T H E VEGAN SOCIETY Founded November, 1944 A D V O C A T E S that man's food should be derived from fruits, nuts, vegetables and grains, and E N C O U R A G E S the use of alternatives to all products of animal origin.'
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" A n Address on Veganism " By Donald W a t s o n Vegan Viewpoint " By Fay K. H e n d e r s o n " Vegetarian Recipes without Dairy Produce " By Margaret B. Rawls ( N e w Edition) " Aids to a Vegan Diet for Children " By Kathleen V. M a y o " Should Vegetarians eat Dairy Produce? " By Donald W a t s o n " M a n and Nature " By Leslie J. Cross " Is Milk a Curse? " By James A . Goodfellow, M . B . C . M " M a n ' s Natural Food " By Dr. Sydney M. W h i t a k e r " T h e V e g a n *' Complete Sets for 1947 or 1948 • FROM
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LOCAL VEGAN GROUPS A N D SECRETARIES L O N D O N . — M r . D . Cross, w. Hatch End, Middx. Y O R K S H I R E . — M r s . H. Green, , Cross Gates, Leeds. M I D L A N D S . — M r s . K. V. Mayo. " , Streetly, Sutton Coldfield. B R I S T O L . — M r s . E. Hughes, ., Knowle, Bristol 4. M A N C H E S T E R . — M i s s A n n E. Owens, , Northenden. S C O T T I S H S E C T I O N . — M r . R. ]. Handley, , Baillieston, nr. Glasgow: Miss D. M . Sutherland, Crescent, Liberton, Edinburgh. (Please communicate with your nearest G r o u p Secretary).
THE Quarterly Editor:
VEGAN Journal of The Vegan
G. ALLAN H E N D E R S O N , R Y D A L LODGE, AMBLESIDE
A U T U M N , 1949
EDITORIAL Holland, 1950 7
1 ^HE purpose of the International Vegetarian Union (of which The Vegan Society is a member) is implicit in its name, and it undoubtedly renders valuable service in collating vegetarian thought and progress from all countries where the movement is organised. An example of this service was the remarkable record compiled by Mr. J. H. Bolt of Holland, showing how vegetarians had fared in occupied and other countries during the recent war, and this was submitted at the Eleventh Congress of the Union held at Stonehouse in August, 1947. This document scarcely received the publicity its significance warrantedâ€”in contrast to the Address on Veganism, which was presented at the same Congress by our first President, Mr. Donald Watson. This was put into pamphlet form and .widely "distributed, and it still stands as a most important statement of our case. The I.V.U. holds a Congress each third year, and the next, therefore, takes place in 1950, and will be in Holland. W e were recently privileged at Rydal Lodge by the visit for several weeks of Miss Harriet Pothoff, who is Secretary of the Netherlands Vegetarian Society, and we enjoyed the opportunity of discussing many matters with her, in particular, the arrangements which are being made for the Congress. This will be held, probably from July 11th to 18th, at Oosterbeek, Arnhem, in a house specially built for such occasions, and those attending can therefore be .sure that it will be comfortable and convenient in all respects. W e are also in a position to state that vegans will be well catered for, and our personal experience of Holland enables us to assure our members that there will be ample supplies of delicious fresh fruit and vegetables. The inclusive charge at Oosterbeek will be moderate, and the trip should thus be relatively inexpensive. The subject of veganism is bound to come up for serious discussion at the Congress, and we are, therefore, desirous that our Society should be well represented. W e would accordingly request members to keep the above dates in mind when making their holiday plans for 1950, and to endeavour to be present if at all possible.
A VEGAN CHILD'S DIET B y CLAIRE LOEWENFELD
F parents have decided to bring their children up as vegans, flesh, fish, fowl, eggs, honey, milk, butter and cheese are excluded from the diet, and fruits, nuts, vegetables and grains are exclusively relied upon. In doing so, they depart a long way f r o m the customary eating habits and will therefore have to think carefully about the children's meals. It would not do just to leave out the foods derived from animals, on which most children in this country are brought up, and to hope for the best. This would do harm and might result in very discouraging-looking specimens. It seems therefore wise to face the fact that new methods have to be used and more trouble and care will at first be necessary. There is no doubt t h a t healthy, active and bright children can be brought up on a non-animal diet. This is, however, only possible if certain basic principles, which have been worked out and confirmed through long years of practical and clinical experience, are agreed upon and followed carefully. T h e late-Dr. Bircher-Benner of Zurich always asked for reduction of animal food f o r healthy children (and adults) and for a diet consisting of mainly uncooked fruit and vegetables, with practically no animal foods at all for the invalid child (or adult). Even after fifty years of practical and clinical experience his nutritional teaching is still too new and unorthodox to find the general acceptance which the results merit. His methods have produced excellent results in Switzerland and in this country, particularly during an experiment conducted from 1943 to 1946 on treating a .serious children's disease, carried out by the author f o r one of the largest children's hospitals in this country, and they h a v e shown that it is not only possible but, under certain conditions, also an advantage to bring up children with little or no animal foods at all. Psychological Reasons for a Balanced Diet A p a r t from the health aspect, it seems rather important from a psychological point of view to start as early as possible on a diet which will be the right one for the child's later life. Food habits are formed in early childhood and a good start is important for two reasons. T h e palate is a very delicate organ and the sensitive mucous membrane is easily spoiled by strong flavours or stimulants like salt, mustard, pepper, vinegar, etc. Also, sweets
made from refined white sugar can spoil the palate by oversweetness and produce what is usually known as a " sweet tooth." For people whose palate is spoiled in either way, the natural foods will seem insipid and enjoyment of the subtle flavours of raw vegetables or unsweetened fruits will be lost. Unfortunately, the over-stimulated palate produces an increased wish for f u r t h e r stimulation, resulting in a vicious circle. T h e other point is that people always long for the foods and dishes they had at home in early childhood. H . D. Renner, in his book " T h e Origin of Food H a b i t s " (Faber 6? Faber), has shown that American immigrants prefer the places and restaurants where they can obtain the foods of their' country of origin, even long after they have accepted their new environment. Therefore, a good diet during early years can establish the habits for a healthy life and, at the same time, avoid the formation of an overstiinulated palate. Such a palate influences personal choice of food, which is then no longer a proper guide to what the body really needs. Physical discomfort resulting from an unbalanced diet and deficiency of certain vitamins, particularly vitamin B (contained in whole wheat grain), has been made responsible for symptoms formerly described as neurotic or psychotic. There is no doubt that certain other deficiencies cause also definite changes in a child's behaviour. Sugar hunger, which may be due to a physical cause, may produce stealing, firstly of sweets, later of other things; calcium deficiency may produce clumsy children" who break things or knock people over, and lack of fresh green foodstuffs or fruit may cause irritability and definite anti-social symptoms. It is therefore of the utmost importance to ensure that the vegan child is having an all-round balanced diet. Nutritional Problems T h e child on an ordinary diet derives a large amount of essential nutrients (vitamins, minerals, and particularly protein) from milk, cheese, butter and eggs. Therefore, the vegetarian who eats dairy products and refrains from eating meat, fisli and fowl has no need to worry about getting these essential nutrients. T h e vegan, however, in order to obtain his vitamins and minerals has to rely upon fruit and vegetables, arid for his protein on nuts, grains, green leaves, fungi, and pulses. T h u s it seems of the greatest importance •that the diet of a vegan child should have a very large quantity of uncooked fruit and vegetables, either whole or in .prepareddishes, such as muesli and salads. Dr. Bircher-Beriher claimed that 50% at least of the daily intake should consist of raw food, the balance to consist'of bread, potatoes, cooked vegetable dishesand sweets. - • • - • •
