 page leaflet. Free. " Vegan Protein Nutrition." 12 page leaflet. Is. 3d. post free. " A Handbook of Practical Veganism." 24 pages with cover. 2s. 9d. post free. "Unnecessary Cruelties among Farm Animals." 8 page leaflet. 6d. post free. " T h e Vegetarian and Vegan Food Guide." 2s. 6d. post free. " Vegans and Vivisection." 8 page leaflet. 6d. post free. All obtainable from the Hon. Secretary (cheques and postal orders made out to " The Vegan Society ").


of the Vegan


SPRING, 1966

EDITORIAL After a period of inward-looking on the occasion of our 21st Birthday Celebrations, we will turn our thoughts again to the world to which we belong. Let us turn our gaze downwards, not to the surface of the earth alone but down some distance below the surface. And what do we find? In the North Sea area vast sources of natural gas just waiting to be tapped, and as the. earth's crust is gradually explored, who knows what other treasures remain to be discovered? Apart from coal, oil and gas and minerals of all kinds we should not forget that another valuable commodity often lies below the earth's surface, one that in the long run is of more permanent value, for it can circulate and give life. Not all the rain that falls on the earth finds it way via the surface rivers to the oceans, and there are vast stores of water underneath the surface that await their time of human disposal. Nuclear war apart, the great and rapidly growing problem that faces mankind is " How to feed the growing millions ", and the key to all life is WATER. We have our national grids for electricity and gas and it cannot be too long delayed before we have a national grid of water. But the world supplies of water need to be studied and regulated, for more and more countries, with rapidly growing demand are finding themselves becoming short of this precious commodity. The most efficient methods of irrigation, the conservation of present supplies, and the tapping of new supplies are matters of great urgency whilst the studies on the conversion of sea water by the elimination of salt, etc., deserve more support. So many of these projects require large scale co-operation, but when one studies the economics of war when vast sums are devoted to mechanical slaughter, and the economics of " peace " when armaments are the most saleable commodity, one cannot escape the thought that a fraction of this money spent on real,

collective, constructive policies would result in such an upsurge of hope and happiness for those who now have little or no hope, that much of the fear and distrust between nations would gradually melt away. The Goliath of the American automobile industry has just bowed the knee to a David who has fought and proved his point that cars are lacking in adequate safety precautions. A single individual even in this world of powerful impersonal giant corporations can still do much if he is dedicated to his task. Richard St. Barbe Baker has helped to make thousands of people " tree" minded, i.e., aware of the central place of trees in the water cycle and in general ecology (apart from their beauty and manifold uses). He initiated many pilot schemes in different parts of the world involving trees and water and now it is good to read of Miss Wendy Campbell-Purdie and her work in different parts of North Africa. Formerly with the F.A.O. in Rome and later in charge of a timber enterprise in Corsica, her imagination was captured by the idea of reclaiming the Sahara. Like Richard Baker she foresees the Sahara surrounded by a Green Front (1) to stop its invasion of good land and (2) to turn it back and advance fertility against sterility. She has a larger vision of the reafforestation of the desert itself by bringing to the surface the rivers and lakes of water which are below. (This could affect the weather in turn of many other surrounding countries.) Miss Campbell-Purdie believes that in the land between the desert and fertile country, water is not far below the surface and the roots of trees can reach down to it and lift it into the surrounding atmosphere, and help to make more land fertile. In putting her ideas to the test she has had her ups and downs. When she began six years ago, she went to Tiznit in Morocco without capital, gathered help and gradually surrounded a central area of forty-five desert acres with acacias and eucalyptus trees, and successfully planted grain in the central area. Then in Tunisia she helped with seedling nurseries but floods swept these away. Then with independence in Algeria, she got to work 130 miles south of Algiers at Bou Saada a "Gateway to the Sahara"—a small town with an oasis. In a four-mile stretch of plain she has planted her trees (and grain in the spaces) and her trees (not all of them) have survived floods in the short wet season which have swept away roads and bridges. The authorities are now with her and along with other 'bodies—such as the World Council of Churches—supply her with seedlings for planting, and she is also establishing her own nursery this year as seedlings easily damage in transit. The species of trees and grain were selected for growth in arid land using the experience of experts in the U.S.A. and Australia— barley, wheat, millet and sorghum from the University of California and broom corn from Oklahoma, along with eucalyptus, acacias, honey locusts and castor beans all surrounded by cypresses for wind protection. 2

Now another African government is interested, whilst there is a proposal from the Director General of the F.A.O. before the Organisation of African Unity suggesting that a meeting be called to discuss the feasibility of Sahara reclamation. And one desert reclaimed can lead to the others. The pilot schemes of the Bakers and Campbell-Purdies show the way—and just as surely so do the pilot schemes and spade work of the Vegan Society.


(Some readers might be interested to know that the Rev. A. Williams of St. Martin-in-the-Fields is chairman of a committee that is helping this project.)



e held at the home of Mrs. Serena Coles at , Purley, Surrey, on Sunday, June 5th, from 2.30 to 6.30. Children welcome. Trains from Victoria to Riddlesdown Station at eight minutes past the hour. Turn left out of the station for Riddlesdown Avenue. Or fast trains to Purley at forty-seven minutes past the hour. Hill from Purley Station to Serena's. Please ring her (UPLands 7518) from Purley if you would like transport to the house. Some of the attractions will be music by Mr. Bocking, whom we all remember; Beauty Without Cruelty cosmetics, Palmist, Plantmilk stall, and tea with home-made cakes, etc., etc. Admission free. To assist with the catering it will be appreciated if you can let Serena know if you hope to be coming and bringing friends. Those who attended the last Party at Serena's in 1962 will need no second asking!



