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T H E VEGAN SOCIETY Founded November,

1944

Veganism is a way of living which excludes all forms of exploitation of, a n d cruelty to, the animal kingdom, and includes a reverence and compassion f o r all life. It applies t o the practioe of living on the products of the plant kingdom t o the exclusion of flesh, fish, fowl, eggs, honey, animal milk and its derivatives, and encourages the use of alternatives f o r all commodities derived wholly or in part f r o m animals. Veganism remembers man's responsibilities t o the earth and its resources a n d seeks t o bring about a healthy soil and plant kingdom and a proper use of the materials of the earth.

President: Dr. FREY E L L I S , , Epsom, Surrey. Deputy-President-. Mrs. E. B. SHRIGLEY, , Purley, Surrey. Vice-Presidents: Mrs. M U R I E L DRAKE, Dr. CATHERINE N I M M O , Miss MABEL S I M M O N S , Miss W I N I F R E D SIMMONS. Honorary Secretary : Mrs. EVA BATT, t, Enfield, Middlesex. Honorary Treasurer: Mrs. SERENA N . COLES, 3 Puriey, Surrey. Committee-. M r . E . T . BANKS, M r . H . T . BONNIE, M r s . P . M . COLLINS, T H E LADY DOWDING, M r . JACK MCCLELLAND, M r . M . MCCULLOCH, M r . W . H . C. WRIGHT, B . S C . , N . D . , D O . , M . B . N

Vegan Distribution Secretary: Mrs. M. BARKER, Kingston-on-Thames, Surrey.

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Minimum subscription, which includes " T h e V e g a n " , 15s. per annum {and 7s. 6d. f o r each additional member of one family at same residence); 7s. 6d. if age under 18; payable in January. Life Membership, ÂŁ10 10s. Od.

THE JOURNAL

OF

VEGAN

THE

VEGAN

SOCIETY

Editor : Mr. JACK SANDERSON, , Upminster, Essex. Advertisements: H. H. G R E A V E S L T D . , 106/110 Lordship Lane, London, S.B22. Published quarterly: Annual subscription, 7s. post free; single copies, Is. 9d. post free. Obtainable f r o m the Hon. Secretary. LITERATURE

" T h e Reasons for Veganism." 4 page leaflet. Free. " Vegan Protein Nutrition." 12 page leaflet. Is. 3d. post free. " A H a n d b o o k of Practical Veganism." 24 pages with cover. 2s. 9d. post free. " T h e Vegetarian and Vegan Food Guide." 2s. 6d. post free. "Unnecessary Cruelties among F a r m Animals." 8 page leaflet. 6d. post free. All obtainable f r o m the Hon. Secretary (cheques and postal orders m a d e out t o " T h e Vegan Society").


THE V E G A N Journal

of the Vegan SPRING,

Society

1964

EDITORIAL " It would seem unwise to continue to tamper with environment without concurrently striving to determine the real and lasting effects of our actions." From a report to the Wihite House 'by a National Academy of Sciences Committee on Naltural Resources. (U.S.A.) The above quotation sums up one Of the most rapidly growing problems of our times, and Miss Cooper chooses well in stressing the importance of Ecology in her article in this journal. The growth of man's ability to change his environment is astounding, but unless the possible consequences of some of his actions are studied, man may do irreparable harm to himself and succeeding generations. Whilst man may 'be grateful to the chemist for his development of new materials he should be ever aware of the poisonous effects which reach him through drugs, agricultural chemicals, food additives and polluted atmospheres. So long as the mainspring of action of many huiman(?) beings is simply, " Will it pay?" all manner of inhuman, cruel and unecological acts will be perpetuated all over tihe globe. As reformers slowly but sureJy cause the ,public mind to legislate against one kind of cruel exploitation, the "Will it pay?" mentality finds another, and those who have true reverence for all life need to be ever vigiJant if they are to deal with tihe exploiters and speak for the voiceless. One suah speaker was Miss Lind-atf-Hageby who recently .passed on after a lifetime's devoted work for the voiceless—particularly the pitiful victims of vivisection, that scientific canker in our midst. Another voice and a most powerful one has arisen in her place, and her chosen theme is the new soulless industrial methods that have been introduced into modern farming. Her name is Ruth Harrison and her book "Animal Machines" (reviewed in thiis issue). So important is this book that before publication on March 9th, it had received the accolade of two whole pages in the Sunday


Observer and since that date it has been the subject of hundreds of letters to the Press, and has featured directly andl indirectly on television and radio. In his Preface to the book, Sydney Jennings, M.R.C.V.S., a Past-President of the British Veterinary Society, says: " T h e present increasing disregard for animal life under intensive farming is arising dn large measure through commercial types who are entering farming as big business and who are, by example, at the same time turning the orthodox farmer away from his natural inclinations The author goes further than pointing out the approaching 9tate of cruelty in factory farming. She also draws attention to the potential dangers to man of hormones, anti-biotics and like substances absorbed through the medium of meat." The writer of the Foreword, Rachel Carson, drew attention in her powerful book " Silent Spring ", to the effects of insecticides upon the balance of nature, and caused such a public reaction in the U.S.A. that the law makers had to get busy. She hopes for the same reaction 'here to Ruth Harrison's book. We can [help forward that reaction by doing everything in our power to inform the public of the conditions described in the book. Readers of this journal are, of course, aware of the great amount of spadework that has been done on this theme by many societies, particularly the " Crusade Against All Cruelty to Animals ". May this book (bring nearer the day when cruel factory methods in farming become a thing of the past, and when (as in Denmark) battery systems are outlawed. SPRING

Spring is in the air and bringing in the New! The B.W.C. Boutique has moved its headquarters and continues like its founders to spread its beneficent influence over an ever wider field. B.W.C., which is to open a new Animal Sanctuary this summer, is regularly introducing new goods produced wiuhout cruelty. New lines of non-animal footwear are constantly being brought to our attention whilst the general nun of vegan household commodities is expanding rapidly. For many vegans and particularly for vegetarians and near-vegans, one of the greatest needs has been a non-animal milk. Nut milks and creams satisfy many people but tend to foe rather expensive, and a cheaper yet nutritious all purpose milk has been looked for that would serve the same purposes as cows' milk. It is interesting that this Spring should see the introduction of two such milks and news of these is given elsewhere in this issue. One is a concentrated liquid milk called " Plantmilk" that will soon Ibe available in the London area, and the other " Granogen " is in powder form and should be available from all Health Food Stores. Just to read the contents list of some products is quite enough to set 2


the digestive juices going in anticipation, e.g., the Eustace Miles product Emvita includes yeast extract and the essential oils of celery, carrot, onion and parsley, whilst their new product A'ppetex (pate) 'includes corn oil, yeast, herbs, lemon juice, sea salt, onion, Barbados sugar, etc. Messrs. Granose new coffeelike caffeine-free drink, Swiss-Cup, contains rye, oats, millet, barley, figs and chicory. These blends of vegetable juices and of grain are all to tihe good. Our heartfelt thanks go out to pioneers like Messrs. Vesop and Banmene, Pitmans and Mapletons, Granose and Eustace Miles, Plantmilk and Alfonal, Allinsons and Prewetts, and many others. Their efforts make the way easier for all of us and help to ibring nearer the days when more and more of our population will look back upon this time as the Dairk Age of Factory Farming. J . SANDERSON.

VEGAN MEETINGS APRIL. On Friday, April 24th at 6.30 p.m., at the L.V.S. Headquarters at 53, Marloes Road, 'Kensington, W.8. (nearest tube station " High Street, Kensington," then down side of Pontings, nighit at bottom, ithen deft), Mr. G. P. Molineux will speak on " Veganic Gardening ". MAY. There will ibe a Vegan Stall at the May Meetings of the Vegetarian Societies at the Pier Pavilion in Colwyn Bay, North Wales, on May 9th—11th. We hope to see many of our friends and members who are unable to come to London very often and if any are willing to help at the stall our Secretary will be glad to hear from them. Information about accommodation may be obtained from Miss M. G. Otty (of the North Wales Vegetarian Society) at , Rhos, Colwyn Bay, North Wales. ;: :• I; JUNE. The Annual Vegan Dinner will be held as last year at Maxims, 30, Wardour Street, London, W.l (near Leicester Square Tube), on Friday, June 12th at 7.30 p.m., for 8 ip.m. The numbers will be limited tihis time to allow of easier movement and the room will be set out with small tobies. The speakers will include Lord Dowding and Ruth Harrison, and there will be music and an opportunity to meet old friends (and make new ones). Tickets 17/6d. You are urged to maike early application to 'the Secretary. JULY. We shall ibe joining with B.W.C. on Sunday, July 26th, at a Garden Party (by kind permission of Mrs. Jean Le Fevre) to celebrate the opening of their new Animal Sanctuary, " Shangri-La", Nettlestead Green House, Nettlestead Green, Near Maidstone, Kent. The Vegan Society will be represented and hope that many members will try to come along and support this effort. Coaches will run from London and details of travelling arrangements will be in our Summer issue (or earlier from the Secretary, B.W.C., Oakgates, Southborough, Tunbridge Wells, Kent). 3


AUGUST. There will be a weekend Vegan meeting at the MolLneuxs' on August 8th—9th. Come for a day or a weekend. Furtlher details in the Summer issue; a'Lso mentioned later an this issue SEPTEMBER. There will be a Vegan Stall at the B.W.C. Fashion Show on the afternoon and evening of Thursday, September 10th, at the Hotel Russell, Russell Square, W.C.1. (We regret that owing to circumstances beyond our control, the March meeting had to be caincelled.) VOLUNTEER

Any member living in the London area, who could (if necessary) attend monthly Committee meetings, and who is willing and able to help the Secretary 'by taking over the organisation of our Meetings, is asked to contact the Secretary. THANKS

The Treasurer would like to thank all those members who have paid their annual subscriptions so promptly. To obviate the necessity for reminders (involving time and expense) she would greatly appreciate 'hearing from those who may have forgotten that all subscriptions were due on January 1st. Members who are using Bankers Orders should send these to their own banks and not to the Treasurer. (Kindly remember when making out your cheque, that the subscriptions just enalble us to survive—it is the extra donation that enables IUS to go forward with literature and so reach an ever wider field! EDITOR.) OBITUARY The vegetarian and food reform world will miss the dear presence and life experience of Dugald Semple who passed away on January 19th. Hts 60 yeans of vegetarianism and personal practical experience of growing his own food by organic methods were passed on in a score of books, and hund reds of articles and lectures—even last year, in his eighties he was lecturing across the United States. He has often addressed Vegan meetings and .those who have heard him will long remember his living expression of Ahimsa and simplicity. A keen vegan himself, ihe diid great .work for veganism and vegetarianism in Scotland. DUGALD SEMPLE.

