Page 1


First published in Great Britain 2001 by A & C Black Publishers Ltd This second edition published 2012 by Bloomsbury Publishing Pic 50 Bedford Square London W C1B 3DP www.bloomsbury.com Copyright Š Rawdon Wyatt, 2012 All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Publisher. A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library. ISBN: 978-1-4081-5393-2 This book is produced using paper that is made from wood grown in managed, sustainable forests. It is natural, renewable and recyclable. The logging and manufacturing processes conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin. Typeset by Saxon Graphics Ltd, Derby Printed and bound in Great Britain by MPG Books Limited


Introduction This w o rk b o o k has been w ritten for students w h o are planning to sit either the Academic or General Training modules of the IELTS examination. It covers some of the main vocabulary areas tha t you will need for, or come across in, the Listening, Reading, W ritin g and Speaking sections of the exam. W e hope that you find the exercises in this book useful, and that the vocabulary you acquire will help you to achieve the grade you w a n t in the IELTS. G o o d luck!

Structure of the hook Each vocabulary area is presented in the form of a self-contained m odule w ith task-based activities w hich present each vocabulary item in context. • Pages 1 - 5 7 focus on genera! vocabulary items. Some of these are relevant to specific tasks or questions in the IELTS examination (for example, describing h o w something works, talking abo u t changes shown in a graph or table, saying w h e re things are and fo llow ing directions). • Pages 5 8 - 1 0 4 focus on topic-specific vocabulary areas w hich may be required in the examination (for example, education, architecture, family matters and science and technology). Each m odule consists of three tasks: the first t w o present vocabulary items in context, each w ith a practice or recognition exercise, and the third gives you the o p p o rtu n ity to review the vocabulary in a gap-fill exercise. • Pages 1 0 5 - 1 2 4 contain a comprehensive key so you can check y o u r answers. T h e answer key also gives additional information abo u t specific vocabulary items or general vocabulary areas, as well as other useful w ords or phrases.

Using the workbook You should not w o rk through the book mechanically from beginning to end. It is better to choose areas that you are unfamiliar with, or areas that you feel are of specific interest or importance to yourself.

Recording, reviewing and extending your vocabulary Rem em ber tha t you should keep a record of n e w words, phrases and expressions tha t you acquire, and review these on a regular basis so that they become part of yo u r active vocabulary. Also rem em ber tha t there are other ways of acquiring n e w vocabulary. For example, you should read as much as possible from a variety of authentic reading materials (books, newspapers, magazines, web-based articles, etc.).

Using an English dictionary To help you develop y o u r vocabulary m ore effectively, you should use a go o d m onolingual English dictionary. This should clearly explain w h a t the w ords mean, sh o w you h o w they are pronounced, sh o w you their various forms w h e re relevant (e.g., w h a t the noun fo rm o f an adjective is), tell you which w ords or phrases the y collocate w ith, and give sample sentences to sh o w yo u h o w the w ords are used. W e particularly recom m end the M acm illan English D ictio n a ry fo r A d v a n c e d Learners (ISBN 978-1405026284). A free on-line version o f this can also be fo un d at www.m acm illandictionary.com .

The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) T h e IELTS is administered by the University of Cam bridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), the British Council and IDP Education Australia. For further information, visit w w w .u d e s .o r g .u k . Note that this book is not endorsed by any of these organisations.

about this workbook

About this workbook


contents iv

Contents Page Title

Page Title

General vocabulary

47

Reason & result

1

Addition, equation and conclusion

48

Shape & features

2

Around the world

49

Size, quantity & dimension

3

Changes 1

51

Spelling

5

Changes 2

52

Stopping something

7

Condition

53

Success & failure

8

Confusing words & false friends 1

54

Task commands

10

Confusing words & false friends 2

55

Time

12

Context & meaning 1

56

Useful interview expressions

14

Context & meaning 2

16

Context & meaning 3

58

Architecture

18

Contrast and comparison

61

The arts

19

Emphasis & misunderstanding

64

Business & industry

20

Focusing attention

67

Children & the family

21

Generalisations & specifics

69

Crime & the law

23

Groups

71

Education

24

How something works

73

The environment

25

Joining or becoming part of something bigger

75

Food & diet

26

Likes & dislikes

78

Geography

27

Location & direction

80

Global problems

30

Modified words

82

Healthcare

32

Objects & actions

84

The media

34

Obligation & option

86

Men & women

35

Opinion, attitude & belief

89

Money & finance

37

Opposites: adjectives

91

On the road

38

Opposites: verbs

93

Science & technology

39

Ownership, giving, lending & borrowing

96

Sport

40

Phrasal verbs 1

98

Town & country

41

Phrasal verbs 2

100

Travel

43

Phrasal verbs 3

102

Work

44

Phrasal verbs 4

46

Presenting an argument

105

Answers

Topic-specific vocabulary


1 Put the follow ing words and phrases into their correct place in the table depending on their function.

along with also and as well as besides correspondingly equaHy furthermore in addition in brief in conclusion in the same way likewise moreover similarly thus therefore to conclude to summarise to sum up briefly too we can conclude that what's more Addition and

Equation equally

general vocabulary

Addition, equation & conclusion

Conclusion in conclusion

2 Complete these sentences w ith one of the w ords or phrases from above. In most cases, more than one answer is possible. 1.

Tourism brings m uch-needed m o ney to developing countries............................................................... .. it provides e m plo ym e n t fo r the local population.

2 .................................................................. b rin ging m uch-needed m oney to developing countries, tourism provides e m plo ym e n t fo r the local population. 3.

Tourists should respect the local e n viro n m e n t............................................................... the y should respect the local customs.

4 .................................................................. e nviro nm ent.

industrial waste, pollution from car fum es is poisoning the

5.

In o rde r to travel, yo u need a passport................................................................, you m ig h t need a visa, im m unisation jabs and w ritte n permission to visit certain areas.

6.

Drugs are banned in Britain - .............................................................w eapons such as guns and knives.

7.

A ll p o w e r corrupts............................................................... .. absolute p o w e r corrupts absolutely.

8.

You sh o uld n 't smoke, drink, take drugs o r eat unhealthy f o o d .................................................................. you should live a m ore healthy lifestyle.

9.

Th e o zo ne layer is becom ing depleted, the air in the cities is becom ing to o d irty to breathe and o u r seas and rivers are no longer safe to swim in................................................................ pollution is slowly destroying the planet.

10. Yo u r grades have been very p o or fo r the past tw o years................................................................. you need to w o rk really hard if you w a n t to pass yo u r exams next m onth.

1


general vocabulary

Around the world 1 Choose the correct w o rd or phrase in bold to com plete these sentences. 1.

Japan, Korea and Taiw a n are all in the Near East / the M id dle East / the Far East.

2.

Th e South Pole is situated in the

3.

N e w Zealand is part of A ustria / Australia / Australasia.

4.

Bangladesh is part of the Indian su bcontine n t / India / Indiana.

5.

Guatem ala is a co un try in N o rth A m erica / South Am erica / Central Am erica.

Arctic / A ntarctic / Antarctica.

6.

A rg e n tin a , Brazil, C olom bia, Panama and Honduras all form part of w h a t is often referred to as Latin A m erica / South Am erica / Spanish Am erica.

7.

Botswana is in South Africa / southern Africa / Central Africa.

8.

England, Scotland, W ales and N orthern Ireland are kn o w n collectively as Britain / Great Britain / the U nited K ing d o m .

9.

T h e United K ing d om and the Republic of Ireland are part of C o ntinental Europe / M ainland Europe / Europe.

10. K uw ait, O m a n and the United A ra b Emirates form part of w h a t are k n o w n as the W e st Indies / the G u lf States / the European U nion. 11. Denm ark, Finland, N o rw a y and Sw eden are kn o w n collectively as the Baltic Republics / the Caribbean / Scandinavia. 12. Bangkok, Lima and Tunis are examples of capital / capitol / capitalism cities. 2 W h a t are the nationalities of the people w h o com e from these countries? 1.

A f g h a n i s t a n . ..................

2. A rg e n tin a ...........................

3. A u s tra lia ..........................................

4. B an gla d esh .....................................

5. B e lg iu m .................................

6. B ra zil.................................................

7.

C a n a d a ...........................................

8. D e n m a rk ..............................

9. E g y p t..................................................

10. E n g la n d ..........................................

11. F in la n d ................................

12. G reece.............................................

13. In d ia ................................................

14. Ira n .......................................

15. Ira q...................................................

16. Ireland............................................

17. Israel....................................

18. Jap a n ...............................................

19. K u w a it............................................

20. Le b a n on .............................

21. M alaysia.........................................

22. M exico.............................................

23. M o ro cco .............................

24. the N e th e rla n d s.........................

25. N o rw a y...........................................

26. P akistan.............................

27. P eru.................................................

28. the Philippines.............................

29. P olan d .................................

30. P o rtu g a l.........................................

31. Russia..............................................

32. Saudi A ra b ia .....................

33. Scotla n d .........................................

34. S p a in ...............................................

35. S w e d e n ..............................

36. S w itze rla n d ...................................

37. T h a ila n d .........................................

38. T u r k e y .................................

39. W ales .............................................

40. Y e m e n .............................................

Is you r country on this list? If not, h o w do you say yo u r nationality in English?

2


1 Look at the gra ph , and com plete the sentences w ith the correct form of the w o rd s and phrases in the box. In m ost cases, m ore than one o ption is possible.

decline decrease drop go up increase peak at remain steady rise

fall fluctuate reach a peak of

go down remain constant

English school student numbers: May - August. □

Briarwood School of English

Speakeasy School of Languages

[= □

W indsor Language Centre

Harefield College

May

June

July

general vocabulary

Changes 1

August

Between M ay and A ug ust... 1.

...student numbers at the Briarwood School of English increa sed / .................... / .......................

2.

...student numbers at the W indsor Language C e n t r e ....................... / .................. / .................... /

.................... / ...................... 3.

...student numbers at the Speakeasy School of L a n g u a g e s .................... / ...............................................

4.

...student numbers at Harefield C o l le g e .......................... T h e y .................. / ....................

120 in June.

2 Look at this table, and com plete the sentences on the next page w ith w o rd s and phrases from the box. In som e cases, m ore tha n one a n s w e r is possible. Th e re is one w o rd o r phrase th a t yo u do n o t need. Petrol prices January

£1.10/ litre

June

£ 1 .5 5 /litre

February

£ 1 .1 2 /litre

July

£ 1 .5 2 /litre

March

£1.15/litre

August

£ 1 .5 3 /litre

April

£1.18/litre

September

£1.58 /litre

M ay

£1.16/litre

October

£1.60 /litre

downward trend upward trend

dramatically

gradually

sharply

slightly

steadily

3


general vocabulary

Changes 1 1.

Between January and April, petrol prices incre as ed ............. ...... / ......................

2.

In May, petrol prices fell —

3.

In June, petrol prices rose .. ................. / ........................

4.