_ T h e adequate supply of the so-called first-class protein for the vegan child is the main problem. So far, nutritional science regards only animal protein as of first-class value. Modern research work, now using the term of complete and incomplete protein, has established that the proteins of green vegetables are nearly as good as those of meat, milk and eggs. This has not yet been taken seriously because it is still thought that the quantity of protein in green vegetables is relatively very small, and therefore too m u c h of these would have to be taken to satisfy; human requirements. It lias, however, been found that the figures considered right f o r daily protein requirements were far too high, and they h a v e been reduced from 120! gr. protein per day in 1900 to 60-65 gr< per day now. Apart f r o m that, it has also been established that t h e so-called " supplementary, action " of proteins is of very great importance. (For more .dtfaded information see " T h e Vegan," Slimmer, 1949â€”" Proteins f o r Vegans," by the same author). N u t s are a very important source of protein and fat, two of the most essential nutrients. T h e biological quality of, for example, almonds, in combination with fruits and vegetables, in very high. M o s t nuts contain more than 50% of fat. This represents either t h e equivalent of milk and butter or, in its extracted form, nut oil, w h i c h is one of the most important sources of cooking fat for t h e vegan, o r in the form of almond puree or nut cream. T h e high fat content is well absorbed by those babies who are on a f r u i t and nut milk diet and even by sick children who have otherwise difficulties in absorbing the fat contained in milk. It looks as if the high protein and fat content, which is considerably above that of t h e majority of either animal or vegetable foods, is well assimilated in a properly balanced diet. Thus, nuts are a very concentrated food and provide very high calory supplies. It must be borne in mind that because of these reasons, nuts, and foods made w i t h nuts, should not be eaten in large quantities. (See " Proteins, f o r Vegans," Summer, 1949). Infant Feeding Before any practical details are suggested, it seems essential to explain t h a t it is very important that a vegan child should be given a good start in life. A s n o dairy milk will be used, it is desirable to ensure that the child will be breast-fed for at least four to six months. T h e mother can do very much towards this end by living herself on a balanced diet rich in vitamins and minerals, that is, uncooked f r u i t and vegetables, whilst she is expecting the child. Great care, patience, rest and confidence can do a lot towards overcoming t h e first difficulties of lactation, and every vegan mother should take this problem seriously in exercising all these virtues. If she
5 THE VEGAN tries her very hardest to lead a quiet life during the first weeks after the baby is born and to get as much rest as possible until after the sixth week, she will then have the milk supply well established. T h e breast-fed child may have very early additions of firstly diluted, later pure, freshly sieved orange and tomato juice. V e r y soon some ripe apple, carefully scooped out with a small spoon, or ripe mashed banana can be given before each breast feed. Each feed, or at least three feeds per day, should be preceded by 1 to 2 ozs. of some fresh fruit juice or puree. A s early as three months the child can have some boiled sieved vegetables with a little soya flour, and all this gradually forms the transition to weaning, which can be gradually started on to nut cream or almond puree instead of mother's milk. If the child should not be breast-fed at all, it can be fed on almond puree and raw juices. This is called feeding on fruit milk by Dr. Bircher-Benner, but should not be done- without expert advice and supervision. During the transitional period the child can have fruit and vegetable juices or purees, almond puree with brown sugar and cereal gruel, cooked vegetable purees with soya flour or another cereal. From six to eight months a little wholemeal bread is added, and the vegetables are not sieved as-finely as before. From ten to. fourteen months the baby version of the famous Bircher muesli can be introduced, and before the child is one year old _the _diet can be very near to what one would call a toddler diet, on which it can live more o r less until it is three years old. Practical Suggestions for the Child's Daily Diet This basic diet can remain more or less the same until the child is grown up, only the quantities change with the increasing appetite of the growing child. A child fed sensibly on a natural diet will hardly ever overeat or develop habits like the excessive eating of bread, starchy foods, or sweets. Three meals per day, a larger one at mid-day and two frugal ones morning and evening, are the best regime for a child. In order to achieve the above-mentioned 50% of daily intake of raw food and vegetables, it is necessary to serve fresh fruit, if available, at each meal. If there is not sufficient fresh fruit, dried fruit should be given in small quantities—not more than a date, a fig, o r a dried banana per meal, and some sultanas. Juices. As long as the child is too small to eat the fruit whole it -should be made into, juice, either by squeezing or extracting the juice with an extractor, or by chopping or grating fruit and vegetables into a bowl lined with muslin (see rhubarb juice in muesli recipe). A juice extractor—the " Alexander," " Jupiter " or " Health Mine "—is a very necessary piece of- equipment for a vegan mother. Vegans should help to get these either imported into or manufactured in this country. They help
8 THE VEGAN t o supply t h e small baby, the invalid or t h e aged with freshly pressed juice of either fruit or vegetables. These * undiluted juices have to be taken by s p o o n and should not be gulped down, because they are concentrated foods and not drinks. T h e y are of the highest value and more easily absorbed than other foods. Muesli o r Raw Fruit Porridge. T h e second way of adapting whole f r u i t s and vegetables to the digestive and chevying capacity of a child is by grating on a two-way grater. T h e raw fruit muesli is a fruit dish which is balanced and highly nutritious and should be given to every-child twice daily: f o r breakfast and for the evening meal. I t can be given all the year r o u n d and be made f r o m all fruits in season. If there should be n o fruit available in early spring it can be made from dried fruit or grated carrots with some rhubarb juice added to it. H e r e is the r e d p e f o r the vegan version of the Raw Fruit P o r r i d g e : — Basic Mixture per person—1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon to 1 tablespoon n u t cream o r drops of water to a creamy consistency; taste; juice of £ lemon or less, or orange in bottles (if no lemons available).