M I C H A E L TALBOT, who passed away in January, was a staunch worker for animal causes and never shirked any opportunity to demonstrate his opposition to cruel exploitation however difficult or uncomfortable 'the circumstances. He frequently displayed itihe highest courage in protesting entirely alone in quite dangerous conditions, and reference will be made to this in a later article. He will ibe greatly missed. J.S. 4


VEGANIC OR ORGANIC Many people are still not too clear on the differences in meaning of these two words. A recent advert in a popular weekly described the virtues of the product—a fertiliser—as follows, "Nothing like it on earth. 100% organic. Contains Meat, Bone, Blood, Skin, Hoof and Horn." Thus " organic" includes animal wastes and slaughterhouse products and is particularly applicable to animal farmers and breeders. The word " veganic " is derived from VEgetable orGANIC, and is applied to food grown without the products derived from sentient animal life. The following extracts from the Ministry of Agriculture's Bulletin No. 36, on " Manures andl Fertilisers " will be 'helpful when the reader takes part in discussions on this theme. PART I. ORGANIC

MANURES

(PAGE 9 ) FARMYARD MANURE, ANIMAL DUNG, URINE, POULTRY MANURES (PAGE 2 7 ) WASTE ORGANIC SUBSTANCES

" . . . . concentrated organic manures—hoof and horn, tankage (meat and bone) dried blood . . . . " " . . . . and secondly . . .—these are the town refuses, sewage sludges and the like and may be designated bulky organic manures . . . . " (PAGE 2 9 ) R E S I D U E S F R O M A N I M A L CARCASSES H O O F AND HORN

" In the pure state, both hoof and horn contain about 16 per cent, nitrogen. When roasted and ground: hoof meal and the mixture hoof-and-hom meal are very highly regarded as nitro-r genous imanures for horticultural purposes . . . . Hoof-and-horn meals are extensively used in glass house work for a steady supply of nitrogen, during the winter months . . . . for cauliflowers, spring cabbages and similar orops needing plenty of nitrogen well distributed throughout the growing season. Hoof-and-horn mixed' with bone meal and sulphate of potash is a popular manure for onions, parsnips, beetroot and carrots; . . . . Leeks receive this in addition to the dung previously ploughed in." MEAT-AND-BONE M E A L

" The raw material from which meat and bone meal is obtained consists of waste, offals, and condemned carcasses from the large slaughterhouses. ( T h e y could have died of anything including poison.) The mixture is steamed under pressure to remove the fat and dried at high temperature to kill disease organisms; it is 5


then ground. In America the product goes under the name of tankage . . . . all are popular horticultural manures . . . . worked into the surface soil before sowing or planting for early lettuce, bunching carrots, salad onions, spinach and self blanching celery, radishes . . . . " FISHMEAL

" Preparation and outlets for fishmeal are closely similar to those of tankage. In this instance the starting point is inedible fish and surplus carcasses and offals . . . . Their use in horticulture and market garden work are similar to the meat-and-bone meals." DRIED

BLOOD

" T h e r e is a big demand for the best grades of dried blood containing up to 14 per cent, nitrogen as a source of protein in animal feeding stuffs . . . . It is popular with tomato growers and horticulturists, and is frequently included 'in the more expensive'compound fertilizers intended for high quality products." SHODDY

" Shoddy is wool waste . . . . the better shoddies like other organics give their best results on market garden crops. Shoddy is popular in the Kentish hop gardens and orchards and also in the market garden district of Bedfordshire . . . . " " A warning must be given as to the possible dangers of anthrax from the use of shoddy . . . . do not use shoddy on grassland or on arable land for a crop that may be consumed by animals." (Is it safe then for humans to eat the market garden crops ?) OTHER ORGANIC

MANURES

F E A T H E R S AND FEATHER WASTE RABBIT

WASTE

Rabbit waste consists of the ears, feet and tails of rabbits. . . . and is a useful organic manure for market gardens. HAIR

WASTE

SEWAGE SLUDGE

(My comments in itailics.

6

EDITOR.)


THE TRANSFORMATION OF SOILS BY SURFACE CULTIVATION AND VEGANIC MANURING A paper iby KENNETH D .

O'BRIEN

(Read to the Royal Society of Aits on Wednesday, November 13 th, 1963) The system of soil cultivation and manuring I am about to describe to you is one in which a distinct division is made between the manurial practices of the horticulturist, home gardener and cereal grower, and that of the animal farmer. The former provide food for direct human consumption, and it is this aspect with which the system is concerned. The system dispenses with the need to cultivate more than the top few inches of the soil for crop production, with few exceptions. Where the system is carried out in its entirety for three seasons the soil undergoes a transformation. This phenomenon occurs in varying types of soil and follows the same pattern: and is unique to this method. By its means a clay soil Š made more friable, and a sandy or loose soil becomes stabilized. Improved soil structure follows automatically. Most of us are aware that the soil is a complex mixture of .organic and inorganic substances, the composition of which is largely determined toy its origin and climate. As growers we adjust the climate by protection and heating as seems expedient. Plants are bred to conform to or overcome conditions set up by this blend of the natural and the artificial. In fact 'the blending has ibeen going on for so long and at such a rate that it is difficult to separate out the natural and artificial elements. Scientists have calculated that there may 'be as many as two billion bacteria as well as numerous fungi1 and algae per teaspoonful of soil, taking a sample from the top inch of deciduous forest floor. The activities of these and other soil workers are so important that without them the forest would be choked by its own wastes preventing air and water from penetrating to the tree roots. It is significant that the soil of the forest floor is unturned soil. In it all forms of soil life function at their respective levels, or move freely from level to level, in some instances emerging from the soil. Here is an illustration of organization and efficiency that is as near to the purely natural as one may find. Wild animals are natural to the forest—we suggest the domestic animal is out of place in the vegetable garden. We must face the fact, however, that man's ingenuity has resulted in mudh that is unnatural in his production of vegetables 7


and cereals, if we use the word " unnatural" in its popular sense. ^Amongst the many factors which have contributed to this situation is the shortage of hand labour, particularly in this country. Yet the answer to this problem, which is agricultural machinery, has produced further problems. When teams of horses were used by farmers for draught work, and before labour for agriculture became scarce, the horticulturist often depended heavily upon the farmer. Now, and especially because of more intensive and extensive techniques, the horticulturist has come to depend upon industrial firms and factories instead. Although it is recognized that machines of past and present design and the use of chemicals have brought fresh problems, expediency keeps them with us. The main faults of agricultural and horticultural machines for cultivating the soil are the amount of damage they do to the soil 'because of their weight, and the excessive disturbance and pulverization which occurs, two factors which are not conducive to the permanent formation of good soil structure. Through systematic, research we were able to recognize that these operations constitute an albuse of the soil. The need for improvement in design of this type of machine became evident. The manner in which Nature seems to make an attempt to remedy the damage done is a fascinating study. The first indication is the appearance of a particular type of weed growth following deep cultivations and the use of animal organic manures. This weed growth consists mainly of deep rooted weeds. The purpose of this type of weed can only be assumed, but it would appear to be the soil's first attempt at recovery. Should this soil then remain undisturbed for some years one would find this type of weed being replaced by a finer kind—including long and short grasses. At the same rate there would be a return of soil life consistent with an undisturbed soil: humus would be built up, and the structure of the soil would improve. This sequence may be observed on any land left out of cultivation, but, and this ,is significant, once deep cultivations begin again there is a return to the deep-rooting and creeping types of weeds. Our alternative system of cultivation (which includes and allows only a shallow soil disturbance and the surface application of 'a purely vegetative compost) frees the soil from compaction. It is a fact that after three years of this system deeprooting an'd coarse types of weeds cease to appear. If, after these three years, the land is left it will produce a green cover of chiefly fine grasses and a few wild plants. This 5s one of the differences between the conventional methods and the one I wil|l go on to describe in more detail. In our system we have patiently observed natural processes and devised ways and means of harmonizing with them, and we have discovered there are practical advantages t(3 toe gained. Conditions are created which reduce the incidence of plant and soil pests and diseases, and at the same time, increase .the number 8


of insect predators. Crops are healthy and have an outstandingly fine flavour. A minimum of physical effort is involved. A completely natural transformation of the soil is not, of course, possible where crops are to be grown. In taking advantage of Nature's work to our own benefit, and for complete success, there are three paramount factors governing our aims, and these factors are indivisible. They are: 1. The soil remains free of any kind of compaction. 2. Only the top few inches of the soil are cultivated for the most part. 3. In manuring the soil only vegetative materials and natural minerals are use'd. The word veganic is used to define these materials. All animal organics are withheld. Freedom from compaction is achieved by dividing the land into strip beds with paths between. All the work of cultivating, plant care, collection of produce and removal of crop debris is done from the paths without treading on the soil. The width of the beds is decided by what is a comfortable reach for the average person. One obvious result is that the soil absorbs rain more readily toy being uncompacted. The second requirement is in regard to the cultivation of the top few inches of soil. This is where a small hand hoe of a certain type is used, and "more will be said about this tool presently. The third requirement is the veganic manuring of the soil, and this presupposes the withholding of all animcd organic manures. Veganic manuring conforms as closely as possible with what would follow naturally were it allowed to, namely, by the gradual decay of plants with a slow build-up of humus. As growers, however, we are not in a position to wait for an entirely natural build-up. A method of composting which closely compares with natural decay and which creates beneficial bacteria is used. It follows the rule of always removing crop debris from the growing area immediately, an'd not allowing it to remain on the soil's surface. There are two reasons for this rule. First, soil hygiene. Crop debris whether left on the surface or buried creates a perfect environment for pests and diseases. Secondly, freshly pulled or cut growth is generally ideal compost material. We can count this rule as an important part of the success of the method. Although Nature is reasonably intensive in producing a fresh form of growth immediately one form of growth begins to decay, the process is still too slow for the gardener. The problem is what to return to the soil, how, where and "when. Having established the three requirements of this method we can now consider the subject of withholding all animal organics —interpreting " animal organics " as set forth under " Organic Manures" in the Ministry of Agriculture's bulletin No. 36, Manures and Fertilizers. (See the article preceding this one.) According to my firm conviction, which is based on experience and observation, there is a strong connection between pests and 9


