The Vegan Spring 1948

Page 1

Vol. IV.

No. 1.





o n t e n t s










A D V O C A T E S that man's food should be derived from fruits, nuts, vegetables and grains, and ENCOURAGES the use of alternatives to all products of animal origin.

Minimum subscription, 5s. per annum, which includes " The Vegan" quarterly. LIFE MEMBERSHIP, £5.

LITERATURE AVAILABLE. " An Address on Veganism " By Donald Watson » " Should Vegetarians eat Dairy Produce?" By Donald Watson " Is Milk a Curse?" By James A. Goodfellow, M.B.C.M. " Man's Natural Food " By Dr. Sydney M. Whitaker " The Vegan " 1947 Numbers - ' - each Set of four complete -

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LONDON.—Mr. Donald Cross, Bucks. YORKSHIRE—Mrs. Gates, Leeds.



Iver Heath.




M I D L A N D S —Mrs. K. V. Mayo, " Streetly, Staffs. BRISTOL—Mrs. Bristol, 4.

Edith Hughes,



MANCHESTER.—Miss Ann E. Owens, Northenden. SCOTTISH SECTION.—Mr. R. J. Handley, ieston, nr. Glasgow; Miss D. M. Sutherland, Road, Edinburgh. (Please communicate with your nearest Group Secretary).

THE Quarterly Editor:


G. A L L A N


Journal of The Vegan HENDERSON,








EDITORIAL T N his speech to farmers at Reading on February 14th, Mr. Tom Williams, the Minister of Agriculture, said that there was no immediate prospect of meeting the full demand for milk and that it might be 1951 before the supply was adequate. Surely, the introduction of Veganism is the answer to this problem, and steps ought to be taken now to decrease .the general demand instead of endeavouring to augment the supplies of milk. Those of us who gave up using cows' milk several years ago did so on the grounds that it was an unnatural and quite unnecessary food for human beings and that its production involved a considerable degree of exploitation, cruelty and slaughter. W e are, however, satisfied that, as a result, our health has benefited and that we have a greater degree of physical and mental energy than previously. W e have ample evidence that there exists throughout the country an increasing antipathy to animal milk, with a strong desire to have it replaced by a clean, nourishing and convenient "vegetable milk," particularly for children. Such an alternative could indeed be available at the present time excepting for a mere technicality." The solution lies in co-ordinated effort through the various Ministries (Agriculture, Food and Health) with a view to bringing the vegan principles of diet to public notice and submitting them to unbiased tests among people of varying ages and occupations. An endeavour should be made to develop new food habits and this would be more successful from the start with a satisfactory "vegetable milk." On reading the Press report of Mr. Williams'1 speech, we wrote a personal letter to him outlining these ideas—and renewing the invitation we had previously extended to him to visit the Vegan Guest Centre, where we could demonstrate that a diet derived solely from fruits, nuts, vegetables and grains can be delicious, appetising and ample for one's well-being. A formal acknowledgment has been the only reply; so we must keep persevering. Meanwhile, we would recommend members to obtain for study, arid distribution copies of Mr. Donald. Watson's comprehensive "Address on Veganism " and Dr. Goodfellow's critical discourse, " Is Milk a Curse?" Both are revealing and should be widely read.





Ireland In the early days of January, the gale conditions of the Irish Sea were faced to visit Dublin and then Belfast, and in both these cities Mrs. Fay K. Henderson addressed well-attended meetings arranged by the local vegetarian societies. Although Veganism is a new approach in Ireland, the audiences listened carefully to the speaker's frank opinions on the use of dairy produce, and, in the animated discussions which followed, individual viewpoints were expressed and many questions dealt with. T h e proverbial warmth of an Irish welcome was experienced both south and north of the border, and will be long remembered, while it is pleasant to record that, since returning, we have received letters from interested Irish folk and have enrolled some new members.

Scotland This tour started with a Cookery Demonstration in Largs, Ayrshire, on February 4th, Mrs. Henderson showing in a practical way how nutritious, appetising vegan fare was available without using many rationed or points goods. Miss Rosa Lane had made the preliminary arrangements most efficiently, and there was no lack of willing helpers. There was a very good audience, and, after the demonstration, they quickly bought up the large array of savouries, salads, mayonnaise, muesli, and bran buns that had been made during the afternoon. During a hurried visit to Edinburgh we met several vegan friends, and then travelled on to Glasgow to attend a gathering of the newly formed Vegan Section of The Scottish Vegetarian Society, held by the courtesy of Mrs. Forrest at her delightful home. Mrs. Henderson's brief summary of our case led to a spirited exchange of views, after which a wonderful vegan meal was served—interesting sandwiches and a marvellous variety of exciting cakes prepared by the members being much enjoyed by all. • T h e following day (Sunday), Mrs. Henderson addressed a public meeting in The Central Halls, Glasgow, her subject being "Veganism : Health without Animal Food," and Mr. Dugald Semple occupied the Chair. Despite the heavy rain, a good audience attended, gave the speaker a sympathetic hearing and contributed to the general interest by discussion and pertinent questions. Report by the Treasurer • A t the end of February, the Society had funds in hand of £190. This includes the sum of £62 7s. 6d. received towards the-Secretarial Fund—by a coincidence, almost equal to the salary paid for the three months. O u r Life Members now total 42. G.A.H.



r p H O U G H not .a vegan in pratice, I readily associate myself with the ideals embodied in veganism.. You have inaugurated- a movement which will- undoubtedly gain more and more adherents as man's vision is opened to the Light of Truth. I think many vegetarians would become vegans were it not. for difficulties of supply or circumstance. When, through the writings of the Rev. J. Todd Ferrier, I accepted the principle- of the sacredness of all Life and became a vegetarian, I was soon confronted with the illogical nature of my actions. If ALL Life is sacred, then to destroy a mosquito or garden pest is contrary to the principle, and I transgress the Law. Since all Life evolves from lower to higher, the lowliness of the life does not mitigate the offence. Some argue that so long as one retains respect for the Life, the evil form may be destroyed, but this is too arbitrary a solution. I could not, for example, consider the butterfly as anything but beautiful, therefore good, but it causes me a deal of trouble. To be perfectly logical, a vegan must abstain from any food in the production of which life is suppressed. Your contributor, Mr. Collier, writes: " If there were no demand for milk, killing of calves would be unnecessary." The same argument can be applied to the killing of so-called pests. There are few, if any, vegans whose diet is such that no life is suppressed in its production. In modern cultivation we use a variety of sprays and powders to eliminate such. This brings me to the point of my remarks. The vegan must be tolerant towards all who are endeavouring to purify the life of man and to bring it into harmony with Divine Law. All are inspired by the same motive, though in differing degree. As more and more are brought to a saner vision, the pest question will automatically be solved, for evil forms will tend to disappear as the life of the Planet is purified. In the meantime, we each have the problem of our own responsibility, and must do the best we can under the circumstances to further the cause we have at heart. The answer to our unsolved problems will come, if not to us, then to those who follow. To a large extent the spiritual' progress of the world depends upon our twin movements, since, with bodies purified and refined, men will become more and more the receiving and distributing centres of the spiritual forces at work. For myself, I can only see one logical answer to my problem, and it is perhaps inferred by Mr. Collier. If I could put myself in tune with the Infinite, I should be surrounded by invisible forces which would afford such protection that I should not need to fear anything from the Life manifested in these evil forms, always provided I took any measures necessary to prevent their appearance (hygiene, etc.). Between the holding of such a belief in the mind and the realisation of its Truth in the life, there is an ocean of spiritual development.