Overall, there has been an . ................... in petrol prices

3 Look at the task in the box, the n com plete the sam ple a nsw e r w ith w o rd s and phrases from Exercises 1 and 2. In som e cases, m ore than one a nsw e r m a y be possible. The graph b e lo w shows the n u m b e r o f visitors to three seaside tow ns over a five-m onth period. Summ arise the in fo rm a tio n b y selecting a n d re p o rtin g the m ain features, a n d m ake com parisons w here relevant.

MB Seahaven

W e stha m pto n

Bridgeport

16 15 14 13 o o o X

l/l <D

_Q

E d c L_ o 'i/i >

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

August

May

April Sample answer

T h e graph shows h o w m a ny people visited three seaside to w ns betw een April and August. T h e n u m b e r of visitors to Seahaven (1) .increased ( 2 ) .................... ( 3 ) ....................

( 4 ) ....................

betw een April and June, then

in July, and continued to ( 5 ) ....................

in August. For the first four

months, visitor numbers to B ridgeport ( 6 ) .................... .. but then ( 7 ) ....................

( 8 ) ....................

in the final m onth. W e stha m pto n visitor numbers ( 9 ) .................... from April to June, then ( 1 0 ) ....................

( 1 1 ) ....................

in July and finally ( 1 2 ) .................... 11,000 in August.

Overall, there was an ( 1 3 ) .................... in the n u m b e r of visitors to Seahaven and W e stham pton, but a ( 1 4 ) .................... in the n u m b e r of people visiting Bridgeport.

4


1 C o m p lete these sentences w ith the correct form of one of the verbs in th e box. Both sentences in each sentence pair should use the same ve rb . In som e cases, the m e an in g of the ve rb m ay change slightly.

adjust swell

aftef deteriorate switch vary

exchange

fade

reduce

renovate

1.

M o vin g to the countryside radically altered our lifestyle.

Some people choose to 3Iter their appearance w ith surgery.

2.

B y .................... to a different provider, it can be possible to pay much less for yo u r mobile phone bills.

I chose drama as an extra-curricular activity, b u t .................... to p h o to grap hy a f e w weeks later.

3.

It can take time to different country.

4.

Th e noise built up rapidly, and then just as quickly i t .................... into the distance.

As the applause started talking.

5.

Th e a m o u n t of tax you pay on a car .................... according to the a m o u n t of carbon dioxide it emits.

People's reactions to the medicine .................... a lot, w ith some people complaining it has no effect at all.

6.

Everyone should try t o .................... the a m o u n t of fat in their diet.

M a n y companies were forced t o ....... their workforce during the recession.

7.

Economic crises often unrest.

8.

Ankles and other joints often w h e n people travel by air.

9.

T h e tokens can be student canteen.

to living in a

into social

general vocabulary

Changes 2

Prices seem low, but w h e n y o u .................... them to allow for tax, they are considerably higher.

., the speaker

Th e w e a t h e r ......................rapidly w h e n it started raining and the winds picked up.

T h e t o w n is home to 3,000 people, but this f i g u r e .................... to 12,000 in the same summer.

for food in the

10. Businesses in the city centre were offered fun din g so they c o u l d .................... their premises.

Shops will n o r m a l l y .................... damaged goods if you have a receipt.

In some cases it can be more expensive to .................... an old building than knock it d o w n and build a n e w one.

5


general vocabulary

Changes 2 2 N o w do the same w ith these.

adapt relax

cut decline disappear replace transform

improve

promote

T h e plan is t o .................... all the old desktop com puters in the library w ith netbooks.

1.

Email has la rg e ly .................... the traditional letter as a means o f w ritte n business com m unication.

2.

Som e com panies are slow to cha n gin g m arket.

to a

Courses can b e ..........................to suit th e needs o f individual students.

3.

T h e sym ptom s o f illnesses like measles a re n't usually serious, a n d .................... w ith in a fe w days.

As the s u n ....................... behind th e clouds, the tem p e ra ture quickly d ro p p e d .

4.

A college course can help you to find a jo b o r g e t .................... at w o rk .

Th e 'Peter Principle' is a th e o ry w h ich says th a t in a big com pany, everyone eventually g e t s .................... to a jo b th a t is beyond their ability.

5.

Som e people th in k th a t the go ve rn m e n t s h o u ld ................... the rules regarding b uildin g on protected land.

For the final part of the exercise, yo u need to repeatedly tig h te n , t h e n .................... yo u r stomach muscles.

6.

T h e go vern m en t's aim in the next five years is t o .................... educational standards.

T h e best w a y o f .................... y o u r English is to practise using it as m uch as possible.

7.

W a te r freezes in th e pipes, forcing th e m to .................... and burst.

Britain's u n iversitie s.......... ..........at an unprecedented rate at the end o f th e tw e n tie th century.

8.

S u p e rm a rk e ts .................... prices on m any basic items to attract m ore customers.

I believe th a t govern m en ts should increase spending on the arts instead o f .................... it.

9.

Email and social n e tw o rk in g websites have .................... the w a y people com m unicate.

W h e n it was closed d o w n , the old fire station w a s .................... into an art gallery.

10. House prices are so high th a t the n u m b e r o f people b uyin g th e ir o w n hom e has .................... in th e last five years.

6

expand

Because so m any people are o u t o f w o rk , living standards a r e .................... rapidly.


1 Complete the second sentence in each pair so that it has the same or a similar meaning to the first sentence. Use the words or phrases in bold, and any other w ords that are necessary. 1.

You can b o rro w m y dictionary if yo u return it before you g o hom e,

providing that You can b o rro w m y dictionary P JQ v jd jn g th a tyo u .return \\ before you go hom e. 2.

I should get m y assignm ent finished this w eekend if I have e no u gh tim e,

provided that

general vocabulary

Condition

I should get m y assignm ent finished this w e e k e n d .......................................e nou gh tim e. 3.

You can't go to university if you d o n 't get go o d exam grades at school,

unless You can't g o to u n iv e rs ity .......................................go od exam grades at school. 4.

Students can use the com m o n room in the evening if the y tid y up any mess th e y make,

on condition that Students can use the com m on room in the e v e n in g .......................................... up any mess they make. 5.

Pollution will get worse if w e continue to live in a th ro w a w a y society,

as long as Pollution w ill get w o r s e .......................................to live in a th ro w a w a y society. 6.

Children w ill always prefer fast food to fresh fru it and vegetables, even if you tell them h o w unhealthy it is.

no matter h o w Children will always prefer fast food to fresh fru it and v e g e ta b le s ,.......................................tell them it is unhealthy. 7.

C o m p uter p rog ra m m in g is complicated, even if you read a lot of books abou t it.

how ever many Com p uter p ro g ra m m in g is c o m p lic a te d ,.................................................................................... read abou t it. 8.

Crim e is a problem , even if you live in a small to w n or in

the countryside,

wherever Crim e is a p ro b le m ,.......................................live. 2 Complete these sentences using an appropriate w ord or phrase from above and your ow n ideas. 1.

British universities w ill accept students from a b r o a d ........................................................................................

2. W o rk in g fo r a large com pany can be a fulfilling experience

3. T h e environm ental situation will continue to worsen

4. Travelling helps you understand m ore abou t the w o rld around you

7


general vocabulary

Confusing words & false friends 1 Confusing words are tw o or more w ords which: (a) have a similar meaning to each other but which are used in a different w a y

(b ) are related to the same topic, but have a different meaning

(c) look similar, but have a different meaning.

False friends are w ords in English which have a similar-looking w o rd in another language, but w hich have a different meaning. Complete the follow ing sentence pairs w ith the appropriate w ord. 1.

aboard / abroad M o re and m ore people g o abroad fo r th e ir holiday. In 2002, she becam e th e first w o m a n to travel aboard the space shuttle Discovery.

2.

action / activity W e decided to take im m e d ia te .................... w h e n w e realised there was a problem . T h e e nviro nm e n ta l changes in the area are th e result o f h u m a n .......................

3.

advice / advise Can y o u ...................m e on the best course of action to take? He offered me some e x c e lle n t.......................

4.

affect / effect D iverting the course of the river w ill have a m a jo r ...................on the local ecosystem. Frequent traffic jams in th e suburbs se rio u s ly.................... jo u rn e y times into the city.

5.

appreciable / appreciative W id e n in g the road m ade a n ...................difference to th e flo w of traffic. T h e applause at the end o f the concert was w a rm a n d .....................

6.

avoid / prevent Rapid international action m anaged t o .................... an enviro nm e n ta l disaster fro m tak in g place. Th e re are areas in th e city th a t are wise t o .................... after dark.

7.

beside / besides T h e com pany's m ain office i s .................... th e railw ay station. .................... th e ir regular daytim e jo b , m any people d o extra w o rk in the evening.

8.

briefly /shortly .................... before th e earthquake began, m a ny animals w e re seen to be behaving in an unusual manner. She s p o k e .................... b u t passionately a b o u t th e need to help those in d eve lop in g countries.

8


9.

canal / channel A .................... system join ed the tw o m ain rivers, w hich m ade transporting goods m uch quicker. W h e n television first became p o pular in the early 1950s, there was only o n e .......................

10. conscientious / conscious Most people a r e .................o f the need to protect the e nvironm ent. .................... w orkers should be rew arded fo r their hard w o rk .

11. considerable / considerate In m y o pinio n, some people are not v e r y .................... of those around them . A ............................................a m o u n t of m o n ey was spent on developing the product.

12. continual / continuous T h e co m p uter system has given u s .................... problem s ever since w e installed it. Some days it works, o ther days it doesn't. T h e ........................noise fro m the n e w m o to rw a y has forced m any people to move.

13. control / inspect N e w teachers often find it difficult t o .................... the ir classes. Environm ental health inspectors regularly .................... especially those in restaurants.

comm ercial kitchens fo r cleanliness,

14. criticism / objection I have n o .................... to people using their m obile phones on buses o r trains. Plans fo r the n e w stadium have attracted fie rc e .................... from local people.

15. damage / harm / injury He suffered a se rio u s .................... w hich needed im m ediate hospital treatm ent. T h e lo w levels of dangerous chemicals in the river w ere enough to ca u se .................... to aquatic life. A lot o f .................... was caused to buildings along the coast d urin g the storm.

16. during / for / while T h e college closes.................... t w o weeks at the end of December. He d i e d .................... tryin g to cross the desert alone. M a n y creatures stay u n d e r g ro u n d .................. d ayligh t hours.

17. how ever / moreover Th e plan was g o o d in t h e o ry ..................... . in practice it was extrem ely difficult to im plem ent. T h e plan was excellent....................... it was clear fro m the begin n in g th a t it was goin g to attract a lot o f interest.

18. injured / w ounded I believe th a t w e should do m ore to help and support soldiers w h o have been .................... in com bat. Several w orkers w e r e .................... w h e n the drilling platform collapsed.

general vocabulary

Confusing words & false friends 1


general vocabulary

Confusing words & false friends 2 C o m p lete th e fo llo w in g sentence pairs w ith th e a pp ro p ria te w o rd o r phrase. 1.

jo b / w o rk Everybody has the rig h t to a d e c e n t .................... w ith g o o d pay. D u rin g the econom ic recession, a lot of people fo u n d themselves o u t o f .......................