diseases of plants and the soil, and the use of animal organic manures. It is well known that soils can develop dung sickness, and it is widely known that several vegetables are, for the want of a better word, " allergic " to animal dung in close proximity. On the other hand, compost of a veganic nature can be in close contact with plant roots with benefit. It is my contention that animal or human wastes are out of place on land used for the growing of food for direct human consumption, and that it has only been accepted as a natural sequence because its origins are buried in antiquity. To all intents and purposes, animal farming is a man-ma'de industry. It is one thing to have animal wastes composted, and by-products of animal carcasses processed to apply to land where animal farming is carried out, but quite another to transfer the system to cultivations intended for a different purpose, which is the production of vegetables, fruit and cereals, for human consumption. In fact, the animal products mentioned could, I am sure, be shown to be alien and unnecessary. Recent scientific research has established that certain poisonous substances put on or in the soil can be conveyed through the plants to people consuming them, an'd of these some can be conveyed via the plants to animals eating them and then on to the humans consuming the animals. Are these and other poisons and alien. substances necessarily transformed into desirable substances by composting or other processing? I think not. Here I would make a plea that more scientific research 'be made in this direction which will, I am confident, confirm this opinion. On the other hand, the use of a compost made only from material direct from the vegetable kingdom uncontaminated by any poisonous substances guarantees a clean and healthy soil automatically resulting in healthier produce, not only safe to eat from every point of view, but giving the added quality an'd flavour one must experience to appreciate. Shallow cultivation without compaction permits the soil's micro-organisms maximal propagation and activity at their respective levels. The surface application of a layer or mulch of natural vegetable compost provides them with a stimulating and familiar medium in which to work. To achieve the finest results, however, the compost must be just what they need. This is why materials for it must be carefully selected. In principle, what should occur is that crop trimmings and all unwanted green growth and crop debris are returned for the most part to the soil of the area which produced them. In this way the soil is allowed to be the provider of its own humus as far as possible. It is interesting to note that where compost is made , mainly from growth ,from a particular type of soil, the ensuing mature compost, as It reverts to soil, will be almost indistinguishable from the original type of soil. For instance, if 1 0


the soil is a dark one, the final loam-like compost will ibe dark. If the original soil is clay and pale in colour the resulting compost will be only a little darker. Gradually, though, such a top-soil deepens in colour as the seasons pass where the routine is established. Colour is not the only change, of course. The structure and the colloidal texture of the soil changes for the better, with a corresponding improvement in the produce grown. Paradoxically, the poorer a soil to begin with, the quicker is the change in evidence. Humus and soil stability are but two aspects. The mineral content of the soil is also important. The rarer minerals exist in soils as exceedingly minute traces we are told. Most of us are aware that if these minerals are lacking growth is debilitated, as it is sometimes if they are in excess. So fair as I 'know, scientific research has yet to determine the precise amounts of tlhe traces of minerals deposited in soils from plants growing on them, although a great deal is known of what crops take out of the soil. In many cases the minerals are present but cannot be freed for absorption by the plants. In others, alien substances added to the soil may combine with the minerals and change into a compound which plants are unable to assimilate. I am inclined to the view that the method of cultivation being described liberates these essential minerals more effectively. The process would ibe lengthy from a commercial angle, however. In the growing of market crops it is essential to have unwanted green growth and crop debris converted into humus in the quickest possible way consistent with natural means. This is via the compost heap. By activating the compost material with a purely herbal solution which has a quick maturing action, one is following a natural pattern as far as is practicable. By following these methods, intensive dropping actually exerts a beneficial effect on the soil, unlike the conventional means of cultivating and manuring when intensive cropping exhausts the soil. Catch cropping and crops in quick succession are highly ••desirable. We should recognize that Nature herself is an intensive cropper. I hope I have indicated that if one harmonizes with natural processes it is possible to do less and spend less yet harvest more. And now I shall describe the practical side of the system. Strip garden beds Forming the land into strip'beds for growing crops is an integral part of the routine, and is a " m u s t " for complete success. The usual practice of having these in a north-south direction is for the obvious reason of giving each plant its fair share of light and sunshine. The garden beds should be 4 ft. 6 in. wide with paths between approximately 16 in. wide. The four or five inch depth of soil taken out of the paths is 'distributed on either side of them. The paths are then strawed, and new long wheat straw is the best to use for the purpose. One of the benefits of this 11


Permanent

Strip Garden

Beds 4 ft. 6 ins. wide.

strawing is the way it smothers weed growth. The cleaner conditions underfoot which follow are particularly desirable for ease of cultivations when there is the work of picking, cutting and collecting for market. Furthermore, the actual soil cropping area —the strip beds—remains, as before, undisturbed by trampling and free from the compaction of machinery. Once the beds have been constructed they can be regarded as a permanent feature. The area of land to be formed into strip beds may be overgrown with weeds, or contain crop debris. This material neeWs to be removed first to the respective compost heaps. This clearing work is best done from boards placed on the ground in order to avoid trampling on the soil, a technique which is recommended even for the lightest of soils. Any deep-rooted perennial weeds are levered out with a fork. 'You will recall that earlier I spoke of the three essentials to be adhered to. You will now see how two of these requirements can be met straight away when the land is formed into strip garden beds in the manner described. Compaction is avoided and there is easy access to the soil area for the shallow cultivations to be carried out. The time when the transformation of the soil will eventually take place is calculated from the date of the construction of the beds and the first application of compost. This should not be taken to mean that one has to wait three years for soil improvement. Improvement is evident from the start, and continues. 1 2


After three years a distinct change is apparent: less effort is required to maintain the routine, and the soil requires less compost in most cases. Exceptions are potatoes and celery (other than the self-blanching type) which need earthing up. These require the same amount of compost each season: transformation of the soil in these circumstances does not take place in the same way. Cultivation of the soil The spade is no longer requirefd in any cultivations of the soil, except that at first when an area of land is formed into strip beds the spade is used to remove the soil from the paths, and there is an occasional use for it afterwards for constructional work. A small hand hoe is the main tool in all cultivations. It is a hand hoe with a wider-than-usual blade—about 6 in.—and it has an overall length of about 15 in. The manner of using this tool is different from the usual chop-hoeing movement. It is drawn through the soil in every case. It is used to thin crops and remove weeds. One kneels or squats to use it. The width of the garden bed—4 ft. 6 in.—allows these cultivations to be done from the pathways, the centres of the beds being easily reached by persons of average height. With a correct positioning of the body one can acquire a precision and dexterity in the use of this hand tool. A surprising speed can be developed with a minimum of effort. The clearance of glasshouse structures, frames or open beds after a market crop is finished, and the preparation

The

Scrapper. 13


of the soil for the following crop, combines into one operation with the use of this tool, and the occasional use of a rake. The , blade of the tool should not penetrate the soil more than three or four inches for any purpose. This depth is a critical one and actually balances cropping considerations with the ^development of the soil. It does not determine aeration of the soil, however. True aeration is achieved in unturned soil. If the soil's own transformation is to take place in three years it is not wise to . disturb the soil unduly ibelow four inches. In using this method of cultivation it will toe found that the surface of the soil gradually raises itself to a higher level, meaning that the original soil is penetrated less and less as each successive stage is reached. So far as I am aware, no mechanical aid of present design emulates this tool and the way it is required to be used, but in any case the weight of motorized equipment unduly compacts the soil. For this meithod to be followed in countries where hand labour is in short supply, an especially designed apparatus would be required. In areas where there is sparse population on land which could produce crops, a form of automation would appear to be the answer, given a correct analysis of the operations in time and motion study terms. An overriding provision would have to be that weight should be kept off the soil upon which the crops themselves are growing. The simpler operations involved in this method of cultivation—operations such as the movement of the scrapper through the soil—taking out shallow drills, spreading compost, silver sand, granite Must and old soot, clearing debris, and weeds—would not, one would suppose, present insuperable • problems of automatic emulation. fVeganic compost making Compost heaps are best sited permanently in a readily accessible position. Sites with overhanging trees or likely to be r flooded by heavy rains should be-avoided. For very large gardens and commercial nurseries the heaps are assembled as units. A ; ratio of three containers for fine heap material to one for rough heap material usually works out well. For the home garden small, box-like containers can be used. A great deal of green material goes direct to the fine heaps, but the less easily decayed •material—for instance, stems of brassicas—goes on to the rough •heap where it can be given double the time to decay. When it is finally mature it can be used for soil layers in the fine heaps • as they are being built up. Roots should be burned. Straw bales are perfectly suited to enclosing the heaps, but wooden bins may .be more convenient in the long run! To build the heaps, first • place the bales in position as walls on three sides leaving the ' front open. First lay down a few charcoaled pieces of wood, which absorb impurities from the heap and will serve several successive ones before fresh ones are needed. 1 4


Home

Garden

Compost

Container.

