vanderven oriental art â&#x20AC;˘ the netherlands www.vanderven.com â&#x20AC;˘ firstname.lastname@example.org
it’s time to celebrate! It is with the greatest pleasure, that this year I announce the 50th anniversary of Vanderven Oriental Art. Founded in 1968, in ’s-Hertogenbosch, the company is still based in this charming town in The Netherlands. Even though our roots remain firmly fixed here, over time we have evolved into an international business. We are lucky enough to operate all around the world from very close to home (Maastricht) to further afield (New York & Hong Kong). We travel to where our customers are, which makes our business very diverse and exciting. Each encounter with its remarkable and personal story enriches us further. Over the years we have been greatly influenced and guided by the people surrounding us: clients, colleagues, fair organisers, suppliers, family and friends – some in the foreground, others backstage. They have made us into who we are today, not only as people but as a company too. My uncle, Clemens van der Ven, always said: “You shape the people around you and then they shape you!” – when we look back at what we have accomplished and who we are in 2018, this is still as relevant today as it ever was.
word must also go to my wife Nynke, with whom I have now worked for the past 11 years. We have sailed the seas of the art world, sharing a huge passion for art and beauty. It has enriched our lives and turned our relationship into a true adventure. The journey will probably never end, nor will the relentless curiosity and drive we both have for Chinese art. With this catalogue - Figures – we celebrate 50 years of Vanderven Oriental Art. It is intended as a true celebration of and for the people surrounding us. It commemorates this incredible milestone, for us personally as well as for our business. We hope you enjoy this catalogue as much as we have in making it for this special anniversary year. It is time to celebrate: what we have achieved, what we do today and the ventures that still lie ahead! Floris van der Ven
Having now worked in the art world for 30 years, I would like to express my gratitude for all the encouragement, compliments, criticism and the rewards I have received from so many people over the years. This has helped make what Vanderven Oriental Art stands for today: a long standing business with a passion for art, professionalism with a personal touch, a commitment to quality and a boundless thirst for knowledge. We always strive to be all these things, without losing our sense of fun or forgetting our true friendships. I would like to express my gratitude to the founders of the business: my aunt and uncle Neeltje and Clemens van der Ven. They introduced me to the world of art and antiques and taught me how to “connect” with this remarkable world and its inhabitants. A very special
Vanderven Oriental Art The Netherlands Tel. +31 (0)73 614 62 51 email@example.com www.vanderven.com
Floris van der Ven
1. CIVIL OFFICIAL
Civil Official China, Northern Qi period (549-577AD) H: 149 cm, W: 44 cm TL-tested, By Oxford Authentication (2000) Provenance: Private Collection, The Netherlands, 2000
This impressive nearly life-size figure is made of unglazed earthenware. It is boldly but finely modelled, and cold decorated with pigments after firing. It stands solemn and upright in watchful attention, the head held high and the hands clasped together across the chest. He wears a loose flowing wide-sleeved tunic, belted at the waist, over loose trousers. The pointed shoes peek out from underneath the hem and on his head is a black court cap. Over his tunic he wears a sturdy ceremonial breastplate, buckled over the shoulders. He has a solemn face with a furrowed brow, upward slanting eyes, slightly smiling red lips and a thin black moustache.
Such large and impressive figures are unusual. It would certainly have been intended for the tomb of a high-ranking noble; where civil officials would form part of the expansive household. In addition to their administrative responsibilities, they would also have served as an honour guard for members of the imperial family and aristocracy.
This imposing figure, bridges the sculptural style between Northern Wei and the Tang periods. It is finely manufactured, with attention to detail. Particularly, the slightly haughty expression and clothes suggests a realistic style. We can assume that this figure would have been placed against the wall, as the reverse has less detailing.
Literature: Cologne 2008, p. 7-8 14-16 Lefebvre dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ArgencĂŠ 1974, p. 124 nr.52 New York 2000, p. 14 nr. 3 New York 2016, p. 125-133 Thorpe & Bower 1982 p. 46-47 nr. 24 Watt 2004, p. 241-242 nr. 135
A similar large figure was exhibited in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York) in 2004. One is included in the Museum DKM (Duisburg) Collection. A related figure is in the Asian Art Museum, San Francisco (acc.nr. B60S498).
文官俑 中國北齊（公元549-577年） 高：149厘米；寬：44厘米 由英國牛津鑑定公司於2000年進行熱釋光年代測定 來源：荷蘭私人收藏（2000年）
這尊近乎真人大小的文官像由未施釉陶土燒製而成， 形制粗獷而不失細膩，並在燒成冷卻後繪以裝飾性顏 料。人像莊嚴挺立，舉頭凝視，雙手緊抱於胸前。 他身著鬆垮的寬袖束腰上衣，及地紈褲隱約露出尖頭 履，頭戴黑色宮廷官帽，硬質的禮服胸甲在肩上扣 住，罩在外衣前部。此人眉頭微蹙，眼角斜傾，紅唇 微啟似含笑，唇上一抹淡鬚。 該陶俑顯示了北魏過渡到唐代的雕塑風格，手工精 細，注重細節刻畫，尤其是其服飾和稍顯高傲的表 情具有現實風格。其背面缺乏細節，因此可能最初 貼牆陳設。 體形如此巨大而又細節生動的人像十分罕見，可以推 測其可能作為陪葬品被用於地位較高的貴族的墓穴 中，因為通常文官是貴族豪門中侍從人員的一部分； 而考慮到文官的行政職責，該像也可能是皇室墓葬儀 仗隊的其中一個。 美國紐約大都會藝術博物館曾於2004年展出一件類似 俑像，德國杜伊斯堡的DKM博物館亦收藏有一件， 美國舊金山亞洲藝術博物館亦有一件相關藏品（參考 編號B60S498）。
Warriors China, Northern Qi period (549-577AD) H: 77 cm TL Tested by Oxford Authentication Provenance: Private Collection, Belgium (2016), With Vanderven Oriental Art (2004)
This pair of pottery warriors stand upright and have non-Chinese features, with fearsome expressions. Both figures are wearing armour, presumably made of leather, strengthened with breastplates, shoulder guards and cording. They wear long flowing trousers with sturdy black boots peeking out from underneath. The whole is cold decorated with reddish pigments. Their right hand would have held a lance of some kind, which has now been lost. In their left hand they hold a tall shield decorated in the centre with a lions mask. In the Suishu (History of the Sui) – it mentions warriors accompanying the Emperor, holding shields decorated with golden lions’ heads. Perhaps these figures are representation of a similar honour guards serving the elite.
These soldiers would have been responsible for the safety of the tomb occupant. The foreign features suggest they were one of the many non-Han peoples residing in Northern China at that time, possibly from Central Asian origin. Similar figures are in the Shanxi and Hebei Provincial Museums and can be dated 570 & 566 AD).
中國北齊（公元549-577年） 高：77厘米 由英國牛津鑑定公司進行熱釋光年代測定 來源： 比利時私人收藏（2016年） 梵德溫東方藝術行（2004年）
盔甲，原型似由皮革製成，並以胸甲、護肩及綁繩 固定。 整尊塑像在燒製後被塗以紅色顏料。他們的褲腳露出 黑靴，右手曾執纓槍（已遺失），左手按獅紋大盾。 《隋書》中記載，皇家衛兵配有金獅子頭裝飾的盾 牌。可以推測這兩尊人像代表著上層社會的護衛隊。 這些衛士保護墓主人的安全，而他們的非漢族外表 則表明，他們是當時居住在中國北方的外族人，很 可能來自中亞。 山西省和河北省博物館均有類似陶俑，年代測定分別 為公元570年和566年。
Literature: Lewis 1990, p. 118 nr. 54 New York 2016, p. 312 nr. 70 Thorpe & Bower 1982, p. 48-49 nr. 25 & 26 Watt 2004, p. 242-243 nr. 137
3. WEN GONG
Wen Gong China, Tang Dynasty (618 – 907AD) H: 59 cm TL Tested by Oxford Authentication Provenance: Private Collection, The Netherlands (2015) With Vanderven Oriental Art (1996) Private Collection, Belgium
A pair of terracotta figures of Civil Officials (wen gong). They hold their hands in an honorific manner and have the serious countenance of a Confucian trained Tang scholar. They are dressed in official court dress comprising a short wide sleeved jacket in reddish orange, edged with a band of floral decoration. The long under robes are a lighter colour. Both figures wear black court hats - jinxianguan (crown for the imparting of virtue) - denoting their position as court councilor. The ceremonial cuirasses, held in place by black straps, have a floral design on the front. The tips of their black pointed shoes peep out from under their garments. All the coloured details are ‘cold decorated’ - meaning they were applied to the figures after the firing.
Figures of civil officials were often paired with their military counterparts, as well as guardians, to form a protective group of figures in the tomb chamber. Comparable figures are in the Victoria & Albert Museum London (nr.C.30-1943), the Shaanxi History Museum, Xian and the Meiyintang Collection.
