Sancai Three Colours Catalogue 2020

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sancai three colours


Sancai 三彩

(literally: ‘three colours’) is a versatile and vibrant type of decoration on Chinese porcelain and pottery using glazes or slip, predominantly in the three colours of brown and/or amber, green, and white.


sancai three colours

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sancai three colours timeless exuberance

With great pleasure, we present you our 2020 catalogue Sancai – Three Colours. It is a celebration of Chinese ceramics that have a recognisable decoration in mainly three colours: green, brown and or amber with uncoloured areas in white. Though these are the main colours in this palette, it may encompass other colours as well. We have chosen this particular subject as it spans a long period of Chinese ceramic history. It was used as early as the Tang dynasty (618 -907) and continues far in to the 18th century, even used today. As we have a passion for early ceramics from the Tang dynasty and porcelains from the 17th and 18th centuries in this colour combination, the subject could not be more suitable. Large and small objects, figures, bowls and vases, scholar’s desks objects and animals; all telling a story and so representative of our own taste. As Rose Kerr explains in her essay, Chinese people particularly love vivid colours and environments that are “万紫千红” (exuberant); sancai three-coloured ceramics satisfy that wish perfectly! Floris & Nynke van der Ven

Vanderven Oriental Art The Netherlands Tel. +31 (0)73 614 62 51 info@vanderven.com www.vanderven.com

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three-coloured wares rose kerr

Chinese connoisseurs have many convenient terms for describing ceramic styles and decorations. One is sancai 三彩 meaning “three-coloured”, which is an expedient way to describe wares from the Tang dynasty, whose palette was subsequently revived and improved during the Qing dynasty. For the Qing dynasty glazes further epithets were employed, for example “tiger skin” (虎皮 版 in Chinese), “Egg & Spinach” (favoured by the English) and “Harlequin” (favoured by the French). Ceramics decorated in this style are represented by nr. 11, 12, 14, 17, 18, 19. A general technical term for most sancai ceramics is enamel on bisuit porcelain, because the colours were laid onto a porcelain body directly, without an intervening level of glaze (for example nr. 9, 15). Sancai ceramics are generally decorated with green, amber and white glazes, but may in fact encompass other colours as well. The use of three-coloured glazes during the Tang dynasty was quite revolutionary, because they were lead glazes, which was something different in terms of technology. Traditionally Chinese glazes had been high-firing lime glazes, based on plant ash and producing subtle greenish tones. Sancai wares were low-fired, employed lead as a flux, and produced brilliant, glass-like colours.

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Where had this new technology come from? It seems likely that it travelled from the Near East or Central Asia to China, along the Silk Route. Lead glazes had been used in Egypt and the southern Mediterranean from the second century BC, spreading to the Middle East and then onwards to China by the first century AD. In the process, they became the most successful earthenware glaze-type in world history.This was because lead glazes show a smooth and even melt during firing, brilliant surface-qualities, and excellent response to colouring oxides, which provide warm saturated colours. Their low expansivity and good elasticity also helped to prevent crazing, i.e. the net-like cracking of the glaze that develops if it shrinks more than the body beneath. Finally, the insolubility of lead ores in water means that lead glazes do not necessarily need fritting before firing and were therefore simple to make.1 Tang dynasty potters adopted them enthusiastically, but restricted their use to burial wares because of the high toxicity of lead to the human system. It is possible to be poisoned by lead glazes when preparing them, when firing them (by breathing volatilised lead vapour) and, particularly, when eating or drinking from vessels glazed with them.2 However, the new lead glazes could be used for a spectacular array of splashed, streaked, trailed, resisted, dripped and mottled coloured funerary ceramics. Vibrantly-coloured glazes were applied freely to large press-moulded horses, humans and mythical beasts (nr. 1, 2 & 3), as well as to jars, dishes, vases, cups and


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ewers. Many patterns were taken from tie-dyed and dyeresisted Central Asian textiles, the runny glazes being contained within resists that burnt off in the kiln. Tang dynasty lead glazes were applied to underfired stonewares and porcelains, which were white, buff or pink and often lightened with an application of white slip (liquid clay). This pale colour helped to improve the colours of the semitransparent coloured glazes. Excavation of sancai kiln sites shows that the glazes were usually applied to biscuit-fired wares, with the great majority made for placement in tombs. A major kiln producing lead glazed wares during the Tang dynasty have been identified at Huangbao in Shaanxi province, that supplied burial wares to wealthy clients in the nearby capital city of Chang’an.3 The excavations at Huangbao showed how the ceramic industry operated. Excavators unearthed workshops that had been hastily abandoned in the mid 8th century when the nearby river flooded, leaving pots at all stages of manufacture. Dwellings and workshops were found together, dug back from the river-bank into a cliff, with one particular cavedwelling serving as both living quarters and warehouse. Besides finished glazed wares the excavated workshops yielded hundreds of unfired wares, together with ceramics moulds and biscuit-fired objects. Coins from the reign of the emperor Xuanzong (713-741 AD) were found in one workshop and wood-burning kiln remains. Coal seems to have been employed to heat the workshops.4 Lead glazes continued to be made in later dynasties, and to be used for burial wares (nr.5). Another function was architectural elements, either tiles or three-dimensional

ceramic sculptures. Lead-glazed tilework used in architecture had two aspects, function and ornament. Most glazed tiles in China had low to medium-fired earthenware or stoneware bodies, and glazes that tended to flake off when subjected to long-term weathering. Thus they could not be said to be a truly durable building material. Nevertheless, they were more resistant to decay than wood or thatch, and cheaper than metal. Ceramic sculptures, whether used indoors or outdoors, provided lustrous, colourful ornament (nr. 4). In decorative terms, glazed tilework had many advantages. From a distance, it could be as bright and as reflective of light as precious metal. The late 13th-century traveller Marco Polo was inspired by the site of the Mongol capital Dadu (presentday Beijing) to write5:

‘The roof is all ablaze with scarlet and green and blue and yellow and all the colours that are, so brilliantly varnished that it glitters like crystal and the sparkle of it can be seen from far away’ Many innovations in overglaze enamel glazes were made from the Yuan dynasty onwards. The most important was their use on porcelain bodies, with accompanying refinements in glaze technology. These developments took place at Jingdezhen, the city in central China that has been China’s “porcelain capital” for one thousand years. By the late 17th- early 18th century (the Qing dynasty) technological advances meant that lead-based colours were no longer poisonous on eating wares (nr. 15, 16, 17). Proper formulation meant that the chemical stability of lead glazes was excellent, and their capacity to release lead into food-acids controlled. In decorative terms, many Qing

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dynasty porcelains copied the Tang dynasty sancai palette, consciously splashing green, yellow and brown glazes to imitate the uncontrolled splashes on Tang dynasty originals (nr. 14, 16, 17, 18). It is interesting nonetheless that many Qing dynasty sancai pieces are ornamental (nr. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 20). The bright colours of sancai were especially suited to objects made for religious use (nr. 7, 8, 11). They also constitued a valuable minor component of export cargoes to the West (nr. 6, 7). Moreover, sancai colours were easy to manufacture. It seems that by the early 18th century, when the Jesuit priest Père d’Entrecolles worked at Jingdezhen, the glazes were quite straightforward.6 Père d’Entrecolles described simple mixtures of white lead, quartz, and oxide colourants for the making of enamels. This simplicity was confirmed by the French chemist Georges Vogt, who analysed samples from Jingdezhen in the 1880s. He described similar mixtures of raw lead and silica for some lead-fluxed monochrome glazes, remarking:

‘The simplicity with which the Chinese prepare their enamels for fluxing is truly remarkable; they only mix the primary materials, and without giving them any preliminary vitrification they use them to decorate their porcelain’ 7 This simplicity in preparation meant that the colours were inexpensive to formulate and led to the frequent use of sancai in the Qing dynasty. Items for the scholar such as brush washers, water pots and brush rests were decorated with bright colours to act as points of emphasis

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on the desk (nr. 14, 18, 19). The objects were decorated appropriately. Crabs (nr.14) signify prosperity, success and high status in Chinese symbolism because the Chinese word referring to its shell (jia 架) is a pun on the term used for the highest score a candidate can get in the Chinese Imperial Examinations (first, or jia 甲). The Tang dynasty poet Li Bai lived from 701-762 AD, during the great Tang dynasty, and is shown leaning against a huge wine jar (nr.18), because he was said to be as fond of drinking alcohol as composing poetry. Dragons crawling up to the rim of waterpots (nr. 19) symbolise power, strength and good fortune. The beauty of sancai lies in its lustrous, vibrant colours, that are quite different to other Chinese glazes. They seem more in harmony with popular taste, as it was expressed in brilliantly-coloured clothing, hangings and architectural elements. Chinese homes were dark and drab, so people loved to brighten their surroundings with colourful materials. In a similar manner, the dim, dark interiors of Chinese temples were enlivened with gaudy banners and hangings, and sculptures painted in rich hues. Chinese people love vivid colours and environments that are “万 紫千红” (exuberant); sancai three-coloured ceramics satisfy that wish perfectly.


Notes 1 A frit is a substance that needs to be fired and then ground to a powder before it can be added to a glaze. See Tite et al. 1998, for a discussion of the nature and use of historical lead glazes. Kerr & Wood 2004, pp.450-485. 2 Lawrence & West 1982. See chapter 16: “Lead glazes their use and misuse”, p.248-259, for an account of the pros and cons of lead glazes. 3 唐代黃堡窯址, Excavation of Tang Kiln-Sites at Huang-pao in Thung-Chhüan Shensi [sic] 1992, vol.1, p.15-25. 4 Du Baoren and Zhuo Zhenxi 1987. 5 Quoted in Krahl 1991, p.47. 6 Père Francois Xavier d’Entrecolles worked as a missionary in Jingdezhen for more than twenty years, and wrote two highly important letters about the porcelain industry there in 1712 and 1722. 7 Tichane 1983, p.81.

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1 | Earth Spirits An impressive and ferocious looking pair of animalesque tomb guardians zhenmushou – also known as Earth Spirits (qitou), both seated on high rockwork bases. Both are hybrid beasts with the bodies of animals with large flat wings with curled feathers on their shoulders. Each figure has a different head with distinctive facial features, topped with a flaming comb on their heads. Their sturdy pottery bodies are freely glazed, in the famous three-colour (sancai) palette, typical of the Tang dynasty. The colourless glaze allows the white body colour to show, the orange brown was made using iron oxide and the bright green created by adding copper oxide. One of the figures is a composite beast with distinct lionesque features. The open snarling mouth with long teeth – was meant to scare intruders. Its head is surrounded by a stylized mane and crowned with horns and an impressive unglazed fiery crown. The long front legs have clawed lion feet, the short tail sits flat on its back The pair is an anthropomorphic creature - neither human nor animal – fangs protruding from its closed mouth. The flaring nostrils and bulging frowning eyes, add to its fierce look. The face has a goatee beard, moustache and bushy eyebrows; the hair swept up high ends in horns. The large scalloped ears sticking out sideways, could indicate his task was to listen out for distant dangers. The tail curls under the body, resting between the long hooved front legs. As with many other figures in the Tang era, facial feature resemble those of Middle Eastern foreigners, who travelled to China via the Silk Road.

China, Tang Dynasty (618 – 907), Early 8th century H: 132 cm TL Tested by Oxford Authentication, UK provenance

Private Collection, Asia 2015

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The quality of the modelling, large size and glazing, indicate these figures were intended for a high ranking person of royal or noble descent. They would have been placed in niches on either side of the entrance of the burial chamber. Their function was to guard the tomb, where they had the dual purpose of preventing evil spirits from entering, as well as to stop inhabitants escaping to do harm in the world. They usually formed a foursome with a pair of protective figures known as lokapala (tianwang or zhenmuyong).


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The origins of these types of protective figures can be traced back to the Warring States period (475-221 BC); later in the Han dynasty they were referred to as Pishieh – literally meaning ‘warding off evil’. During the Northern Wei period (386-534 AD) Earth Spirits had more canine qualities, gradually evolving towards more lionesque figures during the Tang era. Comparable large glazed pairs of figures are in the The Avery Brundage Collection, San Francisco (Acc.Nr. B60S51 & 2) and the Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore (Acc.No.1995-00957). The British Museum, London has a pair which are part of a spectacular group of large sancai tomb figures and animals (1936,1012.223), which came from a generals tomb in Luoyang dated to 728AD. A similar pair, but unglazed, is in the collection of the Archaeological Institute of Shanxi Province.

Their function was to guard the tomb, where they had the dual purpose of preventing evil spirits from entering, as well as to stop inhabitants escaping to do harm in the world.

literature

Caroselli 1987, p.138 nr.81 Dwight 1993, p.46-58 & cover plate Jacobson 2013, p.256-257 Juliano 1988, cat nr.62 Lefebvre d’Argencé 1967, p.58 & pl.XXIV Liu 1991, p. 258 Paris 2000, p.300-303 cat.nr.113 & 114 Rawson 2007, fig 93 Welch 2008, p.128 fig.275

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2 | Wenguan A large pottery figure of a civil official Wenguan standing on a rockwork plinth. The body and base are glazed in the tri-colour sancai palette; only the head is left unglazed and cold painted with black pigments for the hair, hat and eyes with red on the lips. The high status and occupation of this figure can be established by his distinctive court headdress known as a jinxianguan. Clothed in ceremonial attire, this official has a suitable dignified demeanor, with his hands clasped in front of him. He wears a belted green tunic with a shawl collar and mottled tri-coloured edging on the wide sleeves. The ceremonial cuirass (liangdang), which is worn over the tunic, has wide shoulder straps, and also has splashed sancai glazes. The elaborate upturned shoes peek out from under a long white under-robe.

