The Vegan Autumn 1965

Page 1

T H E VEGAN SOCIETY Founded November,


Veganism is a way of living which excludes all forms of exploitation erf, and cruelty to, the animal kingdom, and includes a reverence and compassion for all life. It applies to the practice of living on the products of the plant kingdom to the exclusion of flesh, fish, fowl, eggs, honey, animal milk and its derivatives, and encourages the use of alternatives for all commodities derived wholly or in part from animals. Veganism remembers man's responsibilities to the earth and its resources and seeks to bring about a healthy soil and plant kingdom and a proper use of the materials of the earth. President: Dr. FREY ELLIS, , Epsom, Surrey. Deputy-President: Mrs. E. B. SHRIGLEY, Purley, Surrey. Vice-Presidents: Mrs. MURIEL DRAKE, Dr. CATHERINE NIMMO, Miss MABEL SIMMONS, Miss WINIFRED SIMMONS. Honorary Secretary: Mrs. EVA BATT, Enfield, Middlesex. Honorary Treasurer: Dr. FREY ELLIS, Epsom, Surrey. Assistant Teasu CE SMITH, (to whom all subscriptions should be sent), , Epsom, Surrey. Committee: Mr. E. T . BANKS, Mr. H. T . BONNIE, Mrs. SERENA N . COLES, M r . JACK MOCLELLAND, M r . M . MCCULLOCH, M r s . E . B. SHRIGLEY, M r . SAM WOLF, M r . W . H . C . WRIGHT, B.SC., N . D . , D . O . , M . B . N . O . A . Vegan Distribution Secretary: Mrs. SERENA COLES, 3 Riddlesdown Avenue,

Purfey, Surrey. Minimum subscription, which includes "The Vegan", 15s. per annum (and 7s. 6d. for each additional member of one family at same residence); 7s. 6d. if age under 18; payable in January. Life Membership, £10 10s. Od.

THE VEGAN JOURNAL OF THE VEGAN SOCIETY Editor: Mr. JACK SANDERSON, , Upminster, Essex. Advertisements: H. H. GREAVES LTD., 106/110 Lordship Lane, London, S.E.22. Rates: Whole page—£10 0s. 0d.; Half page—£6 0s. 0d.; Quarter page—£3 10s. Od. Published quarterly: Annual subscription, 10s. post free; single copies, 2s. 6d. post free. Obtainable from the Hon. Secretary.

LITERATURE " T h e Reasons for Veganism." 4 page leaflet. Free. "Vegan Protein Nutrition." 12 page leaflet. Is. 3d. post free. " A Handbook of Practical Veganism." 24 pages with cover. 2s. 9d. post free. "Unnecessary Cruelties among Farm Animals." 8 page leaflet. 6d. post free. " T h e Vegetarian and Vegan Food Guide." 2s. 6d. post free. "Vegans and Vivisection." 8 page leaflet. 6d. post free. All obtainable from the Hon. Secretary (cheques and postal orders made out to " The Vegan Society ").


of the Vegan Society AUTUMN, 1965

EDITORIAL " Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few." Those famous words enshrined a turning point in history, a central point and probably the most vital point of a six-year conflict which was fought in the main to safeguard the liberty of western—if not all—mankind. They who fought that battle and he who uttered those words have jointly and recently been honoured and remembered on Sunday, September 19th, in Westminster Abbey. The man who directed that air battle was the man we now know as Lord Dowding. On Monday, September 6th, occurred another event also close to the heart and mind of Lord Dowding—but this time not directed by him. On this occasion his wife (the Lady Dowding) was the central figure, for on this day the Beauty Without Cruelty movement which she inspired and leads opened its Boutique at 49 Upper Montagu Street, London, W.l, with the object of selling goods that have been produced without cruelty, having occasioned no pain or terror to the animal kingdom. We were very privileged on the occasion of our Annual Dinner in 1964 to have both Lord and Lady Dowding with us, as well as Ruth Harrison, who has probably done more than anyone else to focus public attention on the cruelties involved in modern farming methods, and Dr. Gordon Latto, who is President of The Vegetarian Society. Our Annual Dinner and A.G.M. of 1965 will also mark an important occasion, important to us and perhaps later to the world—the twenty-first anniversary of the founding of the Vegan Society. Elsewhere in this and succeeding issues, the story of the founding and early life of the Society will be given, and as we read of those " few " who met in the Attic Club, near to Holborn Tube Station, one November day in 1944, let us honour those who had the courage to follow where their hearts and minds led them, for they founded the Society when rationing

was at its worst and when there were no " lists of alternatives " available and very few of so many products and foodstuffs that we now take for granted. Some of those pioneers are still with us and hope to be with us at this year's dinner. Inevitably our numbers are small, being officially numbered in hundreds (although there are probably hundreds more who are not members), for to join a society like ours does not just involve the payment of a subscription, but a fundamental change in day-to-day life and outlook, and the change for most of us is a gradual evolutionary one. The logical outcome of vegetarianism is veganism, and we are told that the general climate of opinion at the recent International Vegetarian Union Conference at Swanwick, in Derbyshire, was very sympathetic towards veganism, and a paper relating to veganism was read there. (Reference to it will be made in our next issue.) The pathways to veganism are many and varied. For most it is through vegetarianism. For others it is via Beauty Without Cruelty. For many it is via movements concerned with Animal Welfare, some sectional ones, such as anti-hunting of foxes, hares, whales, etc., or the abolition of circuses or vivisection, or all-embracing ones such as the Crusade Against Cruelty, whose nine years of devoted work have undoubtedly prepared the ground for Ruth Harrison's onslaught, whilst others, persuaded by an inner voice, come quite alone to it. The Society serves as a rallying point, and through its journal keeps members informed of the growing implications of veganism, keeps them in touch with trends and practices and through recipes and commodity lists is of great help to all those finding their way. The committee and others who have selflessly done and continue to do the spade work are preparing the way for and will be blessed by the hundreds, then thousands, then millions who are to follow. " Rarely in the field of human endeavour will so much be owed by so many to so few." The value to posterity of the work of those who have prepared lists of alternatives and those who by personal experiment have created the pathways to the practical side of veganism is incalculable, whilst those who dwell on the theoretical aspects of veganism realise that it is the spearhead of a great spiritual impulse of compassion which works also through many other organisations and individuals. In so far as this spirit permeates these organisations, then will the hearts and minds of the members be opened to ever-wider objectives. The practical outworking of this impulse will gradually transform the world, for it is concerned with and cares for all life, human, animal, plant and mineral. A young man on his twenty-first birthday is only at the beginning of his work, and as the Vegan Society gradually discovers the main outlines of the impulse behind it, the detailed application which reaches into every part of life presents a great task for the future both as a Society and for 2

each of us as individuals. We value the excellent work being done in America by Mr. Jay Dinshah and his associates, and we are glad that he will be with us and address us at the A.G.M. We hope that similar societies will arise in other countries and that we shall perhaps have an International Vegan Union before long. The twenty-first birthday weekend will be a happy social time to which we all look forward. We can also use it to discuss the future tasks of the Society and how we can fulfil them. Each one of us can re-dedicate himself or herself to some special part of the work that is possible within our individual circumstances and so strengthen and widen the work that has been so selflessly and excellently begun. J. SANDERSON.

A MESSAGE FROM THE SECRETARY I am looking forward to meeting many of you and your friends on the happy occasion of our twenty-first celebration Dinner, Dance and Cabaret at the Cora Hotel, Upper Woburn Place, London, W.C.I, on October 31st. Please send to me as soon as possible if you wish to book tickets (5s. will reserve). Sunday has been chosen for the convenience of out-of-town supporters ; and for those who must stay overnight, the Sharuna Hotel, 107 Great Russell Street, W.C.I (close by Tottenham Court Road Tube Station), has some accommodation and can supply vegan meals on request. Parking. On Sundays there is ample parking space nearby. The Reception will be from 6 p.m. and Dinner at 7. Dress will be optional. Upper Woburn Place joins Tavistock Square and Euston Road and is within easy walking distance of both Russell Square and King's Cross Stations. We know that many of our members have no other vegans living nearby and often feel " alone " and out of things. Come along and meet other members and vegan sympathisers, and help us to make this celebration a really happy occasion to be remembered for long afterwards. We shall never be exactly twenty-one again you know! Until our Birthday then, cheerio. EVA BATT. PORTSMOUTH FOOD FAIR AND HEALTH EXHIBITION This exhibition, held during June, was entirely vegetarian and mostly vegan, and was visited by 8,000 people during the twelve days it was open. It received good publicity on the B.B.C., including an interview with Michael Maybury, owner of the local health food store and organiser of the Fair. A very great effort and an encouraging result! 3

THE ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING The Twenty-First Annual General Meeting of the Vegan Society will be held on Saturday, October 30th, 1965, at 2.30 p.m. at the Alliance Hall, Palmer Street, Westminster, London, S.W.I (next to the Caxton Hall and near St. James's Park Underground Station). Only members may vote. AGENDA 1.—Chairman's remarks. 2.—Minutes of last Annual General Meeting. 3.—Matters arising therefrom. 4.—Executive Committee's Report. 5.—Treasurer's Report. 6.—Election of Officers and Committee. 7.—Resolutions. 8.—Any other business. Present Officers President: Dr. Frey Ellis. Deputy-President: Mrs. E. B. Shrigley. Vice-Presidents: Mrs. M. Drake, Dr. C. Nimmo, Miss M. Simmons, Miss W. Simmons. Hon. Secretary: Mrs. E. Batt. Hon. Treasurer: Dr. Frey Ellis. Hon. Editor: Mr. J. Sanderson, B.Sc. Committee: Mr. E. T. Banks, Mr. H. T. Bonnie, Mrs. S. N. Coles, Mr. J. McClelland, Mr. M. McCulloch, Mrs. E. B. Shrigley, Mr. S. Wolf, Mr. W. H. C. Wright, B.Sc., D.N., D.O., M.B.N.O.A. Postal nominations for Officers and Committee must be received by the Secretary by Saturday, October 9th. The business meeting will be followed by an interval for refreshments at about 4.30 p.m. Then there will be two speakers : (1) Miss L. Sandys, of the Animal Machine Action Group (inspired by Ruth Harrison's book), will speak of the work of her Society. (2) Mr. Jay Dinshah, President of the American Vegan Society, will speak on "A World to Win." You are asked to put everything aside just this once and to attend both days—Saturday at the Dinner and Sunday at the A.G.M.—and so help to make it a memorable weekend. Friends may attend for the tea and speeches. 4



