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T H E VEGAN SOCIETY Founded November, 1944

Minimum subscription, which includes "The Vegan," 7s. 6d. per annum, payable in January. Life Membership, ÂŁ7 7s. Od.

THE VEGAN JOURNAL OF THE VEGAN SOCIETY Editor : Mr. JOHN HERON, Editorial Board: Mrs. Advertisement Manager:

MURIEL DRAKE, Mrs. ELSIE M r . JACK SANDERSON. Mr. JACK SANDERSON, S.W.10.

, Reigate. Surrey. B. SHRIOLEY, , London,

Published quarterly: Annual subscription, 4s. 6d. post free: single copies, Is. 2d. post free. Obtainable from the Hon. Secretary.

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THE VEGAN Journal of the Vegan Society

Vol. IX

SPRING, 1955

No. 4

EDITORIAL After the glorious spread of our special issue, our journal has shrunk again to humble proportions. Well, if more subscriptions come in . . . Nevertheless, for this slender size we are well compensated, both by an article and by a poem from a distinguished contributor. The Vegan now gets into its quarterly stride again. And we apologize to our subscribers for the uncertainty about its appearance from which they must have suffered during the past year. PLANTS

This is the season of germination and new growth. The reappearance of the silent power of vegetation serves to remind us that, as vegans, our great responsibility is ceaselessly to extol the virtues of plants, to emphasise the abundant provision they make for so many of man's needs (hence the quotation on our cover). The ideal we strive to awaken in the mind of mankind is that of the earth's green and living mantle, renewed, revitalized, ennobled and made whole: a planetary garment of brilliant emerald green (to the inner vision) from which men derive their well-being, their sustenance and their eye for beauty. A concern for animal welfare is at the present day mainly a preventative aspect of the ethics of vegans. We have also a positive and constructive moral obligation: to study and observe the habits, properties and requirements of plants; to understand their modes of growth, their needs in cultivation, their relationship to the soil, to animals, to man. A comprehensive and ambitious programme, but one that we can scarcely evade. In this connection, I would like to refer to the extraordinarily interesting experiments made over a period of seven years in Switzerland (before the war) by Dr. Rudolf Hauschka. The English edition of his " Substanzlehre," eagerly awaited in this country, 1


contains full details of his experiments, which claim to demonstrate that plants actually create matter, body it forth out of an immaterial condition to the extent that an actual increase in physical weight can be recorded and which cannot be accounted for by any form of physical accretion. In other words, the plant, according to Dr. Hauschka's experiments, has a capacity for condensing matter from an imponderable or " etheric," to a ponderable or physical, condition. This, if true, is a startling fact. The experiments were conducted with a suitable balance, and with cress seeds in a sealed ampoule counterweighted by a second ampoule of the same weight and size. It is claimed that the extent of the changes of weight exceeds the range of possible error 1,000 times. We may well ask first, what the significance of this discovery is for human nutrition; and secondly, what it implies in transforming our methods of agriculture. Unfortunately, there is no more space to deal with the theme here. And we have only lightly touched on the full extent of Dr. Hauschka's findings. JOHN HERON

VERNAL EQUINOX Edgar J. Saxon

Blow soft, blow sweet along the wrinkled ridges Of ploughed resilient fields! Blow soft,, blow low Between the arches of a thousand bridges! Beneath the tumbling skies, bend like a bow, With your strong blowing, taut young April showers. To sting with urgent arrows, winged with light, The agld Earth that twinkles as it cowers! Blow with the swallow's certainty of flight, Wide-eyed to catch the Sun's firm baton-beat, Tuned to the rhythm of our planet's swing! With long resolvent chords dissolve the heat Of equatorial climes, and chiming ring Exultant bells of equinoctial change! Blow through a ravaged world the swansdown breath Of gentle courtesy, to mock with strange Transmutings the stale arguments of death! Reprinted by courtesy of the author.

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OUR INHERITANCE Edgar J. Saxon

In view of Mr. Edgar Saxon's long pioneer record in the field of Food Reform, Soil Culture, Nature Cure and many cognate subjects, we have asked him to contribute to The Vegan. In nutrition he has always advocated lacto-vegetarianism and practises this himself in his home-life, as well as being an ardent composter. But what he has to say needs to be said to all, whatever their own way of thought and belief.—ED.

SOME inherit property or money from parents or other relatives. Others inherit neither property nor money. But everyone born into the world inherits the planet on which we find ourselves—this round world that spins on its axis every twenty-four hours and pursues its path round the star we call the Sun every 365 days, taking its own small satellite, the Moon, with it. Inheritance involves responsibility for what is inherited. What is our inheritance? It is far richer than anyone who lived 5,000 years ago, or 500 years, or even fifty years ago, could know. What is now known about our planet is a vast number of facts. All these facts fall into a pattern of interplay: the interplay of light and darkness, winter and summer, air and water, soil and rock, plant and animal, life and death. Such knowledge can be shared by all, whatever their individual beliefs may be. We need to believe in the best that our minds can imagine and our hearts desire. But knowledge is the true ground from which clarified and reasonable beliefs can grow.

