A selection of projects from semester two, 2020 at The University of Western Australia, School of Design. The University of Western Australia acknowledges that its campus is situated on Noongar land, and that Noongar people remain the spiritual and cultural custodians of their land, and continue to practice their values, languages, beliefs and knowledge.
Designed and edited by Lara Camilla Pinho, Andy Quilty, and Samantha Dye. Marketing Officer: Chelsea Hayes.
Image: Summer Exhibition 2020 opening night, 19 November 2020. Photography by Samantha Dye.
Foreword by Dr Kate Hislop
FINE ARTS AND HISTORY OF ART
Foreword by Zoë Sydney
14 16 22 24 34 42 46
Fine Arts Fine Arts Honours VISA3050 Advanced Studio ARTF3050 Advanced Major Project ARTF2031 Art and the Life Sciences ARTF2054 Drawing, Painting & Print Studio ARTF1053 Fine Arts Studio: Space, Time & Beyond
56 58 62 66 70 74
History of Art HART3276 Prints from Dürer to Toulouse-Lautrec HART3330 Art Theory HART2274 Introduction to Museum and Curatorial Studies HART2275 Italian Renaissance Art Now HART2043 Zen Gardens to Manga Mania: A Survey of Japanese Art
ARCHITECTURE, LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DESIGN
Foreword by Nicholas Thuys
82 Architecture 84 ARCT5502 Independent Design Research 88 ARCT5101 Architecture Studio 112 ARCT5202 Detailed Design Studio 2 124 ARCT5529 Forensic Architecture 128 ARCT5505 Conservation in Cultural Landscapes, Historic Towns and Urban Precincts 130 ARCT5589 Furniture Design 134 ARCT5536 Photo Real Rendering 142 ARCT5885 Bio-Based Materials in Global Settings 148 ARCT3001 Architecture Studio 4 158 ARCT3030 Construction 162 ARCT3040 Advanced Design Thinking 166 ARCT1001 Architecture Studio 1 170 172 188 196
Architecture/Landscape Architecture ARLA2001 Design Studio LACH2001 Landscape Architecture Studio - Speculations ARLA1000 Design Studio - Groundings
202 204 212 214 218 226 234 236
Landscape Architecture LACH5511 Independent Dissertation by Design Part 2 LACH5510 Independent Dissertation by Design Part 1 LACH5504 Independent Dissertation Part 2 LACH4424 Design Studio - Complexity LACH4421 Australian Landscapes LACH3001 Landscape Architecture Studio - Resolutions LACH2050 Plants and Landscape Systems
240 Urban Design 242 URBD5821 Urban Design Dissertation 250 URBD5802 Urban Design Studio 2
FOREWORD BY DR KATE HISLOP With universities across the world, we made it through 2020 having spent all of first semester working, studying, teaching and learning in full online mode. The experience of that semester was captured in our first digital exhibition catalogue published earlier this year and available on the School website. Our second semester was, for some students and staff, a continuation of the online experience. But for many, the second half of the year in the School of Design saw a significant return to on-campus, face-to-face teaching, learning and interaction. But it was with a difference. The COVID-safe restrictions remained, so we operated with limited venue occupancy and constant observation of physical distancing. In many classes and meetings we functioned by necessity in dual or hybrid format, meaning that our gatherings combined physical and virtual attendance. This was an equally challenging mode and I dare say that by the end of the semester all – students and staff alike – were more than ready for a break. Lest we forget the remarkable experiences and learnings of 2020, this second digital catalogue records the work produced by a few of our students through second semester, across all of our course offerings. I know I can speak on behalf of all staff when I say how proud we were of the way that students committed themselves, and it is clear from the sampling of work in this catalogue that much excellent, intelligent, inspiring work was produced. It is important to note, too, that the challenges of the year were not easy to navigate and there were students who were unable to continue their studies. We hope that they will find it possible to return in 2021. The School of Design community has shown great capacity to reflect on the opportunities and limitations arising through the pandemic experience that continues to grip the world, alongside other momentous environmental, social and political events. I believe that this is an important and exciting time to be a student looking ahead to a career in the areas of architecture, landscape architecture, urban design, architectural conservation, or BIM; or in the fields of art history or fine arts. The importance of close looking, creative making, visual literacy, environmental responsiveness, sustainable awareness, critical practice and strategic thinking should become increasingly prominent as skill sets and attitudes informing the way we shape, interact with, interpret and preserve our environments, our stories and our communities. I’m pleased to think that graduates from our courses will be at the vanguard of the post-2020 process of recalibrating our lives in a variety of ways. Congratulations to all students whose work was featured in the end of year exhibition, and our best wishes to those who have completed their studies and are moving on to new ventures. Special thanks to Andy Quilty, Lara Pinho and Samantha Dye for compiling this catalogue, an important marker of the unforgettable year. Finally, thanks to the academic, professional, sessional and adjunct staff in the School of Design and all of our collaborators near and far whose efforts in educating, inspiring, mentoring and supporting students were so much appreciated. Dr Kate Hislop, Dean/Head of School, UWA School of Design 8
FINE ARTS & HISTORY OF ART
Image: Sky Edwards. Detail of U-193-x. 2020. Photography by Samantha Dye. 10
FOREWORD BY ZOË SYDNEY Art and Community in the Virtual Space It was an interesting challenge to be a part of the graduating class of 2020. When I remind friends from other disciplines that we had to do art studio classes online for most of semester one, they always asked how that could possibly work. It was only due to the dedicated endeavours from every staff member in Fine Arts and History of Art that it was as easy as it could have been. We would not have made it past day one without a herculean effort from them. With very limited preparation time, they have managed to shift entire courses that were built around studio interaction online. Arranging individual materials for each student, Zoom-appropriate activities, and space inclusive strategies could not have been easy. Yet, they still found the time to be there for us at any hour of the day. If there is one art skill that was most important in 2020, it was adaptability. It was amazing to watch my classmates rise to the challenge. Whenever you logged into a Zoom call you would see bedrooms turned into pottery studios, people perched in strange places where the Wi-Fi worked better, roommates in the background, pets on laps. The history of the work is changed when it has been created in and is forced to remain in a private space. The physical existence of the work is necessarily personal, and any virtual display of the work invites the public into that personal. Work created in a personal space is shaped by that space in a way that work created in a classroom is not. Ultimately, that has been reflected in the depth of the work on display this year. Removing our access to shared spaces and resources forces a consideration of accessibility. In the absence of visitors, galleries around the world started to upload new virtual tours, online resources and walk-throughs. Collections that could previously only be seen through travel were suddenly available all around the world. We have been exposed to new material, new technologies, and new methods of working that can only benefit us as we move forwards in our practice. In second semester, when we returned in person for the first time in months, there was a palpable excitement about being together again, even at a responsible two metres apart. I have never seen a 9am class with more energy. I think we learnt to take full advantage of everything at our fingertips in the Fine Arts Department and seize those opportunities while they were there. Despite, or perhaps because of, these forced constraints in the beginning of the year, the work being presented was stronger than ever. I could not have asked for a better community to see through this last year with. Zoë Sydney, Bachelor of Philosophy (Honours) majoring in Physics and Fine Arts 2020
Image: “Zoë in the painting”, November 2019. 12
Image: Elham Eshraghian-Haakansson. Still from face to face (Edition 1 of 2). 2020. Photography by Lara Camilla Pinho. 14
FINE ARTS HONOURS Unit Coordinator: Dr Ionat Zurr
CHANDLER ABRAHAMS ‘first slowly, then all at once’
first slowly, then all at once, engages with the doubled function of ecstasy and paranoia as it emerges from the transgression of the subject. Within the constructed world that is first slowly, then all at once the audience is encouraged to engage not only with the boundaries that exist in limiting the human (to its discrete, whole form) but the slippages and tensions that exist within and as a result of these boundaries. Through the depiction of an ambiguous decent into monstrosity, the audience is implicated in these tensions and asked to question the elation that is derived from such a transformation.
Image: Chandler Abrahams. first slowly, then all at once. Installation, video, sound. 2020. 17
FINE ARTS HONOURS Unit Coordinator: Dr Ionat Zurr
DALE BUCKLEY ‘An Offering’
An Offering examines the enduring soft power of the physical art object. In an age of apocalyptic thinking and post-truth politics, making visual art as a political gesture can feel like a futile act. But across history, there have been many precedents to the current moment in our empire. The works in An Offering are broken iterations of art produced at the end of previous empires, stripped of context and abstracted to be looted tokens of cultural capital. While our end may be in sight, a new empire will take our place. This work is addressed to that future.
Image: Dale Buckley. An Offering. Carrara marble, foam, aluminium, glass, bronze, wax, bitumen, hemp, turquoise, jet, bone, steel. 2020. Photography by Nick Mahony. 18
Images: Dale Buckley. Details of An Offering. Carrara marble, foam, aluminium, glass, bronze, wax, bitumen, hemp, turquoise, jet, bone, steel. 2020. 20
VISA3050 ADVANCED STUDIO Unit coordinator: Paul Trinidad
HAMISH NINYETTE MACLEAN ‘Mantle Of Memories’
Hamish Ninyette Maclean’s practice utilises AI generative technologies to explore the erratic and unstable nature of memory. Through his work, Hamish explores his minimal relationship with his late mother, employing neural networks in order to interpret old memories and recontextualise them to create new photographic links to his unexplored maternal relationship. Mantle of Memories furthers this, studying the causal links between photographic recordings of events and how they work to inform and condition recollections of past events. The piece depicts a memory-like process in which selected family photos have been manipulated and transformed only to be pushed through the lens of a generative adversarial network (GAN), reinterpreting them and forming a live recall of the memory in flux. This newly-formed memory then has stills extracted from it only to be mounted and housed within a cacophony of picture frames arranged in an erratic manner, cascading out of the confines of the plinth and onto the surrounding floor. The installed system is made up of three components: a projected series of live recordings of a GAN trained on a dataset of manipulated family photos, the wallpapered family photos that comprise the dataset surrounding this projection and the overflowing plinth of memory frames. The live GAN is the core of the piece informing the other elements of the work, this component suffers heavily from a phenomenon known as ‘mode collapse’ in which a GAN will fail due to it analysing and basing itself on a most occurring component that is not visually recognisable in the original dataset, this unfavourable outcome is somewhat evocative of the realities of memory recall as so often are the components of memory obscured by the unintentional recollection of an insignificant factor of the event being recalled.
Image: Hamish Ninyette Maclean. Mantle Of Memories. 2020. 23
ARTF3050 ADVANCED MAJOR PROJECT Unit coordinator: Sarah Douglas
ZOË SYDNEY Zoë Sydney’s work draws from personal writings and stories to explore the experience of lesbian womanhood in Australia. Found objects commingle with unusual materials across a broad series of work, with a clear sense of connection between identity and presentation. A combination of non-traditional textile work, preowned objects, and even her own hair are used. Pinkness, blondness, girlishness are all employed as devices of artifice in a display that demands the audience present themselves to the work as much as the work is presented to them.
Image: Zoë Sydney. Don’t take it personally. Found object, mixed media, human hair. 2020. Photography by the artist. 24
Image: Zoë Sydney. You have changed my touch. Found object, mixed media. 2020. Photography by Olivia Ellis 26
ARTF3050 ADVANCED MAJOR PROJECT Unit coordinator: Sarah Douglas
JULIE ZIEGENHARDT ‘When did I change?’
When did I change? seeks to unlock the inner knowledge of childhood. The digital illustrations are an echo of time passed and a visual prompt for reflection and reconnection to our playful and uninhibited selves. The intention is to evoke a poetic engagement with imaginative realities that exist beyond the boundaries of constructed expectations.
Image: Julie Ziegenhardt. When did I change?. 2020. 29
Image: Julie Ziegenhardt. When did I change?. 2020. 30
ARTF3050 ADVANCED MAJOR PROJECT Unit coordinator: Sarah Douglas
HARRISON RIEKIE ‘Hidden Vista’
The work Hidden Vista is an exploration into current communication systems, commenting on the speed of distributed information in hyper-simulated society. The captured work rests in a place of transition, amongst industrial development, a signifier of human intervention and transaction. The surface of the earth is delicately touched in a durational display of temporal ecological manipulation. The soil then finds its own course and dissipates, accentuating impermanence through subtle labour, commenting on the transience of place. The work can only be seen from an aerial perspective, commenting on ideas of sovereignty and surveillance. https://vimeo.com/491210267
Image: Pascal Hutchinson and Harrison Riekie. Hidden Vista. Digital Print 2020. 32
ARTF2031 ART AND THE LIFE SCIENCES Unit coordinator: Dr Ionat Zurr
ELEONORA BRUSASCO ‘Philtrum Farewell’
When thinking about what to create on the assigned topic of ‘Intimacy’, my first (and only) thought was of the Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) living in my philtrum: we had definitely been intimate for some time, though I had only just found out about its presence there and the consequent need for plastic surgery to remove it. I started my research by thinking about the history of plastic surgery, used initially to correct ‘deformities’ such as cleft palate, then for ‘cosmetic’ (perceived) problems such as small breasts, and more recently for a deliberately ‘plastic’ look, and even more recently for ‘selfie’/’zoom’ optimisation. Plastic surgery was also investigated as an aesthetic by ORLAN who underwent nine performative operations in the early 1990s. She was the “…first artist to use surgery as an artistic medium”. My research, by necessity, included the timeworn tropes of beauty, femininity and ageing. Post-operatively, I knew both my philtrum and Cupid’s bow were gone, and the artwork then became a grief for my philtrum. Feeling sad that it had to be sacrificed for my wellbeing. Coming to terms with a confronting type of surgery – literally ‘in your face’. Playing around with various (silly) props while taking photographs was a light-hearted way of starting to connect with my ‘new look’ (just six days post-op – it will evolve considerably over the coming months). The visceral quality was also underlined, especially with the grevillea and blowing bubble gum shots. And the flowers added an element of beauty/poetry, but also a tension. I wanted a tight crop with an intimate feel with the photograph’s maximum life-size. I had originally visualised Polaroids, as I thought this aesthetic would suit the subject, but could not organise this in time. In conclusion, I feel that using a highly personal experience as the basis for an artwork was helpful in ‘both directions’, that is, emotionally as well as creatively.
Image: Eleonora Brusasco. Untitled. 2020. 35
Images: Eleonora Brusasco. Untitled. 2020. 36
ARTF2031 ART AND THE LIFE SCIENCES Unit coordinator: Dr Ionat Zurr
BEN NIXON ‘Organ Plants’
Organ Plants is a series of digital drawings depicting a bizarre future world. Human organs are merged with plant life and grown in pot plants in a hospital. This series developed from ideas regarding stem cell research and genetic engineering. Scientists have experimented with merging human tissue with organic material. While there has been no success in growing a working organ, this inspired the idea of a future where organs are literally grown on plants. The first idea that came to mind was of a heart growing on a tree. It reflected fruit that grows on trees and some ethical questions came to mind. Does the apple belong to the tree? And what is the relationship between farmers and forestry? The drawings were envisioned to be a mix of representational and surrealist styles. The digital drawing application Paintbrush helped achieve the 2D retro aesthetic I was hoping to recreate. Each drawing shows a different organ being grown: a heart, a pair of lungs and some kidneys. To accompany the drawings, a real pot plant was displayed, showing the severed plant featured in drawing three. This was fairly easy to source, with a ceramic pot, already owned, filled with dirt and a stick placed inside.
Image: Ben Nixon. Organ Plants Artwork 1. Digital drawing. 2020. 38
Image: (Left) Ben Nixon. Organ Plants Artwork 2. Digital drawing. 2020. (Right) Organ Plants Artwork 3. Digital drawing. 2020. 40
ARTF2054 DRAWING, PAINTING & PRINT STUDIO Unit coordinator: Andy Quilty Teaching staff: Paul Trinidad
EMMA HUGHES ‘Filthy’
Contact is such a potent tool. This piece originally started with the desire to use the contact between me and another person to create a visual piece of art, and it evolved, becoming more conceptual. In viewing the final product, however, I feel it has returned to addressing to power of the contact between myself and my partner. Isolated as they are, each touch holds a great deal of weight, and the link created between myself, the fabric and my model in each moment of contact is simultaneously personal and exposed, demonstrating in each fleeting touch the power of physical connection between people.
Image: Emma Hughes. Video still from Filthy. Filmed performance, acrylic on sheet. 2020. 43
ARTF2054 DRAWING, PAINTING & PRINT STUDIO Unit coordinator: Andy Quilty Teaching staff: Paul Trinidad
‘An afternoon to eat the rich’ An afternoon to eat the rich explores the utopia of a world without capitalism, highlighting the need for community, healthcare and housing for all, which cannot exist in conjunction with the constructs of capitalism.
Image: Sophy Riggs. An afternoon to eat the rich. Oil and acrylic on calico, 120 x 300 cm. 2020. 44
ARTF1053 FINE ARTS STUDIO: SPACE, TIME, & BEYOND Unit coordinator: Dr Vladimir Todorovic Teaching staff: Dr Vladimir Todorovic, Dr Ionat Zurr & Mike Bianco
VICTOR MALYAROVSKIY ‘Bread Lenin the Movie’
Bread Lenin is a sculpture of a human face made of bread and sealed in a transparent plastic container along with moisture-retaining cloth and a mould culture sample. Taking into account the subject of time and change central to the ARTF1053 unit, I have drawn my inspiration from the image of Lenin in the glass sarcophagus. A paradox, Lenin is simultaneously frozen in time as a physical body, and constantly re-invented as an ideological concept in the post-Soviet Russia. The element of time is an integral part of Bread Lenin, as the sculpture takes on a life of its own, transforming under the influence of both life in the form of mould, and entropy in the form of decay of organic matter. I have photographically captured this transformation on a daily basis, subsequently applying the skills learned from ARTF1053 to arrange the resultant images into a stop-motion film. The film is thus both the documentation of an art project and an independent artwork in itself. Bread Lenin the Movie is a meditative work capturing the transient nature of not only the human symbols and ideas, but of the body itself. As the human being changes under the influence of knowledge and experience accumulated in the course of their development, so does the Bread Lenin transform beneath the blossoming mould. Simultaneously, as each learning experience brings the human closer to their final moment, so does every motion of mould break down the structure of Bread Lenin, erasing the human likeness and reducing it to organic waste.