As first Secretary of the Vegan Society, and first Editor of The Vegan, I have been invited to write some notes on the early days of the Society, and on the forces that led to its formation. The impending twenty-first birthday of veganism as an organised movement is an appropriate time to do this, before memories fail and ear.y records are lost. Long before 1944, individuals in the vegetarian movement had experimented with diets free from all foods of animal origin, but these pioneers were few and far between, and no attempt appears to have been made to bring them together. Opposition to their " extremism " came frequently from their fellow vegetarians, and even so great a writer for the cause as Henry Salt referred derisively in his " Logic of Vegetarianism " to the " cock-andbull " arguments used by critics of vegetarianism when they discussed the inconsistencies arising from the use of dairy produce and eggs. However, the 1930's and early 1940's brought events that meant changes in thought and outlook. The movement was being influenced by the forces of evolution. In 1938, the Arnold F. Mills Memorial Lecture was given by Dr. White, of the Stonefield Maternity Home, who took as his subject " Health Without Dairy Produce "; Dr. White's partner, Dr. Pink, testified repeatedly in his lectures and writings to the superior condition of babies reared without cow's milk; orthodox dieticians were beginning to question the long-held belief that proteins from animals were superior to those from plants ; the Coventry Vegetarian Society, through the enthusiasm of Frank and Kathleen Mayo, staged a Vegetarian Supper Without Dairy Produce which received glowing praise from Frank Wyatt, Editor of The Vegetarian News ; the Croydon Vegetarian Society carried almost unanimously the motion " That vegetarians should aim at eliminating dairy produce "; Ber.t Jones, in his writings on world and national food supply, illustrated the enormous economic advantages of what he called a " vegetal " diet; the Leicester Vegetarian Society issued a cookery booklet entitled "Vegetarian Recipes Without Dairy Produce," a large edition of which was taken by The London Vegetarian Society ; I wrote an article, "Should Vegetarians Eat Dairy Produce?" which was printed in The Vegetarian Messenger and later in pamphlet form. In such a changed atmosphere it was not surprising that many vegetarians were trying diets of greater humanitarian consistency and accepting that butchery and dairy farming were related industries and subsidised each other. 5

To establish an exchange of ideas, an approach was made to The Vegetarian Society asking for a section of the magazine to be devoted to " non-dairy vegetarianism," but this request was not granted. In response to a letter I had in The Vegetarian Messenger thirty readers sent me 1/- to cover the cost of the first four quarterly issues of a news-sheet I had offered to publish. Under the title The Vegan News the first issue appeared, in duplicated form of four pages, in November, 1944. Five issues were published. The last had twelve pages and circulated to more than five hundred subscribing members. The response had been far greater than anticipated, and letters poured in at twenty or thirty a day. Many were deeply philosophical and called for long answers. Many did not contain a stamp for the reply, which added to the difficulties of a conscientious objector who for three years had been trying to live on a reduced salary of £2 a week! I was working single-handed and frequently never went to bed. As a sideline I was also Secretary of the Leicester Vegetarian Society—a flourishing organisation with regular monthly meetings and which was preparing to receive the May Meetings of The Vegetarian Society in 1945. The severe rationing at the time added further to the conditions which gave the vegan movement a difficult birth. The following paragraph from the first issue of The Vegan News is of historic significance : — " Wanted—A Name We should all consider carefully what our Group, and our magazine, and ourselves, shall be called. ' Non-dairy ' has become established as a generally understood colloquialism, but, like ' non-lacto,' it is too negative. Moreover, it does not imply that we are opposed to the use of eggs as food. We need a name that suggests what we do eat, and if possible one that conveys the idea that even with all animal foods taboo, Nature still offers us a bewildering assortment from which to choose. . . . As this first issue of our periodical had to be named, I have used the title The Vegan News Should we adopt this, our diet will soon become known as a VEGAN diet, and we shall aspire to the ranks of VEGANS. Members' suggestions will be welcomed. . . . " More than a hundred letters were received commenting on the issue of The Vegan News No. 1. Concerning the name, these suggestions were made: — G.A.H.—"Allvega, with Allvegan as magazine title." P.S.—" Neo-vegetarians. Keep the word vegetarian, always referring to ' the others ' as lacto-vegetarians—until it sticks!" F.G.B.—" Dairybans." L.D.—" Vitans." S.D.S.—" Would you like to be known as a Benevore, editing ' The Benevore News '? No, neither should I. Nor a Sanivore? 6

Beaumangeur? The one suggests disinfectant, the other something soft, wobbly and very dairy. Non-dairy is non-grammar. I must leave it to more able minds than mine to devise a title I can wear." The word vegan won the day, and it appears to have been a good solution to a difficult problem. It has become internationally accepted, and has found a place in some modern dictionaries. Again, quoting from The Vegan News No. 2, we were encouraged by the following, taken from our correspondence: — " . . . Logically and humanely you occupy an unassailable position. If man is to supersede himself and become really man, not merely half-animal and half-man, he will be compelled to leave the animal half completely behind him, including the leaving of dairy produce out of his diet. Other advances in human understanding, feeling, intuition, and will, are necessary to man's emancipation, besides the advance in Humane Diet, but the latter is by no means the least important of the superfining methods."—MILTON

POWELL, N . D . ,


" I can do without eggs, milk and cheese without being any the worse. They have never at any time been an important part of my diet."—G. BERNARD SHAW. " The appearance of your quarterly may prove to be of just as historic value as the meeting in Ramsgate in 1847."—W. S. JAMES.

The Vegan News, No. 3, published in May, 1945, brought the first news that a movement with a democratic Constitution was emerging, and that veganism was to develop as a philosophy of life. The following members had consented to serve on a temporary committee until a democratically elected committee could be formed: Mr. and Mrs. G. A. Henderson, Mr. and Mrs. A. H. Haffenden, Mr. and Mrs. G. Crocker, Mrs. W. Shrigley, Mr. B. Drake, and Mr. P. Spencer. This committee met in London on April 8th, 1945, and discussed at length the aims of the movement. It was decided that the Society, which had developed from a small group of " non-dairy " vegetarians, should work for the abolition not only of foods from animals, but of commodities from animals too, especially those originating from slaughterhouses. A Vegan Trade List was to be prepared. The first Annual Meeting was held at The Attic Club, High Holborn, London, on December 15th, 1945. At that meeting the Society became democratically constituted and I was able to begin to discharge the great load of work to other shoulders and return to normal life. A fuller account (of the early history of the Society) is contained in the fifty pages of the first five issues of The Vegan News. They make interesting reading, for it is not every day that a movement is born which in its general application could revolutionise mankind. 7

Many members have asked for copies of the first issues of " The Vegan," and we have pleasure in printing a copy of No. 1, of which there are now but a few copies in existence. Readers will readily excuse a little repetition here and there of the previous article.


Price 2d. (post free 3d.). No. 1


Yearly subscription 1 /NOVEMBER, 1944

The recent articles and letters in " The Vegetarian Messenger" on the question of the use of dairy produce have revealed very strong evidence to show that the production of these foods involves much cruel exploitation and slaughter of highly sentient life. The excuse that it is not necessary to kill in order to obtain dairy produce is untenable for those with a knowledge of livestock farming methods and of the competition which even humanitarian farmers must face if they are to remain in business. For years many of us accepted, as lacto-vegetarians, that the flesh-food industry and the dairy produce industry were related, and that in some ways they subsidised one another. We accepted, therefore, that the case on ethical grounds for the disuse of these foods was exceptionally strong, and we hoped that sooner or later a crisis in our conscience would set us free. That freedom has now come to us. Having followed a diet free from all animal food for periods varying from a few weeks in some cases, to many years in others, we believe our ideas and experiences are sufficiently mature to be recorded. The unquestionable cruelty associated with the production of dairy produce has made it clear that lacto-vegetarianism is but a half-way house between flesh-eating and a truly humane, civilised diet and we think, therefore, that during our life on earth we should try to evolve sufficiently to make the " full journey." We can see quite plainly that our present civilisation is built on the exploitation of animals, just as past civilisations were built on the exploitation of slaves, and we believe the spiritual destiny of man is such that in time he will view with abhorrence the idea that men once fed on the products of animals' bodies. Even though the scientific evidence may be lacking, we shrewdly suspect that the great impediment to man's moral development may be that he is a parasite of lower forms of animal life. Investigation into non-material (vibrational) properties of foods has yet 8

barely begun, and it is not likely that the usual materialistic methods of research will be able to help much with it. But is it not possible that as a result of eliminating all animal vibrations from eur diet we may discover the way not only to really healthy cell construction, but also to a degree of intuition and psychic awareness unknown at present? A common criticism is that the time is not yet ripe for our reform. Can time ever be ripe for any reform unless it is ripened by human determination? Did Wilberforce wait for the " ripening " of time before he commenced his fight against slavery? Did Edwin Chadwick, Lord Shaftesbury, and Charles Kingsley wait for such a non-existent moment before trying to convince the great dead weight of public opinion that clean water and bathrooms would be an improvement? If they had declared their intention to poison everybody the opposition they met could hardly have been greater. There is an obvious danger in leaving the fulfilment of our ideals to posterity, for posterity may not have our ideals. Evolution can be retrogressive as well as progressive, indeed there seems always to be a strong gravitation the wrong way unless existing standards are guarded and new visions honoured. For this reason we have formed our Group, the first of its kind, we believe, in this or any other country. Organisation of the Group Our twenty-five Members are scattered far and wide, therefore a Committee is not possible. In the absence of other volunteers I have undertaken the duties of Hon. Secretary, Hon. Treasurer, and Hon. Auditor, and if this undemocratic Constitution offends, I am open to receive suggestions of any scheme that would enable me, either intentionally or accidentally, to embezzle the Group's funds from subscriptions of a shilling a year! The work of the Group at first will be confined to the propaganda contained in the Bulletin. Very great interest has recently been aroused by our arguments, and it seems certain that the Bulletin will be widely read. Many orders for the first four quarterly issues have already been received, and more will come when we advertise. Mr. J. W. Robertson Scott, Editor of " The Countryman," has written to us—" I should be glad to hear what success you have in collecting non-dairy produce consumers. I have always felt that from the agricultural point of view the vegetarian occupies an illogical position, for just as eggs cannot be produced without killing cockerels, dairy produce cannot be economically got without the co-operation of the butcher." The clarity by which vegetarians generally are seeing this issue is well represented by the result of a recent debate arranged by the Croydon Vegetarian Society, when the motion was carried almost unanimously " That vegetarians should aim at eliminating all dairy produce." If we remember rightly the voting was 30 to 2. 9