The compost material is then built up in layers consisting of about 3 in. deep of old straw, then 9 in. of green material of vegetable trimmings, weeds and grass mowings. A prepared herbal solution is sprinkled on this layer, then a whitening of lime, and then \—1 in. of fine soil. Layers can be added in the order described until the heap is about 5 ft. high, when a final 2 in. layer of soil is added. A good size for a heap is 8 ft. by 6 ft. by 5 ft. high. A useful size of wooden container for a home garden is one about 6 ft. by 3 ft. by 3 ft. high, with a centre division making two bins. There need to be \ in. spaces between the boards for ventilation. Some protection from heavy rain and hot sun is essential. Spring and summer heaps will take from six to eight weeks to mature, but heaps built up in the winter take from eight to ten weeks. With perfect materials and during a favourable time of the year, it is possible for a heap to mature in just three weeks. A rough heap is built with the layers in the same order. The tough, fibrous material and root-crop throw-ouits are best chopped up a bit, however. Sawdust, tree leaves, potato haulms and rhubarb leaves are unsuitable materials for inclusion in the heaps. Home gardeners should not use potato peelings. Raw vegetable and fruit trimmings, lawn mowings, tea leaves, annual weeds, and small perennial weeds can all be used with lime, soil and Quick Return herbal solution. 1 5


Value of short grass mowings as compost material Short grass mowings are one of the finest of composting materials to supplement vegetable trimmings, crop debris and weeds. Composting this material whilst it is in a really fresh condition gives it its full richness. We have found by experience 'that the weight and quality of crops are noticeably increased where short grass mowings have been included to make the compost used. It would pay any grower to ensure a steady supply of grass mowings by keeping service roads or a plot of land permanently to grass. The proportion per acre to reserve for this, whether service roads or plots, is about one fortieth—about 120 sq. yd. To get good, sappy, grass it is best cut when 3 j- in. high. Mulches of fresh grass-mowings on the soil not only waste the value of the material but encourage slugs and pests. A good pasture, farmers will tell you, is one which contains a proportion of wild plants growing among the grasses. He knows that the inclusion of these plants in the animals' food helps to keep them in a healthy condition. The farmer may not have a scientific explanation as to why this should be, and we ourselves are in much the same sort of situation when we tell you that some freshly cut wild growth such as nettles, yarrow, wild sage, comfrey or camomile, wild pyrethrum or whatever is common to your type of soil, will speed up the rotting process of a compost heap very quickly. In our opinion this sort of material—especially the kinVJs growing freely in the locality—will, when composted, play an important part in the transformation of the soil. Such material would be included in the green layers of the fine heaps. In this connection tares or vetches are good. The use of weeds The composting of weeds along with crop debris is a means of securing a valuable return in the form of manure. This is particularly so when the return may be made rapidly by an orderly building up of the heap, suitably sited and contained, and activated with a quick-acting herbal solution. It has been found that when compost of this nature is dug into the soil it invariably results in a heavier crop of weeds, but not necessarily (because weed seeVis have survived the composting process, as is sometimes assumed. Weeds should be pulled and composted before they seed to be of maximum use as compost material, and before they can cause harm to adjacent crops. Even so, the whole business consumes valuable time. The problem of weeds from a composted soil can be solved by keeping the oompost application to the surface soil. By applying the compost in this manner to a moist soil—the soil can be watered beforehand if necessary—the weed seeds are encouraged to germinate quickly and can be dealt with easily ankl effectively. Surface application means that many more of the weed seeds germinate than would be the case if the compost were dug in. If a surface application of compost is left for 1 6


I

about ten days before sowing fine seeds like lettuce, carrot and onion the first showing of weed seed can be prevented from developing by simply raking over the top soil prior to sowing. The vegetable seeds are then well ahead of subsequent weed growth. It is recognized that weed growth can contribute well-being to the soil at this stage and that its proximity to the vegetable crops can be of value. Consider first those vegetables which have their seeds sown in situ and in rows. The weeding may be done in two operations. When first thinning the vegetable seedlings remove any weeds which are immediately adjacent. At this stage a centre band of weed growth is left to grow on for a short period. The presence of this band confers definite benefits. It acts as a miniature wind-break, contributes humus and available mineral to the soil and keeps the ground slightly moist. It also cushions the impact on the soil of heavy rain or hail. The removal of this remaining band of weeds must be carefully timed and must take place before their usefulness has passed. The second operation is made easier because the vegetable plants will mostly be well established and moving away from fresh weed germinations. Onions and carrots are exceptions, and the soil between the rows needs to be kept weed-free by freshening with the hand hoe (scrapper). When this method of two-part weeding, compost mulching and surface cultivation is kept up for three years a distinct change in the nature, quality and quantity of the weed growth will be apparent—and there will be further improvements both in soil structure and colour and in the health and appearance of crops in general. The transformation of the soil varies according to the type of soil. Difficult soils usually have a predominance of coarse, deep-rooted weeds to 'begin with, but any fresh germination of these in the first stages can be dealt with as one would wit!h: annual weeds, and removed in the same way. During the earlier stages of the soil's transformation, weeds are retained to a certain extent and over given periods; in fact, allowed to play their part in the process. When the soil has reached the stage where it produoes mainly short, fine grasses, however, and the quality of the soil is reflected in the health of the crops, previous forms of weed growth and grasses are assumed to have servefd their purpose. As a result, the soil between the crop rows can then be kept clear of the growth of these short grasses. Other aspects and possible future developments This method is one which appeals to young people, particularly girls. Also we consider that to those areas of the world where there is usually unlimited labour available for grain, vegetable 1 7


and fruit production, notably India and territories further east, the method is ideally suited. Work is pleasant, and no task is difficult. It is a paradox -that this same method is one which may be profitably practised in countries where hand labour is scarce owing to its cost and the fact that mechanical substitutes are in plentiful arid comparatively cheap supply. We can say this because the techniques used in the method are ones which could be copied by specifically designed machinery with relative ease. The basic simplicity of the cultivations even opens up the possibility of automation. We already have mobile greenhouses, automatic sowing, planting and watering. There are thermostatically controlled heating and ventilating devices. In fact a review of the whole range of recent mechanical and automatic aids reveals a swift movement towards automation. This is particularly evident in the packing and marketing of crops. The end product, to use a familiar phrase, has been automatically graded, packed and labelled in most cases, and appears in our shops in a uniform and frequently immaculate appearance and condition. It is not appearance alone that matters, however, when the real end of the end product is the eating of it. Flavour and quality are expected to live up to the promising appearance. Here, of course, the role of plant breeder and seedsman is a prerequisite. Marketing too calls for specialist knowledge and is, of course, inot within the scope of this paper. However, it is evident that overheads are reduced to a minimum, so far as the manuring of the soil is concerned, as the growing area literally provides its own manure. Making the method pay on commercial holdings, provided that the transport and marketing is right, is a matter of having equipment designed which will perform the simple routine tasks and cultivations—that is, of course, where hand work in its entirety is impracticable. I am confident that the adoption of these principles of producing food for direct human consumption could prove to be a horticultural economy permitting a plentiful and varied supply of health-giving proVduce. Readers may be interested to know that a comprehensive acoount of the system developed by the O'Brien's may be obtained in the book, "Intensive Gardening" by R. Dalziel O'Brien, published at 25/- by Faber and Faber (reviewed in our Winter, 1961 issue, and a " must " for every vegan). The Quick Return Herbal Activator usually known as " Q.R." is available at most gardening sundriesmen or direct from Messrs. Chase, Gibraltar House, Shepperton, Middlesex. An appreciation of the work of the Royal Society of Arts will appear in our next issue along with some other articles which, because of the shortage of space and the importance attached to the longer articles in this issue, have had t o be left over. 1 8


i

COMMODITY AND OTHER NEWS B y EVA BATT FINE FURS FROM

DENMARK

Until very recently if someone had said " Denmark exports—" and pointed to me for a quick answer I would have rattled off promptly " Bacon, cheese, butter, and eggs from non-battery hens "* but after that I would have come to an abrupt stop while I searched my memory for long past geography lessons. By this means I might possibly come up with modern furniture, but little else. It therefore came as a great surprise to me to learn that Denmark has a considerable and. swiftly expanding export business in furs. Following my usual habit of glancing through any periodical which is new to me, no matter what the subject, I chanced to pick up and read (in an airline office in Martinique surprisingly enough) a copy of the Denmark Review—an official 12 page bulletin published by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Copenhagen. It was obviously one of a series dealing with various aspects of Danish commerce, etc., and it so happened that the current copy (November, 1963) was devoted entirely to the fur trade. Hunters, breeders and furriers alike were congratulated on increased business efficiency all round, and I reafd with growing dismay the " interesting " and " encouraging " news of the continually expanding business of breeding minks and chinchillas and the hunting, shooting and trapping of various other animals with a steady rise in the quality and price of their skins. This was due, generally, to the helpful advice given out by the various interested organisations in the care and feeding of Mink and Chinchilla and improved handling of the carcases of other " f u r bearers". Chinchilla breeding is (described as " a n exciting profession, but very exacting ". I learned, for instance, that this " fur bearing creature " (is it never looked upon in any other way?) is quiite differentfiromiall others in thalt instead of the usual rule of " one hair root, one hair " which applies to all other creatures, the Chinchilla has anything up to 75 extremely fine hairs growing from each hair root. The animal was introduced into Europe by the Spaniards who brought some back from their South American conquests in A.D. 1500. They called them chinchillas after the Chincha Indians who, I beilieve, the Spaniards had been doing their very best to exterminate. Around 1914 the animal also * I would dike to be able to say " free range " or " farmyard " hens, but as far as I know this claim is not made. We should be interested to hear more about the systems of egg production used in Denmark since the " battery " systems are not allowed in that country. 19