fine or medium oatmeal; almond puree diluted with brown sugar according t o juice, or pure lemon juice
Soak oats in water from 12 to 24 hours. Mix n u t cream with lemon juice a n d sugar, add to the oats and stir well. T h e n add fruit pulp and stir again well. . Serve at once with sprinkled nuts. If it has to be kept some time before serving, cover with a plate. Fruit P u l p per person—1 large or 2 small apples, washed or wiped, take off stalks, tops and brown spots, and then grate with core and peel on two-way grater into the bowl containing the basic mixture; m i x quickly and well t o prevent browning.
—or— 5 ozs. of s o f t fruit—Selected, washed and mashed with a plated fork o r a wooden m a s h e r : . strawberries, raspberries, red' and blackcurrants, loganberries, blackberries, bilberries, etc., can be used.
—or— 5 ozs. of stone fruit—Washed, stoned a n d chopped or passed t h r o u g h a m i n c e r : cherries, plums, greengages, damsons, peaches, apricots.
—or— H o z s . d r i e d fruit—Soak from 12 to 24 hours or more, then either finely c h o p or pass t h r o u g h t h e mincer.
—or— 3 ozs. raw carrots—Peeled and grated into the basic mixture; mix • quickly, to prevent the carrots losing their colour. Carrot muesli has to be prepared with special care as they have not the flavour of fruit. I t requires more sweetening and lemon juice. If available, add 1 to 2 ozs. of freshly pressed rhubarb juice; this gives a better taste and some extra vitamin C. . R h u b a r b juice. This can be made with a juice extractor or by grating washed, unpeeled- rhubarb o n a two-way grater into a bowl lined with a piece pf , butter muslin. Squeeze the muslin and add , juice to the basic mixture. ••••..••
7 THE VEGAN It is important to realise that muesli "is essentially a fruit dish and that by altering the proportions (increasing the cereals and reducing' the fruit pulp) the dish will become not more nourishing but. less sustaining. In fact, the directions should be looked upon rather as a prescription than a recipe, having been devised by a. great doctor and dietitian. If muesli is given in its right proportions,- children will seldom ask for snacks or sweets 'between meals. This is a habit which should be discouraged as much as possible, as the digestive organs need a rest. Baby Version of Muesli (from 6 to 16 months). For this, use for basic mixture: â€” 1 heaped teaspoon of fine oatmeal (or fine wheat or oat flakes) soaked in 2 tablespoons of warm wa'ter; 1 level teaspoon of hut cream diluted with drops of water into a creamy consistency; 1 teaspoon of brown sugar according to taste; a few drops of lemon juice. Stir all well in a bowl, then grate quickly on a glass grater or gently on a two-way grater a medium-sized apple, after removing core and at first also the skin. Stir into the mixture and serve immediately. Instead of apples, other kinds of fruits and berries may be used, after being pulped with a wooden spoon through a sieve. Later on they can be crushed with a fork and the muesli given in the way described above. Salads. T h e vegan child should have one raw salad or its equivalent in juice or puree every day. T h e salad should consist of the three parts of the plant: leaves, roots and fruits. This means, for example, the leaves of lettuce, spinach, watercress, etc., the roots of raw, finely-grated carrots; turnips, beetroots, etc., and for fruits: tomato, cucumber, cauliflower, etc. According to the chewing capacity of the child, the vegetables should be finely chopped or grated on the two-way grater. T h e salad should be small at the 'beginning and can be increased when the habit of salad eating ..is. safely established and the appetite is growing. It should preferably be served at lunch and always precede any cooked course because it is then better assimilated. The salad should have a dressing made from a little olive or nut oil, some lemon juice and finely-chopped herbs. If the dressing is well stirred so that the oil is broken up, it combines with the juices of the vegetables and will hardly be noticed. It facilitates mastication, coats the vegetables, and thus prevents loss of vitamins. By also providing the fat which is necessary for absorption of t h e fat soluble vitamin A, the dressing is of the greatest importance for the growth of children. T h e green leaves are an essential part of the salad and should be increased whenever the child is prepared to eat more. Whether salads are liked by children or not, mostly depends on preparation, attractive serving and the psychological attitude of the parents. They should be an essential part of the child's diet and much care should be taken regarding them. Nut Cream or Almond Puree. This is another essential food for the vegan child. It can be made into drinks, mixed with fruit or vegetable juice, spreadsâ€”savoury with yeastrel or marmite, or sweet with cocoa and sugarâ€”into mayonnaise or salad dressing, etc. It should, however, be so planned that a given daily amount should be taken in one or the other form and that not more than this quantity should be given, bearing in mind what has already been said of nuts and nut foods. Three level dessertspoons to three level tablespoons of nut cream per day are the quantities required for the growing child. According to the gains in weight this can be reduced or increased, but these figures should be taken as a basis. Two level teaspoons are one dessertspoon; four level teaspoons are one tablespoon. Nut cream should be carefully measured
by levelling it on the spoon with a knife and noting that none is adhering underneath the spoon. It has to be mixed well with drops of water into a creamy consistency before it can be used for any purpose. W h o l e Grains, So much has been said already about the necessity of using wholemeal bread, flour, etc., in fact, of using all grains stoneground and with their germ, that it seems unnecessary here to go into details. T h e diet of the vegan child should contain as much as possible of the germ of the grain in order to supply t h e necessary vitamin B. It may be advisable to make sure of this vitamin—so essential for alertness and activity in a child as well as for the functioning of the digestive organs— to include 1 teaspoon of wheat germ morning and evening in the muesli. Drinks. T h o u g h a child on a diet rich in1 uncooked fruit and vegetables should not be thirsty—asking for drinks is often nothing but a habit—the question may arise for the child who does not take milk but wants a warm drink in winter or a cold one on warm days. N u t milk drinks and freshly expressed fruit juices are food more than drinks, also nut cream should not be given above the prescribed general quantity. Therefore; Rose H i p Tea is suggested as a solution for a warm drink for breakfast and tea time and pure undiluted apple juice in bottles as a cold drink. T h e hips have t o be gathered in autumn, dried and simmered to make tea, which can be sweetened if desired. Dr. Bircher-Benner suggests this tea f o r a n u m b e r of reasons for all people living on a diet rich in uncooked foods. It has been found that the children at the hospital loved it, and about 300 lbs. were gathered each season by schoolchildren and dried in t h e hospital's laundry steam room. Directions f o r collecting, drying and preparing can be found in the author's leaflet " Wild Rose Hips in Wartime," available at Health Food Stores. Daily Diet. Here follows a general plan for a child from 18 months to adolescence. Only the quantities change, the plan remains the same as well as the proportions of the muesli, although the quantities of the fruit pulp will have to be increased with growing appetite. Breakfast.