AGE-LONG DEVELOPMENT

Development by slow degrees is written over the entire story of our planet. The condensation of incandescent gases into hard rocks and salty oceans; the dawn of elementary life-forms in the upper warm waters of primeval oceans; their invasion of the bare rocky surfaces of the continents that had emerged from the waters; the development of a vast diversity of plant and animal forms. The lowliest living things consist of a single cell, a minute globule of jelly-like substance containing a nucleus possessing strange capacities to respond to environment and in such responses to build up greater complexity. The grouping of single cells into clumps made possible organisms. The human body is an organism, a group of cell colonies, a miniature commonwealth of specialised cells, every one of which is linked to the unbroken line of living cells from the beginning of life on our planet. For such marvellous development of plant and animal organisms to be achieved two realities appear to have been essential. Each organism must renew its substance from its environment; each organism must have some inherent co-ordinating principle to ensure that the organism was a whole thing. 3


Further, living organisms must have the power to reproduce themselves and thus enable development to be possible. Reproduction for long ages was a matter of self-division. The single cell divided into two cells, each of which contained the nuclear ingredients and capacities of the " parent." Eventually bi-sexual reproduction appeared, thus enormously speeding and expanding the possibilities of variety. Our planet to-day has uncountable multitudes of single-cell creatures, in the sea, the rivers, the soil, the air. All need food. All reproduce themselves. All die, and the death of each serves the purposes of life. T H E SOIL'S POPULATION

Thus, in any good top-soil in which crops of any kind are cultivated there is an enormous population of single-cell creatures called bacteria. These live by feeding on all forms of waste matter, whether the dead forms of plants and animals or animal excreta. Without this living population, soil would not have the property called fertility. In other words, death is integral to life, and " nothing is common or unclean " in itself and in its right place. CULTIVATION IS CRAFTSMANSHIP

The dawn of agriculture and the taming of certain wild animals would appear to have occurred about 8,000 years ago. In terms of the immense geological ages of our planet's history, this was but yesterday. It was the first great turning point in the story of humanity. For from then onwards men were no longer under the necessity of plant and animal life to find food: they began to cultivate food, to control their environment, to mould it. In so doing, of course, the element of risk, of blunder, entered unavoidably. In our very imperfect, because slowly developing, human nature, there is this strange impulse to shape, to make, to create. It is the spirit of the artificer, the craftsman, the artist, the husbandman, the engineer, the poet, the seer. Imperfection cannot avoid making mistakes, yet these can teach if there is humility and ardour. It must have taken the earliest neolithic cultivators many generations to learn the first principles of cultivation. But the varied skills of all cultivators during these 8,000 years are part of our inheritance. Many of their achievements, the results of remarkable patience and resourcefulness, are of comparatively recent date. Most of the vegetables and fruits we take for granted to-day date back but a century or so. Ponder the difference between a Cox's Apple and a wild Crab, between the bitter wild celery and the crisp, delicious vegetable of to-day. FEEDING THE WORLD TO-DAY

The population of our planet to-day is not only far larger than it has ever been, but it grows every year by leaps and bounds. Alongside this fact we have to place the record of a hundred years 4


of blundering in the management of cultivated soils and of forests. The sages who guided the ancient Chinese civilization insisted on the return of all waste matter to the soil, in the form of mixtures of everything available. But in modern times, this profound principle of observing the first requirement of husbandry has been progressively neglected. In all directions there has been taking without giving. Forests have been destroyed without thought of the disastrous consequences, for trees have for long ages played an essential part in modifying rainfall and holding soil together. Animal dung has been increasingly replaced by concentrated chemical manures supplying only a few of the nutrients needed by crops. Human wastes have been dumped in the sea. FIRST THINGS FIRST

All kinds of plants, wild or cultivated, feed on air, light, water and inorganic minerals. For this miraculous performance the soil needs to have abundance of the substance called humus. What is humus? It is the result of the food-needs of the soil population, the bacteria. They thrive on all forms of organic wastes. Without adequate humus, soils tend to dry out, to lose coherence and to blow away in dry weather or be carried away by heavy rain. It behoves all of us, therefore, whatever particular beliefs we cherish or whatever system of practice we pursue, to ponder the facts set out in this survey. First things first. First the blade, then the ear, then the full corn in the ear. First the soil and the rocks that feed it with minerals. Then the husbanding of all material resources inherited from the beginning of the world. Then the winnowing of the best craftsmanship from the skills won so arduously by our forefathers. " Back to Nature " is an ambiguous slogan. Not back to the natural crab-apple! We need to study the wholeness that characterises all natural processes and model our practice on that wholeness. Wild life is marked by parasitism, but it also displays symbiosis or mutual aid. Modern agriculture has become parasitical. It must become symbiotic. To learn how best to make compost in the back garden is the first step towards recovery—the recovery of quality, in food and all else. 14TH WORLD VEGETARIAN CONGRESS To be held at La Cit6 Universitaire, Paris; the first week in August, July 31st to August 7th, 1955. Full information and application form from The General Secretary, I.V.U., 101, Harestone Hill, Caterham, Surrey, England.