/ ^ . A N D H I had not always had the great popularity, which he latterly ^ enjoyed in this country. His assassination has greatly increased that popularity, perhaps even more than his death through fasting might have done. Yet, whilst all the world mourns his loss and all unite in praise of his noble character, whilst he is acclaimed as the greatest Indian saint since Buddha and the slightest. criticism of him or his conduct arouses much, righteous indignation, and whilst many marvel at his ascetic diet, vegans cannot help asking for the last time, " W h y did this great and good man drink goats' milk?" Dugald Semple put this question to Gandhi himself when the latter visited England in the autumn of 1931, and reported then of his host: " In his presence one felt the - loving influence of a great and pure soul, of one who was simple and childlike in his manner, and who tried to see and express truth in its highest aspects." In answer to Dugald's question, Gandhi said that he had lived for years without taking any milk at all, but that eventually he had been obliged to include goats' milk in his diet for health reasons. He believed, on medical authority, that he could not get the indispensable Vitamin A from plant foods: it did not seem to occur to him that vegetarian animals must get their Vitamin A from this source. Dugald assured him that we can procure all the Vitamin A we need straight from the vegetable kingdom, and quoted what Professor Plimmer said on this subject: "Vitamins are produced in plants, and any found in animals have come from their plant food. Vegetarians have one advantage over meat-eaters, that they get their vitamins direct from the plants." When Dugald told Gandhi that he had not used any dairy produce during a period of ten years,- Gandhi agreed that it was possible for a strong man to live in this way, and he hoped to do so again in the future. Further light has been thrown on this subject recently by an Indian who knew Gandhi. She said that when he found out about the cruelty involved in the production of cows' milk, he vowed never to drink it again. He was particularly sorry for the calves, because the cowmen did not let them have as much milk as they needed. The male calves were often starved to death; the females were better treated as they were destined to become dairy cows. ' Gandhi kept his vow for several years. Then, once, when he was very ill, his relatives, friends and medical adviser implored him to take milk to save his life, as they believed. He held out against them for some time. Yet it must be most exhausting, when you are ill, to withstand such loving pressure, especially when you are told that your country's welfare depends on your 'survival. When no persuasion prevailed, somebody had the bright idea that Gandhi's vow only applied to cows' milk, which was all he had in mind when he made



it. Therefore, he was still free, to take goats' milk. The Mahatma accepted the compromise and took goats' milk ever since then. Logically, there is no sense in this compromise, and, in blunt English,' it seems a mere quibble, though, to do him justice, Gandhi had an idea that kids fared better than calves. Yet, if it is wrong to - exploit cows for their milk, it is equally .wrong to exploit goats, for the same evils are inherent in both cases. The only difference is that the exploitation of cows has been more commercialised and is on a much larger scale, at. least in this country. If you keep only one goat for its milk or if you keep many, the same problem arises— how to dispose of the surplus male kids. Some years ago, the writer met a man who was self-supporting with his garden and his goats. When asked how he solved this problem, he replied that he had a butcher friend who obligingly despatched unwanted kids for him.' Thus he was doing what most flesh-eaters do—killing by proxy. Surely it is far more satisfactory to live in a way that dispenses with the butcher's help altogether. Gandhi thought in 1931 that one day he might do this; now it is too late. It must have been a great relief to him that day on his bed of sickness when, having at last consented to do what everybody wanted, his tired body was allowed to rest in peace. Yet was there not, perhaps, deep down within him, some slight misgiving to disturb that peace? Did he feel that he had not kept faith with the poor cows and calves who had lost their champion and whom he had, figuratively speaking, surrendered to their fate? Perhaps! After ail, nobody knows whether Gandhi would have died had he flatly refused to break his vow or make any concessions. His life had so often hung on a single slender thread, yet he had recovered. It is probable that he had indeed been trying to live on an inadequate dairy-free diet. His friends would say, of course, that his life was far too precious to run risks. But, later on, after the crisis had passed, he might have tried to do something about it. He might, for instance, have profited from the advice and experience of his Scottish friend in 1931, by adopting a simple, scientifically sufficient, dairy-free diet, but he did not do so. Did he thus miss an opportunity of further benefiting the human race, already, much indebted to him? W e think that he did. He was a wonderful man. Might he have been even more wonderful? In his address to The London Vegetarian Society in November, 1931, Gandhi said: " It is the spirit in man for which we are concerned. Therefore, vegetarians should have that moral basis—that a man was not born a carnivorous animal, but born to live on the herbs that the earth grows. I know we must all err. I. would give up milk if I could, but I cannot. I have made that experiment times without number. I could not, after a serious illness, regain my strength unless I went back to milk. That has been the tragedy of mv life."' '







C I E N C E is based oh facts: they are its raw material, and without observed or experimental facts scientific methods cannot function. Its'method is to collect facts, classify them, deduce hypotheses which can then be confirmed or rejected by testing them out experimentally. W h e r e there are no agreed facts to work on, there can be no science. Science does not enter the moral or ethical field of human endeavour, and, while it may tell us what to do on practical grounds, it can never tell us anything about moral or ethical principles. In particular, science has nothing to say whether it is morally desirable to breed animals for slaughter, feed ourselves on the carcases, or exploit their sex functions for our dairy produce. Science, too, is silent on aesthetic questions, for the same reason that there are no agreed facts to work with. The ugliness of the slaughter-house, the agony of the animal caught in the trap, the smell in the butcher's shop, and the longings of the milking cow for her lost calf all escape the scientific net. Science does not deal with these things and does not pretend to. Science has never claimed to advise on what is beautiful or ugly, or what is right or wrong; it is just a technical instrument giving us knowledge and control over our environment. Both vegetarianism and veganism are, however, intimately connected with moral and aesthetic principles and seek to guide humanity in its spiritual development in the realms of value. They have contact •with science in one aspect only, the question of whether the diet is adequate in all those calories, vitamins, proteins, amino-acids and mineral salts which science has found to be necessary. Science has confirmed the self-sufficiency of both the vegetarian and also the vegan diet, and there is also the fact that vegans do live successfully on their diet with undiminished physical energy. Veganism is not challenged at all by science and so there should be no friction. W h a t the vegan discovers to be the Good and Beautiful is in harmony with what Science says is the True. While that might have been the end of this article, a warning is necessary if the vegan movement is to avoid the embarrassments and setbacks which the vegetarian movement has suffered. There are those in the vegetarian movement, and no doubt there will be those in the vegan movement, who oppose scientific thought and try to pick a quarrel with science, attempt to discredit it, and thereby ridicule their own movement in the process. For instance, there are magazines both in this country and abroad nominally supporting vegetarianism and progressive thought, but which actually at the same time drag in astrology and horoscopes! If such articles represented only so much waste paper, it would not be so bad, but, unfortunately, they do immeasurable damage to the cause, spreading the impression that vegetarianism is also a fatuous cult without any rational foundation. Veganism needs to avoid this sort of bunk and bathos, otherwise it