中國唐代（公元618-907年） 高：59厘米 由英國牛津鑑定公司進行熱釋光年代測定 來源： 荷蘭私人收藏（2015年） 梵德溫東方藝術行（1996年） 比利時私人收藏
俑人敬握雙手，身穿橘紅色寬袖官服，袖邊有精美花 紋，內著淺色長袍，頭戴黑色進賢冠，足穿黑色尖頭 履，顯示其宮廷文吏身份。儒學士的地位。以黑色腰 帶固定的禮儀性胸甲飾有花卉紋樣。 這些色彩都是 在陶俑燒成冷卻後再添加的。 文官俑往往和武將俑及衛士一起構成墓室中的護衛儀 仗。類似文貢見於英國倫敦維多利亞和阿爾伯特博物 館（編號C30-1943）、位於西安的陝西曆史博物館以 及瑞士玫茵堂藏品中。
Literature: Ayers 1980, pl. 10 Krahl 1994, p. 111 nr. 178 Cologne 2008, pl. 38. Hong Kong 1993, pl. 102. Jacobson 2013, p. 170 Rawson 2007, p. 138-144 Watt 2004, p. 292 nr. 184 Yin 2016, p. 81 & p. 149 nr. 113
4. ELDER PORTRAIT Elder Portrait China, Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), c. 16th century. H: 205,5 cm, W: 117 cm Provenance: Private Collection, United Kingdom
An impressive elder portrait of a man in court dress. Depicted full length, he is seated in a chair draped with a silk cloth. He is dressed in a sumptuous red gongfu officials’ robe and accompanying wusha hat. The front of the robe has a gold insignia badge with a Baize – a mythical animal only sported by high ranking nobles. Typical of the Ming period, is the white silk shirt (zhongdan) collar, visible around the neck. The mandatory blue belt (shudai), is embellished with gold mounted floral ornaments. On his feet, which rest on the chair rail, are dark zaoxue shoes – a colour only allowed for those who had passed their civil examinations. The lack of surrounding decorations, encourages the viewer to focus on the face. The features are very realistic and the facial hair delicately painted. In the Chinese Confucian society, the aged were revered and respected. Memorial portraits played an important role in rituals surrounding the honouring of ancestors. They would be hung at special celebrations, such as the New Year, so the forefathers could be included.
長者畫像 中國明代（公元1368-1644年），約十六世紀 高：205.5厘米；寬：117厘米 來源： 英國私人收藏
Similar portraits can be found in the British Museum (London) and the Royal Ontario Museum (Toronto). A surviving red robe from the period, also with a woven gold Baize - sent as a diplomatic gift is now in the Imperial Japanese collection.
於覆有絲綢的寬椅之上。其胸前補子是一隻金線白澤，這 是明代公、侯、伯、駙馬的補子紋樣。白色衣領表明他內 穿明代典型的絲綢中單，藍色束帶配有金鑲花飾。他腳穿 皂靴擱在腳凳上——明代百姓禁穿靴，這也說明了該人物 的身份。純色背景使觀者視線集中在人像臉部，面部刻畫 細緻，毛髮逼真。
Literature: Clunas 2007, p. 43-45 fig. 24 Clunas & Harrison-Hall 2014, fig. 144 Harrison- Hall 2014, p. 73-75 Jackson & Hugus 1999, p. 110-111 Kwan 2003, p. 33-39 & nr. 27 Ruitenbeek 2017, p. 88 nr. 1
在中國儒家傳統中，長者受到尊重。紀念畫像在祭祖儀式 中具有重要功能，每遇特殊節慶（例如春節），列祖列宗 以畫像的形式參與這些慶祝活動。 位於英國倫敦的大英博物館和加拿大多倫多的皇家安大略 博物館的藏品中有類似肖像。日本皇室收藏有一件同時期 作為外交禮物獲得的明代紅袍，同樣織有金白澤補子。
5. CHINESE LADY
Chinese Lady China, Kangxi period (1662-1722), c.1670-80 H: 29,7 cm Provenance: Private Collection, France
A large figure of an elegant Chinese lady, carved from a greenish grey soapstone, the facial features, hair and clothing embellished with polychrome and gilding. Her floor-length loose fitting robes, are incised all over with a cloud design, interspersed with flower medallions. The over robe, is closed at the front with a lingzhi shaped clasp and the edges of the garments have a border design of scrolling lotuses. Her black hair is swept up into an elaborate bun to one side of her head. In her right hand she holds a short stick., the left hand is covered by a long flowing sleeve. The back of the robes are incised in less detail than the front.
中國清代康熙，約1670-1680年 高：29.7厘米 來源：法國私人收藏
和衣服上點綴有色彩和鍍金。她的及地寬鬆長衣通 體飾雲彩與花卉穿插的圖案。外袍帶有荷花滾邊， 正面以靈芝形鈕扣束結。烏黑的頭髮一側盤有精緻 髮髻。她右手執一短棍，左手被長袖遮蔽。長袍背 面細節不如正面。 早在十六世紀，這種具有異國情調的岫玉人像就已傳 入歐洲。當時已有西方商人在中國南部沿海地區進行 貿易。至十八世紀，福建成為岫玉雕刻的中心。這些 玉雕並非專門為出口而製造，而是同時針對國內外需 求。對歐洲人來說，這些人像主要代表了異域情調， 而其宗教或文化象徵意義則不復存在。
Exotic soapstone figures such as this one, were already being brought to Europe as early as the 16th century. At this time, Western merchants were already trading along the southern coastal regions of China. By the 18th century the main centre for soapstone carving was Fujian Province. These types of objects were not specifically made for export, but carved for the domestic trade and export alike. The religious or symbolic significance of some of the figures was probably lost on the Europeans, who mainly admired them for their exotic charm. Comparable figures are in the Danish as well as the Swedish Royal Collections. 18
Literature: Clunas 1996, p. 69-90 Dam-Mikkelsen & Lundbaek 1980 Setterwall 1974, p. 184 & 306-308
6. LONG ELIZAS
Long Elizas China, Kangxi period (1662-1722) c. 1700 Diameter: 36,5 cm Provenance: Private Collection, The Netherlands
A porcelain food tray for sweetmeats, consisting of a central star-shaped dish surrounded by eight lappetshaped dishes. The dishes have a double raised edge, in a brown colour, which may have been gilded. Each dish is painted with ladies involved in various domestic activities. The scenes are set in the garden as well as indoors, some also include playing children. Each scene is different - the central dish portrays two ladies playing weiqi and one of the side dishes portrays a lady playing the Qin.
中國清代康熙（公元1662-1722年），約1700年 直徑：36.5厘米 來源： 荷蘭私人收藏
它的八個花瓣形盤子組成。瓷碟邊緣雙重凸起呈褐 色，可能曾鍍金。每個碟子上都描繪了女子從事某 種家庭活動的場景，或在花園，或在室內，其中有 些還包括嬉戲的兒童。每個場景都不重複：中央碟 子中的兩位女子正在下圍棋，而另一個碟子中的女 子則在彈奏古琴。 身材苗條纖細的女士形象是康熙時期瓷器的流行圖案 主題。這些中國的「美人」被荷蘭人冠以「朗格麗 莎」（身材細長的女士）的名稱。這個詞彙已成為瓷
The decoration of elongated slender ladies on porcelain, was a particularly popular motif during the Kangxi period. They were known as mei ren (beautiful women) in Chinese and became known as lange lijzen (‘long elizas’) in Dutch. This term, which was coined in The Netherlands, is now a generic term used to describe a décor of domestic scenes with elegant Chinese ladies.
器中的通行術語，指含有此類中國仕女的裝飾圖案。 蜜餞套瓷也有其他釉料、裝飾和形製，為國內市場及 出口生產。僅管市場上常見單件盤碟，但成套者罕 見。位於土耳其伊斯坦布爾的托普卡匹博物館就有各 種此類不完整的套瓷，裝飾圖案相似。英國倫敦的維 多利亞和阿爾伯特博物館、美國賽勒姆的迪美博物館 有成套收藏，但均為粉彩。
Sweetmeat sets were also produced in other glazes, decoration and shapes, for the domestic market as well as for export. Even though individual dishes are quite often found in the market, complete sets are now rare. The Topkapi Museum (Istanbul) has various incomplete sets with a similar décor. Complete sets, but in famille verte enamels, are in the Victoria & Albert Museum, London and The Peabody Essex Museum (Salem). 20
Literature: Ayers 2004 C0060 Hobson 1925-1928 Kerr & Mengoni 2011 Krahl & Ayres 1986 Sargent 2012 Shanghai 1998
Hunters China, Kangxi period (1662-1722) c.1700 H: 27,5 cm Provenance: Private Collection, Belgium
A set of three jars and covers, with a globular body, short neck and an unusually high spreading foot. The body is moulded and decorated in underglaze blue, with eight large panels, alternately containing scenes of hunters on horseback and riverscapes. Below these scenes, is a moulded band of overlapping small and large lotus leaves. On the shoulder are petal shaped reserves decorated with sprays of flowers and fruit. Around both the neck and foot are a double band with a diaper and leaf pattern. The high domed lids, are decorated with six moulded lappet panels outlined with a thin blue line with flower sprays; the finial is white with a circular medallion with a stylised flower.
Hunting scenes were a typical decorative motif on finely decorated export-wares in the Kangxi period. On each of these vases, four of main panels depict a different hunter, mostly men but some women. They are carrying an array of hunting weapons including spears and bows, several hold a bird of prey. Hunting was an ancient aristocratic pass-time in China; it was widely practiced and considered to be an important skill.
