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Vol. 21

No. 3


This OUR





CONTENTS Looking Back—and Forwards


T h i r t y Years A f t e r


Second G e n e r a t i o n V e g a n i s m Ecological Food G r o w i n g



A. de J .


Henderson Eva

T h i r t v Years O n ALSO





Spreading the Message










to relieve many Rheumatic conditions...


the vegetable treatment for

rheumatism and kindred ailments

Many unfortunate people suffer from a group of conditions associated with pain in the joints, muscles and tissues—commonly called Rheumatism, and frequently ascribed to an over-acid state. Vegetex is c o m p o u n d e d from selected vegetables and herbs in which the alkali content will treat the system as a whole, and by neutralising body acids, help keep painful rheumatic symptoms at bay. To obtain the maximum benefit from Vegetex, it should be taken regularly, as a routine.

Enjoy life to the full with

MODERN HEALTH PRODUCTS Modern Health Products Ltd., Davis Road, Chessington, Surrey.


Advocates living on the products of the plant kingdom to the exclusion of all food and other commodities derived wholly or in part from animals. Its members base their lives on the ethic of Reverence for Life and seek to free themselves from all forms of cruelty and exploitation. They are aware of man's responsibilities to his environment and seek to promote the proper use of the resources of the earth. President: Dr. Frey Ellis Deputy President: Mr. J. Sanderson Vice-Presidents: Mrs. E. Batt, Mrs. S. Coles, Mr. J. Dinshah, Mrs. M. Henderson, Dr. C. Nimmo, Miss W. Simmons, Miss M. Simmons, Mrs. E. Shrigley. Treasurer: Mrs. Linda Emptage, Kent.


Librarian: Mr. W. Wright, Hatton House, Church Lane, Cheshunt, Herts. Literature Secretary: Mrs. V. Farrell, Golden Lane, London EC1. Council: Mrs. E. Batt, Mrs. S. Coles, Dr. F. Ellis, Mr. J. Sanderson, Mrs. G. Smith, Mrs. T. Wade, Mr. W. Wright. Secretary: Mrs. K. J annaway,

Leatherhead, Surrey.

Subscriptions: ÂŁ1.25 yearly, in January. 63p for each additional member at the same address and sharing the Journal. 63p for pensioners, juniors, and full-time students. THE VEGAN Quarterly Journal. 55p per annum. Single copies 13p post free. FREE TO MEMBERS. Editors: J. Sanderson & K. Jannaway. Scientific Adviser: Dr. F.Ellis. Distribution Secretary: Linda Emptage, Ramsgate, Kent.

-The Editorial Board does not necessarily agree with opinions expressed by contributors to this magazine, or endorse advertisements. Publication Dates: March 21st, June 21st, September 21st, December 21st. Copy Dates: 1st of preceding months.

LOOKING BACK - AND FORWARDS. Editorial by Jack Sanderson. "We can see quite plainly that our present civilisation is built on the exploitation of animals, just as past civilisations were built on the exploitation of slaves, and we believe the spiritual destiny of man is such that in time he will view with abhorrence the idea that men once fed on the products of animals' bodies." The above words appeared in November 1944 in the first issue of "The Vegan News", a four-page duplicated sheet ( price 2d, post free 3d ). The first five issues (containing 50 pages in a l l ) were produced by Donald Watson - the : first great pioneer server of the Vegan Society - who served as Editor, Secretary, Treasurer ( and Auditor 1 ) during the first year. The number of subscribers rose from thirty for No. 1 to over five hundred for No. 5, by which issue letters were pouring in at a rate of 150 a week. As Donald was also Secretary of the flourishing Leicester Vegetarian Society which received the May Meetings in 1945, one can guess how hectic life must have been for him during this period. Fortunately the Vegan Society became democratically constituted at the first Annual General Meeting on December 15th,1945 held at the Attic Club, High Holborn, London, and the work was shared around. We are happy that Donald has been able to contribute to this issue, 30 years later. His article, full of mature wisdom, is the authentic voice of veganism, breathing the spirit of true compassion that is the key to the solution of the world's problems. No. 1 issue contained the sentence, " As this first issue of our periodical had to be named, I have used the title "The Vegan News." Should we adopt this our diet will soon become known as a'VEGAN'tiiet, and we should aspire to the ranks of "VEGANS". Members suggestions will be welcomed." "Non-dairy" and "non-lacto" were rejected as too negative. 'Vegetarian" and"Fruitarian" were already associated with societies that allowed the "fruits" of cows and fowls. Amongst the names sent in were "neo-vegetarian !!„ "Vitan", 'Benevore'! 'Sanivore',' "Dairylea", "Allvega" and"Beau'mangeur". I wonder what names today's generation would suggest. Most members believe that the Society chose wisely as the word "Vegan" is short and suggests vegetarian. It has appeared in scientific and popular literature, been heard repeatedly on the radio and television and has now become part of the language. It appears in various dictionaries Including the Webster's International. i Before the first Annual Meeting , a temporary committee discussed the aims of the movement. It was decided that the Society should work for the abolition not only of foods from animals but of commodities from animals too, especially those originating from slaughterhouses and a Vegan Trade list was planned. The issuing of such lists has been one of the most useful functions of the Society. Many members have been helpful with their preparation but most of the work has been done by a few members who have shown monumental patience and ingenuity in coping with the evasions of manufacturers. A great debt is owed to Muriel Drake (now Henderson), Christina Harvey and especially Eva 3att. for their pioneer work in this exacting field. 2

Nor must we forget those manufacturers and producers of the goods, especially the wholly vegan firm Plantmilk Ltd, for they have had a constant battle against: regulations, restrictions, and difficulties,particularly when introducing new products. Let us use and introduce their goods whenever we can. Let us also remember those who sell and prepare and serve vegan foods, in shops, restaurants, guest houses and homes. It should be remembered that there have been few more difficult years in this century than the end of the war period, 1939-45 with its strict rationing, general shortage of food and most other goods, and lack of variety. Indeed a common criticism then was "The time is not ripe for reform". To which Donald replied " Can any time ever be ripe for any reform unless it is ripened by human determination ?" Evolution can be retrogressive as well as progressive; there always seems to be a strong gravitation the wrong way unless existing standards are guarded and

new visions honoured. During the thirty years over 100 issues of the "Vegan" have been distributed to members in many countries of every continent, serving as a forum for the exchange of views and the passing on of information and the gradual development of veganism as a philosophy of life. It has particularly served as a link for those who.because of location or other circumstances,are isolated from other vegans. In addition thousands of recipe sheets-(and now a book) trade lists and leaflets have been distributed and our wonderful secretaries have replied to myriads of letters . Lectures have been given in various parts of the United Kingdom and at International Conferences, both scientific and vegetarian, and large audiences have been reached through T. V. and radio. After passing through some very tight situations in earlier days the Society now has a firmer financial basis and hopes to be able to supply more literature to fill a variety of needs in the near future. The immediate problem we have to solve in the next few years is to have ready a team of well informed speakers who can supply a need anywhere it may arise. A longer term problem is how to set up demonstration centres where food . can be grown by veganic methods and where trainees may learn and practise the principles; and also larger commercial units are needed where such food can be grown and from where it can be distributed, to those that want it. The adoption of veganism would solve one of the world's major problems - the food problemand vegans cannot help observing that the veiy logic of the situation and sheer necessity are gradually turning the thoughts of world leaders veganwards. Losing Ground by Friends of the Earth and obtainable from them at 9 Poland St. London W1 for 50p The authors are to be complimented on this most useful analysis of the food prospects in this country. It contains many useful facts and tables, graphs and charts. It is a'muat'for all who wish to be able to present facts in support of the vegan solution to the food problems of the world.


THIRTY YEARS AFTER As one who had much to do with the formation of the Vegan Society I have been asked to subscribe some notes for this issue celebrating three decades of the movements existence. I feel privileged to do so, but of course I cannot speak on behalf of the other founder members, nor are all my views necessarily those of the Society's officers today. Thirty years is long enough for one to assess how the Vegan idea has worked itself out in the rough and tumble of life. Our original precepts were simple. We sought to show that man need not be dependent upon animals, and that commercial pressures made the use of animals inevitably cruel. We believed that Spencer was right when he said that man's treatment of animals and of himself bear a constant relationship, so that we too must suffer from the exploitation. We also believed that man's natural food should consist of selecttions from the plant kingdom, properly grown and consumed as near as possible in their natural form. Has physiological need or further consideration- led us to depart from the simplicity of this philosophy ? Would a system of benevolent symbiotic association, where it might be arranged, be a higher ethic for us to follow than non-interference ? It would be surprising in so fundamental an opposition to orthodox living, if, after thirty years , some had not departed from their rigid adherence to principle while others had remained faithful irrespective of all other considerations. Viewing the London based scene from my home three hundred miles north I feel that many will wish to join with me in thanking those who have developed the movement into one of international repute. Special gratitude is due to those who have performed ,year in and year out, the unglamorous task of making thousands of enquiries to check the contents of products, and to those who have shared the technically difficult job of producing and marketing a substitute for animals' milk. Stimulated by increasing demand commercial firms with their great financial resources may improve the quality and extend the range of plant milks, but this cannot detract from the honour due to pioneers. Their work has already'made it easier for the rest of us to meet the problems of humane living. Veganism today remains as dynamic an idea as it was when introduced. Its implications are vitally linked to ethics, health, economics, aesthetics, agriculture, ecology and hygiene; and the case for it has been strengthened by the obscene introduction of factory farming and also by the discovery that the cholesterol in dairy produce and eggs might be contributing Significantly to the increased incidence of coronary thrombosis and other diseases. Pressure of increasing world population has made it immoral to take protein foods from underdeveloped countries where people are starving and feed them to animals in more . affluent countries, where greedy people are killing themselves through over nourishment. The Vegan and Vegetarian movements alone seem to be condemn4