The Vegetarian Nutritional Research Committee will be holding their annual general meeting at 2.30 p.m. on Sunday, June 26th, at Mrs. Hosali's house at Biggin Hill and Dr. Mehta the Indian High Commissioner is to speak on " India's use of vegetable foods ". Further details from Dr. F. Wokes at 1 Ellwood Crescent, Garston, Watford, Herts. The " Beauty Without Cruelty " Garden Party will be held at Brighton on Sunday, August 14th. Further details from Lady Dowding, Oakgates, Southborough, Tunbridge Wells. 3

MONEY MATTERS Money does matter and the more we receive the more people we can reach through literature and other ways. The Treasurer (Dr. Frey Ellis) and Assistant Treasurer (Grace Smith), send a collective " Thank Y o u " to members, subscribers and friends who have sent in their subscriptions and generous donations for the current year. If you have not sent yours yet please send it to Grace as soon as you can.


Power of love that moves the universe And pulls the swift seeds upwards to the light Which fashioned all the glowing galaxies Within the womb of unillumined night. In whose bright being lives of little men Uncomprehending ever breathe and dwell Oblivious of the light that folds them round That high and hallowed home from which they fell. Shed on this stricken world your healing ray Where inarticulate life must moan in vain While in the trembling flesh the cold knife probes And only pleading eyes can speak their pain. Send to this pitiless sphere some portent soon Whispers of worlds where cruelty is not Some far faint strain that to the spirit speaks Of harmony and light that life forgot. Power of love: within the minds of men Implant some seeds of pity for their sake Let the dread ghosts of the despised dumb Trouble their slumbers till those seeds awake.

The Henry Doubleday Research Association. We are glad to learn that this excellent association has been able to secure the freehold of its trial ground, thus ensuring the continuity of many valuable expe here by its Hon. Secretary, Lawrence D. Hills, , Booking, Braintree, Essex. 4


(Our correspondent in Holland) The Dutch lacto-vegetarian Society was founded on September 30th, 1894, with forty-seven members, who were all very much devoted to their principles, convinced as they were " that man does not belong to the carnivores, that the vegetable world provides him with everything he wants for his feeding and for the development of his body, that not only personal cruelty is a great evil, but that it is quite as reprehensible to allow others or to encourage them to slaughter lower fellow-creatures." The number of members has been gradually increasing and at present is about 2,500, though it is estimated that there are at least 12,000 vegetarians in our country. Many doctors are of the opinion that it is quite possible to apply the lacto-vegetarian diet without coming to any harm and in many cases of illness it is even prescribed. In the first decades of years, vegetarians were considered to be very queer birds, and it should be admitted that this was partly their own fault, some of them drawing too much attention by wearing very long hair and walking, even in winter, in sandals and bare feet! Such behaviour only leads to ridicule and is of no use to the vegetarian movement! Fortunately it is no longer so! Even-thirty years ago a German Association of medical doctors declared that the vegetable world could provide us with all the kinds of food we required, whilst a scientific committee of the Dutch Institution of Preventive Medicine stated ten years ago that the lacto-vegetarian way of feeding is quite sufficient. Nowadays vegetarianism is, generally speaking, accepted and respected. In every restaurant and eating-shop you can get a .good lacto-vegetarian meal. This can easily be imagined as dairy products and eggs can be added to all kinds of purely vegetable food. In a fine wooded region in the eastern part of Holland, and close to a town, there is a vegetarian home for elderly people, and a second is being built. The house is inhabited by forty-five people of whom thirty-two are over eighty and two over ninety. They all enjoy good health and they are active in many ways. Lectures are given by some of them from time to time on humanitarian subjects. There is a group of about 100 young vegetarians too. They operate independently and issue a periodical of their own. The Dutch "Vegetarian Messenger." issued monthly by the Society is of high standing. The editorship is in the trusted hands of Mr. Y. J. D. van Wyngaarden, Mr. G. van Nederveen, and Mrs. H. Ferro-Kanis. Mrs. Dr. Tini Kaayk, who has a very large practice, and many 5

others give their muoh appreciated co-operation. The contents of the journal are similar to those of the " British Vegetarian ". Vegans are also invited to state their views. The Society has its own Food Inspection Department led,.by Mr. H. Peters, a vegetarian and a clever chemist. All the articles that are inspected and approved are provided with the notice " Approved by the Dutch Vegetarian Society ". Often the emblem " Natura Humanitas Scientia ", designed by Mahatma Ghandi, is added. We have good relations with the Dutch Nutritional Research Centre, which, in some respects co-operates with the Society. Much correspondence is conducted with the War Office in order to enable those who are in the Military services to obtain vegetarian meals. Those' of them who object to all kinds of vaccinations, so much in vogue in the Military Service nowadays, really have to contend with many difficulties! The number of Health Food Stores in Holland, all recommending the vegetarian way of living, is gradually increasing. Every year in the month of September a so-called " Family Day " is organised in a beautiful part of the country, when many members attend a lecture and pass a pleasant day. Veganism in Holland As for veganism I regret to admit that up to the present not very much can be said about it. Shortly after the second World War a little more attention was paid to veganism. Before that time the voice of one crying in the wilderness was occasionally heard. This is rather strange as in the nineteeth century many prominent doctors and naturopaths encouraged successful vegetable feeding. I may mention Sylvester Graham, Trail, Dodds, Jackson, Taylor, Walter Page, Oswald, Densmore, Dewey, Tilden, Weger, Vos, Clark, Alsaker, etc. During 1946 I was privileged to read some " Vegan Society " literature which strongly appealed to me and confirmed my own views. Of late years I have expounded vegan views in about twelve articles in the Dutch "Vegetarian Messenger" with the result that I have excited the interest of about thirty-five members. In the meantime four of them have become members of the (English) Vegan Society and three have become subscribers. Undoubtedly there would' be. more subscribers if they could read- English. With most of these people I have exchanged much correspondence. In a lecture I delivered in Amsterdam a medical doctor tried to refute my sound arguments, but he could not prevent some of the audienoe from coming up to me after the lecture to express their, appreciation and their, wishes to change over to the vegan way of feedjng!,;-; . ; ' : . • - . ' - . • . ' , t It is regrettable, but true, that most lacto-vegetarians do not 6