Image: Victor Malyarovskiy. (Left) Bread Lenin - Beginning. (Right) Bread Lenin - Intermediate. 2020. 47
ARTF1053 FINE ARTS STUDIO: SPACE, TIME, & BEYOND Unit coordinator: Dr Vladimir Todorovic Teaching staff: Dr Vladimir Todorovic, Dr Ionat Zurr & Mike Bianco
CIARA KELLY-GILLIGAN ‘Serenity Pod’
This work evolved from influences within my personal environment, and from wider world events. Anxiety, stress and worry have never been so apparent in society, as life has evolved and changed in response to the pandemic. Watching people close to me struggle with anxiety has highlighted the need to slow down and reconnect, to ground ourselves in the now and embrace the moment we are in. The rushed pace and pressures of life can feel overwhelming. I wanted to create something that would offer a moment of stillness, of respite for the overwhelmed heart and mind. I felt driven to create a soothing environment, a place of refuge. It was within this mindset that the concept of a ‘serenity pod’ came about. The hugging form of softly curving feathers creates a sheltered space within, exuding strength while honouring fragility. The textured spine gives a sculptural effect and mimics the spinal cord, communicating a sense of strength and stability. The simple pure lines are reminiscent of angel wings curving protectively inwards and offering a warm embrace. Metaphorically, a deeper significance of this overlapping softness is the representation of humanity’s need to feel interconnected and held, which are central concepts of this work. The ability to sit within the sculpture offers the audience the opportunity to engage with the work interactively and experience its comfort.
Image: Ciara Kelly-Gilligan. Serenity Pod. Paper, metal, wood. 2020. 48
Image: Ciara Kelly-Gilligan. Serenity Pod. Paper, metal, wood. 2020. 50
ARTF1053 FINE ARTS STUDIO: SPACE, TIME, & BEYOND Unit coordinator: Dr Vladimir Todorovic Teaching staff: Dr Vladimir Todorovic, Dr Ionat Zurr & Mike Bianco
JAMES DUDDING ‘Genesis’
100 cast Jesmonite globes are suspended by wires and attached to a servo motor. Each globe is finished to represent the ratio of the elements that compose a human body: 65 Oxygen, 18 Carbon, 10 Hydrogen, 3 Nitrogen and the remainder are trace elements. Every human life has this ratio in common. From the moment we are born we become isolated from each other. Race, religion, sexual orientation, gender: the non-reasons for discrimination are endless. Genesis reflects our shared identity in response to isolation.
Image: James Dudding. Detail of Genesis. Jesmonite metalflex - brass, aramid, stainless steel, servo motor. 2020. 53
Image: James Dudding. Detail of Genesis. 2020. Jesmonite metalflex - brass, aramid, stainless steel, servo motor. Photography by Lara Camilla Pinho. 54
HISTORY OF ART
Image: Annie Shelley. Detail of Thesis. 2020. Photography by Lara Camilla Pinho. 56
HART3276 PRINTS FROM DURER TO TOULOUSE-LAUTREC Unit coordinator: Dr Susanne Meurer
‘Vallotton and Graf: Expressions Within a Black Mass’
The woodcut is the earliest form of print media present in Europe. The productive materials they require are abundant and inexpensive, while the printing process for each individual impression is as simple or as complicated as the artist wills it to be. This has resulted in the adoption of woodcuts in ‘high art’ practices as well as mass media. Félix Vallotton and Urs Graf are masters of the medium, albeit almost four centuries apart. Both professional artists from Switzerland, they lived and worked in different periods and their work reflects this. From the sophisticated designs of German Renaissance to the expressive turn towards abstraction pursued in late nineteenth century France, their use of the woodcut is both appropriate and interesting. This essay will compare Vallotton’s L’Exécution (1894) and Graf’s Standard Bearer of Schaffhausen (1521) on thematic, compositional and formal levels. Woodcuts are examples of the relief printing process whereby sections of the matrix are cut away to leave the desired printed design in relief, to be inked and then impressed. Usually the impressed design has large portions of the block cut away leaving a web of thin, raised lines which give form and tone to the image. The two selected prints stand in contrast to most woodcuts as the artists leave a significant portion of the matrix uncut, resulting in an image dominated with black masses of ink surrounding small, incised sections highlighting the details of the figures. L’Exécution and the Standard Bearer are united in this stylistic 58
choice, but differ as the lines which construct Graf’s image are incised into the matrix to produce a rare example of the ‘negative’ or ‘white-line’ woodcut as opposed to the modernist Vallotton’s more traditional approach. Vallotton’s predominately uncut matrix creates a dark, tense atmosphere for the defined figures to exist in. The background of the scene is cordoned off by a line of uniformed soldiers, each holding a thin sabre over their left shoulder and sporting a moustache and bicorne hat with a republican cockade attached. Repeated motifs, created by simple strokes of the cutting tool, establish aesthetic uniformity across all eight men. In front of the soldiers on the right of the scene are three bourgeois gentlemen, all anonymous, suited, and indifferent towards the unfolding scene. This reflects the artist’s desire to unmask bourgeois gentility for its vicious falseness1 by implicating them in acts of state violence though their proximity. These figures form the end point of a strong diagonal vector that leads the viewer’s eye from the arm of the executioner to the prisoner and eventually to these three men. The only figure to be defined by large amounts of white space in the print is the prisoner who is being thrust towards his fate by two top-hatted men. A movement heightened by the gradual right to left variation of dark to light formed by an increasing density of incised lines. The prisoner’s face and torso, closest to the unseen guillotine, are among the lightest areas of the print which lack definition, effectively obscuring his identity. In contrast, the hands of the men restraining the prisoner as well as those of the beckoning executioner are defined through dense and precise linework. The particular execution depicted was likely Sante Geronimo Caserio, the anarchist who assassinated President Carnot and was tried and executed in the same year the print was published, 1894.2 This print comes from a larger theme in the works of Vallotton (whose
Image: Félix Vallotton. L’Éxecution. Museum of Modern Art, NY. 1894.
initials F.V. are in the bottom right corner) depicting scenes associated with state violence before, during and after the fact – a theme that finds full expression in his later print works depicting the expressions of modern industrialised warfare which ravaged France in the Great War. The period of time Urs Graf dealt with was likewise dominated by violence and warfare albeit on a much more local level. His design depicts a Swiss mercenary Keislaufer in a typical composition, similar to his fifteen other ‘whiteline’ woodblock prints in this series. The soldier’s identity, obscured by his head turned in profile, gives way to him acting as a representation for his class. The status of which is defined by his intricately patterned garments and muscular physique. In the left hand of the soldier is his town standard depicting the traditional heraldry of the city of Schaffhausen. In the canton of the standard is a haloed Mary, who kneels reverentially and maternally over a Christ-child stretching his arms out towards his mother, all of which is rendered minimally in an abstract style caused by the small scale of the image in the context of the whole. This restricts the amount of detail that can be rendered by the hand carving of the block. Dwarfing the Madonna and Child is a large, spiral-horned ram which gazes in the same direction as the soldier who stands directly beneath, aligning their strength and wilfulness. This visual metaphor is reflected in the coincident curves of the ram’s forelegs and the soldier’s left shoulder, and further heightened by the similarities in the representation of the ram’s horns and tail with the feathers in the soldier’s cap. The most immediately obvious impact of the ‘white-line’ design is the field of the standard which is indistinguishable by colour from the inked background of the rest of the print. The exception to this is the series of almost-parallel, curved incisions in the right corner of the standard framing 60
Image: Urs Graf. Standard Bearer of Schaffhausen. British Museum. 1521.
the image and suggesting movement. The lines which constitute the ram convincingly suggest the animal’s form, effected through the broken circular lines of its coat as well as the limited shading of its legs and head. The most visually striking area of the print is the mercenary’s richly decorated outfit. This area, densely populated with the incised, white lines, obscures the novelty of Graf’s printing technique. As the viewer moves beyond a first impression and comes to notice the white outline of the figure, the complexity of the composition is revealed and the relationship between black and white is complicated as both, in close proximity, act line and tone. The work is divided horizontally on its lower third by zweihänder sword which, along with the pole and standard, frames a two-thirds portrait of the soldier. Beneath this portrait on either side of his pantalooned legs inscribed is the name SCHAFHVSEN and date 1521 which places the work in the context of Graf’s series. The block was likely cut by Hans Lützelburger, the skilled artisan who also worked with Hans Holbein in Basel.3 The ‘white-line’ style of the print is rare for the period and is an interesting example of experimentation in a very popular medium. While the most obvious shared feature of these works is the medium, there are thematic and stylistic similarities which frame the differences meaningfully. The dominance of the inked, uncut areas of the matrix in each impression is used effectively in both to assert the artists’ skill in the production of detailed designs which stand boldly in contrast against a darker mood. In both prints the artists draw an association of status and justified violence as the opulent dress of the Keislaufer reflect his success as a mercenary, the suits of the bourgeois reflect the respect for their civilian role meting out corporal punishment. The key difference between the artists is the mood of each print. While Graf depicts the standard bearer proudly
and respectfully with intricate attention to detail, Vallotton shows his disdain for the executioners in their rough anonymity and the sympathetic ambiguity represented in the face of the prisoner. This difference has its roots in each artists’ context: Graf proudly recalled his own service in a mercenary company,4 while Vallotton was a critic of the bourgeois ideals of the French Third Republic.5 Furthermore, the nature of the representation is informed by each artists’ position within their stylistic movement. The realistic, proportional style of Graf is informed by his place in the artistic milieu of the German Renaissance inasmuch as Vallotton’s expressive turn to abstraction is informed by the modernist developments in France. In viewing these two works the viewer is meant to feel different emotions: sympathy in the patriotic sense or sympathy in the pathetic sense, respect and awe or fear and trembling. Their effectiveness and importance are reflected in their collection by some of the world’s most eminent institutions and the tacit acknowledgement that they are both worthy as ‘high art’.
Endnotes 1. Merel van Tilburg, “The Figure in/on the Carpet: Félix Vallotton and Decorative Narrativity,” Konsthistorisk tidskrift/ Journal of Art History 83 no. 3 (2014), 218. 2. Bridget Alsdorf, “Félix Vallotton’s Murderous Life,” The Art Bulletin 97, no. 2 (2015), 216. 3. Giula Bartrum, “Switzerland,” in German Renaissance Art 1490-1550, British Museum (London: British Museum Press, 1995), 218. 4. Bartrum, “Switzerland,” 219. 5. Bridget Alsdorf, “Félix Vallotton’s Murderous Life,” 215.
HART3330 ART THEORY Unit coordinator: Arvi Wattel Teaching Assistant: Kelly Fliedner
ISABEL DI LOLLO
‘Considering Vasari’s Representation of Leonardo, in Lives of the Artists (Abridged)’ Branding him “the father of art history,”1 Giorgio Vasari’s Lives of the Artists remains a distinguished art biography and foundational text for modern art history. First published in Florence in 1550, the text was revised and developed in 1568.2 Presenting the lives of great artists in three parts of relative chronology,3 Lives follows a progression from the ‘coarse’ age of Cimabue to the ‘complete perfection’ of modern artists – Leonardo, Raphael and Michelangelo.4 Closer resembling biography than contemporary historical texts, Vasari’s work aimed to identify causes distinguishing the best (artists and styles) from the better and those from the good, as well as acting as a commemorative piece. Lives had a profound impact, remaining an essential primary source in studies of Renaissance art and generating significant praise.5 However, there exists a substantial body of criticism questioning Vasari’s legitimacy and obsession with narrative. John Shearman epitomised these critiques with the comment, “I assume that Vasari reshaped history to fortify his own self-esteem and to compensate for a deep insecurity, if only as an artist.”6 Issues with Vasari’s Lives are centred around his mythologising of artists, use of rhetorical hyperbole and doubt about Vasari’s ability to act as an objective critic. In examining these controversial aspects through the analysis of Lives chapters ‘Preface to Part Three’ and ‘The Life of Leonardo da Vinci, Florentine Painter and Sculptor,’ it is clear that these aspects were, 62
“As Vasari gives great importance to form – evidencing artistic ‘masters’ through rule, order, proportion, design, and style – it is clear that Lives remains pertinent to art history.”
largely, meticulously planned by Vasari himself and are still pertinent to the study of art history.7 As Vasari gives great importance to form – evidencing artistic ‘masters’ through rule, order, proportion, design, and style – it is clear that Lives remains pertinent to art history. However, Vasari relies predominantly on mythologising others in the writing of these biographies, believing external factors as consequential elements in artists’ success. Patricia Rubin addresses this idea that “artists become symbols and metaphors,” as Vasari twists events to create heroic narratives.8 Exampling the “obvious exaggeration of Leonardo’s gifts” as an indicator of Vasari’s fabrications, she regards his strategy as not untruthful but in effort to distinguish Leonardo and the importance of his art,9 his enduring fame a testament to Vasari’s technique. Writing that “the greatest gifts often rain down upon human bodies through celestial influences… each of his actions is so divine that he…clearly makes himself known as a genius endowed by God…”,10 Vasari establishes Leonardo as a character of supernatural perfection. This garnered sufficient criticism as the idea of creating a ‘myth’ appears to openly contradict Vasari’s position as a “self-designated… truthful historian.”11 Vasari furthers this view through regarding physical attributes as an essential part of praise. Describing Leonardo’s “great physical beauty,” and “splendidly handsome appearance,”12 raises issues due to the subjective nature of this judgement, although, the popular Renaissance proverb, “every painter paints himself,”13 appears to provide some explanation for this biographical inclusion. To associate Leonardo with perfection, he would also have to appear perfect. Yet, this creates a unique contradiction for Leonardo, as to Vasari he exists as both a symbol of perfection and bearer of substantial criticism, pertaining to unfinished work.
This appeared not to trouble Vasari, possibly due to the chapter’s alleged allegorical meaning.14 Although including Leonardo in the realm of perfection, Vasari remains highly critical of him. This criticism centres around Leonardo’s inability to finish the things he started, declaring “he would have made great progress in his early studies of literature if he had not been so unpredictable and unstable. For he set about learning many things and, once begun, he would then abandon them.”15 These critiques are explained by Vasari, stating that Leonardo was hindered by his eagerness and search for excellence, feeling as though his “hand could not reach artistic perfection.”16 Rubin suggests such remarks were necessary to demonstrate the objectivity required of a historian.17 Though the text never really presents itself as wholly detached from its information – as is common in contemporary academia – as Vasari continuously references his own moral commentary and emotion. Rubin speaks kindly over Vasari’s situation, as other historians and writers show little time for his contradictions and self-imposed authority, especially pertaining to his Florentine biases and carelessness over details which fail to fit the intended narrative.18 Within his criticisms of Leonardo, Vasari establishes himself as a moralist. Although condemning his time wasting, Vasari applauds his generosity.19 Informed by the Ciceronian view of “the virtuous life,”20 Vasari presents himself as not only a judge of artistic style but lifestyle. This has proved controversial, with John Ruskin praising him for “his remarks and morals,”21 whilst others, particularly rivals Federico Zuccaro and Bartolommeo Bandinelli, dismiss his authority as the comments of “a pedantic dimwit (saccente).”22 Ultimately, Vasari’s critical legitimacy is forged through his strong authorial voice at the helm of Lives, a technique adapted and featured in most 63
Image: Giorgio Vasari. Frontispiece to Giorgio Vasari’s Life of Leonardo da Vinci, from a 1791 edition of Vasari’s Lives. Woodcut on laid paper. Royal Academy of Arts.
canon art literature. However, this position is still retrospectively disputed, believed undermined by Vasari’s lack of, albeit modern, detachment. To Vasari, “it was not worth his time, merely to state facts.”23 This is evidenced in Lives through fabrication of events and rhetorical hyperbole. Issues with the mythicising of artists, academic legitimacy, and the ‘forgetting’ of important factual information all engage with this notion of falsity. Vasari initially appears unreliable, Zuccaro claiming him “false and slanderous.”24 However, considering Renaissance writing styles, Vasari’s fables become tools in the preservation of great artists. Vasari aims to write the lives of the artists 64
which pertain to art, in doing so he selects events which example virtuous morals and great talent.25 Paul Barolsky evokes conceptual discussion around ‘historical imagination,’ challenging art historians’ discomfort generated by fiction in history and highlighting the critical nature of Vasari’s fables in his work.26 Drawing upon Vasari’s tales, Barolsky illustrates connections between fiction and the history of art itself, identifying true reflections in the allegory of art.27 In this way, art history and the artist’s biography become almost inseparable, complimenting Vasari’s view of art as an fixed, abstract principle. Vasari’s discussion of Leonardo and the third style in Lives is a quintessential example of the polarising nature of his work as a whole. Ruskin wrote, “it is modern fashion to despise Vasari;”28 however, its stoic position within art history discourse, as the first extensive biography, is undeniable. Vasari’s reliance on the narrative, whether to promote fictional fables, mythicise artists, or provide moral criticism, has proven controversial since its first publication. Assessing his legitimacy is a complex process; particularly due to conflicts perceptible in the text itself. Yet, the ongoing relevance of Vasari and enduring aspects of his writing, suggest the continuing importance of the Lives in historical art discourse.
Endnotes 1. Chris Murray, Key Writers on Art: from Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century (Oxfordshire, United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis Group, 2002), 66. 2. Paul Barolsky, “Vasari and the Historical Imagination,” Word & Image 15, no. 3 (1999): 286; Murray, Key Writers on Art, 66. 3. Charles Hope has alleged that this partitioning may have instead been advised by members of Accademia Fiorentina rather than of his own volition. Matteo Burioni, “Vasari’s Rinascita: History, Anthropology or Art Criticism?” in Renaissance? Perceptions of Continuity and Discontinuity in Europe, c.1300–c.1550, ed. Alexander Lee, Pit Péporté and
4. 5. 6. 7.