tng this outrage, and of the two the Vegan movement is la a stronger position to criticise. The health problems suffered by some early vegans showed us that foil owing man's . dependence on animal foods for many centuries not everyone could manage without taking vitamin B12. It was a difficulty that could not have been anticipated in 1944, for at that time the vitamin was unknown and Its absence was not made apparent for several years. Those who suffered could hardly have done so for a greater cause for following the vegan experience the discovery of this vltamiifcnd its cheap manufacture could well prove to be one of the greatest discoveries in history, saving millions of lives In decades ahead when, If present population trends continue, man's food must come more and more directly from plants. A further health problem which some early vegans had - and which some may still have - was a circulatory one caused by the attempt to eliminate all common salt from from their diet. An article by W. S.J ames, M. Sc., In the "Vegan News" No. 3 (May, 1945) gave five reasons why we need common salt in our diet, one being its vital role In muscular action. The inclusion of a normal amount of sea-salt In our diet brought almost magical cures. It would be unfortunate if vegan diet Is still being blamed for this condition when the cure some cases i. s so simple and vegan principles are not involved. The greatest problem which strict vegan practice presents to some of us today Is the social one, especially to those of us In tfo vegetarian movement who seek through our contacts to persuade others to take the 'first step'. We choose to sacrifice some of our personal consistency for this other related cause. We may be wrong. It is a point that can be argued. In some cases a yeilding of principle has to be made to make school or university feeding possible, or to give children . their right to a full acquaintance with more orthodox friends, or to meet the demands of landladies or marriage partners. Vegan practice is much easier for some than others. Any broad -minded moralist must concede that personal consistency is but one of the many factors involved. Of course, the movement will always need those who through great strength of character or favoured position can maintain their strict witness. It should however, I think, be accepted that In feeding, slight depart ures from strict vegan practice are not so serious as departures from vegetarian practice, for while eating any meat Involves killing an animal this is not so In the case of small quantities of dairy produce or eggs. A further debatlngpoint that cannot be avoided is that many vegan foods today are grown with the help of dried blood and bone meal, and the grower's methods of pest control may leave much to be desired. The sincere vegan cannot help all this; it is certainly not an argument against veganlsm, but one to illustrate the problems facing those who think that veganism, or any other high ideal, Is easy to achieve. Veganism today offers much towards the cause of human regeneration and animal emancipation, but It still Involves some physical risk If the conditions


are not right. The more restricted the dieti the more careful we must be to see that everything necessary is there. In a vegan world there would be abun * dance and variety and no necessary food factors would be missing for anyone, but that is a long way off. In the meantime there must be much swimming against the tide of this savage world, and while this can produce great strength of character in some cases> it can reduce others , equally sincere and convinced, to neurotics, and these are no good to any movement. Each must decide . how he or she can best fight and serve the general cause. Perhaps we do best if we try to understand personal difficulties and weaknesses - not least our own rather than notch up our asceticism in the fatal 'holier than thou' attitude. Fully humane living is not possible for any of us in this imperfect world, but by trying to follow the ideals and advice of the Vegan Society we can how travel further along the road than anyone has ever done before, and that is no mean achievement. Donald Watson - Founder-member and First Secretary of the Vegan Society. NEWS OF MEMBERS Death of Nellie Howard The eldest resident of the Cragside Vegetarian Retirement Home in Yorkshire is greatly missed by her friends there; many other vegetarians were sorry to hear of her death on 14th May 1974 at the age of 92. She was one of the three ladies who came to Cragside when it opened in November 1969. Her faculties were unimpaired ; she enjoyed fine sewing, writing letters,.reading, listening to the radio and conversing with us all. She had a shrewd wit and although not talkative, often put in a wise or critical word to amuse us at the dinner table.

She was a life-vegetarian and a vegan of long standing.

She had

very firm opinions, wide knowledge and unshakeable convictions. One day last May a team of B. B. C. television photographers had come to Cragside in preparation for a programme on vegetarian cooking. That same evening Miss Howard fell in the house and broke her hip, so, to her and <?ur sincere regret, she had to be taken to hospital where the operation and unac*customed medical attention proved too much for her frail frame. She died in the early morning a fortnight later, the very day strangely enough, on which the B. B. C. chose to present their programme, in which Miss Howard was portrayed very effectively. One picture of her alone was an excellent portrait and her voice was heard stating with pride that she had been vegetarian all her life. We knew her as a devoted vegan and we had always been pleased to provide for her, meals which supported her fidelity to a compassionate non-animal diet. Hilda Nucon.


(Secretary of Cragside)

Second Generation Veganism It is natural for parents to be concerned for the wellbeing of their children, and there may well be doubts as to the possibility of bringing up children healthily on an unorthodox diet in the minds of some who are ready on the strength of their own convictions to adopt such a diet themselves. I am no expert on health or diet and in my opinion health is dependent on much more than diet alone, but it may help to reassure any wouldbe vegan parents to know that, although we are not without our problems, and I cannot say we never ail anything, we appear as a family to be at least as healthy as our orthodox friends and neighbours. I have been a vegan for thirty years, after having been brought up to the age of eleven on an orthodox diet. My husband, a vegetarian from birth, . has been vegan for eighteen years, and our two boys aged ten and three have been vegan from birth. Our diet is one of fresh and dried fruits, nuts, wholemeal bread, cereals, pulses and raw and cooked vegetables with a little Plamil or Granogen. My diet remained the same during pregnancy (except for the first three months when I was able to eat very little of any food)and during lactation, with probably a greater proportion of citrus fruits. Both children were breast-fed, the first for six a!nd the second for ten months; both were weaned onto soya milk - the first on to Velactin and the second on to Plamil - and were introduced from the age of four to six months to sieved fresh and dried fruit and wholemeal cereal, then wholemeal rusks and later nutcream, soya beans, wholemeal bread, and raw and cooked vegetables. I used advice in "Having a Baby Easily" by Margaret Brady and "Aids to a Vegan Diet for Children" by Kathleen Mayo as a guide, but introduced solids more slowly. No vitamin supplements were given, but perhaps I would have been well advised to give vitamin D. Both children were small at birth - 65 lbs and lbs (the second was three weeks premature)but gained weight well and although both are still small in height, the older one, particularly, is extremely well built. (My husband is exceptionally tall, but I and three grandparents are small). Their teeth which came through a little earlier than average, though not without difficulties at times, appear to be strong and the older one has a clear record with the school dentist. Their good skin is often admired. In walking and talking they were about average - the older one the more forward - and both are energetic, adventurous and self-confident.


They have been told from an early age that we are vegetarians and why (I do not often use the word 'vegan' as it does not mean anything to the 'man in the street', and I have found that many people expect a vegetarian to abstain from dairy produce as well as meat and fish)and they have quickly realised that most other people are not. One of my main aims is to help them to cope with the situation of being 'different', to let it interfere as little as possible with their everyday activities and let them know that they are In good company. I encourage them to eat wholesome food, but try to help them to give as little concern to it as possible other than to enjoy it and to give thanks, happy in the thought that it has caused no suffering. The older child finds it difficult to understand why all 'nice.kind people' are not vegetarian, but I try to bring up both children to be tolerant, to see the good in others and not the shortcomings, and to know that veganism is not an end in itself, but only one small step towards a life of peace and harmony. Margaret Ball.

A VEGAN WEDDING John David Wood and Dilys Vine Cluer, both members of the Vegan Society, met last year at a Young Vegetarian gathering, and on 3rd August they were married at the Friends' Meeting House, Kingston-upon-Thames. John is comparatively new to veganism, while Dilys has not had dairy produce since the age of fifteen months. Both, however, insisted that the reception should be both vegan and food reform. This presented a problem; how to make a white cake without icing sugar. Dilys1 parents conferred and thought hard and her father invented a wonderful sugarless marzipan. This was coated with Mapleton's Creamed Coconut, with piped and moulded decoration. The resulting two-tiered cake, studded with horseshoes and cupids, was quite a success. The cake itself contained Barbados sugar, the recipe being that of the 21st birthday cake of the Vegan Society. ' The buffet, for over sixty guests, was provided by Miss Jean Norris, Salon .Culinaire Gold Medallist and comprised an assortment of savouries, rolls and salads. The health of the couple was drunk in pure fruit juices. At the moment, John is Editor of the Youth Section page of "The Vegetarian" and Dilys is Chairman of the Youth Section. They are setting up home near Chesterfield, both having teaching posts in the area. Mabel Cluer.