Our Members are pronounced individualists, not easily scared by criticism, and filled with the spirit of pioneers, and one feels they will never allow their magazine to degenerate into a purely secretarial production. All are invited to subscribe something periodically to make the magazine interesting, useful, and thought provoking. Could we have a series of articles (of about 500 -words) on " My Spiritual Philosophy "? Articles, letters, recipes, diet charts, health records, press cuttings, gardening hints, advice on baby culture, advertisements (free to Members), all will be welcome. Letters of criticism from those who disagree with us will also be published. This is real pioneer work, and if we co-operate fully we shall certainly see an advancement in humanitarian practice, and perhaps we shall reveal some otherwise inaccessible dietetic truths. Let us remember how very much of modern dietetic research is fostered by vested interests and performed in vivisection laboratories, and that incidentally we are still without much data concerning the merits of diets free from animal food. We know that domesticated animals today are almost universally diseased, therefore so long as 99.9999% of the population consume the products of these diseased bodies, how are we to measure the mischief such foods may be doing? A hundred people living strictly on a " live " non-animal diet for a few years would furnish data of inestimable value. Government grants have been made for much less useful social work! Wanted—a Name We should all consider carefully what our Group, and our magazine, and ourselves, shall be called. " Non-dairy" has become established as a generally understood colloquialism, but like " non-Iacto " it is too negative. Moreover it does not imoly that we are opposed to the use of eggs as food. We need a name that suggests what we do eat, and if possible one that conveys the idea that even with all animal foods taboo, Nature still offers us a bewildering assortment from which to choose. " Vegetarian " and " Fruitarian " are already associated with societies that allow the " fruits " (!) of cows and fowls, therefore it seems we must make a new and appropriate word. As this first issue of our periodical had to be named, I have used the title " The Vegan News." Should we adopt this, our diet will soon become known as a VEGAN diet, and we should aspire to the ranks of VEGANS. Members' suggestions will be welcomed. The virtue of having a short title is best known to those of us who, as secretaries of vegetarian societies, have to type or write the word vegetarian thousands of times a year! Our Relations with the Lacto-Vegetarians The object of our Group is to state a case for a reform that we think is moral, safe and logical. In doing so we shall, of 10

course, say strongly why we condemn the use of dairy produce and eggs. In return we shall expect to be criticised. It will be no concern of ours if we fail to convert others, but we do think it should concern them if, deep in their hearts, they know we are right. In any case, there need be no animosity between ourselves and the "lactos." We all accept that lacto-vegetarianism has a well appointed place in dietary evolution, and for this reason several of us spend a great deal of our time working for the lacto-vegetarian Cause. During recent years the two national vegetarian societies have devoted much space in their magazines to this question of the use of dairy produce, and we have every reason to believe they will attach importance to our work and occasionally report on it. (Before forming the Group, the suggestion was made to The Vegetarian Society that such a Section be formed as part of the Society. The suggestion was considered sympathetically by the Committee, who decided that the full energies of the Society must continue to be applied to the task of abolishing flesh-eating, and that any such Group would, therefore, be freer to act as an independent body.) The need to prove that it is possible to thrive without dairy produce is, of course, far too important for any lacto-vegetarian to ignore. To resign oneself to lacto-vegetarianism as a satisfactory solution to the diet problem is to accept a sequence of horrible farmyard and slaughter-house incidents as part of an inevitable Divine Plan. Need it be added that it would imply too accepting the spectacle of a grown man attached to the udder of a cow as a dignified and rational intention on the part of Nature! Without making any claims to self-righteousness, we feel in a strong position to criticise lacto-vegetarianism, because the worst we can say will be but a repetition of criticism we have already levelled against themselves. Therefore we shall express the Truth as we see it and feel it, and though our friends the lacto-vegetarians may reject our ideas if they wish, we hope they will not reject us for stating them. Concerning Ourselves So far as we are aware, every Member of our Group has discarded the use of dairy produce for humanitarian reasons. We are not by any means ignorant of orthodox dietetic theories, and in exercising our moral conviction we find we must refute some of these theories. We do so without fear because we feel that a moral philosophy combined with a dash of common sense is a more rational guide than theories hatched in vivisection laboratories. We will not accept that adequate nutrition need violate conscience. We question very strongly whether those dieticians who laud the praises of animal proteins have ever tried living on a sensible diet free from such proteins, and if they have not, we fail to see how they can pass useful judgment. We know that man's anatomy is unquestionably frugivorous. We know 11

that milk drinking by adults is an absurdity never intended by Nature. We know that we are at least as well without dairy produce as we were with it. We know that 40% at least of cows are now tubercular. We know that pasteurisation enables the milk retailers to sell milk several days old. We know what •happens to those who feed on the "nourishing first-class proteins" recommended by orthodox dieticians—they nearly all die of malignant and filthy diseases. Heaven help us if our diet fails us to anything iike the same degree! Apart from saying that we are " Quite well, thanks," we consider the time perhaps premature to make any great claims for the physiological superiority of our diet. Humbly, your Secretary is able to state that he can now cycle 230 miles in a day, whereas years ago when he stoked himself with milk and eggs he was ready for Bed and Breakfast after doing half that distance. He can also dig his allotments for ten hours a day without feeling any different next morning, but we must be careful in making claims lest the world hears of us and expects to meet eight-foot, rosy-cheeked, muscular monsters who are immune to all ills of the flesh. We may be sure that should anything so much as a pimple ever appear to mar the beauty of our physical form, it will be entirely due in the eyes of the world to our own silly fault for not eating " proper food." Against such a pimple the great plagues of diseases now ravaging nearly all members of civilised society (who live on " proper food ") will pass unnoticed. It is as well that we gird ourselves to meet our critics! In our more reflective moments we cannot help thinking that there are greater risks in life than living on clean salads, fruits, nuts, and whole cereals. We can hardly wish to be classed as moral giants because we choose to live on a diet so obviously favouring self-preservation. Believing that some Members may wish to correspond with each other, we propose to publish in our next issue their names and addresses. Any Member preferring not to be included in the list should let me know. We hear that a pamphlet opposing the use of milk was written forty years ago by a Harley Street specialist. Does any Member happen to know anything of this publication? Concerning Those Not Yet With Us We agree that to eliminate all dairy produce creates personal difficulties which vary in magnitude from one individual to another. We agree also that the present is not the easiest time to make such a change, but we think that in laying the foundations of our Movement now, many will soon join us as one of their " Peace Aims." We know that there is particular unrest in the minds of vegetarians generally concerning the use of rennet in cheese-making, and as this appears to be the most glaring inconsistency of lacto-vegetarianism, we suggest that 12

others do as we did and eliminate cheese first. Our friend and fellow member Dugald Semple tells us he has never tasted cheese, therefore it cannot be considered as an essential "binding agent" for body and soul! The following passage from the editorial of the current issue of " The Vegetarian News " does not, we think, allow of much argument: " Most vegetarians are doubtless aware that the use of calves' rennet in the production of cheese has always presented a problem to anyone of humane principles, necessitating as it does the killing of calves to obtain the rennet. In the supposed absence of any purely vegetarian substitute for rennet some vegetarians abstain altogether from the use of cheese, except for the simple cottage varieties, while probably the majority of vegetarians take their ration of ordinary cheese and try to forget the incidence of the calves' rennet in its making." Should moralists dissipate their energies trying to forget such things? During the war eggs have all but vanished, and they can readily be dispensed with for good without any sense of loss if one dwells on the fact that they are for the most part nothing more than reconstituted grubs and beetles! The elimination of milk undoubtedly presents the greatest difficulty. Nut milk is a good substitute, but it does not go well in tea (therefore cut out the tea and add yet another ten years to your life!). Those of us who have lived for long periods without dairy produce are able to give the assurance that we remain well and strong ; that we enjoy our food as much as ever, and that once the new diet has been arranged the sight and smell of dairy produce is soon forgotten. , DONALD W A T S O N . Leicester. November 24th, 1944. MESSAGES OF CONGRATULATIONS We have received many Twenty-first Birthday congratulations from other societies and leading figures in reform movements of a parallel nature, and the following is a selection: — From H. Jay Dinshah, President of the American Vegan Society: — " It is with great pleasure that we observe the ' coming of age' of the parent society of veganism in modern times. It is particularly gratifying to note the highly favourable impressions that are being made, in both conventional and vegetarian circles, by the ethical principles of veganism. We are aware that this progress has been realised through constant effort, and through a willingness to extend understanding and co-operation whilst maintaining a forthright and independent viewpoint of a highly advanced character. 13