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SESAME Jerome Olds

It is obvious that sesame seed is of particular interest to vegans. Those who wish to experiment with it, may obtain it, without husks, at 2/- a lb. (postage about 1 /6 for 2 lbs.), from Oriental Provision Stores, 25, Charlotte Street, London, W.l, and from similar stores.—ED.

ONE of the first oilseed crops ever to be cultivated by man is taking a strong foothold in the southern half of the United States. It's sesame—and the doors to its treasures have been opened up and reveal a plant that some day may rival cotton as a cash crop. Until just recently, sesame's fame was based primarily on its history—its food value having been invaluable to the peoples of India and China since centuries before Christ. Regardless of its reputation, sesame was still not grown widely in this country. The main reason that sesame has not been brought into extensive commercial production here is because of the excessive hand labour required in harvesting. Sesame, as raised since Biblical times, bore seed pods which shattered as they matured. Pods low on the stem of the plant ripened while the top of the plant was still flowering. Hand harvesting was the only way to gather a crop. What was needed was a new type of sesame plant, a semishattering variety which would mature uniformly along the stalk so that it could be harvested with conventional machinery. Dr. Earl H. Collister, plant breeder of the Texas Research Foundation at Renner, Texas, worked for five years to develop this improved strain and came up with " Renner Sesame No. 1." In 1953, a comparatively large scale testing programme of the new variety was conducted in co-operation with the Texas Sesame Seed Growers Association. Approximately 250 farmers tested sesame in five and ten acre planting throughout 20 growing counties in Texas. Seetl yields from last year's crop ranged from 300 to 1,227 pounds per acre with an average of around 550 pounds. Records kept by farmers who have participated in the testing programme for three years indicate that the cost of producing an acre of sesame will vary from 10 to 25 dollars, enabling most growers to net around 50 dollars per acre. At ten cents a pound—and the market has been between 11 and 15 cents—a fanner can expect to gross close to 70 dollars an acre. Even with a top production cost of 25 dollars per acre, sesame still seems to be a better short season cash crop than most other row crops. Before going into any greater detail about the farming aspects of sesame, let's take a look at sesame from a health food angle. The oil yield from sesame's seed is about 50 per cent and is quite 6


rich in calcium and vitamin C, even more so than sunflower seed. It has long provided the basic fats in place of butter and lard in the diets of citizens of the Near East, especially those of Turkey and Syria. Dr. W. R. Raymond, for experimental purposes, has used sesame seed meal as his almost exclusive protein and fat for years with excellent results. He found this seed to be quite alkaline in reaction, easily digested and also superior to most other acidforming proteins and fats as well. The seed contains a certain amount of lecithin, vitamins E and F (unsaturated fatty acids). A variety of delicious food products can be made from it, such as butters, vegetable milk, delicious oil, candies and dressings, to mention but a few. The hulled seeds may be chewed as they are; and they are often tender, easier to chew, and as tasty as the sunflower seed. Cattle also benefit from the nutrient value of sesame. After the seed has been crushed, the meal makes an excellent feed because of its vitamin D, E, and B. content. Sesame is desirable as a protein supplement for poultry and livestock, since the meal contains approximately 50 per cent protein. The oil from sesame is rated " high-grade," since it stays nonrancid up to ten times as long as some of the other more familiar vegetable oils. This means a more lasting freshness of foods—as margarine, shortening and salad oils—that can use sesame. In addition, the oil has been found fully as tasty, less acid-forming and more digestible than virgin olive oil. Sesame oilseed meal, the residue after the extraction of the oil, is like the whole seed, a rich source of protein, calcium, phosphorus and of the vitamin niacin. In South America, the addition of sesame meal to the traditional type of bread made from corn meal improves its palatibility and nutritional value. Those are some of the reasons why there is a growing market for sesame. With the improved strain that requires a minimum of hand labour, southern farmers can do well experimenting with it in their rotation schedule. Sesame is well adapted to the climatic and soil conditions throughout the cotton growing areas of Texas and other southern areas. Because it is very drought tolerant, it is a dependable crop. Besides having a relatively low cost of production, sesame is a short season crop which can be used very effectively in a diversified system of farming with other cash crops, grasses and legumes. Here are details on semi-shattering sesame given by Dr. Collister: It is an erect annual plant which grows from 36 to 72 inches high and matures in 90 to 120 days, depending upon strain and growing conditions. The plant contains small seed pods or capsules which are born at each leaf axil. The pod is about the size and shape of a peanut pod, and the sesame seed is similar in size and shape to a tomato :