THIRTY YEARS ON (With apologies to the Public School Song.) Thirty year's young, but each year's growing shorter Time flashes by as we struggle and strive Aware of life's evils, opposing the slaughter Each day must bear witness that we are alive. Today we're surrounded with mass'exploitation, Belief in the adage that might must be right, Cowtel and sweat box, battery babies Raised in the dark for the gourmets delight. Roast sucking piglet, goose liver pate Calves kept in boxes - the veal muBt be white,

Sore footed chicken, deformed and dejected, Egg-laying robots where life is all night. But vegans believe in a life without killing, Butcher no babies, cause no creature pain, No exploitation if only we're willing, Enjoying our vegetables, fruits, nuts and graini Thirty year's young and each day growing stronger Gone are the doubts which beset us before Fears for the future now plague us no longer We're digging for victory as never before. Care of the soil our first cosideration This is our lifeline, our main source of wealth, Sensibly cultured - fine food for the nation Direct and unprocessed - the best for good health. Food which is simple, first hand , nutritious, From garden, allotment or just window box, Grown in good compost (no blood or guts needed ! ) Vegans get busy and pull up your socks ! Sportsmen and doctors, artists and salesmen, Are tending their gardens with vigour and vim And joining the vegans, avoiding what ails men; For good health, a clear head and figure that's trim 2 Thirty year's on and we're not growing younger Much to be done and no counting the cost. Who then is with us ? Who'll work for the New World ? Delay may be fatal, the chance may be lost. For if we grow most of the food that we live on We can live on the food that we grow, This is the goal for which many have striven, Heaven could then blossom on earth here below. 9

Spreading the Message


As a member of the Vegan Society and a practising vegan since the Spring of 1945, a brief outline of some of my experiences during the intervening years may serveiinsome small way to help those concerned to spread the way of life today. I became a lacto-vegetarian in 1931 and when I first heard at the end of 1944 that the Vegan Society had been formed I was so impressed with the principles that I decided to begin making the change to this;- way of life immediately. I decided to take about six months in the process for I felt that as a vegan diet would mean the complete elimination of all animal products ,. it might be more helpful to the metabolism of the body to make a gradual change rather than deprive it suddenly of all the dairy products to which it had been accustomed. The result was that I scarcely noticed the change-over in aphysical sense, but by the time I was completely vegan, I was aware of a definite sense of uplift in every aspect of my consciousness. It was a truly wonderful feeling. In 1947 began my next big experience as a vegan - I opened a guest house in a suburb of London. For several years I had five or six vegetarian guests at a time who required partial board on a semi-permanent basis. I supplied lacto-vegetarian food, for veganism as a movement was in its infancy, and I was desirous of attracting the unconverted as well as those who were in sympathy with veganism. I planned to prove , not by any blunt approach but just by being myself that it was possible to lead a normal life as a practising vegan. Naturally I was asked all manner of questions, and I was drawn . into innumerable discussions with the result that as the time came to leave each one realised that veganism was no fad and was impressed with the ease with which this way of life was possible. It certainly set them all thinking, and some were determined at least to give veganism a trial. When one is ready the call will come inevitably from within one's own being. A iew year's after my guest house experience, whilst living in another suburb of London, through inner conviction, I knew that I must start a health food business, but I was imable to see how ! I was certain I could be heart and soul in such a venture, especially as it would give me a wonderful opportunity to explain veganism to anyone prepared to listen. Moreover I would be able to stock a good selection of pre-eminently vegan foods which more often than not, are not obtainable at health stores. In spite of my apprehension,to my great joy, I was able to carry out my project, and within two months, beginning in a very small way, I was running a health food business. Without doubt this was the most satisfying experience of my life, for during the following twelve years I was to meet so many interesting people amongst my innumerable customers. When time allowed, I would approach ; prospective vegans as well as those who were merely curious about something which was to them a completely new way of life. I would first establish which


aspect of veganism interested them most and then concentrate on that in the time available. A good proportion of the people I talked with were impressed with the objects of veganism, and a number decided to work towards it gradually. Others who . were ready to take the plunge more quickly said that they would like to join the Society and adopt the diet with a fairly rapid change-over. A few (usually long standing vegetarians ) felt able to make the change almost immediately. I was delighted when one of my customers who had made the decision almost overnight became a dedicated vegan right away and later became Secretary of the Society. Muriel Henderson. AND TODAY When I accepted an invitation from the Edinburgh Vegetarian Society to speak on veganism I looked forward with enthusiasm to my fourth stay in that City. This time my hosts were to be Dr John and Mrs Catherine Muir who live on Blackford Hill only five minutes walk from the top where the Royal Observatory stands. I felt that the visit was well worth while. The lecture was well attended and many leaflets were distributed among my listeners who bought cookery books and booklets and made generous donations to the cause. Having a free day in Edinburgh after the meeting, I was able to enjoy a visit to the Royal Botanical Gardens with Fay Henderson who is so knowledgeable about plants, and a drive round some of the less well-krown parts of the City with Dr Muir who willingly supplied a fascinating commentary The next day I went on to Dundee to meet members of the vegetarian Society there and to speak to them on the vegan way of life. The lecture room was well filled and again most people responded well. My sightseeing in Dundee was limited to a walk by the Tay for, after enjoying the overnight hospitality of Mir. and Mrs. Hagerty and their two, entertaining small children, I had to return to London to deal with four days post. I felt happy that some new seeds had been sown in Scotland and feel sure that some will flourish and produce some more Scottish members of the Society. Only the exorbitant cost of travelling prevents us from making more such journeys. However the Vegan Society is now able to give some help to small groups who, while needing such contacts most,are able to afford them least. (From a report by Eva Batt who works so effectively: uu. unremittingly as Chairman of the Vegan Council, as lecturer and writer and chief authority on vegan commodities. ) Serena Coles, vegan for nearly 30 years and active member of the Vegan Council t . amidst her busy life as Medical Social Worker,has now agreed to concern herself especially with the problems of elderly vegans, (our Fund launched at the last A. G. M. grows very slowly). . As well as many other services Serena tirelessly, attends conferences on our behalf and never loses an 11

opportunity to speak out for veganism. esting report she recently sent in.

The following is from a long and inter-

WHOLE FOOD AND HEALTH CONFERENCE JUNE 6th, 1974 Over a hundred people attended this conference at Ewell Technical College arranged in collaboration with the Mc Carrison Society. Dr Deavin, Research Director in the Biological Studies Department at the College, speaking on "Soil Husbandry and Health" spoke of the importance of soil health to human health and maintained that the whole cycle of food production and preparation reacts on the spiritual as well as the physical side of man. He stated that artificial nitrogenous fertilisers while increasing the bulk of crops might affect the quality of their proteins in a way that could be injurious to man. Dr Mount of the Homeopathic Hospital in a lecture on "What is Quality in Food" also stressed the psychological factors, especially in connection with breast feeding. In discussion time I was able to introduce myself as a vegan' of nearly thirty years and to make the point that only man continued to take milk after weaning time . Moreover other animals took milk only from their own species , directly from their mothers' bodies without danger of contamination. Followers of Nature Cure who have for many years taught the value of high fibre diets in preventing constipation- the forerunner of so many diseases- were heartened to hear Mr Conrad Latto speak on this subject. Slides showed the connection between the consumption of white bread and sugar and the illnesses of the Western world which are spreading in the developing countries as they begin to depend on these foods. Mr Latto has introduced bran for breakfast at the Royal Berkshire Hospital where he is surgeon and provides his patients with a booklet "A High Fibre Diet." It is to be hoped that this example will be followed in other hospitals.

In the discussion which ended the Conference I was able to point out how wasteful it was to use land for rearing cattle when we could grow so much more food for direct human consumption on the same acreage. Finally, at the bookstall, I was able to express surprise that they were . "not with it 'J in that they were not displaying Eva Batt's book "What's Cooking ?" The books;tall was provided by the Soil Association and at their Course the following month also held at Ewell Technical College, "What's Cooking ?" was on sale ! Other members of the Vegan Society are active in many places. We have room to mention only a few.: Elaine Overson whose photo complete with a picture of the "Vegan"- appeared in the local paper with a description of how she came to veganism - "Every ' day on her way home from school Elaine would hear the squeals of the animals in the slaughterhouse. She would lie awake pondering the fate of the animals


she felt so much for. She decided she could no longer live with herself if she carried on eating meat.. " Later she became a vegan - though she knew no other vegetarian even. For four years the "Vegan" and "Vegetarian" has been her only link with people who'^eel as she does." We may feel sure that her witness does not go unnoticed.-^ - the Gunn-Kings and Mc Clellands in Northern Ireland who, in addition to their many activitiesjrecently welcomed into their hqmes Jagjit Singh Ji Maharaj, head of the North India Namdhari Sikh Community during his world tour for " Humanltarianism, vegetarianism and animal welfare." - Margaret Woolford who keeps up her ceaseless and most effective barrage of letter writing to all who show ,or should show, the slightest interest in animal welfare.

- the Emptages and others who travel many miles to support meetings THE VEGETARIAN MAY MEETINGS . AT TORQUAY The Vegan Society was represented at the May Meetings this year by Eva Batt and Serena Coles. They were welcomed and ably assisted by Don Phillips and other members of the newly formed Vegan Group, who manned the literature stall and thus enabled the delegates to attend all the business sessions .and other activities. JackFawcett , a fruitarian, supplied a beautiful display of fruit that attracted much attention. All agreed that the Meetings, fully reported in the "Vegetarian',' were well worth while and Don PhilliDS has suggested that the Vegan Society should organise comparable events. Weekend .meetings could give invaluable opportunity for fellowship a*nd exchange of ideas, especially for those . who live far from centres of vegan activity. They would require much organisation so if you are interested please fill in the following and send, to the Secretary as soon as'possible If enough interest is shown the Council will plan for 1975. VEGAN SOCIETY AUTUMN MEETING Name


of others in the family or party

Address to which to send details of arrangements 1 1. 2. 3. Districts preferred for the MEETING - please give three in order of preference. Amount which you would be prepared to spend for the Weekend - Full Board Friday supper to Sunday afternoon. Suggestions for activltes.