will scare away the intellectually minded reformer for ever. And there are other stagnant backwaters lying off the main stream of progress into which the vegan boat may easily get diverted by unscientific navigation. In the vegetarian world can be found curious dietetic theories, many of which are the .results of the dictates of self-appointed experts in dietetics who have little respect for the facts. Veganism should beware of being captured by one of these cults, for that would mean the end of veganism as a vital, progressive force. Conflict with science, then, through the adoption of superstition or unscientific theories, must be avoided if veganism is to become the growing point of the vegetarian movement. There will be those, too, who will wish to supply veganism with an occult philosophical background. W e all develop some sort of philosophy of life and, in any organised body of people adopting a diet based on moral or aesthetical precepts, there is always a tendency to cultivate a philosophy agreeing with and justifying their practice. While individuals may need such help, it would be unwise for the vegan movement to develop this aspect of its activity. This is not the right century for mass conversion by the appeal of philosophy or religious dogma. Keep veganism a practice based on ethics, aesthetics, humaneness, health, economics and science. W e shall agree on this: and we shall disagree on anything else. Finally, there are those who attempt to invent new scientific theories for themselves and for the movement; a very- laudable attitude, but rarely successful except by the most gifted. Some vegans are using the concept of "animal vibrations" to explain things. Now the Scientist is very clear as to what he means by a "vibration." He can detect it with physical apparatus, measure its frequency, velocity and amplitude. But " animal vibrations" are quite unknown to him: there may be such things, but they have not yet been discovered. So vegans might do well to avoid the term. Also, don't let us be too sure yet that milk is the cause of cancer. W e are doing right in collecting evidence for this view, but not in maintaining the fact. The vegan's best' friend is the chemist. Round the corner of economic recovery, our friend is waiting to flood the market with synthetic plastics to replace leather, fur, skins, bristles, catgut, bone and ivory. Here is the way, and it would be a poor compliment to the Scientist if the vegan were to accept his goods gladly and at the. same time adopt unscientific beliefs, naive dogmas or a superstitious outlook. Veganism has everything to gain by a wholehearted scientific attitude, and everything to lose by an unscientific approach. Do we want veganism to become another cult or sect of vegetarianism, or do we want it to be the main driving force of the whole progressive movement? A t the moment the control of veganism and the editorship of " The Vegan " are in safe hands. It will be necessary to see that they remain in safe hands if veganism is to be a significant factor influencing our national life.





May I suggest in reply to the letter of " B.L., Winscombe " in the winter issue of " The Vegan," that it is possible the word " percentage " has not been given due consideration. O n e realises that the quantity of food (including protein) required by adults on heavy manual work is much greater than that required by infants, but should the percentage of protein differ? W i t h regard to the last paragraph of the same lecter, is not the " great difference " not in the organ into which the stonedust passes, but in the very much greater intake of dust in those trades in which silicosis is prevalent, compared with the small amount taken with stoneground flour? W.M., Hockley Hill. " B.L." has submitted this reply:—I still feel that, in addition to the greater quantity of food required by adults on heavy manual work, and growing and active children, than those of other occupations and ages, the protein requirement is likely to be more than proportional, protein being the building and repair food. This is not to say that even this additional requirement is far smaller than the quantity adjudged necessary by orthodox minds. In assessing quantities, I include the substantial percentages in whole cereals, as well as the predominantly "protein" foods. Ultimately the individual needs of each organism must be considered separately, as no cut and dried ruling can be anything more than a rough guide. A s for the second point raised, though naturally a greater quantity of dust in the lungs is more serious than less, the whole point of my first remark was that the two organs, the stomach and lungs, were being confused. " W h a t Would



I am a vegetarian of some years, but since reading the winter number of " T h e Vegan " only this week, have decided to become a member of your Society. Unfortunately, my husband is a flesh-eater, although he never fails to partake of my good fare, and he is forever praising to others my abilities to make something out of nothing. But I feel that this is not good enough (if he were an Irishman, I should say he had kissed the Blarney Stone!) and wonder if I should not put my foot down and refuse to do a n y m o r e flesh cooking for him. It is a most nauseating ordeal for me to have to queue for his meat, much less to cook it. H e knew I was a vegetarian when we married, and said he was quite willing to live my way; but practically all through the war we had to. live apart, so that I had no opportunity of giving him a vegetarian diet. And now, whenever I tackle him about it, he laughingly vows he never promised me, and also declares he will not give up meat eating. .So what!? Perhaps some of your readers would tell me what they would do in my place. A.A., Somerset. Enlightenment

In the winter issue of " The Vegan " I was impressed by Mr. Collier's contention that adherence to conscience ensures the removal of all obstacles by Divine Blessing. In considering this matter, I found it most helpful to resort to the following parallel. Consider man as an electric light bulb, his limitations imposed by ignorance (the walled room in which he is standing). T h e n " each step taken in answer to a conviction of Right," as Mr. Collier states it, is the automatic increase of wattage to the bulb, so that it shines more brightly. Then objects in the room which were formerly dim become



clear, and his sphere of enlightenment becomes greater. - Just so with man; his problems become clear, and his sphere of enlightenment becomes greater, but the additional power to the bulb also reveals the presence of more dim objects, vague shadows of yet more loom out of the darkness. Yet, just as the stronger light unifies objects which had formerly appeared disunited and whole in themselves, so do we find that seeming paradoxes resolve into two parts of one whole, when we become enlightened. By using this parallel in this way, I think "there are many interesting possibilities to be explored—the position of the Atheist, for instance. ' J.T., Hull. Thanks from


A very appreciative letter has been received from H.W., Largs, who enjoyed the recent Cookery Demonstration there and felt it worthy of repetition. Therefore it is interesting to note that Mrs. Henderson will be giving a Demonstration in Edinburgh on May 10th on ihe occasion of the half-yearly meetings of the Vegetarian Society. Holidays


Will any readers interested please write to Mr. D. Burton, Barndale, Welford-on-Avon, Stratford-on-Avon, stating age, etc.