8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.
22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.
Harry Schnitker (Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2010), 115. Amongst others. Patricia Rubin, “What Men Saw: Vasari’s Life of Leonardo da Vinci and the Image of the Renaissance Artist,” Art History 13, no. 1 (1990): 35. Murray, Key Writers on Art, 69. Philip Sohm, “Giving Vasari the Giorgio Treatment,” Itatti Studies in the Italian Renaissance 18, no. 1 (2015): 66-67. Exampled by the application of tripartite notions of history; has been attributed to Vasari by August Buck, amongst others. Alina Payne, “Vasari, Architecture, and the Origins of Historicizing Art,” RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics, no. 40 (2001): 51. Rubin, “What Men Saw,” 34. Ibid., 36. Giorgio Vasari, The Lives of the Artists (New York, USA: Oxford University Press, 1998), 284. Sohm, “Giving Vasari the Giorgio Treatment,” 70. Vasari, The Lives of the Artists, 284+298. Martin Kemp, “‘Equal excellences’: Lomazzo and the explanation of individual style in the visual arts,” Renaissance Studies 1, no.1 (1987): 10. As discussed later in essay. Rubin, “What Men Saw,” 43. Vasari, The Lives of the Artists, 284. Ibid., 286-287+293. Rubin, “What Men Saw,” 37. Ibid., 39. Vasari, The Lives of the Artists, 298. Burioni, “Vasari’s Rinascita: History, Anthropology or Art Criticism?” 121. Jenny Graham, “‘An ass with precious things in his panniers’: John Ruskin’s reception of The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors and Architects by Giorgio Vasari,” Journal of Art Historiography, no. 22 (2020): 31. Sohm, “Giving Vasari the Giorgio Treatment,” 110. Rubin, “What Men Saw,” 36. Sohm, “Giving Vasari the Giorgio Treatment,” 110. Burioni, “Vasari’s Rinascita: History, Anthropology or Art Criticism?” 118; Rubin, “What Men Saw,” 34. Barolsky, “Vasari and the Historical Imagination,” 287+290. Vasari also imputes moral values into said fable. Leonardo’s indifference to market value reveals his dedication to art, however also undermines him. Rubin, “What Men Saw,” 42; Vasari, The Lives of the Artists, 289; Barolsky, “Vasari and the Historical Imagination,” 287+290. Graham, “‘An ass with precious things in his panniers,’ 29.
HART2274 INTRODUCTION TO MUSEUM AND CURATORIAL STUDIES Unit coordinator: Dr Susanne Meurer
‘Confronting the Anthropocene through 21st Century Landscapes’ Reaching its peak as idyllic pastoral paintings during the Romanticism, the landscape has now entered more versatile realms of manifestation that mirror the increasingly protean nature of human existence. Traditionally, landscape paintings were relegated a subordinate position in the hierarchy of genres because no moral comment on human nature could be communicated via the depiction of an environment alone. The Petzel Gallery’s online exhibition, 21st Century Landscapes, subverts this archaic contention by raising ethical queries regarding the influence of the Anthropocene on human relationships with the environment through a compilation of insightful contemporary landscapes. 21st Century Landscapes addresses how the pervasiveness of technology and consumerism across all facets of contemporary life engender a pernicious effect on our connection to, and perception of, the environment. 21st Century Landscapes is an exhibition delivered in an online format as a scrollable website. The online exhibition commences with the title framed within the hole of an enlarged crop of the found painting and collage, Tears XI (2018), by John Stezaker. The name of the host gallery, Petzel, is located above the exhibition title. When you scroll down the page, you are greeted with a concise yet informative summary of the history of landscape painting and the purpose of the exhibition. The name of each featured artist is embedded within this introduction and listed in alphabetical order 66
by surname – an overt acknowledgement of the contribution of each artist. The exhibition is interspersed with pertinent quotes by individuals with esteemed reputations in the field of art. These quotes provoke contemplation on various aspects of the exhibition by either stimulating thought in regard to the exhibition as a whole, or the artworks that the quote directly precedes or is adjacent to. For example, immediately after the introductory description, a quote by Hito Steyerl from her 2011 article, In Free Fall: A Thought Experiment on Vertical Perspective, is used to underscore the premise of the exhibition: “With the twentieth century, the further dismantling of linear perspective in a variety of areas began to take hold… Time and space are reimagined through quantum physics and the theory of relativity, while perception is reorganized by warfare, advertisement, and the conveyor belt.”121st Century Landscapes has translated the white cube model to an online mode. By employing black and grey text on a white background with pale grey borders to frame individual artworks, distractions are removed to create a sense of minimalism and neutrality. All textual elements of the exhibition – titles, headings, details regarding artwork, etc. – are set in a trim sans serif font that reinforces the modern and topical focus of the featured artworks. The construction of this online exhibition humbly simulates the space of a physical gallery exhibition. In a physical gallery, it is common for smaller subsets of artworks to be situated in the same viewing space or along the same wall to enhance the communication of a shared sub-theme within the overarching theme of the exhibition. 21st Century Landscapes mimics this arrangement by dividing the exhibition into three distinct sub-themes – Pastoral Landscapes, Psychological Landscapes, and Political Landscapes. The exhibition also bestows viewing agency upon the audience by
Image: John Stezaker. Tears XI. Found painting and collage, 45.3 x 50.5 cm. 2018.
providing the choice to observe works singly or as a group. This provision of option further emulates the experience of visiting a physical gallery space: one can view each painting individually or ‘step back’ (i.e. select gallery view) to observe the collection of paintings as a whole. The first sub-theme, Pastoral Landscapes, is centred around the physical relationship between humans and the environment. The gallery view for the Pastoral Landscapes sub-theme features four of John Stezaker’s found object artworks and one abstract oil painting by Nicola Tyson. The Stezaker pieces are part of his Tears series in which each work portrays a different pastoral landscape with holes (or tears) located where the main subject matter of each painting should be. Tyson’s oil painting, Figure with Tree (2011), depicts a human figure performing a scissoring motion with their arms; this figure is located beside a tree that has a hole within its foliage. When viewed together, these works effectively supplant the purpose of traditional landscape paintings – to depict the environment in a highly idealised and contrived fashion. The damage that has been depicted in, and physically inflicted upon, the artworks of Pastoral Landscapes disrupts the viewer’s pre-conceived perceptions of the landscape genre and primes them for exposure to a more relevant and morally challenging portrayal of the environment. As you scroll past the Pastoral Landscapes section, the entirety of your screen is filled by an image depicting chewed hamburgers, scattered French fries, ketchup packets, and pale chartreuse wrappers on a bitumen-coloured background. This is Budget Meal Pattern (2019) by Thomas Eggerer. This work signposts the Psychological Landscapes sub-theme which emphasises ideological and behavioural changes caused by the Anthropocene. 21st Century Landscapes addresses the internalisation of consumerist ideologies that 68
are systematically espoused by the media. Our coveting of material possessions and our demands for instant gratification colour how we interact and perceive our surroundings. Budget Meal Pattern effectively reflects our dogmatic attitude toward the acquisition of products by positioning the subject matter to resemble a bird’s eye view of roads and blocks in a city. Consumerism is the updated street directory that guides and directs every aspect of our lives – it becomes the twenty-first century landscape rather than a mere feature of it. The Psychological Landscapes section of the exhibition is intensely disturbing because it reveals truths about our dependency on technology that we do not consciously cognise. It prompts one to question the actuality of our experiences with the environment and whether or not those experiences hold any value. Corinne Wasmuht’s oil painting on wood, Nizza (2005/2018), depicts Nice as a semi-pixelated, distorted, and glitching image. This artwork perfectly encapsulates the exhibition’s intent to demonstrate how the perception of our surroundings is contingent on our addiction to digital technology. Landscapes have been transmuted from idyllic pastoral scenes to distorted pixelations that reflect the growing discord between humans and the natural environment. The final section of the exhibition, Political Landscapes, is introduced by an emphatic quote from the abstract landscape painter, Julie Mehretu: “There is no such thing as just landscape. The actual landscape is politicized through the events that take place on it.”2 This quote steers the focus of the sub-theme toward the contemplation of power and its inextricable relationship to space and people. The artwork, True Finn (2014), is a 50-minute film by Yael Bartana that examines how individuals who reside in Finland interpret their identity and how they define belonging to a space. The topics of discussion within the film
include nationality, ethnicity, spirituality, and reconciliation with Indigenous peoples. True Finn is a prudent inclusion to this exhibition because its medium allows for the generation of a human connection that cannot be achieved by a still image. The placement of this work toward the end of the exhibition allows the audiences to leave the exhibition feeling as if they have been included in a topical and progressive conversation. Despite the earnest attempts to mimic a real gallery space, 21st Century Landscapes simply cannot substitute the experience of standing before a tangible object and allowing yourself to be confronted by the presence of the artwork itself. The Petzel Gallery has taken much care in translating a physical space onto a digital platform however there are certain elements of the construction of the online exhibition space that feel arbitrary and confusing. The exhibition chooses certain artworks to signpost each subtheme; generally, these ‘signpost artworks’ are enlarged to fill up the entire screen and precede the sub-theme from which it belongs. However, this formula is not applied consistently throughout the exhibition and causes unnecessary breaks and illogical demarcations within the exhibition. Compounding to the confusion is the inclusion of an aerial photograph with an overlay of the words “galesburg, illinois+”. This work is placed at the very end of the exhibition without a description to accompany it. Such choices seem superfluous, disruptive, and completely incongruous with the serious tone of the exhibition. 21st Century Landscapes has demonstrated innovation through the provision of a refreshingly unique assortment of artworks that are (mostly) mutually cohesive and congruent with the theme of the reassessment of contemporary perceptions of the landscape. Each artwork proffers a different lens through which audiences can deliberate on
how we perceive, treat, and depict the surroundings in which we reside. The encompassing of a broad scope of issues reflect strong sensitivities to topicality that one would – and should – expect from a contemporary art gallery. Endnotes 1. “21st Century Landscapes,” Petzel Gallery, accessed August 27, 2020, https://www.petzel.com/viewing-room/21st-centurylandscapes. 2. “21st Century Landscapes,” Petzel Gallery, accessed August 27, 2020, https://www.petzel.com/viewing-room/21st-centurylandscapes.
HART2275 ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ART NOW Unit coordinator: Arvi Wattel Teaching Assistant: Michelle Rankine
DANIELLE BROOKS ‘La Fornarina will see you now’
The male gaze has played an influential role in the way that women are perceived and portrayed in art. Through the centuries, women have been objectified and sexualised for the benefit of privileged men in an industry of artists that was predominantly male-dominated. Today, these individuals are recognised as the Old Master due to their extensive artistic career and welldocumented writings by the early art historian Giorgio Vasari in his book titled The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors and Architects.1 To highlight the role of the male gaze this essay will demonstrate how Italian renaissance art has influenced the contemporary art world by examining American artist Cindy Sherman’s, Untitled #205 (1989) and comparing the work alongside Raphael’s, La Fornarina (c.1518). The portrait titled La Fornarina (1518-1519) was created during the period known as the High Renaissance by artist and Master Raphael.2 The painting uses oil paints on a panel with the central subject matter being that of a beautiful young woman that is posing nude only covered from her waist down. The use of chiaroscuro is used to illuminates the entire female figure from La Fornarina’s righthand side while the darkened landscape background frames the young woman. The portrait provokes a naturalistic style that accentuates the beauty of the woman’s appearance harmoniously and perfectly. Raphael has portrayed La Fornarina’s soft femininity by his use of a soothing colour palette, selecting light 70
Image: Raphael. La Fornarina. Oil on panel, 85 x 60 cm. Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Antica, Rome. C.1518-19
pinks to emphasise the flushness of her cheeks, and his handling of the paintbrush to creates delicate shadowing brushstrokes that give her figure form and the impression of smoothness. No detail is lost when looking at the soft folds made by the sheer white fabric that acts as a veil while the woman suggestively lifts the cloth to cup her left breast in what can be described as an erotic and intimate moment. La Fornarina is also covered by a pink sheet that rests on her lap and drapes into the lower picture pane, entering the space of the audience. Due to the coy expression and gaze from the young lady, a fair assumption could suggest that she is quite comfortable posing for her portrait and that she may be intimate with the artist or welcomes the attention of her viewers. Other features observed on La Fornarina is her perfectly positioned hair with her neatly wrapped dark blue and gold woven turban that is adorned with a small intricate brooch. Raphael has asserted ownership of his artwork by including his name written in gold script within La Fornarina’s armband. The inclusion and placement of the artist’s signature could suggest that the artist is laying claim to the young woman in the portrait. From 1988 through to 1990, Cindy Sherman produced a photographic series that was titled ‘History Portraits’.3 Sherman worked on her History Portraits collection during a two-month stay in Rome where she resided at a studio in Trastevere.4 Sherman chose not to see the works in person but preferred to study the portraits of Italian and French artists from either reproductions or books.5 Arthur Danto has stated that Sherman had not visited the Palazzo Barbarini where La Fornarina was displayed and therefore had worked exclusively from copies of Raphael’s work.6 The iconic resemblance to Raphael’s painting is observed in Sherman’s Untitled #205, where she depicts her version of a portrait
containing a young woman titled La Fornarina. Sherman has chosen photography to capture her image, followed by photographic printing techniques to create a chromogenic colour Kodak C-print of the portrait Untitled #205 (1989).7 The process involves the colour negatives to be exposed to chromogenic colour paper before they are submerged in a chemical bath to create the final colour image.8 The image is visually reconstructed by Sherman, where she places herself as the central character. Sherman has re-created an elaborately staged scene where she has transformed herself with her hair neatly pulled back into a loosely wrapped turban, wearing only a purple armband and what looks like a somewhat grotesque prosthetic bust with a pregnant stomach. The woman sits on a chair, loosely draped with a lace cloth that covers her lower body as the folds of lace curtaining enter the lower picture pane into the viewers’ space. Sherman has utilised chiaroscuro to emphasise the contrast between the dark floral brocade cloth background and light to highlight the female prosthetic figure that acts as body armour. The use of light not only highlights the female form but also emphasises how disturbingly false and imperfect the woman is in comparison to classical works from history. The strangeness of the created image makes the onlooker feel like they are intruding in a private moment. The emotive feeling is reinforced by the intentional and challenging harsh gaze of Sherman in response to the viewer’s gaze; Sherman attempts to reclaim the woman’s female identity during the captured moment. An amplified feeling of annoyance is expressed by Sherman by the woman’s facial expression as seen by the tightening of her mouth and what appears to be exhaustion produced by the darkening around her eyes. The fully reconstructed portrait emphasises 71
how the female form can be imperfect, false, less desirable, and deliberately unwelcoming to the attention of unwanted gazes. In contrast, the two portraits reflect the same young woman La Fornarina, but they both have apparent differences in their portrayal. One such comparison involves the scale of the image that reflects the purpose of the artwork. Raphael’s portrait measures 85 x 60cm and is relatively small; one assumption is that the painting was being created for a private collection for display in a home due to the sensual nature of the image. Sherman’s Untitled #205 is substantially larger measuring at 135.89 x 102.87cm and was designed to be viewed by the public as part of her exhibition. Sherman’s image was produced on a much grander scale; Untitled #205 appears to be life-sized and designed to be confronting to the viewers by stresses the exploitation of the female body. In respect to the work named Untitled #205, the constructed image can be described as a performance piece where Sherman personifies the central female character that ultimately demands an audience and highlights how the Old Masters have portrayed women as objects throughout the centuries. Untitled #205 applies techniques inspired by renaissance artists specifically the use of composition, light, positioning of the body and gaze while questioning the standards of sexuality and female ownership. Sherman’s ability to reconstruct Raphael’s artworks not only emphasises the rights of females to reclaim ownership of their body but also how they engage with the viewer. Sherman highlights how Raphael has utilised his male gaze as an aspect of privilege and sexualisation over the female form within his artwork. Sherman chooses to reclaim that same gaze in an authoritative or challenging manner, as observed in Untitled #205. Through the study of Raphael’s La Fornarina, Sherman has mastered 72
how modern technology, such as photography can capture a moment. Sherman is questioning the potential for fallacies within art as stressed by the prosthetic body part that is grotesquely beautiful in comparison to Italian renaissance artists who have strived for perfection and the beautiful. Sherman’s theatrical performance in front of the camera lens is an original take on Raphael’s La Fornarina. Sherman chooses to push the boundaries not only as a female artist but also as a woman within the artwork as she questions the truth behind the images. While using photography Sherman has displayed techniques present in renaissance art to provoke and highlight how the male gaze was used during the Italian renaissance and in this instance by Raphael. Untitled #205, successfully creates a tension that puts the viewer and the woman in a very uncomfortable position that questions who has the authority to look; is it the viewer, the artist, or the woman. Ultimately, Sherman has giving La Fornarina a voice and the opportunity to reclaim herself in a modern world and society where women are more than just an object. Endnotes 1. Douglass Biow. Vasari’s Words: The Lives of the Artists as a History of Ideas in the Italian Renaissance. In Vasari’s Words: The ‘Lives of the Artists’ as a History of Ideas in the Italian Renaissance. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., 2018), i-ii. 2. E.H. Gombrich, The Story of Art. (Oxford: Phaidon Press Limited, Littlegate House, 1984), 218. 3. Rosalind Krauss, Cindy Sherman 1975-1993. (New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., 1993), 166. 4. Arthur C. Danto, Cindy Sherman History Portraits. (New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., 1991),11. 5. Ibid. 6. Ibid. 7. Ibid., 62. 8. “Art Term: C-Print,” TATE, accessed September 9, 2020, https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/c/c-print.
Bibliography Biow, Douglass. Vasari’s Words: The Lives of the Artists as a History of Ideas in the Italian Renaissance. In Vasari’s Words: The ‘Lives of the Artists’ as a History of Ideas in the Italian Renaissance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., 2018. Danto, Arthur C. Cindy Sherman History Portraits. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., 1991. Gombrich, E.H. The Story of Art. Oxford: Phaidon Press Limited, Littlegate House, 1984. Krauss, Rosalind. Cindy Sherman 1975-1993. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., 1993. TATE. “Art Term: C-Print.” Accessed September 9, 2020. https:// www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/c/c-print.