China, Tang Dynasty (618 – 907) H: 106 cm TL Tested by Oxford Authentication, UK provenance

Purchased in Hong Kong, late 1990’s Private Collection, The Netherlands 2019

In addition to their administrative responsibilities, civil officials served as a type of honour guard for members of the imperial family and the aristocracy. Figures of civil officials were often paired with their military counterparts, as well as guardians to form a protective group of figures in the tomb chamber. Including imposing dignitaries such as this in their pottery entourage, would confirm the high rank of the deceased to the afterlife officials. The limited occurrence of large scale sancai wares- including animals, figures, and vessels – in tombs of the Tang elite, suggest that they must have been a great luxury.

literature

Ayers 1980, fig.44 Bingwu Li 1998, p.144-145 Bower 2002, p.107 fig.30 Cao Yin 2016, nr.113 p.149 Desroches 1996, p.216-218 Dwight 1993, p.46-58 & cover plate. Hobson 1925, Vol. I, nr. 271 plate XLII Rawson 2007, fig.93 Singapore 1992, fig.27 Taipei 1998, pl.3,5,11&12 Valenstein 1975, p.68 Vollmer, Keall & Negai-Berthrong 1983, p.47

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Comparable figures are in The British Museum, London (part of a large group acc.nr.1936,1012.221), Victoria & Albert Museum, London (acc.nr. C.565.1919), Metropolitan Museum, New York (acc.nr:11.83.3) and the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto (acc.nr. 918.22.13)


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3 | Horse & Rider A standing glazed pottery horse on a rectangular plinth with a rider sitting astride. The horse, with a long mane and cropped tail, is glazed in a warm amber, stopping at the hooves. The saddle cloth and head have also been left unglazed and the facial details cold painted. The rider wears a cream outer kuapao jacket, influenced by foreign fashions (hufu), with wide green lapels and high green glazed riding boots. His hands are positioned for holding the reins, which may well have been present but now decomposed. On his head he wears the common black putou cap. Based on the facial features, it can be assumed that this figure represented an aristocratic Chinese rather than a foreigner. Glazed equestrian figurines were popular during the early Tang period. They belong to a group of figurines referred to as yinshengdui – which were part of the funerary procession and generally placed in the niches along the passage to the tomb chamber. Excavations of early 8th century tombs, have unearthed groups of similar figures, which could also include foreigners, soldiers, musicians and women. These type of figures are amongst the earliest known sancai glazed wares. China, Tang Dynasty (618 – 907) H: 40 cm | W: 35 cm provenance

Private Collection, Chicago USA TL Tested by Oxford Authentication, UK literature

Bingwu Li 1998, p.140, 162-5 Chen, p.93 Yin 2016, nr.129-132 Jacobson 2013, p.218 Liu 1991, p.191 Shangraw 1993, nr. 95 Taipei 1998, pl.32

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A large number of similar figures were found in the tombs of the high ranking and influential Li Hui (627-689AD) - a second cousin to Emperor Taizong - and Princess Yongtai in Qian county. Comparable figures are also now in the collection of the Victoria & Albert Museum, London (nr.C93.1939) and the Metropolitan Museum, New York (acc.nr 10.221.1).


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4 | Tilework Lions A pair of ferocious green and yellow glazed stoneware lions, standing foursquare on oblong bases. The flames on the legs indicate these were celestial lions, which is emphasised by dragonesque heads, with open mouths and bushy eyebrows over bulging eyes. The stylized curled mane and bushy tail are glazed yellow and white ruyi-shaped saddles sit on long amber saddle cloths. Ornamental caparisons, with bells and tassels, hang around their chests and bodies. A small green glazed jar sits on its back with a tubular cavity running down through the saddle to the base; this could have served to hold a wooden pole, either for a flag or for holding up a canopy over a religious sculpture. The Ming period was one of great economic prosperity and expansion in China, which caused a building boom and a large demand for architectural ceramics. These were manufactured by potters who moved from site to site, establishing kilns where their work was needed. These lions were probably part of a larger order of tilework ceramics such as architectural tiles and sculptures with bright glazes, made for a major building or temple. These type of wares were typically ordered by wealthy Chinese patrons and there is no evidence that they were made for export.

China, Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644) H: 44 cm | L: 50 cm With later wooden stands provenance

With Compagnie de la Chine et des Indes, Paris Private Collection, Belgium literature

Boulay 1984, p. 181 fig. 5 Harrison-Hall 2001, p. 516-519 Kerr 2004, p. 517-519 Paludan 1981, p. 26 fig. 23

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The lion dog is a very popular motif in Chinese art - also referred to as Buddhist Lions or Fo Dogs. They bear little resemblance to real lions, usually stylized as fantastical creatures with exaggerated features. Lions are associated with Buddhism, as legend has it that Buddha once entered a temple and instructed his two accompanying lions to wait outside - which they did dutifully. This is said to be the reason that lions are found at the gates of Buddhist temples and entrances of sacred halls - symbols of guardianship and wisdom. Stylistically similar large stone lions can be found along the spirit of the imperial Ming tombs. Single tilework Lions, are in the Victoria & Albert Museum (acc.nr.C94-1913) and British Museum in London (acc.nr.1910,1223.1) and Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore (acc.nr.1995-03482).


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5 | Offer Table A pottery offer table, glazed in green, brown and amber. The classic Ming dynasty table, is set with dishes of food - carefully piled up fruits, breads, maize, fish, poultry and a pigs head. These products are chosen with care because of their association with happiness (fruits), luxury (fish), wealth (rice biscuits) etc. On the back corners of the table are two ceremonial vases and in the centre a censer. Miniature versions of real life objects, were intended to reflect the social status of the deceased in the after-life. The quantity of grave goods (mingqi – bright objects), was closely related to the affluence of the deceased – the wealthier the deceased the larger the number of items that accompanied them in the afterlife.

China, Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644), c. 16th century H: 27 cm | W: 18 cm | L: 28 cm provenance

With Vanderven Oriental Art, 2009 Collection von Muhlen – Calem, 2019 literature

Aichi & Machida 2005, p.78, fig.73 Harrison-Hall 2001, p.552 & 553, fig.20:9-20:18 Keppel 1992, p.13-20 London 2006, p.26 nr.33 Paludan 1996, p.57-58 Paludan 2006, p.493-496 Petzäll & Engel 2002, nr. 109 p.304-307

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During the Ming Dynasty, the custom of burying figures in tombs was gradually being replaced by paper effigies of people and animals. Though clearly smaller and less elaborate than those of the earlier dynasties, Ming funerary figures continued to be commissioned. The colourful enamelling and realistic rendering, reflect the artistic and technical standards of the Ming craftsmen. Miniature models could include all types of furniture to equip a house and temple, small buildings, farm animals and food platters, as well as figures for the household retinue. They would be arranged in lifelike everyday settings or funerary processions mimicking real life. A comparable offer table is in the Victoria & Albert Museum London (FE.110:1 to 9-1996). The Art Institute Chicago has a related miniature scholars table with attributes (acc.nr. 1924.282). The British Museum, London has a group of plates with offerings (acc.nr. OA 1927.12.14.1-10).


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6 | Mounted Pagoda Brush Washers A large pair of brush washers in the shape of fortified gateways with a pagoda roof watch tower, standing on the edge of a pond with a bridge and two boats. They are enamelled on the biscuit in the sancai colour palette. The gate walls are brown with green cantilevering and (one moveable) doors. The sloped three-tiered roof is yellow, brown and green on top – between each level are small square windows. The upturned roof corners have yellow bells. The pond has a rockery base decorated in the splashed ‘Egg & Spinach’ style, the inside is white, glazed with a thin transparent glaze. A shoal of swimming carp are moulded in relief on the bottom. A large and smaller brown boat with yellow sails, stand on green wave pillars; they would actually look as if they were floating when the basin is filled with water. There is a small underwater cave in which an articulated fish swims. Steps lead up to the arched bridge with striped tri-colour railings – which crosses the pond diagonally to the entrance of the gate. These exquisitely modelled brush washers, are miniature natural worlds, full of symbolism. A bridge (qiao) symbolizes the uniting of two entities, such as generations. The fish (yu) in the pond stand for abundance and many offspring. The boats (chuan) is a rebus for passing your rank to the next generation; a boat in full sail, also implies the wish that any endeavours will be successful and ‘easy sailing’. So as a whole it could express the wish of easily bringing abundance and success into the house across many generations.