R U F U S — A N U N I N V I T E D GUEST At the earnest request of a neighbour, who already had three cats, we eventually agreed to give shelter to a stray cat for a mutually probationary period: soon afterwards he was deposited on the kitchen floor and was discovered to be a magnificent rufous torn. His lovely ginger coat was in excellent condition, he was gentle and affectionate and had obviously come from a very good home. Why, we wondered, had he strayed? He had dined before arriving, so we had time to discuss what sort of vegan fare to offer him, and were later relieved to see him make a hearty meal of wholemeal bread rusks and toasted barley flakes with Yeastact mixed in warm water. That type of meal served for several days and then he left us. We concluded that he did not like us or our food and we felt rather hurt, and somewhat concerned that our hospitality was seemingly inadequate. We missed the gentle creature with his scrupulously clean habits, but reconciled ourselves to his departure, believing that he had found a home more to his taste. Suddenly one day he was on the window-sill demanding admittance. He had come home hungry and was soon enjoying a lusty meal. Each day after that, he went out and we learned that he had at least two other houses of call in the village. Now, however, he spends most of his time here, accepts his meals regularly and sleeps the night in his own basket or in a chair by the study fire.A genuine attachment has developed between the three of us, but on the part of Rufus it is not merely " cupboard love," for his chief joy, like that of all true cats, is the luxury of a lady's lap. Nevertheless, he has a partiality for bran buns, pastry and biscuits made with suenut and wholemeal flour, porridge and baked beans. We have for several years viewed , the keeping of pets with increasing perturbation because, we felt, it was difficult to avoid inflicting human wishes on these sensitive creatures. Yet, here is Rufus firmly installed as one of the family and popular with all who come to" the house. We are wondering whether he has come to help us learn a lesson. G.A.H.






E C E N T L Y I read an interesting little article headed " Reflections around a Kitchen Sink," and my thoughts immediately turned to our own bright kitchen, in which my friend and I spend most of our mornings. This was a necessity during the war years, and through that time of stress and strain we realised so very clearly the value of properly prepared food that we have never relinquished the work of preparing our own meals. Being a vegetarian and, later, a vegan home, there was no objectionable meat food to be handled, no dead.flesh to be cut up; only the sweet, clean nuts, the one hundred per cent, stoneground flour, sun-dried fruits, non-animal fats, etc., from which to make our cakes and savouries. It occurred to us vividly how vital was the power of thought put into the preparation of the food, and the necessity that it be handled with kindliness and appreciation of its source. W e realised that it was pure, God-given substance as we worked on our recipes. It was obvious that pure food must be lovingly and thoughtfully prepared so that the maximum of goodness and the highest food value be retained. The actual handling of the delightful fresh vegetables, straight from the vital soil,' was a joy and the cleaning of them a pleasure. I feel that the value of the truly run home and guest house is not yet fully appreciated. In these, people have the opportunity of seeing, in actual practice, ideal ways of living carried out, and visitors are surprisingly quick to detect that "something" which makes the home "different." The value of such a home is far-reaching, and, personally, I have seen some astonishing results. Many people only need a little encouragement and a kindly interest in their own peculiar difficulties to take up this better way of living, which is so important to health and gives such a wonderful uplift to the thought. There is nothing so convincing as a practical demonstration that appetising and health-giving sustaining meals can indeed be prepared without flesh, fish, fowl or dairy produce. Those who manage such homes and guest houses are doing a very important pioneer work and will, I know, find that the help and loving care bestowed on sojourners within their walls will be amply rewarded by the results. Nothing will do more to help the. present troubled world conditions than the raising of the individual standard of living, and many opportunities to contribute towards this occur in our own homes. VEGAN



I like my peas with honey, I've done it all my life, It makes the peas taste funny, but it keeps them on the knife!




T H E O D O R E and J U L I A N


During the war Mr. C. C. Abbott and his wife adopted two baby boys of a month old. Both were " blitz " victims in a Surrey nursing home, and looked like skeletons, being mere skin and bone. One was suffering from gas ro-enteritis and was not expected to live the night. Mr. Abbott treated them by his own methods and put them on to vegan diet, consisting chiefly of nut milk and fruit juices. Later they took vegetables, both cooked and raw, wholemeal bread and nut-butter, and fresh, ripe and dried fruits. Now, at three years of age, they are remarkably strong and healthy children with unbounded energy and vitalilty. They have a wonderful future before them. •





1 H E vegan has accepted all animal exploitation to be wrong, and he has come within measurable distance of living consistently according to this view. Not all humanitarians agree that this is the best approach to the problem either for animals or for man. There are those who believe the vegan programme would lead to the extinction of the domesticated animal, thus depriving it of further evolution. They see in veganism the prospect of what they term, "a barren world," almost devoid of animals. They do not relish the idea of fields without flocks and herds, and some of them conceive it to be divine plan that animals should supply food and clothing to man in return for services rendered. Thus, it is argued that, instead of abolishing cruelty by abolishing animals, a better plan would be to improve the conditions under which animals live, and educate on humane lines those who handle them. This cleavage of opinion is of fundamental importance to the humanitarian movement. It gives two distinct approaches to the problem of animal emancipation, and it throws open for debate what the objective of the movement shall be, the abolition of exploitation or a more beneficent system of slavery. Obviously, every reform must be welcomed which leads to the mitigation of present cruelties, but it is the position that will prevail when everything possible in this direction has been achieved that the vegan wishes to make more widely known, for this position he regards as wholly unsatisfactory to anyone genuinely seeking to live humanely. More than fine words or impracticable sentiments are needed to solve great moral problems. Where information is incomplete or where logic is bad, there is a real danger that honourable people will appear as hypocrites denouncing the cruelties of others while ignoring their own. Veganism should not be lightly criticised. Those who would be sorry to see the fields without flocks and herds may be sure that, so long as young animals appear by the million every year, some comparable amount of traffic must be passing through the slaughter-house. Is the slaughter-house to be defended so that certain people shall be able to see the sights they like? Under the scheme for improved conditions, what would be the status of the calf? It would be hypocritical to kill it while professing to lead the world to ways of kindness and greater friendship. Kind people do not murder their friends. The laws of farming economy press ruthlessly on superfluous calves. So long as there are flesh-eaters, the bull-calves would have temporary reprieve, though how they would be castrated " with loving care " has not been stated. Would a new cowshed be any consolation to the cow at the time of her great loss? Would not her mind at this time be occupied by deeper values? Under what system of agricultural economy would old animals, worn out in the service of providing the products of their reproductive processes to man, be kept in the retirement they deserve? It is time the details of the alternative to veganism were published.



No one need fear veganism leading to "a barren world" devoid of animals. Veganism would bring about the end of animal exploitation, not the end of animals. The breeding of ill-shaped, disease-ridden creatures by the million would of course end. The natural evolution of a species does not depend upon its existence in huge numbers, and it cannot be achieved so long as animals are the chattels of commerce. The requirement is to enable the animal to regain its true place in nature, and this veganism would permit. The great economy in the use of land not required for producing animal foods would make it possible to set aside sanctuaries where animals could lead natural lives, thereby soon regaining health. Children would not be deprived of the valuable association with animals. They would be introduced to wild life, and, within certain limitations, they could keep pets. Those who are concerned that man should not fail in his self-assumed duty of assisting animals in their evolution might consider whether this assistance is good. The robust health of the wild buffalo compared with the emaciated modern cow suggests otherwise. So does the sleek, wild hog compared with the twentieth-century pig, and the wild dog with the abominable products of cross-breeding that win prizes at dog shows. Nature could manage well without such assistance. Report on Questionnaire for Statistical Purposes As these forms are still being received, it has been decided to postpone the Report on them until the next issue of " The Vegan." Further copies of the Questionnaire, if required, may be obtained from the Secretary at Rydal Lodge. DONALD W A T S O N .

