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THE VEGAN SOCIETY Founded November, 1944

Veganism is the practice of living on the products of the plant kingdom— to the exclusion of all animal fooids—proceeding from a wide consideration of man's true place in nature. The objects of the Vegan Society are to provide in thought and practice for the advance of veganism, and to relate veganism to every aspect of creative co-operation between man and nature.

President : Mr. JOHN HERON, urrey. / Vice-President: Mrs. E. B. SHRIGLEY, , Surrey. Honorary Secretary: Mrs. MURIEL D Bromley, Kent. (RAVensbourne 2809). T 108 Erskine Hill, London, / Committee: Mrs. JEANNE ARNALDI, Mrs. SERENA COLES/Miss CHRISTINA HARVEY, M r . JOHN MOORE, M r . CHARLES PERRY, M r JACK SANDERSON, Miss MABEL SIMMONS, Miss EDNA TOWELL, Miss .ANN WICKER. Minimum subscription, which includes " The Vegan," 10s. Od. per annum, payable in January. Life Membership, £8 8s. Od.


Editor: Mr. JOHN HERON, , Reigate, Surrey. Assistant Editor : Mr. JACK SANDERSON, , Lawrence Street, London, S.W.3. / Advertisements: H. H. GREAVES LTD., 1 0 6 / 1 1 0 Lordship Lane, London, S.E.22. / Published quarterly: Annual subscription, 5/- post free: single copies, Is. 3d. post free. Obtainable from the Hon. Secretary. BRANCHES OF THE SOCIETY AND SECRETARIES YORKSHIRE/-Mi3S Stella Rex, , Garforth, Nr. Lafeds. MIDLANDS.—Mr. Don Burton, Stratford-on-Avon, Warwicks. MANCHESTER.—Mrs. Ann E. Schofield, , WythenAhov/e. SCOTTISH SECTION.—Miss Dina M. Sutherland, , / Liberton, Edinburgh, 9. / (Please communicate with your nearest Branch Secretary)

T HJournal E oj theVEGAN Vegan Society Vol. X

Spring, 1958

No. 8

EDITORIAL " There is a tide in the affairs of men . . . " and the month of November, 1957, marked one of the higher tides of recent years. On Sunday, November 17th, in The People, was given the first real news of Zeta, the new apparatus which promises cheap and limitless power, and which along with ' automation' heralds a new era in the sphere of power and industry, and opens up for man a future in which he will have more time for recreation and travel, and more money to enjoy these pursuits. It was also on this day, through the B.B.C. Sunday afternoon gardening talk, that news was given to the general public of the important work being done at Rothamstead by Mr. Pirie and his team on "Leaf Protein." The speaker said that about 70 per cent of the protein was extracted in liquid form and changed as required into a powder for use in foodstuffs. He went on to suggest a fundamental change in agriculture in this country, in which the wasteful grazing (and subsequent slaughter) of vast numbers of meat animals would gradually be replaced by much more efficient and direct use of the leaf protein. This month of November also marked the holding of two very important world gatherings, one the Convention arranged in San Francisco by the World University Roundtable, which was attended by delegates and observers from 44 different countries, and the other, the 15th World Vegetarian Congress in India, attended by delegates from most countries in the world. The former convention dwelt principally on the H bomb and human survival, and on the East-West relationship, particularly with reference to the two main power-blocs and their attitudes to world poverty and hunger. The latter stressed the positive contribution that the non-killing principle of vegetarianism has made and will continue to make in the development of the human mind away from war and towards respect for all life. It further stressed the economic benefits that would result from a change over to a vegetarian economy in place of the present wasteful use of land and manpower in the production of flesh foods. At San Francisco, in a plea for " understanding," one speaker said, "In 1492 we had a physical map of the world which was very crude by modern .standards. The oceans just fell off into 19


space. To-day, we have a cultural map of the world just as crude. We still don't know what other peoples are thinking." Similar thoughts expressed were, " The first and the most tragic reason for the present misunderstanding between us is our ignorance about each other. There are millions of people in both continents who remain wholly unaware of basic things, and who are acquainted only with the most superficial aspects of each other's way of life. Ignorance inevitably leads to prejudice." " Military and economic assistance are not enough. Asians are seeking genuine love and friendship—a real concern for them and interest in them as people, not as pawns in the power struggle." Mr. Herter, the U.S. Under-Secretary of State, said that, " Explorations of ways to better understanding are vital long-range efforts for creating the kind of international climate for the establishment of an enduring and an equitable peace . . . I can report that the functions of the specialized agencies—especially UNESCO—are receiving close scrutiny, because it is evident that they are assuming an increasingly vital role, in the improvement of relations—between governments, yes—but more particularly between peoples." About the same time the President of India was addressing the Vegetarian Conference and saying, " It is a far cry from vegetarianism to the hydrogen bomb . . . Any integrated view of life as a whole will reveal to us the connection between the individual's food and his behaviour towards others . . . We cannot but arrive at the conclusion that the only means of escaping the hydrogen bomb is to escape the mentality which has produced it, and the only way to escape that mentality is to cultivate respect for all life, life in all forms, under all conditions. It is only another name for vegetarianism" He, and many other distinguished speakers, often referred to the principle of " Ahimsa " or non-violence, a principle which is very dear to the heart of vegetarians and vegans and a principle which shone through the enlightened speeches given by the Congress Leaders. (We are greatly indebted to that excellent magazine " World Forum ", for giving us such excellent reports of the speeches.) It is worthy of note that the Bombay Session recommended the I.V.U. to "encourage the formation of vegan groups within vegetarian societies, and to advise vegetarians to gradually give up the use of animal products." This same principle (of active love) was illumined in a recent speech by Bishop Sheen, of New York, to national leaders in Washington, when he said. " One third of the people of the world go to bed hungry every night . . . It was a pagan, Terence, who said, ' Charity begins at home.' It was Christ who in the parable of the Good Samaritan said that charity begins away from home with people who are not of our race or country. . . . It is their stomachs that are empty; it could be our hearts that are empty. ' JACK SANDERSON. 19 1



Vegetarians (and throughout this essay this term is meant to include vegans and diet reformers who adopt the approach I am here considering) are distressingly illogical if they rest their case against flesh eating solely upon a concern for the welfare, " rights " and happiness of the food animals concerned. In vegetarian magazines the world over one often sees photographs of a calf, a cow, a pig or a lamb—photographs which seem to imply a " love " or at any rate a liking for the animal portrayed, together with a compassionate horror that it should be cut down in untimely slaughter. One indeed gets the impression that many a vegetarian would like to see these creatures free to enjoy to the full their lifeloving propensities without the threat of a premature death at the hand of man. But the truth is, of course, that the vegetarian in propounding the abolition of flesh eating is not working for the emancipation, liberation or longevity of food animals but for their virtual extinction. He is, in fact, conferring the death wish upon them— that they should all go out of existence. The universal application of vegetarianism would mean that millions of hens, cattle, pigs, etc., that man normally keeps for food would never see the light of the sun or have any experience of physical life: that innumerable new-born creatures would never know the " joys " of the open field or of nature's fruitful bounty. Even if some of the species were retained for decorative purposes in special parks or preserves, their numbers would be minute compared to the present several thousand millions kept by man for food. In reality, then, the vegetarian can have logically very little concern for the love of life or longevity of the food animals on whose behalf he so often represents himself as campaigning. If the vegetarian were really trying to see the question from the food animals' point of view (although it is admittedly rather dubious to engage in such anthropomorphic projection) he would surely have to argue somewhat as follows. Since many millions of animals would have no existence at all unless they were bred by man to be slaughtered for food, this latter condition must be accepted as the only one under which they can have any experience of the " pleasure " of living (presuming that food animals do derive their equivalent of pleasure from life—the gambolling lamb, the grazing calf, cow or goat in sunny pasture, etc.). In any case, this " pleasure " cannot be sullied by the end in store for them, since they can have no precognition or fear of this except, perhaps, from the slaughterhouse portals onwards. And their actual experience of the end is doubtless no worse than that which their wild counterpart might experience by the tooth and claw of some predatory beast in forest or plain, or through lingering disease or painful exposure in old age amidst the indifference of nature. 19