It is our cherished hope and expectation that in the decades to come the Vegan Society will continue to play an everincreasing role of leadership in the vital struggle to build a much kinder and more peaceful world. Yours for Ahinsa." From Dr. Gordon Latto, President of The Vegetarian Society: — " I would like to congratulate the Vegan Society on reaching its twenty-first year—a great achievement. Great difficulties have been surmounted by those who have had the courage to follow this noble way of living. Vegetarianism is one step towards the ideal. Vegetarianism, if adopted in a balanced scientific way, would help the health of the peoples, lessen the unnecessary suffering imposed on the creatures, help the economy of the world and help to solve the pressing and perplexing problem of undernutrition, and would finally lead to a fuller understanding of veganism. I greatly admire the work the vegans are doing and wish them every success and encouragement." From Geoffrey L. Ritdd, Secretary of The Vegetarian Society and also of The International Vegetarian Union :— " May I congratulate the Vegan Society on its Coming of Age and hope that for many more years it will continue to play its part in pushing back the frontiers of our movement—perhaps it would be more appropriate to say ' in reaching up to our highest ideals.' We all acknowledge that veganism is ethically desirable and the next logical step in our dietary evolution. Those of us who work in the vegetarian movement see, perhaps, a flow from orthodox feeding to ordinary vegetarianism and then to veganism. Probably this progression is less alarming for the newcomer. Your pioneering work is most important, and we wish you every success. We applaud the way in which problems are being tackled and the tremendous energy which goes into research and gathering information, but most of all we are grateful for the selfless spirit with which this great burden of reform is being borne." From Ronald Lightowler, Secretary of The London Vegetarian Society: — " I was very pleased to be invited to contribute a message of congratulation to the Vegan Society on the occasion of its celebration of the completion of the twenty-first year of its existence. During the nearly fifteen years of my Secretaryship of The London Vegetarian Society, the relationship between our two organisations has been most cordial, and we have co-operated, whenever possible, in joint efforts to further our common cause. May that harmony and common effort continue and increase in the years ahead, as we endeavour to persuade more and more 14

of our fellow human beings to renounce the ' flesh-pots ' and to join with us in establishing a better order of life as a means to increasing the happiness, health and full well-being of all mankind and all harmless creatures." From Woodland Kahler, the Marquis de St. Innocent, President of the International Vegetarian Union: — " I am glad to know the Vegan Society of Great Britain has come of age this autumn, and I send my congratulations to all surviving vegans who have remained undaunted by the loud chorus of lacto-vegetarian Cassandras. In my opinion, based on considerable personal experience, vegans do not need to fear a lack of that mysterious B12 factor to be found in the intestinal tracts of fruitarian man and gorilla. I believe the need is not to supply additional amounts of B12 in the form of drugstore vitamins, but to avoid irritants which are known to destroy the B12 complex. In my travels round the world I have observed that almost all vegetarians consider veganism to be the highest form of vegetarianism, and I am a member of this majority. For a number of years, while living in Northern New Hampshire, near the Canadian border, where in winter the temperature drops to forty below zero and frost may be expected eleven months out of twelve, both my wife and I maintained excellent health on a strictly vegan diet. The I.V.U. greatly appreciates the contribution the vegans are making to the world-vegetarian movement, and I hope more and more vegetarians will find it possible to lift their words, deeds and thoughts to the high vegan level of Ahimsa." From The Lady Dowding, Founder of "Beauty Without Cruelty " : — " I would like to say that I know of the effort, work and more work it takes to found and, what is more, deal with a growing society, and I do congratulate the Vegan Society on the stalwart members who have brought it to adulthood—and for the work it does, so parallel with ' Beauty Without C r u e l t y i n showing people how not to exploit, torture and kill the animals who share the earth with us." From Ruth Harrison, author of "Animal Machines": — " While we TALK, you ACT. I take my hat off to you, vegans! Congratulations on your twenty-first." From Margaret Cooper, Secretary of the Crusade: — "The Crusade Against All Cruelty to Animals sends congratulations and best wishes to the Vegan Society on its twenty-first anniversary. Nine years ago, in the early days of the Crusade, its Founder, Michael Fryer, received from the Vegan Society the assurance of Its belief in the importance of the Crusade's 15

all-embracing policy and proposals for implementing this belief. In addition, the Vegan Society pledged itself to act as an ambassador of goodwill for the Crusade in its relations with other groups and movements. Such mutual goodwill between societies possessing a common aim is utterly essential for real progress. May it prosper in the years to come." From Dr. Frank Wokes, Director of the Vegetarian Nutritional Research Centre: — " Congratulations to the Vegan Society on its coming of age. May it always remain young in spirit and mature in judgment." From Dr. Frey R. Ellis, President of the Vegan Society: — " The coming of age of the Vegan Society coincides with a universal interest in the possibility and necessity of men eventually adopting a non-animal diet. The long struggles of all members now begin to show results. Research into all aspects of veganism is producing much material which will help for the basis of future world nutrition. This work is possible because of the continuous co-operation of those taking part and also by the support of all vegans throughout the world." From Mrs. Sally Shrigley, Deputy President of the Vegan Society: — " 1944 to 1965! What memories I have of those years—the first meeting on Sunday, November 5th, 1944 (a sunny day), at the Attic Club, near Holborn Station, when the name Vegan was decided and future plans discussed! The meetings, socials and annual general meetings were very enthusiastic. In 1950 some vegans were ill, and I remember with gratitude the help given to us by vegetarian doctors and Dr. F. Wokes. Dr. Pink invited us to a meeting at Blackheath, and other meetings were at the Nature Cure Clinic, and they were all very helpful. In 1933 vit. B12 was isolated and the vegan diet became safe for all. It was also shown, by publications, that the true vegan diet is varied and balanced. We have had wonderful officials and committee members throughout the life of the Vegan Society. I am more thrilled than most that the Society is celebrating its twenty-first birthday. I hope to be with the Society when it celebrates its quarter centenary in four years' time! " From Dr. C. Nimmo, D.C., of California, Vice-President of the Vegan Society: — " In a world torn by human and animal slaughter, vivisection, etc., ethical, moral, compassionate veganism in its highest aspects can and should play an important role as a balm on serious wounds. Veganism, based on Universal Love and Good Will, offers a solution to many basic problems in life to those who are willing to learn and apply its highest principles." 16

THE LABELLING OF FOOD PETITION We are sure that our members, and many of their friends, will wish to support the National Association for Health by adding their names to the enclosed Petition. This, if successful, will make it compulsory for all food to be clearly marked with the ingredients used. Although this includes many things (battery v. " free-range " eggs, etc.) with which the vegan is not directly concerned (happily!), it would also mean that foods containing butter, milk, eggs, etc., could be easily identified. Also the doubtful, or dangerous, additives lurking in so many foods would be known to the purchaser (dyes, preservatives, softeners, chemical fertilisers, hormones, bleaches, etc.). We appreciate the practical work in this field which is being done by the National Association for Health. It already has the backing of many national organisations. One million signatures are required to sweep aside the obstruction of vested interests and to induce action by Parliament. Please do not return the forms to us, they should go direct to the National Association. Thank you. (The article below is reprinted from a recent issue of " Here's Health.") THE LABELLING OF FOOD BILL The Labelling of Food Bill, based on an article in Here's Health and sponsored by the National Association for Health with all-Party support, obtained its First Reading in Parliament without opposition. The Bill was introduced by Mrs. Joyce Butler, M.P., supported by Mrs. Braddock, Sir Stephen McAdden, Mr. John Farr, Mr. John Rankin and Mr. Jeremy Thorpe. The Bill provides that no person shall sell any food, confectionery or cosmetic which contains any additive except where its presence is disclosed. The Act interprets " additive" as " any colouring matter, flavouring or preservative or any chemical substance added to food for the purpose of any process of manufacture." Natural health foods would be exempt, but mass-produced groceries would need to disclose the full range of chemical additives used for colouring, flavouring, " shelf-life " or mere manufacturing convenience. The Bill provides that both pre-packed and loose food, confectionery and cosmetics containing chemical additives must bear labels or display cards containing the words " DYED WITH," "FLAVOURED WITH," "PRESERVED W I T H " and/or " TREATED WITH," followed in each case by full disclosure of all additives employed. 17

In the case of meat raised with antibiotic feeds, hormone injections or other artificial aids, butchers would need to display a notice bearing the words " RAISED WITH," followed by particulars of all artificial methods used in rearing the livestock concerned. " Battery" eggs would thus be immediately distinguishable. Finally, vegetables and fruit -which had been sprayed with arsenic or any other chemical insecticide could only be sold with an accompanying notice bearing the words " TREATED WITH," followed by disclosure of the insecticides used. Pre-packed foods would have to reveal all chemical additives prominently on the label. Loose foods, sweets, meats, vegetables and fruit containing additives would have the " DYED WITH," "FLAVOURED WITH," "PRESERVED W I T H " and/or " TREATED WITH " notices exhibited " in a prominent position and, if not attached to the food to which it relates, in such a position as clearly to relate to that food. All words so required shall be in block letters of equal size, legibly printed and conspicuously visible." The Bill is based on the article entitled "Add All Additives " published in Here's Health in October, 1964, and subsequently reprinted by the National Association for Health. Copies of the " Labelling of Food " Bill are now obtainable from H.M.S.O. (Bill 73), price Is. 6d. A N






At this office we get many letters of enquiry from nonmembers. To every one we reply fully and enclose samples of our literature. The cost to the Society is considerable, about 3s. 6d. each (6s. when the writer asks for a sample copy of The Vegan). We are pleased to do this, and we should be sorry if the flow of letters dried up, as it would mean a lack of interest in the vegan way of life but as, of course, only a few join the Society immediately, we are often very worried about where the next stamp is coming from. Many of our members appreciate our difficulties, and some of you regularly enclose that little extra with your subs. We are very grateful for this. However, costs do nothing but rise regularly and steadily, and any extra help you can give to enable us to keep this service going will be most enthusiastically received by the Treasurer or me ; it does not matter where you address it, the Society will use every penny to further the vegan way of life. Best wishes to you all. EVA BATT. The second article on Eva Batt's West Indian tour has been deferred to our next issue. 18




Let us begin with some good news. Alfonal Maizy Margarine. Since Messrs. Alfonal decided to add milk to this product, many of our members have written to the makers and to us expressing their disappointment and regret that this excellent margarine was no longer suitable for vegans. Now we are very pleased indeed to be able to quote from a recent letter from Alfonal. " Maizy Margarine is now made without skimmed milk solids and it is completely vegan in every respect." As Maizy contains no saturated fats, chemical flavourings, dyes or preservatives, but is made from corn oil, we can now thoroughly recommend it to our members on all counts. The manufacturers' description, "the breadspread of health," would seem to be well deserved. Maizy Brand Corn Oil now contains Alphium, a stabilised wheat germ oil for extra Vitamin E. The Carnation Co. are the makers of " Coffee-mate," which they distribute in America and advertise as a " non-dairy product." This product, however, contains both sodium caseinate (made from milk) and emulsifiers such as mono- and di-glycerides, which are made from animal fat! As far as we know, there is no company in this country using such a questionable form of advertising, but be prepared and read the label carefully, if you are offered an American product which claims to be " non-dairy." For some reason we cannot fathom, this does not mean that the product is free of animal ingredients! Sankeys Sugar. A member in Inverness tells us that Sankeys sugar (processed without the use of bone charcoal) is on sale in Woolworths in some parts of Scotland. Stuffings. Messrs. Lloyd Rakusen write that their stuffings are all suitable for vegans. New Toilet Soap. Another piece of very good news indeed is the arrival of the new luxury toilet soap from Beauty Without Cruelty. Not only vegan, but in every way to be recommended. This delightfully perfumed, attractively presented product was introduced at the Fete on July 4th, when Peter Murray was the first purchaser—closely followed by Serena Coles and me. Individually cellophane-wrapped, it is currently on sale in the Boutique at 2s. per tablet, guest size Is. 3d. 19