wish to abstain from dairy products and eggs, using possible deficiencies especially of vitamin B 1 2 , as suggested by some doctors, as a welcome excuse. This only proves that they have not the right opinion of what real vegetarianism is and that their abhorrence of slaughtering is not so strong as they pretend. Nevertheless, poor as it is, there is some progress and I have every confidence that in the near future it will gradually get better. This appeared to me when I attended Dr. Wokes' most interesting lecture on vegetable proteins at Wageningen on Friday, October 15th last. I was struck too by the lecture delivered by Mr. Dinshah, President of the American Vegan Society in Rotterdam, on Wednesday, November 3rd last, in which he supported in such an admirable way the vegan views. The moral influence radiated by such privileged speakers cannot be denied. It is a matter for rejoicing that the manufacture of Plantmilk has begun in England. If the milk is satisfying and if it can eventually be supplied at a lower price than cow's milk, it will generally be used in the future, especially after some advertising. Thus fact is confirmed by vegetable margarine, which is used by the greater part of the population here and even preferred by some to dairy butter! I am trying to have Plantmilk produced by some big concern in this country, but it appears to be very difficult owing to the enormous opposition of the dairy industry. In restaurants and eating-houses it will usually not be possible to get a vegan msal, unless you give very clear indications. I am afraid people are not very accommodating, thinking they have to deal with cranks, a risk we have to accept!

VEGANS AND RELIGION An article under this heading appeared in our Autumn, 1964 issue, and it was followed up by another reference in our Spring, 1965 issue. In these articles, members were invited to send a short note stating their religion, sect, views or outlook, etc., to discover if there is any trend in the religious leanings or way of life of our members. Mr. John Tester kindly undertook this work and there was a good response. Much to-and-fro correspondence followed, and apart from the direct results of the inquiry itself, there has been much useful matter relating to such topics as Reverence for Life, Cruelty, Suffering, etc. This will result in a series of articles beginning with our Summer issue. (This issue has to be smaller than average as our two previous celebration issues were larger than usual.—EDITOR.) 7

ONCE IN A LIFE-TIME November, 1967 (first two weeks most likely), seems a long way off but plans must now be made for the I.V.U. INDIAN CONGRESS—Delegates must be thinking if they can afford this fabulous opportunity to see something of India and the East. The General Secretary has been very fortunate in being able to charter one or two aeroplanes (90 or 100 .seaters) at a reasonable cost and with an exciting sightseeing programme en route at about £170 return. The suggested route, picking up passengers, will be Stockholm, Manchester, Paris, Istanbul, Teheran, Delhi, Bombay, Cairo, and back. There will be overnight and half-day stops to see: Hagia Sophia, the old palaces of the Sultans of Turkey, the Blue Mosque and Golden Horn; the Imperial Palace, Peacock Throne and Silver Bazaars in Teheran (and meet our vegetarian friends there); the Great Pyramids, Sphinx and Cairo Museum on the way back— the cost will include accommodation at first class hotels with baths or showers, sight-seeing with guides, all meals in the aircraft and at hotels en route, with a closing Banquet at the Cleopatra Hotel. The Indian Hosts have promised free hospitality for Officially Appointed Representatives of Affiliated Societies, whose fees are paid up-to-date; other visitors will have to pay for their accommodation in India but this need not be expensive. This trip will be about thirteen days and will include the I.V.U. Congress at Delhi and Bombay—as we are planning a long way ahead there may be some variations in route and cost. If we are able to charter several planes, and we very much hope there will be an enthusiastic response, one can be used for further internal flights to Madras or other places of interest. Firm bookings will have to be made fairly early this year. WHAT YOU MUST DO NOW, please: Those who can be fairly certain that they will seize this opportunity, and those who think there is a possibility and would also like to be kept in touch with developments, write NOW and state plainly and briefly if you will or hope to attend the Congress, and if you would like the short time or a longer stay in India, to: The General Secretary, International Vegetarian Union, Bank Square. Wilmslow, Cheshire, England. (While National and Local Secretaries may arrange groups in their respective countries the final bookings must be made through the General Secretary. Any questions asked will be answered in circulars and not individually.) 8



Long before the word VEGANISM was coined, a cow taught me the principle. In the past, I went every year to Krishnamurti's spiritual camps in the country of Miner's Oaks in Ojai, California. One year, on my early walks, I passed a. cow tied up on one side of the road, moaning for her calf tied up on the other side of the road and crying for her mother. After the second morning I could not stand it any longer and tried to find their owner and asked him, stupidly, why these two could not be together and enjoy each other. . " Lady," said the farmer, " they are separated, because you want the cow's milk." He told me more. I was shocked. Being a regular vegetarian as the word goes (Ovo-Lacto), I lived under the erroneous satisfaction, that we vegetarians did not cause the death of any animal. Did I go soon to investigate all I could about husbandry, the dairy—and poultry industries, transportation, and final cruel slaughter, either so-called humane (impossible in actual practice) or.inhumane. I stood in awe of all I found out. And now it is all much worse! Immediately I stopped all egg consumption and the occasional chocolate milk, as I never liked just milk. So, I became a lonesome real strict vegetarian. Happily, several years later, the (English) Vegan Society was launched in 1944. Was I glad! I became a member instantly and the Vegan journal was a great comfort to me and still is, although now we have our own too. Unknown to herself, that cow did a useful job for her kind, and for humanity that day, as she made me a practical vegan and an ardent worker for the cause during all these many years. Oceano, California, U.S.A. DR. C. NIMMO. (One of our Vice-Presidents). (The Editor will be pleased to hear of the way in which other members were won over to Veganism.)