China, Kangxi period (1662-1722) H: 24,5 cm | W: 44 cm With later gilt bronze mounts provenance

Private Collection, Paris

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This pair of basins were further embellished in Europe - probably Paris – by adding removable bronze candelabra in the shape of branches on either side. The candle sconces and bobeches, have been decorated with pieces of Egg & Spinach porcelain – taken from another piece of porcelain. These metal fittings which were added in Europe, transformed the original function from brush washer on a scholars desk, to in this case a pair of exotic candelabra. Gilt bronze mounts, also known as ‘ormolu’, were highly fashionable in France in the 18th century, and were often applied to East Asian porcelain as well as other ceramics. Both the Taft Museum (Cincinnati) and the RA Collection (Brazil) has a pair of large pagoda brush washers, though neither have the same fortified gateway. A smaller example with a mountain scene is in the Musée Guimet, Paris (acc.nr.G2806). A pair of enamel on biscuit parrots in the Victoria & Albert Museum (London) have similar candle brackets which they date 1740-60 (acc.nr.813-1882).

literature

Bartholomew 2006, p. 43 & 104 Boulay 1963, p.78 Boulay 1995, p.265 Cohen & Motley 2008, p.61 Desroches 1993, cover & p.43 Pinto de Matos 2019, vol.4, p.318-19 nr.133

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7 | Shizi A pair of enamel on biscuit figurines of Buddhist lions (shizi 獅子), standing on a rectangular stools covered with a cloth and decorated in Egg & Spinach splashed enamelling. Their bodies are glazed in green, with the mane down its back in contrasting aubergine brown and the tail in yellow. The female lion looks right, a lion cub jumping up her right leg. The male looks to the left, his left paw resting on a pole with a moveable openwork ball. Both have their mouths open and teeth bared; the eyeballs protrude and could well have been articulated at some stage. Stylized yellow curls decorate the top of their heads. Each lion has a yellow glazed lotus stem vase rising from its back, with a leaf half way up and an opening moulded as an open lotus flower glazed in aubergine brown. Originally they were made as items for a scholar’s desk and would have held incense sticks to perfume the room. The Buddhist Lion, also referred to as a Fo Dog or Dog of Foo, is considered an auspicious animal in China. Lions are not indigenous to China, though they were presented to the court by foreign embassies as early as the Han Dynasty. From the Ming Dynasty onwards, their image takes on a more dog-like appearance, with bulging eyes, pug-like face and a short bushy tail. Allegedly, even Pekinese pugs were bred to look like little lions.

China, early Kangxi period (1662-1722) H: 16 cm provenance

Private Collection, Germany literature

Avitabile 1992, p.168 nr. 343 Ayers 2004, nr. 75-78 Eberhard 1988, p.164 Krahl 1996, nr. 222 & 223 Ströber 2011, p.74 Welch 2008, p.135

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Similar pairs of biscuit lions are in the Maria Vergottis, as well as the Anthony de Rothschild collection catalogues. There is also a pair in the Östasiatiska Museet, Stockholm (acc.nr. OM-1969-0051-A&B).


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8 | Shrine This tall pierced rockery shrine, which is enamelled in the biscuit in the sancai palette, is dedicated to the goddess Guanyin Avalokitesvara. Portrayed as the ‘Goddess of Mercy’- she is the central figure sitting high in the back of the grotto on a white lotus throne dressed in white robes. Her hair is bound into a top-knot, which is covered by a cloth with some aubergine enamels. She is seated in the position known as ‘Royal Ease’ (Mahrajalilasana), which is characterized by an arm resting on a raised knee. In her hand she holds a horsetail fly-whisk, a symbol of grace and elegance, as well as Buddhist altruism. Either side of her grows bamboo. In front of her stands a guardian figure in ceremonial armour – possibly Weituo - who hovers over the water with a carp emerging from the waves. On the outer edges of the grotto stand two acolytes on lotus leaves - the stalks emerging from the water - both holding their hands together in prayer. The one on the left - possibly Longnu (Dragon Daughter) - wears loose robes. The one on the right - Shancai Tongzi (Child of Wealth) wears loose trousers and has his left leg bent to the back. Above them on rocky brackets sit yellow vases and a white bird clings to the rock face.

China, Kangxi period (1662-1722) H: 25 cm | W: 8,6 cm | L: 11,5 cm provenance

Van Rijckevorsel Collection, The Netherlands literature

Avitabile 1992, p.169 nr.345 Gabbert 1977, p.166 nr.358 Hobson 1925-1928, p.27 & pl.38 fig.E188 Jörg & van Campen 1997, p.184 nr.204 & 205 Manginis 2016, nr.25 Welch 2008, p.201

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Shrines like this were intended for a small house altar, but were also exported to the west as an exotic luxury. An almost identical grotto, which came from the Eumorfopoulos collection, is now in the Benaki Collection, Athens (nr. 2679). Another is in the Museum Angewandte Kunst, Frankfurt am Main (acc.nr.10994). Comparable pieces are in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam (inv.nr. AK-NM 12467 & MAK 659 & 573).


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9 | Smiling Figure This cheerful figure of a young man is decorated in three-coloured sancai enamels on biscuit porcelain. His face, hands, feet and base are left uncoloured and have a thin transparent glaze. He is dressed in a yellow wide-sleeved tunic with a brown collar, over wide-legged green trousers – his bare feet peeking out. Both hands are held out palms up and may have been intended to hold an attribute. The mirthful expression on his face is further accentuated by his wide smile and dimpled cheeks. The hair - which is moulded in low relief - and eyebrows are coloured black. He is firmly standing on an ‘Egg & Spinach’ splashed circular rockery base. This figure has no recognisable attributes, but it is likely to represent one of the Daoist deities-possibly that of the immortal Lan Caihe. This happy-golucky character, is mostly depicted as a smiling young male (or sometimes female). It was said that all the money he earned performing as a singer and actor, he gave to the poor. He is the bringer of beauty and happiness, the embodiment of innocence and joy; he is also the patron of florists & gardeners. Figures such as these would have been press moulded and then smaller details added by hand, before the first biscuit firing. The three coloured glazes would then be added before re-firing at a lower temperature.

China, Kangxi period (1662-1722) H: 15,5 cm provenance

Private Collection, France literature

Little 2000, p.231 Sargent 1991, p.50-51 Stamen & Volk 2017, nr.67 Welch 2008, p.176

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10 | Lions with Riders A pair of enamel on biscuit (sousancai) Buddhist lions with riders. The Buddhist lions stand on a biscuit porcelain base, in the shape of an artemisia leaf. The bodies and heads are glazed green, with yellow areas imitating fur and an aubergine coloured tail. The mouths are open, the tongues sticking out. The protruding eyes - once articulated - are set under aubergine eyebrows and top curls. The occidental figures – sitting crossed-legged on their backs - are wearing green belted tunics with yellow collars, their heads and hands are left white and covered with a thin transparent glaze. They are holding an oval pan over their heads with both hands. The pan has a shallow central hole, perhaps to hold a candle. This type of stylised lion, or fo-dog, is typical to China imagery. From the Ming Dynasty onwards, they are depicted with bulging eyes, pug-like face and a short tail. The figures on their backs have a foreign appearance, with their wide eyes and bushy eyebrows – though it is unclear what or who exactly they represent. The artemisia (mugwort) leaf is a popular motif in Chinese art; it is considered a potent medicinal herb, which associated with longevity, and as such it often recurs in decorative designs .