Add to the list of vegan commodities. Mapleton's Corn Oil Margarine, Delicia De Luxe Colfee Mould and Vanilla Mould. Veganic Herb Gardens. Some time ago, we said that Mr. G. P. Molineux was specialising in herb plants (veganically grown of course!) which would be for sale this autumn. We are very happy to say that over thirty varieties of herbs are now ready. So send to " Riverside," Seaton Valley, Hessenford, Torpoint, Cornwall, for lists and begin your herb garden now. Even if you only have a window box. Thank you, Mr. Molineux. Vegans in Bournemouth. Although not vegetarian, a good place for vegans to eat in Bournemouth is from the Smorgasbord in the Danish Room in Bobby's Store, The Square. Here we found a very wide variety of fresh saladings (apart from the non-vegan delicacies) set out on their Buffet Table in bright, comfortable surroundings. Hovis. Since the firm of Hovis and McDougalls Flour has been taken over by a company which specialises in suppyling intensive farms with animal foods containing the drugs and various additives necessary to keep the wretched creatures alive under cramped, unnatural conditions, we expect that those of our members still using Hovis bread will not wish to continue. " The Vegan" Journal—early issues. We sometimes get requests for copies of early numbers of The Vegan which are now out of print. Readers are reminded that the reference library of the British Museum has a copy of every issue for the last twenty-one years. MORE GOOD NEWS Plantmilk is now on sale in a concentrated liquid form, a tin of which will dilute to 4 pints, costing 2s. 9d. It can, of course, be used undiluted as a " cream " on fruit, cereals, etc. It is on sale in the London and Birmingham areas, and most towns in the following counties: Bedfordshire (Luton area), Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Essex (south-west), Gloucestershire, Hampshire, Hertfordshire, Kent, Middlesex, Oxfordshire, Somerset, Staffordshire (Wolverhampton area), Sussex, Surrey, Warwickshire, Wiltshire, Worcestershire. Plantmilk may therefore be obtained from your nearest Health Food Store in the above defined areas. Should you experience any difficulty in obtaining supplies, write to Mr. C. A. Ling, 28 Lyndhurst Road, Coulsdon, Surrey. Those living outside these counties may obtain supplies by mail order service from : " Healthiways," 5 Tranquil Passage, Blackheath, London, S.E.3. (Please send Is. in stamps direct to " Healthiways " for comprehensive price list.) 20

Silk. We recently heard someone in the animal welfare movement expound a theory as to why wild silk (and incidentally wild honey) could not be the product of cruelty or exploitation. In reply, we quoted a short piece on the subject of silk which appeared in Ahinsa last February. As the methods used to produce " r e a l " silk (wild or cultured) are not widely known, we quote as follows: — " Considering the cost of silk, we should acquaint ourselves with the quaint process known in the trade as ' stifling.' An interesting article on the subject of silk says: ' Were it not for the stifling process, the occupant would emerge from the cocoon as a moth and spoil the silk. Unlike the worm, which bites through the egg to free itself, the moth has no jaws with which to bite its way out of the cocoon. Instead, from two glands in the head, it pours a drop of alkaline fluid upon one end of its silken prison. This fluid has a solvent effect, not upon the silk itself but upon the natural gum with which the silk is covered ; its action causes the threads to loosen so that they can be pushed aside by the moth. But if the moth were left alive to escape its silken cell, the fluid would leave an indelible stain on the silk. Cocoons can be stifled by gas or steam, or by dry heat, the method used at Lullingstone. " Our methods may be primitive, but they are adequate," Lady Hart Dyke remarked. " We leave the cocoons for about an hour, at a temperature of between 168° and 174° F. That is sufficient to kill the pupae before they form into moths and yet not damage the silk." ' By all means do not damage the silk! Damage the little lives all you please ; roast them to death, but leave the silk undisturbed! Source of the above savagery: National Geographic Magazine, May, 1953. The silk was being spun by domestic English silkworms for weaving into royal robes for the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II." FOOTWEAR Further to our reference to Co-Op. shoes and Corfam (page 15, Summer, 1965), we have now learned that these shoes for men are made, if requested, with synthetic leather soles. This means that there now exists a high-quality, hard-wearing, completely vegan shoe for men. The more of us who take advantage of this, the sooner will they become more easily obtainable. All members in London should certainly be able to visit the Burnt Oak or Hammersmith (King Street) Branch of the L.C.S. Members outside London may like to contact the manufacturers direct, Loake Bros. Ltd., of Kettering. The design number is 563 and the shoes 21

are available in black or a darkish brown. Good hunting ; please let us know the results. We are indebted to a supporter of B.W.C. for this information (his shoes were marked with an " Aniline Leather " tag when they arrived and the later explanation was that they were mistaken for leather by someone in the factory! Another unintentional tribute to Corfam). In today's post comes news from a member of Corfam madeto-order shoes for ladies. Once again, vegans should stress synthetic leather soles and insoles, otherwise leather may be used. Call on A. Weintrop, , Oxford Street, W.l (Gerrard 5568). A visit is necessary, as you then select a good fitting style from the current stock which can be reproduced in Corfam. Naturally, this " bespoke" method is not cheap, but very useful for those with non-stock-size feet who require a good-quality, comfortable, vegan shoe. High Fashion. We notice that Ernestine Carter, in her fashion article (Sunday Times, July 25th) suggests that her readers look out for the newest shoe fabric, " suede Corfam," being currently used by Rayne for Hartnells. Some Shoe Manufacturers using " Corfam " A. & F. Shoes Ltd., 38-50 Areola Street, Hackney, London, E.8. Clarks Ltd., Street, Somerset. Crockett & Jones Ltd., Perry Street, Northampton. E. C. Gravestock Ltd., St. Peter's Avenue, Kettering, Northants. (New Avenue brand.) Loake Bros. Ltd., Wood Street, Kettering, Northants. Lotus Ltd., Sandon Road, Stafford. McDowell & Son Ltd., Suffolk Street, Ballymena, Northern Ireland. Manfield & Sons Ltd., Wellingborough Road, Northampton. F. Norton & Son Ltd., Irthlingborough, Northants. Norvic Shoe Co. Ltd., 28 Grosvenor Street, London, W.l. Oral Shoemakers (C. W. Horrell Ltd.), Fitzwilliam Street, Rushden, Northants. Pollard & Son, St. Michael's Road, Northampton. H. & M. Rayne Ltd., Tileyard Road, King's Cross, London, N.7. Sexton, Son & Everard Ltd., St. Mary's Works, Norwich, Norfolk. Tebbutt Taylor Ltd., Clare Street, Northampton. Turner Bros. (Hackney) Ltd., 592-598 Lea Bridge Road, Leyton, London, E.10. From several people who have been wearing Corfam shoes for a while we have heard the comment that this material does not take on the shape of the individual foot so readily as leather, 22

but returns to its original shape each time it is removed. This is an advantage in that it keeps its "new " look for very much longer, but the person with a bunion or other foot defect will find it a drawback. It was very interesting, therefore, to read in a trade magazine that, in America, Du Pont Ijave announced that shoes with Corfam uppers can be easily adjusted to allow greater width, or space for bunions or other fit problems, by use of a 250-watt infra-red lamp. An expandable last (shoe stretcher) is placed in the shoe and the shoe then held five or six inches from the lamp so that the rays impinge on the area where expansion is needed. The shoe is moved by slight rotation, so that the effect is not too localised, and then the last is adjusted. Heat from the lamp " heat-sets " the Corfam, which retains its new shape permanently when it cools. Corfam uppers can be stretched a full quarter-inch in girth in this way, it is said. A bunion tool (ring-and-ball clamp) can also be used successfully after irradiating the upper. Velvon. A few shoes with " Velvon " uppers are now available. One, shown by Clarks at the Harrogate Show, is a medium heel, high front court style. " Velvon " is a suede-like material. Unlike most other synthetic suedes, the manufacturers claim that this material, even if covered in mud, can be scrubbed clean with cold water and it will come up as good as new. It is completely waterproof and hard-wearing. Bata Cushenette. For men and women. In suedette, with punched apron and low heel in Black, Tan or Beige. All at 16/lid. Mail Order. Middleton Warehouses Ltd., Manchester, advertise a gent's simulated suede shoe with moulded sole in Green or Brown at 19/6d. Also a black simulated leather, Gibson style, at 17/6d. Add 2/6d. for postage. We have not seen these, however. Character Shoe Shops. Open sandals with medium heel in black patent, 29/1 Id, No. L.9054. Low-heeled white open sandal, 7520, 1 9 / l i d . Also seen in several other shops. Olivers and elsewhere Shoes for Men. Lace-up in Black or Brown, No. 46, BG 4, 19/lid. Mocassin-type shoe, No. 65A, 1 5 / l i d . Sandals, No. 65A 48, 1 6 / l i d . Canvas Casuals, 65B 48. Ladies' Brown Suedette high-front court shoe, little heel, 13/lid. Goddards of Boscombe. Several very good shoes for ladies here, and most helpful service. All with low or medium heels. 23