ECOLOGICAL FOOD GROWING by Robert A. de J. Hart To anyone who observes Nature and studies her laws with sympathetic, intuitive awareness, it must be clear that a Creative Design is at work, but that this Design can only be fully achieved with the wholehearted participation of the being who is generally regarded as the peak of Nature's creativity, Man. The outstanding evidence for the existence of this Creative Design is the ecological law of the protected seed, by which "nurse conditions" are prepared in advance for the development of any higher, more sensitive organism. Millions of years before the appearance of man on earth, Nature had evolved those higher plants which provide for the perpetuation of their species by encasing their seeds in hard shells inside nourishing fruit which are attractive to animals; thus ensuring that the seed is widely distributed together with the manure which shall facilitate its growth. And it is almost certain that homo sapiens first appeared in a "natural orchard" environment in which that food was already available which was most favourable to the evolution of his higher faculties. Like his nearest relative, the anthropoid ape, which has greater strength for its size than any other animal, early man must have lived almost entirely on the fruit, shoots and leaves of the trees among which he lived. There In, in fact, anatomical evidence that man is intended to be fruitarian. A special relationship exists between the most advanced forms of vegetable and animal life. And at the present most critical phase in the history of the world, when mankind faces the possibility of extinction by over-population, hunger, the diseases of civilisation, industrial pollution and /or nuclear war, man must once again look to the tree as his principal source of nutrition. A far larger amount of food per acre can be produced by tree-growing than by any other . means. Advocates of factory-farming or synthetic food-production might dispute this assertion, but when it is realised that large acreages of cereals are required to feed battery-hens or battery-calves, and that extensive oilfields would be needed to supply the synthetic protein with which some scientists are experimenting, the superiority of tree-growing from the standpoint of economy of space becomes evident. Moreover, monoculture is not necessary, or even desirable, in the orchard any more than in other types of husbandry. By carefuUy worked out systems of plant relationships, it is possible to intercrop trees with a large variety of bush-fruits, vegetables and herbs, to the mutual benefit of all concerned. The ultimate in horticulture, in fact, is a man-made ecological association of compatible food-plants. By this means an astonishing amount of food can be grown in a very restricted area, as certain advanced peasant communities in various parts of the world, especially, perhaps, among Mexican Indians, have already demonstrated.


It can be stated categorically that, by a combination of multiple cropping techniques with Western technology, especially in its "alternative" or "intermediate"-forms, which are man-sized and non-pollutive, it would be possible for every man, woman and child in the world to be adequately fed, warmed and clothedi. The greatest of all underdeveloped resources are the human potentialities for happiness and achievement that are blighted and frustrated by hunger, disease, poverty, ignomace i and war; . There is, perhaps, ho more suitable country for an experimental "New Garden of Eden" than England. Our moist climate and fertile soils, which are responsible for the renowned greenness of our countryside, together with the long period required for our crops to mature as compared with those grown in tropical areas, combine to produce fruit, nuts, vegetables and herbs which, at their best, are superior in flavour to those grown anywhere else. And as flavour is undoubtedly an indication of nutritional value, we have in this country a potentially vast resource of mineral-rich and vitamin-rich food that cannot be matched elsewhere. The fact that so large a proportion of our island comprises comparatively barren uplands, which at present produce nothing more than a few sheep or grouse, need be no bar to our growing enough food of the highest nutritional value to feed our dense population. Thousands of acres of bleak moorland . could be reclaimed, and, with their climate ameliorated by extensive planting of scientifically designed shelterbelts, they could be used for growing hardy vegetables, strawberries, raspberries and other fruit. There is no better medium for producing crops of the highest quality than "skinned peat". The trees comprising the shelterbelts which would be essential for intensive upland crop-growing would be mainly of timber species, though it would be possible to include certain hardy fruit-trees, such as crab apples, geans or wild cherries and rowans, all of which could be improved by breeding to produce larger crops. But there is no reason why extensive lowland areas which are at present confined to animal husbandry - average production about two hundredweight of meat per acre - and to cereal-growing, largely for animal feeding, with a maximum productivity of two and a half tons to the acre, should not be given over to multiple-cropped orchards, with a total food output at least twenty times as great as now. To the argument that such intensive husbandry would require enormous quantities of fertiliser, of which world stocks are already running Ishort, there are'four main answers : 1) the composting of weeds and crop residues, a process that can be mechanised, as some organic farmers have demonstrated; 2) the use of seaweed, either in its natural state, as applied by farmers in Cornwall, Scotland, Ireland, Brittany and elsewhere, or in granulated or liquid form; 3 ) municipal composting, by which inodorous, disease free fertiliser can be produced, and 4) the very interesting fact that an ecological association of plants of differ-

15 )

ent heights, and therefore with rooting systems at different soil-levels, is laregly self-fertilising as well as self-watering. Provided that the surface of the soil is kept permanently warm and moist either by plant-cover or by mulching with straw, weeds or (if used with discretion)with sawdust, the continuous activity of soil organisms through the year maintains an interchange of minerals and other nutrients between roots at all levels. At the same time the pumping action of the deeper-rooting trees draws up water from spring-veins in the subsoil for the benefit of their neighbours as well as themselves, and the circulation of water-borne minerals - equivalent to the circulation of the blood in the human body - feeds and energises the entire crop. Almost all soils contain extensive reserves of fertility which are normally locked up, and the aim of organic husbandry should be rather to ensure the release of these than to pile additional fertilisers on the topsoil. Fruittrees, in particular, do not need too rich feeding, as this leads to an excessive production of wood at the expense of the fruit. With the respect for all life which comes naturally to the true peasant, that great gardener, F. C. King - originator of the no-digging system realised that weeds had a vital,if controlled, role to play in all horticulture. Coarse weeds, such as docks and nettles, provide "nurse conditions" for more tender food-plants - docks by shattering hard-pans with their powerful roots and nettles by sweetening sour soil with their ever-questing root-systems which are rich in lime. At the same time, weeds such as thistles as well as aromatic herbs help to keep vegetables and fruit free from pests and diseases. Weeds can be used for mulching as well as for composting, for which purpose they can simply be pulled and left on the' surface. England's new "Eden" landscape might well start in the towns. Millions of suburban gardens could be made both more beautiful and more fruitful by intensive planting of trees, bushes, herbs and perennial vegetables, while, as in parts of France and Germany, public roads could be lined with fruit and nut trees. One can envisage a suburban landscape of the future in which the houses would be barely visible for the great mass of gree n ery in which they were embowered. One result of widespread tree planting in towns would be to sweeten the atmosphere and counteract industrial pollution. The new environment, together with the superior nutrition which it would involve, should also stimulate the development of a new species of human being, both more sensitive to the needs and sufferings of others and with greater reserves of moral strength and steadfastness, to enable him or her to stand up ito the opposition of vested interests and all the other near-overwhelming obstacles which confront any great creative enterprise. In the words of Gandhi, his or her character should combine the tenderness of the flower with the hardness of the diamond.


Further Reading :- Tree Crops, by J. Russell Smith (Rodale); Companion Plants. by .Philbrook and Gregg (Watkins); Farmers of Forty Centuries, by F. R. King (Devin-Adair); Feeding Ourselves, by P. Oyler (Hodder & Stoughton) The Weed Problem, by F. C. King (Faber); Food for the Golden Age. by F. Vilson (Daniel); This Plot of Earth, by H. J. Massingham (Collins); The Inviolable Hills by R. A. de J. Hart (Watkins); Reconstruction by Way of the Soil, by G. T. Wrench. (Faber); Mother Earth-Soil Association Journal Vols. 8&9 ; China R^con||juj;ts.

VEGAN DOGS We have two Staffordshire Bull Terrier bitches aged six and seven years. Their diet is based on cooked soya flakes and raw - sometimes soaked - muesli base. To this is added dried fruit, kelp powder, yeast, garlic - fresh or in tablet form - Barmene or vitamin B12 tablets, very finely shredded vegetables or mixed vegetable pulp made in the blender. Sometimes they have muesli base with soya flour, grated mis or cooked pulses or beans. They also enjoy whole raw carrots and pieces of raw friut. If given the chance they like to pull up carrots and parsnips from the garden, pick pea and bean pods and pull off apples from the espalier and will crunch up any windfalls they can find. Both these dogs are in excellent health - full of vitality with glossy coats and are very intelligent. All the other dogs we have had that we have fed on an orthodox diet of raw meat etc. have developed kidney trouble and/or cancer and other ailments eventuallyÂťand we hope our present dogs will avoid these troubles. The argument against vegetarian food for dogs and cats is that it is not natural. But the life of a "pet" is far from natural and an animal in the wild has to catch its own food and consumes the whole animal including the vegetable contents of 'the stomach and not just lumps of flesh and all the nitrogen this entails. Also, they probably get fairly small quantities of food and would not be able to eat every day. Apart from all this of course '.is the cruelty involved in the production of meat and fishjand the drugs etc. given to farm animals make the flesh suspect. I have had no experience of keeping vegetarian cats as we have only had cats passed on by other people. These cats always seem to get kidney trouble. But I know of people who have done this with, satisfactory results except, of course, that most cats will catch birds and mice. Although the stomach of a dog seems designed for digesting meat, it can apparently ddapt to other foods, just as the human is designed to be a frugivore and yet the human race has continued to exist on a very mixed diet. Surely it is preferable that the well being of our 'animals should not have to depend on the exploitation and slaughter of others if this can be avoided. 17


RECIPES CELEBRATION CAKE 1 small tin pineapple slices 1 small tin of tropical fruit Small quantity preserved cherries 1 cup mixed dried fruits and lemonpeel

Grated orange rind. Juice of one orange. 1 rounded dsp agar. Almond essence and green colouring.