China, Kangxi period (1662-1722) H: 13,5 cm | W: 10,8 cm provenance

Private Collection, United Kingdom literature

Ayers 2004, nr.85-86 Berlin 1929, p.268 nr.706 Boulay 1995, p.624 Krahl 1996, pl. 218 Sargent 2014, p.170-171 Welch 2008, p.20 & 135

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Figures riding animals occur regularly in Chinese art. For instance boys riding elephants, sages on a water buffalo, hunters on horses or a deity on a qilin. We also know of portrayals of Westeners on the back of, or with, a Buddhist lion. Comparable earlier Ming dynasty lions, also with the riders holding up a pan, were exhibited in Berlin in 1929. A pair of similar lions also on artemisia leaf plinths, but without riders, are in the British Museum, London (acc.nr. Franks.72).


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11 | Daoist Deity A figure of a Daoist Warrior God, glazed all over the front in Egg & Spinach splashed enamels in amber, aubergine brown and green. His head, hands, bare feet and back of the figure are left uncoloured, having only a thin transparent glaze. His bald head with long lobed ears, has an unusual third eye (eye of wisdom) in his forehead. The whispy long beard and moustache are glazed brown. He is sitting on a high backed throne wearing full elaborate military armour, embellished with a pattern of scales, worn over robes. The tunic is gathered over the chest with a narrow belt. Another belt, with a large buckle in the form of a tiger’s head, sits lower on his stomach and from it hangs a large fish. In his right hand rests a sword, the hilt pointing up and the point resting in the hand. His left hand faces outward in what appears to be the the apana mudra (thumb touching his middle and ring fingers).

China, Kangxi period (1662-1722) H: 22,6 cm provenance

The additional eye on his forehead, could indicate he is Erlang Shen 二郎 神, the god with a third truth-seeing eye. A noble and powerful Warrior God, he embodies justice and righteousness. He is thought to have helped regulate China’s large rivers and watercourses against devastating torrential floods, which could explain the fish which hangs from his belt. Also known for having superhuman strength, he was said to be able to cleave mountains with his axe. According to a Chinese myth, Erlang Shen’s powerful third eye - placed vertically in the middle of his forehead - could differentiate between an honest, good man and an evil one. His eye was also able to detect incoming enemies from vast distances and destroy them without using any weapons. The only other deity in the Daoist pantheon with a third eye, is Ma Wangye 馬王爺 - Old King Ma - one of four Daoist Heavenly Marshalls who protect the cardinal directions. He was considered a god of justice and his third eye could also detect truthfulness.

With Chait Galleries, New York (label) literature

Ayers 2004, p.257 nr.190 Beurdeley & Raindre 1987, p.74 fig.104 Gorer & Blacker 1911, vol.1 pl.78

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Similar enthroned gods, but in a different colour palette, are in the Victoria & Albert Museum, London (FE.29-1978 & 30-1978). A comparable figure, also with a third eye but different enamels, is published in Gorer & Blacker.


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12 | Liu Hai This laughing young man appears to be dancing on a rocky mountain. He is wearing a sleeveless tunic, decorated with splashed tri-coloured sancai glazes, loosely tied at the front and worn over baggy white trousers. Both his right leg and right arm are raised and he holds a string of nine cash coins with both hands. The brown glazed open rockery base, has a green threelegged toad emerging from one of the holes and a gold ingot (caiche) resting in another. Various tufts of greenery grow on the rock and yellow coins are scattered around loosely. A thin clear glaze wash has been used in some areas, while others have been left in the biscuit.

China, Kangxi period (1662-1722) H: 17,5 cm | D: 6,5 cm provenance

The figure represents the benevolent Liu Hai, a Daoist immortal and God of Wealth. His story is thought to be based on a that of Daoist priest Liu Haichan, who lived in the 10th century. He is always depicted accompanied by a mystical and auspicious three-legged toad. This magical creature, believed to have come from the moon, was blessed with immortality and the ability to find hidden treasures. Occasionally the toad would escape from Liu Hai, who would then tempt him back with a string of gold coins. Liu Hai was thought to be able to travel wherever he wanted; with the help of his toad he was able to fish gold from the sea - which he would disperse amongst the poor and needy. Lui Hai with his toad are associated with abundance, prosperity and wealth (cai), as such he is also a lucky talisman for gamblers. Gold coins in general are also a Chinese symbol of prosperity and wealth, and as such popular decorative motif. A cord (lian) with nine coins also represents uninterrupted happiness.

Private Collection, The Netherlands literature

Ayers 2004, p.98 nr.85-86 Eberhard 1988, p.166 Sargent 1991, p.72 nr.26 Pei 1997, p.98 fig.89 Pei 2004, p.115 & 183 Vinhais & Welsh 2012, nr.33 Welch 2008, p.163

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Figures of Liu Hai were immensely popular, and instant recognizable by his accompanying toad and were made from many different materials, such as porcelain as well as bronze and bamboo. The Marie Vergottis collection (Lausanne) has two figures of Liu Hai riding a toad, one of which also holds a string of coins.


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13 | Pomegranate Pyramid An unusually large enamel on biscuit (sousancai) pomegranate pyramid, with naturalistically moulded miniature fruit in a fluted dish. The coloured enamelling is in various shades of ochre-yellow, green and brown. The fruit is arranged in eight layers, with green leaves added in between. The fluted under-dish, has a green rim and is yellow on the side. To construct this piece, each pomegranate would have been individually moulded, then arranged layer by layer and joined with slip; the veined leaves were added last before the first firing. Coloured glazes would then be added onto the fired biscuit, after which it was fired again at a lower temperature. Such porcelain models, derive from the Chinese tradition of piling offerings of various sweetmeats on the household or temple altar; either for ancestor worship or in the tomb for the afterlife. Artificial fruit dishes such as these were sometimes used as an alternative to fresh fruit. These exotic looking forms were exported to the West as luxurious curiosities in the 18th century. The earliest recorded example in Europe of such a pyramid, also depicting pomegranates, was a small sketch made in a French auction catalogue in 1769.

China, Kangxi period (1662-1722) H: 26 cm | Ø: 16 cm provenance

Private Collection, Paris literature

Bartholomew 2006, p.76 Bondy 1923, p.173 Krahl 1996, vol. 2, p.448 nr.261 Pei 2004, p.154 Pinto de Matos 2011, pl.153 & 154 Sargent 1991, pl.9 Welch 2008, p.57

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Commonly called ‘Chinese apple’ in the West, the pomegranate (shiliu) is actually not native to China, as they were brought from Central Asia, where it was (and is) an important food. This distinctive fruit, which was cultivated in China as early as third century BC, was quickly adopted into Chinese culture, particularly for its symbolism. It embodies abundance and the wish for many sons – which arises from the large amount of red seeds inside the fruit. Furthermore, it is a meaningful symbol to Daoists as well as Buddhists. In Daoism, like the peach, it is associated with immortality and in Buddhism it is the symbol of good luck. The word for pomegranate shiliu is homophonous with shi meaning generation – which reinforces the suggestion of generations of offspring. When the fruit is depicted splitting open, showing its seeds, it could denote the rebus liukai baizi ‘the pomegranate opens and gives a hundred sons’. A smaller pomegranate pyramid without a dish and in turquoise enamels, was in the former Anthony de Rothschild collection. Another in the sancai colour palette, with a dish, is depicted in Bondy’s book on Kangxi porcelain.