中國清代康熙（公元1662-1722年），約1700年 高：27.5厘米 来源： 比利時私人收藏
罐身的八塊面板上施以釉下藍料，分別描繪了馬背上 的獵人和河岸景觀。狩獵場景之下則是大小荷花瓣交 替重疊構成的紋帶。瓶肩飾有含各種花卉水果的花瓣 狀紋樣。罐頸和足均繪有兩層菱形和葉形紋樣。高聳 的將軍蓋上裝飾著六個以細線劃出的葉形框，其中繪 有花束，白色珠頂則繪有圓形花紋。 康熙時期，狩獵圖出口瓷的典型裝飾圖案。這組瓷 器中的每一件都有四塊面板描繪了不同的狩獵者， 主要是男性，也有一些女性。他們攜帶各種狩獵工 具，包括長矛和弓箭，還有幾人抓著捕獲的鳥。狩獵 是中國古代貴族的一種休閒活動，它作為一項重要 技能被廣泛演練。
Literature: Howard & Ayres 1978, p. 64 pl. 19 Yeo 1978, p. 230 nr. 263 & pl. 139
The finial is white with a circular medallion with a stylised flower
Mandarin China, Qianlong period (1736-1795), dated 1741 H: 53,5 cm Provenance: Collection BM, The Netherlands 2010, Collection JWN, The Netherlands 2017
A rare carved and dated, wooden figure of a seated high ranking mandarin official. The detachable bald head of the elderly sitter, is carved in very fine realistic detail. It has traces of the original lacquer and painted decoration all over. This formally dressed scholar, wears ceremonial robes comprising a chaofu over a shorter surcoat (bufu), which is buttoned down the front. It has square insignia badges on the front and back; the front badge, you can just make out two intertwined carp jumping over waves. His left hand rests on his lap, the right is slightly raised and now holds a bead chain. His square-toed shoes, can be seen peeking out from under the robes; on his head he wears a detachable wooden red summer court hat (chaoguan), with a gold finial. His status is clearly communicated by his age, robes, insignia badge and headgear. This carving was probably made as an honorary portrait â&#x20AC;&#x201C; made during the sitters lifetime â&#x20AC;&#x201C; as his name, date and place of production are painted in black on the neck. The inscription translates as: in gratitude for my master Liu Du, winner of the third degree exam (jinshi), carved in the fifth month of the sixth year of Qianlong (1741) in the 13th district of Yanshi, Yancheng District. 26
The carp on the rank badge would confirm the sitters scholarly disposition, as the insignia depicting carp jumping over waves, is an emblem for accomplishment and perseverance in the passing of imperial examinations. His gentle gaze and subtle smile, projects calm and wisdom. As with most portraits from the Qing period, this figure is also firmly embedded in the Confucian ideal of filial piety. A philosophical tradition, where it was thought appropriate to pay tribute to and honour ones elders and masters. Within this convention, portraits of wise role models functioned as visual stimuluses for the future generations. This figure can be seen in the tradition of realistic 18th century clay figure portraiture. Stylistically, this is a similarly accurate rendering of a Chinese Mandarin, but in the unusual medium of wood. He may once have been seated on an accompanying throne, with his feet resting on a footstool, as seen in contemporary painted portraits. Similar, but undated, wooden portrait figures were depicted in the exhibition catalogues of A&J Speelman (1999) and Roger Keverne (2001). Literature: Chunming 2010 Jackson & Hugus 1999 Keverne 2001, p. 104 nr. 144 Kwan 2003, p. 40-46, nr. 44 Ruitenbeek 2017 Speelman 1999, p. 36 nr. 16 Welch 2008, p. 97
官吏像 中國清代乾隆六年（公元1741年） 高：53.5厘米 來源： 荷蘭BM收藏（2010年） 荷蘭JWN收藏（2017年）
這座木雕官吏像罕見地含有製作日期和地點。老人的 禿頂頭部可拆卸，面部刻畫細緻入微，十分逼真。整 具雕像仍遍佈原漆和裝飾痕蹟。這位官吏的正式服裝 由布服和罩在外面的朝服組成，其正面和背面均繪 有方形補子，正面補子的圖案是兩條鯉魚交錯躍過 波浪。他的左手擱放在腿上，右手微抬並掛著一串 念珠。袍底露出皂靴。 他頭戴可拆卸的紅色金頂夏 季朝冠。雕像人物的年齡和服飾彰顯了其社會地位。 這一雕像可能作為一種榮譽在原型人物在世時製作， 其脖子上留有其姓名及製作的時間地點，具體文字 為：「老甲科謝師劉杜，乾隆六年五月刀削，延城 尤邑十三都。」 朝服補子上的鯉魚圖案暗示該人物「鯉魚跳龍門」， 曾經過努力中舉。人物目光溫柔，微微含笑，顯示其 冷靜和智慧。和大多數清代的肖像一樣，這尊雕像 也深蘊儒家的孝道理念。在儒家傳統中，老者的肖 像被用來向長輩致以敬意，也激勵晚輩向前輩學習。 同樣的肖像傳統也體現在十八世紀惟妙惟肖的陶土人 像中。從風格上看，這尊官吏像同樣逼真，但卻是不 常見的木雕。我們可以想像，就像那幅明代畫像中的 人物一樣，他也曾經坐在寶座上，雙腳擱在腳凳上。 在A J Speelman 1999和Roger Keverne 2001的藏品圖 冊中展示了類似的木雕人像，但沒有明确製作時間。
His gentle gaze and subtle smile, projects calm and wisdom 28
9. EUROPEAN GENTLEMAN
European Gentleman China, Kangxi period (1662-1722) c.1710 H: 26 cm Provenance: Private Collection, United Kingdom
A rare Chinese soapstone figure of a European gentleman, robed in the fashion of the early 18th century. He is dressed in a long sumptuous coat, with wide sleeves and broad cuffs. His left hand is held in front of the chest, palm up; the right hand is at the waist, the wide cuff covering it entirely. The collarless full-skirted justaucorps coat is open, revealing the long waistcoat. A sash runs diagonally from his left shoulder over the chest. A cravat is tied loosely around his neck, the long ends hanging down. The incised pattern on the clothes has traces of gold and some of the red and green polychrome decoration is also still visible. The long curling hair, presumably a wig, is gathered to one side, the end loosely tied and placed in a pouch. Such wig bags were common in the 18th century, particularly when wearing formal attire. At this time the use of pomander and powder, on own hair and wigs, was widespread. Stray hair powder, could be brushed off every day clothing. However, formal coats made of luxurious fabrics such silk or brocade, were expensive and could not be washed. These garments could be protected from falling powder and greasy pomander by wearing the hair wrapped in bags.
Chinese soapstone carvings, with a European subject matter, are a rarity and likely ordered for the export market. This figure was possibly carved after a contemporary European print, which would have been sent to China to copy. Despite the Western features, the hand of the Chinese craftsman is revealed by the rendering of the eyes and hair. Also the decorative pattern on the clothing, resembles the similar incised decor on Chinese figures. A soapstone figure of a European was in the former Ionides collection and depicted in several publications. There is also a comparable figure made in ivory. A female figure of similar size and style was in the Vanderven Collection in 1996. This figure may well have represented a Venetian noble, as his clothes look similar to studies made by Luca Carlevarijs around 1700-1710 now in the Victoria & Albert Museum, London.
Literature: Clunas 1996, p. 69-90 Howard & Ayres 1978, p. 666 nr. 689 & 690 Jenyns & Watson 19811, p. 210 nr. 183 London 1984, p. 114-117, nr. 141
Chinese soapstone figures, with a European subject matter, are a rarity
歐洲紳士 中國清代康熙（公元1662-1722年），約1710年 高：26厘米 來源： 英國私人收藏
中，曾見歐洲人物的岫玉雕像，並收錄在數個圖 冊中，其中也有類似的牙雕像。 梵德溫東方藝術
Blackamoor China, Kangxi period (1662-1722) c. 1720 H: 41,9 cm Provenance: Private Collection, United Kingdom, Christie’s Auction New York 23 March, 1995 Mr. and Mrs. David Rockefeller, 1960 - 1995 John D. Rockefeller Jr. Collection, USA, 1945-1960 C.T. Loo & Company, Auction New York 30 October 1945 Exhibited: China Without Dragons - Rare Pieces from Oriental Ceramic Society Members, London (2016) nr. 39.
A very rare, famille noire enamel on biscuit, standing figure of a blackamoor. He stands barefoot and bare-chested, with his left hand on his hip and the right holding a yellow cornucopia. The laughing face has an open mouth, teeth and tongue showing. Pale eyebrows in relief, arch over large open eyes. He dons a white star is in the middle of the forehead and a gold hairband at the hairline. The hair, represented as swirls, is similar to that on Chinese religious figures. The slightly elongated ears have real hooped gold earrings – probably a later replacement. On each wrist is a beaded bracelet, on his ankles are bangles and he has a wide gold and green collar around the neck. The three-tiered skirt is decorated in famille verte enamels with an all-over diaper pattern. Over one shoulder he wears a sash, with traces of gold, comprising diamond and flower shaped plaques and a central star insignia. He stands on a green lotus leaf on a high black rectangular scalloped base.
It is documented that there had been dark skinned Africans in China as early as the Tang Dynasty. In this period, they would have entered the country via the trade routes; by the Qing dynasty they were rarity. We can therefore assume, that a European print would have been the source of inspiration for this figure. Particularly the attributes he carries are distinctly European – such as the cornucopia and the order and chain. Africans had lived in Europe as free men and slaves since Roman times, particularly in the countries around the Mediterranean. By the 17th and 18th centuries, dark skinned foreigners were present as servants and page boys in most aristocratic households. This corresponds with the era of expansion of trade with America and the Far East, as well as the increased slave trade with West Africa. As with many of the imported trade goods, they were considered a luxury; a fashionable and suitably exotic status symbol, for the nobles and royalty who employed them. They were certainly a sign of distinction in a cosmopolitan European court, as can be seen by the number of moors included in the portraits of the time. They are usually portrayed as young boys, dressed in luxurious silk costumes and sometimes gold or silver collars and earrings showing off the wealth of their master. Despite the fact that they may have entered service as a slave, surviving accounts show black attendants
非洲黑人 中國清代康熙（公元1662-1722年），約1720年 高：41.9厘米 來源： 英國私人收藏 佳士得拍賣，紐約，1995年3月23日 大衛·洛克菲勒夫婦，1960 - 1995年 小約翰·洛克菲勒藏品，美國，1945-1960年 C.T. Loo ＆ Company，紐約拍賣會，1945年10月30日 展覽： 「無龍的中國」：東方瓷器協會會員藏珍品 展，倫敦，2016年，編號39
were payed the same as other household staff. It is known that they were also educated – often taught to read and write, as well as learning social skills such as dancing and foreign languages. The court moors – or Kammermohr - were often very personal servants and companions, operating in the most private space of their lord or lady.
這尊素坯黑色琺瑯彩黑人立像十分罕見。他赤腳裸胸，左手置於 腰間，右手握著金黃色豐饒角，張嘴露齒而笑。白眉凸顯，大眼 圓睜，額間繪有一顆白星，髮際線處束有金色髮帶，漩渦狀的髮 紋類似與中國佛像的頭髮，微微拉長的耳朵上戴著真金耳環（可 能是後來更換的）。他脖子上戴著寬大的金夾綠頸環，兩個手腕 上都戴著串珠手鐲，腳踝上則戴著金鐲。三層裙裝飾有菱形圖案 的彩色琺瑯。他身披含鍍金痕跡的肩帶，含有鑽石、花形和星形 徽章。塑像由綠色荷葉所托，立於高高的黑色扇形底座。
Blackamoors were often depicted in the arts of the Renaissance and Baroque eras. Some of the finest examples Moorish sculpted figures, made around the same time as our figure, are in the collection of the Grünes Gewölbe in Dresden, Germany. Created by Balthasar Permoser in the 1720’s, several were further embellished by the goldsmith Melchior Dinglinger. We see they wear a feather skirt, a similar garment may have been the inspiration for this figures layered skirt.