2.

lay / lie If y o u 're suffering fro m d e h yd ra tio n , yo u should d rin k p lenty of w a te r and sit o r .................... d o w n fo r a w hile. Before yo u begin the experim ent, you s h o u ld .................... a large plastic sheet on the g ro u n d .

3.

look at / w a tch W e need to .................... th e situation carefully over the next fe w w eeks and see h o w things develop. W e need t o .................... the problem carefully and decide if there is a n yth in g w e can d o a b o u t it.

4.

loose / lose Som e people are ve ry com petitive and hate t o .................................a gam e or com petitio n. T h e surface is m ainly com posed o f .................... soil and small stones.

5.

m ake / cause T h e noise fro m traffic outside th e school c a n .................... it hard to hear w h a t the teacher is saying. H u rric a n e s .................... w idespread d am a ge in urban areas.

6.

nature / countryside Thousands o f .................... lovers head fo r th e national parks every w ee ke nd . I'd rather live in t h e .................... tha n in a city.

7.

per cent / percentage It is a m yth th a t o n ly t e n ....................... of Am ericans hold a passport. O n ly a s m a ll............................... o f land is privately o w n e d .

8.

perm ission / p erm it I'm afraid w e c a n 't .................... p h o to g ra p h y in th e m useum . .

W e re c e iv e d t o attend th e m eeting, as long as w e d id n 't interrupt. 9.

personal / personnel M y o w n .................... v ie w is th a t professional football players are paid far to o m uch. T h e co m p an y w as in tro u b le until there was a change o f .................... on th e m a n a g e m e n t team .

10. possibility / chance W e m ig h t go to Spain fo r o u r field trip . A n o t h e r .................... is th a t w e 'll g o to Italy instead. If w e act now , w e have a g o o d .................... of fin d in g a cure fo r the disease.

10


11. practice / practise It's im p o rta n t t o .................... yo u r English w h e n e ve r possible. I th in k I need m o r e .................... before I take the exam. 12. priceless / w orthless .................. paintings by artists like Van G o g h and R em brandt should not be in the hands of private collectors.

general vocabulary

Confusing words & false friends 2

As inflation spiralled o u t of control, paper m oney suddenly became a lm o s t....................... 13. principal / principle M a n y people refuse to eat m eat o n ..................... She was appointed U n iv e rs ity .................... in 2009. T h e c o u n try 's .................... fo o d products are coffee and sugar. I believe in t h e .................... th a t healthcare should be free fo r everyone. 14. problem / trou b le A t night, the streets are full of people fig h tin g and generally causing ....................... I was w o n d e rin g if you could help me w ith a litt le .................... I'm having. 15. process / procession T h e h igh lig h t of the carnival is a h u g e .................... along the to w n's main street. In some cases, applying fo r a visa can be a long and fru s tra tin g ....................... 16. raise / rise As p ric e s .................... . dem and usually drops. In response to th e oil crisis, most airlines had t o .................... th e ir fares. 17. rem em ber / rem ind I

c a n ........m y first day at school really w ell.

Language teachers o f t e n ..................... th e ir students th a t th e best w a y to rem em ber n e w w ords is to use the m as m uch as possible. 18. respectable / respectful W e all listened i n .................... silence as she outlined her plans fo r the museum's future. Everybody w ants to bring th e ir children up in a .................... n e igh b o u rh o o d . 19. tolerable / to lerant People need to be m o r e .................... of th e ir neighbours, and not com plain every tim e th e y make to o m uch noise. Th e local authorities say th a t the noise fro m passing trains i s .................... . b ut m any living near the railw ay lines disagree. 20. treat / cure M a n y hospitals are so understaffed th a t the y are refusing t o ................patients w ith m inor injuries. Th e n e w d ru g was unable t o .................... the disease, and hundreds died as a result.

11


general vocabulary

Context & meaning 1 W h e n w e see a n e w w o rd (in a reading passage, fo r exam ple), w e can often w o rk o u t w h a t it means, o r ge t an idea o f w h a t it means, by looking at the context in w hich it appears (fo r exam ple, w h a t is th e passage a bo ut, w h a t is the sentence a bo u t and w h a t info rm a tio n comes before and after the w o rd ? ). Identifying th e m ean in g o f a w o rd fro m its context is an especially useful skill in th e IELTS Reading Test.

1

Look at these words, and answer the questions which follow.

nocturnal 1.

2.

cites

coherently

feat

W ith o u t seeing them in a sentence, do you k n o w (or can you guess) w h a t the w ords in the box mean? nocturnal:

Yes/N o

cites:

Yes/N o

coherently:

Yes / No

feat:

Yes / No

N o w look at th e w o rd s in the passage. Can yo u guess w h a t they m ean n o w ? In y o u r o w n w ords, explain w h a t th e y m ig h t mean.

T h e rem arkable success o f Sim on W e be r's b o o k on ow ls, bats, foxes and o th e r nocturnal creatures, A Call in the Dark, is p ro b a b ly n o t surprising in vie w of th e p o p u la rity o f his recent television series, 'N ig h t Prow lers'. It is a ve ry th o ro u g h b o o k by an a u th o r w h o is an e xpert in his field a nd w h o has clearly d o n e a lot o f research. In a d d itio n to describing his o w n findings, he cites th e research carried o u t by others, inclu d in g W r ig h t and Lawson in the 1990s, and discusses w h e re th e y m ig h t have g o n e w ro n g w ith som e of th e ir assum ptions. He w rites coherently on th e subject, b e g in n in g by lo o kin g at basic facts before discussing progressively com plex theories, w ith o u t once confusing his readers. This is a rem arkable feat, considering th e com p lexity o f the subject and th e science th a t is o ften involved.

nocturnal: cites: coherently: feat:

2

Look at the w ords in bold in sentences 1 - 1 5 , and try to decide w h a t they mean.

1.

T h e jo u rn e y across the hills was long and arduous, m uch o f it having to be d o ne on fo o t in tem peratures o f over 40°C.

2.

Foxes are a co m m o n sight in o u r to w n s and cities, w h e re th e y forage in dustbins, in gardens and on waste g ro u n d .

3.

T h e cuckoo is a rare and elusive bird w hich is often heard b u t rarely seen.

4.

T h e research th e y carried o ut was exhaustive, so by the tim e th e project was com plete, th e y knew e verything th e y had to k n o w a b o u t th e ir subject.

5.

T h e hotel w e stayed in was a mediocre place, w ith small rooms, rather dull fo od and an uninspiring v ie w o f a car park.


6.

Research suggests th a t children are m ore resilient than adults w h e n it comes to ge ttin g over an illness.

7.

T h e room was extrem ely untidy, w ith stacks of books and piles of paper all over th e floor, and unw ashed coffee cups on the tables.

8.

He was an extrem ely prolific author, w ritin g three or fo u r novels a year as w ell as m any short stories.

9.

W a te r is essential fo r hum an life, so it is im perative w e make sure th a t in the future there is e no u gh fo r everyone.

general vocabulary

Context & meaning 1

10. A tte m p ts to im ple m en t change m et w ith strong resistance at first, b ut gradually people realised th a t this change was needed. 11. M a n y m en say th a t the y are w illin g to share the b urden o f domestic duties like w ashing and cooking, b u t I d o u b t th a t th e y m ean it. 12. Th e building is designed to s w a y slightly in strong w inds, b ut it's still a rather frig h te n in g sensation w h e n you are on th e uppe r floors. 13. M a n y people w o u ld like to o w n a house in the city centre, b u t pro h ib itive pro p erty prices m ean th a t very fe w o f the m w o u ld ever be able to buy such a place. 14. Th e city centre has some beautiful old buildings, b u t there are some extrem ely ugly industrial estates on the fringe. 15. Employees are encouraged to use the ir initiative w h e n th e y are faced w ith a problem and there is n o b o d y m ore senior there to help them .

3

N o w match the w ords in bold in sentences 1 - 1 5 above w ith their definitions (a) - (o) below.

(a)

A serious or difficult responsibility th a t yo u have to deal w ith , burden

(b )

Producing a lot of things, ideas, etc..............................

(c)

T h e ability to decide w h a t to do in an independent

(d )

A b le to quickly becom e healthy, happy or strong a g a in ...............................

(e)

M o ve o r sw ing slightly fro m side to side..........................................

(f)

Difficult or impossible to catch o r fin d ..............................................

(g )

M ake som ething such as in idea, plan, system, etc., start to w o rk ................................

(h)

w a y .................

Extremely difficult and involving a lot of effort..............................

(i)

Th e oute r edge of som e thing...............................

(j)

So expensive th a t n o bo d y can afford it............................................

(k)

T h o ro u g h and co m p lete ...............................

(I)

To search in a w id e area fo r som ething, especially f o o d ...............................

(m )

Piles of things placed one on to p of another. ...........................

(n )

Extrem ely im po rtan t and u rg e n t................................

(o )

A vera ge o r b e lo w average...............................

13


general vocabulary

Context & meaning 2 1 Read these sentences carefully, and decide if the definitions in italics of the w ords in bold are correct or incorrect. If they are incorrect, try to give a correct definition. Th e first one has been done as an example. 1.

I'm w o rrie d th a t a lack o f suitable qualifications w ill hinder m y search fo r a job . H elp som eone o r som eth ing, o r m ake so m e th in g easier.

Correct / Incorrect

H in d e r kvtefliA-s to stop som-eo^e or so^vtethli/vg fro m w -atel^g progress or developing.

2.

Research was g oing well, but there was a risk that cuts in funding w o u ld jeopardise the entire project. Risk d a m a g in g o r de stro ying so m e th in g im p o rta n t.

3.

W h e n yo u address a m eeting, it is im p o rta n t to speak clearly, confidently and at a g o o d pace. W rite a le tte r to som eone.

4.

Correct / Incorrect

T h e villas w e re basically flimsy w o o d e n huts th a t shook every tim e there w as a bit of w in d . S tro n g a n d w e ll b u ilt o r m ade.

5.

Correct / Incorrect

Correct / Incorrect

A lth o u g h several species of turtle can be fo u n d in relatively cool seas, w a rm w a te r provides the optimal conditions fo r breeding. The best o r m o st suitable w ith in a ra n g e o f possibilities.

6.

It can be very difficult fo r im m igrants to integrate into local society, especially if the re are m arked cultural differences. M e e t p e o p le o r m ake useful contacts.

7.

Correct / Incorrect

He was a talented yo u n g film director w hose unique and innovative style inspired generations of film students. D ifficult to understand.

9.

Correct / Incorrect

From the outset o f the expedition th e y k n e w th e y w e re g o in g to have problem s, so it was no surprise w h e n o nly t w o days later things started to go very w ro n g . The e n d o f som eth ing.

8.