If one. insists, therefore, in taking the exclusively animal welfare approach to the question of food Animals, one must, strangely enough but logically enough, take the following position. That in relation to food animals, animal welfare will have a dual policy. Firstly, to encourage and promote the breeding of animals for food in order to ensure that the creatures concerned do have an entry into life which would otherwise be denied them. Secondly, to encourage humane methods both of their management throughout their life—so far as is consistent with the economic laws which permit their existence—and of their final slaughter. But, needless to say, a vegetarian can scarcely support the first proposition of this policy! It can be seen, then, that to oppose flesh eating on the grounds of animal welfare, is, to say the least, illogical. But it also involves an entirely false sentimentality. Do we, for example, ever hear from vegetarians a sympathetic outpouring on behalf of the millions of sensitive creatures struck down, maimed, killed and devoured by carnivorous beasts of prey amidst nature's wilds throughout the world? Or a compassionate plea for the countless victims of the truly staggering predatory activities in the world's oceans and seas? If nature gives its creatures life on the condition —against which we wisely do not protest—that they are all potential prey, why a special outcry on behalf of those food animals to whom man applies the same condition? The only safe and resolute outlet for our abhorrence is not that it should be expressed on behalf of the slaughtered food animals, but that it should be directed to the fact that man has been untrue to his higher and nobler nature by descending to the predatory level—the real moral case against flesh eating. The illogicality and sentimentality which go hand in hand and which are implicit in the animal welfare approach to vegetarianism represent the greatest taint upon the vegetarian-vegan movement, and also its greatest weakness—spotted immediately by the sophisticated and sensed intuitively by the simple among " orthodox " feeders. And because the movement tends to have this taint attached to it, many who might be brought round to it on other grounds instinctively shy away from it. The vegetarian can have no false feelings about food animals. He can only wish them, in their vast numbers, to be no more. He must base his case not solely on what is right or fair or just for these animals—for this involves him in hopeless contradictions— but on what is the right way of life for man, individually and collectively. And a true conception of this right way of life for man, so far as his diet is concerned, will perhaps be derived from a consideration of the following: — The anatomical and physiological structure of man, the nutritional potential of the plant kingdom, and certain other aspects of " design " in nature; the relationship with other forms of life into which it is most appropriate for him to enter; the mode of 19 1

diet most conducive to his whole well-being ; the actions and habits appropriate to his moral and spiritual status; and an. agricultural economy that will permit plentiful food for all mankind. Those of us who are concerned with propagating the idea of vegetarianism and veganism should note that it is probably this last consideration with its realistic, unanswerable grip on immensely urgent and practical issues—concerning world food shortages, increasing populations, the gross inefficiency and heavy losses in obtaining food from animals rather than direct from the plant kingdom—that will make the strongest appeal to thinking people in the world at large. And it is also this particular approach which is probably, in this new age of universalism and planet-wide thinking, the most truly humanitarian in the best and broadest sense of the world. A NEW ETHIC FOR SOCIAL REFORM CHARLES WYE, U . S . , F.Ph.S. (Editor of The Philosopher) My leaflet, Humanitarian Policy, sacrifices complete accuracy to the needs of a succinct statement. It provides a synoptic view of the wide field of moral and social reform, rests upon axiomatic values of compassion and right relationship, and returns to the original meaning of the word " humane." Humanitarianism is an extension of that meaning which has perversely come to apply more to the welfare of animals than of man. Whatever one's personal sentiments for animals may be, it is clearly impossible to expect world society to support voluntary improvements or to enforce legislation for animal welfare until it can be pragmatically shown that human welfare involves some readjustment of man's relationship to animals. Nor can the argument be upheld that animal welfare per se is as important as that of human beings when society is so constituted that their interests conflict. A realistic policy must therefore balance these twin needs in an overall picture of humane social reform and endeavour to minimise the amount of actual conflict of interests which needs occur. The reform movement lacks a unified ethical field theory able to integrate all the aspects of reform into an organic whole by means of common though relative axioms—a theory which can at the same time relate reformative aspirations to practical politics. We may suggest that similarly as the planet experiences at least a triune movement in space, so also the progress of man in society has to follow the triple pattern of spiritual (or moral), intellectual, and economic movement, and that they need to occur simultaneously. Such movements as we care to make along one path involve us in movements along the others. That is to say, we have to accept relativity and dismiss for pragmatic purposes the concept of fixed inalienable principles. 19


One reason why some reform groups make little headway is because they are geared to absolute principles and overlook the natural relativity of ethical principles to other factors in the social equation. It is therefore not surprising that they become static. An absolute moral principle must by definition work in some conceivable situation, however ideal, and when it cannot, or when such a situation is of the stuff of dreams, then either it is not absolute, or else it is meaningless to society except as a pointer in the " right " direction. One moral problem involves another, which may also be scientific or economic. Our civilisation—for better or worse—is founded on scientific method and the technological application of physical discoveries. The latter is related to an economic/power complex which determines the functioning of society. This may gradually be transformed but its present existence is not to be ignored. Hence, social reform must be seen within the given context towards the amelioration of which our immediate aims should be geared. This is not to say that science has all the answers, or that those it gives are more than partially true ; nor that economic difficulties may not be overcome. But we shall blink these facts only at grave social peril. We may not faithfully advocate turning the clock of civilisation back ; for the only way out of our dilemmas is through. The advance of scientific knowledge and the accumulating evidence from a number of fields of paranormal research are providing us with a fresh picture of life, by which it is becoming possible for the first time in our civilisation to glimpse tenuously the nature of the relationship in which man stands to the universe and its teeming life forms. Intention or purpose governing the operation of life as yet begs the scientific question, but it is permissible to suggest a hypothesis if only because one must first know for what to look before it can be found. Great scientific discoveries often require the prior formulation of an hypothesis of what may or may not subsequently be found relatively true. Thus, if our researches do indicate a norm of relationship between all the forms of life, it would be pardonable to assume a degree of intention in such a norm, to whatever Divine or Creative Power we ascribe it. Supposing this, then our ethics will consist in trying to conduct our lives according to it. The ethical blueprint of this relationship may be called, in the words of Dr. Albert Schweitzer, an allembracing universal ethic. One of the facts which would then emerge is relativity of all forms of life to one another in such a way that they mutually interact. This gives ground to the ancient saying that we " are all part of one another." The neo-humanitarian movement which I visualise would include those who accepted the need for a universal ethic sanely based on progress in the three aspects mentioned above, so that reform could then be applied to improving situations which fall short of the understood norm of relationship. A movement concerned with the entire ethical picture of society (and therefore with 19 1

its fundamental structure) should embrace not only the morally zealous, but spiritual, intellectual and economic counsellors, whose task would be to discover what is desirable and relate that to what is at a given stage practicable, whilst aiming to make gradual all round improvements possible. The plan for such a consultative council does not yet exist even on paper and will not for so long as each reform is kept securely in its own pigeonhole. Meantime, we plead for a programme of education to instruct the members of each group in— though not necessarily to oblige them to apply—the ethics and aims of all. Only thus can a neo-humanitarian movement become a reality and from it derive a sound new ethic for humane reform. LEAVES AS A SOURCE OF HUMAN FOOD N . W . PLRJE

Head of the Biochemistry Department, Rothamsted Experimental Station It is easy to get enough starch in food because the cereal grains, potatoes, and various other roots consist mainly of starch ; fats are not too difficult to get because various beans and nuts are fatty; if foods are chosen carefully most of the vitamins can be found. But protein is not so easily come by. Almost all the protein that people eat was made originally in the green photo-synthetic parts of a plant, generally these are the leaves. We can get some protein by simply eating cooked leaves but most of them contain so much fibre that the human digestion cannot manage a sufficient quantity to supply the protein needed. We therefore wait, let the plant mature and transfer the protein from its leaves to seeds or tubers where there is less fibre, and then eat these. By eating peas, beans and some of the nuts, enough protein can generally be got without too much fibre. It is not easy, however, to manage this and many vegetarians get too little protein in their food. Animals with complex stomachs, like cattle and sheep, can eat food with very much more fibre in it than we can and from it they make meat or milk. They do not do this very efficiently so that from 100 lb. of protein in the animal's food only 5—15 lb. re-appears, on the average, in the animal product that can be eaten. In my opinion that is the only disadvantage in using animals to convert plants that are not suitable for human food into human food, but I recognise that many people have other reasons for not wishing to use animals in this way. Most of the world's population has little or no choice in the matter; the density of population in the areas where the large populations live —India and China for example—is so great that animal products are nearly excluded from the diet because of the inefficiency of the animal. 19