Every day twenty-year-old roundsman Gerald Croxford sells 700 pints in the " drink more m i l k " campaign. But on his van as he goes round West Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, are cans of soft drinks. They're for him. "Milk? Haven't touched a drop in thirteen years," said Gerald. " I can't stand it."—Daily Express, Summer, 1965. 9

PLANTMILK RECIPES Sent in by Miss Pauline Lewis of

, Leeds 7.

(1) Plantmilk Rice Pudding (For one or two persons) Two dessertspoons rice (as this is a sweet I use Whitworth's white rice). Parboil rice till just softening. Drain well. Put in Pyrex one pint pudding dish. Add £ pint Plantmilk neat, $ pint cold water, two dessertspoonfuls sugar (I use B.S.C.), one knob of Tomor margarine. Stir well and put in oven at 350—400?. Stir once or twice the first \ hour then bake until liquid is absorbed and nice crust on top. Total baking time 1—1£ hours. If a sweeter pudding is required add more sugar when tasting at the second stir. Variation.—Add cinnamon and handful of sultanas. (2) Plantmilk Custard with Bird's Custard Powder Make up diluted Piantmilk -J- pint milk, ^ pint water. Put three dessertspoonfuls custard powder in a deep bowl with three dessertspoonfuls liquid and mix. • Bring remainder of liquid nearly to boil with two or three dessertspoonfuls sugar. Pour gradually on custard stirring all the time. Mix well. Lower heat and return custard to pan. Stirring very gently, cook until custard thickens. Nice hot or cold. (3) Pour Plantmilk (neat) over Weetabix, sultanas and sliced bananas for breakfast. (4) Diluted Plantmilk. \ pint neat and i pint water and heat very slowly as a "Day's Ending" drink. (5) Pour in a little (neat) Plantmilk into a rich scone mixture. (6)

Finally drink; rich, neat and cold.

The Central Council for Health Education publishes a monthly booklet for parents called "Better Health ". So far so good. However, one of the suggested ways of ensuring this " better (health" is to remove the pulp from half an orange (throw it away?) and replace it with (commercial) jelly and cream. The purport of this is to tempt the youngsters to eat " sweets " after meals! 10


BIG STRIDE FORWARD Stepping out in the Fabric of the Future A new man-made material makes shoe-leather as dated as something from the stone age, is now becoming available for men's footwear. Named Corfam, it's a fair bid for the 'best invention since drip-dry shirts. Past snag in the use of artificial materials was their lack of porosity—but Corfam, a poromeric material, breathes like leather. It outsmarts leather in many ways, is tough, durable, good-tempered—all it needs is a wipe over with a damp cloth. Corfam is specially welcomed by Britain's many vegetarians, sensitive to the fact that leather is a product of intensive farming. After a nine-month test by a vegetarian scientist, and enthusiastically endorsed by BEAUTY WITHOUT CRUELTY, Lady Dowding's movement to encourage use of animal-free products

for fashion, Corfam shoss, containing no leather at all, have swung into production at Loakes factory, Kettering. Priced at 9 9 / l i d . and in black or brown, they are now available at the following branches of the London Co-operative Society, East Ham, Edgware, Hammersmith, Hounslow, Romford, Southend, Stratford Broadway, Wood Green. And it looks at if it's going to be a sell-out. Among the first in line for the new shoes—Mike Storm, television art director. His verdict: " Infinitely practical . . . and civilized!" Just as modern materials are rapidly ousting leather in fashion, car and furniture upholstery, Corfam is playing its part in revolutionising the footwear industry! (Sent by " Live and Let Live", 53 Marloes Road, London, W.8. WES 7739.)


DO YOU KNOW WHAT YOU'RE EATING? BATTERY EGGS produced by small cages, often with diseased bodies and weak, broken legs. BROILER CHICKENS kept in over-crowded conditions and dosed with chemicals. PIGS fattened in " sweat boxes" although they have not enough sweat glands to cope with such heat. CALVES fed on an iron-deficient liquid diet (but no water for which they crave) to give them the degree of anaemia which whitens their flesh. BARLEY BEEF cruelly confined for eleven months. Many have damaged livers, some are blind; but all are graded " A " quality at the slaughter house. Hormone injections are banned in fanning by most European Governments, but not Britain—WHY NOT ? This is the way an increasing amount of your food is being produced in FACTORY FARMS. If you are among the growing number of people who are shocked at the cruelty to animals and the hazards to human health, support: The Hampstead Committee Against Factory Farming, 3 Mount Vernon, N.W.3, H A M 1512 or SWI 3900. (The above message is likely to interest most people and appears on a leaflet, further copies of which may be obtained from The Hampstead Committee. Write to them if you wish to be placed on their mailing list.)