Image: Cindy Sherman. Untitled #205. Chromogenic colour print, 135.89 x 102.87 cm. The Broad, Los Angeles, CA. 1989. 73
HART2043 ZEN GARDENS TO MANGA MANIA: A SURVEY OF JAPANESE ART Unit coordinator: Dr Emily Eastgate Brink
‘Tracing Temporality: A History of Japan in Fifteen Objects’ “Time is floating in space; once a human interacts with it, it becomes a visual manifestation.” - Tatsuo Miyajima, 2000 Japanese understandings of time tend towards a non-linear, transient and circular temporality. Just as time itself is non-linear, so is history. The proposed exhibition centres around the central theme of the conception of time in Japanese history. Time in Japanese art can be explored from the emergence of Buddhism, towards the contemporary and digital mediums of the future in a non-linear and immersive and expansive tracing of temporality. Traditional historical retrospectives present us with a strictly linear idealisation of history, whereas this exhibition will focus on a more conceptual, experimental display of history. This exhibition seeks to present history, not as a timeline, but rather as a tree with various interconnected branches that both simultaneously inform and resist each other. This can be best articulated through a study of Japanese objects and how they interpolate this understanding of time. The exhibition begins in a meticulous and meditative zen garden. Situated within the garden is a display of Takuro Kuwata’s abstracted Japanese pottery from the collection ‘Stone Garden, Heaven’. This series establishes the tracing of time through Japanese art. The viewer is able to draw connections between the contemporary abstractions of Kuwata’s pieces and the aesthetic 74
imperfections and fluctuations of traditional raku ware that is housed within the teahouse. Raku pottery is a physical embodiment of the Japanese aesthetic concept of wabi, the beauty in imperfection.1 This concept is closely tied to ideas of temporality as it relates to the fleeting beauty and transience created through the natural forces of time. This is manifested in the hand moulded organic shapes or cracks on the pottery glazes. Early Buddhist works, such as the ink paintings presented within the tea house, utilise this aesthetic to appreciate the fluctuating temporality that arises within natural imperfections.2 Born in Hiroshima in the aftermath of the atomic bombs, Kuwata’s works are influenced by the hybrid mutations of traditional tea ware that became transfigured as collateral from the nuclear bomb.3 The sense of temporality emerges within Kuwata’s works through his use of traditional Japanese techniques such as ishi-haze, the use of placing stones into the glaze that erupt into explosive forms, and kairagi, the manipulation of glaze to create shrinkages and cracks.4 These techniques create an uncertain organicism to the pieces, leaving the materials to interact and disfigure under heat, time and natural processes. The beauty of Kuwata’s relinquished control harks back to the temporal wabi aesthetics of raku pottery that is displayed further along in the exhibition. This invites the viewer to consider the links between these two items, yet displaying them in an anachronistic order positions visitors to consider the pieces in a thematic linkage of temporality that fractures and deviates, just like the imperfections within the pieces of pottery on display. Time is suspended, warped and intensified in the emerging Ukiyo-e art movement. During the Edo period, the Tokugawa shogunate established particular areas for entertainment, teahouses, theatre and prostitution.5 This allowed art and
“Traditional historical retrospectives present us with a strictly linear idealisation of history, whereas this exhibition will focus on a more conceptual, experimental display of history.”
entertainment to flourish amongst the emerging merchant classes, with innovations in printmaking leading to the mass proliferation of Ukiyo-e artworks.6 Ukiyo-e, or pictures of the floating world, explore temporality through the woodblock print. The intricate and fantastical floating world was derived from the Buddhist concept of ukiyo, the suffering caused from worldly attachment.7 The reading of the Buddhist term ukiyo (憂き世) is homonymous with the reading of ukiyo (浮世) as the floating or transient world.8 This wordplay signifies a slippage between pleasure and suffering that is embodied within the ukiyo-e artworks. Within the bright colours and bold lines of ukiyo-e are references to circles of birth, death and rebirth within Buddhist thought.9 The print of Nihonbashi, from Utagagawa Hiroshige’s collection “The Fifty-Three Stages of the Tokaido” draws the viewer into the floating world. Nihonbashi represents a crossing of the bridge between worlds. The bridge is an important symbol within in Japanese mythology as it suggests the connection between the human world and more esoteric spaces.10 A close analysis of this print reveals fine details that place the viewer at the beginning of a journey and invite careful contemplation. The cartouches title the piece and situate the viewer within a real place.11 Nihonbashi begun the journey from the Edo capital to Kyoto along the Tokaido road.12 In the foreground of the image, a group of fishmongers set out across the bridge, followed by an orderly feudal procession.13 The juxtaposition between these figures creates a sense of bustling energy that draws the viewer further into the floating world. Moreover, Hiroshige’s use of colour and composition creates an other-worldly atmosphere that detaches from the mimetic view of a bridge. Situating the viewer on one end of the bridge within the picture’s perspective, washes of red over the cityscape evoke a warm and hazy atmosphere. 75
Image: Utagawa Hiroshige. Woodblock print; ink and colour on paper, 24.1 cm x 35.2 cm. 1833.
There is an uncanny sense of temporal suspension created through the contrast of the deep blues and red tones in the sky. The introduction of Prussian blue pigments in Japan allowed for innovations in Ukiyo-e prints and their representations of temporality. The use of Prussian blue is deepened through the use of the Ukiyo-e technique ichimohi-bokashi (straight line graduation) across the top of the picture.14 This technique creates a gradient across the sky that adds a sense of depth and frames the image in 76
a floating, temporal suspension. This deep and inviting blue foreshadows the blue diodes in Tatsuo Miyajima’s installation that appears at the end of the exhibit. Similar to how Prussian blue changed the landscape of Hiroshige and Hokusai’s iconic works, the development of blue LED lights into Japan allowed Miyajima to innovate with blue throughout his oeuvre. These links across each object seek to reinforce the viewers ability to trace the themes of the exhibition throughout each work as they trace Japanese history through the passage of time.
The significance of this piece within the overall exhibition points towards the various border crossings between worlds, history, time and art. The bridge transports the viewer into the floating world of pleasure and delight. Amongst other ukiyo-e prints such as the whimsical bubble-blowing goldfish and otherworldly moon pine, a sense of transient temporality envelops the viewer.
11. Emily Brink, “Ukiyo-e: Japan in Print” (lecture, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA August 26, 2020). 12. Cat Jensen, “Nihonbashi and the Floating World: Hiroshige’s First Stage of the Tōkaidō”, Medium, June 6, 2018, https:// email@example.com/nihonbashi-and-the-floatingworld-hiroshiges-first-stage-of-the- t%C5%8Dkaid%C5%8Dc1dce0c0407c. 13. Ibid. 14. G Hickey, “The ukiyo-e blues: an analysis of the influence of Prussian blue on ukiyo-e in the 1830s,” Masters Research thesis, Arts, The University of Melbourne (1994), 28.
Endnotes 1. Morgan Pitelka, Handmade Culture: Raku Potters, Patrons, and Tea Practitioners in Japan, University of Hawai’i Press, 2005. Accessed October 19, 2020. http://www.jstor.org/ stable/j.ctt6wr385. 2. Yuriko Saito, “The Japanese Aesthetics of Imperfection and Insufficiency,” The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 55, no. 4 (October 1, 1997): 377–85. https://doi. org/10.2307/430925, 382. 3. Anna Sansom, “Last Chance to See Takuro Kuwata’s ‘From Tea Bowl’, Damn Magazine, November 2016, https:// www.damnmagazine.net/2016/11/04/last-chance-to-seetakuro-kuwatas-from-tea-bowl/. 4. Eva Masterman, ‘Are you going out, Teabowl?’ by Takuro Kuwata at Galeria Mascota’, Cfile, April 3, 2019, https:// cfileonline.org/feature-are-you-going-out-teabowl-bytakuro-kuwata-at-galeria-mascota/. 5. Department of Asian Art, “Art of the Pleasure Quarters and the Ukiyo-e Style,” in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http:// www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/plea/hd_plea.htm (October 2004). 6. Frederick Harris, Ukiyo-e The Art of the Japanese Print, North Clarendon: Tuttle Publishing, 2012, 11. 7. Steven Heine, “Tragedy and Salvation in the Floating World: Chikamatsu’s Double Suicide Drama as Millenarian Discourse,” The Journal of Asian Studies 53, no. 2 (1994): 367-93. Accessed October 19, 2020. doi:10.2307/2059839. 8. D, Keene. (1996). Japanese life in the Edo Period as Reflected Department of Asian Art, “Art of the Pleasure Quarters and the Ukiyo-e Style.” in Literature. Estudos Japoneses, (16), 11-26. p14. 9. Bell, D. (2004). Explaining Ukiyo-e (Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy). University of Otago. Retrieved from http://hdl. handle.net/10523/598, p114. 10. Michael Lazarn. “Phenomenology of Japanese Architecture: En (edge, Connection, Destiny).” Studia Phaenomenologica 14 (2014): 133–59. https://doi.org/10.5840/ studphaen2014148., p137. 77
ARCHITECTURE, LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE & URBAN DESIGN
Image: Summer Exhibition 2020 opening night, 19 November 2020. ARCT3001 Architecture Studio 4 displays. Photography by Samantha Dye. 78
FOREWORD BY NICHOLAS THUYS This past semester, similar to the first semester this year, was like no other. Simultaneously, it was my last semester at university and the first semester after emerging from lockdown. Returning to on-campus university after a few months of confinement, the ALVA campus felt rejuvenated, alive, social – yet it still retained an air of angst, perhaps a hangover from the anxious and uncertain times had under the coronavirus threat during first semester. Mixed up in the intensity of social contact on campus, I realised how much I had missed socialising with friends and peers. Contrary to what I believed about myself previously, this dichotomy made it apparent I was drawn to on-campus attendance for the social aspect of learning. For some students like myself the semester became more social than ever with extended periods of time spent in the HUB both working and relaxing. However, the unexpected efficiency and partial ease with which the cohort transitioned to online learning made it clear that perhaps attendance wasn’t as necessary as once thought. As experienced this semester, the hybrid mode of delivery of face-to-face and online learning – even for the highly collaborative, social and hands-on degrees like ours – rendered new opportunities and experiences that highlighted our resilience and adaptability as designers. During the chaos of the semester, my final dash to the finish became bittersweet. Realising that such a large part of my life and daily routine for the past five years was soon to drop away was a daunting reality. Each moment on campus with friends, tutors and peers was experienced with more intent and seriousness. The impending finale of my university education also meant an increasing desire and imposed necessity to find a full-time job. A stressful feeling that I am sure most students feel towards the end of their education, which was only heightened by the potential devastation caused by coronavirus on the domestic job market. In time, I managed to secure a job through connections gained at university, and slowly find myself surrounded by old tutors, past peers, and close friends within the local design community. The previously dreaded isolation of professional work never came to fruition and was instead replaced with a new kind of social context. As we conclude 2020, I would like to congratulate the School of Design cohort for the exemplary work displayed in this catalogue and commend all Design students for their work this year. Over the course of my degree I have witnessed a tremendous increase in the quality of work being delivered, with some first-years’ work being well beyond the scratchy sketches I produced in my second year... The work of students is also a reflection of the outstanding teaching staff, who must be acknowledged not only for the extra time and effort they put into providing education, but also for their contribution into the local design context as a whole. As I write this, we are almost into 2021, a year which I hope is free from COVID-19 and proceeding back to business as usual. I wish all the current students the best of luck in completing their education, and look forward to seeing the future graduates in the workplace. Nicholas Thuys, Master of Architecture 2020 80
Image: Model of In, Over, Out, Albany Summer Studio. 2019. 81
Image: Detail of ARLA2001 Design Studio, Landform Studio. 2020. Photography by Lara Camilla Pinho. 82
ARCT5502 INDEPENDENT DESIGN RESEARCH Unit coordinator: Dr Kate Hislop Supervisor: Dr Nigel Westbrook
‘Observatory and Research Centre’ The proposal uses primal forms and recognisable architectural language to construct an order that is both familiar and contradictory. This is intended to initiate a gap or slippage in understanding, encouraging the occupant to use their imagination to reconcile what is incoherent or unfamiliar. It seeks to open a dialogue between the inhabitant and the building, allowing them the opportunity to create their own meaning from their experience.
Image: Exterior perspective. 84
Image: Courtyard perspective. 86
ARCT5101 ARCHITECTURE STUDIO Unit and Studio coordinator: Dr Nigel Westbrook ‘SOD II’
JESSICA LEIB ‘School of Design’
The brief for this project was to relocate the design school on to the main campus, finding a viable location that facilitates connections with the neighbouring disciplines, whilst fostering interactions of students from multiple areas of study. Through a campus site analysis, the Reid Library car park proved to have the most potential to achieve the aims stated above, whilst also possessing the ability to create an iconic design school that redefines the image of UWA. The design concept for the new school of design is to maintain the existing connections and circulation on site, whilst maximises the amount of possible connections within the buildings and to the surrounding disciplines. This concept is based off MATT Architecture. In order to create the most connections possible, the school is isolated into buildings of specific programmatic space, and connected back together with the use of ramps, roof top spaces and bridges to achieve a hyper-connective school of design.
Image: Isometric section. 89
Image: Exterior perspective. 90
ARCT5101 ARCHITECTURE STUDIO Unit coordinator: Dr Nigel Westbrook Studio coordinator: Dr Daniel Grinceri ‘Intervention at the Border’
HAE YUN JUNG
‘DMZ Conservation Centre’ Since the beginning of the most recent century, Korea has not been unfamiliar to the dividing effects of war, international militia, and foreign occupation. A scar is found today in both North and South Korea marked by disagreements in ruling politics, which are further enhanced from a history of war. At the human level, this scar is formed from their separation of families, homes, culture, and the natural land with the hope that they may be united again. Although one form – a conservation centre – made present in the DMZ may not solve the divide caused from this deep and complex political, economical and social issues, it hopes to ask if there are possible connections between the two Koreas by some common traditional ideology that is rooted in their culture of balance in living, understanding, respecting, and thus connecting to their land, flora, and fauna that they have lived with for generations. For this project, all its intent may be summarised by the words of Hall Healy, the coordinator of International Crane Foundation: “...the two Koreas to conserve the DMZ could improve prospects for reunification... it would help people to come to consensus on a mutually-advantageous project.” The DMZ Conservation Centre will formally function as a crane conservation centre functional for eco-tourism and providing the first for of wildlife protection in Korea’s DMZ with expected military informants and security given its context. Furthermore, the building will function as an education centre for its visitors via an exhibit providing information on the significance of the cranes in nature, culture, their early life, mating rituals, diet, migration habits, and nesting. The building’s circular form also provides natural barriers from external elements allowing the space for an artificial feeding ground during sub-zero winters.
Image: North Korea’s Observation Deck. 92
Image: DMZ Conservation Centre. 94
ARCT5102 ARCHITECTURE STUDIO 2 Unit coordinator: Dr Nigel Westbrook Studio coordinator: Dr Nicoletta Pizzuti ‘Adaptive Reuse’
PETER TIBBITT ‘Terminus Hotel’
The Terminus Hotel stands abandoned and unused on the corner of a quiet street in West End of Fremantle. Through detailed documentation and analysis of the existing building and its context this project aims to bring life back into not only the building itself but a part of Fremantle that has lost the vibrance and diversity that once kept the streets alive with activity. Today, Fremantle’s activity ebbs and flows as people emerge and retreat to the surrounding suburbs. To sustain life and vibrancy, further opportunities to reside within the bounds of the city centre are needed. This project proposes to sensitively restore and reuse the Terminus Hotel, which will house a combination of residential, commercial and retail. An underused carpark to the rear of the terminus provides opportunity for a new addition that responds to the existing building the side street and the potential for diversity and activity at the pedestrian scale. Withdrawn from the street frontage, through a relatively transparent intervention that aims to carry some of the characteristics of a typical street elevation in Fremantle, the new addition is arranged around a central void that breaks down the solid nature of the city block providing relief from the current linear nature of movement and activity. Surrounding the courtyard, the new addition houses further residences, a café and a convenience store providing the necessary amenities for the increase in residential tenancies. A muted material palette and a focus on quality of light, cross-ventilation and quality of space intends to create harmony between the old and the new without replicating tradition. The addition takes cues from, and responds to, the existing surrounding buildings helping to preserve, celebrate and revive the old while introducing a new language and use that intends to reactivate the West End.
Image: West elevation and courtyard section. 97
Image: Apartment interior – new addition. 98
ARCT5101 ARCHITECTURE STUDIO 1 Unit coordinator: Dr Nigel Westbrook Studio coordinators: Kukame McPierzie & Kristen DiGregorio ‘Perth City Campus’
‘PSODWA (Perth School of Design, WA)’ The PSODWA is a proposal that looks at developing a design school in the city with the emphasis of integrating separate functions to be housed under one roof. Located in a central area to the Perth CBD, and along the edge of Swan River across from Elizabeth Quay, the project is seen as a catalyst for the reinvigoration of Perth. The design proposal aims to integrate student collaboration, engage with the public, and connect to Elizabeth Quay and the surrounding streetscape. The school aims to allow two separate functions to co-exist under one roof. This is done by integrating the public to interact and have a place in the building as part of a large urban dwelling. The roof of the building block is designed in such a way that allows the public to interact with the building and be a part of it. Retail shops, cafes and lounge areas are also part of the design to allow the general public to access and utilise these spaces. Greenspaces are also integrated into the design to continue the green landscape from the busport and have a continued connection throughout the city all the way across to Kings Park on one end, and the Supreme Court Gardens on the other. The greenspace is also introduced as a part of reactivating the green space at the busport, which is connected to the building. Connection is the main component of the design proposal. A pedestrian road system is introduced to propose a friendly and safe environment around the site, providing a connection to Elizabeth Quay. The second design intent for this project is collaboration. The design school is intended to house a living, breathing central collaboration space for its patrons. Lastly, the project also aims to play a large part of the city’s revitalisation process. In more ways than one, the proposal revolves around the idea of connection, and similarly also incites a process of revitalisation. Bringing forth a space that is beyond art and design, but also inviting the ideas of creating a new culture for society.