Correct / Incorrect

Correct / Incorrect

T h e b uildin g is 200 metres tall and tapers g e n tly to a point, giving it the appearance o f a thin, glass pyram id. G ra d u a lly becom es w id e r tow a rds o ne end.

Correct / Incorrect

10. Th e re are one or tw o similarities b etw een m y coun try and the UK, b u t on the w h o le th e y are so disparate th a t it is difficult to find a ny com m o n g ro u n d . H a vin g m a n y differences.

Correct / Incorrect

11. M ost m o d ern fu rn itu re is functional b u t n o t especially aesthetic, especially w h e n com pared w ith some o f the beautiful and elegant designs of the past. Cheap b u t com fortable.

Correct / Incorrect

12. Shops k n o w th a t the y can attract m ore customers if th e y have a large array of colourful products on display by o r near the m ain entrance. A large g ro u p o f p e o p le o r things.

14

Correct / Incorrect


2

N o w do th e same w ith these.

1.

Th e track has a coarse surface, providing better grip fo r bicycle tyres and m aking the m less likely to skid on tig h t corners. S o ft a n d sm ooth.

2.

Correct / Incorrect

Th e idea o f a tunnel und er th e sea was first propagated by engineers in the nineteenth century, b ut it was almost 200 years before it became a reality. De signed a n d b u ilt

3.

Everyone was in favo u r o f m aking the city centre traffic free, b ut public opinion shifted w h e n locals realised th a t vehicles w o u ld need to be diverted th ro u g h residential areas. C h a n g e d o r m oved.

4.

Correct / Incorrect

People like the n e w system, b u t because of the costs involved w e d o not believe it is viable, and w e need to look fo r o th e r options. P o p u la r w ith people.

5.

Correct / Incorrect

Correct / Incorrect

Som e of Shakespeare's plays are often attrib u te d to o th e r writers, a lth o ugh m ore recent research suggests th a t the y w e re all his o w n w o rk . G iven to som eone else as a gift, d ona tion, etc.

6.

Correct / Incorrect

A lth o u g h the inventor had a patent fo r his n e w product, o ther companies and selling it, and he was forced to take legal action against them . A n a w a rd o r prize.

7.

Spiders usually trap th e ir prey in webs, b u t others actively h u n t fo r it. Correct / Incorrect

Som e illnesses are serious e no u gh to require medical trea tm en t, b ut fo r m in o r health problem s, a visit to the doctor is usually n o t w a rra n te d . To be unable to do som ething.

9.

rapidly began copying

Correct / Incorrect

A n an im a l th a t is ca u g h t a n d eaten b y a n o th e r anim al.

8.

general vocabulary

Context & meaning 2

Correct / Incorrect

W e need to com e up w ith a radical solution to the problem of crime in o u r to w n s and cities, since everything else seems to have failed. N e w a n d very d iffe re nt from the usual way.

Correct / Incorrect

10. D u rin g the m eeting, w e m ade progress on peripheral issues, b u t un fo rtu na tely w e failed to deal w ith the issues th a t had been causing us the most problems. The m ain o r m ost im p o rta n t p a rt o f som ething.

Correct / Incorrect

11. 1 hate flying, and n o th in g could induce m e to get on an aeroplane. Stop o r p re v e n t som ething.

Correct / Incorrect

12. Th e re w e re several small problem s w ith th e original device, and it needed to be refined slightly before it could go on sale. Turned o ff a n d then on again.

Correct / Incorrect

15


general vocabulary

Context & meaning 3 Sometimes, in a dditio n to its context, w e can w o rk o u t w h a t a w o rd means fro m 'clues' in the w o rd itself. These clues are usually in th e fo rm o f one or tw o w o rd s (o r parts o f w ord s) th a t w e already know , often w ith the a ddition of prefixes and / or suffixes. For exam ple:

Healthcare = health + care The to w n lacks basic healthcare facilities, so p e o p le have to travel m a n y miles to see a doctor.

Deforestation = de + forest + ation. D e forestation has resulted in the destruction o f thousands o f acres o f tropical forest. Facial = face + ial (th e e is rem oved) The co m p a n y started o f f p ro d u c in g a range o f facial cleansers a n d moisturisers w hich h a d n o t been tested o n animals.

1 Can you w o rk out w h a t the w ords in bold in these sentences mean? Check yo u r answers at the back of the book. 1. T h e co un try is ve ry poor, and one in seven children dies in infancy.

2.

A ll the em ployees are asked to produce a w ritte n evaluation of th e ir perform ance and hand it to the personnel m anager.

3.

T h e n e w d ru g does n o t cure th e illness, b u t can prolong the patient's life by up to five years.

4.

T h e farm was on to p o f a w ind sw ept hill, miles fro m the nearest to w n .

5.

Oil prices increased threefold over a five -ye a r period.

6.

T h e historical d o cu m e n t has been exam ined by several distinguished scholars, b u t none of the m can tell if it is g e n uine o r fake.

7.

W h e n yo u deliver the package, m ake sure th a t th e recipient signs fo r it.

8.

T h e centrepiece o f the n e w m useum is a H enry M o o re sculpture th a t was b o u g h t fro m a private collector.

9.

T h e city offers a m ultitude o f interesting and exciting activities fo r people of all ages.

10. G o v e rn m e n t statistics on the numeracy skills of ten-year-olds suggests th a t m ore emphasis needs to be placed on th e teaching of m athem atics in school.

11. T h e average lifespan o f an elep ha nt is 60 - 70 years.

12. Several interesting objects w e re fo u n d d u rin g the archaeological dig, b u t none o f th e m w ere of any great m onetary value.

16


13. From the to p of the tow er, w e looked o u t over a city of incredible grandeur.

14. From a traveller's standpoint, the com petition betw een airlines to w in customers is a g o o d th ing .

2

N o w do the same w ith these.

1.

Th e city was over 60 miles fro m the epicentre of the earthquake, b ut still suffered substantial dam age.

2.

In some cases, hospital outpatients have to w a it over three hours to see a doctor.

3.

To many, the evidence he provided did not validate his claim th a t the Earth m oved a ro u nd the Sun.

4.

M a n y medical professionals are concerned abo u t the widespread use of antibiotics to treat m inor medical conditions.

5.

M o d e rn seafarers rely on m odern techn ology to help th e m navigate th e oceans.

6.

A fte r the accident, he tem p o rarily lost spatial awareness, and could only pick up objects w h e n he closed one eye.

7.

A monorail connects th e airpo rt w ith the city, taking visitors into the heart of the city in less than 20 minutes.

8.

A n e w device w hich stimulates th e auditory areas of the brain offers hope to those w h o have serious hearing problem s.

9.

I d o n 't consider myself to be particularly industrious, b u t w h e n I'm given a job, I make sure it gets done.

general vocabulary

Context & meaning 3

10. W h e n , on his 104th birthday, he was asked abou t the secret to his longevity, he replied th a t he only ever ate raw vegetables and had never smoked.

11. T h e n e w airliner is m ore enviro nm e n ta lly-frie n dly than o the r aircraft, its only drawback being its lim ited flying range.

12. Th e M useum of C o n tem p o ra ry A rt showcases all th a t is best a b o u t m odern art.

13. Th e Alaskan wilderness is not a place yo u w a n t to be w h e n w in te r comes.

14. In this rem ote, poverty-stricken area, only a fe w children g o to school, and consequently a b o u t a qua rte r of the country's population is illiterate.

17


general vocabulary

Contrast & comparison Complete these sentences w ith the most appropriate w o rd or phrase from A, B or C. I.

T h e tw o machines differ considerably. O n e has an electric m otor, the oth e r runs on oil.

A. differ 2

B. differentiate

C. differential

T h e ..............................................................in w e a th e r b etw ee n the north and the south of the country is ve ry noticeable.

A. comparison 3.

B. differentiate

B.

contrast

B.

distinctive

C. contrast

B.

contrast

C. discriminate

Asia covers a h u ge area......................................................................................................... Europe is very small.

A. By w a y o f contrast 9.

C. distinction

T h e m a n a ge m e n t m ust n o t ..............................................................b etw ee n m ale and fem ale applicants.

A. differ 8.

C. distinguish

Can you tell t h e ..............................................................b etw ee n a g o o d boss and a bad one?

A. difference B. differentiate 7.

C. contrast

Th e re is a .............................................................. b etw ee n being interested in politics and jo in in g a political party.

A. distinguish 6.

C. compare

Children m ust be ta u g h t t o ..............................................................b etw ee n rig h t and w ro n g .

A. differ 5.

contrast

M a n y people c a n n o t ............................................................. b etw ee n lem on juice and lime juice.

A. differ 4.

B.

B. By ways o f comparing

C. By similar means

T h e n e w m odel o f car is v e r y ............................................................. to the old one.

A. same

B.

similar

C. common

10. H er political opinions a r e ............................................................. to mine.

A. same

B. exactly

C. identical

I I . Som e political parties have such similar manifestoes th a t they are difficult to

A. tell apart

B. say apart

C. speak apart

12. M y friends and I enjoy d o in g m any of th e same things. In that respect, w e have a lot

A. in similar

B. in particular

C. in common

13. Th e re seems to be a la rg e ............................................................... betw een the n u m b e r of people em ployed in service industries, and those em ployed in the prim ary sector.

A. discriminate

B. discretion

C. discrepancy

14. T h e nation's eco no m y is largely based on its industry, .............................................................. a fe w h u n d re d years a go it was an agrarian country.

A. while

B. whereas

C. whereby

15. British and Australian people share the same language, but in oth e r respects th e y are as different a s ................................................................

18

A. cats and dogs

B. chalk and cheese

C. salt and pepper


1 (Emphasis) Match the sentences on the left w ith an appropriate sentence on the right. 1.

Th e com m ittee's emphasis on th e w o rd 'recycling' was noticeable.

A . Some, however, are emphatic th a t m ore research needs to be carried out.

2.

O u r gu id e accentuated the im portance of rem aining calm if there was trouble.

B.

She emphasised the fact th a t panicking w o u ld o nly make matters worse.

3.

O u r teacher explained th a t it was crucially importantto pace ourselves w hile revising

C.

T h e m ain speaker gave prominence in his speech to the need fo r better jo b opportunities.

fo r the exam. 4. 5.

A t the conference, the accent was on une m plo ym e n t.

D. W e consider progress in this field to be

Prominent scientists have stated th a t

E.

He put great stress on the maxim th a t 'All w o rk and no play makes Jack a dull boy'.

F.

T h e y stressed again and again the im portance of reusing things as m uch as possible.

genetically m odified perfectly safe. 6.

fo o d

extremely important.

is probably

It is o f crucial importance th a t w e make m ore use of techn o lo gy if w e are to make progress.

general vocabulary

Emphasis & misunderstanding

2 (Emphasis) Complete these sentences w ith a w o rd or phrase in bold from exercise 1. You m ay need to change the form of the w ord or phrase. In some cases, more than one answer is possible. 1.

Painting the building w h ite did not make it look any better. In fact, it only ............................................................. its ugliness.

2.

T h e rugged hills are a .................................................... ........ feature of the landscape

3.