Muesli. Fresh fruit or fruit juice and some dried fruit (dates or figs and sultanas). 1 to 2 slices wholemeal bread with nut cream or almond ' puree spread, or home-made jam or rose-hip puree. N u t milk with fruit juice, either as a drink or in a creamy consistency, sweetened and mixed with fruit or fruit puree; or rose-hip tea. Fruit or fruit juice. Raw salad or vegetable juice or puree (according to chewing capacity). Vegetable soup or stew (with soya flour or some wholemeal flour, rice or other cereal); o r dish of cooked vegetables with potatoes, rice or macaroni and some nutmeat. Small sweet from bottled fruit and some nut crcam or almond puree. ' Muesli. Fruit or fruit juice and. dried fruit. 1 to 2 slices of wholemeal bread or crispbread with nut cream, or almond puree spread and tomatoes, cucumber, etc.; or wholemeal fruit cake. Rose-hip tea.
9 THE VEGAN
RAW FRUIT, NUT & VEGETABLE DISHES BY-MARGARET B . RAWLS
Ftuit Pudding 1 lb. mixed dried fruit (dates, raisins, sultanas, currants, bananas), 4 oz. milled mixed nuts, 4 oz. milled almonds (if available), grated rind of orange and lemon. Wash, dry, and stone the fruit and put it all twice through the mincer. Add the nuts and the fruit juice. Press the mixture into a basin, leave for about 24 hours and then turn out on a dish. Stuffed Oranges 3 oranges, 2 ripe dessert apples, about 12 dates. Cut the oranges in half and carefully scoop out the pulp into a basin. Remove the.pith, leaving the cases clean. Chop up the dates very finely, grate the apples, and mix all with the orange pulp. Pile the mixture back into the cases and top with milled nuts mixed with a little of the orange juice. Fruit Compote—(1) 2 peaches, 2 pears, 6 large ripe plums, 1 or 2 bananas (if .available), £ lb. dates, juice of 2 oranges or of £ lb. sweet grapes. ~ ~ ~ Cut the fruit and dates into slices and place in a dish. Pour over the juice and allow to stand for several hours. Fruit Compote—(2) 2 apples, \ lb. ripe berries (raspberries, strawberries, currants, etc.), £ lb. prunes, raisins or sultanas, water or fruit juice. Wash the dried fruit; if prunes are used remove the stones and chop up. Put the dried fruit into a dish and cover with liquid, leave to stand for 24 hours. Add the apples, grated, and the berries. Serve with milled nuts or nut milk. (The new Electric Mixer, now >on the market, will be found excellent for making nut milk quickly from either whole or milled nuts). Fruit Cream i lb. currants, raisins or sultanas, fresh orange juice, about 4 cup of thick nut milk. Put the dried fruit through the mincer, add the fruit juice and nut milk and beat well together.
Mixed Salad 2 cup each of shredded cabbage, finely cut spinach, chopped celery, sprigs of cauliflower, ÂŁ cup each of sliced radishes and diced cucumber; 1 tablespoon chopped parsley or mint, chopped onion; 1 cup each o f ' grated carrot and milled nuts; juice of a lemon mixed with 2 tablespoons of oil or n u t milk. Vesop may be added to taste. Mix all ingredients carefully together. Carrot Savoury 1 cup grated carrots, 1 cup milled nuts, 1 small onion finely chopped, juice of half a lemon, Vesop to taste. Finely chopped parsley or mint. Mix all well together. Beetroot Salad 1 large beetroot, 1 large cooking apple, 1 cup milled nuts, oil and lemon-juice dressing. G r a t e t h e beetroot and apple and mix together. A d d the nuts and dressing, serve on a bed of cress or watercress and scatter over some finely shredded brussel sprouts. Tomato Savoury 2 or 3 ripe tomatoes, milled nuts, fresh herbs, Vesop or chopped onion. Scald and skin the tomatoes. Mash well and thicken the mixture with the nuts. Add the herbs, finely chopped, and the flavouring. Serve with any salad vegetables. Carrot Salad Mix equal quantities of finely grated carrot, chopped sliced tomato. Moisten with savoury nut mik, made i cup of nut milk with teaspoon of Vesop. Serve leaves, garnished with chopped parsley, dandelion, or leaves.
celery and by mixing on lettuce nasturtium
Mint Dressing Mix equal parts of oil and lemon juice, a little Vesop, and add finely chopped mint. Nut Dressing Mix milled nuts with raw vegetable juice. A d d Vesop or raw onion to flavour, also mint, chives, or parsley if desired. T o make vegetable jjuice, grate vegetables on to a piece of muslin, gather u p corners and squeeze o u t the juice. (All enquiries and suggestions on food preparation should be addressed to Mrs. Rawls, at , Sale, Cheshire.)