據記載，早在唐代就有黑皮膚的非洲人來到中國，當時可能通過 貿易路線進入，而到了清朝則變得罕見。因此，我們推測是歐洲 版畫是這尊塑像的主要參考來源——尤其是一些明顯歐洲的屬 性，比如豐饒角、代表身份的緞帶和鏈條。 自羅馬時代起，非洲人作為自由人或奴隸居住在歐洲，特別是地 中海周圍的國家。到十七、十八世紀，黑膚色的外國人在大多數 貴族家庭充當僕人和侍童。同時期，美國及遠東地區貿易擴大， 西非的奴隸貿易也顯著增加。與許多進口貨物一樣，黑人被認為 是象徵異國情調的奢侈品，供貴族和皇室使用。從這一時期的肖
A comparable figure, previously in the S.E. Kennedy Collection, is now in the Lady Lever Collection, Liverpool (acc. nr.LL6131). The Residenzmuseum, Munich, has two such figures mounted together with a clock dated c.1730.
像畫中的黑人可見，他們是歐洲宮廷的標誌之一。他們往往被描 繪成年輕的男孩，穿著華麗的絲綢服裝，有時還有金銀的領子和 耳環，以此炫耀他們主人的財富。 儘管這些黑人可能作為奴隸服務主人，但目前留存的帳本顯示， 黑人侍從和貴族家庭其他僕人員工一樣有收入。據了解，這些黑 人也受過教育，能讀會寫，還學習過舞蹈和外語等社交技能。宮 廷黑僕往往是非常私人的僕人和夥伴，在他們的男女主人最私密 的空間服務。
Literature: Berlin 1929, nr. 1012 Cohen & Motley 2008, p. 58 nr. 1.6 Gorer & Blacker 1911, pl. 74 London 2016, nr. 39 Schreuder 2017 Syndram 2005, p. 88 & 89 Syndram 2006, p. 132 & 133 Ulrichs 2005, p. 26 36
在文藝復興和巴洛克時代的藝術作品中經常出現黑人形象。德國 德累斯頓的綠穹珍寶館收藏有最精緻的黑人像，於此件同時期。 它們由十七世紀二十年代的佩莫斯製作，其中幾個由金匠丁林格 添加了繁複的金飾。他們穿著羽毛裙，可能是這件塑像的分層裙 的靈感來源。 肯尼迪家族曾收藏有一件類似塑像，目前屬於利物浦的雷夫爾夫 人藏品（編號：NL6131）。德國慕尼黑的王宮珍寶館有兩件此 類塑像和鐘組合在一起，紀年為約1730年。
The hair, represented as swirls, is similar to that on Chinese religious figures
11. EUROPEAN LADY
European Lady China, 18th Century, c. 1775 H: 46,5 cm, W: 36,5 cm Provenance: Private Collection, United Kingdom
An oval reverse mirror painting of an elegant European lady. She looks away to the left, with a mask in her raised right hand. A sumptuous erminetrimmed cloak, is draped over her low-cut gown. She wears pearl earrings, a necklace and a large broach on the décolletage. On her head is a plumed turban, one long coil of brown hair falling over her left shoulder. The gilt frame is probably the original Chinese one, copied from a Western prototype.
中國，十八世紀，約1775年 高：46.5厘米；寬：36.5厘米 來源： 英國私人收藏
左張望，右手舉起面具。 她的低胸禮服外披著一件 華麗的貂皮斗篷。她配戴著珍珠耳環、項鍊和一枚大 胸針。頭頂飾有羽毛頭巾，長長的卷髮披在左肩。鍍 金框架可能也是中國複製西方畫框所作。 這幅畫是由亨利·莫蘭的油畫《摘去面具的美女》復 制而來。大英博物館藏有該畫的一幅美柔汀銅版畫版 本，由菲利普·達維作於1770年。歐洲題材的版畫極 有可能被運送到中國，在繪畫作坊中進行復制。
This painting is reproduced from a print of a painting by Henry Morland, The Beauty Unmask’d. A copy of the mezzotint by Philip Dawe (1770), is in the British Museum. Prints and engravings with European subject matters, would have been sent to China to be reproduced in the painting workshops. The European technique of reverse mirror and glass painting, was probably imported into China through Jesuit missionaries in the early 18th century. Mirrored glass, was imported from Europe. Areas of silvering were carefully cleared, then painted in mirror image on the back of the glass. Mostly oil paints were used, sometimes mixed with gum. Canton is known to have been the main centre for glass painting.
歐洲的鏡面和玻璃反面繪畫技術很可能在十八世紀初 通過耶穌會傳教士傳入中國。鏡像玻璃從歐洲進口， 鏡背面的鍍銀經過仔細的清理，然後在玻璃背面作 畫。這種繪畫大多使用油畫顏料，有時與樹膠混合。 廣東是當時玻璃畫的主要產地。
Literature: Crossman 19724, p. 123-141 Howard & Ayres 1978, p. 640-41, nr. 674 Howard 1997 Jenyns & Watson 1981, p. 100-102 & nr. 69 Poel 2016, p. 160 fig 4.85
12. HEAVENLY KING
Heavenly King China, Tang Dynasty (618 – 907 AD) H: 180 cm TL-tested by Oxford Authentication
This impressive large figure of Tianwang (Heavenly King), is dressed in full multi-layered body armour, with dragon mouth sleeves. It is highly embellished with beautiful flowers in natural pigments and gold leaf. The hands are opened as if engaged in some form of martial art. He stands on two small squirming demons, showing his ability to control evil spirits. He sports a fabulous headdress in the shape of a phoenix.
中國唐代（公元618-907年） 高：180厘米 由英國牛津鑑定公司進行熱釋光年代測定
袖，鳳凰頭飾，外衣通體以色彩和金葉點綴絢麗花 朵。雙臂打開，似乎將展示武功。他站立在兩個小惡 魔身上，顯示出驅逐邪靈的能力。 他鼓出的眼珠、張開的鼻孔和奇異的鬍鬚都帶有異域 特徵，原型可能是波斯僱傭兵。這一形象對於中國人 來說足以嚇倒惡魔。根據嚴格的唐律，此類體型龐大 的天王像只能用於貴族或王室的墓道入口。
The scowling features with large, bulging eyes, flared nostrils and exotic moustache, appear to belong to a foreigner, possibly a Persian mercenary. This would have been a menacing sight for the Chinese, certainly frightening enough to ward off evil spirits. Strict Tang sumptuary laws, would have meant that this unusually large figure could only have been intended for the tomb-entrance of an aristocrat or royal prince. Comparable figures, can be found in museum collections, such as The Asian Art Museum (San Francisco). A pair excavated from the Tomb of Li Zhen, are now in the Zhoaling Museum, Shaanxi. This type of figure is also found in temple complexes, such as the Dunhuang cave temples.
美国舊金山的亞洲藝術博物館等一些博物館的藏品中 有类似塑像。從中國陝西醴泉李震墓出土的一對天王 像目前存於陝西唐昭陵博物館。這種塑像也多見於廟 宇中，如敦煌石窟寺廟。
Literature: Bower 2002, pl. 54 Hong Kong 1993, nr. 113 Huo 2008, pl. 33 a & b Jacobson 2013, p. 250-253 Juliano 2012, p. 79 fig.58 Lefebvre d’Argencé 1974, p. 202 nr. 99 Rastelli 2008, pl. 65 Watt 2004, p. 331 pl. 230 & 231
Warriors China, Early Tang Dynasty (618-907), Late 7th Century H: 89,5 cm TL Tested by Oxford Authentication Provenance: Private Collection, The Netherlands 2017, With Priestley & Ferraro at TEFAF Maastricht 2008
武士像 中國初唐，七世紀末 高：89.5厘米 由英國牛津鑑定公司進行熱釋光年代測定 來源： 荷蘭私人收藏（2017年） Priestley ＆ Ferraro，TEFAF，荷蘭馬斯特里赫特 （2008年）
A pair of warriors in a striking stance with fierce expressions. Their feet are apart, arms outstretched and fists clenched, ready to fight off any evil forces. They wear full body armour bound with cords, worn over knee length tunics. One has puffy sleeves coming out of dragon mouth armholes, with a small scarf which is open at the neck. The other figure has flanged sleeves and a larger scarf draped over the shoulders, knotted at the neck. They both wear shin protectors over padded breeches and plain pointedtoe boots. Their helmets have upturned rims and a high pointed finial. The grey earthenware bodies are covered with a dark slip, decorated with white pigments and they stand on distinctive c-shaped bases. These figures would have been moulded in separate parts, the finer details finished by hand. The non-Chinese facial features of both figures, would have been inspired by the foreigners who are known to have lived in the Tang Empire. The silk road had ensured not only an exchange of goods, but also of people and culture. This made Tang-society extremely diverse and cosmopolitan.