VEGFAM The trustees of Vegfam wish to thank all those who have contributed so generously since the fund was opened in April, 1964. We are happy to announce that, at the time of writing there is just over ÂŁ1,200 in the fund to be used this year on the purchase of vegan food, in addition to the trustee fund to be used on distribution costs. The Pakistan/India border is still closed, and although it would be possible to sail from the Persian Gulf to Bombay, this would add much to the cost. We are therefore negotiating with West Pakistan to do the work in that country between July and December. Should there be any last minute difficulties, we shall divert our work to the Arab refugee camps in Syria and Jordan. We realise that in the event of the latter unlikely arrangement there may be some of those who have donated to Vegfam who would not wish their money used in this way. If this is the case they are invited to write to us. It is our plan to send a full account of the expedition tol the editor of The Vegan during and after our work. 12

The special purpose of this letter is to announce that owing to new family and occupational commitments (we expect a baby in April, '66 and a new post in January, '67), we do not feel able to continue the fund, committing ourselves to a further expedition in two or three years time. We therefore ask that no more donations be made after June 14th, 1966, pending a further announcement, and at the same time we invite any who feel able to take over and carry on our work for the hungry to write to us. We thank everyone again for contributing so generously. CHRIS AND J. ROSEMARY ALDOUS.

, Cheltenham, Glos.




High in a bare tree, two crows sit— Close together, feathers touching— Then, clumsy and heavy, bump a little way apart And sit looking at each other. Now and again one leans a little closer, To touch his head gently against the head of the other. Quietly and still, they sit for long periods of time, Then build their nest a little—fly a little— Then return, to sit, happy to be together. Big, " ugly old crows!" but, because they love, Suddenly! Beautifull BARBARA EDWARDS.





What does a vegan give at Easter to a friend? An Easter egg? Surely a very odd thing for one with true reverence for life to do. The idea of taking an egg for the Easter symbol was originally adopted from the pagan fertility festival. The shell was taken by the Christians to represent the sepulchre and the potential new life within as the new life which Christ gave us by rising from the dead. What then could a vegan take as an Easter symbol? I asked my children this question in simple language, of course. This is the answer I received. " Why not a seed?" After thinking about this for a moment I realised how right it was. Each seed has an outer coat, and within, the new life ready to burst forth with the coming of spring—with a kind of everlasting life, for the seed will grow a plant which in turn forms new seed, and so it goes on for ever. Those of 13

us who believe in Jesus Christ may think on the new life dwelling in the plant seed rather than that in the egg. So from now on, our friends will receive seeds for Easter. How much more fun the children will get growing flowers or vegetables, than spoiling their health and teeth with too many chocolate eggs.



Birmingham. We understand from Mr. R. A. de J. Hart that a restaurant and wholefood store is to be opened in Birmingham, and he would like it to cater for vegans. If you are interested and wou out it, please write to Mr. de J. Hart at , Nr. Church Stretton, Salop. South London. Mrs. Middleton-Lewis who was referred to in our Winter, 1963 issue in connection with her South London Beauty Therapy Salon at 7 Streatham Road, Mitcham, Surrey, where she gives body massage, relaxation therapy, remedial electrotherapy, facials, etc., has now added another service, that of electrolysis (see the advert in this issue). B.W.C. Beauty Without Cruelty have held a Garden Party near Maidstone in recent years. This year they are holding one at Brighton on Sunday, August 14th. Details later. Animals Fair, November 25th and 26th. We shall have our usual stall and helpers for both days ar . Please send your name to Mrs. L. Davis, , London, S.E.12, if you can come along for a few hours. The new Plantmilk and Plamil Chocolate will be prominently featured this year. Vegan A.G.M. Our Annual General Meeting has been arranged for the evening of Friday, November 4th, at the Alliance Hall, Westminster. Vegan Nutrition. It is some years since we had a regular series of articles on nutrition, and if all goes well we hope to begin a new helpful series soon. Visit. At their March meeting, the Vegan Committee members were pleased to meet the conductor Mr. Tintner and his wife. He is the Musical Director of the Capetown Municipal Orchestra and is very interested in our work. Errata. In our previous issue Winter, 1965—6, we regret the following errors: — 1. Page 9—the £4,000 was donated by "Freedom from H u n g e r " and not " W a r on Want". 2. Page 39—Visit to Walled Garden. The pictures in the Faber book." Intensive Gardening " were not taken in Sir Thomas Bazley's garden but on the O'Brien's own market garden. 14

Meat Shortage.' Vegans and vegetarians will not be upset to learn that the world in general, and Britain in particular, are likely to be increasingly short of meat in the next ten years. So Said the president of the Imported Meat Trader's Association at a recent Ministry of Agriculture conference at Aberystwyth. He said that the European livestock industries were threatened by foot-and-mouth disease, that Argentina was only now recovering from the great drought of 1961-62, and that this year drought was depleting cattle in large areas of Central Africa. The shortage of meat will pave the way for vegan alternatives but is it not appalling, that inherent in the meat industry is the fact that every few years millions of cattle die a lingering death of thirst and starvation due to a lack of water—and the producers regard it just as a natural hazard and try to recoup their losses in the following years? Book Received. -" Crimes Against Creation " by Miss Marie Dreyfus, Hornsey, London, N.8 (one of our members), 25/- post paid. We hope to review this new book in our summer issue. TREX COOKING FAT NO LONGER PURELY VEGETARIAN It has been confirmed by Joseph Bibby and Sons Limited of Liverpool, that they are no longer prepared to guarantee that TREX is manufactured solely from vegetable oils. It can therefore no longer be recommended to vegetarians. They have reaffirmed, however, that their TWIRL cooking oil, which can be used to replace TREX, will continue to be purely vegetable in origin. Free literature, giving hints and recipes for using TWIRL, is available on request from Joseph Bibby and Sons Limited, King Edward Street, Liverpool 8.