Take a fancy shaped tin and rinse with cold water. Drain pineapple and tropical fruit, reserving the syrup. Make a fancy pattern with the pineapple rings and and cherries on the bottom of the tin. Make syrup up to one pint with orange juice and fruit stock or water. Sprinide on agar powder and stir until simmering/ Make sure agar is completely dissolved, simmer for a few minutes. Remove from the heat and add colouring and essence. Pour a small amount of the liquid over the pneapple rings to a depth of about an inch. Leave this to cool and begin to set. To the rest of the liquid add tropical fruit salad and driad mixed fruit; â&#x20AC;˘ . grated orange.: rind. When other mixture has begun to set pour this mixture gently over it. Smooth and leave to set. When completely chilled, loosen and turn upside down. ( From a new member in New Zealand whose thirteen year old son won a school competition with this recipe. It could obviously be adapted to use ripe well coloured raw fruit instead of tinned fruit, syrup and colouring. We think it sounds deliciouswell done Matthew ! ) Mrs Doig, 8 \Wlding Avenue , Northcote, Auckland, N. Z. SAGO PLUM PUDDING 4 tbsps. sago soaked overnight: 1 cup of whole meal bread crumbs in a cup of water. 1 cup of raisins. 1 tbsp oil. 5 cup brown sugar. Mix all together with enough water to make fairly slack. Put in a greased basin. Steam 2-3 hours. Serve with cashew cream. From Mrs Dalziel O'Brien. INSTEAD OF SCRAMBLED EGG 4 tbsps oil 2 tbsps soya flour 6 flat tbsps millet i dstsp Barmene & other flavouring, pts water Heat the oil in a pan, and cook the millet in it for a few minutes until it begins to change colour. Remove from heat and add soya mixed in hot water. Simmer gently . stirring at intervals to prevent sticking. Add more water if necessary. Add flavouring and Barmene when the grain is soft. Serve with tomatoes on toast or as main dish with vegetables. Ann Shepherd




4 ozs Tbmor or Suenut 4 ozs soya flour.

Barmene to taste - about flat dstsp. Other flavouring as desired.

Melt fat in a saucepan. Stir in soya flour - sieved if necessary - add Barmene and other flavouring. Mix to a smooth cream. Press into a dish. Turn out when cold and set. Will cut and keep like cheddar and has a comparable nutritive value. Slice up for sandwiches or serve with salad. Toast on top of bread or other grilled dish. (Raw flavouring will spoil keeping power.). K. Jannaway TAHINI SALAD CREAM Third of a jar of Tahin. Boiling water. Juice of two lemons.

1 or 2 cloves of garlic Chopped parsley. Little oil and salt.

Stir jar of Tahini well and put third of it in a bowl with an equal quantity of boiling water. Beat well.until it thickens. Stir in 1 or 2 cloves of garlic,(finely chopped) and chopped parsley. Finally beat in the lemon juice , salt and oil. Delicious on bread as well as salad. M. Sampath. KITCHEN NOTES FROM EVA BATT The piquancy of vegetables, quick cooked or steamed can always be varied by the addition of herbs, either during cooking ( a bay leaf, or a Boquet Garni from Chiltern Herbs if you do not grow your own ) or chopped and sprinkled over when serving (parsley, sage, mint etc - fresh from the garden or window box if possible.) Make a meal If , in spite of all your trouble, an experimental dish does not come up to expectations, you can do one of three thingB :Throw it away - shame on you I Offer it with apologies - No Serve it with fried tomatoes or apple sauce. Either can be prepared in a minute or two. In fact tiy serving apple sauce with any savoury - just baked or steamed - no sugar ! Or for a change serve slices of peach, orange or pineapple with your savoury - delicious.!


HAVEN'T YOU HAD YOUR COPY YET ? Eva Batt's unique book has now gone out to fourteen different countries. If you have not had a copy you do not know what you are missing ! If you have,then you will want to send one to a friend. The recipes are not only different and exciting but economical I - an important point these davs ! Be sure to send in time for Christmas

what's cooking? has over 250 RECIPES for soups, salads, desserts, savoury dishes, cakes, biscuits, sauces, garnishings, stuffings etc. Also valuable information and advice. All written with vitality and clarity,humour and commonsense so that the book is a delight to read and to own. This book has been widely and justifiably acclaimed as a major asset to veganism and humane and and healthy living. FILL IN AND SEND OFF THE COUPON BELOW TODAY. STILL ONLY £1.25. but we have to remind you that postage has gone up, so please send £1.50 to the Secretary, 47 Highlands Road, Leatherhead, Surrey, , ENFIELD, Middlesex, for an autographed or to Mrs Eva Batt, copy. Please send a copy of "What's Cooking ?" for which I enclose a cheque / P. O. for £1.50 to cover the cost of postage and packing. Name.... Address BOOKSHOPS AND HEALTH FOOD STORES ETC. please send to Mrs Batt for terms.

YOUNG VEGANS SECTION Week end October 25th - 27th at Brick Kiln Centre, Melton, Woodbridge, Suffolk Y. V, S.. -

A. G. M.

2.30 p. m. on Saturday October 26th Bring sleeping bags and wear warm clothes as heating is inadequate for cold ' weather. If you are coming please write immediately to Claire Richardson, Flat 5 Kingsbridge, 172 Lordship Road, London N 16, stating whether you wish to join the mini-bus leaving London on Friday evening. How to get there by train - London to Ipswich and change to Yarmouth line, alight Woodbridge. Bus to Melton Church. Footpath to Brick Kiln runs alongside church. We hope to have a discussion on Pacifism at the Y. V. S. A. G. M. Most people would agree that the two major causes of human suffering are famine and war. Veganism obviously has a vital part to play in tackling the former scourge of mankind but has it any relevance to the latter ? One popular argument against Pacifism is "Well of course nobody likes war but sometimes its necessary. After all we have to kill to eat." A pacifist who continues to eat meat etc can only offer the doubtful argument that human life is above animal life. However a society which accepts the widespread slaughter of animals who cannot retaliate is bound to be pretty complacent about human slaughter, especially if they can justify it by the comforting belief that "It was either them or us ; " The vegan pacifist is completely consistent and by his refusal to accept the role of proxy butcher foisted on him by society is acting positively to show that it is possible for all the inhabitants of the Earth to live in harmony. Claire Richardson. N. B. All Resolutions to be considered at the meeting and all nominations for the Committee to be sent to Claire Richardson as soon as possible. WEEKEND AT LEATHERHEAD Thirty three young people went to Kathleen Jannaway's home in Leatherhead during the weekend August 3rd & 4th. Twenty three stayed over night, some camping in the garden. In spite of the poor weather which turned the Sunday morning walk into a mud wallow, everybody seemed to enjoy themselves getting to know eachother and exchanging ideas. At the more formal session on Saturday there was general agreement with Kathleen who talked about the important contribution that veganism could make to the solution of the world food.problem. We need to make contact with other groups concerned with this and show the relevance of our way of life. 21

Thirtieth Anniversary Celebration and AGM FRIENDS' HOUSE - EUSTON ROAD - LONDON (6pposite Euston Station) Saturday ,


2 to 8.30 p. m.


2.00 p. m.


2.30 p.m.

ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. Chairman's Address. Minutes of the 29th A. G. M. and Matters Arising. Report of the Executive Council. Treasurer's Report. Young Vegan Section Report. Election of Officers and Committee. Appointment of Auditor. Re-issue of Rules. Autumn Meetings. Any Other Business.

4.15 p. m.

SPECIAL CELEBRATION BUFFET arranged by Mabel Cluer. Followed by :-

"Thirty Years On" -entertainment with song and verse by Eva Batt and others. Speakers' Corner - a chance to air your views on any topic of importance to veganism. If you would like a pitch (including display room) please apply soon to the Secretary. Games and Dancing. 8.00 p. m. Closing refreshments. OFFERS OF HELP WELCOMED.




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Just Published

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First hand : First rate A recipe book for truly economical living.

Two Dozen

Main Protein Dishes

One Dozen

Quick & Easy Extras - Cakes & puddings designed for health and economy

One Dozen

Economy Hints One Dozen Follow Up Ideas and Recipes

Tasty and nutritious

No sugar necessary and only vegetable oil NEARLY ALL INGREDIENTS COULD BE HOME PRODUCED & HOMEGROWN 25p + 3p postage The Vegan Society, 47 Highlands Road, Leatherhead, Surrey. Please send copy (copies) of "First Hand: First Rate. " to Name Address Enclosed a p. o. / cheque for 23