這對勇士像表情誇張，姿態跋扈。他們雙腳分開，伸 展雙臂，緊握拳頭，準備與任何邪惡勢力抗衡。他們 全身裹覆著由繩索係綁的盔甲，蓋在及膝的長袍外。 一個的龍嘴袖口鑽出蓬鬆袖子，脖子上係著敞開的小 圍巾；另一個則有凸緣的袖子，肩上披著一條較大的 圍巾，在脖子處打結。他倆都穿著護脛墊馬褲和平底 尖頭靴。他們的頭盔上翹，帶有高聳的尖頂。灰色的 陶俑身上覆蓋著一層黑色的滑石，飾以白色顏料，立 在獨特的C形基座上。這些武士俑可能是先分部件製 模，然後手工完成局部細節。 這兩尊人像的非漢族特徵，可能來源於在唐帝國生活 的外國人。絲綢之路既流通了貨物，也交流了人與文 化，這使唐代社會變得極其多元化和國際化。
Literature: Bower 2002, pl. 52 Hong Kong 1993, nr. 117 Jacobson 2013, p. 246-247
14. TEMPLE GUARDIANS
Temple Guardians China, Early Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) 13/14th century H: 118 cm Provenance: Private Collection, United Kingdom
Two upright guardian figures, fully dressed in armour, each with differing grotesque masks adorning the shoulders and stomach area. One guardian has a fierce face and a combative pose, whilst the other has his hands held together in devotion and an expression of introspection. The striking armour is both gilded and brightly painted in vivid reds, greens and blues; both wear a helmet surmounted by a red tassel. They are made of stucco around a wood frame. The eyes are made of black glass, creating an intense and dramatic gaze.
中國明初，十三、十四世紀 高：118厘米 來源： 英國私人收藏
飾著不同的怪誕面具。其中一個衛士神情激越，鬥志 昂揚；另一個雙手合掌，似在自省。他們身上醒目的 盔甲既鍍金又亮麗，繪有生動的紅、綠、藍色。他們 都頭戴有流蘇的頭盔。這兩尊人像是在木框架外塗以 灰泥製成，眼珠是黑色琉璃，營造出戲劇性的凝視。 這些威嚴的天國將領應屬群體塑像的一部分。這些衛 士群像數量不等，少則兩個，多則三十二，全副武裝 顯示了他們作為佛教信仰保護者的角色。他們被安置 在佛寺和神殿的入口處，在寺廟中往往伴隨佛像和菩 薩像。自唐以降，山西便是佛教的重要中心之一，寺
These fearsome heavenly generals, must have been part of the same sculptural group. Figures like these are usually portrayed in multiples, varying from two up to as many as thirty-two. Their full armor underlines their role as protectors of the Buddhist faith. They were placed at the entrance of Buddhist temples and shrines, as well as in the temple accompanying figures of Buddha and Bodhisattvas. They originate from Shanxi Province, one of the great centres of Buddhism, where of temples and shrines were often decorated with brightly painted stucco sculptures, from the Tang Dynasty onwards.
Literature: Falco Howard 2006, pl. 4.65 & 4.67 Paludan 2006, p. 460 – 474 Weinuo 1991, no. 17 & 267 Welch 2008, p. 193-195
Buddha China, Shanxi Province, Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), 14th century H: 122 cm Provenance: Private Collection, United Kingdom
A monumental figure of Buddha seated in padmasana lotus position, with his hands in the dhyana mudra - the gesture of absolute balance. He emits a sense of vastness and serenity in meditation. The long low-slung robe covering his legs, is tied at the waist, the chest exposed. His shoulders, arms and thighs are covered by a long cloak. The robes are gilt, with a patterned design and a red lining. The flesh is painted in soft pinkish tones, and the tight curls on the head have traces of the original blue paint. The eyes are inlaid with black glass for dramatic effect. This Buddha was clearly meant to be viewed from the front, as the back has been left relatively unworked.
Stucco was an effective way to produce dramatic and large (religious) sculpture. The figures are generally constructed on a wooden frame, padded with reed, then modelled with clay stucco. It is smoothly finished with a thin layer of gesso, which is sometimes incised with decorative patterns. Finally it is covered with a paper, which is painted and gilded.
中國山西，明代（公元1368-1644年），約十四世紀 高：122厘米 來源： 英國私人收藏
在冥想中散發出浩瀚和平靜的感覺。系在腰間的低 腰長袍遮住雙腿，坦露胸部。長長的斗篷蓋過了他 的肩膀、手臂和大腿。長袍鍍金，襯裡紅色，膚色則 以柔和的粉紅為主色調，頭上緊繃的捲髮有藍色痕 跡，眼睛鑲嵌著黑色琉璃。這尊佛須面朝供奉者， 其背面為毛坯。 灰泥是製作誇張和大型的宗教雕塑的有效方式。這些 塑像的製作通常須先搭建木框架，接著用蘆葦填充， 然後用黏土灰泥塑型，再以一層薄石膏將表面修整 平滑，表面有時也被切割成裝飾圖案，最後用塗色鍍 金的紙覆蓋全身。
Literature: Falco Howard 2006, pl. 4.53 Paludan 2006, p. 381 fig. 250 & p. 460 – 474 Weinuo 1991, no. 29
Stucco was an effective way to produce dramatic and large religious sculptures
Bodhisattvas China, Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), 14th century H: 135 cm Provenance: Private Collection, United Kingdom
A pair of large stucco bodhisattvas sitting on lotus bases, with one leg up and the other down, in the pose ‘Royal Ease’. They mirror each other, one with the right leg raised, the other the left. They each have a different right hand posture – one holds their hand raised in the vitarka mudra, representing intellectual argument and the wheel of law. The other holds a scroll, an attribute representing Buddhist teaching. Both figures wear identical flowing robes, shawls and scarves, their exposed chests adorned with a pendant necklace. They wear elaborate high crowns, their hair swept up in top knots. The gold-leafed clothing has a raised decorative pattern; the lining of the robes is red.
中國明代（公元1368-1644年），十四世紀 高：135厘米 來源： 英國私人收藏
腿姿彼此成鏡像，而右手姿勢則不同——一個舉起右 手作說法印，代表智辯和法輪；另一個則手持捲軸， 象徵佛教教義。兩尊菩薩穿著相同的寬鬆長袍、披肩 和圍巾，坦露的胸前裝飾著吊墜項鍊。他們頭戴精緻 的高冠，頭髮梳起。貼有金箔的衣服帶凸起裝飾圖 案；長袍的襯裡則顯紅色。 「菩薩」是一個複合詞，由「菩提」（靈性覺醒、 啟迪）和「薩瓦」（存在、精神）組合而成。組合 在一起意思為「基於啟蒙的存在」。他們是博學的 慈悲神，為了幫助他人獲得啟蒙而推遲涅架。相比佛 陀，菩薩大多被描繪成不那麼內向，往往穿戴珠寶 華服，身姿優雅。
Bodhisattva is a compound word, formed from bodhi (spiritual awakening, enlightenment) and sattva (a being, spirit). Together they mean ‘a being set upon enlightenment’. They are learned deities of compassion, who delay entering nirvana in order to help others attain enlightenment. They are mostly depicted as less inward than Buddha, alluringly portrayed with precious jewelry, elegant garments and graceful postures. The Metropolitan Museum (New York), has a smaller stucco bodhisattva dating from the same period (Acc. Nr 58.64.32a). 56
Literature: Falco Howard 2006, pl. 4.69 Paludan 2006, p. 381 fig. 250 & p. 460 – 474 Weinuo 1991, no. 107-108 & 178
17. BUDAI HESHANG
Budai Heshang China, Late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), c. 1600 H: 16,5 cm, W: 13,2 cm Provenance: Private Collection, United Kingdom
A rare lacquered and gilt wooden figure of Budai, also known as the Laughing Buddha (Budai Heshang). He is depicted as a plump and bald man with elongated earlobes, wearing a Kasaya robe, his breast and ample abdomen exposed. He sits in the position of Royal Ease, both feet peeking out from under his hem. His right hand, resting on his raised knee, holds a rosary. His left arm rests on a cloth sack, which he also holds in his hand. His well carved features have a jovial expression. He sits on a separate stand, comprising two rows of lotus petals.
中國明末，約公元1600年 高：16.5厘米；寬：13.2厘米 來源： 英國私人收藏
像十分罕見。這個光頭和尚身材渾圓，耳垂拖長，身 穿袈裟，坦露肥厚的胸腹。他半跏趺坐，雙腳從衣 擺下露出。他的右手安放在膝蓋上，拿著一串念珠， 左臂擱在他提著的布袋上，面部神情愉悅。兩重蓮花 基座與佛像分離。 布袋和尚居無定所，其原型為五代後梁時期的僧人契 此，得名於他隨身攜帶裝著全部財產的麻布袋。他貧 窮卻快樂，是滿足、豐餘和智慧的體現。據說撫摸他 的大肚會帶來發財的好運。 丹麥哥本哈根的丹麥國家博物館收藏有一座大型布 袋和尚漆像（編號Dep.43）。彌勒佛極受人們歡迎，
Budai Heshang, was an itinerant monk, who lived in China around 900 AD. He is named after the hemp sack he carries, in which he kept his possessions. Being poor but happy, he is the embodiment of contentment, plenitude and wisdom. It is believed that rubbing his belly brings wealth, good luck and prosperity. There is a large lacquer Budai in the National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen (inv.nr. Dep. 43). This popular figure is also depicted in many other sizes and materials such as wood, stone, bronze, porcelain and soapstone.
Literature: Dam-Mikkelsen & Lundbaek 1980, p. 187 & fig. EBc195 Hornby 2012, p. 282-283, nr. 84 Jing 2004, p. 310 & cat. p. 103 Paludan 2006, p. 379 fig. 249 Welch 2008, p. 191
18. ANANDA & KASYAPA
Ananda & Kasyapa China, Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) H: 30,5 cm Provenance: Collection Sengers, The Netherlands 2015 With Gerard Hawthorn London, 2000 (Published in 2000 years of Chinese and Japanese Sculpture no. 8)
These standing wooden luohans, are dressed as monks. They have shaved heads and long flowing robes; their elongated earlobes indicating they are enlightened beings. The elder figure is Kasyapa, with a frown of concentration. His hands are locked in the Kanjo-in mudra - bestowing Buddha’s great mercy. The younger monk represents Ananda, his palms pressed together in the namaskara mudra - a gesture of greeting and prayer. The robes of both figures are covered with a fine fabric and remnants of dark lacquer. They are fixed with a wooden pin to their lotus thrones stands, which are painted with the original colours.