QUOTATIONS Physical and Moral Health are only kept or regained at the cost of strenuous effort, which is, however, indispensable and repaid. The only way of emancipating housewives is by the adaption of simple, frugal meals, so spaced that true hunger will be felt. Such an arrangement ensures that hunger will be accompanied by the greatest degree of organic energy for transforming the food into living tissue. Vegetarianism means a diet in conformity with real human needs, consisting of cereals, greenstuffs, vegetables and, above all, fruits. Oily fruits (nuts) may be taken in moderation. Two meals a day ought, in lime, to satisfy us. One taken at mid day, the other in the evening. Breakfast hinders the processes of eliminating toxins from the system which take place in the morning, after a night's rest. EDMOND


OBITUARY By the death of Mr. A". H. Mitchell, F.R.I.C., F.C.S.. B.Sc., of Tiverton, Devon, on February 16th at the age of 90, the Vegan Society has lost one of its oldest members and one who was a pioneer in this way of life. He became a vegetarian when 21, and then at the age of 65 decided to stop using dairy produce. His son Frank, brought up as a life vegetarian, is now a keen vegan and has been closely associated with the London Group since its inception.




David, aged four, has been vegan from 16 months old and has maintained normal weight and physical development. He took fruit and vegetable juices and even raw salads from a very early age, with nut-cream until a year ago when Soylac was introduced. Now the latter is used for cereals and cooking only, drinks being of juices almost entirely. At years old he contracted measles, but the attack was slight and the recovery quick. Francesca is now two years old and has been a vegan from birth (her mother being also vegan for a year before that). She was weaned on to nutmilk at 9-10 months and then on to Soylac at 14 months. Now she chooses fruit and vegetable juices to drink, and raw salads in preference to cooked vegetables. She is very fit and sturdy, remarkably healthy and full of life, and it is interesting to note that she did not develop measles although she and David were playing together.



HEALTH ADVICE BUREAU T ^ E G A N S who desire information on health and diet are invited * to state their case fully through the Editor, and Mr. C. C. Abbott, the well-known Health Practitioner, will give advice. QUERY : I have glandular inactivity plus kidney trouble and cannot tolerate either starches, sugars or fats, and apparently the only food which keeps acute anaemia at bay is milk with Bengers Food, of which the chief constituent is hog's stomach. That is rather a problem, and so far neither Homeopathic or Biochemic treatment has been of any use. Nothing but the strictest care in diet keeps me going. However, one is always hopeful that a new thought or idea will spring from the most unexpected source. W.E.A., Devon. REPLY: The food you are taking is a wheaten flour product No. TM.321220, which contains Trypsin and Amylopsin, both of these being animal substances and intended to replace a deficiency of these substances in the human body, thus creating a crutch. It is far better to discover why these deficiencies occur and endeavour to correct that state by natural means. Get a good Osteopath or Manipulator to limber up the spine occasionally. Make a solution of one teaspoonful of cayenne pepper and half-pint of boiling water. Get a handful of chickweed, which can even be found in secluded places at this time of year, dip it into the liquid and rub the spine thoroughly once a day from top to bottom. Include in your salads an abundance of leeks and from one to two ounces of chickweed, dock leaves, broad plantain and young nettles at least once a day. If these are not available at the moment, obtain the dry herbs and make a decoction of half an ounce of each in pints of boiling water, simmer slowly for 10 minutes, strain off and take a wineglassful two or three times daily. Leave off your crutch (patent food) gradually and let nature get to work. Go very slowly on fatty foods, but only of vegetable origin, preferably olive oil or arachis nut oil. Take a little Pitman's Nuto Soup with Marmite and Froment once daily. If oils are absolutely intolerable, emulsification with agar, slippery elm or gum acacia assists assimilation. C.C.A. QUERY : I have been practising veganism for the past 20 months and am able to state definitely that as a result, there has been a general improvement in health, and I notice particularly the complete freedom from catarrh since giving up cows' milk and its products. I have, however, at recurring intervals experienced a soreness of tongue and mouth, with considerable inflammation at the root of the tongue. I am writing to ask if other converts to veganism are experiencing any similar inconvenience, and if so, what is the best method of dealing with this difficulty. Is it due to some deficiency putting the diet out of balance? SOYA BEAN,


REPLY : It is not unusual for new vegans to experience a soreness of the tongue (Glossitis). This is brought about by the eliminating process and the cleansing effect of vegan diet. This is accentuated by over emphasis of roughage and limited use of natural oils. To overcome the disturbance, thoroughly masticate all foods and make sure of insalivation. Incorporate Wild Violet leaves and chickweed in your salads. Take an occasional nightcap of 1-teaspoonful of Slippery Elm powder with 2 teaspoonfuls of Soylac and -jr-teaspoonful of olive oil rubbed well together. Pour on half-pint of boiling water and whisk well. A little natural sugar could be added if desired.

Remember all foods are medicine and all medicines are foods in' the province of nature. The cultivation of vegetables, which originate. from herbs, should be carried out as naturally as possible and free from chemical fertilization of the soil. C.C.A.








Results from Questionnaire response to the Children's Questionnaire has been good, but Jiere are still quite a number of parents who have not yet completed the forms. It would greatly assist if those parents would give this matter their attention and let me have them without delay. The information collected and classified from the questionnaires already received confirms the effectiveness-of a vegan diet in building up healthy children, for, with the exception of an occasional cold, no vegan child appears to "have had any serious illness. This is grand testimony indeed to the vegan way of living. There does, however, seem a tendency for some vegan children to be sensitive to a change of diet and to develop slight colds shortly after attending parties and- such like occasions where white bread and white flour confectionery are served. T o counteract this, I would suggest that children should be given green salad and fresh fruit salad only for their midday meal when they are going out to party teas. The fact of the children not having starch or protein at midday will, in all probability balance up the excess of starch taken when out. , On the other, hand, parents of life vegetarians state that, during the years their children have been on a vegan diet, their catarrh has completely disappeared. T w o other important facts arise out of the replies received. Firstly, vitality in all cases is at least equal to and generally much above the average, and, secondly, in build all the vegan children, with only one exception, were above the average after attaining the age of two years. Vegan children on the whole are taller and sturdier than the average child of the same age* living on an orthodox diet. I regret that I have not yet been able to reply to all the parents who have completed forms, but one of the Midland Group children will be writing birthday letters to each of the children regarding whom a questionnaire has been received. I hope this will help to create bonds of friendship between these young vegans.

Favourite Spring Meals for Toddlers ON RISING.—-Apple juice made from two apples cut in quarters and boiled in \ pint of water and strained, some Barbadoes Sugar being added to sweeten. BREAKFAST.—Wheat Muesli made from 1 dessertspoon each of Rolled Wheat Kernels and raisins soaked in water to cover overnight.' (If raisins unobtainable, cut up small two dried bananas into the wheat or a few prunes or dates). Add two grated raw apples, teaspoon each of lemon juice and nut cream, mixed with cup of hot water, teaspoon golden syrup, dessertspoon Froment: beat all together. Wholemeal bread and nut-butter with Betox.* LUNCH.—Salad of grated carrot, finely chopped lettuce and summer spinach (preferably just picked), sliced tomato, served with macedoine of vegetables in thick Nuto Cream Soup. Chopped dates, ground almonds and grated apple, with soya custard.