was almost completely destroyed through heavy exploitation, but in 1911 or thereabouts an American named M. F. Chapman is credited with taking a few of them back to America and it is from the descendants of these that chinchillas aire now being bred and exported to fur breeders in great numbers again.' Seals In an article on Greenland Seals and their uses, we learn that Eskimos are being encouraged by the Royal Greenland Trade Department to " improve their o u t p u t " of sealskins and to transport the animals in a less traditional but more careful manner— carrying, instead of dragging the bodies is recommended. Also, shooting at or harpooning in certain spots to avoid leaving an untidy 'hole in a place which could mar the beauty of the finished skin (and lower its value, of course!). Further, im the case of netted seals, to avoid shrimp bites on the bodies {!). In spite of my general disgust this last item intrigued me; I wonder how big the shrimps grow in Greenland? There followed grizzly details, which I will spare you, on the best skinning and cleaning methods to use to get the good " feel", natural colour, and maximum price, for the " end product". The Annual " offering" of sealskins made by the Royal Greenland Tralde Department alone averages 40,000 creatures. Most are of " Ringed " Seal which is found mainly in the almost inaccessible Greenland Fjords. The Saddler Seal lives on pack ice and is onily suitable for trunks and (bags, etc. The young, however, called HaTp Seals, are greatly prized for the fur coat industry, and, we are told, appeal particularly to the younger purchaser. Another seal which must be caught and killed while young, —under 6 months for the fur trade—is ithe " Blueback ". This is reckoned to be the most costly and highly priced of all seal coats. If fortunate enough to be allowed to mature, the Bluebacks become the largest of all ithe Greenland seals and are known as Bladdernoses. In recent years the Department has 'been encouraging the Eskimos to develop their handicrafts and produce more sealskin slippers, handbags, luggage, etc., all of which are finding a ready market in America, West Germany and—T write it with shame—Great Britain. Young horses are not spared On the centre pages of the magazine were several photographs of " Natural F o a l " coats. Something we have not seen in this country yet, but no doubt we shall. Later I spoke to a fellow traveller about this official fur-tradeboosting magazine and his reaction was—" Well, of. course, it 2 0


stands to reason that young animals make the best furs; after all, the young give the best meat, don't they?" So that conversation ended by becoming a discussion on vegetarianism, as they so often do. ONE MORE RIVER CROSSED It is with very great pleasure, and considerable relief, that we can announce the general distribution of the American Soya-based plantmilk which will be known in this country as " Granogen ". We have tried this as a drink and in cooking, and are happy with the results and flavour. The 1 lb. tin (9/6d.) when reconstituted, makes 8 pints of " milk ", which can even be used in tea! If not yet in your Health Food Store, ask them to order from Messrs. Granose, of Garston, Watford, Herts. Of special interest to many of our readers—it now contains B 1 2 (vegan, of course) and because of the soya base it has a high protein value. A NEW VEGAN SERVICE One of our members, from whom some of us have already bought boots' through the post, has decided to extend this service and is compiling a list of Vegan clothing and household articles for which she can take orders in the same way. This will be very helpful 'to all who live in the country, or Ido not have much opportunity to hunt for the really non-animal articles, and we shall have the added satisfaction of supporting another Vegan enterprise. Anyone interested should write for the initial list, which we hope will continually expand, to: Mrs. Banstead, Surrey, mentioning the Vegan and enclosing two threepenny stamps. Vyllar Footwear. We very much regret that some of our members are still waiting for the Vyllar footwear leaflets. All the issue for Spring models has been used and Messrs. Borg regret that these cannot be repeated. Our patient readers will receive a copy of the next edition as soon as they arrive, probably before April. One happy aspect of all this is that there is more interest in this type of footwear in this country than the makers had realised. Soap and Seasonings. Osem (London) Ltd., 1, Elizabeth Avenue, New North Road, London, N.l. Vegetarian Instant Bullion Cubes No. 305, Dehydrated soups in powder form: Vegetable No. 332, Mushroom No. 334; Pea No. 338/2, Tomato No. 339/2. 2 1


Sauce mixes in powder form: Gravy No. 370, Sauce Hollan^daise No. 371, Oriental Sauce No. 372, Spaghetti Sauce No. 373. Bottled Seasoning No. 323. Also all noodles, macaroni, spaghetti and soup almonds under this label. Baby Food.—Mothers should write to English Grains Co. Ltd., Granary House, Burton-on-Trent, for an interesting leaflet on the Hoi Gran Baby Foods which are guaranteed not only to be free of any additives, but also to be grown without chemical insecticides or chemical fertilisers. The Vega Restaurant, Leicester Square, W.l. Visitors to London are advised that a vegan dish is available at this vegetarian restaurant daily. This service has been greatly appreciated by members who have sent us very favourable reports. The Protheroe Bakery are now making a rich fruit cake to a vegan recipe. If there is any difficulty in obtaining these from your local Health Food Store they may be ordered by post from " Healthiways ". See advertisement. 3/0d. plus postage. Fertiliser. " Coconure " dry fertiliser is made from coconuts. It can be added to the compost heap or placed direct on the soil for digging in. 16/0d. for a 22 lb. bag, delivered, from Cornish Distributors, 15, New Cross Row, Falmouth. Household items Evostik " Impact " adhesive. Stick-a-Soles anfd Adhesive. Crysella Night Lights from Co-operative Stores. Rozalex Hand Barrier Cream. Cranks Shop, 24, Carnaby Street (behind Libertys, Regent Street). Open 9.30—5.30. (Probably 6.30 later on.) We were very pleased to learn of the new Cranks Shop, and took ithe first opportunity of paying it a visit. We expected lit to 'be bright, spotless, and welil arranged, and we were not disappointed. This is another Health Food Shop handling only health foods (although not necessarily only vegan ones) where tihe owners fullly understand vegan requirements and are happy t o advise the customer who arrives without a Food Guide (which we are ashamed to say we did!). We were able to get top quality ibread, baked with only English 100% wheat (compost), fresh wheat for sprouting, cracked linseed, homemade scones, sunflower seeds, etc., etc.; we positively staggered home. Thanks to the proprietors of the Cranks establishments, Carnaby Street is taking on a new look—and it is greaitly (improved by it. 2 2


I hope we axe not speaking too soon ibut it 'is more than probable, that there will Ibe a Cranks Bakery In the same block before another year has passed. A Vegan Week-end, August 8th and 9th, 1964 Glebe Farm Nurseries, Crowhurst, Nr. Battle, Sussex Through ithe kindness of Mr. and Mrs. Molineux we are invilted to spend a week-end with them next A>ugusit. This will be a wonderful opportunity for vegans, .to get together for relaxation and fresh air, meet other members and enjoy Mr. MOlineux's vegamdcally home-grown vegetables and fnuiit. There is ample room to accommodate campers' tents on the Saturday night and it may be possible to arrange indoor accommodation nearby for those who prefer it. For those who can onily manage one day there is a good fast train service from London (ddtails in Summer number). Whether you are bringing sleeping ibags and 'tents or spending just a day, please remember to 'bring good appetites, eating tools and to let Mr. and Mrs. Molineux know in plenty of time if you will be able to take advantage of their very land invitation. U.S. Footwear Note How many frustrating hours have we all spent in endeavouring to ascertain the exact nature of the materials used in various items of footwear? How many lunchtimes have we wasted with salesladies who " don't know", sales managers who apparently " d o n ' t care", and even manufacturers who are reluctant to give full details? It was, therefore, a great joy to walk into store after store in America and find that every shoe is clearly marked inside according to the materials used. A few we noticed were: — " All leather with the exception of quality man-made inner sole", " 100% man-made materials", "Leather and nylon upper, all other parts man-made materials", and " Man-made materials with the exception of leather trim and quarter lining". At least they know where 'they stand—and what they are standing in! This clear marking of goods is something for which we, too, must continue to press. It surely is our right to know what we buy. Good footwear for men in man-made materials is scarce in America as at home, but we did find some of the new porous " Corfam " shoes for men in a very high-class store in Miami. They are, as claimed, quite undistinguisha'ble from leather and they were given a tasteful and prominent window display. Our reason for not bringing back several pairs was the price—$15 to $18 (£5 to £6) a pair. We got the impression 'that they were, for the time ibeing, exclusive to this one store, and no doubt they have a novelty value at present. This problem should be soon overcome when Du Ponts are in full production o n . " C o r f a m " and many other manufacturers are using it for medium priced shoes.—E.B.


Apology. We regret that in our Winter issue we referred to Jane Barnicoat of the Evening Standard as Jane Barricoat. A PLANTMILK (Supplied by

QUESTIONNAIRE

M E S S R S . PLANTMILK LTD.)

Q. A.

What stage has been reached1 The complete formulation of Plantmilk has been reached as a result of seven years' intensive research. The newly designed machinery has been tested from the start of the process (leaf pulping machine) through to the final stage (stainless steel filler tank), and machinery " line-up " (cohesion of operation) is being finalised. Aiter a few weeks production can commence.

Q. A.

Where shall I be able to get Plantmilk ? Plantmilk will be sold in Health Food Stores at first in an area in and south of London. (It is impossible to post individual supplies direct to the consumer.)

Q. A.

When can I buy Plantmilk ? Your nearest Health Food Store will be approached when we are in a position to supply them. We will then send leaflets and details.* These are now in the printer's hands.

Q. A.

What is the price of Plantmilk ? The retail price will be 2/3d. per carton of 10 fluid oz. at TRIPLE strength, i.e., equivalent to. pints of " milk."

Q. A.

Will Plantmilk be in liquid or powder form ? Each carton of Plantmilk will contain LIQUID " milk " at TRIPLE strength. Just dilute and it is ready immediately.

Q. A.

What is the composition of Plantmilk ? Plantmilk includes protein, calcium, iron, iodine, Vitamins A, D and Blf B„, and B12

Q. A.

To what uses can Plantmilk be put ? Plantmilk may be used undiluted as a cream on f r u i t ; and diluted according to taste as a drink. It may also be used in tea, coffee, all beverages, cakes, pastries, puddings, and savouries . . . and on your favourite breakfast cereal.

* Supplies will be restricted to a few " l o c a l " stores initially (near to Fulham distribution centre) and more stores will be supplied as our output increases. It may, therefore, be a few weeks before you receive Plantmilk in your area. Mr. C. A. Ling, F.C.B.I supply further information. Write to him at Coulsdon, Surrey, or ring UPLands 9166.


TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING IN A VEGAN ECONOMY B y FRANCES PEARSON (Continued . .

from

the

Winter

1963

issue)

A I R , SUNSHINE AND W A T E R IN OUR T O W N S

Swimming and sunbathing are a part of our essential biological needs. We have not changed because we have become civilized. Swimming pools and sun gardens must be established everywhere so that office and factory workers can take part in these activities, essential to full health. Rickets is increasing despite our drinking cow's milk. Only sunshine on the skin provides the vitamin D essential to complete nutrition. The fight for pure air must be continued. Present legislation restrains the production of dark smoke but not the odourless, invisible, highly poisonous carbonmonoxide from coal gas, petrol and diesel fumes, etc. DISTRIBUTION OF F O O D

Food marketing would be much more local. New wholesale markets for fresh produce would be established in every town and village. However, Covent Garden Market would not be deserted. Compost grown produce keeps for much longer than produce grown by other methods, and many areas of Britain would be producing cash crops — like the tomatoes of Guernsey. Perhaps, as the demand for meat fell off, Covent Garden could take over Smithfield Meat Market, and relieve some of its famous congestion. Food shops would display small trays of germinated seeds covered with cellophane, as now happens in Japan. They would impress on their customers that all the vegetables in the shop were freshly gathered and many of them would retain the roots and leaves of the plants to keep them as undamaged as possible. GARDENS

When more people realise the value of fresh vegetables eaten within an hour of being picked, they will want to grow their own. There will be a great increase in the demand for gardens and allotments. This could result in a great increase of the areas of towns. They would be more spread out. Distances to work, shops, schools, etc., would be further increased and make us more dependent than ever on motor transport. MARKET GARDENS

Much of the land adjoining our towns would be converted from dairy farming to market gardening. People would have more money to spend on vegetables if they did not buy so much 2 5


meat. They would be able to pay for properly grown vegetables. This would make it economic to grow vegetables where it is now only profitable to graze animals. AGRICULTURE

While market gardens took over the subsistence agriculture for our urban populations, agriculture would still concentrate on cash crops for distribution over the whole country and for export. Our country is potentially ideal for producing fruit, nuts, vegetables and cereals. Many new possibilities would occur to people. On a small hill farm in Snowdonia, the only paying crop was found to be strawberries 1 Perhaps our moorland areas could be used for cultivating bilberries 1 It is obvious to any observer that our land could produce far more than it does. The trouble is that it is required to produce profits, not food. Sheep grazing shows good profits, giving a yearly return of three times the value of the animal per year in wool and meat. Sheep are more profitable than forestry, arable and dairy farming and market gardening. The common market would accentuate this trend, which has been continuing now for several centuries. Intensive cultivation would give way to extensive ranching of sheep and fat stock. Fortunately the opposite trend is also evident. Weekend refugees from London are establishing smallholdings in the Home Counties where they are growing their own food. The eventual use of land will depend on the owner rather than the potential productiveness of the land. Our land is rapidly approaching a state of erosion and is severely impoverished by the over reliance on chemical fertilizers. In future, we must conserve every bit of vegetable and animal waste and return it t o the land. This is n o t a fad—it is a matter of survival. [Veganic gardening means that animal organics are not returned to soil that is to b e used for the production of food for human consumption—THE E D I T O R . ] Our upland areas are potentially very rich—but they are at present used as sheep-runs. The lack of tree cover causes the minerals t o be quickly washed out. Even limestone country will n o t produce sweet grass unless it is limed. Farmers already realise that animals will not graze on land which has been manured, b u t manure can be used for producing hay. The animal population of our countryside can gradually be allowed to decrease as the demand for animal products falls off. As domestic farm animals decrease it should be possible for the wild animal population to be allowed to increase. Visualise hedgerows ten yards wide with bramble thickets where animals and birds can have their homes and families, and where foxes and weasels are the predators, rather than human beings. This is not an impossible 2 6


dream ; it has been done on a farm in the United States and this farm became a model of good agriculture.* As human beings become gradually 'less dependent on animals for their food, so animals will gradually come to depend less on human beings for theirs. Dogs and cats will return to their original carnivorous diet—catching the rats and mice which may abound if traps and poisons are not used. Carnivores need to eat the whole animal, raw, if they are to remain healthy. Insecticides and weedkillers will not be used, because these enter food plants and are eaten by human beings. Substances such as D.D.T. may be stored in the bones, and appear to cause no harm, but in the case, say, of a woman who is pregnant and who is temporarily off her food, food stored in the bones may be used to feed mother and child ; and at a crucial stage in the development of the embryo the D.D.T. may cause an abnormal division of cells—and another deformed child to be born. So what appears at first to be a fanatical devotion to insect •life will later be seen as real wisdom. Insecticides are already known to interfere with honey production and orchard fertilization. But the encouragement of natural parasites and predators of insects should keep insect pests in control when a good varied vegetation cover is re-established in this island. However, constant vigilance will be needed to keep the animal population in check so that it does not entirely consume the vegetation cover. •New predators will constantly have to be discovered and introduced to control new outbreaks of pests. Perhaps the biological warfare experts could turn their hands to this task when their service to the military is considered redundant. One crop systems encourage soil deficiencies which lead to crop diseases and so to the attempts to overcome these diseases with chemicals which cause still more harm. Agriculture must gradually move away from the harmful practice of growing only one crop and become more varied in each locality, so that the people who live locally can obtain a fresh and varied diet and naturally ripened fruit. TREES

"English horticulturists and farmers usually do not like trees. They say they rob the ground of light and moisture. There would be need of a continuous education programme to help people realise that trees give back as much as they take, in modifying run off of rain-water, in providing leaf mould and shelter belts, and finally, in modifying the whole climate by making it moister and less liable to extremes of temperature. However, they are unlikely to be highly valued and it may be necessary for their maintenance and management to be a public service. Profits from timber would probably pay for this service by a narrow margin. *See " Let's Eat Right to Keep Fit," by Adelle Davis. 2 7


GREEN

BELTS

This is the one aspect of public planning policy which has really taken a hold on the public imagination. Ideally, a green belt is an area surrounding a town consisting of woodland, recreation grounds, allotments, market gardens and plant nurseries. It is specially protected from building, so that the town has a definite boundary. However, they sometimes have nothing to recommend them except that they are open. Some areas have been abandoned by farmers, market gardeners and mineral workers. They are of recreational value only to small boys with a good imagination, and to town councils, wishing to put up their open space acreages by colouring the areas yellow-green on the town map. They sometimes even consist of derelict land which contains underground fires or is too expensive to build on. They are nevertheless worth taking some trouble to keep open and such areas are often the subject of planning appeals. People are always wanting to build on them. One can't blame them. They see only what these open spaces are—a derelict field between built-up areas, and not what they could be—a green park. If no positive uses can be found for this land, it is likely to be used for building in the end. Even more profitable than sheepraising is the sale of land for building. Bungalows are the most profitable thing a farmer can put on his land, if it is near a town. Fortunately the public are more alive t o the green belt issue than to any other planning matter. In an economy turning vegan vast areas of land would be released from grazing. For a short period it might be available very cheaply — then the town council would have the opportunity to buy up the area surrounding the town and run it as a landlord. Much of the green belt would be given over to recreation, woodlands, picnic areas, play areas, space for organised games, boating pools, flower gardens, sand pits, adventure playgrounds—in fact, something for every age and taste. Some of the land would be rented out for market gardens and allotments and some would be used for plant nurseries to provide trees, shrubs and flowers for the town. Good landscape architects and artists would have something far more worthwhile to do than designing quarter-acre gardens. Many people who are unable to get to the coast at the weekend would find an ideal playground within easy reach by bus. N A T I O N A L PARKS

Our national parks are intended as large areas of natural beauty, easily accessible to large populations. At present they are used mainly as sheep-runs, with some timber reserves and mineral workings and the occasional nuclear power-station. They aire protected from new building, and any buildiings which are allowed have special conditions imposed to make sure their appearance is not intrusive. Brick houses in the Lake District are 2 8


often plastered and coloured grey. Unfortunately the budget allowed to National Park Planning Authorities does not allow for capital expenditure for improvements such as the removal of eyesores (e.g., old military installations) and the establishment of trees on derelict land. However, once the national parks were freed from the grazing animal, woodlands would grow simply by leaving the land alone. My own favourite national park is the Yorkshire Dales. I love the bright open sweep of the gold and green sheep pastures, the white stone walls delineating the hillsides like little ribbons. But I am aware, sometimes, that something is missing. Those parts of the countryside which are free from the omnipresent sheep show an amazingly rich vegetation. There are ferns in the crevasses in the limestone, trees in iihe rock faces, moss on the stone walls, woods in the gardens of big houses, and flowers on the railway embankments and river banks. These look just like the garden of Eden in May and June. In New Zealand 'huge areas of virgin forest have given way to sheep pastures, but a start has been made and some of the forest has been turned into national parks. Our own countryside has to recover from several centuries of misuse. Very little of it remains in its original state. Even our beautiful roadsides have been cleared of all but the most coarse grass and weeds by the misguided use of weedkiller. If our countryside were given a rest from grazing, continuous cropping, weedkiller and insecticides for a period of five to ten years, there is no knowing how attractive it might become. Hampstead •Heath is an example known to Londoners. NATURE R E S E R V E S

In Stockholm there is a country museum where urban Swedes can go and see wild and domestic animals in a natural setting. As we gradually lessened our dependence on animals many of them would be used for food by the minority who still ate meat, but I think we should be sorry if they disappeared altogether. We keep herds of deer in our national parks, and areas of "outstanding natural beauty" like Cannock Chase. We could perhaps keep cows and sheep in freedom or semi-captivity. Unfortunately it would be difficult to control their numbers without the introduction of large carnivores such as bears and wolves. As these animals attack human beings there might be some reluctance to do this. In this case game keepers would have to shoot excess numbers and feed the meat to smaller carnivores such as cats and dogs. Elephants in Africa which are eating up the remains of forest in East Africa are to be used to feed pet animals in Europe. Wild animals would receive protection in the nature reserves just as wild waterfowl receive food and protection in the bird gardens at Slimbridge and Peakirk. The creatures in need of 2 9


greater protection would be captive—but most of them would be free to come and go as they pleased. FORESTRY