Although I cannot agree with the Vegan view that there is any disadvantage in using animal proteins if they can be got, it seems clear that the amount we will be able to get will diminish as time goes on and for that reason we have been trying for many years to make directly from leaves a palatable protein with little or no fibre in it. In this we have been fairly successful and now have a unit at Rothamsted with which it would be easy to make 100 lb. of protein a week and possible to make more if there were the demand for it and we had the labour. In principle the process is simple; the fresh leaves of various crops are pulped and the juice is then pressed out. The juice brings most of the protein with it in solution but when it is heated the protein coagulates and can be filtered off, washed, and got into a state suitable for storage. We have been most successful with cereals cut young, but the tops of sugar beet or early potatoes, and the wastes from factories making quick frozen peas are also useful. Grass is not so good, it is more difficult to pulp than the other types of leaf and even after thorough washing the protein keeps a rather grassy flavour that some people do not like. Furthermore, it offers no special advantages. To start with it is very simple because fields of grass are there, but after a year or two when arrangements have to be made for re-seeding and fertilizing the land so as to get high yields, it is just as easy to sow whatever crop gives the best product. Our standard product is a very dark green paste; about three quarters of it is water, one fifth protein and the rest fat and starch from the leaf. A person needs 2—4 ozs. of protein a day from all sources, so that if leaf protein were to supply ai fifth of the total it would mean eating 2—4 ozs. of the paste every day. There is no suggestion that more than this should be eaten because it is -very much better that a diet should be mixed with as many different ingredients as possible. Half that amount would be ample until you have found out how you like it. Leaf protein can be eaten in soups, curries or any other mixture. It has very little flavour of its own and that is easily masked by herbs, onion and so on. The deep green colour seems odd at first and biscuits or bread baked with the protein look as if they were covered with mould. This takes a little getting used to. It may be better, therefore, to mask the green at first by making ravioli with a protein and spice filling or by putting the filling into a coating of pastry. I have now eaten a great deal of the protein and I do not think anyone will find any difficulty in jetting to like it. The difficulty does not lie in getting to like it but in getting it. We cannot supply protein because we have our own research to do on other aspects of the problem and are not a production "unit. But we will willingly advise anyone who wishes to set up a production unit. It could be run from about the middle of March until November, depending on the situation and the 19 1

weather. It would probably be most convenient to put it alongside a pea-processing factory and run on pea haulm for as much of the year as possible, the rest of the time would be filled up with crops grown by local farmers on contract. My estimate is that the paste containing 20 per cent of protein would cost about 6d. a pound to make, but there are so many uncertainties that not much confidence should be put in that figure; it depends on the cost of the crop used and the value of the by-products. When a new industry is being started it is as well to recognise that costs must be found out experimentally. In course of time this is sure to be done and the Vegan Society might well pioneer the experiment. ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS JOHN HERON

Essential fatty acids are highly unstable vitamin like substances found mainly and in appreciable quantities only in natural, liquid, unrefined vegetable oils which are unsaturated and non-hydrogenated. In nature they are stabilised by the presence of vitamin E. In the field of nutrition considerable attention has recently been paid to the great importance of these essential fatty acids in the human dietary. It has been suggested that people are suffering from marked deficiencies of these important substances since the natural, liquid, unrefined vegetable oils have been almost completely eliminated from the average diet. In an article entitled "Food and Health," in the Brit. Med. Journal of December 14th, 1957, Dr. H. M. Sinclair suggests that the dramatic increase in the more privileged countries of certain chronic degenerative diseases (coronary thrombosis, pulmonary infarction, cancer of lung, peptic ulcer, gall bladder disease, appendicitis, collagen or mesenchymal disease) may have its origin in a deficiency of a trinity of interacting vitamins: the essential fatty acids, vitamin E and vitamin B.. Conversion in the body of the very unstable fatty acid arachidonic acid is achieved by vitamin B, and vitamin E is also needed for protection. Absence of one or of the other or of all of this trinity may produce a deficiency. He writes: " It has been known for 20 years that the fat of cows and sheep contains very little of the essential fatty acids and a large amount of an isomer that may be antagonistic: milk, butter, dripping and the fat of the meat of these animals are seriously deficient, therefore, and the time may well come when we shall have to abolish the cow unless we undertake research to overcome this defect by alteration of the fat of milk or of the balance of the diet. The advice given in Leviticus vii, 22—23, may be sound if divorced from its context: * And the Lord spake 19


unto Moses saying: " Speak unto the children of Israel saying, Ye shall eat no manner of fat of ox, or of sheep or of goat."' . . . We feed hens on concentrates that are deficient in the unstable fatty acids and the eggs in consequence are deficient." The scientific evidence links high cholesterol levels with the degeneracy diseases. Cholesterol is a non-saponifiable fat occurring in all animal fats, but not in vegetable oils. From plant oils the body can make all the cholesterol and other compounds it needs, but the extra cholesterol found in animal fats may lead to excess deposits in the arteries and elsewhere. But the problem of lowering cholesterol blood levels is not achieved merely by excluding animal fats. The question is reviewed by Warren E. Hartman, Director of Research, Worthington Foods, Inc., in the January, 1958, issue of " Chopletter " :— " Early attempts to lower cholesterol blood levels by low cholesterol diets alone usually met with failure because it was found that the body could synthesise cholesterol at fantastic rates. Many animal and limited clinical studies revealed that the nature of the dietary fat greatly determined the blood cholesterol level. First unsaturated fats, then essential fatty acid composition, and then more specifically linoleic acid content were found to be the factors which controlled and lowered cholesterol. Other factors which have been found to influence favourably the cholesterol problem are vegetable sterols and lecithin both found in unrefined vegetable oils. Also, pyridoxine or vitamin B. has been found to have a special synergistic effect with the essential fatty acids in markedly lowering and controlling cholesterol." The essence of the matter seems to be that vegans are in a good position in so far as they do not take any animal fats, thus avoiding the possibility of taking any excess cholesterol; but attention is wisely given to the daily intake of essential fatty acids, which cannot be synthesised by the body and must be obtained from food. The more saturated type of fat—such as animal fats and hydrogenated fats—that is taken, the greater the requirement for the essential fatty acids. For even the saturated hydrogenated vegetable fats which have no cholesterol nevertheless cause the body to throw too much cholesterol into the blood stream (ref. Dr. Roy Falconer in his lecture at the recent convention of the Vegetarian Brotherhood of America). Vegans do not, of course, take animal fats, but do frequently take hydrogenated or hardened vegetable fats in margarines and nut butters, etc. The hydrogenation or hardening process largely destroys the essential fatty acids, although not completely. (Harry J. Deuel, Ph.D., in the International Nutrition Research Foundation Convention Report, La Sierra, Calif., 1954, gives values of about 5 per cent essential fatty acids for margarines.) It is best, then, for vegans to balance their intake of hardened fats with an appreciable intake of the natural, liquid vegetable oils, making it a policy to obtain more of their fat calories from this latter source. 19 1

It is necessary, however, to avoid the cheap, processed and refined vegetable oils—the chemical processing, steaming, heating, bleaching, etc., remove four-fifths or more of the various essential nutritional factors. Only cold pressed, unrefined, " natural " oils should be used. At present only one such oil with a high essential fatty acid content seems to be available in this country *. the sunflower seed oil, details of which are given in Food News Survey in this issue. This contains an essential fatty acid content of 60 per cent. But unrefined safflower, sesame seed, soya, corn, walnut, hemp seed, cottonseed and tobacco seed oils are all excellent sources of the essential fatty acids—ranging from 50 per cent to 70 per cent. Deuel (op. cit.) sates that olive oil is an extremely poor source, but does not make it clear whether this refers to the refined or cold pressed oil. For vegans and, indeed, people everywhere, the natural, liquid, vegetable oils would seem to have a vital and essential part to play in the fat component of the human dietary. From a nutritional point of view, animal fats are quickly approaching obsolescence and hydrogenated fats must take a secondary place. It is well for vegans to be in the forefront of this nutritional realisation. NUTRITION FORUM JACK SANDERSON, B.SC.