A t the m eeting of the Students' Council, the ............................................................. was on better standards of accom m odation.

4.

Th e Minister of T ra n s p o rt............................................. .............. on the need fo r an integrated transport policy.

5.

It i s ............................................................. th a t w e try to im prove relations betw een o u r countries.

6.

She banged th e table f o r ............................................. .............. as she spoke.

3 (M isunderstanding) Complete these sentences w ith an appropriate w o rd or expression from the box. In some cases, more than one answer is possible.

assumed mistaken

confused confusion mix-up obscure

impression

misapprehension

1.

I was c o m p le te ly ..............................................................by his explanation, and had to ask som eone else w h a t he m eant.

2.

Th e re w e re scenes o f ............................................... at the airport w h e n the snow storm stopped all the flights.

3.

W e nearly d id n 't catch o u r flig h t because of a ............................................................. over the tickets.

4.

Th e re are se v e ra l......................................................................... points in yo u r essay. It's not very clear.

5.

He was under t h e .......................................................... that socialism and communism w ere the same thing.

6.

W e a l l ............................................................. . w ro n g ly as it tu rn e d out, th a t w e w o u ld be interview ed individually.

7.

M a n y people a r e .............................................................. in the belief th a t organic fo o d is better fo r you than co n ve n tio n a lly-gro w n food.

8.

She gave us the ..................................................... th a t w e had done som ething to upset her, a lth o ug h w e had d one n o th in g of the sort.

19


general vocabulary

Focusing attention 1 Rearrange the letters in bold to form w ords which are used to focus attention on something. Th ey all end w ith the letters -ly. W rite the w ords in the grid underneath. If you do it correctly, you will find another w o rd used to focus attention in the bold vertical box. 1.

Th e y reduced p o llutio n psim ly by ban n in g cars from the city centre d u rin g the rush hour.

2.

I com e fro m a galerly rural co m m u n ity w h e re life moves at a slow er pace.

3.

W e 're iim prarly exam ining the financial aspects of the case.

4.

People inam ly g o on holiday in the summer.

5.

T h e college library is veceslxuily fo r the use o f students and staff.

6.

It's a ilaptarrculy difficult problem w hich w e hope to resolve as soon as possible.

7.

T h e advertisem ent is elcifipcsaly aim ed at people over 50.

8.

Some western countries, otbanly Canada and th e United States, have a very high standard of living.

9.

T h e tourists w h o visit m y to w n are stom ly Australian.

10. O u r trip to Poland was rpeuly an educational visit. 11. M y hom e to w n is fam ous h fie c lyio r its large n u m b e r of schools and colleges.

T h e w o rd in the in the bold vertical box fits into this sentence:

Th e com pany tra d e s .......................................................... in the Far East. 2 Divide the w ords above into tw o groups, one group being the w ords which mean o n ly or solely. and one group being the w ords w hich mean in m ost cases, norm ally or the main reason fo r som ething. In most cases, norm ally or the main reason for something sim ply

20

chiefly


1 M atch the sentences in th e first list b e lo w w ith an appropriate sentence in the second list on the next page. T h e underlined words and phrases in the first list should have a similar m eaning to the w o rd s and phrases in bold in the second list. W rite th e sentence letter (A , B, C, etc.) from th e second list after th e relevant sentence in the first list.

FIRST LIST

1 . Small items o f information are very im p o rta n t in a curriculum vitae. .Q.

2.

I need to have precise information abo u t yo u r n ew proposals......

3.

Th e plan was unable to go ahead because of a small important detail which is important in order

general vocabulary

Generalisations & specifics

to make something happen ......

4.

5.

He dem anded to k n o w the small. precise and sometimes unimportant details......

W h e n you read a piece of text in th e exam, you should read it quickly first to get the general

idea ......

6.

Before yo u w rite an essay, yo u should plan it first and give a broad description w ithout giving

much detail......

7.

Odd features or details which make something different make the w o rld a m ore interesting place......

8.

Saying th a t all yo u n g people spend to o much tim e on th e Internet is a bit of a general

statement......

9.

M a n y cars have very similar typical features......

10. Th e huge rise in co m p uter sales is a go o d example of the direction in w hich techn o lo gy is h e a d in g ......

11. Normally, most students sitting the exam m anage to pass w ith a g o o d g ra d e ......

12. Th e n e w library shows a good example o f British architecture at its best......

13. Before you travel som ew here, it is im p o rta n t to make a detailed list of things th a t you need to ta k e ......

14. French fries w ith mayonnaise is a dish w hich is an odd feature or detail o f Belgian cuisine......

15. Th e article shows as an example his views on the w a y the com pany should d eve lo p......

21


general vocabulary

Generalisations & specifics SECOND LIST A.

Please let me have the specifics as soon as possible.

B.

It's very frustrating w h e n a m in o r technicality puts a stop to yo u r plans.

C.

In the same way, kimchii is a concoction of cabbage, chilli and garlic w hich is peculiar to Korea.

D. You should include full details of yo u r past experience.

E.

Once yo u have an outline, yo u w ill discover th a t yo u r w o rk is easier to organise.

F.

W e m ust be careful n o t to m ake this kind o f generalisation.

G. Itemise e verythin g in o rd e r o f im portance, b e g in n in g w ith yo u r passport and visa.

H. As far as he was concerned, the minutiae could n o t be overlooked.

I.

M ost m anufacturers are aw are th a t these characteristics are w h a t help sell th e ir product.

J.

It also provides us w ith an accurate illustration of the advances w e have m ade in th e last 20 years.

K.

It illustrates his preference fo r increased a uto m a tio n .

L.

Once you have the gist, it should be easier to understand it.

M . It exemplifies the style th a t is becom ing increasingly p o pula r w ith to w n planners.

N.

In general, the average result is a B o r C.

O . For exam ple, it is one o f the peculiarities o f the British system th a t judges and lawyers w e a r w igs in court.

2

Put the w ords and phrases above into the table below, based on w hether they are talking about

specific things or general things. Then try to use the w ords in sentences of yo ur ow n.

Specific things:

General things:

22

the specifics


1

Put these words into the table based on the things they usually refer to.

batch gang shoal

bunch bundle cast company crew crowd flock group herd huddle pile litter pack platoon set stack staff swarm team throng

People in general

A g ro u p of people

Anim als

Objects

w o rk in g to g e th e r

crow d

2 Complete these sentences using one of the words from Exercise 1. You may need to make your answer plural, and in some cases more than one answer is possible. A .................... of just 25 dairy cows can produce over a thousand litres o f milk a day.

2.

Just because a film has a o f w e ll-k n o w n actors, it does not necessarily m ean it w ill be successful.

3.

D u rin g the rainy season, h u g e .................... of mosquitoes m ake life very uncom fortable fo r the local residents.

4.

Shelf space in the library is so lim ited th a t there a r e .................... of books all over the floor.

5.

Th e coral reef is hom e t o ................................ of colourful fish.

6.

A irlin e c a b in .................... do m uch m ore than just serve food to passengers.

7.

A s im p le .................... o f tools can cost the equivalent of a m onth's w ages fo r some.

8.

Th e college em ploys a .................... of a b o u t 200.

9.

A .................... of flow ers is always an acceptable gift if you visit som eone.

.

1.

10. D u rin g National Day celebrations, an e n o rm o u s .................... o f people descended on the city's main square. 11. In some areas of the c it y ,.................. of w ild dogs roam th e streets at n ig ht 12. A s m a ll.................... of people sat un der th e tree, tryin g to keep w a rm and dry. 13. You k n o w w in te r is arriving w h e n h u g e .................. of geese and o th e r birds can be seen heading south. 14. Th e bread oven can produce a .................... of 200 loaves every hour. 15. H undreds of m igran t w orkers arrive in the city every day, m any carrying no m ore tha n a small .................... of clothes and o th e r personal possessions. 16........................ of youths can often be seen hanging a round on street corners looking fo r trou b le.

general vocabulary

Groups


general vocabulary

How something works 1 Complete the descriptions of h o w these objects w o rk w ith the correct form of the words and phrases in the boxes. In some cases, more than one answer m ay be possible. 1. A therm ostat

adjust bend connect contain contract disconnect expand heat up turn off

cool down

A the rm o stat contains a strip or coil of steel and a strip o r coil of copper, one on to p o f the other. As the strip / c o i l.................... . th e m e ta ls .................... . b u t one does it faster th a n th e other. Th e strip / c o i l .................... a n d .....................w ith a switch, w h i c h .....................the p o w e r supply. W h e n the strip / c o il.................... , the m e ta ls .....................and the switch i s ....................... T h e the rm ostat i s ...................... using a dial o r o th e r control. 2. A disc player

convert decrease strike view

hear

increase

insert

replace

spin

A disc player (fo r exam ple, in a co m p u te r) has several co m p o n e n t parts. A disc i s .................... into the player and begins t o ...................... A t the same tim e, a thin beam of light called a la ser..................... th e disc a n d .................... digital signals into sounds o r images, w hich can b e ...................... th ro u g h speakers o r .................... on a screen. V o lum e o r brightness can be .................... o r .................... by means o f a b u tto n , kn o b or o th e r control. Now adays, discs are largely b e in g .................... by storage devices like m e m o ry sticks, w hich have no m o ving parts. 3. A n aerosol

compress

expand

leave

mix

open

push

release

In an aerosol, liquid and gas are .................... in a metal and / o r hard plastic tu b e . This can be .................... fro m the tu b e b y ......................a b utto n , w h i c h ...................... a valve. W h e n the liquid-gas c o m b in a tio n .................... the tu b e a n d ...................... w ith oxygen, it r a p id ly .......................... 4. A n aircraft

accelerate

create

flow

form

made

move

pull

produce

M ost aircraft a r e .................... o f a lum in ium , and require tw o forces to a llo w th e m to fly: thrust and lift. As the a irc ra ft.................... fo rw a rd on the g ro u n d un d er the p o w e r o f its engines, a i r ...................... o ver th e w ings. As i t .................... fa s te r,...................... m ore thrust, a vacuum i s ...................... over the w ings. T h i s .................... lift. T h e aircraft i s ...................... into the air by the force of this lift. 5. A digital camera

adjust record

consist store

control

download

enter

hit

open

press

A digital c a m e ra .................... of tw o m ain parts: a b o d y and a lens. W h e n a b u tto n i s ......................on the body, a w in d o w in the lens called a s h u tte r .................... and l i g h t ...................... the camera. T h e a m o u n t o f light g o in g into the camera is .................... by both the speed of this shutter, and a smaller w in d o w called an aperture. Both the shutter speed and the size o f the aperture can be .................... by th e person using th e camera. T h e light .................... a sensor in the b o dy o f the cam era, w h i c h .................... the light as a digital im age. T h e im age i s ...................... on a m e m ory card in the cam era, and this can later b e .................... on to a com puter.