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14 | Brush Rest & Washers These charming objects, were originally intended for use on the Chinese scholar’s desk. The crabs would have been used as water containers for wetting calligraphy brushes. The brush rest would have been used for momentarily laying down a calligraphy brush, so the bristles would not touch the paper and soil the work. It has three upright stems, incised to look like bamboo stems, which form the Chinese character for mountain 幹(shan). The two slightly shorter outer stalks are hollow, possibly to hold joss sticks. Finely modelled, both the brush washers and the rest are decorated all-over with the splashed Egg & Spinach enamels. Chinese scholar-gentleman, known as wenren, aspired to an ideal existence - a leisurely life dedicated to the Four Arts: painting, calligraphy, chess and playing the qin or lute. This idealistic view of a reclusive life devoted to the arts, nature and contemplation, was inspired by Daoist principles. Some wenren were wealthy landowners of noble birth, but most of them held positions as civil servants. The reality was that, even though their work provided a good income, there was generally little time left for the artistic pursuits which they so idealized. China, Kangxi period (1662-1722) Crabs H: 5 cm | W: 7 cm Brush rest H: 7 cm | W: 8,9 cm provenance

Private Collection, The Netherlands literature

Bartholomew 2006, p.42 Desroches 1976, p.37 Krahl 1996, p.406 nr.229 & 284 Pei 1997, p.2 Pei 2004 p.132-133 Rinaldi 1993, p.17-21, p.99-102 Scagliola 2012, nr. 272 & 284 Welch 2008, p.94

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Because of their symbolism, these objects are appropriate - as well as useful - for the Chinese scholar’s desk The crab (xie) is an emblem for harmony, as well as for success in passing civil examinations. Mountains hold a special place in Chinese beliefs, particularly in Daoist culture. Their legends tell of a mythical land called Penglai - an imaginary mountain paradise inhabited by the immortal gods and where the magical lingzhi fungus could be found. Mountains are also associated with strength and stability, so objects in this shape, could also inspire strength in the calligrapher using the object.


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15 | Brinjal An unusually small green bowl and miniature yellow plates, both decorated in what is generically known as brinjal decoration. Wares of this type are made of thinly glazed biscuit porcelain, with incised decoration and a limited colour-palette of green, yellow and aubergine brown. These tiny plates are decorated with clumps of narcissus growing from bulbs. The outside rims have three tiny aubergine coloured lingzhi fungus, surrounded by green leaves. The bowl has three brown branches of magnolia with yellow and white flowers round the outside, and a small sketchy lingzhi fungus inside in the centre.

China, early Kangxi period (1662-1722), c.1660-70 Dishes Ø: 7,3 cm | Bowl Ø: 11,1 cm

The earliest known wares of this type, are dated to the early transitional period (1620’s). But production continued for several decades until well into the Kangxi period. Brinjal wares are known with green or yellow ground, but occasionally with a brown or white ground. Bowls are the most common form, though plates occasionally occur. The name Brinjal derives from an old Anglo-Indian word for aubergine, and may have been adopted because of the aubergine-brown colour employed in the decoration.

provenance dishes

Private Collection, Belgium 2013 with Vanderven Oriental Art, 2015 Morpurgo Collection, The Netherlands 2018 provenance bowl

with John Sparks Ltd, United Kingdom Morpurgo Collection, The Netherlands 2018

In China, the narcissus is a symbol of good fortune and prosperity, seen as an important flower for the lunar New Year. It is also called the ‘water immortal flower’ (shuixianhua), and is therefore a symbol for the immortals. A clump of narcissus, therefore stands for a group of immortals. The lingzhi fungus motif is a symbol for wish granting, as well as longevity. These dishes could therefore have been made for a birthday, wishing the recipient a long life. In China the white magnolia is called yulan (jade orchid) and is an emblem for purity.

literature

Ayers 1985, p.134, pl.100 Ayers 2004, pl.103 & 107 Bartholomew 2006, p.152, 187 & 201 Butler, Medley & Little 1990, p.179, pl.123 Scagliola 2012, p.243, pl. 242 Suebsman 2015, nr.112 Vinhais & Welsh 2012, p.74 nr.2, 5 & 6

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A very similar small bowl is in the collection of the British Museum, London (Franks.1536)


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16 | Splashed Vase A rare and unusual ‘Egg & Spinach’ glazed globular bottle vase, with a flaring neck decorated in variegated green, ochre, brown on a white ground. It is decorated in reserve with a Buddhist lion, freely painted in a deep aubergine, frolicking with a brocade ball and surrounded by stylised flames and clouds. Lions entered Chinese imagery, along with the introduction of Buddhism from India (c.1st Century AD), often symbolising protection and wisdom. As a motif, they gradually made an interesting metamorphosis, from scary guardians to being portrayed as amusing and playful creatures. The Buddhist lion with a cloth or brocade ball (qiu) is a common combination. An ancient legend tells that the lion produces milk for its young from its paws, country folk would leave hollow balls in the hills so that the lions, would be tempted to play with them, in doing so leaving their milk in them. Vases in various shapes and sizes with the splashed Egg & Spinach glazes do occur – though very rarely with decoration in reserve. Two vases, with an allover decoration, are in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum, New York (acc.nr.79.2.1153 & 79.2.120). An almost identical vase from the famous Nellie Ionides collection, was auctioned at Christie’s, London June 2003 (lot 114).

China, Kangxi period (1662-1722) H: 20,5 cm provenance

Private Collection, United Kingdom literature

Ayers 2004, p.102 Eberhard 1988, p.28 Kassel 1990, p.344 nr.126

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In China this décor is known as the hupiban (tiger-skin) pattern and referred to in the West as ‘Egg-and-Spinach’. The French also refer to this type of decoration as ‘Harlequin’.

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17 | Egg & Spinach Bowls A fine pair of small bowls with a flaring rim, distinctively glazed on both interior and exterior with a splashed sancai (tri-colour) glazes in yellow, green and aubergine-brown. In China this décor is known as the hupiban (tiger-skin) pattern and referred to in the West as ‘Egg-and-Spinach’. The French also refer to this type of decoration as ‘Harlequin’. Sancai decoration originated in the Tang Dynasty (618 – 907 AD), when they used these colours for lead glazing on pottery. On Kangxi porcelain, this unusual effect was created by applying stained glazes with a large brush directly onto the biscuit body coated with slip. It was then covered again with a clear glaze and fired at a lower temperature of about 900°C. Some areas of the body-colour show through the clear glaze, forming a fourth white colour. The underside is often undecorated, and sometimes entirely unglazed.

China, Kangxi period (1662-1722) H: 6 cm | Ø: 11 cm provenance

Private Collection, The Netherlands literature

Avitabile 1992, p.167, nr.240 Bondy 1923, p.203 Jörg 2011, p.128 Petzäll & Engel 2002, p.423 Scagliola 2012, nr.244 Shanghai 1998, nr.139 Suebsman 2015, nr.111

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Larger Kangxi period bowls from the imperials kilns, with a blue-and-white imperial mark, are in the collection of the Palace Museum, Beijing and the Shanghai Museum. But generally these types of bowls would have been made in civilian kilns, which can now be found in major collections such as the Art Institute of Chicago (acc.nr. 1997.398), Victoria & Albert Museum, London (acc.nr. c.1192-1917), Groninger Museum (nr.19371057).


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18 | Li Bai This water pot is in the shape of a reclining figure, slouched against a large green wine jar. The corpulent man is dressed in loose robes, decorated with the Egg & Spinach glazes. He rests his chin on his crossed arms, long flowing sleeves covering both hands. His scowling face has a wispy beard, moustache and eyebrows all picked out in very dark brown enamels. A black scholars cap covers his head. His bent left leg is crossed over his straight right leg, black shoes peeking out from under his robes. The jar was a useful Chinese scholars desk object, intended to hold water for wetting calligraphy brushes. A hole at the bottom of the jar also allows water to flow into the body; by tipping the container water can be dropped through a small hole in his right ear onto the calligraphers ink stone.