Margee, a beige tie shoe, No. 1175, 1 6 / l i d . Casual shoe in Tan, No. 1178, 13/1 Id. Also in Black, No. 1176, 1 2 / l l d . Green Suedette, No. 1220, 1 3 / l l d . White, No. 5031, 12/lld. White Sling Back, No. 5074, 1 3 / l l d . Low court in White and Black, No. 1221, 1 4 / l i d . A black shoe for men, No. 394, 2 3 / l i d . Also from Goddards of Wimborne and of Ipswich, Leicester Shoe Mart, and Winton. Freeman, Hardy & Willis. Men's shoes. Black, Dark Brown or Dark Olive Green, 2 2 / l i d . Ladies' walking shoes from 1 5 / l i d . Black, Brown or White. Some with little heels, some flatties. Navy lace shoe, medium heel, 3 9 / l i d . Stead and Simpson have several styles in non-leather lightweight shoes for both men and women. Recently we found several good non-leather shoes for women, all Empire made, in several branches of Woolworths and British Home Stores at around 1 4 / l i d . (Also in British Home Stores, two-fold rayon flannel skirts, 2 9 / l i d . ) When buying shoes, do not be guided by price alone, there are plenty of animal leather shoes around at under 30/Od. We recently heard someone exclaim, " These non-leather shoes give you corns." We looked at her feet. She was wearing high-heeled, sling back, too small, " p a t e n t " shoes with pointed toes, but none of these obvious faults got the blame for her poor abused feet! Recommended. " Plas Shammy," a new, soft, synthetic " leather " for cleaning windows, cars, etc. In plastic packet with snap fasteners, 12/0d. Made by Key-Leather Co. Ltd., 5 Unswick Road, London, E.9. Available generally or from Beauty Without Cruelty Boutique. CURRENT QUOTES " Every indication is that plastic (footwear) has come to stay in a big way in the shoe industry." " Prices will have to go up, but we shall have to be careful, otherwise shoe manufacturers will turn to other materials for linings." "All footwear should be marked, at least uppers and out-soles ; these are what the public are deeply concerned about. It is sheer hypocrisy to argue otherwise. These days shoes made with synthetic materials with the ' leather look' are sold as leather shoes by the sales people. The industry should voluntarily accept marking, otherwise it must be slapped on by legislation." 24

" Moc-Stinx?" " Those in the trade who advocate the labelling <of shoe materials would consider it all the more necessary in view of a report about a company manufacturing artificial smells. These are mostly of the aerosol-type, giving off smells such as freshly baked bread (to spray in bakers' shops where bread is pre-packed), kippers, flowers, babies, dairies and farm animals, and one large order was from a firm of used-car dealers who wanted a smell of fresh leather to spray inside cars to give an impression of newness." " Thanks to new techniques in the electro-forming of moulds for shoe-making, unit-made uppers may soon be joining unit soles as part of the American all-synthetic shoe boom." " Direct vulcanised footwear has captured a large section of the market, and so confident are the producers that, much to the repairers' disgust, they now give a six months' guarantee." APPEAL Will the person who sent us a postal order (purchased at Stanning (?) Lane on June 14th) and request for Associate Membership please send us name and address? All we know is that he (or she) has a friend in North Cheam to whom we have written but received no reply. FROM OUR POSTBAG Dear Sirs,—May I say how grateful I am for your help in my initial progress in veganism, when you stressed protein sufficiency and advised the nut butters in preference to the usual margarines. I am now finding no difficulty at all over proteins, nor any other element of nutrition. I think each individual must judge for him- or herself, but I see and find no difficulty over proteins and do not need synthetic minerals or supplements. Having started veganism for Ahimsa reasons, I also now find my outlook on life changed and my health and energy 100%. M.N. North Wales. SHARE YOUR KNOWLEDGE AND IDEAS If you come across new foods which are vegan or look as if they might be, please send the label or empty packet to me—I will investigate. When you write to tell me about some new non-leather shoe you have found, please include the maker's name, all the details printed in the lining or on the insole, and stockists known to you. When you read something of general interest to our members, please send the cutting (with name of paper and date of printing) to the Editor. 25


(of Coombe Lodge Vegetarian Guest House, Wotton-under-Edge, Glos.) VEGAN CAKES Bran Fruit Cake 2 4 4 4

oz. Keliogg's AUbran oz. brown sugar oz. seedless raisins oz. Mapleton's corn oil margarine

4 oz. Allinson's cake flour 4 oz. waiter Trex for greasing a 2-lb. bread 'tin

Method: Melt the fat in water and pour over the bran, sugar, raisins and flour while hot. Stir well, then pour into the greased tin and leave for half-an-hour, then bake for one hour at Regulo 350°. Remove from tin when cool. Orange Chocolate Cake 8 4 4 2

'oz. oz. oz. oz.

Allinson's cake flour brown sugar corn oil margarine cocoa

8 oz. water ± lb. icing sugar 2 tbs. orange juice

Method: Cream sugar and fat, then add flour, cocoa and •water, and still well and put into twenty-four greased patty tins and bake for fifteen minutes at 400° or Regulo 6. When cool, remove from tins ; melt icing sugar with orange juice, remove from heat before it boils and pour quickly over top of all cakes. Coconut Dots 4 oz. Cerea flour 4 oz. desiccated coconut 2 oz. corn oil margarine

4 oz. brown sugar 2 tbs. water 20 cherries, crystallized

Method: Melt fat in water, then add flour, coconut and sugar, stir well and put teaspoonfuls on to a greased baking sheet, top each with half a cherry, making forty Dots. Then bake for seven minutes at 400° or Regulo 6. Lemon Cake 3 lemons 8 oz. Allinson's cake 4 oz. corn oil margarine


4 oz. brown sugar | lb. icing sugar

Method: Cream sugar and fat together ; add flour and grated rind from lemons ; then add five ounces of the lemon juice. Put into a greased angel cake tin ; bake for forty minutes at 350°. Remove when cool, then melt icing sugar with 2 tbs. of lemon juice and pour over cake. Decorate with crystallized cherries or walnut halves if desired. .26

Walnut Shortbread 8 oz. Mapleton's Walnutta 8 oz. brown sugar

12 oz. Cerea flour 30 walnut halves

Method : Mix fat, sugar and flour together, and tip into a greased baking tin 15" x 12" and spread with a knife. Then decorate with walnut halves evenly and bake for twenty-five minutes at 400° or Regulo 6. Remove from oven and cut immediately into thirty pieces, with walnut half in centre of each. Remove from tin when quite cold. Spice Buns 8 oz. Allinson's cake 4 oz. seedless .raisins 4 oz. corn oil margarine


4 oz. brown sugar 1 oz. pudding spice 5 oz. water

Method: Cream sugar and fat together, then add flour, raisins, spice and water. Mix well, then spoon into twenty-four greased patty tins and bake at 400° or Regulo 6 for fifteen minutes. (Always use Trex or Nutter for greasing tins.) COOKERY EVENTS A Vegan Week of Cookery Demonstration at Coombe Lodge on October 1st—8th. A Vegan Cookery Demonstration in London on Saturday, October 9th, at 3 p.m., at the Westminster Friends' Meeting House, 52 St. Martin's Lane, W.C.2, entitled " Nuts on the Menu." Vegans are invited to attend the above demonstrations and to encourage and assist Mrs. Keleny by making them as widely known as possible. Write to her direct (or phone Wotton-underEdge 3165) for further details. THE VEGAN SOCIETY A number of vegan recipe sheets are now available from this office at 3d. each plus 3d. stamped addressed envelope. Or seven different sheets (over 100 recipes) including homemade " m i l k s " and vegan "cheese." For only l/6d. and 6d. stamped addressed envelope. Three sets of recipe sheets and free booklet 4/6d. post free from the Secretary, 123 Baker Street, Enfield, Middx. WORLD DAY FOR ANIMALS The Conference of Animal Welfare Societies' celebration of World Day for Animals will take place on Monday, October 4th, at 7 p.m. in The Scala Theatre, Charlotte Street, London, W.l. Postal application (3/-) to the box office there The Animals Fair will be held at the Royal Horticultural Hall, London, S.W.I, on Friday and Saturday, November 26th and 27th. Please give it your support. 27









THE VEGAN SOCIETY comes of age next month and a Special Week-End has been arranged to celebrate our

21st A N N I V E R S A R Y SATURDAY, OCTOBER 30th, 1965 T W E N T Y - F I R S T A N N U A L GENERAL MEETING at the Alliance Hall, Palmer Street, London. Refreshments and Speakers.


Grand Dinner and Dance celebration At the Cora Hotel, London.

Tickets 32/6d.

(Members of B.V.Y.M. and vegans under 21, 27/6d.) from the Hon. Sec., 123 Baker Street, Enfield, Middlesex. •

A special welcome is extended to all Members and Supporters of Vegetarian and Associated Societies

WELL DONE, JACK! We are glad to print the following extracts from two newspapers: — From the front page of The Kerrynien, 21/8/65 : CONGRATS. TO SWIMMER JACK Long-distance swimmer Jack McClelland conquered Dingle Bay on Monday evening after travelling 1,500 miles to do so. The Belfast man made three trips to Kerry to do the swim— the first two were fruitless because of unsuitable weather. McClelland plunged into the Atlantic off Coonana, near Caherciveen at 1.24 p.m., and seven hours and fifty-two minutes later he touched the Handball Rock at the mouth of Dingle Harbour. McClelland, still quite fresh, was taken aboard skipper Moriarty's trawler and brought into Dingle where a very large crowd had gathered on the pier. McClelland, seven pounds lighter after the swim, said the last two miles of the estimated sixteen-mile journey were the toughest. " There were fantastic currents," he said. " For a while I thought I might have to pack up. The only other incident during the day was the appearance below me of a big fish. It wasn't a shark, but it was big enough to make me feel a bit uncomfortable." From the Sunday Express, 15/8/65 (not the London edition, alas): — The Man who throws nut a £ 1 , 0 0 0 Challenge to the World Ireland's greatest distance swimmer, Jack McClelland, has issued a challenge to the world. He will race any man non-stop over ten swimming, ten miles road cycling, and ten miles running. " It's a genuine offer. I'm waiting for takers," says the burly Mr. McClelland, probably Ireland's greatest-ever distance swimmer. And little wonder for he is proficient at all three sports. A strict vegetarian—a vegan, in fact, for he doesn't even eat eggs, milk or cheese—Mr. McClelland can cover ten miles of water in five hours, twenty-five miles of road by bike in sixty-four minutes, and run a mile in just under five minutes. " There must be someone who will take me up on it," says Jack, proprietor of a Health Food Shop in Belfast. " Terms and conditions can be arranged. I have no special spots picked out for the challenge to take place, but I would prefer it somewhere in the British Isles if possible." There were three large pictures of Jack at the top of the page. Any offers? Come and meet Jack at the twenty-first birthday celebrations. 29

The Beauty Without Cruelty • * * • Boutique * * * * N e w Address: 49 UPPER MONTAGUE STREET, LONDON, W.l

Two blocks from Baker Street Underground Station. Buses 2, 13, 23, 30, 59, 74, 113, 153, 159. One minute from Marylebone Road. Buses 1, 18, 27, 30 and 176.