TEA.—Fruit juice drink. Blackcurrant puree and Gelozone jelly, or fresh fruit salad. Wholemeal bread, nut-butter, Betox* and tomato (or lettuce) sandwiches. Slice of fruitarian cake. • Betox is a vegan savoury preparation, similar to Marmite, but less expensive, and the name is intended to imply " Better than Ox." (Kindly address all Baby Bureau correspondence direct to " Braeside," Thornhill Road, Streetly, Staffs.—K.V.M.).

MESSAGES FROM OUR VICE-PRESIDENTS From Mrs. Elsie M. Neale, Bournemouth T o have been appointed a Vice-President of The Vegan Society is indeed a deep honour and carries with it a sacred responsibility. Becoming vegan is much- more than giving up dairy produce—it means taking up a more spiritual way of life, with tremendous possibilities for the advancement of the whole human race. It will be my earnest endeavour to forward the interests of the Society in Bournemouth and elsewhere with zest and sincerity, and I trust that each of us will be endowed with Power, Illumination and Speech to hold high the Torch of Veganism. From Mr. C. C. Abbott, Leigh, Lanes. The Government's short-sighted policy appears to be causing greater confusion in the minds of the people, and there is little wonder that Mr. Bevan must have more doctors to attend to those who are sick through wrong feeding and wrong living. An increasing number of people desire to know more about right living, and vegans must endeavour to. bring about a wider form of education that- will lead to doctors saying: " Patients are telling us more about health than we ever knew." From Mr. William V. Collier, Northamptonshire I write these few words to wish all success to The Vegan Society for 1948. We who support this movement can be assured that we are Members of something that is unique in history. W e are taking our stand literally for the fulfilment of the Law, T H O U SHALT N O T KILL. A s for myself, I have felt a great weight lifted from me ever since I became a vegan. I can look all animals in the face and realise that I am doing nothing to make their lot in life unhappy. God's Blessing, will be with all who are furthering this good work. From Dr. Cyril V. Pink, London, S.E. I have no doubt that Veganism will come, but, of course, it is a more distant goal than Vegetarianism; 'so it is well to understand how to work for the future. First must come vision—we see the goal, we appreciate a principle, and recognise it as Truth. Next, perhaps after long delay, the principle " works through " into daily life, and man must become vegan. H e would say that it comes naturally to him to be so, then he is indeed vegan and will never change. This is the natural sequence of events. From Mr. Dugald Semple, Ayrshire The success of our movement depends very much on stressing the moral and spiritual aspects of living without all animal foods. W e must emphasise that the use of flesh or dairy products as food is not only a physiological error but is a gross infliction of suffering on sentient creatures. Our cause, therefore, is bound to succeed if we are truly progressive food reformers, who wish not only to be. healthy and humane, but live holy lives. I can think of no better method of propaganda than showing that veganism means being better men and women.






Butter and Cheese A Life Member writes: " Two things my palate would like: margarine with the flavour of butter, and a vegan dish comparable to welsh rarebit. Can you help?" This request reminds one again how very much we are inclined to live by habit. Actions, thoughts, and even tastes are influenced by the habits of our childhood. W e have grown up to accept and appreciate certain standards in the matter of food, clothing arid behaviour. If, however, after due consideration we decide that such standards are incompatible with our idea of life, it becomes necessary to change our habits of daily life by conscious effort. All vegans have deliberately made such major changes, but subconsciously some still cling to the minor habits of palate and taste. Since it has been customary to use milk in beverages, many now seek an alternative vegetable product to replace cows' milk and some miss the flavour of cheese and eggs, with their coagulating qualities, in the preparation of savoury dishes, while others still long for' the taste of fresh farm butter and honey. It is possible-to buy small bottles of synthetic butter flavouring used to camouflage the taste of other fats used in cake making. A few drops of such flavouring blended with Kosher margarine or even Nutter, will produce a non-animal fat with the taste of butter; but would it be wholesome? Similarly, a preparation of mashed potato, soyolk, margarine and Yeastrel can be served on toast to resemble a rarebit, but it will be a mere concoction. Cakes made from wholemeal flours without eggs or baking powder are never the same as the light fluffy variety of our youth; but instead we come to enjoy more the biscuit-like crisp cakes. " One result of the acceptance of veganism is the breaking down of old habits and the building up of new ones based on an awareness of life as a whole. Animal life will not be used in any way for food, but plant life is entirely relied on for sustenance. These plant products should be used in a fresh and natural state whenever possible. T h e above paragraph should have accompanied that on Baking Powders in the previous issue, but was crowded out. In some measure it would have answered the following letter received since from one of our members : " W h y have light puddings and cakes? That's just it—we are still caught up by conventional ideas, tastes and methods, yes, even vegans. Surely such cakes should give way to fruit dishes and good buns, cakes and biscuits which need plenty of chewing and thus stimulate the glands of • the mouth to yield up their saliva which assists in the digestion of the starches. Delightful, nourishing, appetising puddings and small cakes and buns of many flavours and varieties can be made without yeast, eggs or baking powder. Since reading your article I have diligently experimented and produced several examples, all of which have been pronounced first class by those who have eaten them. Undoubtedly baking powder and'yeast are responsible for many digestive troubles unrecognised by the masses. W h o l e wheat flakes, barley flakes and oat flakes make good items of diet with fruit, and I recommend all vegan cooks to experiment and incorporate these items with wholewheat flour into their dishes more often." E.M.N., Dorset.



Honey According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, honey is " the nectar and saccharine exudations of plants, gathered, modified and stored in combs by the honey-bees." It is composed of albumen, fruit sugar, grape, sugar, gum, pollen, digested fat and formic acid. Newly gathered nectar contains much water and would readily ferment, but the bees remove the excess moisture by fanning when preparing it for storage. The nectar is collected by the worker bees through the proboscis and conveyed to the hive in the honey stomach, where certain chemical changes occur. There it is regurgitated and delivered lo younger bees, to be treated with glandular secretions containing formic acid which acts as a preservative. It is then deposited in the combs and allowed to evaporate and ripen before being sealed over by two thin layers of wax with an air space in between. Thus the sweet nectar of numerous flowers is gathered, predigested and preserved in storage as sustenance for the young bees of the future. It was certainly never intended by nature as a human food.

Cranberries Quite recently, when enjoying some fresh cranberry tart, we inquired how the fruit had been preserved. It was interesting to learn that these uncommon little berries keep very well indeed, like apples, from autumn till spring just laid on a tray in a cool place, without losing their vitamin value. They grow best in fen country where the low-lying plants are covered with water for part of the year. The brilliant red berries are rather acid, but quite rich in vitamins A, B and C. A good way to serve them is to make a syrup with hot water and brown sugar and over the cranberries, crush a little with a fork and allow to stand an hour or two. The addition of some grated fresh apple just before required increases the quantity, and, served with milled nuts or nut cream or Froment, it is a delicious sweet.