As only a tiny percentage of the vegans and vegetarians in the United Kingdom were able to attend the recent wonderful I.V.U. Congress held in India, you may care to read a small selection of sayings of some of the leading speakers there. " Not since the time of the Emperor Asoka has the vegetarian movement been acknowledged by the Head of a State." " I do not think there is any other country where people in such large numbers are vegetarians and have been abstaining from meat diet for generations? (as in India)." " It must be understood that these Congresses are not arranged with a view to convert but to convince." " The proportion of yield of food grains and of meat from the same land is about 3 to 1." " The number of fruit trees should be increased and foodstuffs which may be vegetarian in character as well as wholesome, delicious and cheap should be invented." "Let us not forget that we can all take life but none of us can give it." 19


" But there is a doubt in some people's minds about what is vegetarian food. Does it include eggs and milk? Some say it does and some others say it does not." " Even the vegetarian depends too much on animals for milk, butter and other dairy produce. Often the cow that gives milk and, most certainly, the bull, end up in the slaughter house. I hope, therefore, this Congress will help to discover other nutriment that will have the same value as milk products. Some of these latter extracts are of special interest to vegans, and it is worthy of note that the Plantmilk Society and our own society have been working on these problems of new foods and milk alternatives for some years. You are now invited to think out your own answers before looking at the answers given. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Questions What do we mean by the term " vitamin " ? What is meant by pro-vitamin? Which of the better known vitamins are ^at soluble? Which are water soluble?

Answers 1. Vitamins are nutrients which are vital to life, and are organic substances which are present in small quantities in many foods. They are essential for normal metabolism. 2. Pro-vitamins, sometimes called precursory substances or pre-formed vitamins, are substances which the body (usually in the liver) can change into vitamins. 3. The fat soluble vitamins are found in some fats and in the fatty parts of some foods. They are :— Vitamin A (its pro-vitamin is called carotene). Vitamin D. D* (or calciferol) is obtained from sunlight (the ultra-violet part) acting upon ergosterol. Da is found in foods. Vitamin E (or alpha-tocopherol). Vitamin K. 4. The major water soluble vitamins are :— Vitamin B. Originally thought to be a single vitamin, it is now known to be a complex group having over a dozen separate constituents B., B etc. (hence the term B complex). This multiplicity also applies to most of the other vitamins, so that the letters A, B, C, etc., each refer to a group. This has led to much confusion, e.g. when one vitamin was discovered it was called vitamin G, but later was found to belong to the B group and was then called B . There is now a tendency to use the chemical names in place of the letters A, B, C, etc. Vitamin C or ascorbic acid. 19 2>




An entirely new vista is opened up by the marketing of the Exultation of Flowers. This preparation offers real hope to a stricken world, having in it the possibility of bringing health and happiness to mankind, curing disease among animals, restoring fertility to soils unbalanced through years of exploitation. Many years* research and study lie behind the Exultation, which is prepared from the potencies of 52 different flowers, from all over the world, each one included for its own special properties and purpose. From time immemorial it has been known that various plants, especially those classified as herbs, could be used in the treatment of illness. But the use of such plants has been restricted because of the need for accurate diagnosis and expert supervision in application. The Exultation removes that need. All illness and disease, whether in plant, animal or man, is treated basically the same way. Instructions for use are clear and simple. The preparation is foolproof and safe. It cannot do harm in any circumstances. The flowers which go to make up the Exultation are potentized by a method that follows no known tradition. It is so contrary to usual methods that the flower being potentized is more beautiful after it has bestowed its strength and loveliness than it was before. When the strength and loveliness of 52 flowers are combined one of the results is a higher frequency of vibration, as it were, which makes it possible for users to tune in to the source of harmony. In the human body this is reflected in sounder sleep, clearer skin, stronger nails, more healthy hair, brighter eyes, as well as increased vitality and a feeling of exultation. Life looks good. Material problems become smaller and smaller as Spiritual Truths become clearer and clearer. Harmonious living becomes a reality. Physical dis-ease gives place to that perfect health which is mankind's birthright. In the animal world its use is equally effective. Animal lovers know how rampant disease and illness are among domestic pets and farm animals generally, notwithstanding increasingly large sums spent annually on veterinary research. The Exultation cures disease in animals without any of the distressing after-effects that so often follow suppression of symptoms by the use of drugs. How often have we felt the (so-called) cure of a much-loved dog had left him so different from the animal we previously knew that we almost wished he had been allowed to pass over? There can never be such a feeling after use of the Exultation of Flowers. In addition to its curative properties it has a wonderful tonic 19 1

value which helps to build up health and vitality when given regularly. The cost is small. Benefits are immeasurable. Crops in gardens and fields respond even more markedly than human beings and animals. The effect on the soil is two-fold—it increases vitality of crops while at the same time increasing the vitality, the activity and the quantity of beneficial soil bacteria. By its use yields are not only improved in weight, but also very much in quality. Not only are they brought to maturity quicker but they are held in a state of perfection for anything up to 8 times the length of time one would ordinarily expect. The significance of this to individuals growing lettuce for the house, market-gardeners growing vegetables and flowers for Covent Garden, farmers growing field crops for consumption on the farm or sale to merchants is more than far-reaching. It is revolutionary. The manufacturers have records of thousands of benefits to human beings, animals, plants, resulting from the use of the Exultation of Flowers which testify to the correctness of the principles on which it is based. Single examples may be comparatively trivial, but the implications of thousands of examples are not. It has only to be tried to be proved. FOOD NEWS SURVEY Sunflower Seed Oil Saatvital Sunflower Seed Oil, produced on the continent, has recently been made available in England and is distributed by Sunprod Sales, 119 Evelina Road, London, S.E.I5. It can be obtained from Health Food Stores in 1QJ fl. oz. tins, 5/3d. each. This oil is very valuable because of its high (60 per cent) content of essential, unsaturated, fatty acids (for the great importance of essential fatty acids see pages 9—11). Valuable also is its content of vitamin E, lecithin and trace elements. It is coldpressed by a special process developed by the Neukollner Olmiihle in Berlin. Laver Bread This is a special seaweed gathered along the Welsh coast at certain times of the year in certain places. Normally pulped and boiled (1 large sack makes 2—3 lbs. of pulp only), it was used regularly by the older Welsh people, but not so much to-day by the young: mixed with flour into a pat6 and fried in a little fat. Its main interest to vegans is its vitamin B» content: 2—3 ozs. daily is said to provide the daily vitamin B.> requirement. Laver Bread can be obtained at l/8d. a lb. from Ashton's, Central Market, Cardiff (add extra for postage). Known as dulce in Scotland. 19 1

Carob Carob or St. John's Bread is the seed-pod of the carob or locust tree which grows in Mediterranean countries, also in some parts of the U.S.A.; in the latter country it is ground to a powder and used as a substitute for cocoa by many food reformers. The pod is chocolate in colour, and is said to be rich in alkaline minerals and other virtues. Carob powder can be made into " chocolate " drinks, cakes and other delicacies. Not yet obtainable in this country, there is a great need for it to be marketed through Health Food Stores. Sesame, Sunflower and Millet Seeds Messrs. Heath and Heather Ltd., St. Albans, Herts., write to say their prices for these seeds are as follows: Sesame, 5/6d. lb.; sunflower, 4/6d. lb.; millet, 4/6d. lb. Trade prices were mistakenly quoted in the last issue of The Vegan. Vegan Packet Soups Vegan Foods Ltd. now introduce tomato, pea, mushroom and mixed vegetable " Salon Soups "—a new range of packet soups, of particular interest to vegans because they are creamed with nuts for nourishment, and of course, are entirely free from artificial flavourings and colourings. See advertisement on back cover for full details. Compost Grown Produce The Boxford (Suffolk) Whole Food Farms, Langlands, Boxford, Colchester, undertake van deliveries to your door, in East Anglia and North London, of compost grown vegetables, apples, and whole wheat. No chemical fertilisers or poisonous weed killers are used in the production of these goods. Write for full particulars, prices and order forms. VEGAN MILKS Mediaeval Almond Milk We are indebted to Miss Dorothy Mason for spotting this recipe in Dorothy Hartley's " Food in England " :— " In the old recipes of the 14th Century and earlier much cooking is done with milk of almonds. This is not (by context) almond oil, nor any liquid that would mean great quantities of the almond being used. (As one would say ' cook in lemon juice' when one meant 'cook with lemon in the water'.) Orgeau (the French barley water) was flavoured with almonds, and from experiment I think a similar ' syrup of almonds' is probably what the mediaeval cooks meant by milk of almonds." 19