The sentences below all contain a w o rd or phrase in italics which is related to the idea of tw o or more things joining together, sometimes w ith the result that they become part of something bigger. However, the w ords and phrases have all been put into the w ro n g sentence. Put them into their correct sentence. In some cases, more than one answer is possible. 1 W rite the correct verb at the end of each sentence. 1.

His salary is merged to th e cost of living, and increases on an annual basis, linked

2.

T h e International Book Association blended w ith Universal Press in 2010 to form the International Press.............................

3.

To get a better finish, he swallowed up the tw o paints t o g e th e r............................

4.

T h e firm integrated w ith its m ain co m p etitor in the battle to w in m ore customers..............................

5.

T h e suggestions fro m all the com m ittees w ere took over into th e m ain proposal..............................

6.

The

7.

A lot of students had problem s before th e y amalgamated into college life.............................

8.

W h e n the large international college got together the smaller school, a lot o f people lost the ir jobs.............................

9.

T h e students linked one evening and decided to protest a b o u t th e ir situation.............................

im m igrants faced

hostility w h e n

the y w ere first incorporated into the

general vocabulary

Joining / becoming part of something bigger

com m unity.

10. A large international com pany assimilated o u r firm last m o n th and started m aking im m ediate changes..............................

2 W rite the correct noun at the end of each sentence. 1.

Th e alloy b etw een England and France came close to breaking d o w n m any times d u rin g the nineteenth c e n tu ry ............................

2.

Th e synthesis b etw een England and Scotland is over 300 years o ld .......................................

3.

Last year, th e three regional organisations responsible fo r helping homeless people national blend to help and support one a n o th e r............................

4.

Brass is a w e ll-k n o w n alliance of copper and zinc.............................

5.

W a te r is a coalition of hydrogen and o xyge n .............................

6.

T h e plan is a unification of several earlier proposals..............................

7.

T h e merger of Italy did not occur until the second half of the nineteenth c e n tu ry ............................

8.

T h e com pany m ade its fo rtu n e by selling a popular union of coffee.....................................

9.

T h e proposed federation of the Liberal and Labour Parties in the election was cause fo r much ridicule.............................

form e d a

10. As a result of the compound w ith the other company, Flax International became the largest in its field.

25


general vocabulary

Likes & dislikes Decide if the w o rd s and phrases in bold in these sentences have a positive connotation (fo r exam ple, th e y tell us th a t so m e b o d y likes or w a n ts so m e th in g ) o r a negative connotation (fo r exam ple, th e y tell us th a t som eone dislikes so m e thing ). U n de rlin e the correct answer. 1. T h e idea of travelling around the w o rld really appeals to me. Positive / N egative

2.

Research suggests that shoppers are attracted to brightly-lit, colourful displays. Positive / Negative

3.

I like him, but unfortunately he can't stand me. Positive / N egative

4.

I can never understand w h y people are so captivated b y royal w eddings. Positive / N egative

5.

A lot of people detest seafood, and some are even allergic to it. Positive / N egative

6.

Bigoted people disgust me w ith their small-minded attitudes. Positive / N egative

7.

He's a very punctual person, and dreads being late for anything. Positive / N egative

8.

M y brother fancies spending some tim e w o rk in g abroad. Positive / N egative

9.

I'm fascinated b y n e w technology, and spend a lot of m oney on the latest electronic gadgets. Positive / N egative

10. She's fo n d o f classical music, and w o u ld like to be a classical pianist. Positive / N egative

11. A lot of people are keen on football, but it doesn't interest me. Positive / N egative

12. W e w ere cold and w et, and longed fo r a hot drink. Positive / N egative

13. I d o n 't like early m o rnin g starts, and absolutely loathe having to get out of bed early. Positive / N egative

14. I always look fo rw a rd to my English lessons. Positive / N egative

15. I'm passionate a b o u t flying, but rarely get the chance to go a nyw here by plane. Positive / Negative

16. She's a vegetarian, and the t h o u g h t of eating meat repels her. Positive / N egative

17. Supermarkets k n o w that customers w h o come in for essential items like milk and bread are often te m p te d b y special offers on other products. Positive / Negative

18. W e had been w o rk in g very hard, and w e re ye a rn in g fo r a holiday. Positive / N egative

26


1 Look at the m ap and to w n guide, and com plete the sentences w ith the w o rd s and phrases in the box.

D E

H I

general vocabulary

Location & direction

K M

o Arroort (8km)

O

<=â&#x2013;

W

N + S

E

>=>

ÂŁ

T o w n guide A B C D E

W e llin gto n Road Shopping centre Swan Street Library Health club

F G H I J

Shops Market Mill Road Police station Lincoln Street

K L M N O

Museum Green Street Western Avenue Chestnut Park College

at right angles to diagonally opposite directly opposite halfway along halfway between

to the east of in the middle of on on the corner of on the left-hand side of

1.

Th e library i s ........................

the police station.

2.

Th e airport is 8 k m .............. ...................the to w n .

3.

Th e station i s ........................ ........ Elm Square.

4.

Chestnut Park i s ................... .............. the to w n .

5.

Th e T o w n Hall i s ................... .............. Elm Square.

6.

T h e cafe i s .............................. ... Chestnut Park.

7.

T h e museum i s ..................... ........... Lincoln Street.

8.

W ellington Road i s ............. ....................Mill Road.

9.

Swan Street i s ....................... ..........Lincoln Street.

10. Th e shopping centre is

P A rt gallery Cafe R T o w n Hall S Elm Square T Station

Q

on the north side of on the south side of parallel to surrounded by to the west of

........................... Swan Street.

11. Western Avenue i s ............. .................. Elm Square and Mill Road 12. Th e college i s ....................... ........ the museum. 13. Th e market i s ....................... ........ shops. 14. Th e health club i s ................ ................. Green Street. 15. Th e art gallery i s ................. .............. Western Avenue and Green Street.

27


general vocabulary

Location & direction 2 N o w look at this m ap and guide. Find w h e re y o u are on it, the n fo llo w the directions to find o u t w h e re yo u are go in g .

o R

You are here 1>

T o w n guide A

Hotel

K Coffee shop

B

Internet cafe

L

C

Post office

M Cinema

Restaurant

D Bank

N Language school

E

Supermarket

0

Surgery

F

Theatre

P

Book shop

G

Hairdresser

Q

M obile phone store

H Electrical store

R

Library

1

Bakery

S

Furniture store

J

Travel agency

T

De pa rtm e n t store

Directions: G o along the High Street, and turn left at the crossroads. Carry on and turn right at the end of the road. Go past the cinema and take the second road on yo u r left. T h e place you w a n t is the third building on yo u r right. You are go in g t o ....................................

28


3 Com plete these directions using the w o rd s and phrases in the box. In each case, begin from the place labelled 'You are here'. You w ill need to use some w o rd s / phrases m ore than once.

crossroads first go along go past go to the end last on your left

on your right second take the first take the second the end turn left turn right

general vocabulary

Location & direction

Directions to the supermarket ( 1 ) .................................. of the High Street and (2) ( 3 ) .................................. road ( 4 ) ....................................

.....................................Go along this road and .The supermarket is the ( 5 ) ..................................

building ( 6 ) ..................................... Directions to the lanauaae school ( 7 ) .................................. the High Street, and (8) ... .............................. at the ( 9 ) ........................................ ( 1 0 ) .................................. road ( 1 1 ) ............................... .., and the language school is the ( 1 2 ) .................................. building ( 1 3 ) ....................... Directions to the book shop ( 1 4 ) .................................. the High Street and (15)

.................................at the ( 1 6 ) ......................................

Go to ( 1 7 ) .................................. of this road and ( 1 8 ) .................................... again, then ( 1 9 ) .................................. road ( 2 0 ) .............................. ... . ( 2 1 ) .................................. the library. and the book shop is the ( 2 2 ) .................................. building ( 2 3 ) .................................. 4 Choose three o ther places on the m ap and w rite y o u r o w n directions.

1.

2.

3.

29


general vocabulary

Modified words 1 M odify (change) each w o rd in bold in the sentences by adding a prefix from the box, so that the w o rd is correct in the context of the sentence. Use each prefix once only.

auto semi

bi circum CO inter micro sub tele trans under uni

mono

over

post

pre

1.

Thanks to Internet technology, com panies can hold ............. conferences w ith th e ir agents and customers a ro u n d th e w o rld w ith o u t leaving the office.

2.

T h e conference is a ............. annual event, and usually takes place in M arch and Septem ber.

3.

In her n e w ............. biography, the travel w rite r and broadcaster Lucy A pp s treats her readers to some fascinating tales a b o u t her life on the open road.

4.

Email and social n e tw o rk in g websites h a v e ............. formed the w a y people com m unicate.

5.

U n fo rtunately, the project team exceeded i t s ............. determined level o f spending, and had to b o rro w m ore m oney.

6.

Despite being knocked o u t o f the W o rld Cup in the .............. -final, there was a great sense of elation, and the certainty th a t w e w o u ld g o all the w a y the next tim e.

7.

O n ly a small percentage o f students w h o do a university degree g o on to do ............. graduate studies.

8.

People enjoy th e ir jobs m uch m ore if th e y ge t on w ith t h e i r ............. -workers.

9.

If you k n e w a b o u t all th e potentially dangerous .............. -organisms th a t live on an average dishcloth, you w o u ld p ro b ab ly never use one again!

10...............sex fragrances are believed to be a m o d ern invention, b u t a century ago all perfum es w ere fo r m en and w o m e n alike, and people just chose the one the y liked the most.

11. If you feel th a t yo u have re c e iv e d ............. standard service, yo u should com plain to the m anager or m ost senior em ployee im m ediately rather tha n w a it until later.

12. In 1929, the G raf Zeppelin becam e the first airship t o ............. navigate the w o rld .

13. Astronauts started living on t h e ............. national Space Station in 2000.

14. I have t w o dictionaries: an English-French one, and a ............. lingual English one.

15. I was an ............. achiever at school, always ge ttin g lo w grades in tests and p o o r marks in m y ho m e w o rk .

16. Th e city is s o ............. populated th a t it is alm ost impossible to find a n yw h e re to live.

30


2

N o w do the same w ith these. Use the same prefixes from the box in Exercise 1.

1.................. waves w o rk by passing electricity th ro u g h fo o d rather than by heating it.

2.

T h e late tw e n tie th century saw enorm ous advances in ............. communications, w ith the deve lo p m e n t of the Internet being of particular im portance.

3.

In 1986, against everybody else's wishes, the ruling g o ve rn m e n t m ade t h e ............lateral decision to close half the country's coal mines.

4.

Th e suburbs consist of n o th in g b u t mile after mile o f ............. -detached houses and a pa rtm e nt blocks.

5.

O n long-distance flights, the aircraft is flo w n b y ............. pilot most of the tim e, w ith the real pilots only assuming occasional control.

6.

I speak English and Spanish, b u t m y Spanish is quite limited, so u n fo rtu na tely I w o u ld n 't say I'm

general vocabulary

Modified words

............ lingual. 7.

Th e re are strict laws against advertising tobacco products, b ut w ith a bit of im agination, m any of these can be e a s ily ............. vented.