Citrus Fruits Many people think that we should learn to rely only on the foods grown in our native land, while others greatly enjoy the sweet and luscious fruits from overseas. Lemons, oranges and grapefruit are in plentiful supply just at present and even limes are available in some districts. It is quite easy to. preserve for many months any of the citrus fruits, either in clean, dry sand or in cold water. In the latter method, some of the essential oil passes out of the skin and becomes unusable, but the juice remains fresh so long as the fruit is covered with the water. It has been found that the juice of Seville oranges is a good .dressing for salads, while the rinds, if scalded with hot water, make a delicious and tonic spring drink, especially if sweetened with Rose Hip Syrup.

Nettles Among the first fresh green herbs of the field and hedgerow are the nettles, followed very soon afterwards by mercury, or Good King Henry, as it is sometimes called. Either of these will make an unusual and beneficial dish if prepared like spinach. Wearing gloves, gather plentifully of the young nettle heads, wash well and press into a pan. Dissolve a tablespoonful of Suenut and a teaspoonful of Vesop in a cup of hot water, pour it, over the . greens and cook quickly with the lid on for five or ten minutes. Drain well and serve hot' as a vegetable. The liquid makes a delicious drink or, if a soup is required, thicken with fine oatmeal.







T H A V E replied direct to several enquiries as to my meaning in -*- the quotation from my letter in the previous issue of "The Vegan." The last part of the sentence, which was most vital, did not appear owing to a printer's cut. Please rest assured, I do think that a high living population in the soil is the ideal, and for that reason I feel that it is stupid to kill or to retard that population by the contact of artificials. The interest at the moment, as gathered from correspondence, is centred upon Compost and Proteins. Compost-making also forms the chief topic in the many excellent articles, in the Journals of the Soil Association for last year. Methods of making compost are legion and most of these involve the turning of heaps, one or more times, with groans about the cost and the labour and the energy required. So it is interesting to find that there are some who do not "turn" and that experiments in "no turning" are in progress. Compost has been made for over thirty years without any turning of heaps and also without the use of any special activators. The result, as shown by the produce and by the general health maintained by the consumers of that produce, has been highly satisfactory. These experiments will be watched with interest. The chief criticism is likely to be the time factor, for man is always in a hurry, whereas the compost heap, if left alone, will mature in Nature's own good time and not before. This will be found to be quite effective and is recommended, provided there is room in the garden for several heaps in their varying stages. In this connection, of speed and hurry, a criticism is to be noted of the modern methods of grain- and grass-drying by artificial heat, for it has been stated that the speeded product lacks "that something" which is the outcome of natural, maturity. So much for speedy methods; Nature is slow and simple, so perhaps we should simply hasten slowly too. It has been suggested that the real activator in some of the extracts now being used in compost-making is merely honey or sugar, and no doubt many moulds and the like do thrive and divide rapidly on sweetened preparations. Here, therefore, is a line of research for someone, such as a'shopkeeper, who may have some spoiled sugar or treacle, unusable as food, with which to make some experiments. Bruce Litten quotes from the late Sir Albert Howard: " Protein, the complex components of which are required by all living things for growth and repair, is the substance most easily damaged by artificial fertilisers, which in turn damages those who eat the faulty growth," and goes on to observe: " This is an especially serious matter for vegans, who consume no animal protein. The animals are usually fed on the better part of cereals, and are good quality protein as such. Fortunately, we know that plants grown on compost' are free of disease and pests, and that the protein is correctly formed." .



The Ministry of Agriculture Newsletter for January 6th deals yyith the means of replacing the rarer animal steaks by vegetable steaks, that is, by vegetable proteins. A surprising number of our common vegetables contain protein in not negligible quantity, and this probably explains why quite a number of people, and a still larger number of animals, have been able to live quite well on the products of a healthy soil, without bothering as to whether they were getting enough protein or not. Peas and beans axe our chief source of protein: they are useful too when growing in the garden, for their excretion of nitrogen, captured from the air by the symbiotic bacteria in the roots, which , makes the cultivation of such vegetables good companions and good pioneers for other crops. They are, undoubtedly, a great friend of the gardener, and it must be left to the dietitian or the individual to decide whether they are as great a friend if eaten in any quantity without the compensation of strenuous work or play by which to work off the protein. Life, for the majority of people, is not at all strenuous in this sense. Even the vegan gardener, experimenting with " no digging," "no turning of compost," and "no watering," can have quite a leisurely life; it need not be all hard work and drudgery, but a real joy. There is something in this "no digging," for, with the ground thus consolidated, no watering is necessary and excellent results are being reported, even from heavy soils. After all, Nature does not turn the soil upside down once or twice a year; in fact, not at all as the plough or spade does it, unless by an occasional earthquake, and it is some time since we had an effective one in this country. Personal experience and experiments have been- restricted to a light soil, where for many years the chief tool has been a large-size Dutch hoe. Noticing a T-shaped handle on Dutch hoes in use in the forestry nurseries in' Scotland, various handles have been tried, and there has evolved a tool which consists of a six-inch (the largest procurable) Dutch hoe, with a longish 1^-inch pole with a spade handle spliced to the top. This tool has weight and length, the handle is comfortable to use, and with it a good twist can be given when required; it has been found to be the one all-purpose implement for this light alluvial soil. If digging is attempted with it, the shaft snaps at the point where it tapers into the blade, and therefore digging is not encouraged. The undug, consolidated soil certainly brings up the moisture from below, and so the water-can is very little used. [Vegans can assist one another greatly by an interchange of methods, ideas, experiments and results. Please submit these direct to Mr. Martin at " Bishop's Stortford, Herts. Mr. Martin would- also appreciate information as to where compostgrown seeds and plants can be obtained, as many enquiries for these are being received.]





lines, 4 / - : extra lines. 1 / 6 ear, 20% allowed on-four consecutive issues.)

B A T H . — L a d y , away most of time, would like another to share small furnished flat. Garden, fruit trees, etc.—Box B42, The Vegan Society. BROMLEY, KENT.—Accommodation for guest, short visits only. Half hour London. Part board, vegetarian or vegan meals.—Mrs. Muriel Drake, . RAVensbourne 2809. L E A R N T O SPEAK A N D WRITE.—Lesson by visit or correspondence ( 5 / - ) . Classes (1/6).—Dorothy Matthews, B.A., London, N . W . 3 . PRImrose 5686. N A T U R E C U R E . — A .Training College and Clinic for necessitous patients is being established in' London, and donations for this vital work will be gratefully acknowledged by the Secretary, British Naturopathic Association-College Foundation, Flat 23, 140 Park Lane, W . l . N E W Q U A Y , Cornwall.—Lady with acres land requires lady working partner or couple, small capital.—Box A41, The Vegan Society. P A I G N T O N , overlooking the beautiful Goodrington Bay.—Lady offers a large top room furnished, large cupboards. Own gas-fire, ring and meter. Rest spring bed, and every convenience, hot water morning and evening. Suitable for non-smoking vegan or vegetarian lady. N o service, but use of kitchen if desired.—Write to L. Whitehead, Gardens, Paignton, S. Devon. P R I N T I N G . — O n non-animal-sized papers.—Write for quotations and free samples, D. Kinver, 33 London, W.14. SIMPLE LIVER, elderly, living alone, offers partnership, either sex, growing vegetables, fruit; suit pensioner.—Albert Howard, Alfriston, Sussex. " V E G A N RECIPES."—By Mrs. Fay K. Henderson. Appetising and Nutritious Fare without animal or dairy products. Revised Edition, price 2 / 8 , ready soon, from Rydal Lodge, Ambleside, Westmorland. SINGLE L A D Y , Vegan, desires unfurnished or partly furnished room, use of kitchen, bath, etc. Moderate terms, please. Manchester district.— Box S.43, T h e Vegan Society. O L D - F A S H I O N E D , Motherly Nannie wanted for two little boys aged '3$ .years. Capable of taking full charge. A little light housework. Daily help.—Apply Mrs. Abbott, Lingards, Astley, Manchester. T Y P E W R I T E R , Standard Model, urgently required by The Vegan Society. Please advise Secretary of condition, price, etc. ESTABLISHMENTS