" One pound of sweet almonds and a few bitter ones among them ; pound them up, adding water up to three pints. Stir this into about a gallon of thick barley water, sweeten, and boil. This thick, creamy almond fluid is, I believe, the early ' almond milk *. It can be used in milk puddings." Soybean Milk One of Jethro Kloss's recipes is as follows (from " Back to Eden ") :— "Take one pound of soy flour, three quarts of cold water. Mix and boil 25 minutes, strain, sweeten and salt to taste. It is best to use a flat bottomed pan, and stir with a pancake turner, as it burns very easily." Formulae for Various Home Uses We make grateful acknowledgement to Plantmilk News, No. 4, February, 1958, for the following very useful suggestions :— " Inquiries are sometimes received as to whether home-made plantmilks are a possibility. Such plantmilks are in fact possible, and have been used by some people for many years. They may be used in a number of ways quite successfully. To make them, an electric mixer (Magimix, Romix, Kenwood, or similar mixer) is necessary. These mixers have a goblet with whirling blades set into the foot of the goblet. The following methods may be used : For use on breakfast cereal: Put hot water in the goblet, add cashew or almond cream (Mapleton, Granose) or cashew butter (Mapleton). Allow to soften for a moment before switching on. After mixing, switch to slow and sprinkle in Soyolk (full-fat soya flour). Switch to fast and emulsify. Add further water if required. (Rough guide to measurements: one ounce nut cream or nut butter, two ounces Soyolk, one and a half pints water.) For use in tea, coffee, or other beverages: Use cashew butter or cashew cream (not almond), and use less Soyolk. Emulsify thoroughly, put through fine strainer, and if possible allow to stand a few hours. For making custard or blancmange: Use cashew cream or cashew butter only. (Soya flour is not suitable for this purpose). About two and a half ounces cashew cream or cashew butter, one pint hot water. Add sugar and custard powder and emulsify all ingredients before cooking. Quantities: These are best discovered by experiment. For example, home-made plantmilk for use on cereal may be thinner (i.e. more water) than that for tea or for making custard. For tea, it should be creamier (i.e. more fat) than for cereal, and very thorough emulsification plus fine straining is required ; otherwise, the plantmilk separates off, causing the tea to have an unsightly appearance. Properly made, however, tea with this plantmilk looks only very slightly different from tea with dairy milk." 19 1

PLANTMILK FOR INFANT FEEDING Plantmilks of different kinds have been used during the last few months for the treatment of a number of infants suffering from galactosemia, which has been receiving some publicity in the medical and national Press. In this disease there is lack of an enzyme needed for one stage of the metabolic pathway by which galactose is converted into glucose. If the baby's diet contains lactose (sugar of milk), which is a source of galactose, there is an accumulation in its tissues of a toxic substance. In severe cases this results in rapid wasting, with damage to the kidneys and especially to the liver, which can rapidly lead to death. In milder cases, feeding with animal milk causes less marked immediate symptoms, but cirrhosis of the liver, cataract, and mental deficiency may develop and persist throughout childhood. Galactosemia is hereditary and present in the affected babies, from birth. In order to prevent development of the symptoms, the diet must be free from animal milk of any kind, even breast milk being harmful. Removal of lactose from cow's milk has been attempted but has not yet been made sufficiently complete, since as little as 0.1 per cent of galactose in the diet of affected babies may precipitate the symptoms. Some of the babies have been fed with mixtures of eggs, cereal and sugar, but these have not always proved successful. Various types of plantmilk made from soya and malted cereals are now being used, and are giving satisfactory results on a number of babies at different London hospitals. In one instance, an American manufacturer of plantmiik kindly donated, through the Plantmilk Society, twelve pounds of plantmilk powder to meet an emergency. The Society has also been able to make available some further supplies as the result of a gift from one of its American sympathisers. The staff at one hospital considers that plantmilk has helped to save the life of a particular baby. The mother had two babies previously, both suffering from severe galactosemia. One died, and the life of the second was saved only with much difficulty. In the case of the third baby, after other types of food, including the mother's breast milk, had proved unsuccessful, different varieties of plantmilk are now being successfully used. Fortification with vitamin Bu, as well as with other vitamins, is being employed. Since soya contains a complex carbohydrate called stachyose, which on hydrolysis with acids or suitable enzymes yields galactose, care must be taken during the manufacture of such plantmilks to avoid any liberation of galactose, and the final product must be tested for traces of galactose, using paper chromatography. Unaltered stachyose does not appear to be broken down to yield any free galactose in the digestive tracts of infants. Although infant feeding is only one aspect of the work of the Plantmilk Society, the fact that the Society has played some small 19


part in helping to save a baby's life, and also in encouraging medical authorities to look seriously in the direction of plantmilk in difficult cases of infant feeding, is nevertheless a matter for thankfulness. • * * * Leaf Protein Experiments.—Following upon the visit by representatives of the Society to the Rothamsted Experimental Station to discuss leaf protein with Mr. N. W. Pirie, F.R.S., the Society has conducted some practical work with the object, in the first instance, of ascertaining whether the chlorophyll can be removed from the chlorophyll-protein complex. This work has been conducted for the Society by Dr. H. B. Franklin, Ph.D., A.R.I.C., a member of the Research Committee. Dr. Franklin has been successful in producing a white or almost white curd from leaf juices, and this would appear to answer the first question with respect to the possible use of leaf protein as a plantmilk base: viz, as to whether the green colour can be removed. The white curd is precipitated by the second of two coagulations, and is reasonably bland. Experiments are continuing with the object of improving the precipitation technique, and also of balancing the raw materials in order to provide the widest available range of amino acids. The nutritional value of the protein curd will then have to be established. With grateful acknowledgement to No. 4, February, 1958, issue of "Plantmilk News "—bulletin of The Plantmilk Society, a voluntary association of individuals for the promotion of a satisfactory alternative to animal milk for Secretary and Treasurer: Mr. L. J. Cross, Uxbridge, Middlesex. VEGANISM IN PRINT AMICUS The Vegan Library As announced in the Summer, 1957, issue of The Vegan, the Society has a postal borrowing scheme in operation : write to the Editor, The Vegan, 28 Yorke Road, Reigate, Surrey, for one book at a time, enclosing l/6d. in stamps of small denominations, returning the book within three weeks of receiving it. The following books, booklets and journals, relate directly to vegan diet, either wholly or in part. They contain much helpful and valuable information and ideas, and are warmly recommended to our members for borrowing. Each deserves a much more complete review than can here be given, but it has been thought best, in the interests of comprehensiveness, to include as many publications as possible, giving a short account of each. The Society, of course, does not necessarily endorse every view expressed by the various authors. 19 1

" The Hygienic System," Volume II: Orthotrophy, by Dr. Herbert M. Shelton; Dr. Shelton's Health School, San Antonio,, Texas, U.S.A. ; 4th Edition, 1956 ; 591 pp.; $5.00. This volume is concerned exclusively with the hygienic system of diet. It is, in fact, an exhaustive and comprehensive manual of the approach to nutrition and practical dietetics of the natural hygiene movement in America, with strong emphasis on diet reform, the importance of raw food, the exclusion of all animal foods (hence directly related to veganism), and on certain specific (and perhaps rather too rigid) rules of food combination. It also deals at length with infant and child feeding by hygienic methods. Its great range over the whole field of practical nutrition makes it of exceptional interest. An elaborately worked out health approach to veganism. " Back To Eden," by Jethro KIoss (Herbalist) ; Message Press, Coalmont, Tennessee, U.S.A.; 6th Edition, 1955 ; 671 pp.; $6.50. Another large reference book on healthful, higher living. The main section of 400 pages is devoted to a wide range of herbs and plant preparations, their descriptions and use in disease and in maintaining health. A practical survey of other naturopathic methods is also given. Advocates a sound vegan diet, no animal foods, balancing cooked and raw food. A useful section on cooking and on recipes. Particularly valuable are well-tried recipes for: soybean cheese, soybean milks and cream, nut cheeses, nut milks and butters, and vegan protein dishes. These latter recipesare to be recommended. " Nutrition and Food Service Convention Report," International Nutrition Research Foundation, Arlington, Calif., U.S.A.; 1954 ; 250 pp.; $2.00. A Report of the convention held by the above Foundation (associated with the Seventh-day Adventist Church and the Loma Linda Food Company) in La Sierra, Calif., in 1954. While not exclusively advocating vegan diet, it allows generously for its practicability. Many highly authoritative papers on basic nutritional principles. A major field of emphasis is to supply adequate information about protein of high quality especially from plant sources : the advice and technical data given in this connection is of the highest value for practical veganism. Other papers deal with hormones, fats, child nutrition, vitamins, world nutrition and so on. The main function of this Foundation is to research into the nutritional potential of the great plant kingdom. Such basic nutrition research in a vegan direction deserves the highest praise. " Psycho-Physiopathy," Book Three, by Teofilo de la Torre, N.D., O.D.; published by the author in San Francisco, Calif., U.S.A.; 1948 ; 168 pp. Another detailed approach to the unfired vegan diet set against the general background of natural therapeutics. Perhaps too dogmatic and rhapsodic in places, but there is much that seems 19