The new Boutique will be open from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Mondays to Fridays, 10 a.m. to 8 p.m. on Wednesdays. See also Secretary's notes.

A NEW BOUTIQUE From September 6th, 1965, the Beauty Without Cruelty Boutique will be in its new premises at 49 Upper Montague Street, London, W.l. It will be open five days a week (see advertisement pages for full details) for the sale of Beauty Without Cruelty and other makes of humanely produced cosmetics and toiletries, man-made " furs " and household items such as soap (and soap powders), synthetic chamois leathers, etc. A small selection of non-leather shoes, as listed in our magazine and Compassion, with details of suppliers, will also be on view. The revised and greatly enlarged Brochure " More Than Skin Deep " is now ready and on sale in the Boutique or from this office, 2/3d. post free. For your convenience, the products are grouped (as in our Food Guide), and some of the headings include: — Hair Preparations and Shampoos, Face Powders, Toilet Soaps, Beauty Preparations, Perfumes, Toilet Waters, Toothpastes, Toilet Preparations for Men, Household Products, Brushes, Polishes, etc. Vegan preparations are clearly marked {some of the others may contain lanolin or beeswax). A great deal of midnight oil has been consumed in the production of this Brochure, for not only must all the preparations conform to the cruelty-free standards laid down by Beauty Without Cruelty, but they must also have had no connection whatever with animal experiments. Only those involved in the work can begin to appreciate the difficulties and the colossal amount of work involved. We believe that no better value was ever offered. Send for your copy now. E.B. REPORT ON THE B.W.C. GARDEN PARTY On Sunday, July 4th, the Beauty Without Cruelty Garden Party was held at Shangri-La, Nettlestead Green, near Maidstone, the B.W.C. Animal Sanctuaiy and home of Mrs. Jean Le Fevre and family (plus an ever-increasing number of animals). After the opening by the Earl of Effingham, the fashion show was introduced by the popular television personality Peter Murray, who praised the hard work and tenacity of purpose which alone had been responsible for the success of the various activities undertaken by members. Also on the platform were two Founders of the Society, Lady Dowding and Elspeth DouulasReid (of One-Woman-Theatre fame), also Princess Helena Moutafian and, for a while, " Lovely," a pony. Although a gatecrasher, he was very much at home and gladly posed for photographers. 31

A new and interesting item this year was a demonstration by the beautician Viola Legge, who was afterwards kept busy giving personal advice on the use of B.W.C. preparations. Introduced at the Fete was the new Beauty Without Cruelty Toilet Soap. Not only completely vegan, but in every way to be recommended. This delightfully perfumed, attractive-looking luxury soap is now on sale in the Boutique. Once again our Society was invited, and vegan foods, footwear and literature were displayed. By far the greater part of the work fell on the shoulders of Mrs. Coles, with the welcome help of Mr. Bonnie and a few other members who arrived later and -were able to assist for a while. John Coles gave excellent service in the car park throughout the day. The Fete was a great success, and the many visitors obviously enjoyed themselves very much. E.B.

PLANTMILK Many members will now have tried the new Plantmilk which is available at many Health Food Stores around London and Birmingham. The following background information on Plantmilk which has been sent to us by the makers (Messrs. Plantmilk Ltd.) will be of interest to users, and to those who hope to become users when it becomes obtainable in their districts. Tests. Several years of research at a cost of approximately ÂŁ20,000 went into Plantmilk. About 130 batches of samples for laboratory testing were made, many of them with machinery capable of production at commercial level before trading was begun. This examination included bacteriological, chemical, keeping quality and heat stability tests and vitamin analyses. Colour. It is often wondered how a liquid made from raw materials which include green leaves can be white without using a bleaching agent. This is because the Plantmilk process isolates and purifies the protein, and this pure protein is white. In addition to the protein extracted from leaves of plants such as cabbages, cauliflowers and also pea pods, other high-quality plant protein, e.g., soya bean protein isolate, is also incorporated. Vegetable oils, e.g., palm and soya oils, are also included. Some of the ingredients are incorporated at higher concentrations than they are in cows' milk in order to make good certain deficiencies in the latter product. Among the added vitamins is vitamin B12, in which some diets are deficient. Protein. At single strength, Plantmilk contains approximately 3.25% protein ; that means that one pint of single strength would contain about 18 grams protein, which is about a quarter of the daily recommended allowance for a man. Amino acid analysis of the protein shows twenty-one separate amino acids to be 32

present, including all the essential ones, such as, for example, lysine and methionine. Babies. In view of the richness of undiluted Plantmilk, care should be taken to dilute it before giving it to babies (i.e., up to nine months of age) by adding 3 oz. of water for every ounce of Plantmilk. Ingredient. The ingredient "GLYCEROL MONOPALMITATE " listed on our label may need explaining to the layman. This is a fraction of palm oil used as an emulsifying agent, and the description is used for legal reasons. In Coffee. Plantmilk is in general satisfactory in beverages such as tea, cocoa, and so on. In some coffees, however, there may be an occasional difficulty, owing to the acidity of the coffee. For example, in an experiment using an instant coffee extract it was found that when the coffee was made with the normal level teaspoonful of coffee powder per cup, and Plantmilk added, the result was satisfactory. However, when the coffee was strong, the acidity of the coffee caused the protein in Plantmilk to separate out, giving the beverage a mottled appearance. This was overcome by the addition of more Plantmilk. The simple explanation is that Plantmilk is approximately neutral in pH value, and strong coffee needs more Plantmilk to avoid the separation of the protein. Thrombosis. There are schools of medical opinion which consider that the improved living conditions and diet in many civilised countries, which generally include an increased intake of animal fats, may be a contributory factor in the parallel increase in incidence of thrombosis, particularly coronary thrombosis. It has been shown that the increased intake of "saturated" fats results in an increased amount of cholesterol in the blood, and this in turn may be conducive to degeneration of the artery walls and thrombosis. The fat content of Plantmilk is provided by "unsaturated" vegetable oils, which are undoubtedly useful to those who have been advised to reduce or leave out animal fats from their diet. It has been proved that the cholesterol content of the blood can be reduced in this way. Allergies to Cow Milk. Most people who are allergic to cow milk can take Plantmilk in complete safety. Galactosaemia. Our consulting and analytical chemists report: — " We have carried out appropriate chromatographic separations of the various ingredients of Plantmilk, and have not obtained evidence of any trace of free galactose. Most of the tests were made on the materials direct, but in view of the fact that the RF value of galactose is very close to that of sucrose we made a fresh examination after inversion. We 33

also examined partly prepared Plantmilk, after inversion, and confirmed the earlier negative results. We were, however, interested to know whether any of the ingredients might break down under the conditions of moderate hydrolysis, such as in the stomach, to give galactose. All results were negative." Although this analytical report indicates that Plantmilk is acceptable in cases of galactosaemia, it should be pointed out, however, that a large series clinical trial of Plantmilk in galactosaemia cases has not yet been carried out, and that medical advice and supervision should .be sought if Plantmilk is to be given to a galactosaemia patient.



Sleeping through the endless ages In rubies red and emeralds green, Faintly feeling without meeting The wonder of the world unseen. Latent life we lay imprisoned Deep in stones and crystals pure, Never changing down the ages Mindless, tideless and secure. In granite rocks and veined marble Corals where the waters swirled In gold and garnet deeply buried Vaguely felt the moving world. Shadowy branches softly stirring Where the sunlight laps the leaves, Thrush-brown rushes floating Lotus Mirrored where the water waves. Bracken bushes willows bending, Ivy striving ever high, Climbing twining tower and turret Darkly mantled neath the sky. Silver birches standing slender, Fragile frail as fairy wands ; Giant oak trees strongly rooted, Golden gorse and flowerless fronds. Flowers with all their bloom and beauty Blossoming through sun and storms, Unsentient and softly dreaming, These were once our fleeting forms. 34

Upon the land and in the ocean, Winging through the heavens wide, We rose at length with mind and movement On creation's ceaseless tide. Vibrant now with life upleaping, With power to crawl and walk and run, We moved beneath the moon at midnight, Felt the splendour of the sun. Lithe-limbed leopards swift in beauty, Once we prowled the forests deep ; No longer plants still softly dreaming, Or silent stones in timeless sleep. Now self conscious we awaken, See the sweeping systems shine Through the darkened void and wonder, Aching with a thirst divine. Seek our source and goal through sorrow, Ceasing never in our quest, Moving through the mind beyond it With a sacred strange unrest. Pilgrims ever on we journey From the breathing world afar, Guided by the light within us Towards our pure enduring star.


THE VEGAN SOCIETY W I L L BE EXHIBITING Afternoon show, 2.45 to be opened by PETER MURRAY Evening show, 6.45 to be opened by Dr. G O R D O N L A T T O Apply

for tickets

t o Lady Dowding, Oakgates. Tunbridge Wells.