MEETINGS October 4th, 8 p.m. Norwich, The Assembly House, Theatre Street. Friday EVA BATT, Chairman of the Vegan Council on "Food of the Future" Meeting arranged by the Norfolk and Norwich Vegetarian Society. October 13th, 2.30 p.m. Wood Green, London, N.22 North London & District Sunday Group Meeting at the home of Beatrice Camm,*the artist. How to get there - Buses 29,141 or tube to Wood Green Tube Station. Cross road into Station Road, .Cpritinue walking to end, passing Wood Green Common & Mayes on 1ft This will lead into Buckingham Street, walk to end & turn left into Bedford Road. This leads into Alexandra Park Road. ( | hr) Alternatively bus W3 goes along Alexandra Park Road. * 1704 October 18th &19th , ANIMALS FAIR Royal Horticultural Hall, Vincent Square, Fri. & Sat. easy walking distance of Victoria Station. Pleas e bring anything saleable to the October Meeting or send to the Secretary or any of the Council. Food and other perishables can be brought on the day. Doors open at 12 noon and close at 7 p. m. Offers of help to man the stall very welcome. In previous years we have found this an occasion, not only of raising very welcome money, but also of getting to know eachother. Please do come. NEW LOCAL GROUPS SOUTHAMPTON A group is being formed in Southampton to promote local awareness of Veganism and to provide opportunities for vegans to meet eachother. Talks,demonstrations and publicity campaigns will be arranged in the near future. For details contact, David Barrett, , Beechwood Road, Bartley, Southampton, S04 2LP Tel. Cadnam 3686. EXETER VEGAN & VEGETARIAN GROUP -is being formed on September 13th at a meeting addressed by Geoffrey Rudd, formerly Secretary of the Vegetarian Society and Brian Gunn King, Secre-tary of the International Vegetarian Union. The meeting comes too soon to advertise to readers of this issue but those interested in future activities are asked to contact Malcolm Horne, , Exmouth, Devon, EX8 1QH. It is hoped to present a diverse range of topics including ethics, health, and ecology. / GARDEN PARTY June 30th proved to be a disappointingly wet day, but even so 90 people went to the home of the Secretary In Leatherhead. They enjoyed meeting and 24

talking with eacfepther and sampling the vegan fare, and in between the showers they walked round the garden and discussed the successes and failures of the season's growing and "had a go" at the games so efficiently and determinedly provided by the Wright children â&#x20AC;˘ Where to Eat in London - THE MANDEER RESTAURANT -


21 Hanway Place,

w, i .

In this new vegetarian restaurant vegan principles are understood and, what is moreyegans are welcomed and catered for with absolutely no fuss. That was my happy experience when I called there recently and enjoyed a vegan Indian lunch. Do not be put off by the modest entrance and dim lighting, the restaurant is comfortable , the kitchen modern and clean and the food, whether you choose from the Indian or Wholefood selection, is very good and not expensive for this district. The Mandeer is open from 12 noon to 3 p. m. and from 6 p. m. to 1 p.m., Saturdays and Sundays 6 p.m. to 10 p.m. only. Should you have any difficulty in selecting vegan dishes, Mr Ramish Patel or Mr Edward Banks will be on hand to help and advise. g. p. CRANKS ~ Marshal Street "Make new friends but keep the old." Cranks continues to give good service in very pleasant surroundings - and they display vegan literature.

IMPORTANT NOTICES LOCAL CONTACTS Hugo Steam of The Leys. Manor Estate, Horrabridge, Yelverton, Devon has kindly agreed to put members in touch with other vegans in their locality. If you desire this service, please write to him, enclosing 3 stamped :envelopes for him to send out on your behalf. Members names and â&#x20AC;˘ addresses are not handed on without their express permission. GARDENERS Please send reports of your gardening successes and failures to the Secretary as soon as possible. Details of yield and acreage will be especially useful . EXPENSES The response to the little yellow remin der about unpaid subscriptions has been most encouraging. Many members apologised for their forgetfulness. May we suggest that they - and others - send for Covenant R>rms and thus give the Society the benefit of their Income Tax payments ? . . . or put in a Standing Order totheir bank. Subscriptions (El. 25) are due in January. POST AGE Postage costs are a great strain on the Society's resources. Please do remember to include a stamped addressed envelope when sending an inquiry. Have you CONSIDERED REQUESTS ON Pages 13,21,22, and adverts, on 20&23 ? 25

BOOK REVIEWS A Gift of Love, The Hopewood Story, by Jack Dunn Trop. This book tells of the turning point in the life of the Australian L. O. Bailey who in 1941 resolved to put his business profits to the founding of a healthy Australian Society. Following the breakdown of his health in 1930, at the age of 40, he learned of the works of the early pioneers in the Nature Cure Movement and changed to natural living. Eleven years: later his love of children and Interest in their well being led to the founding of the Hopewood Home and the Youth Welfare Association of Australia. These wartime children developed from babies to adulthood along natural lines and were instilled with love and respect for all animal life. The book includes letters from the children after leaving and from 'Daddy'. Bailey himself giving insight into struggles to get Naturopathy , recognised in Australia. It should be of special interest to our Australian members. R. Wright. Natural Remedie s for Common Ailments

by Constance Mellor.

(C. W. Daniel) ÂŁ3 ÂŤ This is a delightfully written and produced book, full of most interesting and useful information about cocmmon ailments and how to treat them without recourse to the National Health Service. Homoeopathy, herbalism , biochemistry and other non-violent methods are advocated. Preventive measures of right eating, right living and right thinking are also stressed. Considerable space is given given to diet both as the basis of healthy living and also for its curative powers in certain disorders. While vegans will find points to disagree with in the pages on the vegan diet, it is at least recognised as a viable alternative to ortho dox diets. This can be recommended as an interesting book to read and a most useful book of reference for the family. Free choice in medical treatment should be a basic right for all citizens. An approach to your M. P. or to the Minister of Health requesting that natural therapies be included in the National Health Service could well bring results. The Blossom The blossom of the tree smiles up towards the sun the Sun giveth life to that which is within . . it opens up much that was hidden . . . the true nature of a tree is brought forth by the rays of the Sun. Now if the onlooker knoweth not these things also, he becomes less than the tree for all his knowledge. Let him seek then the deep fountain of truth within himself that he may become glorious even as a tree, putting forth all that is best and beautiful for the rays of the Sun to bless. Thomas Lackenby. From "Yoga"j Quarterly Journal of the Wheel of Yoga, obtainable from the Editor , Leslie Kentfield, 20 Pevensy Close, Osterley, Middlesex. Leslie is a member of our Society and will be glad to hear from you - but please do not forget a stamped addressed envelope for a reply. 26

VEGFAM - feeds, the hungry

land - economy - wise : by earth - plant - man method. .

In VIETNAM , some of the many orphans and homeless children continue to receive extra proteins - soya beans - bought by Vegfam funds. In INDIA various groups - deaf, blind, leprous and orphan children and gypsy children, Narikurava (• butcast foxes") are also getting rice, lentils, vegetables a».d bananas regularly thanks to Vegfam. THIS YEAR, the £600 earned by the sponsored Walk organised by the Young Vegetarians has been devoted to a promising, large-scale Plant Protein production scheme to be launched shortly at Coimbatore in Southern India. The main crop to be used is.lucerne grown locally and the project will run for two years. Children of three villages will have their normal diet supplemented by PlantProtein and their health and development will be checked and compared with children not receiving the additive. It is anticipated that on the completion of the trial period the project will be continued on a permanent basis. AHEAD - the battle against the desert in N. Africa. This means money - for DEW collection devices to plant TREES to create RAIN to obtain FERTILITY FOOD Donations gratefuUy received by - The Hon. Secretary Vegfam, The Sanctuary, Lydford, Devon. (Administrative expenses borne by the Trustees. Covenanted Subscription forms and/or Collecting Books supplied on request.)

To the best of our knowledge we are the only producers of pure apple juice made from organically grown apples without toxic or chemical sprays. No added chemicals or preservatives. We crush as we pick-no cold storage- no loss of flavour. And we supply nearly a 1,000 shops aH over the . U. K. (60 in London alone) We can supply your health shop - ask them. Or you direct by British Road Service. Enquiries to The Cyder House, Aspall HaU, Stowmarket, Suffolk. 27

your 50p


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Eva Batt

Charles Drummond writes in the "Dairy Farmer & Dairy Beef Producer'that it seems ironic that the modernisation of dairy farming and improved breeding techniques, while intended to improve efficiency, actually create new problems. He was referring to milking machines and the bad effect these have have on cows after a time and to the extra health risks for the 'Steamed -up" high yielding cows. This should surprise no one, especially the dairy farmer when we know that the average milk yield has been increased over the last few years from 950 to 1,000 gallons for a good cow to 1,500 or more and in some cases to as much as 2,000 gallons a year. It is true that the very high yield cow will have â&#x20AC;˘ "udders of a size to make a coWman blench" to quote one farmer, and they are more liable to suffer from teat damage or even die from udder trouble ; yet efforts to raise production still further continue. Ninety percent of the unfortunate cows in New Zealand have their tails docked. At least one dairy farmer journalist is attracted to this idea for our cows. It: would make life easier for the cowman (he would not have muck flicked in his face ) but we feel would hardly meet with the approval of the owners who would henceforth be deprived of their natural fly flickers. The general public, if not the cows, will be pleased to learn that a new cow/beef cubicle unit has been designed ' to meet a growing demand for more aes thetically attractive farm buildings.' ( The results of our Galloping Poll, taken from a cross section of cows/calves showed that 100% preferred to walk on grass even though they understood that they would not be required to walk at all , or even bite off their own grass, if they lived in one of these modern cubicles. 0% were keen to be boxed up in one of these aesthetically attractive units. )


PROMOTING VEGANISM Do you think of yourself as a concerned vegan committed to doing something positive to spread the way of life or do you have to admit that you are inclined to be negative ? Are you just content to be vegan or do you want to help promote the cause. ? If the latter why not consider helping Plantmilk Ltd, the only food manufacturing company set in motion by vegans, served by vegans and manufacturing only, purely vegan food. One correspondent recently wrote to us "May I compliment you on the high quality of Plamil especially since it has made my conversr ion .to veganism more easy. " Do you want to see others helped towards veganism ? Then please help us. How ? Well read on I We are a small Private Ltd Company and we registered with the Registrar of Companies as such to ensure that our shares would not become available on the "open market"arid thus run the risk of falling into the hands of mere speculators who have no humnitarian interest in our aims and objectives. By virtue of being a small private company we work on limited funds with minimal staff and we suffer from having no sales representative to call on Health Stores and other suitable stockists throughout the country. So are you willing to become a Sales Representative for us (gratis) in your locality , or wherever you may travel - on holiday or business ? Please . . let us know first because unplanned visits without the basic details at your finger tips could defeat its objective. What we are aiming at is the creation of a co-ordinated sales promotion drive. In order to set the wheels in motion with the minimum of paper work could you , if you want to help, fill in the form below and send it to Arthur Ling, Plamil House, Bowles Well Gardens, Folkestone, Kent. Name and Address Area in which you could function Rough idea of time you could give - however little Whether you could attend a meeting in your region to discuss details. PLAMIL VEG-EEZ A modest quantity of this chees'e like spread was marketed early in 1974 and was very well received. Unforseen difficulties have however arisen whereby it is not possible at present to say when future supplies may be available. These difficulties range from importation duties (with E. E. C. commitments phasing out Commonwealth preference benefits) to liaison with the firm processing the spread for Plantmilk Ltd. Meanwhile we are experimenting with another alternative to cheese and will make a further announcement as soon as possible.