to be wise and sound, and in and among a mass of helpful nutritional data harnessed to the author's exposition of " regaining man's terrestrial paradise by regeneration through biological dietetics." His discussion of protein equilibrium deserves especial consideration, also his carefully worked out menu calculating tables. Book Four gives ready-made menus and formulae. " The Elixir of Life," by Arnold De Vries; Chandler Book •Company, 333 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago 1, Illinois, U.S.A.; 1952; 68 pp.; $1.50. A strictly scientific account of the theoretical and practical value of raw food in comparison with the same values for heat processed food. Raw food is considered in all its ramifications: in modern nutrition, in chemical composition, in physical structure, in experimental study, in wild nature and in human experience. An indispensable handbook for those concerned with the unfired diet. " Perspektiven zur Eiwiessfrage," by Dr. Ralph Bircher; Hippokrates-Verlag GmbH., Stuttgart; 1956 ; 24 pp. Dr. Bircher's authoritative study of the protein question, in which he brings out the contradictions inherent in the theories of the indispensability of large amounts of animal protein, and stresses the importance of the biological value of certain vegan and vegetarian protein combinations: whole grains and raw vegetables, whole grains and green vegetables, potatoes and green vegetables, milk and whole grains, etc. A masterly and well considered survey of the whole field of protein nutrition from a highly progressive and professional standpoint. It is hoped that extracts may be translated and published in The Vegan. "Der Wendepunkt," a monthly journal edited by Dr. Ralph Bircher ; Bircher-Benner, Verlag GmbH., Erlenbach-Zurich. The beautifully produced health journal founded 35 years ago by Dr. Bircher-Benner, is now received regularly by the Vegan Library, and is particularly recommended to students of German. Authoritative articles by well-qualified practitioners of modern healing methods. (A year's subscription : Fr. 14.) " The Secret of the Atomic Age," by Vera Stanley Alder; Rider & Co., London ; 1958 ; 205 pp.; 12/6d. Miss Alder's latest book, written with a vigorous inspiration, commences with a study of the forces at work in the atom and the cell, and works up to a grand climax in which the transmutation which man can effect through his own radiation processes is seen as the key to the regeneration of human society and all the kingdoms of nature. The basic contention that all the kingdoms of creation need to be considered as a whole is further worked out in Miss Alder's course on Cosmic Science: while one may not agree with all the ideas expressed, the gathering up of practical and objective data into an overall imaginative and organic programme for " world guardianship" represents precisely the 19 1

' empatheticcomprehensive and truly creative type of thinking— with its emphasis on practical outworkings—so urgently needed in the world to-day. (Study Papers, 5/- each from BM/VSA, London. W.C.I.) " Joy in Living," by Dugald Semple; William Maclellan, 240 Hope St., Glasgow ; 1957 ; 150 pp.; 15/-. The fresh air of the " simple life "—or that particular version of it that we may call the "Semple life"—wafts through these pages which give an account of the author's life in caravan, farm and cottage, always close to nature. An independent and original spirit, Mr. Semple has persistently maintained his highly individual relationship with nature, and is clearly the better for it. This story of a life and its encounters uncorrupted by the devitalisations of modern civilisation makes refreshing if, at times, controversial reading. Mr. Semple's " The Sunfood Way to Health," reviewed in the Autumn, 1957, issue of The Vegan, is also obtainable from the library. " Fruit Dishes and Raw Vegetables ", by M. Bircher Benner, M.D., and Max E. Bircher, M.D. ; C. W. Daniel & Co. Ltd.; 1939 ; 64 pp.; 1/-. A practical guide to the preparation of uncooked food, with detailed recipes for a variety of uncooked dishes and examples of various diet days according to the Bircher Benner system. Only a little substitution is required in places to make the recipes and diets entirely consistent with veganism. ANNOUNCEMENTS

Week-end Nutrition Conference No. 2 The purpose of this conference will be to discuss the basic principles of vegan nutrition. It will be held on Saturday, May 3rd, 1958, at the Friends' International Centre, 32 Tavistock Square, London, W.C.I, from 2.30 p.m. to 8.30 p.m.; and on Sunday, May 4th, 1958, at the Vegetarian Restaurant, 12 Earl's Court Road, London, W.8 (Kensington High Street end), from 3 p.m. to 7.30 p.m. Speakers will include Dr. H. B. Franklin, Mr. J. Sanderson. An additional attraction during the interval on the Saturday evening will be the showing of films on India. Vegan Buffet Evening Members and friends of the Society, and all enquirers wishing to meet vegans and learn more of the Society's ideas and practices, are cordially invited to attend a Vegan Buffet Evening, on Friday, May 30th, 1958, at the Alliance Hall, Palmer Street, London, S.W.I, 7 for 7.30 p.m. There will be various speakers. Tickets, 5/- each, can be obtained from the Hon. Secretary. Annual General Meeting The Thirteenth Annual General Meeting of the Vegan Society was held on November 9th, 1957, at the Friends' International Centre, 32 Tavistock Square, London, W.C.I. The President, Mr. J. Heron, was in



the chair, and the routine annual business of the Society was conducted. The following Officers and Committee were elected : President, Mr. John Heron; Vice-President, Mrs. E. B. Shrigley; Secretary, Mrs. Muriel Drake; Treasurer, Miss Winifred Simmons ; Committee, Mrs. Jeanne Arnaldi, Mrs. Senena Coles, Miss Christina Harvey, Mr. Jack Sanderson, Miss Mabel Simmons, Miss Ann Wicker. The Society is pleased to welcome the following new Committee members elected at this Meeting : Mr. John Moore, Mr. Charles Perry, Miss Edna Towell. Editorial Officers for the Society's journal, The Vegan, were re-elected as follows : Editor, Mr. John Heron; Assistant Editor, Mr. Jack Sanderson. Week-end Nutrition Conference No. 1 This was held in London last year, on November 8th, 9th and 10th. The purpose was to give an initial impetus to the important work, to be undertaken in greater detail this year and at the second conference (for details see above), of laying the basic foundations of practical vegan nutrition. November 8th : social welcome and initial exchange of views and experiences, together with a display of vegan foods. November 9th : Mr. Jack Sanderson, Chairman of the Nutrition Council, gave an extremely interesting, comprehensive and factual survey of the whole wide field in relation to which vegan nutrition must be considered. November 10th : a final exchange of views in discussion groups was followed by a panel which dealt with a series of leading questions concerned with the practical outworkings of vegan nutrition. Vegan Exhibition at Bombay In connection with the 15th World Vegetarian Congress held in India in November, last year, there was a Vegetarian Food Exhibition in Bombay. At this exhibition, the Vegan Society of India was represented by an artistically decorated and profusely illustrated stall appropriately named " Karuna Mandir" or " The Temple of Compassion." It was organised by Mrs. Kamala Desai, wife of Mr. D. C. Desai窶認ounder of the Vegan Society of India (see below). The posters, cartoons, cut-outs, festoons, photographs and charts were provided by Mr. Desai's son, Mr. A. D. Desai, a Lecturer in the Sir J. J. School of Art, Bombay, and his associates. The exhibits were comprehensive, including, among other things, plastic shoes and shaving brushes, nylon sarees, vegan soaps and cosmetics, vegan ice cream and other sweetmeats, fresh fruits, vegetables and nuts, vegetable oils, etc. Considerable literature on veganism was also displayed. Almost all of the 30,000 visitors to the general exhibition stopped at the vegan stall for a few minutes. Enquiries were overwhelming and very extensive interest was shown in the vegan ideals and way of life. Mr. Desai and his family are to be congratulated for providing such a very effective focal point for veganism at the Indian Congress. The Vegan Society of India Address : Riviera, Marine Drive, Bombay, India. Secretary : Smt. J. S. Italia. Subscription : Rs. 5/- per annum. The Society was founded by Mr. D. C. Desai, Government Inspector of Railways, Bombay, in 1957. The President is Shri A. S. R. Chari, B.A., B.L., (Retd. ; High Court Judge, Mysore, Bangalore), Shri Desai is the Vice-President. A vigorous and active campaign is being undertaken to promote veganism in India, and we wish this work every possible success. For the Society's own literature write to the above address. Mr. Desai invites " all compassionate, cultured and civilised people throughout the world to become members of the Vegan Society of India, irrespective of the country to which they belong or in which they live, for the exchange of views and further propaganda. Donations for the publication of free literature to disseminate the knowledge and principles of veganism will be welcome from everyone who admires them, whether a practising vegan or not."