BRITISH AGAR N Agar is a vegetable substance derived from seaweed, and is used widely in bacteriological work, but it is also found useful as a stabiliser and an emulsifying agent in the preparation of certain pharmaceutical and medicinal commodities such ?â€žs tooth paste, shaving cream, medicinal jellies, lotions and skin creams, etc. It is, however, as a food product that vegetarians and vegans should be particularly interested in it and encourage its extensive use in the commercial preparation of salad creams, fruit jellies, confectionery and synthetic creams ; while it is very welcome in the domestic kitchen as a simple vegetable gelatine. Hithertoo, world supplies of Agar-Agar came solely from the Far East, but on Japan's entry into the war, a serious situation arose. However, scientists working at the Ministry of Health had already foreseen this difficulty, in particular, Prof. Lily Newton, of Aberystwyth University, who had for many years collated data relating to seaweeds most nearly resembling those used for the production of Japanese agar. In collaboration with the Scottish Marine Biological Association, experiments were carried out to produce an agar that was specially suitable for bacteriological work, and the results were checked by the leading scientists in the country. Although at first the outcome was disappointing, the many difficulties have now been overcome and an excellent agar has been produced. Fine Industrial Commodities Ltd. have been instrumental in putting this new product on the market, and the production of British Agar at their factory in Acton is soon expected to exceed an annual output of 100 tons. British Agar is a natural gelling agent, prepared entirely from ceitain Red Algae harvested around the shores of the British Isles. The seaweeds are gathered under carefully controlled conditions during a limited season when the gel strength is at a maximum, and this results in a uniform high standard of the product. Every stage of the manufacture, from the initial washing of the seaweed to the final tests, is carried out under strict scientific control. After cleansing, the weeds are placed in drums with water, and steam-heated to extract the gelatinous matter, which is concentrated under pressure and then dried on rollers. The dried flakes thus obtained are pulverised and then packed ready for distribution : the residue is used as a fertiliser. In the home kitchen, agar is a very useful commodity in the preparation of both sweet and savoury dishes, adding considerable food value to the menu. It is simple and easy to use, clean, inexpensive and flavourless, and also has several other distinct advantages. Being a native of this country, British Agar is, of course, preferable to the imported variety, and it also lessens the transport difficulties and charges ; the present prices are considerably lower than those [ C o n t i n u e d on page
M r . G. A L L A N H E N D E R S O N , Editor of " T h e
Mrs. F A Y K. H E N D E R S O N , of T h e Vegan Guest Centre.
current for Agar-Agar. British Agar mixes readily in cold water without lumping, and dissolves completely without boiling, thus preserving the vitamin content ; and one ounce will jelly at least six pints of liquid, either fruit, savoury, milky or chocolate. It sets rapidly, giving a particularly clear and firm jelly with no suggestion of a seaweed taste. T h e following are possible ways of using British A g a r : 1. F R U I T J E L L I E S : Take a pint of any fruit stock and sweeten to taste. Mix in l j heaped teaspoons of British Agar, and bring nearly to the boil, then add i pint of richly flavoured natural fruit juice, stir well together and pour into dish to set ; or pour over .stale cake to make a popular trifle, and top with milled cashew nuts. 2. U N F I R E D N U T M E A T : Take a pint of vegetable stock and stir in a heaped teaspoon of British Agar, heat until dissolved and flavour well with Vesop, pour over 4 ozs. stale bread pieces and mash well. A d d 6 ozs. milled nuts (any variety) and leave in flat dish to set before serving. 3 . A L M O N D C R E A M : Dissolve \ teaspoonful British Agar in a pint of cold water, and heat until dissolved, then stir in a heaped tablespoonful of any nut cream. Sweeten to taste and add a few drops of almond essence. Beat well and allow to set like a junket, to serve with fruit. It has been arranged that smali quantities for domestic use may be obtained from : B. R. Agar, Rydal Lodge, Ambleside, Westmorland, at the following prices : 4 ozs., 6/-; R ozs., 11/-; 16 ozs., 20/-. All post free.
IMPORTANT LONDON EVENTS Saturday, November 26th, at 2.30 p.m. A N N U A L C O N F E R E N C E on " Veganism and Agriculture," at Friends' House, Euston Road, N . W . I . The speakers will include Mr. W i l f r e d Wellock. Followed by tea, and then the A N N U A L G E N E R A L M E E T I N G of T h e Vegan Society. Friday and Saturday, December 2nd and 3rd T H E A N I M A L S ' FAIR at the Central Hall, Westminster. Two Stalls have been booked, and will be managed by The London Vegan G r o u p on behalf of the Society. Donations towards the expenses and gifts for sale should be sent to Mrs. Muriel Drake, Road, Bromley, Kent, who would also appreciate offers of help at the Stalls.
IN SEARCH OF VEGANISM-^-2. B y LESLIE J. CROSS
LET MY CREATURES
f 11HIS is an attempt to discover the principle whose label is " veganism," and to suggest a tentative form of words which as a short definition closely describes it. It should be held in mind that the views expressed are the writer's, and in no way commit the Society or any other, member. The letter in The Vegetarian Messenger of July, 1943, which started the correspondence culminating in the founding of The Vegan Society in November, 1944, was concerned with the moral and compassionate case against the use of dairy produce by vegetarians. Of the first twenty-five membets of The Vegan Society it was written, " So far as we are aware, every member of our group has discarded the use of dairy produce for humanitarian reasons. . . . W e will not accept that adequate nutrition need violate conscience."* Vegan thought developed rapidly. Commodities manufactured from animals joined food from animals as being " non-vegan." There was an early tendency to get at the roots of the relationship between man and the animals, to deal with a cause rather than its almost uncountable symptoms. There is no evidence that veganism was fundamentally concerned with anything other than the man-plusanimal relationship. In the earlier article, quotations from the finst numbers of The Vegan News indicated that the nature of this relationship. was veganism's paramount concern. Other, literature reinforces this view. " A n Address on Veganism" (Donald Watson, , 1947)^ contains phrases such as the following : . . the right approach to the problem of animal emancipation" . . . " to be true emancipators of animals " . ... " T h e vegan renounces the superstition that continued human existence depends upon the exploitation of these creatures," and " The time has come for us boldly to renounce the idea that we have the right to exploit animals." Similar ideas are embodied in the " Manifesto " on veganism and other writings The thread that runs through the literature on this point is a conviction that for the sake of both man and his fellow creatures, the animals must one day be freed from his exploitations. If vegan thought was running true, veganism is therefore a movement of reform. If this is accepted, it is but one step in simple logic to assert that The Vegan Society is at the earliest possible moment in duty bound to define veganism, and so state the overall reform it wishes to see achieved. It is equally in duty bound to confine its basic energies to pursuing that reform. The position in which the Society finds itselfâ€”without any constitutionally agreed * " T h e Vegan News," No. 1, November, 1944. quarterly journal of the non-dairy vegetarians."