中國明代（公元1368-1644年） 高：30.5厘米 來源： 荷蘭森格斯收藏（2015年） 英國倫敦霍桑收藏（2000年），曾收錄於《中國和日 本雕塑兩千年》（編號第8號）
垂表明他們的開明。長者為迦葉，眉頭微蹙，雙手鎖 於勸請印中，施以佛陀的巨大憐憫；年輕的僧侶為阿 難，手掌合一作拜印，表示問候或祈禱。二者的長袍 上都覆蓋精美的織物和殘餘的黑漆。他們被用木釘固 定在未失色的蓮花寶座上。 這兩位羅漢往往伴隨釋迦牟尼佛出現。年輕的阿難在 左，年長的迦葉在右。阿難據說是佛陀的堂弟和隨 從，以其驚人的記憶力聞名，他對佛陀說法的回憶構 成了佛經的基礎。迦葉是佛陀的直接接班人，領導最 初的五百僧侶。據說，佛陀逝世後，在迦葉召集的大 會上，阿難背誦了佛陀的話。
These two important luohans, are often depicted as a pair in attendance to the historical Shakyamuni Buddha. The youthful Ananda placed on his right and the senior Kasyapa on the left. Ananda was said to be Buddha’s cousin and personal attendant, known for his prodigious memory - his recollections of Buddha’s sayings forming the basis of the sutra’s. Kasyapa was Buddha’s immediate successor, leading the initial community of 500 monks. He is said to have convened the first council after Buddha’s death at which Ananda recited Buddha’s words.
Literature: Falco Howard 2006, p. 439 Lefebvre d’Argencé 1974, p. 289 nr. 150. Leidy 2010, p. 102 nr. 18 Toronto 1992, p. 172 nr. 99 Welch 2008, p. 195-196
19. GUANYIN BAIYI
Guanyin Baiyi China, Kangxi period (1662-1722) c. 1700 H: 14 cm Provenance: Private Collection, United Kingdom
A fine soapstone carving of the white-robed Guanyin (baiyi) seated at ease. One leg hangs down, the other is tucked up, her bare feet just visible. With both hands, she holds a large lingzhi fungus as a scepter on her lap. Her loosely falling hood, which covers her high top-knot, frames her downward cast merciful face. The flowing robes are incised with clouds and edged with a geometric wave pattern. The pale beige stone, has some reddish mottling and traces of black and gold colouring.
中國清代康熙（公元1662-1722年），約1700年 高：14厘米 出處： 英國私人收藏
一朵大靈芝菌安放在腿上。下垂的頭蓋遮住了她高高 的髮髻，並勾勒出她的仁慈面孔。長袍上可見雲朵紋 樣，並有幾何波浪圖案鑲邊。這塊淺米色石料帶有一 些紅色斑點及黑色和金色的填塗痕跡。小尺寸宗教雕 像往往帶有單獨的底座，如座墊或石塊。這尊觀音像 底部有孔，應是用來固定於底座上。 這件玉雕是一組精巧的宗教雕像之一，通常不含簽 名。雖然這件作品同樣不具名，但很容易讓人聯想到 康熙年間的玉雕大師周斌的傑作。他和他作坊製作的
This remarkable soapstone carving is part of a group of exquisitely carved small religious figures, which rarely bear signatures. Even though this work is unsigned, it is very reminiscent of the small devotional carvings by master carver Zhou Bin. His work and that of his studio, is characterised by fine carving, incised garment edges and the rendering of the long pointed earlobes. His subjects are carefully chosen, each piece clearly conceived as an individual work of art, carved with great attention to detail.
Literature: Clunas 1996, p. 69-90, fig. 75 Eberle 2015, p. 37 & nr. 7 London 1984, p. 53 Moss 1988, nr. 58 Pei 2004, p. 94 Tsang & Moss 1986, nr. 43 & 44
20. IMMORTALS CENSER
Immortals Censer China, Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), early 17th century H: 15,5 cm Provenance: Private Collection, United Kingdom
A bronze cylindrical censer raised on tripod feet, decorated in high relief with nine figures of Daoist immortals amongst low relief rocks, bamboo, pine trees and clouds. Each immortal is dressed in loose robes wearing a court hat and carries an attribute. The separate domed wooden cover, has three pierced cartouches. Such small censers would have been used on a Chinese scholars’ desk for burning incense. The fragrant smoke acted as a direct link to the heavens, as it could be meditatively followed upwards and perfume the space.
中國明代（公元1368-1644年），十七世紀初 高：15.5厘米 來源： 英國私人收藏
仙人，他們被淺浮雕的石、竹、松、雲環繞。每位仙 人著寬鬆長袍，頭戴官帽，帶有各自的法器。香爐 的圓頂木蓋有三個精美鏤空穿孔。這種小香爐通常擺 放在中國文人的書案上用以焚香，芬芳的煙霧繚繞升 騰，令人神思嚮往天宮。 依據外貌和法器，我們可以一一認出八仙，他們代表 道教中長生不老的理想。在這座香爐上的第九個道教 形象可能是壽星。 此香爐可以追溯到明末，當時還生產高浮雕人物瓷
The Eight Immortals (Baxian) can be identified by their appearance and the attributes they carry. This popular Chinese group, represent the Daoist ideal of immortality. On this censer, they are joined by a ninth Daoist figure, probably the god of longevity Shoulao. This censer dates from the end of the Ming Dynasty, when porcelain examples with figures in high relief were also produced. Bronze censers of a similar shape and period, but varying decoration, are in the British Museum (acc.nr. 1989,0523.3) and the Metropolitan Museum, New York (acc.nr. 2006.310). A copper version is in the Victoria & Albert Museum, London (M.2699-1931).
器。在倫敦大英博物館（編號1989,0523.3）和紐約大 都會博物館（編號2006.310）藏品中有同一時期形狀 相似但裝飾紋樣不同的銅香爐。另有一個類似的銅 香爐收藏於倫敦的維多利亞和艾伯特博物館（編號 M2699-1931）。
Literature: Hay 2010, p. 362 & pl.229 Kerr 1990, pls. 51-53, p. 67 Little 2000, p. 313-335 Tsang & Moss 1986, nr. 72 & 229 Welch 2008, p. 176
Guandi China, Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), early 17th century H: 21,8 cm Provenance: Private Collection, United Kingdom
A finely modelled blanc-de-chine figure of Guandi, wearing a cloth cap tied on top of his head with two trailing ribbons. The frowning face has slanting eyes, an incised moustache and short side burns. He wears a scholars gown over his armour, held in place by a belt around his chest; the toes of his boots are just visible. His hands are clasped to one side, concealed beneath long flowing sleeves. The porcelain in a creamy white with a rich glossy glaze.. The hollow body is incised around the inner rim with several irregular Chinese characters: 大明年造 (made in the Ming dynasty). The relatively small size of the figure, suggests it was produced for personal devotion
中國明代（公元1368-1644年），十七世紀初 高：21.8厘米 來源： 英國私人收藏
帶。面部細節生動：眉頭微皺，丹鳳眼，一抹鬍鬚， 短鬢。他身著盔甲，外罩文人長袍，佩有腰帶，長袍 之下露出靴尖。他雙手緊扣於一側，藏在長袖之下。 奶白色瓷身釉面富有光澤。這尊像尺寸較小，說明它 是為個人供奉而製。中空器身內緣標有：大明年造。 關帝的原型關羽是五虎上將之首，屢建奇功，他生 後在歷代受到景仰，在明代萬曆二十二年（公元1594 年）更是被封為「協天護國忠義大帝」，是正義、 誠信和正直的化身，深受中國老百姓喜愛。他也是 商界的神祗，身為和平使者的他能確保經濟繁榮。 這尊瓷像中的關帝身著文人服飾，因為他也被尊為 文人的守護神。
Guandi is as one of the Five Tiger Generals, who performed legendary military deeds. He was greatly venerated and proclaimed as the God of War in 1594. Guandi becomes a potent symbol of justice, honesty and integrity and one of China’s most popular divinities. He is also the deity of all money making activities, because as peace bringer he ensures economic prosperity. In this scholarly attire, he was venerated as the patron god of the literati. Comparable figures are in the British Museum (nr. 938.0524.27) and the Victoria & Albert Museum, London (nr. C.544-1910) and The Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.
倫敦的大英博物館（編號1938.0524.27）、維多利亞 和阿爾伯特博物館（編號C.544-1910）和牛津的阿什 莫爾博物館都收藏有類似的瓷像。
Literature: Ayers 1980, pl.179 Donnelly 1969, p. 170 pl. 97 & 98 Harrison-Hall 2001, p. 512 nr. 17:9
22. SEATED GUANDI
Seated Guandi China, Kangxi period (1662-1722) ca 1680-90 H: 25,6 cm, W: 14,5 cm Provenance: Private Collection, United Kingdom With Alfred Speelman, London 1960-â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s An impressive figure of the Daoist God of War, Guandi, seated in a semi-circular chair. His green robes hang loosely over his armour, a belt slung low around the hips. His right shoulder pad and the relief moulded studded armour are visible. High on his chest and around his ample belly are two belts, the lower one with taotie mask buckle. The formal court hat has a draped cloth hanging over the back of his neck and shoulders. His gently smiling face with a friendly expression, has long wispy facial hair. His right hand is raised holding his beard, the left hand rests on his knee. The whole is enamelled on the biscuit in green, yellow and aubergine glazes, the face and hands are left unglazed. The underside is unglazed and has an inventory number in red lacquer (J888). There is a square hole in the back, which could have been used for placing votive messages. Guandi was the real historical figure General Guan Yu. He helped fight to restore the tottering Han Dynasty - together with Chang Fei and the dynastic heir Liu Bei - during the Three Kingdoms period (220-265AD). His feats are recounted in the epic historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms. This Ming dynasty book, describes his deeds of absolute righteousness, dignity and loyalty.
Guandiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s deification, had already begun before this famous piece of literature was published. However, due to the introduction of woodblock printing in this period, popular fiction was far more easily distributed on a large scale, thus fuelling his popularity. Generously sized, finely modelled figures of Guandi such as this, are a rarity. A seated Guandi is in the collection of the Taft Museum, Cincinnati (1931.33). Another is in the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem (AE85883) and a standing Guandi with comparable enamelling from the former Salting Collection, is now in the Victoria & Albert Museum, London (c.1071-1910).
Literature: Boulay 1995, p. 615 Christies, Manson & Woods 1916 lot 187 Gorer & Blacker 1911, pl. 77 & 81 Sargent 2012, p. 449 nr. 246 Stamen & Volk 2017, p. 85 nr. 75 Welch 2008, p. 161
Guandi’s feats are recounted in the epic historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms
關帝坐像 中國清代康熙（公元1662-1722年），約1680-90年 高：25.6厘米；寬：14.5厘米 來源： 英國私人收藏 英國倫敦斯皮爾曼收藏（1960年代）
這件素三彩關帝像坐在一張半圓寬椅上，綠色長袍 鬆垮地披在鎧甲外，並戴有一條低腰腰帶。其右肩 墊和浮雕盔甲均露出可見，他胸口處和腹部分別係 有一條帶扣腰帶，官帽後垂掛的布簾遮住了脖子和肩 膀。這尊關公面帶笑容，表情溫和友善，右手提起長 鬚，左手則擱在膝蓋上。塑像整體是在未上釉的素胚 上施以綠、黃、茄紫三種顏色後燒製而成，稱「素三 彩」。不過關帝的臉和手未上釉。未上釉的底部以紅 漆標記了庫存編號（J888）。像背有一方孔，可能用 於放置祈願紙條。 關帝的原型是三國時期的歷史人物關羽。他與張飛一 起輔佐劉備恢復了漢王朝，明代歷史小說《三國演 義》中記載了他的事蹟，將他塑造為正義、尊嚴和忠 誠的化身。而關帝的神化過程在這部著名小說誕生前 就已經開始，而這一時期出現的木版印刷加速擴大了 流行小說的閱讀群體。 關帝像雖多，但如此大尺寸且精雕細琢的瓷像十分罕 見。另有一尊關帝坐像被辛辛那提的塔夫托博物館收 藏（編號1931.33），還有一件在賽勒姆的迪美博物 館（編號AE85883），倫敦的維多利亞和艾伯特博物 館則有一件關帝立像（編號c.1071-1910）。
Zhenwu Kangxi period (1662-1722) c. 1710-20 H: 16,8 cm, W: 13,1 cm Provenance: Bernard Collection, Paris, 1951 - 2015 Maison Jansen, Paris, 1951
An enamel on biscuit figure seated barefoot on a large tortoise and a snake, revealing him to be the Daoist deity Zhenwu. He is dressed in aubergine robes with a green scarf around his neck, his yellow armour just visible at his wrists and ankles. The gently smiling face, head and neck are unglazed. The tortoise, which has a yellow shell and green body, is turning to look up to at the god on his back. The coiling snake is unglazed.
中國清代康熙（公元1662-1722年），約1710-20年 高：16.8厘米；寬：13.1厘米 來源： 法國巴黎伯納德收藏（1951-2015年） 法國巴黎楊森之屋設計行（1951年）
上，以此可以判斷他是道教真武神。他穿著茄紫色長 袍，脖上係有綠色圍巾，手腕和腳踝處均佩戴護甲。 他帶著微笑的面部及頭和脖子均未上釉。烏龜黃殼綠 身，回頭仰望真武，盤曲的蛇則未施釉。 真武被稱為「完美的武士」，是中國重要的神靈， 龜蛇象徵他的力量。他的形象在歷史上逐漸發展成 為武士和這兩樣他變形而來的動物。他所代表的朝 北方向對中國人有重要意義，因為北方邊界需要抵
Zhenwu, the Perfected Warrior, is an important Chinese deity. Historically, his force was represented as a snake with a tortoise. Over time he develops into the human form of a warrior, often accompanied by the two animals he morphed from. The northerly direction he symbolizes was particularly significant to the Chinese, as this border needed the most protection from foreign invaders such as the Mongols. Zhenwu had a huge cult following, particularly during the Ming era. His image was posted to doorways of houses for protection and shrines devoted to him were erected all over China. This figure comes with the original 1951 invoice, from the renowned Maison Jansen in the Rue Royal, Paris.
禦蒙古等外族入侵。尤其在明朝，真武有大量崇拜 者，其形像被張貼在房屋門口充當保護神，各地都 有供奉他的神龕。 這尊塑像帶有1951年原始交易票據，原物主為巴黎著 名的室內裝潢設計行楊森之屋（Maison Jansen）。
Literature: Clunas & Harrison-Hall 2014, p. 116 Little 2000, p. 291-311, nr. 106 Welch 2008, p. 109 & 148
24. LAN CAIHE
Lan Caihe China, Kangxi period (1662-1722) c. 1710-20 H: 24 cm Provenance: Private Collection, United Kingdom
A smiling figure of a Daoist immortal in a long yellow robe, edged in white. In his right hand he carries a green basket with flowers, identifying him as one of the eight Daoist immortals - Lan Caihe. His finely moulded cheerful expression and dimpled cheeks, exude joy and happiness. His head, neck and hands are left in the biscuit, the eyes and eyebrows picked out in black. He stands on an rectangular hollow plinth, enamelled in aubergine around the sides - the top and bottom left unglazed.
中國清代康熙（公元1662-1722年），約1710-20年 高：24厘米 來源： 英國私人收藏
提著一個裝滿鮮花的綠色籃子，可以據此判定他是八 仙之一：藍采和。他的開朗表情和臉頰上的酒窩散發 出歡樂和幸福感。他的頭、脖和手均未施釉呈白色， 唯獨眼睛和眉毛加了黑色。他立於長方形空心底座 上，側面上茄紫釉，頂部和底部未施釉。 藍采和是八仙中較少為人提及的一個，幾乎未見單獨 供奉。因為往往被描繪成年輕男子、女子或中性，他 代表含混和悖論。藍采和喜飲酒，流浪生活，亦喜表 演歌唱，最後駕鶴西去。他是純潔、美麗和幸福的象
Lan Caihe, is one of the lesser known of the Eight Immortals (Baxian) and was never venerated individually. He represents ambiguity and paradox, either depicted as a youthful male, female or androgynous figure. Living a drunken and vagabond life, he loved acting and singing, finally leaving this world on the back of a crane. He is emblematic of innocence, beauty and happiness and the patron of florists and gardeners. A Blanc de Chine figure of Lan Caihe is in the Musée Guimet, Paris (G5440). A pair of related immortals with similar plinths, were in the former S.E. Kennedy collection.
徵，是花匠和園丁的守護神。 法國巴黎的吉美博物館收藏有一尊白瓷藍采和像 （編號G5440）。肯尼迪家族曾收藏有一對帶有相似 底座的八仙像。
Literature: Christies, Manson & Woods 1916, lot 23 Hobson 1915, pl. 99 fig 2. Little 2000, nr. 118 Sargent 1991, p. 50 nr 14 Watt 2010, p. 140-141 fig. 170 Welch 2008, p. 174-181
Baxian China, Kangxi period (1662-1722) ca 1710-20 H: 29 cm – 31,5 cm Provenance: Dr. Leonard Gow Collection, United Kingdom, 1930-‘s Exhibited in Glasgow Art Galleries and Museums 1936 A group of eight Chinese famille verte figures on separate plinths. They are each dressed distinctively with varying postures, robes and accesoires. They have predominantly green, yellow and aubergine enameling over biscuit porcelain; a category known as sousancai. The figures represent the Eight Immortals (Baxian) each identifiable by their appearance and the attributes they carry. All the plinths have labels from the Leonard Gow Collection, some have additional labels with numbers from the Glasgow Museums and Art Galleries, of which Gow was an active patron. This very popular and legendary group of eight Daoist figures, are very easy to recognize. They are represented as a group of seven men and a woman, each with a distinctive emblematic object. They are all revered for their spiritual powers and worshipped as divine saints. What they have in common is that they were all once humans who attained immortality, the majority are said to have lived during the Tang Dynasty (618-906 AD). They all underwent spiritual and physical transformations, resulting in a divine immortal existence. As free spirits they move between heaven and earth, serving
as role models for humanity, interceding on behalf of mortals with the gods. The Eight Immortals represent the broad spectrum of Chinese society young and old, rich and poor, civil and military, men and women. In the tales of their lives, they face many challenges, which many people can relate to, which made them so incredibly popular. Stories of the Eight Immortals were popularized in folklore, drama, novels, and wood block prints, as well as on all kinds of other art forms such as porcelain and decorative objects. A comparable complete set of famille verte immortals is in the Burrel Collection, Glasgow (38.829-38.836). The Taft Museum, Cincinnati, has a set of four Immortals from the former Garland & Morgan Collections. Many other museums have pairs of or single figures of the group. Literature: Bondy 1923, p. 171 Boulay, p. 618-619 Cohen & Motley 2008, p. 64 nr. 2.1 Christies, Manson & Woods 1916, lot 215 Davids & Jellinek 2011, p. 201-202 Jörg 2011, nr. 110 & 111 Little 2000, p. 313-335 Setterwall 1974, p. 167 Ströber 2011, p. 150-152 nr 56 Watt 2010, fig. 169 p. 140-141 Welch 2008, p. 176-181 Williams 1976, p. 162-167
八仙群像 中國清代康熙（公元1662-1722年），約1710-20年 高：29-31.5厘米 來源： 英國高爾博士收藏（1930年） 英國格拉斯哥美術館和博物館展出（1936年）
因為收藏者為該博物館的讚助人。 英國格拉斯哥布雷爾收藏（編號38.829-38.836）中， 八仙很受中國老百姓喜愛，七男一女極容易辨認，每
direction & element
Sword & Flywhisk
A handsome scholar, who failed his exams, his talent was not recognized by mortal examiners. Sometimes portrayed slumped over a wine cask. His magic sword was given to him by the Fire Dragon. It gives the power of invisibility and enables him to get rid of evil spirits and cut through ignorance. His magic flywhisk allows him to fly and traverse the earth. He rescued the female immortal Hi Xiangu, by giving her an immortality peach. Sometimes accompanied by the Willow Spirit. He is considered the patriarch of the Daoist sect Quanzhen (Complete Realisation).