7


seed. A plant approximately 40 inches high will usually contain about 150 pods and each pod has from 75 to 100 seeds. Sesame has a combination type root system consisting of a tap root and an extensive fibrous or secondary root system. This combination enables the plant to utilise subsoil and surface moisture very effectively. It will grow well under a wide range of soil conditions, but thrives best on well-drained fertile soils. Neutral soils are preferred, but good results can be expected on either acid or alkaline soils. Generally speaking, sesame will grow well on any land that will grow cotton and thrives under high temperatures and droughty conditions. There's a very important " caution " that goes with growing sesame, one that organic farmers will especially want to remember. Sesame is a soil depleting crop that would tend to deprive the soil of essential minerals and destroy its physical structure unless incorporated into a rotation schedule with legumes and grasses. Therefore, south western farmers should make certain that their cropping system is a well-balanced one. Guar, a new summer legume for that area, which was described in February's issue, should fit in well in a rotation that includes sesame. Besides being a nitrogen-fixing plant, guar grows a heavy tonnage of residue for return to the soil and will do much to offset the soil depletion caused by sesame. Sesame should not be planted until all danger of cold weather is past. Planting dates may be as early as March 15 in the southern part of the adapted area and as late as June 15 towards the northern limit. Generally, sesame could be planted shortly after cotton in cotton-growing areas and after sorghum in sorghumgrowing areas. Farmers who have grown sesame have found that, at the present time, it has not been seriously affected by either insects or plant diseases. A grain binder can be used for cutting uniform stands of sesame less than 40 inches high, while a row binder has been satisfactory for thin stands about 40 inches high and all stands over that height. Any conventional type combine will usually do a satisfactory job if properly adjusted and operated. Planting seed of improved strains of sesame can be obtained from the Texas Sesame Seed Growers Association at Paris, Texas. Detailed information about cultural practices and marketing sesame can also be obtained by writing to them. Previously China, India and Burma had produced the bulk of the world's sesame, but the crop has also been grown extensively in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Nigeria, Turkey, Greece, the Soviet Union and Latin America. Increased acreage in Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia and Nicaragua have largely counterbalanced any decline in the Orient, so that world production has remained about constant in recent years. 8


World trade in sesame, which never accounted for more than about ten per cent of total production, has decreased in recent years. About 12 million pounds were imported into this country in 1951. Formerly most of our imports came from China, while for the past few years we have mostly relied on Latin American countries to meet our requirements. The new non-shattering variety will lead to greater efficiency in its growth in this country and should also mean increased marketing possibilities for the many valuable by-products obtainable from sesame. As more improved strains are developed, even greater potentials may be realised from the " magic " in healthy sesame. Reprinted from the American " Organic Gardening and Farming."

VEGAN

COMMODITIES

Christina Harvey

A few of the manufacturers mentioned below already appear in the Vegan Trade List. However, since the printing of the Trade List there have been some new lines which meet vegan requirements and the whole range of vegan products for these manufacturers is printed. I think I must emphasise here what I have already stated in the foreword of the Trade List. The food products mentioned are not necessarily recommended for use by vegans. No manufactured product can ever be as health-giving and as beneficial as fruits, vegetables, cereals, and nuts in their pure unadulterated state. However, it is useful to know that there are products on the ordinary market which we can take on special occasions and which we can give to our non-vegan friends without violating our own principles. All products printed below are vegan unless otherwise stated. Barker 8C Dobson Ltd., Liverpool 6.

There is now a wider range of vegan confectionery: Supreme Dessert Chocolate, Regal Fruit Drops, Barley Sugar Drops, Choice Fruits, Glac6 Mints, Almond Pralines, Tangerine Orange Balls, Nut Brittle. Borratt 8C Co., Ltd., London, N.22.

Mint Lozenges, Cachous, Aniseed Balls, Toasted Cokernut Squares, Sugared Almonds, Sherbert, Jolly Lollipops, Fruit Drops, Barley Sugar, Almond Rock. Beverly Restaurant, 24-25, Binney Street, London, W.l.