A good patchwork of forest cover would be the framework of all activity in the countryside — containing nature reserves, agriculture, recreational areas, market gardens, and built-up areas. Once we depend on wood, rather than wool, for our clothing fibres, forests will command a better cash crop value. The establishment of conifer forests has led to a general outcry about amenity—" straight lines of conifers," etc. But this is nothing compared to the outcry which will go up when this crop is harvested. I hope the Forestry Commission is here to stay. Forest cover has been found essential to regulate run-off in water catchment areas. Other benefits will be noticed as time goes on. Forestry practice may be modified, to make it more attractive. Rabbit control by foxes may make fences unnecessary. Scotland has been desolate since the English Lords drove away inhabitants to establish hunting rights in the eighteenth century. It need not be a poor country. I, for one, am happy to see forests being established there. In another two or three generations life in that country may return to normal. A poor country is usually a backward country. English people visiting Scotland can see how mean and poor the houses are. CONCLUSION

Much of England is a poor drab place. Most of its towns are indifferent or ugly. A great deal of its countryside is impoverished. It is populated by a folk in a continual state of mesotrophy—or half-health. One in seven deaths are from cancer. Perhaps ten per cent, of our children are incapable of full development. Our old folk are incapacitated unnecessarily by ignorance of nutrition. No wonder there seems to be a " mass death wish " for the the joy has gone out of living for millions of British people. There is a fifty-fifty chance that Britain will end up, in Sir Stephen King-Hall's words, as a " radio-active charnel house." But let us turn our minds to something more constructive. We have each an individual responsibility to play our small part in bringing about a change for the better. Firstly, we can replace all the articles of our conventional diet which are derived from animals by foods derived from vegetables. N u t meats replace cooked flesh, fish and fowl; nut creams replace cream ; and nut butters and fats replace lard and butter. Agaragar replaces white of egg in cakes and gelatin in jellies. .The vitamin B found in liver, milk and cheese can be had in Velactin, and soya milk powder, whilst Granogen and die new Plantmilk can be used in place of cow's milk. 3 0


Secondly, if we are serious about being Vegan, then we must be healthy. A vegan diet is the only suitable diet for man, but people will not believe it if vegans whom they know are not healthy. Veganism is not only healthy, it must be seen to be healthy. If people see vegans becoming and remaining healthy, they will respect veganism, and perhaps see in it a possibility of improving their own health. If our health has been impaired by the orthodox diet, we would do well to study Natural Hygiene, and apply its principles to our own way of life. In spite of its odd and perhaps frightening title, it is largely common sense. We run our lives on habit and precedence rather than common sense and instinct, and as our habits and customs are nearly always life-destroying, we become diseased. If we supply our bodies with vegan food (mostly uncooked), pure air, clean water, and cleanly habits, sunshine, suitable exercise, quietness, physical and mental rest and peace of mind, together with a normal emotional life including love and affection, then a miraculous change will take place, a process of regeneration which the living body is always ready to perform, the moment we give it favourable conditions. The body may need a complete rest from digesting food in order to do the work of rebuilding itself, but this can give rise to alarming physical processes, and should never be done except under expert supervision. The Natural Hygiene Society in Britain, advertised in this journal, and offered for sale through the post a booklet called Food Combining Made Easy, Price 8/-. It contains all that anyone needs to know in order to adjust their eating habits. Thirdly, we can avoid exploitation of animals by not using animal-derived products. 'In many respects the substitutes for wool and leather are superior to the natural products. This is not taking kindness to animals too far—it is not even just being kind to animals, it is adjusting our whole way of life to the manner in which we must live if the human race is to survive the next few centuries. To put it at its lowest, it robs the critics of their usual arguments, e.g., " If you want to avoid killing sheep by not eating mutton, why do you use a wash leather to clean your windows ? " Your answer could b e : " I don't." Such skins take six weeks of objectionable scraping, and soaking in strong acid to get the flesh and wool off, and render them flexible. Window cloths of vegetable origin are on sale in most towns. They are just as good, and have involved no unpleasant processing. These are things we can do here and now on every shopping expedition and at every meall. They not only ensure our survival but tihe further evolution of (the human race. They could so transform our environment that the time would surely oome when our island would really live up to Shakespeare's description of i t — " A gem set in a silver sea." 31


THE

VEGETARIAN

CATERING

ASSOCIATION

Residential Cookery Courses are held for a week in different parts of the country. Qualified members of the Association conduct these. During 1964 the following have been arranged: — April 11th—18th at Rothay Bank, Grasmere. Demonstrator: Mrs. Isabel James, assisted by Miss Amy Crossley. May lsl—8th at Sandy Point, Frinton on Sea. Demonstrator: Mrs. Kathleen Keleny (Vegan). September 19 th—26th at The Briars, Crioh, Matlock. Demonstrator: Mrs. Fay K. Henderson. Tuition Fees for the full week are two guineas or per day 8/6d. Accommodation fees are specially reduced for students. Applications for eaah course should be made to the Guest House concerned as early as possible. There will be cookery demonstrations, talks and discussions to help those wishing to extend their knowledge of Vegetarian Cookery. The following subjects are included: — Nut Dishes, Cheese Dishes, Pulse Dishes and Egg Dishes. Wholewheat Bread, Pastry, Puddings and Cakes. Salads, Soups anfd Sauces. Savoury Jellies, Fruit Jellies and Starchfree Blancmanges. Inquiries to: Education Secretary, Mrs. Fay K. Henderson, Keld, Shap, Penrith. BOOK

REVIEW

A N I M A L MACHINES by Ruth Harrison. Published by Vincent Stuart Ltd. at 21/-. Let me say immediately that I advise every Vegan to buy 2 copies if possible, one to read and 'keep for reference and one to lend to as many as possible. This book and our leaflet, " Unnecessary Cruelties Among Farm Animals", are the complete answer 'to those of our meat-eating friends who think that all is well with British agriculture and very little cruelty is perpetrated on our farms. The leaflet shows that cruelty is regularly practised on most British farms that follow traditional methods whilst the book shows that cruelty is inherent in the new factory methods. Further, it shows that the mentality behind these methods is largely inhuman, unfeeling, coldly calculating and basely commercial. Twenty-four pages of pictures reveal to those readers unfamiliar wiith the new methods, the pitiful unhealthy conditions in which an ever increasing proportion of our meat animals are reared. The thesis itself exposes these methods as one of the most rapidly growing dangers to man himself. The prime requisite of healthy man is healthy food. Factory farming is 3 2


concerned with quantity rather than quality and with appearance and speed rather than nutrition. As stated in the Financial Times (October 11th, '62). " . . . . The (poultry) industry which has conquered the pallid yoke resulting from intensive laying (by the introduction of dyes into feed) is now experimenting with a 'chicken taste' extract to meet criticisms that intensive rearing leads to tasteless meat." Professor Yudkin of London, speaking on " Hazards of Life ", recently said, " We may soon foe eating pies, sausages, etc., with every quality of the meat they should contain except the nutritional value." To deny animals their birthright of freedom, sunlight and green fields, to frustrate practically every natural instinct by separating young from mother at birth, by denying natural selection of food, by enforcing boredom, immobility and darkness or gross interference with the natural sleep cycle, by the use of slats for cloven-hoofed animals and wiire netting for birds, and by the whole prison-like existence, is to court unhealthy, diseaseridden stock which must profoundly affect the health of those that eat the produce. So long as the sole criterion is the largest, quickest carcass weight with the minimum food conversion ratio irrespective as to whether it is healthy flesh, so long will the position deteriorate. " Modern techniques of farming ensure Che contamination of food right from its beginnings. Pesticides are often washed over seeds before planting and' thereafter systematic chemical spraying aims at reducing Toss through insect or parasite . . . . concentration of one crop over a vast area has enabled pests which thrive on that crop to gain such a hold that even persistent spraying with insecticides is proving ineffectual . . . . Mam undoes the built-in checks and balances by which nature holds the species within bounds. . . . " (Pages 112-3.) " Unhealthy animals cannot make healthy food for humans. But this is not only unwholesome food, it is more than that, it is potentially dangerous. A race is developing between disease and the scientists creating new drugs to keep mortality down to levels where profit can still be made. Drugs are used automatically, in small quantities in the compounded food to allow uninhibited growth, in larger quantities to suppress disease when it actually appears and finally synthetic hormones are used for fattening. Traces of all these can be left an the carcass when :the animal is slaughtered" (Pages 115-6.) ". . . . While medical authorities are steadily urging that antibiotics be used only with great discrimination on the grounds of dangerous resistance buiilding up, the agricultural authorities are encouraging ever wider use." (Page 120.) Ruth Harrison and Rachel Carson have documented an unassailable case aeainst the present usage and trends in the chemical industry as applied to agriculture and factory farming. Neither 3 3


of them is negative. In her final chapter, Ruth Harrison recommends measures for safeguarding our food, for legislation to declare ithe contents of foodstuffs, for re-education on nutritional values and a new charter for animal welfare. In her Foreword, Rachel' Carson says, " A s for the general public, the vast majority rest secure in a child-like faith that ' someone' is looking after things—a faith unbroken until some puiblic-spirited person, with patient scholarship and steadfast courage, presents facts that can no longer be ignored. This is what Ruth Harrison has done . . . . I hope (iher book) will spark a consumers' revolt of such proportions that this vast new agricultural industry will b e forced t o mend its ways." That revolt has begun—please, PLEASE help it to gather momentum, by spreadiing the message of this book amongst your friends and 'acquaintances, and use the Crusade or our own literature to help it along. J.S.