China, Kangxi period (1662-1722) H: 9.6 cm | L: 19 cm provenance

With Pierre SaquĂŠ, Paris (label) Private Collection, United Kingdom literature

Ayers 2016, nr.547, p.257 Hobson 1925-1928, Vol.V, pl.XXVI Scagliola 2012, nr. 269 Stamen 2017, p.102, nr. 34. Welch 2008, p.55 & 165-166 Williams 1976, p.281

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The reclining figure, is that of the well-known Tang Dynasty romantic poet Li Bai (701-766 AD), also referred to as Li Taibo the Poet Immortal. He was known as one of the greatest imperial poets of the period, but became additionally famous for his great drunkenness. The topic of wine drinking featured regularly in his writing, as well as the beauty of the moon. He went on to become a great inspiration to many Chinese literati and is therefore an often depicted figure on drinking cups, as well as being portrayed leaning drunkenly against a wine jar. It is said he drowned from leaning over the edge of a boat in a drunken effort to embrace the moon. Li Bai water pots - with varying enamel decoration - can be found in the Royal Collection, UK (RCIN 100981) and collections of the Victoria & Albert Museum, London (C.1105-1910) and in MusĂŠe Guimet, Paris (G5082). An example with European mounts is in the Laura Collection (Italy).


Drinking Alone by Moonlight A cup of wine, under the flowering trees I drink alone, for no friend is near. Raising my cup I beckon the bright moon, For he, with my shadow, will make three men. The moon alas, is no drinker of wine; Listless, my shadow creeps about at my side. Yet with the moon as friend and the shadow as slave I must make merry before the Spring is spent. To the songs I sing the moon flickers her beams; In the dance I weave my shadow tangles and breaks. While we were sober, three shared the fun Now we are drunk, each goes his way. May we long share our odd, inanimate feast, And meet at last on the Cloudy River of the sky. Li Bai

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19 | Water Pots Two square enamel on biscuit water pots in an archaistic shape with lobed sides and a square opening. They have small lizard-like qilong dragons crawling up the side, their heads resting on the edge of the opening. Both pots are decorated on the outside with Egg & Spinach enamels, with the moulded qilong picked out in aubergine brown. The underside of the slightly larger pot is enamelled in green, the other has splashed Egg & Spinach glazes. One of the pots is very black on the inside, which could indicate it has actually been used to wash inky brushes. As these are a smaller size, they could have been used as a water dropper, as well as a washer. In conjunction with other useful items for writing and painting, water containers were part of the implements and materials necessary for the Chinese scholars’ desk. The writing prerequisites – known as the Four Treasures of the scholars studio - were inkstick, brush, inkstones (for grinding ink on) and paper. Other useful implements could include brush rests, brush pots, paperweights and incense burners.

China, Kangxi period (1662-1722) H: 4,1 cm & 4,5 cm provenance

Private Collection, France literature

Hobson 1925-1928, vol.V, pl. XXXVIII nr.E192 Pei 1997, p.2 Pei 2004, p.85 Rinaldi 1993, p.58 fig.22

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Ink was made of soot with sticky rice paste and other materials to ward off insects. The mixture was then placed in moulds and dried. Water was needed to dissolve the ink for use, so containers and droppers were also part of the paraphernalia used by the Chinese literati in their study. Water pots came in a myriad of forms and sizes. Shapes and decoration were often inspired by religion, myths or nature serving as an inspiration for poetry or calligraphy. An identical water pot is in the collection of Museum fĂźr Angewandte Kunst (MAK), Vienna (inv.nr. KE8267).


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20 | Lion & Herons An unusual enamel on biscuit group of a cavorting lion (shi) leaping on the top of a mountainous rock, with two herons standing at its craggy base. The pierced brown rock, with green glazed ‘mossy’ areas, is club-shaped with a wider oval base. It has yellow flowering branches climbing up the side and grassy tufts on the base. The long-legged aquatic birds, either side of the high rock, are enamelled in variegated sancai enamels. Herons (lu) and egrets (lu) are very similar wading birds, both belonging to the Ardeidae family and referred to interchangeably in China. Their name (lu鹭) has a number of homophones including ‘officials salary’ and ‘road or path’. As symbols of purity and longevity, when pictured in muddy waters they are a metaphor for an official who is not corrupted by his surroundings. They can also signify that one is on the road to prosperity. Due to their symbolism and beauty these elegant birds are also a frequently used subject for paintings. The lion is a very popular motif in Chinese art, with great symbolic meaning. Buddhist lions, also known as Fo Dogs, are considered auspicious animals and associated with harmony and protection. They are also used to identify first and second rank military officials on robe badges.

China, Kangxi period (1662-1722) H: 22 cm provenance

Private Collection, Belgium literature

Berlin 1929, p.354 nr.965 London 1988, p.88 Pei 2004 p.66, 97 & 114 fig. A Welch 2008, p.74

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A very similar group was sold by Vanderven Oriental Art at the Ceramics Fair, London in 1988. A pair of enamel on biscuit perched birds, on very similar rockery bases, were exhibited at the Chinese Art exhibition in Berlin in 1929.