Image: Axonometric perspective. 100
Image: Plans, sections and perspective. 102
ARCT5101 ARCHITECTURE STUDIO Unit coordinator: Dr Nigel Westbrook Studio coordinator: Dr Kate Hislop ‘Suburban Speculations’
BRADLEY MILLIS ‘A Garage Project’
Our city has a huge number of garages. This is a legacy of the 20th century technology of the private car, which helped produce the city of today where we rarely live and work in the same place and are heavily dependent on private vehicles to get around. 21st century tech is here in the form of digital communication, sharing economies, and technology that allows for mass communication. Now our digital neighbours can supply us with rideshare, shopping opportunities, and community, while digital communication allows us to work with ease while physically separate. This gives us an opportunity to transform the city from 20th century urbanism (discrete places for shopping, living, and work) to 21st century urbanism where technology allows the functions of the city to be decentralised. This creates the possibility of making the city different to how it was in the past – so it can work better for us. Garages across Perth are a useful vehicle for this transition. As communication and transportation technologies (and the COVID catalyst) make cars less necessary, garages could be repurposed by residents to fulfil needs not currently being met in their suburbs, with varied possibilities: shared office spaces for workers who want in-person connection but a reduced commute, classrooms leased to schools or universities, self-contained dwellings for a renter or a family member, or commercial kitchens for new food businesses retrofitted into areas that currently contain residences only. This form of ‘bottom-up’, fine-grained urbanism accelerates Perth’s evolution to a 21st century poly-nodal city, creating richer places and extending responsibility for building the city to its citizens.
Image: Map of potential redistribution of city functions through owner-generated garage adaptation. 105
Image: Studies demonstrating potential adaptation of common varieties of garages. 106
ARCT5101 ARCHITECTURE STUDIO Unit coordinator: Dr Nigel Westbrook Studio coordinator: Shan He ‘SOD II’
‘New School of Design’ This project looks at developing a new building for the School of Design at UWA with an emphasis on sustainable and functional design strategies. The existing building was first constructed as the Nedlands Secondary Teachers’ College in 1969. The current facilities are not suited to the needs of the students and the staff, and lack connection to public areas. Therefore, this project aspires to create a desirable learning environment for the current and future needs of the design education. SPACE DIVERSITY - The concept for this project was mainly driven by the desire to create a diversity of space, including varied teaching space, varied social space and different entrances. These diverse spaces achieve different scales through different column networks, which are independent of each other and have minimise impact on the existing structure. SUSTAINABILITY - Retaining most of the existing space and structure, maximise existing resources and minimise the demolition costs. Combined with the use of double skin facade, the new School of Design aims to become the beacon of ecofriendly building in UWA. SOCIAL INTERACTIONS - The current buildings do not encourage social interactions within the school. In this project the corridor is not only the connection of different spaces, but also the most important part of the social space. It’s also the missing part of the existing building. The corridor surrounds the courtyard, with an open environment and a wide view, where people can walk or stay and have a positive interaction space.
Image: Perspective. 108
Image: Sections. 110
ARCT5201 DETAILED DESIGN STUDIO Unit coordinator: Dr Nigel Westbrook Studio coordinator: Richard Simpson ‘CORE’
NICHOLAS THUYS ‘Type A’
Type A is intended as an initial starting point in developing a culturally & contextually sensitive housing typology for remote indigenous communities; striving to move away from established conventions or mainstream housing types. The design builds on the works of Glenn Murcutt and Troppo, specifically ideas around parasol rooves, internal pavilions unenclosed volumes, ventilation screening, operable wall panels and spatial conditioning. The project consists of a parasol roof flying over the raised floor platform. To one side are a series of bedrooms, also intended to house whole family units and contain their living functions. To the other side is the service core, consisting of a pre-fabricated unit built around a 40ft high cube shipping container. In between is a large, open multipurpose communal area, which can be inhabited as desired, or divided into further informal living areas. Utilising timber and steel, the primary structure consists of a regular post and beam arrangement, with internal room divisions acting as separate ‘pods’ which do not extend to roof height, allowing cross ventilation and large overhead spaces above the inhabitable areas. Spatial planning uses non-structural blade walls to divide internal volume. Responding to cultural requirements, space is divided into areas for discrete family groups as well as single-sex rooms, also functioning as spare rooms accommodating fluctuating inhabitants throughout the seasons. The core holds a central kitchen with gendered bathrooms at each end, screened by timber battens for shading and privacy. The container’s outer skin provides weatherproofing. Overall planning is intended to be flexible and able to accommodate a range of uses. Robust materials are specified to reduce maintenance requirements and ensure the integrity of the core and structure during transport. The typology is intended to be repeatable, pre-fabricated, and mass-produced, and act as a basis for further development and distilling into a housing typology that is relevant to its inhabitants.
Image: Prefabricated services core + shipping container – exploded isometric. 113
Image: Type A perspectives – in remote North East WA coastal context. 114
ARCT5201 DETAILED DESIGN STUDIO Unit coordinator: Dr Nigel Westbrook Studio coordinator: Gemma Hohnen ‘Crisis Studio 2’
TUULI SAVOLAINEN ‘65 South Terrace’
Tackling climate change requires urgent action if society hopes to reverse the current estimates of our world being capable of sustaining only 0.5–1 billion people, that is, around 7 billion people less than today. The building industry is responsible for 50% of fossil fuels used in the developed countries, consisting of both embodied and operational energy. This project studies the means of achieving a carbon positive design, meaning a building that produces more energy than it consumes during its lifetime. Firstly, the embodied energy is minimised through the use of renewable materials that sequester carbon and reduce the size of foundations due to the lighter weight of the structure. Secondly, the operational energy is reduced by mainly focusing on the heating and cooling of the building. This is done through low form factor (minimising the surface area), high R-values for minimising conduction (heat gain/ loss), having dual-aspect apartments for cross-ventilation (natural cooling), multiple shading devices (less heat gain in summer), as well as having all communal, service and circulation areas outside, again reducing space conditioning, lighting requirements during daytime as well as mechanical ventilation. Lastly, the remaining emissions are then offset with an on-site energy production, generating around half of the energy for its occupants and returning half back to the grid. Further principles to aid the regenerative design include biophilic design, water harvesting, green roofs and gardens for improved biodiversity, space adaptability, maximising the plot ratio, having multiple spaces for food production, composting facilities as well as promoting the use of bicycles.
Image: Detailed isometric section. 116
Image: Individual apartment isometric sections, plans, and building isometric section. 118
ARCT5201 DETAILED DESIGN STUDIO Unit coordinator: Dr Nigel Westbrook Studio coordinator: Gemma Hohnen ‘Crisis Studio 2’
‘South Street Residences’ The West Australian Re-Constructivist (WARC) involves the application of constructivist design principles for the revival of ‘lost heritage’. With fated ever-growing urbanisation it is necessary to re-adapt and re-use pre-existing buildings to counter the waste generation that is today’s society. The climate crisis is at our door, the time to act is now. The WARC movement aims to reconstruct and re-use buildings (that are slowly vanishing to decay), designing in potential for future adaptation and change. This project, a test case for WARC, focuses on the Fremantle Power Station as a source of materials and design language. Closely linked to the heart of the public, the deconstruction and re-siting of such a project would likely receive negative comments, however, the role of the WARC is to provide a revival of heritage in dialogue with an urgent need for a zero-carbon built environment, a controversial topic on anyone’s agenda. Through understanding the current climate crisis and the ability to re-construct and re-use existing buildings this project hopes to create a building that is permanent yet stagnant, mobile yet stationary, historic and also relevant to current and future needs. To counter excessive amounts of embodied carbon this project heavily focuses on the recycling elements of the Fremantle Power Station, in particular the steel framework, and brickwork. New materials are used in the construction of prefabricated apartments placed into the steel framework providing the option of removal or addition according to the economic climate. Each apartment is wrapped in a plastic skin recycled from high-density polyethylene (HDPE – the most common recyclable plastic). The resulting effect is a translucent hazy skin that slows diffuse sunlight and silhouettes to seep into the interior. This project can be permanent until needed elsewhere. Two ideals are embodied in this project: a new-found connection encompassing past, present, and future as one; and comment on the somewhat stagnant nature of architecture that goes unnoticed in such a fast-paced rapid society.
Image: Sectional perspective. 121
Image: Diagrams and visualisations. 122
ARCT5529 FORENSIC ARCHITECTURE Unit coordinator: Dr Nigel Westbrook
‘Palace of Westminster’ The terrible fire which engulfed the old Palace of Westminster in 1834 was a turning point in the history of Parliament and of London. Until recently, however, it was a largely forgotten catastrophe. Over the years previous to the disaster, many designers expressed the potential dangers of fire within the palace as no fire stops or party walls were present in the building to slow the progress of a fire. One fateful day on October 16th 1834, the long overdue disaster occurred. The cause of the fire was due to the careless act and unsupervised task of the burning of tally sticks. This simple act caused one of the most significant blazes in centuries. The three main structures lost in the fire consisted of the Painted Chamber, House of Lords and St Stephen’s Chapel. St Stephen’s Chapel was a gem that was lost, its ornamental beauty and intricate interior detail separates it from the chapels of its time. The Painted Chamber was a forgotten national treasure that was unveiled after the fire struck. Before the fire it was known as the King’s Chamber and was used as a private apartment. The fires blazed through and destroyed the walls that covered up what once was the painted chamber, leaving in its destruction the memories of the past - a chamber full of art. The House of Lords was a distinct element of parliament and was important in the establishment of the functionality of what we know parliament as today. Three distinctly different elements to what was once one unified structure. My aim is to reconstruct as much of these three structures as possible, exploring the different phases they passed through in time. I hope to give new life to lost memories of a historic structure and uncover forgotten moments of the past.
Image: Interior perspective of St Stephens Chapel. 124
Image: 3D reconstruction. 126
Image: Interior perspective of the House of Lords. 127
ARCT5505 CONSERVATION IN CULTURAL LANDSCAPES, HISTORIC TOWNS AND URBAN PRECINCTS Unit coordinator: Dr Ingrid van Bremen Teaching Assistant: Alana Jennings
‘Conservation of the Urban Precinct – Kings Square, Fremantle’ This unit introduces three key concepts in conservation: cultural landscapes, historic towns, and urban conservation areas, and investigates the processes of identification, assessment, and management of cultural significance in a range of places from global to local levels. The final assignment looked at Kings Square in the Fremantle West End Conservation Area. An individual report was written based on sitework surveys and notes providing: 1. Conservation Planning using the draft outline for a Conservation Plan provided, with three summary sections included in the report structure based on the report and information from lectures, reading material, tutorial and fieldwork exercises. 2. Addressing proposals using the draft outline Conservation Plan and individual input to discuss the likely effects of the proposal for new council buildings and changes to the public realm on the cultural value of Kings Square. Excerpts from Conservation of the Urban Precinct – Kings Square, Fremantle by Samantha Dye: “...in addressing preceding Requirements and elaborated in Significance of Conservation Plan 2020, the combination of townscape qualities of 128
the buildings and landscape, the principal visual and planning of High Street, which are enhanced by the two historic buildings, and the architectural character of West End, all contributes to the cultural significance of Kings Square, a sense of place, and the Fremantle identity.1” “...the public realm proposal does have several positive enhancements of Kings Square.2 The tree strategy includes the planting of new street framing trees, likely jacaranda, along Newman Court, Queen, Adelaide and William Streets, which will soften the borders, and reinforce the enclosure quality and definition of the Square;3 thus enhancing its urban townscape qualities. Additionally, it proposes to enhance the perimeter streets into high quality pedestrian, cyclist, and vehicle ‘shared spaces’, and instalment of traffic control infrastructure that will enable the limited vehicle access to Newman Court and the closing of Newman Court, Adelaide and William Streets for vehicles for functions.4 This could enhance, and increase the social value of Kings Square and retain the cultural heritage of the place through supporting a pedestrian safe zone.” Endnotes 1. Ingrid van Bremen, and Samantha Dye, King Square, In the West End Conservation Area, Fremantle: Preliminary Draft Outline for a Conservation Plan (Perth, WA: the University of Western Australia, 2020). 2. Ingrid van Bremen, “Lecture 10 Urban precincts: Kings Square” (Lecture, University of Western Australia, Crawely, WA, Oct 7, 2020). 3. Ibid. 4. City of Fremantle, Kings Square Public Realm Concept Design Report (Fremantle, WA: City of Fremantle, 2018).
Image: From the corner of High and Queen Streets towards Kings Square, with the new civic and library building in the centre, the urban marker of the Town Hall in the right of the background, and the FOMO redevelopment on the left with the Canary Island Date Palms in Newman Court. Oct 14, 2020. Photography by Samantha Dye.
ARCT5589 FURNITURE DESIGN Unit coordinators: Guy Eddington & Peter Kitely
TAYLA RYAN ‘Exude’
Few people respect design and the importance of quality. Is it worth the investment? Is it practical in this society? I design with the intention to say YES, good design IS worth the investment. Quality is underrated and should be respected and utilised. Smart, aesthetic and well-produced objects provide longevity and quality. With principles of sustainability and designing for disassembly, opportunities are created that massproduced objects work against. My designs minimise the range of materials. With simplicity in form, the beauty of the chosen material can shine. The Exude Lamp highlighted the qualities of brass: its colour, its strength, its ability to be manipulated. Coloured reflections exude off the circular shade. This plain looks as if it is floating above the simple brass form. This concept inspired the need for an accompanying piece to hold the same design motives and forms. What object best suits this lamp, a lamp that expresses simplicity, fragility, femininity, beauty and individuality? Such a lamp creates a subtle and atmospheric light and would therefore suit a space that requires softness: a bedroom. A bedside table is the chosen object and will be designed to be a platform for the lamp to shine. My design should embody timelessness with the intention of longevity. This product will require high quality materiality so to allow a long life. Designing for disassembly allowing for ultimately recycling materials if it is required.
Image: Tayla Ryan. Exude Collection. 2020. Photography by Matt Biocich. 130
Images: Tayla Ryan. Exude Collection. 2020. Photography by Matt Biocich. 132
ARCT5536 PHOTO REAL RENDERING Unit coordinators: Craig McCormack & Rene Van Meeuwen Teaching Assistants: Joshua James Duncan & Chaz Sheldon Flint
CARLO MONACO ‘Serpentine Retreat’
This project was an opportunity to envision myself as a client and to analyse what my own future needs and dreams may be if I was lucky enough to design my own retreat away from the hustle and bustle of city life in a remote location to host small groups of friends, family, and pets. The core idea was to create a focal point or give the cabin a ‘heart’ that it was spatially organised around. The central outdoor fireplace achieves this and becomes a space of relaxation during the colder months while also letting light flow through all the main living spaces. Various types of spaces were provided such as covered outdoor space, uncovered outdoor space and indoor space. This enables the retreat to be useable through most times of the year while giving each space an opportunity to allow different uses. The materials used aimed to bring about a warm atmosphere and light into the spaces by using materials such as stone cladding, timber, and plywood joinery.
Image: Serpentine Retreat, bedroom view. 135
Image: Serpentine Retreat, detail vignette. 136
ARCT5536 PHOTO REAL RENDERING Unit coordinators: Craig McCormack & Rene Van Meeuwen Teaching Assistants: Joshua James Duncan & Chaz Sheldon Flint ‘Idyllic Cabin Getaway’
ETHAN ANTHONY ‘Grounded’
Grounded is a peaceful cabin serving as a retreat from the intensity of the city while still maintaining proximity to friends and family situated in Perth. Located in Ferguson Valley, the construction method was chosen to reflect the surrounding natural landscape. Timber screens and earth walls ground the cabin in its surroundings. The space provides privacy, space for guests and ease of access for aging occupants. A key requirement being provision for off the grid living which is heavily reliant on sustainable design. The solar and water collection, operable solar shade facade and a focus on passive design principles have enabled a comfortable program while taking advantage of natural light and views over the water.
Image: Exterior view with the timber screen closed. 138
Image: Exterior view with the timber screen open. 140
ARCT5585 BIO BASED MATERIALS Unit coordinator: Dr Rosangela Tenorio Teaching Assistants: Christian Wetjen, Jairo da Costa & Deepti Wetjen ‘Re-Imagining Play’
LYANA IBRAHIM, HAFIZAH MOHAMMAD, NURUL AZMAN & CALVIN THOO ‘‘Tool Kit’ of Self Resilience’
Through the concept of self resilience, the process of re-imagining play has created a set of design principles that are explored through a series of modular typologies that are geared towards addressing the socio-cultural issues in the Kutupalong Refugee Camp. These design principles include the understanding of psychological aspects of the user group: they are children that have experienced displacement from their homes, trauma, and violence. The proposed modular typology can be explored as a base module that consists of a series of components created through the process of 3D printing. In analysing the social, environmental and economic aspects of the location, we concluded that plastic waste is the most sustainable option for the Refugee Camp as well as the Bangladeshi government. Additionally, this solution will help reduce the major waste and pollution issues present within the camp. The base module is centred around integrating the design response within a circular economy through which components can be assembled, disassembled, up-cycled or re-used, re-purposed and re-assembled. Play is a powerful medium where education and development can be cultured subconsciously. Therefore, four module variations are proposed with the integration of various components that serve as cognitive development. These variations are categorised as ‘active’, ‘rest’, ‘educational’, and a ‘mixed’ variation. The design of the Tool Kit allows it to be implemented in various other locations or contexts around the world, including material option of bio-based materials such as bamboo or timber.