None of the soups served is vegan. Nut Rissoles, Lentil Roast, Savoury Grill, Italian Rissoto, Rice Timball, Sweetcorn Tomato Farcie, Vegetable Puffs are vegan savouries. Apple Crumble, Fresh Fruit Salad, Stewed or Steamed Fruits, 9


Steamed Jam or Fruit Puddings, Apple and Raisin Tart, Flans, are vegan sweets. J. Bibby 8C Sons, Ltd., Liverpool 3. Trex is a pure vegetable fat. In the unlikely event of animal fats being used the public will be informed in advertisements. Charles Bond Ltd., Bristol 5. Plain Chocolate Cream Tablets. Plain Chocolate Coconut Squares. Chocolate Variety Creams, Plain Chocolate Walnut Creams. Burleon Ltd., London, W.l. None of their products can now be guaranteed as vegan. Beeswax and other ingredients of possible animal origin are now replacing the vegetable oils used in the past. Gallard 8C Bowser Ltd., London, W.3. Barley Sugar, Thistle Fruits, Lollipops. Chocolat Parfait Cot, Ltd., London, E.l. Fruit Dessert, Jelly Squares. Assorted Fondants, Freshly Made Crystallised Peppermint Creams. William Crawford 8C Sons, Ltd., Liverpool 7. Rich Toast (available in Scotland and the north of England only), Thin Oatcakes, Butter Puffs, Tri Fruit Puffs. Gray Dunn 8C Co., Ltd., Glasgow, S.l. No biscuits are vegan. Farley's Infant Food Ltd., Plymouth. Rusks. Good Earth Restaurant, London, W.C. 1. All soups are vegan except tomato. Steamed and Baked Nut, Barley, Lentil and Pea Dishes are vegan. Nearly all steamed and baked wholewheat puddings and pastry dishes meet vegan requirements. The 100 per cent wholewheat bread is vegan and so are some of the cakes. Salads and fruit are on the menu daily. The manageress, Miss Ashmore, will always be very pleased to inform any vegan which dishes are suitable on that particular day. The kitchen is run on a creative basis where to some extent the moment decides the method. Health Stores (Wholesale) Ltd., Woking, Surrey. Raw Sugar Jams (Strawberry, Raspberry, Blackcurrant, Apricot), Raw Sugar Marmalade. Essences (Almond, Vanilla, Lemon, Orange, Lime, Peppermint. Tangerine, Ginger). The essences are made only from juice of the fruits named and distilled spirit. 10


Health Supply Ltd., Hatfield, Herts.

Fruit and Nut Dessert Cake, Chocolate Fruit Delight, Fruit Slice. Fruit Slice is a comparatively recent product and consists solely of Apricot and Currant. A 3-oz. bar costs 1 /-. W . & R. Jacob & Co., Ltd., Liverpool 9.

Butter Cracker, Cream Cracker, Oyster Cracker, Water, Water High-Baked, Boston Cream, Cafe Noir, Cinderella, Custard Cream, Fig Roll, Ginger Nut, Goldgrain, Marie, Shortcake, Thin Arrowroot, Chocolate Vienna Biscuits. Cheese Biscuits and Milk Chocolate Biscuits are, of course, nonvegan. So, too, are Ice Wafers and Forfar Shortbread. KoppenheLms Ltd., Manchester 7.

Plain Chocolate Brazils (whole nuts), Plain Chocolate Marzipans, Plain Chocolate Walnut Marzipans, Plain Chocolate Almond Marzipans, Chocolate Biscuits. All products bear the supervision mark of the Beth Din and are therefore strictly kosher. London Health Centre, London, W.l.

At the Wigmore Street branch there is a new fruit juice bar. Canned grapefruit, tomato and pineapple juices are on sale. So are freshly extracted apple, carrot, celery and orange juices. Certain drinks contain milk, egg and honey as well, so careful enquiry should always be made beforehand. Hot Yeastrel and Vecon drinks are also available. So is Vegetable Broth. No definite guarantee has been given that these are vegan. However, they probably are, and enquiry can always be made at the time of purchase. Mapletcm's Nut Food Co., Ltd., Liverpool 19.

The new savoury spread, Tartex, is unfortunately non-vegan. The ingredients are food yeast, refined vegetable oils, wholemeal flour, arrowroot starch, yeast extract, salt, vegetable and herb spices, and milk casein. This last ingredient prohibits the use of Tartex by vegans. Monnickendan Ltd., London, N. 16.

No guarantee can now be given for any of their products.

Nairn's Oatcakes Bakery Ltd., Rutherglen.

All products contain animal fat.

O. P. Chocolate Specialities Ltd., Merthyr Tydfil.

Chocolate Satin Almonds, Fancy Fruits, Taff Vale Mints, Raspberry Fruits, Plain Chocolate, Viennese Dessert. 11


Schweppes Ltd., London, W.2.

Soft drinks with the exception of Tomato Juice Cocktail, which contains a small amount of Worcester Sauce as a flavouring ingredient. Worcester Sauce usually contains a trace of liver extract. Scofa

Milling

Co., Ltd., Hbunslow, Middlesex.