CRUSADE AGAINST ALL CRUELTY TO ANIMALS Lord Dowding gave further evidence of his sympathy with the work of the Crusade when he spoke at a film meeting in Eastbourne, on November 30th, at the home of a Crusade supporter and again on January 15th, at our film meeting in White Eagle Lodge, Kensington, where the Rev. Michael Fryer also had the support of Dr. Douglas Latto. At the end of this meeting Mr. Fryer showed the French slaughter film " Le Sang des Betes" for those who wished to see it. This shows in vivid detail the outmoded and barbarous ways in which cattle, calves and sheep are slaughtered still in French abattoirs. Add to this the suffering and discomfort of the animals on the long journey and no-one should need further proof why livestock should not be exported for slaughter abroad. A " Psychic News" reporter was so deeply moved by the revolting scenes that he made his own investigation into methods of slaughter here and abroad. His findings and the report of the meeting became a full page article in " Psychic News " of January 25th. The more publicity of this nature there can be the sooner will inhumane methods of slaughter be outlawed. A successful film meeting was held in the de la Warr Pavilion, Bexhill, on November 27th, and we are indebted to Mrs. Muriel Drake for organising our meeting at Bromley on December 6th. Forthcoming Dates March 28th and 29th.—Fareham Food Fair—Crusade films and talks throughout the two days. April 16th.—Bournemouth. Details to be announced. April 19th.—Eastbourne C.S.C., 81a Bourne Street, Eastbourne. Crusade film meeting. MARGARET A. COOPER, Secretary. London, N.W.4.

THE VEGAN CORRESPONDENCE BUREAU Coordinator : Miss Edna Towell, West Moors, Wimborne, Dorset. ( address). Will all those who wish to register with the Bureau and thus contact other vegans through it, or who wish to be included on the list for receiving circular letters by Bureau Members, please send their names and addresses to the Co-ordinator. Now the Bureau has been in existence for a year I would like a few members to re-register, as I have not heard from them apart from their initial letter, or request for registration. This is necessary as the circular letters now take many months to go round. One has been lost in transit although I mark them clearly with address in case the envelope disintegrates. Two were sent out in October and November, but have not returned yet. Will the following members please let me know if they wish their names to stay on the register : VCB 7, 8, 10, 11, 14, 20, and I should like to hear from VCB 2, 3, 15, 16, 19, 22, 24, 25. They asked questions and wanted to get in touch with others, and I should like to know if anything of interest has occurred through 19


these introductions, which can be reported in next issue. The Bureau seems to have filled a want, but if members do not write to tell me it has helped them, then I shall think it has been a failure in their cases! I have many interesting items to comment upon this issue, the first being:— Leaf Protein The Vegan Society has been honoured by receiving an article on this, written especially for the Bureau by Mr. Norman Pirie, Head of the Biochemistry Department of Rothamsted Experimental Station. Mr. Pirie wrote saying that he is not in sympathy with our way of life, yet he has found the time to write this article. I know you will all be appreciative of his kind and helpful action. Please do not write to Mr. Pirie. If you have queries, send to me, as I have arranged to collate them and forward to him. I have had several samples of maize leaf protein, and made many dishes, sweet and savoury. It has an unusual flavour, but is definitely palatable and can be made more so by judicious experiments with various additions, such as Barmene, Froment, Barbados sugar, honey, mashed soya beans, TOFU Chinese " Cheese" made from soya flour, herbs, etc. It can also be mixed with mashed banana, ground nuts, chopped dried apricots, nutcreams, etc. I have no cooked recipes as I do very little cooking. The Research Station is not manufacturing it for sale but something may be arranged for members to test it at some future date. Sunflower Seed Oil The brand marketed by Sunprod Sales, 119 Evelina Road, London, S.E.I5, is delicious, being bland and light in texture. I have used it on salads and vegetables and mixed with savoury pastes, as mentioned above. It won the M&laille d'or and Grand Prix at the International Cooking Exhibition HOSPES in Berne, Switzerland, in 1954. It is cold-pressed by a special process and has an especially high content of essential highly unsaturated fatty acids (approx. 60 per cent), Vitamins E and F, lecithin and trace elements, and also digests very easily. Although an oil, it tends to keep one slim as it is quickly converted into energy. It keeps fresh for several months, as it is sold in vitamin-conserving lightresistant cans—weight 10 fl. ozs. from most health food stores, or direct from distributors, plus 1/- post and packing. An interesting pamphlet is being prepared, so send a s.a.e. if you wish to receive this. Chittern Herb Farms, Ltd., Buckland Common, Tring, Herts. I have been sent three jars to test, packed in a most attractive and original grey and silver chest for the kitchen—this was specially designed to keep the flavour and colour unimpaired by heat or light. These herbs are organically grown, which is im19 1

portant to us, and cut and prepared within an hour, thus keeping their original freshness. The Director, Claire Loewenfeld, will be well known to you as a member of the Vegan Society, and a writer for the journal. She has a most interesting leaflet and price list. These herbs are specially prepared in different bouquets for various dishes, and also sold separately. Some of the attractive names are The Bride's Herb Chest, Dinner Party, The Soup Chest, Herb Bouquet For Everyday. Some are made for vegans. Prices of the chests vary from 14/6d. upwards, and single herbs by weight, 3/6d. to 4/9d. for \ oz. to 1 oz. A special mixture is made for Herb Butter. Millet Meal and Sunflower Seed Meal The former is excellent but although I sifted the latter five times I still find it too spiky for my liking. I have used them only as a sort of " jumbles" biscuit made with Barbados sugar and Tomor, but will make more experiments. If members are finding successful recipes please let us know, so that these products will continue to be stocked by shops. Sunmaid Raisins These are the only dried fruits which I know are dried in the sun, and not by poisonous chemicals. Please support them! If you know of any other fruits dried in the sun please let me know. Carob Flour Can this be obtained in England? I was given the name of a firm but they were unable to supply. It is a fine substitute for cocoa and chocolate and far better for health. It is on sale in U.S.A. Currant Sugar This appears to have disappeared completely. Almond and Soya Milk The former is made in Spain in tins, and the latter in the States. If any overseas members could send me small gifts of any of these, I will gladly send something in exchange. Charles Perry's Pure Cosmetics I expect most of you have sampled Mr. Perry's cosmetics now, and have found them delightful to use and delicious to smell. He is a personal friend of mine, of several years, and recently visited me, as he is bringing out a magazine, " New Beauty ", in March. The subscription is 5/- a year, for four issues, including postage. I would like to remind you of the poisons used in cosmetics and toilet articles and to study Mr. Perry's articles carefully, as men as well as women can be affected ; that is why Mr. Perry is making products for men, too. 19