Image: Base Module of ‘Tool Kit’ of Self Resilience. 143
Image: Integration of variations. 144
ARCT3001 ARCHITECTURE STUDIO 4 Unit and Studio coordinator: Lara Camilla Pinho Teaching Assistant: Stephen Thick ‘Second Wave - Designing spaces for infection control’
JUSTIN KATSUMATA YU ‘COVID Recovery Centre’
The COVID Recovery Centre explores a new condition for pandemic responsive architecture. The temporary nature of the design considers scaffolding in a building’s life cycle, integrating the structure as a skin that wraps around self-contained wards. Between the scaffolding lies both open-air circulation and vertical gardens which are grown from seedlings at the rooftop greenhouse, a breakout space for staff. Implementing this system for plants to grow reflects the healing and transitional state that architecture can assist in the wellbeing of its users. Vertical gardens are placed directly outside main viewing areas, continually growing, and changing over time for both patients and staff to experience. The hospital program is split into three zones which are stackable and configurable in varying ways depending on the site. This allows for distinct separation in circulation and one floor or ward to be selfcontained if a breach were to occur. Designed as a lightweight modular steel structure, each zone is panelised into wall cassettes, which can be assembled off site and hoisted into place simplifying transportation and speed of construction. All materials are standard, recyclable, and globally available.
Image: Concept isometric. 146
Image: Site plan, detail plan, plan & section. 148
ARCT3001 ARCHITECTURE STUDIO 4 Unit coordinator: Lara Camilla Pinho Studio coordinator: Jessica Mountain ‘The Freo Alternative’
CHARLOTTE MARTIN ‘Pivot Houses’
Using the city of Fremantle’s ‘Freo Alternative’ planning regulations and goals, the proposal for 60 Amherst Street in White Gum Valley focuses on providing small housing to fill the ‘missing middle’ gap in the current market. The Amherst Street proposal focuses on the concept of inter-generational living – it is designed to provide independent dwellings for both elderly residents and small families on the one block. Moving away from traditional suburban subdivisions, the bringing together of multiple generations in a union of young and old provides a way to aim to decrease loneliness and isolation in elderly people by immersing them in an environment where they are close to other people of the same age, and one that is also occupied by young people and children.
Image: Pivot Houses, section. 151
Image: Pivot Houses, perspectives. 152
ARCT3001 ARCHITECTURE STUDIO 4 Unit coordinator: Lara Camilla Pinho Studio coordinators: Julia Kaptein & Lucy Mayne Dennis ‘Infrastructure Becomes Lived Environment - Bridge as framework for occupation’
BEAU ROBINSON ‘EXPO 2032’
2032 will be a monumental period of change for Fremantle. The port from which its modern identity is formed will be replaced. This change is controversial and divides opinions, but could this be a necessary disruption that creates an immense opportunity to move forward? This sacred site is one of the two main river crossing points for one of the oldest continuing nations of the Whadjuk Noongar. Bridges are transient in nature, and their utilitarian construction is focused on getting from one side to the other efficiently. Little attention is afforded to the experience one may get in the transition between the land void. A proposal on the site of the Fremantle Traffic Bridge has both the privilege and duty of being more than a traditional crossing: it should engage and create a dialogue with the community, proudly representing an area with such a wealth of stories to tell. Exposition Universelle in 1889 gave birth to the iconic Eiffel tower, originally intended to be a temporary structure, and the proposal of a new infrastructure in Fremantle is inspired by the celebration of world expos and their associated iconic structures. The bones of the infrastructure and the proposed train station would remain fixed elements, remaining long after the expo is dismantled, continuing to provide a greater community benefit. An ode to the former gantry structures core to the modern day identity of the iconic port. The expo celebrates the dawn of a new era for Fremantle, with the structure challenging the perception of the bridge as solely infrastructure. The proposed programme will focus on cultural and ritual exchange. No longer will the journey across the traffic bridge be a regimented and unremarkable routine, but one that attracts people to want to stay immersed in what it has to offer to the community. To borrow a term from the vernacular, this new gateway will be quite uniquely ‘Freo’.
Image: Isometric projection. 154
Image: Nightime space activation. 156
ARCT3030 CONSTRUCTION Unit coordinator: Andrea Quagliola Teaching Associate: Mark Jecks
MICHAELA SAVAGE ‘Valletta Parliament 3D Analysis’
Bound by natural cliffs and man-made bastions, the famous fortress of Valletta claims the title of Europe’s first planned city. With such a long history to consider for the new Parliament House, Renzo Piano’s Building Workshop has crafted a design that inserts itself seamlessly into its local Mediterranean context. They managed to balance the need for contemporary public amenities with the desire to preserve the site’s significant heritage. Fashioned from local coral limestone, the ‘eroded’ façade mirrors the weathering patterns of the city’s fortification walls. While its sculptural-relief texture seems random and natural, the façade cleverly consists of a system of repeated stone modules. With the danger of earthquakes making a load-bearing stone structure impossible, these elements are mounted on a steel frame structure. This restrained tectonic intervention beautifully contributes to the larger aim to reinvigorating the public realm at the heart of Valletta through the broader City Gate redevelopment.
Image: Renzo Piano’s Valletta Parliament 2D Analysis. 159
Image: Renzo Piano’s Valletta Parliament 3D Analysis. 160
ARCT3040 ADVANCED DESIGN THINKING Unit coordinator: Kirill de Lancastre Jedenov Studio coordinators: Kirill de Lancastre Jedenov & Amber Martin ‘Ideas for a Post Pandemic Perth’
KATHY CHAPMAN ‘Monkeying Around’
Orangutans are social creatures and have some cognitive awareness, akin to a six-year-old human, therefore when COVID-19 struck they were conscious of the lack of visitors. Combined with the enforced PPE and distance the zookeepers had to maintain while in the orangutan enclosure to prevent crossspecies contamination, the orangutans’ mental health began to decline. Monkeying Around aims to combat the orangutans’ feelings of isolation and loneliness by enabling zookeepers to interact with the orangutans while also creating a piece of public performance art. Monkeying Around consists of a long dress-like form that covers the entire human body from the neck down. The alternating coloured stripes provide visual enrichment for the orangutans through contrasting patterns and bright colours, which are similar to fruit orangutans enjoy eating. The zookeepers would not be able to use their arms which eliminates the risk of cross-species contamination and allows the keepers to interact with the animals through conversation. The public performance aspect of Monkeying Around utilises the abstract shape and movement of the garment to engage with the zoo’s visitors. The zookeeper’s form will change through environmental conditions such as wind, or by physical movement such as walking, running, jumping or spinning. When the zookeeper is spinning, the brightly coloured stripes (in this example the pink and blue stripes) blur together creating a different colour, thus adding to the public spectacle. In addition to this illusion being carried out, the dress also fans out to have a 1500mm radius, enforcing social distancing. Monkeying Around is intentionally easy to make and therefore can have multiple variations, simply by changing the colours of the stripes or by changing the pattern of the dress. This ensures that the orangutans do not become uninterested in the outfit, guaranteeing visual enrichment throughout the foreseeable future.
Image: Monkeying Around Prototype - Abstract Shapes Caused by Spinning. 162
Image: Isometric of Orangutan Exhibit at Perth Zoo and Monkeying Around Prototype - Abstract Shapes formed by Movement. 164
ARCT1001 ARCHITECTURE STUDIO 1 Unit and Studio coordinator: Dr Philip Goldswain Teaching Assistant: Samantha Dye ‘Fire! Civic Architecture in the Age of the Pyrocene’
TAN KAI YANG
‘Margaret River Fire Station’ Margaret River Fire Station required the design of a project that was a recognisable facility that expressed its function as a fire and emergency services building. The station also had to have a presence within the landscape and encourage community engagement. The studio investigated a number different generic typological forms, examples like ‘E’, ‘Additive’ and ‘Cluster’ to develop the specific architectural forms for the fire station. Each typological form was tested with a number of factors: how the building reacted to site topography, opportunities for passive daylighting and ventilation as well as community accessibility. After selection of the final typology, the architectural form of the building was then further developed based on the functional necessities of the fire station, with highly specific ‘clean’ and ‘dirty’ zoning for different spaces as well as a number of quantitative and qualitative requirements. A
Image: Margaret River Fire Station, building plan. 167
Image: Margaret River Fire Station, site plan. 168
Image: Margaret River Fire Station, isometric projection. 169
ARCHITECTURE & LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTU
Image: ARLA2001 Design Studio, LACH2001 Landscape Architecture Studio student set-up. Photography by Samantha Dye. 170
ARLA2001 DESIGN STUDIO Unit and Studio coordinator: Santiago R. Pérez ‘Community Learning Centre’
‘Program Communication Space’ This project is based on the rapidly changing economic, health-related, and environmental context of the twenty-first-century city. We must find new ways of engaging innovation in learning, beyond the old stereotypes of the lecture hall or classroom. How can we re-imagine the ‘Spaces of Learning’ within this changing context? The site is located next to Mitchell Freeway. The building is surrounded by trees to avoid blocking the unattractive view towards the Mitchell Freeway. When you approach the building, the entry will bring to you two different spaces: the left-hand side is performance space, and the right-hand side is an art gallery and art studio space. The swing door inside the performance space allows the inside space to connect with the outdoor space. When you go to the first floor which is the adult and teenage library area, the big opening at the front and side allow people to see the front view of the park and to communicate with the art gallery downstairs. There are bridges connecting the library and performance space. The second floor is a pottery space and a children’s library and playground. The small incision in the outer pottery space is so that when the children stand there, they can see different views and surprises from each small cut out. They also allow natural ventilation to come inside. The connection bridge continues to the second floor. When you’re in one space and you can see what’s going on in another space, maybe that will lead you to be interested in another space. The connection bridge links different spaces together allowing them to exist easily and communicate with each other.
Image: View from children’s library to clay workshop. 173
Images: Sections A & B. 174
ARLA2001 DESIGN STUDIO Unit coordinator: Santiago R. Pérez Studio coordinator: Sally Farrah ‘Drawing in, drawing out’
‘Past and Future Presents: Community Learning Centre’ “Architecture is one, always the same in time and space... there is no such thing as new architecture or old architecture, insofar as there is no historical contrast between living and building in the present and what they meant in the past.” – Giorgio Grassi, Architecture, Dead Language (1980) Grassi’s ideal of a timeless architecture – understanding buildings as ever-present objects, and people’s needs and way of life as unchanging – was influential throughout the design process. The challenge of evoking permanence, while considering the transience of East Perth’s neighbouring buildings, and the necessity for an open-air COVID-conscious learning centre limited to lightweight construction, was proposed through both tangible and intangible means. Three offset grids were identified through mapping the roads and surrounds of East Perth, with the project embedding itself into the permanence of these grids, through orientation and the structural grid. Pre-existing site conditions – including trees, desire lines, and the informal outdoor space of the St. Bartholomew’s House residents – were drawn, understood, and accommodated, improving the unique conditions of the site. The Great Hall, which Grassi believed a quintessential element of a public project, allows for flexibility so the structure may absorb various usages and meanings over time. Its vaulted ceiling harks back to medieval cathedrals for the open-air learning space, while adjacent stoas for circulation allude to classical forms, strengthening the designs claim on the present by grounding itself to its predecessors. Oxidised steel comprises most of the structure and communicates architecture’s temporality through its visual deterioration. The proposal encourages a weaving together of the area’s differing demographics, with the ground level radially open, and accessible ramps used throughout. Ample ventilation and diffuse lighting make the building COVID-safe and comfortable, where visual and aural permeability between different spaces connects users, enabling passive and spontaneous interactions.
Image: Perspective section of the Great Hall. 176
Image: Mappings, drawings & renders. 178
ARLA2001 DESIGN STUDIO 2 Unit coordinator: Santiago R. Pérez Studio coordinators: Daniel Jan Martin & Rosie Halsmith ‘Landform Studio’
FYNN TURLEY ‘Art Farm’
The ART FARM design approach begins with the intersection of paths where the varying aspects of our Ashfield Flat site converge. The native wetlands, the plateau overlooking site, and the steep yet vegetated hill leading up to suburban areas all meet at this intersection. The proposed environmental technology school uses these differing ‘zones’ of site to emphasize different modes of learning. Informal exploration learning is encouraged at the wetlands where children can encounter native flora and fauna, whereas formal, more rigorous, learning would occur on the plateau where students would have access to research equipment and facilities. A hybrid of the two would occur in between with an emphasis on play and activity with minimal architectural intervention. The school also proposes vast rehabilitation of the site with native vegetation, resulting in built forms being lightweight in order to have minimal impact on the ground. Ultimately, the school is a place where students are encouraged to engage with the landscape and to learn from place, cultivating children to engage, explore, and experiment.
Image: Wetland section and detail isometric. 181
Image: (Top) ART FARM space use. (Bottom) Site section. 182
ARLA2001 DESIGN STUDIO 2 Unit coordinator: Santiago R. Pérez Studio coordinators: Daniel Jan Martin & Rosie Halsmith ‘Landform Studio’
CASSANDRA SHALLCROSS ‘Ashfield Flats Immersion Learning Centre’
The Ashfield Flats Immersion Learning Centre responds to the risk imposed by humans to our natural environment: the long rammed earth retaining wall symbolises the furthest point of the urban condition. Ashfield is a suburb facing increasing development in the next decade, and the immersion school, with its strong wall, is a statement of an urban boundary. The lightweight timber structure, which stems from the wall, suggests a transitional space, between human and wetland environments. The indoor and deck spaces, are elevated on smalls stilts to allow vegetation to grow underneath, and are mostly open to the elements. Thin timber slat walls, which blend the indoor and out, aim to desegregate the built and the natural. Vertical timber slats, which form a roof over indoor learning spaces, imitate the filtered light through the canopy of the fringing woodland on site. Entering from the existing path to the east, people find a welcome space of tables and planters, situated under large eucalyptus trees. A performance space evolves from the topography of the site, with recycled timber seating. The nursery sits to the west of the revegetated drain. The design aims to actively educate visitors on the propagation of natives and sustainable agricultural practices, and bring together a community that will reap the benefits of the nursery and seed collection program. The organisation is aided by day excursions from WA schools, who leave with an understanding of these practices, a connection to the site through engaging in its revegetation, and historical understanding of pre-colonisation vegetation and conditions.
Image: Site plan. 184
Image: Ashfield Flats Immersion Learning Centre, section. 186
LACH2001 LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE STUDIO – SPECULATIONS Unit Coordinator: Rosie Halsmith Studio coordinators: Daniel Jan Martin & Rosie Halsmith ‘Landform Studio’
LOUIS DE SARAN ‘The Breathing Suburb’
The Breathing Suburb links the suburb of Ashfield from the rail to the Ashfield flats through a manipulation of hardscape and vegetation. The grounding experience of Ashfield saw a lack of connection between the community and ecological history of the biodiverse site that is Ashfield. The Ashfield Flats, on the banks of the Derbarl Yerrigan (Swan River), are an important aspect of site - both socially and environmentally. In its present condition, this landscape is significantly disconnected from Ashfield’s suburban grid, offering a significant opportunity for ecological expansion into the residential area. The Breathing Suburb provides a link throughout Ashfield through connecting, water, people and ecology by using locally found materials and vegetation with through the design is both permeable and impermeable landscape elements. This scheme explores conceptual understandings of natural gradients and aspects of permeability, exploring the loss of past natural flooding and expansion events of the Derbarl Yerrigan into the wider Ashfield area as a key element of design.
Image: Master concept plan. 189
Image: Breathing Suburb detail plans & sections. 190
LACH2001 LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE STUDIO – SPECULATIONS Unit Coordinator: Rosie Halsmith Studio coordinators: Daniel Jan Martin & Rosie Halsmith ‘Landform Studio’
‘Ashfield Green Corridor’ Ashfield Green Corridor connects remnant vegetation and green space throughout Ashfield and surrounding suburbs to provide a cohesive link for both human and non-human residents of this riverside area. The scheme aims to recover and reinterpret a cohesive natural link for endemic flora and fauna – a link that has been lost due to the development of industrial and residential areas – while also creating a safe and usable pedestrian and cycle link for residents and visitors. The scheme is specifically targeted at improving community health and wellbeing, while also improving ecological outcomes for the area.
Image: Ashfield Green Corridor, section. 192
Images: Master plan & perspective. 194
ARLA1000 DESIGN STUDIO – GROUNDINGS Unit and Studio coordinator: Emily Van Eyk Teaching Assistant: Joe Winfield ‘Stories to Tell’
HAMISH LYFORD ‘Backyard Construction’
Backyard Construction is a theorised installation located in the Port City of Fremantle. Nestled inside and in front of Fremantle’s renowned ‘A Shed’, my design aims to celebrate the area’s long and illustrious history as a shipping port. As well as introducing natural elements previously inhabiting the area before European industrialisation, my aim was to combine raw and organic textures including, limestone and native plants to produce an area that is both an inviting and accessible space for locals and visitors to congregate, relax and share stories. Largely inspired by Carlo Scarpa’s Monument to the Partisan Woman, the main section of my design uses large 1 x 1m2 limestone plinths in an array at varying heights. These plinths are used to produce an amphitheatre-like setting, in which visitors are able to sit in a variety of positions to facilitate both intimate conversations as well as discourse within a group setting. The second part of my design focuses on the ‘A Shed’ itself. I have chosen to repurpose the shed by introducing native plant life within the building and by replacing the shed’s roof with transparent polycarbonate sheeting I have created a greenhouse-like environment. This again provides an environment that serves as a comfortable and inviting place to meander and relax. It was very important to me that the shed remain as part of my design in order to pay homage to the history of the Fremantle wharf.
Image: Site perspective. 197
Image: Site section. 198
ARLA1000 DESIGN STUDIO – GROUNDINGS Unit coordinator: Emily Van Eyk Studio coordinator: Frances Silberstein
‘Victoria Quay: An Interpretation of Coastal Dune Morphology’ In its current form, Victoria Quay is a wasteland of concrete and asphalt, a space to pass through but not to stay. The purpose of this project was to reimagine the site to allow a space for the stories of the site to be told. Specifically, the design brief challenged us to offer a response to the climate, a connection to the water and provide a gathering space encouraging people to engage with the site. My design was heavily influenced by the dune morphology of the natural coastal plains that once commanded the coastline. Starting at the remnants of the limestone bridge once used by the custodians of the land, the undulating boardwalk’s path is dictated by the parabolic formations of the windswept dunes. As the path winds away from the coastline and back again it offers visitors a higher perspective on the site, before once again sloping down to the waters of the Derbarl Yerrigan (Swan River). Within the parabolas bordered by the boardwalk are wide terraced steps that invite you to step off the path and explore the site organically, take a rest, have a picnic, or congregate. The terraced steps are bordered by native dune plants that soften the landscape and cocoon you into the protection of the dune’s oasis. The boardwalk also winds through the existing A and B Sheds on the site where wide terraced steps seem to continue into the river itself, offering yet another space to connect to the natural elements of the site.