Scofa Flour earmarked for export is vegan and can be obtained from the manufacturers. In the ordinary way Scofa Flour contains milk powder. Any questions about commodities received and answered by: Christina Harvey, Hornsey Rise, London, N.19. TREASURER'S REPORT AND STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS

Year ending September 30th. 1954 A QUICK comparison with the position for 1953 reveals the fact that expenses have exceeded income by fifty pounds, and therefore the Bank balance has declined by a similar amount. The ordinary subscription income of £120 was contributed by about 240 members, so that the average was ten shillings; thus there seems to be no immediate advantage in raising the minimum subscription to that amount. Although there have been only three issues of The Vegan, the cost of printing is almost equal to those years when four numbers were completed. No economy is possible here unless the quality of production is reduced. Some loss of advertising revenue occurred due to a change in the rates charged, but there is about £15 still to be settled for the Spring issue. You will notice from the Statement that Subscriptions have been divided to show the portion which is regular annual income, and the rest, which cannot be counted on for another year. There are about sixty Life members, but it appears that their large contributions in past years have been treated just the same as ordinary annual income, and consequently the benefit intended to be spread over many years has been lost. Thus we are faced with the situation that in 1955 we shall not be able to afford more than three numbers of the magazine, at a cost say of £50 each. It may be necessary to consider whether we can continue to accept individual subscriptions for the magazine only, at a rate considerably below the minimum necessary to cover the general expenses of the Society. Apart from the magazine, our most important venture from the financial viewpoint was the Trade List. In this connection, it should be pointed out that at the time the printing bill for over £60 was received, the Society's Bank balance stood at about £30, and it was necessary for a member of the Committee to come forward and bridge the gap. In this situation there was really no alternative but to cut out the Summer magazine. This crisis was partly due to nearly half the members not paying any subscription until they received a personal reminder during July or August. Other items of income or expense are largely self-explanatory and cannot be substantially altered in the near future. Our adverts in the three exclusively vegetarian magazines came to about seven pounds and is included in the sundries item. The only policy which I can recommend to prevent a continuing decline in finance is that all resources should be directed to maintaining the magazine, and other activities involving financial risk such as the Trade List, however valuable, will have to be sacrificed. This need for strict economy will remain as long as membership is stationary. t

L. C. WARREN.

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INCOME

Cash I Bank, 1953 Subscriptions Advertisements Literature General Animals' Fair Trade List Sundry EXPENDITURE

The Vegan Stationery Postage Secretarial International Vegetarian Union A.G.M. Expenses Meeting (Animal Welfare) ... Sundry Trade List Balance in hand 30/9/54 Bank Cash

£ 132 168 27 22 14 25 1 £392

s. 1 12 16 18 9 4 7 11

d. 11 10 10 2

160 24 18 16 4 3 5

4 14 14 19 0 18 0

3 3 0 10 0 10 0

8 16 66 12

£80 0 10 3 11 2

Audited and found correct by Mrs. C. Cross, Uxbridge, December, 1954.

6 6

6

3

83 12 0 £392 11 3

BOOK REVIEW

The Essentials of Spiritual Philosophy, by Lawrence Hyde, The Omega Press, Reigate, Surrey, 1955, 2/6 net. Veganism is only one aspect of mankind's complex relationship to existence. How are we to interpret and evaluate the total scheme of things of which we believe that veganism is an integral part? Obviously some form of philosophical organization among our ideas is necessary if we are to function effectively as spiritual beings in this dazzling material world of form, colour and existential happenings. But to the spiritually minded this organization cannot be of a narrowly rationalistic nature: it cannot exclude those deeper intuitive and inspirational realizations that are afforded to the poet, the mystic, the artist, and, perhaps, to the vegan. Here then is a booklet—a digest of a more elaborate exposition by Mr. Hyde shortly to be published under the title "An Introduction to Organic Philosophy" (from the same publishers)—that shows how a deeply inter-related series of guiding philosophical principles of a highly spiritual nature emerge when a unification of mind and emotions, of the head and the heart suffused and blended by the indwelling light of spirit, is considered to be a necessary precondition for the effective interpretation of our experience. F.S.

THE FIRST DECADE: A NOTE

Mrs. Shrigley regrets that there were two errors in her article in the special issue. In para. 3, Vegetarian News should have read Vegetarian Messenger; also Mr. Bernard Drake was at the first committee at the Attic Club, not Mr. Allan Henderson. 13


CORRESPONDENCE

Many warm thanks for your recent parcel containing the copies Nos. 5—9 of your Vegan Magazine. It was so very nice of you to remember us! From these copies of your organ we find many interesting pieces of information, that we in suitable connections can pass on to our members. The vegan movement is a rather interesting branch of vegetarianism, but I think we do not have many people here in Finland who do (or could, as a matter of climate) practise it. You have been able to take the ethical side of vegetarianism further than we can. Milk and dairy produce form an important part here of the diet for vegetarians. Fruit are not so plentiful and the prices of both them and vegetables are rather high, especially in springtime. Nuts are regarded as luxury and soya beans we haven't even seen here! Even the choice between the cooked and uncooked diet is a matter of obtaining enough of calories in the cold winter season. I wish on behalf of all of us the best success to your work and hope that we in the future can find ways of co-operation in the international field of vegetarianism. Mr. S. H. Linnio, President of the Finnish Vegetarian Society, "Vegetaarinen Seura r.y."