AMBLESIDE.—English Lakes. R Y D A L LODGE is now open as a V E G A N G U E S T CENTRE. A comfortable and convenient-house with a large garden,' delightfully situated on the River Rothay in the heart of lovely Lakeland. Tel. Ambleside 208. CAMBRIDGE.—Colonic irrigation, massage, infra-red radiant heat, diets, etc. —Mrs. E. Jepp (late Champneys), 19B Victoria Street. Tel. 2867. HAMPSHIRE.—Small Residential Nursery opening in May. Expert care in family atmosphere. Own orchard and vegetables.—Mrs. Casewell, Horseshoe Lodge, Warsash.



LAKE DISTRICT.—Beck Allans and Rothay Bank, Grasmere. . Attractive guest houses for strenuous or restful holidays.—Write: Isabel James. LIGHTBECK Vegetarian Guest House, Underbarrow, Kendal, is happy to offer warmth, comforts and delights of home with the added interests of lovely books, charming country and new friends. Children welcome. Phone Kendal 578. PENARTH.—" Vegetarian Home," Rectory Road. Rest, change, relaxation. Ideal situation. Pleasant holiday resort, overlooking sea. Attractive, generous catering. Send for new Brochure. SURREY HILLS.—Vegetarian Country Club, 3 acres 700 ft. up. Holidays or short visits. All comforts. NO EXTRAS. Moderate.—Upwood House, Caterham. MAKE YOUR HOLIDAY a " health insurance " by spending it in beautiful surroundings, fed on a well-balanced diet, consisting largely of fruit and vegetables, all compost-grown. All bread, cakes and biscuits home-made with 100 per cent, wholewheat compost-grown. Additional attractions of holidays at Uplands are nearby places of interest—Cheddar, Weston-superMare, Wells, etc. Stamp for brochure to Amy Little, Uplands Vegetarian and Vegan Food Reform Guest House, Winscombe, Somerset. Tel. 2257. LAKE DISTRICT —" Waterfoot" Guest House, Ullswater, overlooking lake. Ordinary,, vegetarian and vegan diets. Brochure Mrs. Gladys Frost. SCOTLAND.—West Highland Coast. Vegans welcomed in private house in grand situation overlooking sea-loch. Donald and Muriel Crabb, Achaglachgach, West Loch, Tarbert, Argyll. ST. CATHERINE'S SCHOOL, Almondsbury, Nr. Bristol.—Progressive co-educational boarding school for children of all ages, specialising in music, dancing, crafts, etc., in addition to usual academic subjects. 400 ft. up, overlooking Channel and Welsh Hills. Own produce. Vegans catered for. SOUTH DOWNS.—Vegans welcomed on small fruit farm. produce.—Castelmer, Kingston, Lewes. Tel. 524.


BOURNEMOUTH The all-the-year-round health resort

MERRYLANDS Where a small number of Vegans, Vegetarians, and those seeking the true and peaceful ways of life are welcomed. Most bracing part of Bournemouth; twopenny 'bus ride to Square, beach, Canford Cliffs and Poole. Secluded garden with fruit and vegetables grown by clean methods. Hot and cold basins and electric fires all rooms. Peaceful atmosphere, spacious rooms, excellent beds. N o smoking. Write: Mrs. Elsie Neale, Merrylands, Newton Crescent, Parkstone, Dorset. . T e l . : PARXSTONB





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N e w i n n a m e ) v only,. N E O R A N is t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f m a n y y e a r s ' r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f g a r l i c as a p r e v e n t i v e a n d d e s t r o y e r of infection, both external and internal. Of vegetable origin, N E O R A N c o n t a i n s g a r l i c , t h e a c t i v e p r i n c i p l e o f w h i c h is a l l i c i n , w h i c h h a s u n i q u e p r o p e r t i e s as a n a d j u n c t t o t h e n a t u r a l d e f e n s i v e powers of the body. N E O R A N has g i v e n n o t a b l e r e s u l t s i n s u c h v a r i e d c o n d i t i o n s as g a s t r i t i s , i n f l u e n z a , r h e u m a t i s m a n d c a t a r r h , a n d t h e r e is e v e r y i n d i c a t i o n t h a t i t w i l l p r o v e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e ' v a l u e i n a w i d e range o f disorders. A s k a t y o u r H e a l t h F o o d S t o r e for i n f o r m a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e a b o u t . N E O R A N ; or in case o f d i f f i c u l t y w r i t e t o t h e sole m a n u f a c t u r e r s :

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Picture of Happiness M a y i t t o o n b e seen in EVERY home !

I t d o e s y o u g o o d t o see t h a t " F R U - G R A I N S - f o r - b r e a k f a s t " s m i l e o n t h e i r faces. T h e y ' r e longing for the day w h e n they c a n enjoy this f r u i t - s w e e t , c r u n c h y - c r i s p breakfast treat every morning. W h e n you do g e t a tin save it for t h e m . For t h e r e ' s all t h e h e a l t h o f f r u i t i n F R U - C R A I N S , all t h e f r u i t ' s n a t u r a l sugar t o t e m p t t h e i r a p p e t i t e s a n d give t h e m e n e r g y . Stocked by Health Food Stores, and N o a d d e d s u g a r is necessary. many Hi&h • Class Grocers, but demand MAPLETON'S generally exceeds suttly!

FRU-GRAINS (Formerly Mapleton's



Food Co. L t d . <D«pt. V.J.), Liverpool, 19.



your meals w i t h V E S O P E X T R A C T OF P U R E VEGETABLE ORIGIN. It makes your Soups, Vegetables, Gravies, etc., most palatable. Y o u c a n o b t a i n a savoury hot drink with VESOP. V e g e t a r i a n s a n d V e g a n s e v e r y w h e r e , ask y o u r H e a l t h F o o d S t o r e for V E S O P . 1/6



(Recipe Book on request) 498

VESOP PRODUCTS LTD. Hornsey Road, London, N . I 9 Telephone: A R C h w a y 2 4 5 7

Printed by H. H. GIEAVES, LTD., 106/10, Lordship Lane, London, S.E.22.

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