Homes for Dogs and Cats. Homes are always urgently wanted for dogs and puppies, many of whom are left abandoned by callous owners as soon as the novelty of owning them wears off. Homes are sometimes wanted for cats and kittens also. Some dogs and cats are disposed of through various channels to the experimental laboratories. Those more fortunate find themselves in dogs' homes where the law requires that they shall be kept for a short while, but unless they are then claimed or someone offers them a home, they must be destroyed. Will anyone who is interested in giv a dog or cat please contact Mr. Curtis Bush, London, N.W.9. (COLindale 5957 from 8 to 8.30 p.m.) 15

PLANTMILK The day will come when we shall say: People love Plantmilk —and this for a variety of reasons: — Some people are unhappy about protein starvation in the undernourished areas of the world, and they will want Plantmilk because it will help to solve this problem. Some people are concerned about babies and children who in one degree or another are allergic to animal milk, and they will want Plantmilk for the sake of the young and the very young. Some people are unhappy about the world food situation, and they will want Plantmilk because it can be made direct from vegetation, without the need for cows, and that will make it economic where dairy milk is not economic, and possible where dairy milk is not possible. Some people are troubled about cholesterol and animal fats in dairy milk, and they will want Plantmilk because it will be safer. Some people are caught in the unrelenting grip of a routine — milking, milking, twice each day, 365 days a year and they could find a way out by growing green crops for dairying direct into Plantmilk. Some people do not feel that human beings are really meant to drink the milk of an animal, and they will want Plantmilk because it will be more natural. Some people are troubled about the growing exploitation of animals, and they will want Plantmilk because it will not raise moral queries. (The Plantmilk Middlesex.)

Society, 39 Willow Crescent,


OXFAM "WALK FOR LIFE" The Oxfam Youth Federation recently held a " Walk for Life " and 135 took part in this fund-raising effort. Further details of this and other planned educational and fund-raising projects can be had from David Graham at the Oxfam Regional Office, 33 Elmfield Road, Bromley, Kent (RAV 1991).

GOOD NEWS FROM SOUTH AFRICA The following comment appears in a letter from Jack Revill of Capetown: " ' The C a p e ' has a, growing body of opinion favouring vegan principles and my vegan journal is always passed around and along." 16

CRUSADE AGAINST ALL CRUELTY T O ANIMALS The following important extracts are taken from the Address of the Crusade's Founder-President, Michael Fryer, given at the Society's Annual General Meeting on September 18th, 1965: — " . . . I will now briefly outline a few of the ways in which in my view we can all help to ensure that the much-needed efforts we make to assist the cause are both practical and capable of realising constructive results. Make responsible and well-considered representations to your M.P. and other authorities and persist in doing so regardless of any fobbing off or apparent disinterest you may meet with. No M.P. can afford to be too disinterested if a sufficient number of people in his constituency make their wishes known. But your approach to your M.P. must be factual and down to earth with your views clearly expressed and as concise as possible. Do not bring in any side issues or ' isms' or your representation will not receive the attention you desire and your effort will be wasted. Letters to the press can make a most valuable contribution to the cause because the correspondence columns are widely read. Your letter will stand a far greater chance of being published if it is short and concise. Make very sure that what you write is accurate and factual and contains no libellous statements or allegations which cannot be fully substantiated. I was interested to read the words of our highly esteemed patron, Dr. Bernhard Grzimek, in an article called ' The Courage of One's Convictions' in this month's ANIMAL LIFE. Dr. Grzimek like ourselves has great belief in the power which can be exerted by individuals in writing responsible letters to the press and elsewhere." Referring to the many requests he receives asking him to protest against various cruelties, he writes: — " I believe the effect would be much greater if hundreds and thousands of people, important and unimportant, well-known and unknown, from all over the country wrote letters or sent telegrams . . . Please have the courage of your own convictions and act on your own. Write to your Member of Parliament, write to the Embassy of the offending country, write to the Chief Constable or the local Police Station or complain to the Mayor. Send wires, make dozens of your friends do likewise. Write letters to your newspaper or to the newspapers in that town of the foreign country where the cruelty occurred . . You will be surprised what hundreds of complaints will achieve—much, much more than a single protest by a man who is well-known as fighting and working for animals." I wholeheartedly endorse what Dr. Grzimek says. 17

When reporting an act of cruelty to an animal (i.e., physical brutality or callousness) or a condition of cruelty (e.g., poor or cramped conditions or sickness of an animal in a shop or other premises), make clear statements which if need be can be verified by a witness. Bear in mind that for the purpose of helping the animal or animals concerned, no-one is interested in whether you were horrified or distressed by what you saw but simply in what you actually observed. Your report will receive much greater attention and respect and will assist the authorities more if the bare facts are stated without embellishments or emotion. However strongly you feel about any form of cruelty, always refrain from writing or speaking in an ill-considered or abusive manner. If you do not, your representation will possibly be discounted altogether. Clearly stated views, unemotionally expressed are the ones most likely to receive attention. Above all, those of us working for animal welfare have a duty to be sure of our facts. I will quote one small yet important example to illustrate the importance of this. A great many people in the movement when speaking or writing about factory farming still confuse battery hens with broiler chickens. Battery hens are those kept in cages for egg production. Broiler chickens are those reared in broilerhouses for eight or nine weeks for the table. Denmark has banned for reasons of cruelty battery cages for egg production but still permits the rearing of broiler chickens. We have emphasised these facts over and over again but we notice that the two systems are still being confused even by some within the Crusade. The importance of getting these points clear was borne home to me once more some weeks ago by a report and correspondence in the Daily Telegraph when the error was perpetuated yet again. We at Crusade H.Q. consistently attempt to present facts in a sane and unemotional manner. We do everything in our power to ensure that the statements we publish in our literature and magazine are to the best of our knowledge accurate. The days are long past when animal welfare workers can afford to be woolly and non-factual in their statements. Our opponents are 'on the ball' and ready to shoot down any inaccuracies or illconsidered, statements, and we do our cause, to say nothing of ourselves, a great disservice if we do not equip ourselves mentally for the fight in which we are engaged. . . . Writing so many years ago on cruelty and effective opposition to it, the Rev. Basil Bourchier, a great humanitarian, said: — ;y " I t may be wearisome . . . to, come down from the high standard of morality to. that of bare materialism . . But if we are to win through, it will have to be done. 1 We shall never achieve our end by fighting on the' moral question. alone; as time rolls on, the .fight will become more and • more • a scientific one; it is forced upon us; the gauntlet is thrown :at our feet by- our