EDGAR

S A X O N

Consultations

Practical detailed guidance, based on many years' experience and on sympathetic study of the individual. Regenerative Breathing, Food and Drink, Bodily Carriage, Simple Water Treatments, Biochemic Nutrients, and all else that truly helps. Appointments in London or at address below.

Informal Weekly Study Classes

Thursday evenings in London. Initiated in 1952, these provide sound teaching in true self-possession and the art of living, in an easy friendly atmosphere. Courses run from October to May.

Public Lectures

Edgar Saxon has been lecturing on Health, Soil and related subjects for nearly fifty years. Fees adjusted to circumstances. Secretaries please write for terms to address below.

Books

First Steps to Fitness, a pithy guide to successful and largely neglected means to all-round well-being, based on the author's personal experience. Post paid, 1/8. Sensible Food for All, puts the subject on rock-bottom, without personal fads or fancies. Post paid, 7/6. Simple and Attractive Food Reform, an unusually practical book of recipes, with detailed information as to the why and the how. Post paid 3/9. Constipation. All-in guidance for permanent renewal of normal rhythm. Post paid, 7$d. Why Aluminium Pans are Dangerous. Strictly factual. Post paid, 1/5.

All

correspondence

Mr.

14

to:

Mr. EDGAR SAXON. 37 Spencer Road, West Wimbledon, S.W. 20. Saxon

has not been In business

since 1935. He was Editor un December 1953.

of " H e a l t h and Life"

from

1934


MISCELLANEOUS ADVERTISEMENTS

(Two lines 5/-: extra lines 2/- each; 20% allowed on four consecutive issues.) R. CLAUSEN-STERNWALD, Viennese Health Consultant, available again. Specialist in curative nutrition, drug d natural rejuvenation. Serious cases only. Write: Tring, Herts. HELP to save animals now from suffe ation. Write: Secretary, St. Francis Fields of Rest, Northiam, Sussex. HIGHER LIFE SOCIETY. Our Society is dedicated to the Natural Sciences and also the Occult Subjects. For information, kindly address: Joseph Reiss Activities, 3932 Blaine Street, N.E. Washington 19, D.C. N A T U R A L Grown Dried Bilberries. Valuable nutritional source of potassium, iron, etc. A truly organically grown food. Delightful flavour. Grows only wild. Packet sufficient for 20-24 servings, 6s. l i d . post free, or Trial Package 2s. 3d. post free. Quotations larger quantities. Easy to prepare. For enjoyment and for your good health. Central Health Stores, 4, Clarence Street, Brighton. " O R G A N I C H U S B A N D R Y — A Symposium by John S. Blackburn. 2/9 post free from the Secretary, , Ewell, Surrey. SPEAKING 6/ W R I T I N G lesso , classes 1/6 — • Dorothy Matthews, B.A., , London, N.W.3. PRImrose 5686. VE T R A D E LIST, 1/3 post free-from the Hon. Secretary, Ewell, Surrey.

ESTABLISHMENTS CATERING FOR VEGANS

(First two lines free ; extra lines 2/- each ; 20% discount on four issues.) BIRMINGHAM.— Thackeray House, 206, Hagley Road, Edgbasto BROOK LINN.—Callander, Perthshire. Excellent position overlooking valley, near Trossachs and Western Highlands. Easy access, station £ mile. Good centre for walking and touring. Vegetarian and Vegan meals carefully prepared and attractively served. Comfortable amenities. Special family terms for Annexe rooms with all conveniences. Write for brochure. Muriel Sewell. Tel.: Callander 103. COOMBE LODGE, Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire, a household where visiting Veganj say they feel they " belong." Bircher-Benner diet if desired. All fruit and vegetables home-grown and compost-grown. Ideal for week-end conferences. Beautiful views of valley from terrace. Excellent centre for lovely walks in Cotswold Hills. Children always welcomed. Write to Kathleen Mayo. CORNWALL.—Vegans welcomed, lovely roseland garden to private beach. Brochure from: Trewithian Cove House, Portscatho (75), nr. Truro. DUBLIN New Health Group welcomes visitors. 49 Adelaide Road, Dublin. Tel. 67047. EAS ard Residence. Bed and Breakfast. Mrs. Clifford, , Eastbourne. Tel. 7024. EAS gehill Nursing Home, Acute, chronic, convalescent rest cure, spiritual healing. , S.R.N., R.F.N., S.C.M. Tel. 627. KENT, Westgate-on-Sea. An inexpensive holiday is provided by our popular one-roomed holiday flatlets, equipped for self-catering, 30/- to 50/- per week ea$h guest, or with choice of lunch and dinner. Strictly Vegan. Inclusive August terms 4J gns. Bathing from the house, sa Stamp for leaflet. Mr. and Mrs. Arnaldi, " Tel.: 31942.