over-all purpose binding upon its members—is accounted for solely by the nature of its development to date. In this sense, the Society is still in a state of pre-natal growth. But this is not satisfactory as a permanency, for undefined reform is a contradiction in terms. It is possible to subtract from the foregoing a number of observations which lead to a definition: (1) veganism is a reform ; (2) the impelling element is compassion for animals arising out of the treatment meted o u t to them by man ; (3) its fundamental concern is with the meeting point between the world of man and the world of the animals; (4) its existence presupposes maladjustment at that p o i n t ; (5) its purpose must be the correction of that maladjustment; (6) the maladjustment is intimately connected with man's use of animals—more precisely, with his habit of acting as a parasite upon living creatures who cannot successfully resist his will. Any definition of veganism must contain these six observations and violate none of them. A form of words which meets these requirements is that veganism is the principle of the abolition of the exploitation of animals by man. T h e positive aspect of this negative (non-exploitation) approach is t h e granting of freedom—in one word, emancipation. Veganism may therefore be defined as " the principle of the emancipation of the animals from exploitation by man."* But although such a definition satisfies the observations set out above, it is essential to discover whether it meets the requirements of wisdom as well as logic. It must therefore be measured against a general philosophical argument. The broad demand which wisdom makes upon a man is that he shall free himself from the chains which bind him to his less noble desires and inhibit his ascent to higher standpoints, wider vision, and consequent happiness. There are a number of tests by which his efforts to free himself may be judged, and one of the most stringent is his conduct towards those over whom he has power. It is applied in an acute form at the point where his world meets the world of the animals, for over them he has dominion. • His conduct at this point reveals tendencies which are strongly self-indulgent at the expense of the creatures. There is a widespread failure to understand that animals have rights relatively equal to his. His exploitations result in a needless curtailment of natural freedom over a wide front and inevitably end in one sort of slaughter' house or another. This is true of all his exploitations, from the backyard hen to the great beef and dairy herds. (Although some horses end their days in " homes of rest," this could apply to a few only. Most are killed for commodities, feeding stuffs or human consumption. Again, worn-out cows from the dairy herds are not pensioned off in clover fields). • Emancipation: the state of being set free. Exploitation: the act of using for selfish purposes. Animals: sentient animate creatures other than man.
The full indictment against exploitation—the traffic in flesh, hunting, trapping, vivisection, and so on and on—need not be stated here. W h a t must be faced, however, is the undoubted fact that apart from granting to animals the right—and the facilities—to go back to nature, no solvent exists for the conditions which the indictment reveals. Because emancipation would at one and the same moment release the animals from bondage and man from being their parasite, because by putting it into effect man would free himself from some of the chains which bind him to his less noble desires, it fulfils the demands of wisdom as well as logic. There are also at least three further striking indications that this is so. The first two emerge from a broad view of the general trend of human evolution. A movement to emancipate animals may be seen to be following naturally and historically upon the movement to emancipate human slaves. It thus possesses the aesthetic and significant attribute of evolutionary continuity. Secondly, it is far from being outside the bounds of probability that the " wrong turning " taken by, man somewhere in his evolution was the enslavement ( " domestication ") of animals, a proposition abundantly argued by the American writer, Henry Bailey Stevens.* Thirdly, emancipation goes straight to the cancer at the heart of the existing man-animal relationship, and would remove at one stroke the single cause from which all the sorry symptoms arise. A point which should perhaps be made clear at once is that emancipation of the animals does not mean their extinction. On the contrary, it means a return to their own freely-discovered place within nature—a return to balance, sanity, and naturalness. For some animals this may well be one of companionship with man, for man is part of nature. For some it may be a return to wilder life. For many it would mean a ^gradual end to~ the abnormal shapes, functions and diseases which " domestication " has artificially manufactured out of original wild types. For all it would mean an end of excessive and unnatural breeding. The ancient bondage at the hand of man would at last be over. It remains to be said that if as a Society we become satisfied that emancipation is our purpose, and if, as we must, we then insert that discovery into our written Constitution, it will not mean that we cannot continue to take a lively interest in such things as scientific or .symbiotic trends in diet, in compost gardening and soil management, and many other related matters. But it will mean that like Kiplingis ship we shall have " found ourselves." W e shall have discovered our destiny. T h e crystallisation spoken of in the earlier article will have taken place, and the thrust of our efforts will be guided and concentrated into a purposeful drive toward the shining, if still distant, star of a major world reform. * " The "Recovery of Culture." Henry Bailey Stevens, with foreword by Gerald Heard. Harper and Brothers, New York, 1949.
THE VEGAN 20
THE VEGAN BABY BUREAU '
B y KATHLEEN V . MAYO '
" Milk Ruins Teeth "
H I S headline appeared in the " Daily Mirror " of August 9th.