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Chinese captions

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1 | Earth Spirits

6 | Pagoda Brush Washers

白澤神獸一對 中國唐代(公元618-907年) 高:132公分

水缽 中國清代康熙年間(公元1662-1722年) 高:24.5公分 | 寬:44公分

2 | Wenguan

7 | Shizi

文官俑 =中國唐代(公元618-907年) 高:106公分

石獅一對 中國清代康熙年間(公元1662-1722年) 高:16公分

3 | Horse & Rider

8 | Shrine

唐三彩騎馬俑 中國唐代(公元618-907年) 高:40公分 | 寬:35公分

佛龕 中國清代康熙年間(公元1662-1722年) 高:25 | 寬:8.6 | 長:11.5公分

4 | Tilework Lions

9 | Smiling Figure

琉璃獅子一對 中國明代(公元1368-1644年) 高:44公分 | 寬:50公分

笑面男子像 中國清代康熙年間(公元1662-1722年) 高:15.5公分

5 | Offer Table

10 | Lions with Riders

祭台 | 約16世紀 中國明代(公元1368-1644年) 高:27 | 寬:18 | 長:28公分

騎石獅對像 中國清代康熙年間(公元1662-1722年) 高:13.5公分 | 寬:10.8公分


11 | Daoist Deity

15 | Brinjal Bowl

道教神祗 中國清代康熙年間(公元1662-1722年) 高:22.6公分

素三彩碗 中國清代康熙年間(公元1662-1722年) 高:5.7公分 | 直徑:11.1公分

12 | Liu Hai

16 | Splashed Vase

財神劉海蟾 中國清代康熙年間(公元1662-1722年) 高:17.5公分

鬥彩瓶 中國清代康熙年間(公元1662-1722年) 高:20.5公分

13 | Pomegranate Pyramid

17 | Pair Egg & Spinach Bowls

多子多福石榴塔 中國清代康熙年間(公元1662-1722年) 高:26公分 | 直徑:16公分

卵青釉碗一對 中國清代康熙年間(公元1662-1722年) 高:6公分 | 直徑:11公分

14 | Brush Washers

18 | Li Bai

蟹形筆洗一對 中國清代康熙年間(公元1662-1722年) 高:5公分 | 寬:7公分

詩仙李白 中國清代康熙年間(公元1662-1722年) 高:9.6公分 | 寬:19公分

14 | Brush Rest

19 | Water Pots

筆山 中國清代康熙年間(公元1662-1722年) 高:7公分 | 寬:8.9公分

水盂 中國清代康熙年間(公元1662-1722年) 高:4.1公分 | 高:4.5公分

15 | Brinjal

20 | Lion & Herons

素三彩 中國清代康熙年間(公元1662-1722年) 直徑:7.3公分

獅子戲鷺 中國清代康熙年間(公元1662-1722年) 高:22公分 | 寬:15.2公分

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Bibliography Aichi/ Machida 2005 Dream of Ideal Life in Ancient China: Ceramic Miniatures of Architectures, Household Goods, People and Animals, Exhibition Catalogue Aichi Prefectural Ceramic Museum & Machida City Museum, 2005, p.78, fig.73 Avitabile 1992 Gunhild Avitabile & Stephan graf von der Schulenbrug, Chinesisches Porzellan, Aus Beständen Des museums Für Kunsthandwerk, Frankfurt am Main, 1992 Ayers 1985 John Ayers, Chinese Ceramics; The Koger Collection, London, 1985 Ayers 2004 John Ayers, The Chinese Porcelain Collection of Marie Vergottis, Lausanne, 2004 Ayers 2016 John Ayers, Chinese and Japanese Art in the Royal Collection of her Majesty the Queen Vol I,-III London, 2016 Bartholomew 2006 Terese.T. Bartholomew Hidden Meanings in Chinese Art, San Francisco, 2006 Berlin 1929 Chinesische Kunst: Veranstaltet vond er Gesellschaft für Ostasiatische Kunst und der Preukischen Akademie der Künste, Beurdeley & Raindre 1987 Michael Beurdeley & Guy Raindre, Qing Porcelain; Famille Verte, Famille Rose. New York, 1987

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Bingwu Li 1998 Bingwu Li, National Treasure Collection of Rare Cultural Relics of Shaanxi Province; Tang Tri-Colour Pottery. Shaanxi, 1998.

Cohen & Motley 2008 Michael Cohen & William Motley, Mandarin and Menagerie: Chinese and Japanese Export Ceramic Figures, London, 2008

Bondy 1923 Walter Bondy, Kang-Hsi, Eine Blüte-Epoch Der Chinesischen Porzellankunst, Munich, 1923

Desroches 1976 Jean-Paul Desroches & Alain Jacob, Chine: Poteries grés biscuits, Paris, 1976

Boulay 1984 Anthony du Boulay, Christie’s Pictorial History of Chinese Ceramics, Oxford, 1984 Boulay 1995 Anthony du Boulay, The Taft Museum, Chinese Ceramic & Works of Art, New York,1995 Bower 2002 Virginia Bower, From Court to Caravan: Chinese Tomb Sculptures from the Collection of Anthony M. Solomon, Exhibition Catalogue Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Harvard, 2002

Desroches 1993 Jean-paul Desroches, Les Trésors du Lettré, objets de la Chine impériale, Exhibition catalogue, Musée des Arts Asiatiques Guimet, Paris 1993 Desroches 1996 Jean-Paul Desroches, Compagnons d’éternité : Trésors du Musée Guimet & Réunion des Musées Nationaux, Paris, 1996 Dwight 1993 Alan Dwight, Imperial China: Ritual, Immortality and the Afterlife, Art of Asia July/ August 1993, p.46-58 & cover plate.

Butler, Medley & Little 1990 Michael Butler, Margret Medley & Stephen Little, Seventeenth Century Chinese Porcelain; From the Butler Family Collection. Alexandria (Virginia), 1990

Du Baoren & Zhuo Zhenxi 1987 Du Baoren and Zhuo Zhenxi, 耀州窯作 坊和窯爐遺址發掘簡報. Report on the Excavation of Workshops and Kilns at Yaozhou Kiln Site, Kaogu yu Wenwu, 1987, no.1, p.15-25. Rose kerr

Caroselli 1987 Susan Caroselli, The Quest for Eternity: Chinese Ceramic Sculptures From the People’s Republic of China, London, 1987

Eberhard 1988 Wolfram Eberhard, A Dictionary of Chinese Symbols: Hidden Symbols in Chinese Life and Thought, London, 1988

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Gabbert 1977 Gunhild Gabbert, Chinesisches Porzellan, Frankfurt am Main, 1977


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Keppel 1992 Sheila Keppel “The Well-Furnished Tomb, Part 1.” Journal of the Classical Chinese Furniture Society 2:3 (Summer 1992), pp. 13-21 Kerr 2004 Rose Kerr (ed.) & Nigel Wood, Ceramic Technology, Vol. 5 part 12 in the series Joseph Needham, Science and Civilisation in China, Cambridge, 2004 Krahl 1991 Regina Krahl, Glazed Roofs and Other Tiles, Orientations, Hong Kong, 1991, nr. 3, p.47-61. Krahl 1994 Regina Krahl, Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection vol 1 & 2, London, 1994 Krahl 1996 Regina Krahl, The Anthony de Rothschild Collection of Chinese Ceramics, The Eranda Foundation, 1996 Kwok & O’Brien 1990 Kwok Man Ho & Joanne O’Brien, The Eight Immortals of Taoism, Legends and Fables of Popular Taoism, New York, 1990 Lawrence & West 1982 W.G. Lawrence & R.R. West, Ceramic Science for the Potter, Radnor PA, 1982 (rose kerr) Lefebvre d’Argencé 1967 René-Yvon Lefebvre d’Argencé, Chinese Ceramics in the Avery Brundage Collection, M.H. de Young Memorial Museum, San Francisco, 1967 Little 2000 Stephen Little, Taoism and the Arts of China, Exhibition Catalogue The Arts Institute of Chicago, Chicago, 2000 Liu 1991 Liu Liang-Yu, A Survey of Chinese Ceramic: Early Wares: Pre-Historic to Tenth Century, Taipei 1991

London 2006 The World in Colours, Exhibition catalogue Oriental Ceramics Society, London, 2006 Lunsingh Scheurleer 1982 D.F. Lunsingh Scheurleer, Letters of Father d’Entrecolles, and accounts of Chinese Porcelain from Old European Publications, Alphen aan de Rijn, 1982 Manginis 2016 George Manginis, China Rediscovered: The Benaki Museum Collection of Chinese Ceramics, Exhibition Catalogue Benaki Museum, Athens, 2016 Paludan 1981 Ann Paludan, The Imperial Ming Tombs, Yale, 1981 Paludan 1996 Ann Pauldan, Chinese Tomb Figurines, Hong Kong, 1996 Paludan 2006 Ann Paludan, Chinese Sculpture, A Great Tradition, Chicago, 2006 Paris 2000 La Gloire des empereurs Chine, Exhibition Catalogue Petit Palais, Paris, 2000 Pei 1997 Fang Jing Pei, Treasures of the Chinese Scholar, New York & Tokyo, 1997 Pei 2004 Fang Jing Pei, Symbols and Rebuses in Chinese Art. Figures, Bugs, Beasts, and Flowers, Berkeley, 2004 Petzäll & Engel 2002 Leif Petzäll (ed.) & Erik Engel, Chinese Ceramic Treasures; A Selection from Ulrichehamn East Asian Museum, including The Carl Kempe Collection. Catalogue Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, Ulrichehamn, 2002

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