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opponents, and we must take it up or go under. We have to meet society in its mental state and moral capacity as we find it." We do not need to be discouraged by this realistic statement of the position and we do not need to feel that we are forfeiting our ideals and moral purpose thereby. Our ideals and our moral purpose are the bedrock of our stand against cruelty and without them we should not trouble ourselves to fight at all on behalf of the animals. But as Bourchier so rightly says, we do have to prepare ourselves to meet our opponents on all fronts. There must be no chinks in our armour. By so doing we shall be doing all in our power to lift the burden of suffering from the animal kingdom which is so utterly at man's mercy. Crusade free literature and specimen magazine will gladly be sent to any enquirer. Margaret Cooper, Secretary, , Bounds Green Road, London, N . l l .




(Held over for two issues) Mrs. Eva Batt chose the title " Nutrition for Nutcases" for her recent talk to the members of the Torbay New Health and Vegetarian Society in Torquay. Her theme, " Whatever Ye Do, Do It Lustily ", was illustrated ; by her description of her own, often ingenious, methods of tackling such "problems" as eating out with non-vegans, travelling abroad, and entertaining " orthodox " friends. She stressed that veganism is a positive programme and must never be thought of as some kind of self-denial. Mrs. Batt had previously prepared showcards illustrating the relative values of various foods, which were displayed on the platform and were much appreciated by the audience. Commenting on the economic aspect and the valuable part that veganism can play in relieving the suffering of world hunger, she commented on the sad fact that many people, ignorant of the facts, genuinely thought that factory farming holds the answer! Many see no reason to dread a world without birds, bees or worms.. She reminded us that it was the duty of everyone, whatever diet he may have chosen for himself, to see that people are better informed on such basic facts. " We are up against huge vested interests and an opportunity to state a truth should never be missed" she added. Talking of current farming methods, she mentioned the new anti-fertility drug which has proved so successful in " controlling " the laying season of hens, and warned her audience of the possible consequences to humans if this 20

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drug is as successful when used on larger food animals (as it most likely will be, according to Dr. A. K. Sykes of the Poultry Research Department, Wye College). When answering the oft repeated question " Why do vegans disapprove of milk products? The cow is not killed ", Mrs. Batt called attention to our leaflet U.C.A.F.A. and gave a free copy to everyone in the audience, reminding them that it was written by a currently practising, meat-eating veterinary surgeon who felt compelled to speak out against the normally hidden atrocities which are being perpetuated daily in this country now in the pursuit of profit, meat, milk and cheese. She pointed out that " Now that excellent vegetable ' milks' are available, there is no longer any good reason for drinking milk but—there are some simply wonderful excuses for not giving it u p ! " The talk was followed by a number of questions which showed a lively interest in the vegan way of life.

LETTER TO A CIRCUS OWNER Dear Mr. Joseph, I understand that you now own a circus and I sincerely hope that this change of ownership will bring a change of policy. So many people who dislike seeing animals compelled to behave in an unnatural way, and deplore the methods used to " persuade " them to " perform " in this outdated entertainment, are deprived of the other excellent and unique acts which are so thoroughly enjoyed by all. I Jook forward to the day when I can take my family to the circus with a clear conscience and in the knowledge that no sentient creature is being kept in confinement for our pleasure, or made to perform silly acts by, at best, very questionable methods. I cannot help wondering what it is that a lion fears more than fire that he would rather face the latter than risk disobeying his trainer? E.V.B. (No reply has been received to this letter.)

READERS' LETTERBOX Dear Sir, In the winter." Vegan " you ask for readers' views on the front-page emblem. I think the design is excellent. When I first saw it, I felt that the motif was one of aspiration —of looking and reaching upwards—for better things. It seemed 22

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(Extracts from the letters of new members) " . . . I only wish I had come across veganism twenty years ago instead of only two months ago! I cannot claim to be totally committed at present but I am trying hard and have already noted a marked improvement in general health and wellbeing—having disliked milk, butter and eggs for many years it is such a relief now to know that there was a very sound basis for this ' dislike' and it is, of course, easier to move to total ' abstinence' than if one had been a dairy addict . . . " " . . . I am pleased to send you a life membership subscription to the Vegan Society, for I feel now that where the right foods are available anyone may live healthily the vegan way. Except that we use honey sparingly where sweetening is required (sugar here is treated through bone charcoal filters), we have made it! My eldest daughter is married now with her own baby son who she has 'breast-fed for three months. Jan is still at school and is a healthy, well-built girl, friendly and full of fun, and now Tania—a baby who I have minded since two weeks old— is proving that a vegan diet suits her too . . . " Dear Sir,—I wonder if other members of the Vegan Society would be helped by my experience of canvas shoes? Some two months ago I, rather doubtfully, purchased a pair of Dunlop " Bunjee " canvas shoes at (I think) 25/-. In order to overcome the obviously " canvas" appearance, I treated them exactly as leather until, after several applications of brown shoe polish, they shone up rather like a grained leather as used in the " brogue " type of shoe. I have since seen the same shoes on sale in a blue canvas which, presumably, could be treated with black shoe polish in the same way. They appear to be quite hardwearing, they are very comfortable, but are not completely waterproof in a heavy and continuous downpour of rain. However, they resist water to about the same extent as the cheaper kind of leather shoes. While they are certainly not an elegant shoe, people have to look at them very closely before they realise that they are not leather. York. R. D. MARRIOTT. 24