"THE WORD IS ECOLOGY" This is the title of a highly thought-provoking article by Marian Sorenson in the Sept./Oct., 1963, issue of " With Sword and Shield", Journal of the Crusade. Miss Sorenson quotes f r o m a report given to the White House by a National Academy of Sciences Committee on Natural Resources: " T h e wisdom of examining environment in the totality of its interaction with man becomes increasingly apparent in view of the rapidity of environmental change in our country. We live in a period of social and technological revolution, in which man's ability t o manipulate the processes of nature for his own economic and social purposes is increasing at a Tate which his forebears would find frightening." After detailing the basic, far-reaching ways in which man's actions are affecting his environment, the report states: " It would seem unwise to continue to tamper with enviroment without, concurrently, striving to determine the real and lasting effects of our actions." This is undeniable good sense but there is an urgency about the principle underlined b y the report which must be conveyed to all sections of the community in addition to those in positions of power and authority. I t has been said: " H u m a n civilisation is faced in many parts of the world with grave economic and medical problems, which can only ibe solved successfully along ecological lines, and it seems quite possible that unless they are solved in time, the civilisation will be in danger of sinking gradually and collapsing under the strain, or a t any rate of becoming too unpleasant to be worth retaining. A t the very least, animal ecology has an important and very urgent contribution to make towards the worM's happiness." It is often maintained that those who care about the welfare 3 4


BWC2 The new Beauty Without Cruelty Centre and Boutique, at 9a, St. Mary Aibbot's Place (nearest Underground Station: Kensington High Street). It will be open on Wednesday 2 pjm. to 8 p.m., Friday and Saturday 2 p.m. to 6 p.m., a day longer that at the first boutique at Westbourne Park Road, which, owing to the great interest, has outgrown its converted garage walls!

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of animals are not concerned with that of people, h would be just as true to say that many people engaged upon work for the betterment in one form or another of mankind with the farreaching exploitation of the earth's natural resources and living beings which this entails, are not concerned in any way with the effect of their actions upon the rest of life. The truth which wholehearted humanitarians .must propagate is that both problems are interdependent and the more the cause of animals and the cause of people mingle the better for the future of all life here since all life is one. Enlightened educationists admit that the trend towards specialised knowledge can be the opposite of progressive if it cuts off the specialist from an awareness of the place of his own field in relation to the whole. Similarly, it behoves all of us working on 'behalf of a section of earth's family of living beings to endeavour at all times to view our work and problems in the light of the whole. By so doing our different causes will gain immeasurably in support and goodwill from those who hitherto may have regarded them with prejudice and intolerance. The more in advance of the general level of human evolution one's principles may be, the more it is essential that one relates them to the context of the whole. Through the growing science of ecology many branches of human knowledge are being correlated to show how closely all aspects of life on earth are inter-related and interdependent. The Crusade Against All Cruelty to Animals is playing an important part in endeavouring to enlarge the consciousness of the " animallover " t o an awareness of his role as an active participant in the constructive—or destructive—'future of this planet. Our last report in " The Vegan" "dealt with a number of important points relating to our campaign against the broiler and battery methods of rearing food animals. In view of the "mushroom " growth Of these systems which makes speedy action by humanitarians and wholefood-conscious consumers imperative, we urge readers to refer again to that report which we feel confident will spur on those who are not yet supporting our Humane Farming Campaign to do so without delay. It is evident from the numerous press cuttings which reach us that a growing number of people are publicly expressing their disquiet against the broiler and battery systems and many letters, features and press reports refer either directly or indirectly to our Campaign and quote freely from our literature. In this crucial time before the General Election we are urging all interested people—whatever their political persuasion—to take the following action: 1. Please send to the address below for a supply of the Humane Farming Campaign leaflet "Cheap Food?" and despatch 3 6


The answer to

MILK ALLERGY

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GRANOSE FOODS LIMITED STANBOROUGH PARK • WATFORD

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copies to all the local branches of the various political parties in your town or district. The addresses can be found in the Telephone Directory. 2. Enclose a letter to each Secretary urging that the facts therein ibe made known to their Branch members, including the Women's Sections, and telling them that further leaflets can be supplied for this purpose. 3. Express your wish that the political parties will support the growing demand amongst enlightened people for an enquiry into " b r o i l e r " methods of rearing animals for food and that, in any case, it should be made compulsory for all broiler produce —chickens, forced white veal, etc.,—to be marked as such. Marking of battery eggs should also be made compulsory. Denmark has banned the battery system of egg production on the grounds of oruelty. Why not Britain? 4. It is important that you should write personally to each political party branch in your town rather than merely sending the leaflets, and please get your sympathetic friends to do likewise. In this way the political parties can be made increasingly aware of the growing agitation against the intensified methods. The Humane Farming Campaign is run by two societies conjointly, namely, the Crusade Against All Cruelty to Animals and the Captive Animals' Protection Society. The campaign address is the Headquarters of the Crusade at the address below. No chairge is made for tlhe literature hence donations towards printing costs—earmarked for Humane Farming Campaign—are greatly welcomed. Other free literature and specimen copy of Crusade journal available from: MARGARET A .

COOPER.

Secretary, Crusade Against All Cruelty to Animals, 3, Woodfield Way, Bounds Green Road, London, N . l l . PUBLICITY

The Enfield Gazette of February 21st featured a photograph of Mr. and Mrs. Batt sitting with Staff Captain Glynos at a party on the Greek Line dhip " Arkadia " on tfheir recent cruise to the West Indies and Miami. The 6-inch column of print included the following: — " A strict vegetarian and secretary of the Vegan Society, Mrs. Batt was served' with a special dielt during the cruise." THE

YOUNG

VEGETARIAN

We note with interest and pleasure that the above monthly journal of the British Vegetarian Youth Movement is featuring our leaflet " The Reasons for Veganism ". Any of our younger (or older) members who woul py of this journal should write to John Oliver, , Watford, Herts. 3 8


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T e r m s : Cash with Order to H. H. Greaves Ltd., 106/110 Lordship Lane, London, S.E.22. (2/- per line: minimum 2 lines; 20% discount on [our consecutive

issues.)

BLACKHEATH HEALTH FOOD STORES. A warm welcome awaits anyone visiting our Juice and Snack Bar, also small extension for appetising hot meals and generous salads. Nutrition without Cruelty —-vegetarian and vegan foods; Science without Cruelty — herbal remedies. Also Beauty without Cruelty — soaps and cosmetics. Plantmilk, nuts, seeds and grains a speciality. Wholewheat bread and cakes. Compost-grown produce. Ofreta Healing Oil, a unique combination of natural oils, wonderfully penetrating in the relief of sprains, burns, rheumatism, bronchitis, etc., 3/3d. and 6/3d. plus 1/postage. Goods sent inland and abroad. Send 6d. in stamps for comprehensive price-list to Mrs. Muriel Drake, HEALTHIWAYS, 5 Tranquil Passage, London, S.E.3. Tel. LEE Green. 5811. BRITISH VEGETARIAN YOUTH MOVEMENT. An organisation for people 12—35. Social gatherings, holidays, monthly magazine, etc., organised. Further particulars: Secretary, G. Barwick, 35 Wenalt Road, Fonna, Neath, Glamorgan. ENGLISH and cycles, new Exchanges. Your own Butterworth, Manchester.

Continental Scooters and Mopeds, most and used. Three-wheelers, Powerdrive, Terms. Models bought. Please write, dealer, RON McKENZIE (Proprietor: Vegan Food Reformer), 961 Chester Longford 2100.

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FRESH VEGETABLE JUICES easily made in your own kitchen. Ask details of new machines. JUICEX, 7 Chantry Lane, Grimsby, Lines. HEALTH through NATURAL HYGIENE. Are you interested in Health achieved naturally and without the exploitation of other human beings and animals? Natural Hygiene is a system of health preservation and restoration which meets these requirements. For literature, send 6d. stamp t o : Registrar (G), British Nat. Hygiene Soc., 49 Ravenswood Ave., Tolworth, Surrey. LESSONS IN SPEAKING AND WRITING.—Visit, correspondence (5/-) for ordinary, business p es, ch M Dorothy Matthews, TUDor 7357. NEW POSTAL SERVICE. blankets, household F r o m Mrs. D. Steel,

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T H E COMPASSIONATE DOCTRINE OF AHINSA is stressed in the monthly publication " A H I N S A " (non-killing, harmlessness). Full year, 7s. in British stamps or coins. T H E AMERICAN VEGAN SOCIETY, Malaga, N.J. 08328, U.S.A. TO BE LET as agricultural or horticultural holding, 7 acres of land and living caravan at Pulverbatch, 8 miles from Shrewsbury. Offers a me. Further details from Donald Pedley, Wolverhampton. 4 0


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BROOK LINN.—Callander, Perthshire. Vegetarian and Vegan meals carefully prepared and attractively served. Comfortable guest house. Near Trossachs and Western Highlands. Mrs. Muriel Choffin. Callander 103. EASTBOURNE.—General nursing, convalescence, rest and nature-cure. Out-patients treated. Edgehill Vegetarian and Vegan Nursing Home, 6 Mill Road. Tel.: 627. E D S T O N E , W O O T T O N WAWEN, WARWICKSHIRE (near Stratford-onAvon).—Modern Nature Cure Resort and Guest House with every comfort, and compost-grown produce. (Phone: Claverdon 327.) L A K E DISTRICT. Rothay Bank, Grasmere. Attractive guest house for invigorating, refreshing holidays.—Write Isabel James. Tel.: 134. MAJORCA.—Charming flat for two offered. Vegetarian, non-smokers. All comforts. Tranquillity and beauty. Some meals pro arrangement. International stamp please. Mrs. Ritchie: Palma de Mallorca. N O R T H WALES.—Vegan and vegetarian guest house, nr. mountains and sea. Lovely woodland garden. Brochure f r o m Jeannie and George Lake, Plas-y-Coed, Penmaen Park, Llanfairfechan. Tel.: 161. " W O O D C O T E " , Lelant, St. Ives, Cornwall, is a high-class Vegetarian F o o d Reform Guest House in a warm and sheltered situation overlooking t h e Hayie Estuary. Composted vegetables; home-made wholewheat bread; vegans catered for knowledgeably. Mr. and Mrs. Woolfrey. T e l . : Hayle 3147. Early bookings for Summer very advisable.

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The Vegan Spring 1964