8.

A lot of the city was destroyed d u rin g th e war, so d u rin g the im m e d ia te ............ -w a r years, the g o v e rn m e n t em barked on a massive reconstruction p rogra m m e.

9.

I th in k I passed m y exams, b ut it w o u ld b e ............. mature to say th a t I've d one w ell in all of them .

10. A th ird of th e children w e re fo u n d to b e .............w e ig h t as a result of a high-fat, high -suga r diet.

11. It is believed th a t m any people w h o dislike w a te r have a ............. conscious fear of d ro w n in g .

12. M ost of the schools in m y co untry a r e ............. educational, a lth o ug h there are a fe w b o y-o n ly and g irl-o n ly institutions.

13. W e ran o u t o f m oney because w e had estimated h o w m uch the trip w o u ld cost. 14. T h e aviator Charles Lindbergh m ade the first s o lo ............. atlantic flig h t in 1927.

15. Part of o u r course was to study t h e ............. relationship betw een stress and illness, and especially to w h a t extent one resulted in the other.

16. He kn e w a lot a bo u t his subject, b ut he spoke in such a d u l l ............. tone th a t his students w o u ld often fall asleep.

31


general vocabulary

Objects & actions 1 The verbs in the box describe the actions of the things in 1 - 18. Match each verb w ith the thing it describes.

congeal crack erode evaporate expand leak rise rotate slide smoulder freeze vibrate wobble

explode fade spill spin stretch

1.

W a te r cha n gin g fro m a liquid to a solid state because o f the cold,

freeze

2.

T h e d ru m in a w ashing m achine m o ving ve ry quickly in its final stage o f a wash.

3.

T h e disc tray o p e n in g and closing on a com puter.

4.

W a te r slow ly tu rn in g into vapour.

5.

C o o kin g fat o r oil becom ing solid on an unw ashed plate .........................

6.

T h e planet Earth m o ving a ro u n d on its axis.........................

7.

A loose w heel on a car.

8.

Gas co m ing o u t o f a faulty va lve .........................

9.

A pane o f glass in a w in d o w fram e w h e n a large vehicle passes nearby.

....................

....................

....................

10. A T-shirt w h ich has been w ashed so often it is losing its colour.

.............

....................

11. T h e sun co m ing up in the m o rn in g ......................... 12. Cliffs being slow ly destroyed by the sea......................... 13. Slightly d a m p w o o d on a fire giving off smoke b u t no flam es......................... 14. Cold m etal as it gets hotter.

....................

15. A piece o f elastic being pulled so th a t it becomes longer.

....................

16. A w in d o w being hit by a stone so th a t a long, thin break form s in the glass......... 17. Coffee falling o u t o f a cup by m istake......................... 18. A b o m b suddenly b lo w in g u p .........................

2 N o w do the same w ith these.

bounce burn condense contract crumble erupt float flow grow meander melt revolve ring set sink spread subside trickle

32

1.

T h e Earth m o ving a ro u nd the Sun.........................

2.

A house slow ly sinking into soft g ro u n d .........................

3.

Traffic m o vin g sm oothly alo ng a m o to rw a y.........................

4.

Glass cha n gin g fro m a solid to a liquid in very high h e at.........

5.

A rub be r ball h ittin g the g ro u n d and g o in g back into the air.

6.

T h e p o pula tio n of a to w n becom ing bigger.

....................

______________________________


7.

T h e sun g o in g d o w n in the e ve n in g.........................

8.

Gas o r steam changing into a liq uid.........................

9.

A w id e river g o in g th ro u g h th e countryside in big curves.........................

10. Docum ents being laid o ut on a ta b le ........................ 11. W a te r com ing very slow ly o u t of a ta p ......................... 12. A slice of bread in a toaster tu rn in g black and beginning to give off sm oke.........................

general vocabulary

Objects & actions

13. A lum p of dry earth being rubbed betw een som ebody's fingers......................... 14. H ot metal as it gets cooler.

....................

15. A n old-fashioned alarm clock suddenly g o in g off......................... 16. A boat g o in g to the b o tto m of a river.

....................

17. Dead fish lying on th e surface o f a polluted lake......................... 18. A volcano th ro w in g o u t lava and ash.........................

3 Some of the w ords in Exercise 1 and 2 can be used in more than one way, often w ith a different meaning. Complete these sentences w ith an appropriate w o rd (the definition of the w o rd you need in italics after each sentence w ill help you). You will need to change the form of some of the words. 1.

Th e com pany fro ze its em ployees wages until the end of the year, (to say officially th a t the rate o r level o f so m eth in g m ust stay the same a n d n o t increase)

2.

Some p e o p le .................... th ro u g h life w ith o u t really k n o w in g w h a t th e y w a n t to do. (to behave in a w a y th a t shows y o u do n o t have a clear p la n fo r w h a t y o u w a n t to do )

3.

Food prices have b e e n .................... steadily all year, (to increase in a m o u n t)

4.

As the l i g h t .................... in th e evening, people start com ing o u t o n to the street, (to becom e less b rig h t)

5.

He m anaged t o .................... a tw o -h o u r presentation into 30 minutes, (to m ake so m e th in g shorter o r smaller)

6.

As the storms slow ly died out, the floodw aters g r a d u a lly .......................(to becom e lo w e r)

7.

Th e discussion w e had last n ig ht .................... a round the problem o f fin d in g affordable accom m odation, (to have so m eth ing as the m ain o r m ost im p o rta n t p a rt o f a subject)

8.

You c a n .................... th e m achine to tu rn itself on or off at a particular tim e, (to make a piece o f e q u ip m e n t re a d y to operate)

9.

As soon the com pany's website w e n t on-line, orders began t o .................... in. (to arrive o r leave in sm all a m ounts o r num bers)

10. Th e queue fo r tickets was so long i t .....................all the w a y d o w n the street, (to continue f o ra lo n g distance) 11. Once a w ee k w e get to g e th e r and ................. ideas off each other, (to discuss ideas w ith o th e r p eop le in o rd e r to g e t th e ir o p in io n a n d m ake a decision) 12. Th e y w a n te d to keep the story secret, b ut s o m e o n e .................it to the press, (to give p rivate o r secret in fo rm a tio n to journalists o r to the public)

33


general vocabulary

Obligation & option 1 Look at sentences 1 - 1 0 and decide if the explanation which follows each one is true or false. Underline the correct answer. Use the w ords and phrases in bold to help you decide. 1.

D u rin g the exam , a pencil and eraser are required.

The people organising the exam w ill provide yo u w ith a pencil and an eraser. True / False 2.

Parents can be m ade liable for th e ir children's debts.

Parents m ay be legally responsible for the m oney their children owe. True / False 3.

He was obliged to pay back th e m o n ey th a t he had w o n .

He had the choice w hether o r n o t to p a y back the m oney that he had won. True / False 4.

Students d o in g holiday jobs are exempt from paying incom e tax.

Students doing holiday jobs p a y a smaller am o unt o f income tax than other people. True / False 5.

T h e U nited Nations voted to impose mandatory sanctions on the country.

The United Nations imposed legally-binding sanctions which had to be obeyed b y everyone, w ith o u t exception. True / False 6.

Some com panies force th e ir em ployees to w o rk long hours fo r lo w pay.

A lo t o f companies ask their employees to w ork long hours. True / False 7.

It was an em ergency and she pressed the red b u tto n ; there was no alternative.

There was nothing else she could do; she had to set o ff the alarm b y pressing the red button. True / False 8.

Classes on W ednesday afternoons are optional.

It is necessary to attend classes on Wednesday afternoons. True / False 9.

It is compulsory to w e a r a crash helm et on a m otorcycle.

It is yo u r choice w hether o r n o t to w ear a crash helm et when yo u ride amotorcycle.

True / False

10. T h e m useum is asking visitors fo r a voluntary d o n a tio n of ÂŁ2.

You d o n 't need to p a y ÂŁ2 to visit the museum. True / False 2 Complete these sentences w ith an appropriate w o rd or phrase from the exercise above. In some cases, more than one answer m ay be possible. 1.

Visitors to the co un try a r e ............................................. ................to declare any excess tobacco or alcohol im ports to the customs officer.

2.

I'm afraid I h a v e ............................................................. b u t to resign from the com m ittee.

3.

If you are caught speeding, yo u w ill b e ................. ........................................... th e p aym e n t of the fine.

4.

Attendance at all classes is ............................................. ............... otherwise you may not ge t a certificate at the end o f the course.

5.

M a n y retired people d o ................................................ ............. w o rk in th e ir local com m unity.

6.

In some countries, there is a ......................................... ................... death sentence fo r all d ru g traffickers.

7.

For visitors to Britain fro m outside th e European U n io n , a visa m ay be

8.

I hate it w h e n people try t o ........................................ .................... me to d o som ething I d o n 't like.

9.

M ost n e w cars com e w ith ........................................... .................a ir-con d itionin g.

10. Children's clothes a r e ............................................................. from VAT.

34


1 The w ords in italics in the follow ing sentences are all grammatically incorrect (for example, a noun has been used instead of an adjective, or a verb has been used instead of a noun, etc.). Decide w ha t the correct form of the w o rd should be in each sentence, and w rite yo u r answers in the crossword on the next page. 1.

I th in k th a t people need to show greater tolerate of each other.

2.

Some m ajor com panies are obsession w ith secrecy.

3.

I reckoning th a t global w a rm in g is having m ore o f an effect than w e think.

4.

W e strongly suspicious th a t th e proposal to develop the co m p uter facilities w ill be rejected.

5.

Some people are extrem ely bigotry, especially regarding things like race o r religion.

6.

I very m uch doubtful th a t th e situation w ill im prove in the near future.

7.

A lot of people are fanatic a bo u t sport in general and football in particular.

8.

He was very h a rd -w o rk in g and dedication to his research.

9.

In m y opinionated, people d o n 't take e n o u gh exercise.

general vocabulary

Opinion, attitude & belief

10. I consider myself to be a pragmatist person, and believe th a t results are m ore im p o rta n t than theories o r ideas. 11. Team m em bers need to be com pletely commitment, and prepared to w o rk fo r long hours. 12. T h e g o ve rn m e n t is regardless foreign debt, especially in developing countries, as a m ajor barrier to global econom ic developm ent. 13. People often indicate th e ir disapprove of som ething th ro u g h th e ir b ody language rather than w ords. 14. I maintenance th a t m any yo u n g people w o u ld rather w o rk than continue w ith th e ir studies. 15. As far as I am concerning, happiness is m ore im portan t than money. 16. U n h a p p y people often have a cynic vie w of life. 17. I take strong exceptional to people com ing late o r cancelling appointm ents at short notice. 18. M any scientists are convincingly th a t hum an activity is threa ten ing the future of m any animal and plant species. 19. M y parents are tradition people w h o believe th a t children should not have to o much freedom . 20. He had very conservatism views and did not like change of any sort.