LETTERS YOU THINK YOU HAVE DIFFICULTIES f from a European married into an Indian family :- there is a joint family system. One is not so much an individual as part of a family or caste. There is a common kitchen with the husbands family ; often four generations live and eat together. The oldest lady has the greatest authority. I wonder if any other "babu" (daughter-in -law) in India has managed to become a vegan ! It is not so much the avoidance of milk that is difficult but "ghee". This clarified butter is put not only on bread but in vegetables,pulses, sweets and other foods of which I do not know the English names. I do not always succeed in taking out my share before the ghee is added. If I go hungry my occasional bad health is thought to be due to my not eating everything. More difficult is the religious importance given to cows', milk, milk products end especially ghee. In all Hindu worship these are present. I am very fond of religious gatherings, meditations and all night prayer sittings but ghee is used and after worship sweets made of milk and ghee may be offered and it is just not allowed to refuse. Two more painful points to me - the special purity attributed to silk garments and the offerings to God of flowers, or rather just flower heads. As if the flowers were not God's anyway. Of course this is preferable to animal sacrifice. There are said to be regions in India where animal sacrifices are being performed. I often wonder about how it is that animals have to suffer. With humans one can vaguely understand the law of karma and rebirth, for us suffering can be a great help and purifier but it seems so unjust that crea tures who are unaware of good or bad, who are inarticulate and without religion have to go through untold tortures :- separation of mother and child, hunger, thirst, illness, captivity, hard life as beasts of burden, corporal punishment, loneliness, being trapped, sacrificed, experimented on, slaughtered



it possible that humans who have sinned against animals have to suffer from the same sin in an animal body , (The writer would like correspondents - apply the Secretary) HOW CAN ONE ACHIEVE SERENITY ? In principle I agree with William Stanford (Spring issue) that one must think right as well as eat right, but as one who comes to veganism out of compassion for animals, I find the aura of cruelty which envelopes our daily lives denies me any peace of mind. I am confrontedi during all my waking hours with broken bodies of animals on the roads, sounds of cattle, sheep, pigs distressed at being denied the basic freedoms of life - and the knowledge that a very high percentage of humans couldn't care less about animals except for what they get out of them. How does one achieve a state free from worry, fear and anxiety when all our senses are straining at what surrounds us ? (Mrs) B. E. Hardwick.



{' from a younger member)

The main objective of the Society as I see it, is to attract concerned, intelligent people to it so that it can become a significant revolutionary ( and evolutionary ) force in the world. It can only do this by projecting an intelligent, sci entific, non- elitist, non-esoteric, non-sentimental yet compassionate image to the world. It should strive to demonstrate that it is something more than a supportive club for a few eccentric people. The essential requisite of veganism is adherence to the vegan diet, but this is in some respects an arbitrarily delimited, if fundamental, aspect within the whol-e of man's exploitation of animals: I believe that the newcomer to the Society who sees heated arguments over the eating of honey or great energy e x pended in determining whether the baked beans , s%,that someone has been given contain minute quantities of milk, could be forgiven for thinking the whole thing farcical - especially in the face of so much suffering - particularly human suffering in the world Our main objective as individual consumers should be to less en the demand for animal products , avoid benefiting from them and to demonstrate that one can be healthy and happy without them. How this can best be done should . be left to the conscience of the individual. I personally must feel free to act in the light of my own reason and knowledge and conscience. There is I believe one good logical argument that could bring many more people into the Society - particularly vegetarians. Any person who is repelled at the thought of '.the killing of any farm animal and could not do it himself should realise that he is not an integrated, consistent or even moral person unloss he adopts a vegan diet. All animal farming necessitates the killing of animals at some stage, so any person eating animal products is creating the demand for these killings. The slaughterman is being used as a tool by them, just as one might use a knife or a gun. Many people especially vegetarians will not face this fact - that they are personally responsible for butchery if they eat its products. The Vegan Society should help them to do so. It must seek out those people who share the vegan reluctance to kill, who are inherently vegan although th-ey do not recognise intellectually that this is so. Such people need to be shown that, only in veganism can they express their deeper selves and avoid the conflicts often burier'.deep in their unconcious between their feelings and actual life styles.

SEE Classified Advert. Page 36

i 31



Bill to Prohibit the testing of Cosmetics on Animals On December 10th of last year, Lord Willis introduced his "Cruel Experiments " Bill In the House of Lords. The Bill was intended to ammend the "Cruelty to Animals Act, 1876", which still governs vivisection in this country, and whichhas never been considered satisfactory even by those who argue that . In certain circumstances the practice of vivisection may be'justified. Sad to say, Lord Willis's bill made very little headway, but the impression gained by those who heard or read an account of the speeches In the Lords on the occasion of its presentation was that a.. Bill to prohibit painful experiments in a field other than that of medical research would have fared much better. Lord Willis therefore decided to introduce a Bill prohibiting the use of animals in cosmetic testing, and this has now been drawn up by M. A. C. E. ( Movement Against Cruel Experiments). Nearly a hundred new cosmetics come on to the market every week, and most of these will have been tested on animals. It is estimated that around 1,000,000 animals are used annually in this type of experiment. Particularly horrifying are the teste on the eyes of small mammals (usually rabbits ) in which irritation may be so severe as to produce destruction of the eye. These tests may take place over a period of several days. Other tests include those in which a product is applied to an abrased skin area again to test irritant properties, and., the LD 50 test in which a group of animals are fed the ingredients of a certain product until 50% die and 50% survive. It is hoped that many people will write to their M. PS on this subject and generally give it as much publicity as possible. The original idea was that the Bill should be presented in November, but everything depends on the timing and outcome of the next Election as, of course, it is essential to have a Government likely to stay in office for a reasonable period before attempting to initiate new . legislation. Further details from - Angela Smith, Friends' Animal Welfare Society, Woolpits, Saling, Nr. Braintree, Essex.

VIVISECTION - RIGHT OR WRONG ? A full, clear account of the case for and against. No harrowing details; no pictures. lOp from the Secretary, F. A. W. (see above )

THE EXTENSIVE USE OF ANIMALS IN NON-MEDICAL RESEARCH"ty R. Ityder Well documented and argued case by a scientist. Free for stamped 6 by 9 envelope from Scottish Society for the Prevention of Vivisection, 10 Queensferry Street, Edinburgh. EH2 4P




BABMENE - We have received assurance from Mapleton's that, although the quantity of Vitamin B12added to Barmene is no longer printed on the label, the ingredients remain unchanged and in particular the quantity of vitamins, including B12, is the same as before. SAINSBURY'S - Wheat and Rye Crispbreads are vegan; also their strawberry flavoured wafers, chocolate filled wafers, plain potato crisps and chips. OSEM LENTIL STEW is vegan. BEER _- George Walker has again been very busy chasing the brewers. The results : Lees Draught Lager (Manchester) is vegan. Likewise all beers from the Workington Brewery Company. Jennings Bros, of Cockermouth explain that all but their traditional cask beers (Mild and Bitter ) are sheet filtered and acceptable to vegans. Allied Breweries , Burton on Trent, have sent a list of their products which are vegan. These include Skol (keg,bottle, can.); Long Life (keg or can ) Family Ale (bottles ); Special Bitter (keg); Light Ale (bottles); Brown Ale (bottles) and Caskette Bitter (5 pt cans ). The last four are bottled at Romford. Beer drinkers need to be very selective. Not only do they need to know whether their drink comes from a bottle, keg, can, or cask, but the particular brewery in which it is canned makes a difference. Anyone interested in this subject should contact Mr Walker at 19,4 Lightbowne Road, Manchester, MI 0 9EE. SOAP AND SOAP POWDER - Your Society badly needs someone with George Walker's interest, enthusiasm and persistence to tackle the everyday problems of such things as soap ans soap powders. These seem to require constant revision revision and therefore constant watchfulness. Any offers ? ? ? . The latest information we have (June '74 ) on this difficult problem comes from Lever Industrial . Blue Horizonfabric washing powder is vegan but obtainable only in 281b packs, and not from retailers. For automatic dish washers, Bryta ( 4 lb packs) and Sumabrite Rinse Aid (2 by 1 gall, packs) are vegan. Lever Industrial are at Lever House, St James''Road, Kingston - on - Thames, Surrey KT1 2Ba. For domestic automatic dishwashers Sun and Sun Rinse Aid are as far as we know at present, the only vegan dishwasher products which are stocked by retailers.