Exultation of Flowers I feel that this Elixir is of great value to the world. Elizabeth Bellhouse and Alick Mclnnes are personal friends and have just returned to Scotland after one of their lecture tours. I was fortunate enough to meet them quite near here at Fordingbridge, and asked them to write an article for the Bureau, so here it is in this issue. Mrs. Bellhouse has six interesting leaflets, as the Exultation can be used for animals, crops, etc. I have taken it myself, but as I have nothing wrong with me cannot claim any cures! However, as it works on more than the physical body, I am certain it does " invisible " good. See advertisement for address and price. Poison on the Land, by Wentworth Day. Try to get this from your Public Library as it is indeed an eyeopener, especially with regard to the nauseating filth which is being pumped into our biggest rivers, killing fish—and what else? Vegetarian Community I expect most of you will have read the letters from Mr. Corke in other magazines. I am supporting this strongly as it is a magnificent idea, and am Outside Helping Sister No. 9, and hope to be concerned with the Caravan Section. I have a leaflet, but Mr. Corke will be pleased to receive offers of help or donations, at 15 Ladycroft, Blewbury, Didcot, Berks. Vegetarian Home For Children, Jersey, C.I. Finally an appeal for help. Probably you know of this, but it ds, and gifts for the children, so if you can send er small, write Mrs. Helen Brown, Hon. Sec., at , Kensington, London, W.8, who will gratefully ney. Gifts—toys, etc., direct to La Preference House, St. Martin, Jersey. When you write firms, please mention my name as they have all been so generous and courteous. I feel they deserve the support of the Vegan Society and Bureau for the fine work they are doing in bringing forward new products, etc., to help us with our problems of health and nutrition in all aspects. I shall be pleased to answer queries, but please be brief, as correspondence is now enormous, and with all my other interests, too, it is now impossible for me to write long letters. A s.a.e. would be appreciated occasionally as all work is voluntary! Kind thoughts to you all. EDNA TOWELL. 1

s address is as follows: Nr. Wrexham, North Wales. 1



Its delicious flavour improves a cake

Ntter a twefr of Wdak-Oil wt

GOLDEN BLOCK Made by the flavour-preserving Cold Process MARGARINE lb. COOKING FAT 1/2(1. a fib.

(essential for frying)

At all high-class Grocers, Co-operative and Health Stores Marketing Managers:





The means to health and happiness. Restores harmony to plant, animal, man. Is ethically unassailable. Is incapable of doing harm to any form of life. Is absolutely safe to use in all circumstances. Its balance and its power to re-adjust itself to individual needs is delicate, accurate and unfailing. Its action is effective no matter what the circumstances, what the form of life, or what the adjustment required. ( Banishes illness, pain, cares, fears and worries. Equally valuable for animals of all kinds. Increases both quantity and quality of fruit, flowers, vegetables and field crops. Particulars and supplies at 12/- a bottle. £ 9 / 6 / 8 farmer's polythene container, post paid in Great Britain from— BRAEFACE, AULDEARN, NAIRN, SCOTLAND Specially concentrated bottles are made up to reduce the cost of air mail for those living abroad.

iicMnene, for HEALTH & VITALITY





The first of its kind to incorporate fresh unprocessed juices.

Barmene enhances the flavour and food value of soups and savouries. Fresh vegetable concentrates. Biochemically balanced salt. Contains Vitamin B„. Obtainable at Health Food Stores. Packed in attractive transparent plastic containers which, # when empty, can be used for many purposes—for butter, # flowers, pencils, cream, beverages, and for use at picnics to hold salads, etc.

GRAHAM-DENE LIMITED Dept. 9, 28 Watling Street, London, E.C.4 19




YEAST AND LENTIL PIE i lb. pastry, 1 cup lentils, 1 oz. margarine, 2 tomatoes (chopped), 1-2 tablespoons Arnold's Dried Brewers' Yeast, 1 onion (chopped), mixed herbs, salt and pepper. Boil the lentils for 1 hour in salt water. Drain and add other i - i b . 3 / ingredients, using breadcrumbs to thicken the mixture if necessary. 1-lb.5/Line a greased plate with pastry and spread with the lentil filling. fromHealthgood Cover with pastry, prick it well, Food and bake for 20-30 minutes in a Stores moderately hot oven. Serve it hot with gravy, or cold with salad.

ARNOLD'S DRIED BREWER'S YEAST the richest protein food


A new range of packet soups with new enrichment

TOMATO : P t A : MUSHROOM MIXED VEGETABLE All creamed with nourishment



Soups with " h o m e - m a d e " freshness. Entirely free from artificial flavouring or colouring.

Housewives, cooks and other caterers will be attracted—some may even be surprised—by the excellence of this blending of nuts with vegetables in soups. Good natural flavours, natural colour attractively flecked with nuts, delicious fullness and creaminess make soups tasty, nutritious and welcome to all. Y o u will Soups for

be proud to serve Salon their wholesome and new nutritional quality.

Salon Soups are made up in modem style packs, easy to handle and use. Each can be made almost as quickly as a cup of tea and will serve as a pleasant first course, quick tasty snack or good part of a good meal. Salon Soups are economical too; all the packet may be used at once, or part as may be required.

5 - 6 helpings of quality soup for l / 9 d . Available through Health Food Stores.

VEGAN FOODS LTD.. 63b Henleaze Road. Westbury - on - Trym, BRISTOL.

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(2/- per line: minimum 2 lines ; 20% discount on four consecutive issues.) ENGLISH and Continental Scooters and Mopeds, mo8t makes. Motor cycles, new and used. Three-wheelers, Powerdrive, Bond, Reliant. Exchanges. Terms. Models bought. Please write, 'phone or call. Your own dealer, RON McKENZIE (Proprietor: R. McKenzie Butterworth, Vegan Food Reformer), 961 Chester Road Stretford, Manchester. Longford 2100. " NEW BEAUTY " brings you the new, natural and humane conception of feminine beauty. Issued quarterly. Prospectus and brochure of our pure beauty products, 6d. Charles Perry, Phyto-Cosmetics (VE), 155 Pitshanger Lane, W.5. SPEAKING & WRITING, taken together, les visit, 5/' each. Dorothy Matthews, B.A., London, N.W.3. PRImrose 5686. SCHOOL of the Rose Cross, 262 E. Wetmore Road, Tucson, Arizona, U.S.A., teaches vegan and true Rosicrucianism. No dues or fees. Free books and monthly letter-lesson. We welcome all questions. WORLD FORUM. The leading international Vegetarian quarterly. Advocates the vegetarian way of life for physical health and a true relationship between the human and creature kingdoms—without exploitation and cruelty. l/6d. plus 4d. post per copy. 7/6d. per year, post free.—GEOFFREY L. RUDD LTD., 106/110 Lordship Lane, London, S.E.22.

ESTABLISHMENTS CATERING FOR VEGANS (l/3d. per line; 20% discount on four consecutive issues.)

BROOK LINN.—Callander, Perthshire. Vegetarian and Vegan meals carefully prepared and attractively served. Comfortable guest house. Near Trossachs and Western Highlands. Mrs. n. Callander 103. EASTBOURNE. Edgehill Nursing Home, Acute, chronic, convalescent rest cure, spiritual healing. r, S.R.N., R.F.N., S.C.M. Tel. 627. EDSTONE, WOOTTON WAWEN, WARWICKSHIRE (near Stratfordupon-Avon). Modern house with every comfort, and compost-grown produce. Telephone: Claverdon 327. HINDHEAD, SURREY—Mrs. Nicholson, ; garden adjoins golf course. Children welcome. LAKE DISTRICT. Rothay Bank, Grasmer Att house for invigorating, refreshing hol bel James. Tel.: 134. LONDON.—Small vegetarian 0 mins. London. Terms moderate. Mrs. M. Noble, , Wimbledon. CHE. 3587. NORTH WALES.—Vegan an t house, nr. mountains and woodland garden. Brochure from Jeannie and George Lake, Penmaen Park, Llanfairfechan. Tel.: 161. SPE months in sunny climate. Economical accommodation offered. mforts, magnificent views. Some meals provided by arrangement ilities for preparing. International stamp, please: Mrs. Ritchie, 153, Palma de Mayorca. WE TE-ON-SEA, KENT.—Holiday Flatlets, self-catering, for Vegans and Vege / guest. Occasional Vegan meals available; oking. Stamp for leaflet. Mrs. Arnaldi, " Tel.: Thanet 31942. " WOODCOT e rnwall, is a high-class Vegetarian Food Reform Guest House in a warm and sheltered situation overlooking the Hayle Estuary. Composted vegetables ; home-made wholewheat bread ; vegans catered for knowledgeably. Mr. and Mrs. Woolfrey. Tel.: Hayle 3147. Early bookings for Summer very advisable.

The Vegan Spring 1958  

The magazine of The Vegan Society

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