CRUSADE AGAINST ALL CRUELTY T O ANIMALS The Fight against Factory Farming It is sometimes difficult without appearing to " blow one's own t r u m p e t " to convey what we know to be a fact—namely, that without the example and unceasing activities of our Humane Farming Campaign (launched in 1960) there would not now be such a countrywide demand for legal reforms relating to factory farming. We say this advisedly, having ample proof that many have been inspired by our Campaign to take up the cudgels against this evil. We have intensified all aspects of our campaigning to mobilise still more support for our aims while the technical Committee of Inquiry into factory farming set up by the Minister of Agriculture in 1964 investigated. In December last we made our official written representation to this Committee and as a result were invited to give oral evidence, which we did on January 26th. We were privileged to have the Dean of Llandaff in our deputation together with the Rev. James Turnbull, both Crusade Patrons and outspoken critics of the evils of factory farming. Michael Fryer, Crusade Founder-President, Margaret Cooper, Secretary, and Irene Heaton, Secretary, Captive Animals' Protection Society, completed the deputation. During the two-hour meeting we were given every opportunity to state our case fully. From August, 1964, our intensified campaign for compulsory labelling of factory farm produce, assisted by our leaflet " Housewives' Choice," ensured that a great many representations were made by individuals and organisations. Our twelve-page official Report to the Food Standards Division stressed firstly the basic principles of consumer protection which constitute a clear case for application to broiler and battery produce and, secondly, humane, nutritional and health reasons why the discriminating public do not wish to buy such produce and should therefore have the right of choice without difficulty. We have received highly encouraging evidence of the influence of our Humane Farming Campaign generally on women's and other organisations, culminating in majority votes against factory farming and/or produce at national meetings in 1965. Restless Living Force The Crusade's all-embracing policy is unique. Our Constitution is devised to give us freedom to fight cruelty of any kind. Thus, our supporters know where we stand on all issues— CRUELY IS INDIVISIBLE. The Crusade presents a challenge to follow a way of life motivated by compassion for all that lives—to live by the Golden Rule : " Do unto others as you would be done by " applied to our relationships with the animals as well as to our fellow men. 36

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One of our primary objects is " to work towards the general application of the principle of reverence for life." Albert Schweitzer's name is synonymous with this principle—and how well he defines its influence! Writing of reverence for life he said: " . . . what is meant by it is nevertheless something which never lets go of the man into whose thought it has made its way. Sympathy, and love, and every kind of valuable enthusiasm are given within it. With restless living force reverence for life works upon the mind into which it has entered, and throws it into the unrest of a feeling of responsibility which at no place and at no time ceases to affect it. Just as the screw which churns its way through the water drives the ship along, so does reverence for life drive the man." May this " restless living force " inspire and impel us all to intensify our activities during the coming year. The need is great: let us all meet its challenge with increased vigour and determination. (Extracts from the Report of the Crusade Council of Management for the year 1964/65.) We feel sure that all vegans will want to help in our campaign against cruelty. May we send YOU a selection of our literature and specimen magazine? MARGARET COOPER (Miss), Secretary, Crusade Against All Cruelty to Animals, 3, Woodfield Way., Bounds Green Road, London, N . l l . WANTED—URGENTLY ! ! A volunteer to take over the duties of Honorary Secretary. With the continued expansion of The Vegan Society, it is no longer possible for one person, however devoted to the cause, to act as General Secretary, Lecturer and commodities investigator in her spare time. Next year, the Food Guide must be revised and brought up-to-date, and this alone will take several months of Mrs. Batt's spare time. Of course, we should really have a full-time Secretary now, but funds do not allow for this (we spend every available penny on publicity, for those likely to be interested in the vegan way of life are still few and widely scattered). Will anyone living in London, with some time to spare and space for files, etc. (a small spare room is ideal), please write to the Secretary at Enfield for details—stating their experience. Mrs. Batt will continue with her work on commodities, etc., and will give every help to the new Honorary Secretary during the change-over. Correspondence has been unavoidably held over to next issue. 38

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CRIMES AGAINST CREATION A Compilation by Marie Dreyfus This is a comprehensive compilation of true facts relating to the Animal Kingdom, an exposure of the cruelties perpetrated in numerous fields of exploitation. It deals with the slaughterhouse, the transport of cattle, medical research and vivisection, trapping, hunting, performing animals, animals in sport, fishing, whaling and many other aspects of this subject. It has taken the compiler many years to collect all the information, and to embody it in one volume, which, as a reference book, will prove invaluable to all who have the welfare of the Creatures at heart. Date of publication : October, 1965. Price: 25/-($4) (Rupees 16). ders to be sent t o : Miss Marie Dreyfus, London, N.8. " Co-operative action by members and friends in Animal Welfare Groups (each undertaking the purchase of one copy) would help the cause of suffering animal creation throughout the world."—J. CAMERON, Canadian Anti-Cruelty Society. We congratulate Marie (a vegan) on her fine work and hope that as many members and societies as possible will purchase a copy and make it widely known. A review will follow in the issue after publication. VEGANIC WALLED GARDEN Some members were privileged to pay a visit to the walled garden of Sir Thomas Bazley, Bt., during the summer and were very impressed by it. This visit will be referred to in more detail in our next issue. YOUNG VEGANS Will any young members wishing to get in touch with other young vegans please send their names to the Editor. It is hoped that one of you will be able to start a youth group ; in any case we shall be glad to put you all in touch with one another. Do you ever wonder " What is in it?" when purchasing Soup, Soap or Margarine? Don't ' hope for the best' in future, send for

THE VEGETARIAN AND VEGAN FOOD GUIDE WITH HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTS and know which are the humanely produced articles. This 40-page booklet lists hundreds of items conveniently grouped for quick reference. 2/6d. post free, from: THE VEGAN SOCIETY, 123 Baker Street, Enfield, Middlesex 40



Terms: Cash with Order to H. H. Greaves Ltd., 106/110 Lordship Lane, London, S.E.22. (2/- per line: minimum 2 lines; 20% discount on four consecutive issues.) BLACKHEATH HEALTH FOOD STORES. A warm welcome awaits anyone visiting our Juice and Snack Bar, also small extension for appetising hot meals and generous salads. Nutrition without Cruelty — vegetarian and vegan foods; Science without Cruelty — herbal remedies. Also Beauty without Cruelty — soaps and cosmetics. Plantmilk, nuts, seeds and grains a speciality. Wholewheat bread and cakes. Compost-grown produce. Ofreta Healing Oil, a unique combination of natural oils, wonderfully penetrating in the relief of sprains, burns, rheumatism, bronchitis, etc., 3/3d. and 6/3d. plus 1/postage. Goods sent inland and abroad. Send 1/- in stamps for fully comprehensive price-list to Mrs. Muriel Drake, HEALTHIWAYS, 5 Tranquil Passage, London, S.E.3. Tel. LEE Green. 5811. BRITISH VEGETARIAN YOUTH MOVEMENT. An organisation for people 12—35. Social gatherings, holidays, monthly magazine, etc., organised. Further particulars from Secretary, B.V.Y.M., c / o London Vegetarian Society, 53 Marloes Road, London, W.8. HEALTH through NATURAL HYGIENE. Are you interested in Health achieved naturally and without the exploitation of other human beings and animals? Natural Hygiene is a system of health preservation and restoration which meets these requirements. For literature, send 6d. stamp to: Registrar (G), British Nat. Hygiene Soc., 49 Ravenswood Ave., Tolworth, Surrey. LESSONS IN SPEAKING AND WRITING.—Visit, correspondence (5/-) na ess publ es, ch M THE COMPASSIONATE DOCTRINE OF AHINSA is stressed in the monthly publication " AHINSA" (non-killing, harmlessness). Put year, 7s. in British stamps or coins. THE AMERICAN VEGAN SOCIETY, Malaga, N.J. 08328, U.S.A. THE VEGAN COMMUNITIES MOVEMENT (radical) plans a progressive community for vegan and vegetarian idealists to be established in the U.K. in 1965 and invites co-operation. Information 2 / 6 from 7 Tudor Road, Wheathampstead, Herts. VEGANICALLY t on request. , Torpoint, Cornwall. WORLD FORUM. The leading international Vegetarian quarterly. Edited by Mrs. Esm6 Wynne-Tyson. Advocates the vegetarian way of life for physical health and a true relationship between the human and creature kingdoms—without exploitation and cruelty. 2/-, plus 6<L post per copy. 10/- per year, post free.—H. H. GREAVES LTD., 106/110 Lordship Lane, London, S.E.22. WOULD KINDLY PERSON willing to care for young baby 2 days week, Tolworth area, kindly write Box No. 11293.

ESTABLISHMENTS CATERING FOR VEGANS MAJORCA.—Charming flat for two offered. Vegetarian, non-smokers. All comforts. Tranquillity and beauty. Some meals provided by arrangement. International stamp please. Mrs. Ritchie: Salud, 153 ; Palma de Mallorca. BROOK LINN.—Callander, Perthshire. Vegetarian and Vegan meals carefully prepared and attractively served. Comfortable guest house. Near Trossachs and Western Highlands. Mrs. Muriel Choffin. Callander 103.

ESTABLISHMENTS CATERING FOR VEGANS EASTBOURNE.—General nursing, convalescence, rest and nature-cure. Out-patients treated. EdgehHl Vegetarian and Vegan Nursing Home, . Tel.: 627. EDSTONE, WOOTTON WAWEN, WARWICKSHIRE (near Stratford-onAvon).—Modern Nature Cure Resort and Guest House with every comfort, and compost-grown produce. (Phone: Claverdon 327.) L A K E DISTRICT. Rot hay Bank, Grasmere. Attractive guest house for invigorating, refreshing holidays.—Write Isabel James. Tel.: 134. N E W Q U A Y , CORNWALL. Lowenva Vegetarian Guest House, 182 Mount Wise. Mrs. P. Lapham. Home-baking. Brochure. Tel.: Newquay 2764. N O R T H WALES.—Vegan and vegetarian guest house, nr. mountains and sea. Lovely woodland garden. Brochure from Jeannie and George Lake, Plas-y-Coed, Penmaen Park, Llanfairfechan. Tel.: 161. " WOODOOTE", Lei ant, St. Ives, Cornwall, is a high-class Vegetarian Food Reform Guest House in a warm and sheltered situation overlooking the Hayle Estuary. Composted vegetables; home-made wholewheat bread; vegans catered for knowledgeably. Mr. and Mrs. Woolfrey. Tel.: Hayie 3147. Early bookings for Summer very advisable. WOTTON-UNDER-EDGE, GLOUCESTERSHIRE. Coombe Lodge is a Manor House set in a two-acre garden on the southern slopes of the Cotswold Hills, overlooking Coombe Valley, where most fruit and vegetables are home-grown. Demonstrations given of Vegan Cookery. Apply Kathleen Keleny. TeL: Wotton-under-Edge 3165.

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