" Milk is one of the main causes of bad teeth in children/ 1 declared a dentist who has been studying the subject for 20 years. A s former school dental officer to 6,000 Chester children, Mr. N . A . James considers he knows a great deal about their teeth, b u t the education and health authorities will not listen to his views. T h e y ask whether the whole dental profession is behind him, but h e replies: " Mine is a lone voice. Most dentists are too busy mending teeth to worry about saving them." M r . James has found that the teeth of primary schoolchildren are " five times better " than those of the secondary schools; the reason being homework and' late bedtimes, the children being given sweet drinks in the evening (and these are harmful to . the teeth), or plain milk, which causes endless damage if it is not brushed off immediately. M r . James points to his 12.''year-old son, Patrick, as evidence that his views are right. Patrick never drinks milk, never eats supper and never needs a dentist; while daughter W e n d y , 16, who loves milk, has had t o have most of her teeth filled. Strong teeth are built up from t h e intake of calcium, good vegetable sources of which are mustard and cress, watercress, raw cabbage, cauliflower, dandelion leaves, kale, turnip tops, chives, and lettuce. If, therefore, children have a salad every day, with plenty of green leaves, their parents can be sure that they are having an adequate supply of calcium. Other leaves that can be used in the salad are celandine, nasturtium, wood'sorrel, fennel and chickweed. These can all be chopped up with lettuce- for children and, for the very young, strained through muslin to get the juice. T h e article by Mrs. Claire Loewenfeld in the summer number of this journal was very welcome, and particularly for her praise of the green leaf protein, which proved in theory what vegan children practise naturally. M a n y of them who have green salads daily do not desire any nut foods and refuse them when offered, yet they develop in health and strength much above the average. M y own children will pick and eat parsley, mint and cress f r o m t h e garden, yet hardly ever eat nuts or anything made from them. M a n y mothers still write and ask: " But where do your children get their protein f r o m ? " and they have difficulty in believing that a child can thrive on a diet of fruits, salads and wholegrains.
Important People Mrs. Geoffrey Fisher, the wife of the Archbishop of Canter' bury, gave a talk in Women's H o u r on children, calling them the " Important People." Surely the important people of the vegan movement are the children, because they are its prospective leaders in the future. W i t h our care and guidance they will have deeper convictions and higher standards of thought, morals, and culture through being brought up in a home where the principles of Love and Compassion predominate. T h e Baby Bureau is a channel through which the practical experience of vegan mothers can be communicated to others in need of- it. Enquiries are received from many mothers who desire to bring their children up in T h e Vegan W a y , but who require some practical help and encouragement. All the information which readers can give on the success attending their efforts will therefore be most welcome and will be passed on to others, either direct or through the medium of this journal. (Kindly address all Baby Bureau correspondence direct to " Braeside," Thornhill Road, Streetly, Sutton Coldfield.â€”K.V.M.) N O T E : " P i t m a n " Wholemeal Flour can be recommended for bread, cakes, biscuits and shortbread, as it is milled by a new process that entirely eliminates frictional heat and thus retains all the volatile essential oils and the vitamins.
HORTI-VEGAN NOTES B y A L E C "MARTIN
H I S year may break many records for the amount of sunshine we have had, and bronzed faces and bodies supply the evidence. In areas .where there has been a reasonable rainfall as well, the combination of sunshine and rain has made for perfect gardening. But where the rainfall has been very little for several months, coupled with the- general shortage over the past year or two, the result is a" season of little growth and much disappointment. In the dry belt, the " no digging " theory has had a -good test, and as far as one can see, it has shown decided advantages. T h e consolidated earth, as the result of not digging, has helped to bring up what little moisture there was below and also supported the long, fine roots which go to the moister depths. A s a result, root crops in the undug soil have done and are doing better than those nearby growing in the dug, lighter soil. However, one cannot be dogmatic in any way, as local conditions such as .the. nature of the soil and the situation, or a shower of rain, at just the right time, vary so much within short distances that
many factors have to be considered. But the sunshine - has been general and widespread; the rich tones-of golden corn as the harvest began were good to see, even when our salad crops were getting just a little too much of the-sun. T w o questions h a v e arisen, and any information will be •welcome. (1) " Can mushrooms be grown on compost without a n y animal.manure?"; and (2) " H o w does one proceed to plant a n d develop hazel trees that really will produce edible nuts?" M u s h r o o m s in the natural habitat are usually found in pastures •or grassy glades in woods where-there are animal droppings. O n the other hand, fungi do grow, on compost; many of these are •edible and, according to those who have a taste for the finer points of fungi, some are an improvement on the mushroom. Thus, if t h e mushroom is dependent upon animal manure,, it may b e that o n e of the other varieties should be developed, but, as the saying •goes, " Dead men tell no tales," so it will be as well to make sure of one's fungi before cultivating them. Experience with nuts has led to the conclusion that to get a worthwhile crop is quite a specialised business; the groves of Kentish cobs seem to be of old, heavily-pruned trees. Experience with cobnuts raised from seed was. that they were prolific growers •and that t h e correct method of pruning seemed very important. T h e y were raised to the fruiting stage, by - which time lots of large caterpillars appeared each year to enjoy the leaves, resulting i n bedraggled, untidy bushes, so the experiment terminated in an uprooting. Both mushrooms and nuts seem to require knowledgeable cultivation if the • crop is to be- worthwhile, but it is to be hoped that the experience of others will show that they are both " just too easy." O u r Editor would welcome a comprehensive .article on each of these subjects. Earlier remarks about the sunshine may need some modification, f o r even in the comparatively small expanse of these islands there . has been an area of drought, whilst at the same time, other districts h a v e h a d appreciable rainfalls. Such variations emphasise the need f o r care not to make generalisations, and we must work out our -vegan ideas in the light of our own personal environment. T o supplement previous notes on vegan horticulture relating t o taking people to t h e food rather than the present wasteful e c o n o m y " of taking food to the people, t h e latest booklet of P r o f e s s o r Szekely's " Cottage Economy " also deals with this and •can be recommended, as it provides a great deal to ponder and m a n y ideas f o r vegan development. (Vegans can assist one another greatly by an interchange of methods, ideas, experiments and results. . Please submit these direct to M r . Martin at " Bishop's Stortford, Herts.).
THE VEGAN MISCELLANEOUS
(Two lines. 4 / - : extra lines, 1 / 6 ea.: 20% allowed on four'consecutive
L E A R N T O SPEAK A N D WRITE.—Lessons by v (5/-). Classes (1/6).—Dorothy Matthews, B.A., London, N.W.3. PRImrose 5686. " V E G A N RECIPES."—By Mrs. Fay' R. Henderson. Appetising and Nutritious Fare without animal or dairy products. Revised Edition, price 2/8,^ready soon, from.Rydal Lodge, Ambleside,.Westmorland. . D U T C H GIRL, 24, seeks, post in vegan/vegetarian household as Parlourmaid or Mother's Help. Free February. Box 31, " T h e Vegan." BOOKS O N L O A N sent by post, send-S.A.E.,; part health, travel ' and nature ' books.—-A: Salmon, Gorleston, Gt. Yarmouth, Norfolk.