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BLACKHEATH HEALTH FOOD STORES. A warm welcome awaits anyone visiting our Juice and Snack Bar, also small extension for appetising hot meals and generous salads. Nutrition without Cruelty — vegetarian and vegan foods; Science without Cruelty — herbal remedies. Also Beauty without Cruelty — soaps and cosmetics. Plantmilk, nuts, seeds and grains a speciality. Wholewheat bread and cakes. Compost-grown produce. Ofreta Healing Oil, a unique combination of natural oils, wonderfully penetrating in the relief of sprains, burns, rheumatism, bronchitis, etc., 3/3d. and 6/3d. plus 1 / postage. Goods sent inland and abroad. Send 1 / - in stamps for fully comprehensive price-list to Mrs. Muriel Drake, HEALTHIWAYS, 5 Tranquil Passage, London, S.E.3. Tel. LEE Green. 5811. BRITISH VEGETARIAN YOUTH MOVEMENT. An organisation for people 12—35. Social gatherings, holidays, monthly magazine, etc., organised. Further particulars from Secretary, B.V.Y.M., c / o London Vegetarian Society, 53 Marloes Road, London, W.8. CREDITON. One bed-sitting room to let, large country house. House n cruiser, twin diesels. S.a.e, HEALTH through NATURAL HYGIENE. Are you interested in Health achieved naturally and without the exploitation of other human beings and animals? Natural Hygiene is a system of health preservation and restoration which meets these requirements. For literature, send 6d. stamp to: The Secretary, British Nat. Hygiene Soc., 40 Foxburrow Road, Norwich, Norfolk. RAW FOOD RESEARCH BULLETINS are now continued as Raw Food Notes in each issue of " The Fruotarian ". Annual subscription 10s. 6d. to be sent to The Fruitarian Guild, 1 Camden Row, Cuckoo Hill, Pinner Green, Middlesex. THE COMPASSIONATE DOCTRINE OF AHINSA is stressed in the monthly publication " A H I N S A " (non-killing, harmlessness). Full year, 7s. in British stamps or coins. THE AMERICAN VEGAN SOCIETY, Malaga, N.J. 08328, U.S.A. THE VEGAN COMMUNITIES MOVEMENT plans communities for vegans/vegetarians and invites co-operation. Information (2/6) from 38 Hampden Road, Hitchin, Herts. (Free to enquirers abroad.) WORLD FORUM. The leading international Vegetarian quarterly. Edited by Mrs. Esm6 Wynne-Tyson. Advocates the vegetarian way of life for physical health and a true relationship between the human and creature kingdoms—without exploitation and cruelty. 2/-, plus 6d. post per copy. 10/- per year, post free.—H. H. GREAVES LTD., 106/110 Lordship Lane, London, S.E.22.





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BROOK LINN.—Callander, Perthshire. Vegetarian and Vegan meals carefully prepared and attractively served. Comfortable guest house. Near Trossachs and Western Highlands. Mrs. Muriel Choffin. Callander 103 EASTBOURNE—Edgehill dosed as Nursing Home, now open as Vegetarian Gu Brochure on application to Margaret Fisher, Edgehill, Tel.: 627. V C . A Member EDSTONE, WOOTTON WAWEN, WARWICKSHIRE (near Stratford-onAvon). Modern Nature Cure Resort and Guest House with every comfort, and compost-grown produce. (Phone: Claverdon 327.) L A K E DISTRICT. Rothay Bank, Grasmere. Attractive guest house for invigorating, refreshing holidays.—Write Isabel James. Tel.: 334. N E W Q U A Y , CORNWALL. Lowenva Vegetarian Guest House, 182 Mount Wise. Mrs. P. Lapham. Home-baking. Brochure. Tel.: Newquay 2764. N O R T H WALES. Vegan and vegetarian guest house, nr. mountains and sea. Lovely woodland garden. Brochure from Jeannie and George Lake, Plas-y-Coed, Penmaen Park, Llanfairfechan. Tel.: 161. " WOODCOTE", Lelant, St. Ives, Cornwall, is a high-class Vegetarian Food Reform Guest House in a warm and sheltered situation overlooking the Hayle Estuary. Composted vegetables; home-made wholewheat oread; vegans catered for knowledgeably. Mr. and Mrs. Woolfrey. Tel.: Hayle 3147. Early bookings for Summer very advisable. WOTTON-UNDER-EDGE, GLOUCESTERSHIRE. Coombe Lodge is a Manor House set in a two-acre garden on the southern slopes of the Cotswold Hills, overlooking Coombe Valley, where most fruit and vegetables are home-grown. Demonstrations given of Vegan Cookery. Apply Kathleen Keleny. Tel.: Wotton-under-Edge 3165.

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The Vegan Spring 1966  
The Vegan Spring 1966  

The magazine of The Vegan Society