0Continued on page 3 cover)

15


GOLDEN BLOCK

KOSHER-VEGETARIAN

MARGARINE

and COOKING FAT

GOLDEN BLOCK products are made in the only factory of its kind to which no animal oils have ever been admitted for purposes of manufacture. There can be no finer Margarine than GOLDEN BLOCK, which is made by a Cold Process

retaining all the character of the nut oils which are its only ingredients. Only io^d. a There can be no finer Cooking Fat than GOLDEN BLOCK for making delicious short pastry, puffs, pie crust, etc., and for deep frying. Only i/id. a j-lb.

GOLDEN BLOCK products are obtainable at all high-class Co-operative Stores and Health Stores. In case of difficulty write to:

Grocers,

MARKETING MANAGERS: LEWIS A. MAY (PRODUCE DISTRIBUTORS) LTD., COPTHALL HOUSE, COPTHALL AVENUE. LONDON, B.C.2 • TELEPHONE: NATIONAL 8794


with

your meals VESOP CONCENTRATED LIQUID EXTRACT OF PURE VEGETABLE ORIGIN. It intensifies the taste of cooked food. A most appetising addition to soups, stews, vegetables, gravies, etc. Season your salads with a few drops of VESOP. Vegetarians and Vegans everywhere, ask your Health Food Store for VESOP.

1 / 8 per bottle, net weight 8 ox. (Recipe Book on request)

VESOP PRODUCTS LTD.

498 Hornsey Road, London, N.19 Telephone: ARChway 2457

(Continued from page 15) HINDHEAD.—Mrs. Nicholson, garden adjoins golf course. Children welcome. T KESWICK.—Highfield Vegetarian Guest House, T h e Heads, offers beautiful views; varied food and friendly atmosphere.—Anne Horner. Tel.: 508. LAKE DISTRICT. Rothay Bank, Grasmere. Attractive guest house for invigorating, refreshing holidays.—Write Isabel James. Tel. 134. LEAMINGTON SPA.—" Quisisana." First class guest house with ev t, vegetarian or vegan diet. Mrs. H. Newman, Tel. 2148. LON vegetarian gues London. Terms moderate. Mrs. M. Noble, , S.W.19. Tel. WIMbledon 7163. N O R T H WALES.—Vegan and vegetarian guest house, nr. mountains and y woodland garden. Brochure from Jeannie and George Lake, , Penmaen Park, Llanfairfechan. Tel.: 161. PEN RT Vegetarian Guest House," Rectory Rd. Rest, change,relaxation. Ideal situation. Pleasant holiday resort. Overlooking sea. Attractive, generous catering. Sun Lounge. H. 6f C. Send for new Brochure. SCARBOROUGH.—Select guest house overlooking both bays. Highly recommended by vegetarians and vegans. Mulgrave House, 168 Castle Road. Tel. 3793. SCARBOROUGH.—Uplands Private Hotel. , Prince of Wales Terrace. Tel. 2631. ST. CATHERINE'S SCHOOL, Almondsbury, Nr. Bristol.—Progressive co-educational boarding school for children of all ages, specialising in music, dancing, crafts, etc., in addition to usual academic subjects. 400 ft. up, overlooking Channel and Welsh Hills. Own produce. Please support our advertisers and mention T H E V E G A N to them.


mm

Jn

Tablets Liquid Ointment Suppositories Emollient Rheumatic Balm Veterinary Liquid for internal and external complaint! are the heir* to this achievement.

igi6

Mr. Pierce A. Arnold proudly brought home from the laboratory the first garlic preparation which did not convey the

Stocked by Health Food Stores. Ordered by Chemists.

odour of garlic to the partaker.

PIERCE A. ARNOLD, F.C.S. Pollard Road, Morden, Surrey

Send a postcard for literature.

THE

N A T U R E CURE HOME I HEALTH HYDRO Treatments includc; Fasting, Dietetics, Colonic Irrigation, Spinal Manipulation, Massage, Bergonie Therapy, Radiant Light and Heat, Baths, etc. Dieting is on non-flesh food reform lines sympathetic towards Vegan principles

SEND

YOUR

REFORM

FRIENDS

COPY

in which are listed

many

hundreds

foods

of Vegan

and other the is

at the

Inveresk House, Inveresk, Midlothian

A

Of

THE VEGAN T R A D E LIST

38

products,

firms

them. A fully qualified physician in residence

FOOD

1/3

and

who

make

Wonderful

value

post

free

Hon. Stane

from

Secretary, Way,

Ewell.

Surrey

(6 rniUt from Edinburgh)

Please support our advertisers and mention THE VEGAN to them. H . H . G I E A V I I L T D . . 1 0 6 - 1 1 0 Lordihi'p Lane, S . E . 2 2 .


The Vegan Spring 1955