Image: Site plan. 200
Image: Detail of LACH2001 Landscape Architecture Studio - Speculations, Landform Studio. 2020. Photography by Lara Camilla Pinho. 202
LACH5511 INDEPENDENT DISSERTATION BY DESIGN PART 2 Unit coordinator: Dr Maria Ignatieva Supervisors: Dr Maria Ignatieva & Christopher Vernon
‘Under The Stars: Ecological reconnection and a community-centred infrastructure approach to conservation South Africa’s Eastern Cape’ Under the Stars challenges the traditional role of landscape architecture and conservation planning in South Africa through a holistic approach that involves three scales of design and focuses on the connection of conservation land, improving localised socioeconomics, optimising guest interaction with the landscape and decreasing poaching of all species. The Eastern Cape of South Africa sits in a win-win position as conservation land is currently valued at four times the price of farmland. By converting existing farms to conservation landscapes, landowners will economically benefit from increased land value and tourism and nature will benefit due to the large-scale expansion of conservation land. The large-scale proposal focuses on the development of phase one (out of five) for the Addo to Great River conservation landscape, the largest conservation corridor proposal in the Eastern Cape of South Africa and the second largest in South Africa. Phase one includes a land acquisition proposal of over 50 properties and calculates the direct tangible benefit of converting farmland to conservation. Benefits included the increase of carbon sequestration of 157,590,000 gigatons, the increase in microclimate rainfall of around 35%, the increase in land value from AU$451 to AU$2,135 and a decrease in poaching through strategic planning. The medium scale proposal looks at developing a community-owned and run bush lodge that seeks to bring guests closer to the traditional African culture while the community profits directly as part of the ownership scheme. The bush lodge is constructed through modern interpretations of traditional African construction techniques such as rammed earth and thatching. The accommodation and landscape pull guests out of their comfort zone and seeks to increase guests’ environmental stewardship through landscape connection. Due to the nature of ownership, the proposal also maintains all existing infrastructure and proposes cost-effective techniques to upskill workers and reduce costs. The smaller-scale design looks at the use of bush craft and African ingenuity to create a unique water capture methodology to supply the guests with suitable amounts of water for drinking and other amenities. The smaller scale also looks at the movement of guests through the site and mimics the movement of game through the bushveld. In whole, the three scales of design aim to be a proof of method for the Amakhala game reserve and the wilderness foundation as momentum swings in favour of conservation over farming. Image: The Hut. An essential part of the of the design was to bring the outdoors in and provide a seamless experience of nature. 205
Image: (Above) The corridor before and after, vegetation and site movement. (Below) Section of reception proposal. 206
LACH5511 INDEPENDENT DISSERTATION BY DESIGN PART 2 Unit coordinator: Dr Maria Ignatieva Supervisors: Dr Maria Ignatieva & Christopher Vernon
‘Living: beside the ridge, before the sea’ This study was guided by three research questions: What are the processes of place attachment and cognitive affordance? Why should these processes inform urban design? And how can these processes inform urban design? Changes in urban design form and modes of living are embraced or rejected by residents based on experiences, learnt norms and ascriptions of value to urban landscapes. Designers can influence the development of these norms and values via careful affective design. When people experience place attachment, they align their values according to this positive experience. Equally, if landscapes provide many opportunities for learning, feeling and interacting, residents are encouraged to form diverse perceptions of ‘normal’. Together these factors influence what people value, what is deemed desirable and, therefore, economically attractive. If designers work with the goal of broadening residents’ values, they curate a diversity of future viable design options. The design for the City of Cockburn site is intended to prioritise this goal. In this design, people are encouraged to determine their own uses for the public space, allowing personal (and possibly shared) recognition of place to emerge. There is a purposeful emphasis on providing a lot of public – and particularly green – underdetermined space. Commercial, residential, learning and civic facilities are not separated, and multiple modes of movement ensure people are offered many opportunities for intended and unintended interactions. This design recognises that people can make sense of urban landscape complexity – particularly as pedestrians – and are capable of forming their own landscape understandings and preferences. Homogeneity of the suburbs is not needed for clarity and resident satisfaction. The design offers a richness of urban landscape experience via ascriptions of value placed on urban and ecosystems features (exposing water flow, highlighting terrain and topographic variability, and providing diversity in the built form).
Image: Design study site. 208
Image: The school area, the wetland and commercial area, and a section through the western part of the site. 210
LACH5510 INDEPENDENT DISSERTATION BY DESIGN PART 1 Unit coordinator: Dr Maria Ignatieva Supervisors: Dr Maria Ignatieva & Christopher Vernon
‘Landscape Architecture and how it responds to Habitat Fragmentation’ Development and expansionism have always come hand in hand with the times. The increasing urban sprawl seems to be unending as our demand for more land grows. Habitat fragmentation and its effects threaten the survival of our natural landscape’s ecological identity. In the first part of this dissertation, I will be presenting the collection of current theories and concepts to better understand the long-term implications of continuing this path. The effects of fragmentation on habitats are more easily understood when analysed into its components. Patches, edges and mosaics are the fundamental units in landscape ecology and are applicable in understanding this topic. It is also important to understand how habitats respond to changes in its surroundings. Gathering this data will allow this research into investigating the responses available to us in the form of landscape architecture. Landscape Architecture is a relatively new branch that combines science with art and architecture. This field of study has fortuitously surfaced as society has matured enough to be self-aware of its effect on the environment. We have generally mapped out the butterfly effect of even the smallest change in an ecosystem, thus the emphasis being placed on specific potential issues such as habitat fragmentation is a rational consideration. Habitat fragmentation’s inevitable occurrence as urban development continues will need a measured response. This will require a proper consideration that will involve the environmental sciences with the intent of designing interfaces with human and urban infrastructure. The saying “what once was is now gone,” rings true in this case as the countless generations of plant and wildlife will forever be changed. It is a fragmentation of the habitat as well as an irreversible fragmentation of its genetic ecological past. Habitat fragmentation is an issue that breeds further problems if it is left to resolve itself. It is a byproduct of our need to expand in the most cost-effective manner. What becomes ‘unseen’ to the public is the effects it has down the line. It becomes an afterthought and thing to ‘fix’ instead of something we as the genesis of this problem, need to prepare for. We only see bird species being placed on the endangered list or the ‘greenifying’ of verges irrespective of plant selection. Our methods in developing areas must evolve or we risk losing a lot more.
Image: (Above left) Large patch and internal interaction. (Below left) Small patches and jumping interactions. (Above right) Regular edge. (Below right) Irregular edge. 213
LACH5504 INDEPENDENT DISSERTATION PART 2 Unit coordinator: Dr Maria Ignatieva Supervisors: Dr Maria Ignatieva & Christopher Vernon
‘Six Walks in Fremantle: Multisensory Experience of Existing Landscapes on Foot’ This dissertation project considered the multisensory experience of walking and its relevance to landscape architecture. It highlighted the importance of physical engagement with the landscape by landscape architects during research and the design process. The first part of the dissertation supported this view with a detailed literature review of cultural theories and current research papers that focus on direct engagement with the landscape through walking and visual representation of experience in landscape architecture. The paper argued that the role of landscape architects is not only to design new landscapes for people to participate in, but to facilitate people’s perception, awareness, appreciation, and value of landscapes that already exist. One of the core objects of the dissertation was to develop and test an alternative design methodology using walking as method for multisensory experience and data collection. It also explored visual representations as design outcomes in the form of visual walk diaries, walking knowledge and a design narrative. The thesis of this dissertation was that landscape architects can curate the multisensory experience of walking into design narratives to facilitate perception, awareness, and appreciation of existing landscapes. Walking was used as a tool to traverse, perceive, and sequence experiences in Fremantle, Western Australia. This dissertation found that participation in the design methodology facilitated a change in the researcher’s own perception and value of Fremantle as an existing landscape. The dissertation concludes by proposing that the design methodology developed could be adopted as a tool by landscape architects to communicate and facilitate changes in perception, connection and value from experience with clients, project teams and community groups. It also reinforces the argument for the role of the landscape architect not only to design new physical landscapes, but to communicate the value of existing ones.
Image: Visual representations of the walker’s perspective of three walks in Fremantle. A collage of each walk contributed to the final design narrative. 215
Image: Walk diaries for two of the walks completed in Fremantle. The visual diary of each walk contributed to the final design narrative. 216
LACH4424 DESIGN STUDIO – COMPLEXITY Unit coordinator: Christina Nicholson Studio coordinator: Hans Oerlemans ‘WHAT IF Beaufort Street?’
JOCELYN WU ‘Breakout Room’
The scenario focused on post-pandemic life and how an increased number of workers have adapted to the working from home (WFH) lifestyle. The aim was to develop the Beaufort Street precinct into a place where WFH can benefit a diverse range of workers and encourage the idea of work-life balance. The reduction of traffic volume and encouraging residents to cycle also played a major role in developing the precinct into a more pedestrian-orientated environment. This was done by exploring four different levels where level one was already activated, with workers working in their own home. Level two, the residential area, looked at encouraging neighbours to interact and utilise the new shared spaces (i.e. community garden, outdoor working stations, active activities) on their street. Level three, Beaufort Street, was designed to be a place to gather at a larger scale with different hybrid working stations available (i.e. café, plaza, carparks, open office environment). This was also an area where workers go to seek necessary tools (i.e. printers, stationery) and other essentials ( i.e. gym, grocery). Finally, level four looked at the connection between the two parks (Hyde Park and Forrest Park) to the rest of the precinct and how flexible working can be applied.
Image: First Intervention Phase 4. 219
Image: First Intervention Phase 4. 220
LACH4424 DESIGN STUDIO – COMPLEXITY Unit coordinator: Christina Nicholson Studio coordinator: Hans Oerlemans ‘WHAT IF Beaufort Street?’
‘21st Century Climatic Innovation for Barlee Square’ Climate change has and will be a major challenge for everything and everyone if nothing is done to mitigate the dire consequences of it. It has resulted in an increase in surface temperature in Beaufort Street. This design aims to alleviate the negative impacts of climate change by targeting three main areas: heat, water and food. Firstly, vegetation has been shown to significantly reduce temperatures. This is done by simultaneously absorbing sunlight and shading hard surfaces, thus reducing the amount of heat that is absorbed and radiated. The plot of area that can potentially be revegetated includes small areas such as building setbacks and sidewalks. The presence of greenery has been shown to attract higher number of potential customers. Secondly, groundwater stores have been gravely affected by climate change. An ideal solution would be to recycle storm and grey water, to water the vegetation in the area. This creates a positive feedback loop. Lastly, good literacy has been an epidemic of gargantuan proportions in the young. 1 in 5 children have absolutely no idea where their food comes from. Childhood obesity has been on the rise as well. Childhood obesity has a significant correlation to obesity in adulthood. Obesity is a leading cause in many degenerative diseases. A prospective proposal would be to include a community garden. Residents who reside in the vicinity would sow and nurture fruits and vegetables of the season. This provides opportunities for children in the area to learn more about the origin of food. Community gardens also provide a strong sense of belonging.
Image: Revegetating setback buildings of Beaufort Street. 222
Image: Barlee Square. 224
LACH4421 AUSTRALIAN LANDSCAPES Unit coordinator: Christopher Vernon
‘The Adelaide Plan 1837: A New Way of Colonial Planning with Contemporary Influence’ The 1837 Adelaide Plan (Plan), including Adelaide Park Lands, is regarded as a significant turning point in Australian settlement and a master achievement in city planning. The settlement is the first Australian urban centre to be designed as a place for free settlers, rather than a colonial military or penal outpost. In 2008, the honourable Minister for the Environment Heritage and Arts, Peter Garrett MP announced the National Heritage listing of ‘Adelaide Park Lands and City Layout’ noting the ‘influential urban design of Adelaide – Australia’s first planned city… recognises the 1837 Adelaide Park Lands and City layout as technical masterworks which went on to influence the planning of other towns in Australia and overseas’ (Garrett & Ellis 2007). Drivers for a New Colony in Australia In 1833 the British government determined the need for a third colony in Australia to be situated between the first two colonies, Sydney and Perth. The need for a third colony was born largely from the poor management of the settlement of Western Australia compromised by a reliance on convict labour, poor administrative practice, and restrictive military presence (Bunker, 2008; Proudfoot, 2010). As a result a systematic approach to urban layout was developed, largely by Edward Gibbon Wakefield of the Colonial Office (LlewellynSmith, 2013). Wakefield, based in England, was familiar with colonial settlements in New Zealand and Australia, living in both during his childhood 226
and early adulthood. He had observed the process of colonisation in both countries and felt personally frustrated with the slow and inefficient approach (Bunker, 2008). He believed many of the social issues of England could be addressed by decentralising and reducing overpopulation (Llewellyn-Smith, 2013). The Colonial Office was attracted to his ideals, which he developed into a planning scheme known as the Wakefield Scheme. The scheme recognised that immigration should focus on craftsman, labourers and artisans over convicts and unskilled workforce. These free settlers with specialised skills would be critical to the development of a new South Australian colony and were favourable to the unskilled, penal labour of the first two colonies (Llewellyn-Smith, 2013). The scheme also developed a standardised approach to laying out the developing cities of prospective colonies across the empire (Bunker, 2008). The Adelaide Plan 1837 The Plan was finalised in March of 1837 by Colonel William Light, first Surveyor General of South Australia with support from his Deputy, George Kingston. With the decision to settle South Australia only being finalised in 1836, Light had limited time to survey South Australia and lay out the capital, with significant pressure from the Colonial Office in England for free settlers to start arriving in 1837 (Bunker, 2008). After much consideration, Light made the decision to place Adelaide City on the plains between the Port river, Holdfast Bay and Mount Lofty. This received criticism that the site for the city should be located in a coastal position such as Port Adelaide or Port Lincoln (Llewellyn-Smith, 2013). Light determined the correct position for Adelaide City, avoiding the sandy coastal soils in favour of the fertile lands nearer the Adelaide hills (Proudfoot, 2010). However, the British government was keen
Image: William Light’s Plan of Adelaide, 1837. Migration Museum, History of Trust of South Australia, Historical Relics Collection. 227
to avoid the mistakes made in settling Western Australia and eventually agreed (Proudfoot, 2010). The plan shows the systematic grid layout of Adelaide, often referred to as the ‘Square mile’ (Anderson, 2020). The city is separated into a north and south section, bifurcated by the Torrens River. The orientation of the North and South cities responds to the topography of the Torrens River valleys. Within the city structure, Light provides for six (in some later drawings sometimes five) squares (one in the north, five in the south). Each of the squares were proposed to support the public life of the various districts within the city. The Plan also indicates the green swathe surrounding the city, known, and loved by contemporary South Australians as the Park Lands. Surprising International Interest The Adelaide City Plan gained critical international attention in the 1890’s as an example of the potential of the Green City movement. Notably, Ebenezer Howard, theorist, and advocate of the Garden City movement, used the Adelaide Plan to support his own theories as an example of how a Garden City might function. His seminal text, the “Garden Cities of To-Morrow” from 1898 makes specific reference to the city, including a sketch plan for the city (Bunker, 1990). It is easy to see how the structured city surrounded by the green swathe of the Park Land was sympathetic to Howards ideology, particularly with the green belt playing a critical role for the colonies agricultural and husbandry function (Jones, 1998). For example, the Park Lands played a significant role in providing space to for government horses and sheep rearing (Robinson and Liu, 2015). Howard’s assumptions about the development of Adelaide led him to falsely use the city as a case study to support his argument for the Garden City Movement (Repps, date unknown; Bunker, 228
2008). He erroneously concluded that Adelaide City north of the Torrens (and surrounding Park Land) developed later than the southern part of the city in response to increased population (Repps, date unknown). As a result, Howard suggests Adelaide is an example of how cities could grow organically, separated by green agricultural spaces (Repps, date unknown). In actuality, the two city areas had been planned that way from the beginning, invalidating the claim. While Howard’s interest in Adelaide is well documented and well known, the city plan also caught the interest of influential architect and urban designer Le Corbusier. A little-known sketch diagram of Adelaide in 1950 by Le Corbusier indicates the designer had some knowledge of the South Australian capital and had some interest in its urban design principles (Moulis, 2012). His interest appears to be the result of a chance meeting between Le Corbusier and a lecturer at the University of Adelaide, Professor Hugh Trumble who was on secondment in the Americas. The drawing is signed by Le Corbusier dated 17 September 1950 in Bodega, Colombia, notable in timing for being just five months before he developed his plan for Chandigarh (Moulis, 2012). The diagrammatic Plan includes the southern art of the city, its grid structure and internal parks, the surrounding Park Lands with notes on environmental influences outside of the city zone like the Adelaide Hills, Industrial zones and port. The drawing implies that Trumble and Le Corbusier spent some time together drawing the diagrammatic plan of Adelaide, with Le Corbusier noting it as a collaborative drawing between the two. Moulis (2012) Speculates that it is unsurprising Le Corbusier was drawn to the layout of Adelaide. The colonial grid system established in Adelaide would naturally appeal to Le Corbusier’s modernist sensibility. Moulis suggests Le Corbusier may
already have been somewhat aware of Adelaide, likely being familiar with Howard’s work in the late 19th century. Some evidence for this may be that Le Corbusier ignores the North portion of the city in his drawings, perhaps erroneously assuming it to be a later addition to the city. When drawn, Le Corbusier had already developed plans for a theoretical modernist city but had not had an opportunity to test these ideas in practice (Moulis, 2012). By the time Le Corbusier returned home from Columbia, he had received a letter from the Indian embassy inviting him into the competition for Chandigarh. Le Corbusier’s design for Chandigarh shares many high-level similarities with Adelaide including, the grid lay out, the park encircling the city, and the relationship of the gridded city to its mountainous backdrop. It may not be possible to determine any direct correlation between the plans, but it does demonstrate the continuity of Le Corbusier’s belief in particular features or elements that are important to good city design.