He Xiangu 何仙姑
Lotus flower stem
Housewives & Women
Actors & Actresses
Clappers Han Xiangzi
Zhang Guolao 張果老
Bamboo instrument (yugu)
Artists & Calligraphers
Toad Phoenix feather Han Zhongli/ Zhongli Quan
Fan made of banana leaves or feathers
Florists & Gardeners
Lan Caihe 藍采和
Li Tieguai 李鐵拐
Gourd & Iron crutch
The only female in the group. Daughter of a shopkeeper, who at 14 experienced Daoist enlightenment. She is thought to feed on moon beams and mother of pearl, bringing family fortune and happiness. Due to her beauty she is often associated with the Goddess Magu. She can also be represented playing a reed-organ or holding a bamboo sieve. The Royal Uncle. An aristocrat always portrayed in court dress. Sometimes depicted asleep. His jade tablet can purify the air and he improves the Feng Shui of the environment. A Philosopher who brings growth. A harbinger of luck, who is able to predict the future and grant longevity. Often seen carrying a basket of peaches, the fruit of longevity. He is said to be able to make flowers and fruit grow out of season and sooth wild animals with his magic flute. Patron of happy marriages and plentiful offspring. Bringer of good standing for families. Portrayed as an elderly magician and alchemist, who is alleged to have lived for several hundred years. Famed for his magic mule, which travels great distances at speed without rest -after his journey, he simply folds up the mule and places it in his wallet. Referred to as the master of the Eight Immortals. A former military general, often portrayed with a beard. He offers protection from people with bad intentions. He can also represented as portly, with his stomach bared and wearing a belt of leaves. He uses his magic fan to revive the dead. Depicted as a young male, female or hermaphrodite. A happy-go-lucky paradoxical character. Sometimes wearing blue rags and missing a shoe All the money he earns performing as a singer and actor, he gives to the poor. He is the bringer of beauty and happiness, the embodiment of innocence and joy. Iron-Crutch Li, generally shown dressed in rags and leaning on a crutch. He is said to have reincarnated into the body of a beggar, after his own was accidentally cremated. He performs good deeds and carries magic potions in his gourd, for curing the sick and warding off evil. One of the most popular immortals.
26. HEHE ERXIAN
Hehe Erxian Qing Dynasty, 17th/18th century H: 12,6 cm, L: 13,4 cm Provenance: Collection Sengers, The Netherlands With Gerard Hawthorn, London (2003)
A carved bamboo group of the jovial twins Hehe Erxian. A barefoot figure is seated relaxing against a round box; holding a ruyi sceptre in the crook of his arm and a peach in his other hand. His companion stands next to him holding a large lotus flower over his head. Their bald crowns are encircled by long hair falling over their shoulders. The loose robes, fall open to reveal their chests. The carver has made exceptional use of the material, using the natural spotted markings to depict traces of hair on their bald heads.
中國清代，十八世紀 高：12,6厘米；長：13,4厘米 來源： 荷蘭森格斯收藏 英國倫敦霍桑收藏（2003年）
手執如意，一手托仙桃；他的同伴站在他旁邊，一 朵蓮花舉過頭頂。他們禿頂，後腦勺卻長發及肩。 寬鬆的長袍露出胸膛。雕刻師巧用竹子天然紋理，利 用竹斑描繪髮絲。 和合二仙主管婚姻幸福，給人帶來好運。這兩位仙人 的原型是唐代僧侶寒山和拾得，其形象逐漸演變成歡 樂的雙胞胎童子。他們拿著盒子（和）和荷花（合） ，形成諧音，如意則表示對美好婚姻的祈願祝福。 北京故宮博物院收藏有一件和合二仙竹雕。
Hehe Erxian, the Immortals of Harmony and Unity, are believed to preside over happy marriages and bring good fortune. These figures were based on the Tang dynasty poet-monks - Hanshan and Shide; their appearance gradually transforming into that of mirthful twin boys. They hold a box (he) and a lotus stem (he), forming the rebus for harmony (he) and unity (he). When shown with a ruyi, they represent the blessing “May you have a harmonious marriage and your wishes come true”. Another bamboo carving of a Hehe Erxian, is in the Palace Museum Collection, Beijing.
Literature: Bartholomew 2006, p. 45 Clunas 1996, p. 43-60 Jing 2004, p. 74 & 73 Moss 1988, nr. 21 Welch 2008, p. 154-156
27. ERLANG SHEN
Erlang Shen China, Kangxi period (1662-1722) c. 1680-90 H: 52,8 cm, W: 26,5 cm Provenance: Accessioned to the Metropolitan of Art Museum, New York, 1960. (nr.61.200.31) John D. Rockefeller Jr. Collection 1874 – 1960
A monumental enthroned Daoist god, dressed in a colourful yellow robe, decorated with a cloud motif in aubergine, green and white enamels on biscuit porcelain. Running down each side of the robe is a large green dragon, chasing a gold flaming pearl. His red cloud-collar has a gold floral scrolling pattern. He holds a gold ruyi sceptre in his arms, above which is a pleated green waistband, with the gold character shou (longevity). The turquoise under-robe, which falls onto his shoes, is decorated with cranes and peaches. An unglazed crown sits on his black hair and he has a long black beard and side-burns. Between his slanting eyebrows, is a vertical third eye. The separate throne is decorated with green, aubergine and yellow enamels.
The longevity symbols on the robes – the crane, peaches and character shou – tell us this is a Daoist god. The third eye on his forehead, reveal him to be Erlang Shen, the god with a third truth-seeing eye. A noble and powerful Warrior God, he embodies justice and righteousness. He is said to have superhuman strength - able to cleave mountains with his axe - and the ability to transform himself.
中國清代康熙（公元1662-1722年），約1680-1890年 高：52.8厘米；寬：26.5厘米 來源： 美国紐約大都會藝術博物館（1960年，編號 61.200.31） 小約翰·洛克菲勒收藏（1874-1960年）
彩雲朵圖案，兩側各有奔跑一條綠色巨龍追逐著金色 的明珠，紅色雲領帶有金色的花卉滾邊。他手中拿 著金如意，腰間佩戴綠色百摺腰帶，中間有金壽字。 拖至鞋面的綠松石色內袍上裝飾有仙鶴和仙桃。他有 長長的黑鬚和雙鬢，黑髮之上是一頂未上釉的寶冠， 在濃眉之間是垂直的第三隻眼睛。寶座裝飾著綠、 茄紫、黃色琺瑯。 仙鶴、壽桃和壽字等長壽符號表明這是一尊道教神 像。額頭上的第三隻眼睛則明確提示這是有通天之 眼的二郎神，他是高大威猛的武士神，代表公平和 正義。傳說中他有超凡力量——能用斧頭砍山，還 能變形。
Published in: - J.F. Blacker, Chats on Oriental China, London 1908, p. 75 - F ong Chow, Symbolism in Chinese Porcelain: The Rockerfeller Bequest, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin Vol. 21, No. 1, New York, 1962, pp. 12-24
28. LANDSCAPES WITH FIGURES
Landscapes with Figures a) China, c. 1740-50 H: 18,3 cm, W: 11,5 cm Provenance: Private Collection, Switzerland b) China, c. 1740-50 H: 7,0 cm, W: 14,1 cm Provenance: Private Collection, France With Spink & Son, London, UK
Two nephrite jade landscape boulders with figures; both a light green, with rusty brown inclusions. The larger boulder, in fairly low relief, shows a scholar and his young attendant on a craggy ledge. The elder appears to be writing something on the stone with a brush, his assistant holding a bowl. There is some vegetation growing between the cracks in the rockface. The natural fissures and inclusions in the stone are used to great effect in this composition.
a）中國，約公元1740-1750年 高：18.3厘米；寬：11.5厘米 來源： 瑞士私人收藏 b）中國，約公元1740-1750年 高：7.0厘米；寬：14.1厘米 來源： 法國私人收藏 英國倫敦斯平克家族收藏
褐色。較大的這件在下方以浮雕形式展示一位文人及 其書僮正站在崎嶇的山崖棧道上。老者似乎用毛筆 在崖壁上書寫，書僮手捧墨碟。在岩石的縫隙間生出 一些植物，這塊石料中的天然裂縫和雜質渾然天成。 較小的那個則用深浮雕全面展現山地景觀。前景中 描繪了兩對人物、松樹和在岩石縫隙間生長的靈芝 叢。背面刻畫了嶙峋怪石、松樹和兩隻仙鶴——這些 都是長壽的象徵。
The smaller carving, in much higher relief, is sculpted in the round as a mountain landscape. The front scene depicts a path with two pairs of figures, pine trees and sprays of lingzhi fungus amongst rocks. The reverse has craggy rocks, pine trees and two cranes – all symbolic of longevity. These types of carvings, are in effect small three dimensional landscape paintings, which would have appealed to the poetic imagination of the Chinese scholar. Landscape boulders are comparable to the use of table rocks (gongshi) and miniature gardens (penjing), but often have a more specific literary or symbolic narrative, due to the addition of figures and animals. 90
此類小件雕刻，實質上是將中國文人詩意想像的山 水畫立體化。與貢石和盆景相比，景觀石雕往往因 其中的人物動物形象而更具明確的文學性和象徵性。
Literature: Johnson & Lai Pik 2011, p. 108 nr. 72 Jiu-Fang 1997, nr. 63 Kaverne 1991p. 187 Knight, Li & Bartholomew 2007, p. 305 & nr. 356 & 360 Rawson & Ayres 1974, p. 135 & 136 Till & Swart 1986, p. 42-53 Tsang & Moss 1986, p. 276 nr 275 Welch 2008, p. 64 & 137
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Barry Till & Pauls Swart, Mountain Retreats in Jade, Arts of Asia, July/August 1986 95
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