ADHESIVE 7 Phillips Neoprene is vegan. BISCUITS - We have now heard from Smiths that Dad's Cookies are still vegan. TOILETRIES - We are very pleased to be able to assure our readers that the recently introduced herbal toiletries by Martha Hill are all completely vegan and have not been tested on animals. These are Herbalcieansing and Condition ing Milk; Herbal Skin Treatment Gel; Day-time Skin Conditioner and Make-up Base and Herbal Night Skin Re juvenator; all are very pleasantly perfumed and delightful to use. Obtainable from Martha Hill Beauty Care, 39-41 Marylebone High Street, London W. 1, where Beauty Without Cruelty products and simululated fur coats are also for sale. JOHNSON'S BABY POWDER is vegan and contains no hexa chlorophane. VECON News just received. Modern Health Products Ltd. Sales Director has just written to say that they can no longer assure us that the glycerine used in Vecon is always from vegetable sources. " Owing to difficulties in purchasing vegetable oils no guarantee can be given that our deliveries will not contain tallow.

Footwear News MARBOT SHOES are offering a good range of vegan shoes for men this sea son. In the Essex Range there are four styles in black or brown with poromeric uppers - although some are also available in leather so it is necessary to ask for the poromeric ones with PVC quarter linings. They come in sizes 6-11. Marbot Consul Range - Five styles all of which are entirely vegan, having poro Âť meric uppers and and PVC quarter linings and soles. Again in black and brown sizes 6-11. The two brogue styles,one lace up, one monk style, are particularly attractive. Marbot for Boys One of the four styles in the Essex Range - sizes 11-5! is entirely leather free. - Number 3/431.4037 brown poromeric or 3/41.6037 in black poromeric . Two other models are available in either poromeric or leather, so again it is advisable to refer to the part number. The vegan shoes are :- 3/411.4114 in brown or 3/411. 6114 in black. 3/431.4216 - brown; or 3/431.6216 -black. Marbot for Infants Just one style is vegan, a fancy T bar shoe in black patent Porvair only. Sizfes and \ sizes 4- 9^. This shoe is also made in leather so check the part number 114.6015 All other shoes from Marbot this season, including all the ladies styles have leather somewhere in their composition.


PORTLAND SHOES - again one Autumn model we can recommend highly Amelia - a comfortable walking shoe - E fitting -1 inch heel, three eyelet lacing. Sizes 2-9 ; with uppers in Softee Clarino poromeric material and with man-made materials throughout. Black 6650, Brown 6653. This is one that is not also made in leather. You may have to search for it but it is well worth the trouble. Portland also offer Jewel â&#x20AC;˘ a boot suitable for anyone with an extra wide leg. Made in Paraflexwith brushed nylon lining. 14^ ins leg, full length zip. Sizes and half sizes 3 to 9. WARNING June and Jay boots look similar but have leather uppers. Portland Shoes Ltd., Gateway Street, Leicester. Comment "from a visitor to the Harrogate Autumn Shoes Show on the new simulated leathers now being used ; - " Their softness and pleasant feel are enough to make stalwart leather wearers dither about.

Eva Batt. ACCOMMODATION DUBROVNIK^ Vegan lady offers accommodation in her cottage. Self-contained pavilion, sleep 2-5,also available. Co-operative employment available. Write Mrs Lowne, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia. DEVON-ILFRACOMBE,. "Fairwynds", Vegetarian Guest House offers healthful holidays with natural whole foods. Compost grown producejhome baking. Vegans welcome. Elizabeth Burton. V. C. A, Member. Tel. 2085 DORSET - WEYMOUTH Vegetarian and Vegan families welcomed. please to Mrs. Cox, Weymouth. Tel. 2402

S. A. E.

LAKE DISTRICT - ORCHARD HOUSE Borrowdale Road, Keswick. Small Vegetarian Guest House in good centre for walking etc. ;lotfely views from the back. Home baking & some home grown produce. Miss D. Ryall. Tel. Keswick 72830 PERTHSHIRE - BROOK LINN, Callander. Vegetarian & Vegan meals carefully prepared and attractively served. Comfortable Guest House. Near Trossachs & Western Highlands. Mrs . M. Choffin. Tel. Callander 30103 (STD 0877) NEWQUAY Cottage accommodation overlooking Newquay Harbour, for vegans and vegetarians. Bed, breakfast and evening meal. Vacancies September. Miss Doney, Newquay, Cornwall, TR7 IE.Z ISLE OF WIGHT - Marilyn & Terry, "Oatlands", Copse Lane, Freshwater, I. O.W. Vegetarian cooking. Vegans catered for. Children welcome. UP- TO- DATE LIST of vegetarian guest houses and restaurants from Sec. of Veg. Catering Ass. Kathleen Keleny, Coombe Lodge, Wooton-under Edge, Glos. .Stamp please. 35

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS TWO VEGANS interested in producing first class crops veganically are offered land to rent, % acre each, in the West Country. Professional advice available if needed. Box No. 31 IMMEDIATE POSSESSION on cash payment of £15,000 modern, solidly built, small, semi-detached house; in pleasant Crescent ( cul-de-sac ) two miles from centre of Reading. Close to schools, shops, and park. Near M4. Owned by vegan. Small, veganically cultivated garden. Telephone 0908 315917. WELL WISHERS are invited to contact Aquarian Estates, P. O. Box 2 Thornville Junction, Natal, South Africa, with a view to donating or lending money to expand the fruitarian way of life being developed there. a













EN LIGHT ENMENT enlightens on the deeper things of life. Flat 3, 28 Portarlington Road, Bournemouth.





Send S. A. E. to

FELLOWSHIP PARTY As we vegans abhor the taking or exploiting of animal life, how much more must we all detest the taking and exploiting of human life. For this reason I am a member of the Fellowship Party, Britain's pacifist , socialist party, pledged to total disarmament and redistribution of wealth and power in our society. In the past we have put up local and Parliamentary canididates and got hundreds of votes but we are now at an all time low. We desperately need new members of any age but especially young people. Our headquarters is at 141 Woolacombe Road, Blackheath, London, S. E. 3 PIGS are intelligent and interesting animals and make good pets. clean when they get the chance.

presented me with a large litter. or phone - John Amsden. Ventnor, Isle of Wight.

They are very

I rescued a sow from i l l treatment and she

PLEASE will anyone offer a home ? Write Atherfield Green Chale,

THE VEGANIC ASSOCIATION promotes the growing of vegetables, fruits cereals and nuts by the purest and easiest method. Membership £1 to Sec. 28 Cambridge Terrace, Dun Laoghaire, Co. Dublin, Ireland. VACANCY Lad or young lady required for general factory duties in vegan food producing factory. Modest salary until Company expands. Congenial atmosphere. Nice locality. Apply - Mr Ling, Plamil House, Bowles Well Gardens, Fokestone, Kent. "FREE EARTH MAGAZINE " Access to alternatives . Catalogue and communication 14p + 5p postage. Bi-monthly. Year's sub. £1. 72 pages. 103 South Street. Lancing, Sussex. AHIMSA -bi-monthly magazine - veganism, natural living, non-violence. Organ of the American Vegan Society. Annual Sub. 3$ or £1.25. Write for free sample book list, information. P. O. Box H. Malaga, New Jersey 08328. U. S. A. COMMUNES Journal of the Commune Movement. 20p from Steve Fuller, Lochill Cottage, Ringford, Kircudbrightshire, GaHoway, Scotland.






LIVING THE GOOD LIFE by Helen and Scott' Nearing

A book of Vegetarian Homesteading in U.S.A.

Send £1 for this invaluable pioneering book to HOUSMANS BOOKSHOP 5 CALEDONIAN ROAD, LONDON,


GARDENERS! Since its introduction five years ago' our V . C. (Veganic) compost fertilizer has become widely established amongst animal;'lovers and vegetarians. I t is a 1 0 0 % organic compost and is guaranteed to contain no animal ingredient whatever. It is of the same high quality as o u r : other products and is backed by our 45 years' experience of manufacturing and supplying organic,; composts to. commercial growers, nurserymen and gardeners. For full details and sample w r i t e to





HOLIDAY A C C O M M O D A T I O N FOR VECANS C O R N W A L L — "WOODCOTE", The Saltings, Lelant, St. Ives. Overlooking Hayle Estuary. C.H. & H & C in all rooms. W e take pleasure in catering for Vegans. Mr. JOHN & Miss HAZEL BLACKALLER.

Tel. Hayle 3147

CRANKS HEALTH | FOODS| Marshall St London W1 O u r shop offers you the selection of unadulterated unrefined vegetarian .foods.


(dairy milk •


DELICE best and

open Monday to Friday

(cream replacement) •


9 a.m. t o 6 p.m. Saturday 9 a.m. t o I p.m.

O u r restaurant offers you a continuous buffet service of fresh salads, fruit and vegetable Juices and vegetarian savouries.

CHOCOLATE Please place regular order w i t h your HEALTH STORE to ensure our products always being in stock and these vegan foods displayed •

open Monday t o Friday 10 a.m. to 8.30 p.m. Informative literature (S.A.E. w o u l d o b l i g e d -

PL A N T M ILK LTD. (Dept. K.)

Plamil House, Bowles W e l l Gardens, Dover Road, Folkestone, Kent.

The Vegan Autumn 1974  

The magazine of The Vegan Society