References Anderson, Margaret. “Light’s Plan of Adelaide 1837.” History Trust of South Australia. Accessed 1 September 2020. https://adelaidia.history.sa.gov.au/panoramas/lights-plan-ofadelaide-1837. Bunker, Raymond. “Why and How Did Adelaide Come About?” Planning Perspectives. 23 (2): 233-240. 2008. DOI: 10.1080/02665430801906455. Bunker, Raymond. “Urban Design in a Metropolitan Setting: A Case Study of Adelaide.” Town Planning Review. 61 (1): 2140. 1990. DOI: 10.3828/tpr.61.1.6v4n661p02575k17. Garrett, P. & K. Ellis (2008) National Heritage Listing for Adelaide Park Lands. Joint media release, 7 November 2008. https://search-informit-org.ezproxy.library.uwa.edu.au/ documentSummary;res=TVNEWS;dn=TES20084400716 Jones, David. “Designing the Adelaide Parklands in the 1880s: The Proposals of John Ednie Brown.” Studies in the History of Gardens and Designed Landscapes. 18 (4): 287-299. 1998. DOI: 10.1080/14601176.1998.10435553. Llewellyn-Smith Michael, “1 – The Background to the Founding of Adelaide and South Australia in 1836.” In Behind the Scenes: The Politics of Planning Adelaide. 39-66. Adelaide: South Australia. The University of Adelaide Press. 2013. https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/behind-the-scenes/ background-to-the-founding-of-adelaide-and-south-australiain-1836/7B9E12ECB4DBEA60E13A9F673D126075. Llewellyn-Smith Michael, “2 – The Development of the City and State from 1840 until 1950 and the City/State Relationship During this Period.” In Behind the Scenes: The Politics of Planning Adelaide. 39-66. Adelaide: South Australia. The University of Adelaide Press. 2013. https:// www.cambridge.org/core/books/behind-the-scenes/ development-of-the-city-and-state-from-1840-until1950-and-the-citystate-relationship-during-this-period/ FDFAA2F3E22E87998F83C2F5C5578D6A. Moulis, Antony. “An Exemplar for Modernism: Le Corbusier’s Adelaide Drawing, Urbanism and the Chandigarh Plan.” The Journal of Architecture. 17 (6) 871-887. 2012. DOI: 10.1080/13602365.2012.746043. Proudfoot, Helen. “Fraternal Twins? Hoddle’s Melbourne and Light’s Adelaide.” Australian Planner. 35 (2): 75-80. 2010. DOI: 10.1080/07293682.1998.9657819. Reps, John. “Garden Cities of To-Morrow”. Cornell University, New York. http://urbanplanning.library.cornell.edu/DOCS/ howard.htm. Robinson, Guy and Zhiling Liu. “Greening and “Un-Greening Adelaide, South Australia.” AIMS Environmental Science. 2 (3): 511-532. 2015. DOI: 10.3934/environsci.2015.3.51.
LACH3001 LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE STUDIO – RESOLUTIONS Unit and Studio coordinator: Christina Nicholson ‘Bitumen to Biodiversity – North Perth Primary School’
HUGO FAULKNER ‘New Edges & A New Identity’
The response to site aims to release the site bound by its unnecessary edges to promote versatility and permeability through the site. Creating, not just a space for the school but, for the surrounding community. The proposal studies the school’s boundary limits, looking to redefine North Perth Primary’s visual cues to the edge and to create connections to the outer community. The project looks at the dispersal of the west edge, creating a permeable public edge with the park adjacent to the library, while the southern connection seeks to strengthen the relationship between the southern courtyard, the art class and Goonderup. The existing landscape of the school is centralised around an accidentallyformed grove via the planting of the Tipuana benth in close proximity making them grow up rather than out. This informed the adding of an extra row of Tipuanas exasperating the formality of the open gravelled space. Informed by the dominating Corymbia ficifolia in the courtyard, a thick row of dwarf Corymbia ficifolia has been added. This further accentuates the formality of the space as well as being the first threshold or edge of the school. Its small height adds a potential to be climbed and its red flowers pair with the school’s heritage red brick aesthetic. The Third Grove mimics the plants in its area to form a canopy connection across the adverse edge of the car park to the well-loved play-space of Goonderup oval.
Image: Soft works. 231
Image: Section CC. 232
LACH3001 LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE STUDIO – RESOLUTIONS Unit and Studio coordinator: Christina Nicholson ‘Bitumen to Biodiversity - North Perth Primary School’
BIANCA SORENSEN ‘Lead the Way’
The brief requisites were to design and transform the campus into a space that embraced diverse teaching and learning within a more natural environment. Further focus on school access, a connection to the school oval, circulation both pedestrian and vehicular, views, urban heat offset, and improved plant ecology were to be explored and resolved. As a registered Indigenous site of significance, ‘Goonderup’, the cultural and historical acknowledgement of site was paramount for instilling a ‘sense of place’. Through design principles Movement, Memory and Play this acknowledgement was further explored through a modern interpretation of ‘mark making’ - a physical, visual, and oral narrative. Derivative of Indigenous ‘Song lines’, they revolve around memory connecting nature, sky, spirit and earth, of our first nation people, their history and culture. Mark making transverse between horizontal aspects of painted strips on the ground plane, to vertical structural accents, arbours and wayfinding poles that lead you to the western quad and the school oval ‘Goonderup’. Subtle level changes in the landscape improve access and circulation with soft and hard scaping addressing the physical, sensory and ephemeral journey through site. The reconfigured western quad articulates the benefits of unstructured play through nature and the built environment, a vehicle for improving strong cognitive, consequential skill building attributes that help build resilience and foster inclusivity. Opposite, under the shady canopy of existing trees, is an opportunity for a quieter solitude with timber carousel seats for groups of two or more. Lead the way, this journey through site. Run your hands through native grass and follow the painted markers down to the oval, to gather and play. In a time before, where goat tracks would take you on the best path ... where lines in the sand would tell a story, paint a picture of where you had been and where you were going.
Image: Masterplan North Perth Primary School. 234
LACH2050 PLANTS AND LANDSCAPE SYSTEMS Unit and Studio coordinator: Christina Nicholson
‘Planting Upgrades Proposal for Jeff Joseph Reserve, Applecross’ Jeff Joseph Reserve sits on reclaimed land along the shores of Applecross on the Derbarl Yerrigan/Swan River and is currently a large expanse of underutilised lawned area offering little protection against the elements and with few amenities provided. The planting upgrade proposal builds on the existing revegetation efforts occurring along a section of the bay, further increasing the ecological biodiversity for the region whilst at the same time creating inviting spaces and opportunities to gather in groups of various sizes. An area dedicated for nature play area is also positioned close to the foreshore, allowing for a chance to explore and interact with the nearby estuarine environment. The planting palette celebrates the diversity and distinctiveness of local endemic species that would have been abundant prior to European intervention, reclaiming and reinforcing the sense of place that the reserve is located in, geographically and ecologically. Plants of various textures and colours in foliage, in combination with colourful flowers uniquely distinct from the rest of the world, were selected to invite a new perspective and appreciation of local endemic species, not only for their resilience against climate change, but also to invite speculation and discussion on what a park or reserve can be in Perth, in a cultural context of a contemporary suburban setting within a world biodiversity hotspot that Perth is uniquely positioned in.
Image: Nature play area. 237
Image: (Right top to bottom) Existing conditions, proposed sections. (Left) Proposed gathering spaces. 238
Image: URBD5802 Urban Design Studio set-up. 2020. Photography by Samantha Dye. 240
URBD5821 URBAN DESIGN DISSERTATION Unit coordinator: Dr Anthony Duckworth-Smith
MARLENE TARA RAHARDJA
‘Jakarta Stays - Reforming The Capital City to Age in Place’ This research aimed to establish future plan that is sustainable and resilience to flood as the impact of climate change and land subsidence for Penjaringan district in Jakarta. The journey started with understanding Jakarta’s context, its problem, its communities and future prediction. The case of Jakarta shows great social and environmental challenges when dealing with water management. Then, a comprehensive literature review on facing climate change and flood risk was undertaken. In response to sea level rise, adaptation measures can help reduce vulnerability and lead to city’s resilience. However, in some cases where the existing system incapable of mitigating future risks, transformational adaptation which goes beyond incremental adaptation is needed. Jakarta’s flooding problem calls for transformational solutions to become sustainable and resilience. This research changed focus from designing adaptation plan for existing city to transforming the city for a long-term period. The 3 key processes are mitigation, adaptation and transformation. Taking UN sustainable development goals as a framework, the concept is treating the existing city as a resource. Recycling the old city to be the new Jakarta. The process towards transformation needs to sacrifice the existing city, demolish existing buildings, and turn waste into sustainable buildings and city that reduce the impact of climate change and land subsidence. This research shows hope for Jakarta to stay. The scenarios in this research are one of the possible outcomes on transforming the city to be sustainable and resilience. The key outcome will be how government apply this concept and principles to Jakarta. To transform a city, it needs the collaboration of experts from different fields. Therefore, there are areas from this research that requires further studies for it to be achieved, such as recycling industry, future food industries, and future transportation. While this research has established transformation plan for Jakarta in facing flood risk, it is hoped that this research will lead the government or stakeholder to take further action in this matter and the communities to understand the urgency on dealing with climate change and protect our environment.
Image: Floating Park. 242
Image: (Right) Future Zoning Plan. (Left) Floating House. 244
URBD5821 URBAN DESIGN DISSERTATION Unit coordinator: Dr Anthony Duckworth-Smith
‘Legible Neighbourhoods - Guidelines to improve the design of suburbs for people with dementia’ How can we improve the design of suburbs for people with dementia so that they can continue to use them in order to enhance their quality of life? When I started this dissertation unit, I was interested in mental health and the urban environment. I delved into the topic of dementia as I was inspired by two people who currently suffer from it. The first person is my grandmother who is 75 years old, has mild dementia, and lives alone in my hometown in Malaysia. Every Saturday morning, I would drive to my grandmother’s house and take her to the local market nearby to buy breakfast and groceries for the following week. I never leave my grandmother to roam around the market alone because I had lost her before for half an hour and it was a terrifying experience. Despite her dementia, my grandmother insistently claims that she is physically and mentally capable of doing everything on her own and she never asks for help. The second person is my partner’s mother. She has onset dementia and is starting to have short term memory loss. Whenever she visits Perth, my partner and I will take her for walks to the local park and the shopping centre, and again we must always accompany her wherever she goes when outdoors because we fear that she might lose her way. As an urban designer, I want to help people with cognitive challenges like my grandmother and my partner’s mother, to live independently for as long as possible and be able to walk around the neighbourhood safely. Therefore, I embarked on this research journey to 246
Nearly 70% of Australians with dementia live at home, and one-third of1 them live alone despite experiencing difficulties caused by physical and cognitive impairments. Image: Legible Neighbourhoods cover.
Legible Neighbourhoods Alicia Chan
Illustration by Drew Shannon
Guidelines to improve the design of suburbs for people with dementia
create ‘Legible Neighbourhoods’ that will improve the design of suburbs for people with dementia, and generally anyone who has trouble navigating their way around spaces. The aim of this research is to investigate how to create neighbourhoods that enable people with dementia greater access to the public realm and actively participate in their local neighbourhood. This raised the following objectives: 1. To investigate the needs of people with dementia in their neighbourhoods, which contribute to a better quality of life. 2. To identify design factors that influences the experience of people with dementia in the outdoor environment. 3. To evaluate the nature and quality of the outdoor environment in Perth’s local neighbourhoods. 4. To make policy recommendations to Western Australia’s existing neighbourhood design policy based on dementia-friendly design. This research topic sparked from a personal interest on mental health, specifically dementia, due to intimate relationships with two family members afflicted with mild dementia and the anxiety felt when accompanying them to public spaces. During the initial stages of understanding dementia, it was evident that many people with dementia continue to live in their homes because they feel more comfortable in a familiar context. However, due to their diminishing capabilities in their cognitive and physical functions, they tend to isolate themselves within the confines of their homes leading to a reduced quality of life. This led to the research question: ‘How can we improve the design of suburbs for people with dementia so that they can continue to use them in order to enhance their quality of life?’ Prior to the literature review and analyses, three 248
research parameters were established. Firstly, people with dementia and seniors are the main focus user groups, but the research will attempt to relate to a broader range of age groups and capabilities. Secondly, the scope of this research is restricted to mild and moderate dementia as these stages indicate that institutionalisation is not yet required, and people can still stay in their homes and go outdoors. The third parameter is this research understands the importance of including people with dementia in the process but due to the limited time, data derived from existing research will suffice. This means that there is an opportunity to involve people with dementia to improve this research in the future. A comprehensive literature review was undertaken to understand people with dementia and their relationship with the neighbourhood. From the review, neighbourhoods can support a good quality of life by offering stability in a familiar environment, provide opportunities for physical exercise, social interactions, and everyday citizenship, and retain their freedom and independence. However, as people with dementia go through mental and physical changes due to the condition and old age, their experiences in the outdoor environment change as well. The barriers and design strategies of neighbourhood design revolve around the design of streets and built form, land use, wayfinding elements, and environmental stimuli. These findings were further reinforced by findings from the case studies, which also enlightened on the design process and measure to ensure the success outcome of these projects. Two neighbourhoods – Myaree and Tapping – in Perth metropolitan region were then selected with the aim to flesh out issues with the existing neighbourhood design based on the information from the literature review. The analysis consisted of a neighbourhood-scale mapping of the street
network, land use and public amenities, and a site walk of three different routes. It was clear that Perth’s neighbourhoods are not designed to accommodate people with dementia and seniors, in general. Main issues identified were poor street design, low connectivity and accessibility to local facilities and amenities, and lack of wayfinding tools in the environment. Initially, the goal of this research was to design an improved or idealised version of the neighbourhoods that is more inclusive to people with dementia. This shifted mid-way through the research to a focus to the Liveable Neighbourhoods policy review, which will serve more importance in delivering recommended design guidelines that will improve the legibility and accessibility of neighbourhoods. This policy review makes specific recommendations for four design elements – community design, movement network, public parkland, and activity centres and employment. This research envisions that future neighbourhood design will be taken to the next level and start looking at spaces from a dementia perspective.
Endnotes 1. Alzheimer’s Australia NSW, Living Alone With Dementia (2013), https://www.dementia.org.au/sites/default/ files/20131011-NSW-PUB-LivingAlone_ServiceGuide.pdf.
URBD5802 URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 2 Unit coordinators: Dr Robert Cameron & Dr Anthony Duckworth-Smith Studio coordinator: Dr Robert Cameron ‘East Morley’
DILLON GORTON ‘Morley Market Trail’
The ascending fingers of the market trail reach deep into the surroundings of the new Morley train station hub to draw in the disparate parts of the urban fabric to come together in an integrated civic experience. Architecture, landscape, infrastructure and transport culminate in a new active community space. The market trail finds value in the existing light industrial history, the natural ecology present in the wetlands, and the highly participated sports and community clubs. The development re-interprets these disparate elements and prioritises their presence as integral to the site and area. The urban market promenade, leading from all directions to the elevated plaza, presents a platform for displaying and sharing the goods and services crafted and produced within the vicinity to the wider community, encouraging engaging participation and pride through self-sufficiency as a means of boosting quality of life. The Morley station development adheres and builds upon the vibrantly diverse local character, acknowledging the importance of easily accessible workplaces and a successful public transit network that prioritises the human over the vehicle. The various built forms proposed abide by a found concept of being able to live - work recreate in one place.
Image: Section and axonometric of the Wetlands Precinct of the Morley Train Station development. 251
Image: Morley Station perspectives and masterplan. 252
URBD5802 URBAN DESIGN STUDIO 2 Unit coordinators: Dr Robert Cameron & Dr Anthony Duckworth-Smith Studio coordinator: Dr Robert Cameron ‘East Morley’
TIMOTHY DAWSON ‘Morley Park’
Morley Park seeks to capitalise on a once-in-a-generation opportunity for urban renewal, made possible by a new railway line. The extant site condition is consistent with Perth middle-ring suburbia – dominated by private vehicular infrastructure, single residential development, and a shopping centre, which belies a neighbourhood with a strong urban structure. The response to this site is three-fold: 1. Mobility: The implementation of a rapid transit service, secondary to the heavy passenger rail, provides a direct link to the Morley strategic activity centre and beyond, providing a speed-competitive solution to the transit desert of middle-ring suburban Perth, and linking suburban activity centres. 2. Activity: The implementation of an inclusionary zoning model lowers the bar for entry for business owners by allowing and incentivising mixed-use development, live-work spaces, ancillary commercial units, and small-scale commercial, retail and hospitality. This aligns with the rapid transit link and creates an activity corridor between the railway station and the existing activity centre. 3. Liveability: Provide housing diversity through medium-density single residential, missing-middle housing, and high density living, where the organisational structure of the urban realm is the site’s landscape elements, rather than vehicular thoroughfares. Finally, the station building itself becomes a landmark for the region: a habitable infrastructural element which is central to the identity of the place and a nexus point for the re-connection of four quadrants, previously torn apart by the physical and psychological barriers of Tonkin Highway and the Broun Avenue bridge. The canopy collects and distributes the life of Morley Park, which will be a connected, active, 15-minute neighbourhood where housing diversity, employment opportunities and regional mobility support an active lifestyle engaged with nature, providing an active green link to Perth’s north-east. Image: Morley Park perspective. 254
Image: Plans and sections. 256
LAND USE MAP
Image: Design HUB, Summer Exhibition 2020 opening night, 19 November 2020. Photography by Samantha Dye. 258