ESTABLISHMENTS CATERING FOR VEGANS. CAMBRIDGE.—-Colonic irrigation, massage, infra-red radiant heat, diets, etc. one or two resident guest patients taken.—Mrs. E. Jepp (late Champneys), 19B Victoria Street. Tel.. 2867. LAKE DISTRICT.—Beck Allans and Rothay Bank, Grasmere. Attractive guest houses for invigorating, refreshing holidays.—Write: Isabel James. P E N A R T H . — " Vegetarian Home," Rectory Road. Rest, change, relaxation. Ideal situation. Pleasant holiday resort; overlooking sea. Attractive, generous, catering. Sun Lounge: ,H:. & C. Send for new Brochure. SCARBOROUGH.—Vegans welcomed in pr district. Generous diet.—-Miss' V. C a r r ,
SCOTLAND.—West Highland Coast. Vegans welcomed in private house in Donald and Muriel Crabb, grand situation overlooking sea-loch. Achaglachgach, West Loch, Tarbert, Argyll. SURREY HILLS.—Vegetarian Country Club 700 ft. up, grand views and walks. Gent. Htg., Garage. From' £ 4 / 4 / 0 "p.w. N O EXTRAS. Illus. brochure.—Upwood House, Caterham. Tel. 3633.,' ! ST.
C A T H E R I N E ' S SCHOOL, Almondsbury, N r . ' Bristol. — Progressive co-educational boarding school for children of all ages, specialising in music, dancing, crafts, etc., in addition to usual academic subjects. 400 ft. up, overlooking Channel and Welsh Hills. Own produce.
N. D E V O N . — F o u r Winds, Westward H o ! Details Vegan V., N o . page 9. Brochure now ready. Telephone Everett, Northam 405.
S O M E R S E T . — W h y not spend a happy, healthy holiday at Uplands, Vegan, Vegetarian and Food Reform Guest House, which is situated in a lovely position in own 16-acre composted fruit farm. Bread, cakes and biscuits homemade from 100% wholewheat. No chemicals used in either growth or preparation of food. Excellent centre for places of interest—Cheddar, Weston-S-Mare, Wells, etc. Putting, Tennis, provided. Stasip for brochure to Amy Little, Uplands, Winscombe, Somerset. Tel. 2257.
" Vegetarian Recipes without Dairy Produce " By Margaret B. Rawls 6d. post free. " A i d s to a Vegan Diet for Children " By Kathleen V . Mayo » 1 / ' post free. These valuable additions to our literature are obtainable from either the Secretary or direct from the Authors.
near AMBLESIDE, W E S T M O R L A N D In the heart of the English Lakes.
A Guest Centre where the Vegan principle is demonstrated, all food being free of animal produce. H i g h standard of comfort, service and catering. Booking now for Christmas and N e w Year Parties.
O p e n Always.
T e l . : Ambleside 208.
Of Qreat Interest to Vegetarians A NEW
in Britain from raw materials gathered the shores of the British Isles.
ABSOLUTE PURITY EXCEPTIONAL CLARITY CONSISTENT GEL STRENGTH DOES NOT REQUIRE SOAKING OR BOILING COMPLETELY SOLUBLE AT 160-180° Fah. Sole M a n u f a c t u r e r s :
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A new Company brings a new Industry to Britain S O L F L O W E R Limited is the first Company in Britain to tap fresh and valuable home sources of nutrition by using the kernel of the Sunflower Seed for processing into human foods. T h e kernels, in flavour and analysis similar to nuts, are rich in Vitamins, Fats and Proteins, and will form an important unrationed addition to present-day diet. Attractive and intriguing foods and confections will be in production in due course under the most hygienic conditions, at the Company's new Model Factory at Rogerstone, N E W P O R T , Mon.
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( 6 miles from E d i n b u r g h ) T r e a t m e n t s i n c l u d e : Fasting, Dietetics, Colonic Irrigation, Spinal Manipulation, Massage, Bergonie T h e r a p y , Radiant Light a n d Heat, Baths, etc. Dieting is on non-flesh food reform lines, sympathetic towards V e g a n â€˘ principles. A fully qualified physician is in residence.
(Adjoining Golf Course)
ISLE OF W I C H T
Fragrant Himalayan Deodars and Lebanon Cedars surrounding six acres of Green Lawns. 3 6 acres Tropical Gardens and rare flowering shrubs gently sloping to t h e sea. Fruit Orchards a n d V e g e t a b l e Gardens entirely c o m p o s t grown. A haven of shelter w h e r e mimosa, rhododendrons, camellias a n d roses bloom in w i n t e r . Delightful in summer. Ideal for w e e k - e n d s . Only half hour f r o m P o r t s m o u t h . Terms 3 i - 8 gns., according to room and season. S.A.E. Brochure. 'Phone: Ryde 2 1 5 2 .
VEGAN P Naturally ! It's a Pitman Product
VSTAN UT SAVOURY -
FROM HEALTH FOOD STORES V i t a n u t Savoury is excellent f o r . Roasts and Savouries, and it can be very good w h e n used as a f i l l i n g on sandwich days
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contains in c o n v e n i e n t , inoffensive f o r m . T h i s u n i q u e garlic c o n t e n t , c o m b i n e d with t h y m o l a n d a n i s e e d , is giving n o t a b l e results in such varied c o n d i t i o n s as gastritis, r h e u m a t i s m , and c a t a r r h , to n a m e only a few. A s k f o r N E O R A N (available in liquid, tablet and o i n t m e n t f o r m ) at your H e a l t h F o o d Store or C h e m i s t ; i n f o r m a t i v e literature free o n request. Sole Manufacturers: PIERCE A. ARNOLD. F.C.S. Manufacturing and Consulting C h e m i s t s
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the oil of garlic 2n English garlic
NUT FRITTERS can be made in a few minutes with
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SAVORMIX MAPLEMEAT FRITTAMIX
2/2 1/10 1/6
All quickly make nourishing, sustaining and delicious savoury fritters of high food value. See eaÂťy-to-make Recipes on Cartons.
9id. 7id. 6id.
From Health MAPLETON'S
Food Stores and many
FOOD CO. LTD. (Dept. V.7), CARSTON,
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Made only from the Kving wheat germ by |OHN
by H .
The journal of The Vegan Society