35


general vocabulary

Opinion, attitude & belief

2 Complete these sentences w ith the w ords from Exercise 1. You will either need a w o rd from the sentences o r from the completed crossword. In some cases, more than one answer m ay be possible.

36

1.

People are o f t e n .............................o f strangers, and refuse to trust anyone unless the y k n o w them very w ell.

2.

She's very w ell organised, and always takes a .......................... approach to problem solving.

3.

I'm a b s o lu te ly ..........................a bo u t keeping fit, and g o to the gym at least once a day.

4.

I s tro n g ly .......................... of sm oking, and refuse to let people smoke in m y hom e.

5.

M y ..........................is th a t people w h o read a lot are m ore interesting than people w h o d on't.

6.

To succeed in life, you need a m bition a n d ..............................

7.

M y father w o n 't .......................... anyone w h o questions his decisions.

8.

Small farm com m unities are p re d o m in a n tly .......................... in the ir o u tlo o k and behaviour.

9.

Some p e o p le .......................... m y ability to succeed, but I am determ ined to prove the y are w ro n g .

10. A lot of people in m y c o u n t r y .......................... th a t the current econom ic crisis will ge t worse before it gets better.


Replace the adjectives in bold in these sentences w ith a w ord from the box which has an opposite meaning in the context of the sentence.

approximate deaf chronic costly crude delicate detrimental dim easy even flexible graceful innocent marked obligatory reluctant scarce widespread 1.

T h e term s and conditions on the contract are ambiguous, c/ear

2.

A cco rding to the people w h o kn e w him, he was a very aw kw ard person to w o rk w it h ......................

3.

I had never seen a dancer w h o was so clumsy .....................

4.

T h e changes he m ade w ere beneficial to the organisation as a w h o le .....................

5.

W e need exact figures before w e decide if w e can g o ahead w ith the project.....................

6.

Follow ing a lengthy investigation, the y decided th a t the com pany was guilty....................

7.

W h a t do you get if you add up all the odd num bers betw een 1 and 100?.....................

8.

Despite the weather, supplies of food after the harvest w ere plentiful .....................

9.

The re are very rigid laws regarding building on green belts around a c it y .....................

general vocabulary

Opposites: adjectives

10. I've noticed a slight difference in his attitude over the last fe w w e e k s .................. 11. T h e villagers have designed a sophisticated device fo r tu rn in g dirty w a te r into clean w a t e r ...................

drinking

12. T h e spices used in th e production of some international dishes have a very strong flavour.

13. Th e blackness of th e n ig h t was broken by a strong o ran ge light w hich was visible on the horizon.

14. Student attendance at extra-curricular activities is vo luntary..................... 15. Most students say they are w illing to attend classes on Saturday m o rn in g ...................... 16. T h e to rn a d o caused localised d a m a ge ....................... 17. He m ade his fo rtu n e by im po rtin g cheap perfum e and clothing m aterial....................... 18. People w ith mild allergies to dust w ere advised to rem ain indoors and close

the ir w in d ow s.

37


general vocabulary

Opposites: verbs Replace the verbs or verb phrases in bold in these sentences w ith a w o rd from the box which has an opposite m eaning in the context of the sentence. You w ill need to change the form of most of the verbs.

abandon accelerate accept agree defend demolish deny deteriorate fall forbid ignore loosen lower retain retreat reward simplify withdraw 1.

W h e n o u r trip was cancelled, w e rejected th e travel com pany's offer of a partial refund, accepted

2.

She a dm itted th a t she had left the d o o r unlocked w h e n she left the house.....................

3.

A erial fo o ta g e shows h o w quickly the floo dw ate rs are a d va n cin g .....................

4.

T h e com pany refused to let m em bers o f th e public e nte r the b u ild in g .....................

5.

M a n y shopkeepers attacked th e decision to m ake the street traffic-free .....................

6.

T h e factory was b uilt in 2004.....................

7.

He com plicated matters by re w ritin g the original proposal.....................

8.

W h e n the m o n ey ran out, th e y had to decide w h e th e r or n ot to con tin ue w ith th e ir research.

9.

Relations b etw een th e tw o countries have im p ro ve d considerably in the last fe w years.....................

10. Punishing yo u n g children in o rde r to ge t th e m to w o rk hard is, in m y op in io n , w r o n g ..................... 11. He raised the overall standards of the com p an y w ith in tw o m onths o f his a p p o in tm e n t..................... 12. Sm oking is a llo w e d in most restaurant and cafes...................... 13. Prices rose sharply in the first three m onths of the year. .................. 14. Before you do a nyth in g else, make sure yo u tig h te n the knots in th e ro p e ...................... 15. I w e n t to the bank and deposited over ÂŁ5,000...................... 16. He lost his position as head o f th e d e p a rtm e n t...................... 17. By pushing th e red b utto n , the vehicle slow s d o w n rapidly...................... 18. Everyone a c k n o w le d g e d all the hard w o rk I had d o n e ......................

38


1 Complete the sentences w ith an appropriate noun from the box. In some cases, more than one answer is possible.

belongings donation estate owners possessions property I.

landlords loan mortgage proprietors rent tenants

T h e law ensures t h a t .................... respect the privacy of the people w h o live in th e ir houses and flats.

general vocabulary

Ownership, giving, lending & borrowing

2......................... o f restaurants across the country protested w h e n the g o ve rn m e n t announced it was g o in g to impose a tax on some foods. 3.

W h e n private c a r ...................... sell th e ir vehicle, they m ust produce a certificate to prove the car has been paid fo r in full.

4.

Th e price of c o m m e rc ia l...............................in the city centre has do ub led in the last three years.

5.

M o rn in g to n Park, a 250-acre p riv a te .................... in W enfordshire, is open to m em bers of the public at weekends.

6.

M a n y families in the area lost th e ir hom e and all of t h e i r .................... w h e n the river flooded.

7.

Please p u t y o u r .................... in the lockers provided, and hand yo u r key to th e receptionist for safekeeping.

8.

W e to o k o u t a .................... to help pay fo r o u r trip.

9.

A lot of people lost th e ir homes w h e n interest rates rose so high the y w ere unable to continue paying off t h e i r .......................

10. O n ly a fe w people in the a pa rtm e nt block actually o w n th e ir flat. M ost of the m are council

I I . Th e law does very little to protect families w h o are evicted from the ir homes because the y are unable to pay the m o n t h ly ..................... 12. I make a small m o n th ly.................... to a local charity fo r homeless people. 2 M o st o f th e verbs in bold b e lo w are in the w ro n g sentence. If th e ve rb is correct, p u t a tick ( ^ ) at the end o f th e sentence. If the v e rb is wrong, w rite the correct ve rb at the end of the sentence.

1.

Banks w ill usually refuse to present m oney to anyone unless they have a regular jo b ........................

2.

T h e best w a y to see the country is to a provide car fo r a couple of w eeks........................

3.

Com panies w h o allocate heavily from banks to keep their business goin g are rarely able to pay it back........................

4.

If you w a n t to rent a room in the city centre, you should be prepared to pay a lot of money.

5.

A fte r her speech, the principal w ill lend prizes to the students w h o have m ade the greatest contribution to the school........................

6.

I believe tha t everyone should donate m oney to charities........................

7.

Local councils will b o rro w accom m odation to the most needy on a first-come, first-served basis.

8. M any charitable organisations hire free medical help and support to areas hit by disasters.

39


general vocabulary

Phrasal verbs 1 W rite a preposition(s) or partide(s) from the box after each verb in bold in these sentences to make phrasal verbs. Th e meaning of each phrasal verb is in italics at the end of each sentence.

back over

behind to up

down with

forward

in

into

of

off

on

out

1.

Som e parents are criticised fo r the w a y th e y b r in g .......................th e ir children, (raise)

2.

T h e com m ittee m em bers f e l l .......................over plans fo r the n e w health centre, (argued)

3.

Th e y refused to fa ce ..................................................th e ir responsibilities, w ith disastrous consequences.

(accept an unpleasant state o f affairs, and try to deal w ith it) 4.

A t the last m inute w e had to c a ll ....................... o u r visit to the m useum , (n o t to go ahead w ith

som ething) 5.

I can always c o u n t ....................... m y best friend to be there w h e n I need him . (rely / depend)

6.

M a n y d eve lo p in g countries are failing to c a tc h ................................................... th e ir m ore developed neighbours, (ge t to the same level)

7.

As the w in d d ie s ....................... . th e heat and h u m id ity gra du ally begin to rise, (becomes less strong)

8.

A n a larm ing n u m b e r o f students d r o p ...................................................school early every year, (leave)

9.

M a jo r international com panies can't figure ....................... the p o pula rity of the anti-capitalist m o ve m en t, (find it hard to understand)

10. If th e y exam ined the issues m ore closely, th e y w o u ld f i n d .......................the reasons fo r the changes.

(discover) 11. As w e g r o w ....................... o u r priorities change, (change from being children to being adults), 12. Students can be quite creative w ith the reasons th e y give fo r n ot handing ....................... th e ir h o m e w o rk , (giving their teachers) 13. Salaries very rarely k e e p ........................................................ the cost of living, (rise at the same speed as) 14. T h e article is very detailed, but leaves .........................th e reasons fo r dem ogra ph ic change, (does not

include) 15. Th e lecturer p o in te d .......................all of the places on th e m ap w h e re similar incidents had occurred.

(showed) 16. Before yo u w rite yo u r essay, you should lo o k ....................... the Party's history. ( research) 17. M a n y em ployees ca rrie d ....................... w o rk in g despite pressure fro m the unions, (continued) 18. Once people f a ll ....................... w ith th e ir m o rtg a ge paym ents, the y com e un d er extrem e financial pressure fro m th e ir bank, (become late) 19. T h e first step to a healthier lifestyle is to c u t ..................................................a m o u n t o f salt you consume.

{reduce) 20. It is becom ing m ore co m m o n fo r people to c u t ....................... m eat fro m th e ir diet, (stop eating) 21. In the late 1990s, a lot o f large superm arket chains t o o k ......................... premises th a t had previously been run by small, in d e pe nd e nt retailers, (assumed control)

22. W h e n co m p u te r techn o lo gy fails us, w e have to make d o ..........................m ore prim itive methods. Th e y're called 'pe n and paper', (use something because there is nothing else available) 23. In this essay, I'd like to p u t ....................... the argum ents fo r and against globalism . (suggest or state

the case for som ething) 24. W h e n I lo o k ...................................................m y childhood, I rem em ber the m any sacrifices m y parents m ade fo r me. (think about som ething that happened in the past)

40


Complete the second sentence in each pair w ith a phrasal verb from the box so that it has the same meaning as the first sentence. You will need to change the verb form in m any of the sentences.

break down carry out cut back on cut off do away with do up end up fall through hold up keep on let down let off pull out of pull through show up sort out split up wear off wear out work out

1.

Peace talks betw een the tw o countries collapsed w h e n neither side reached an agreem ent. Peace talks betw een the tw o c o u n trie s .......................

2.

w h e n neither side reached an agreem ent.

I'm tryin g to calculate if w e 've sold m ore this year than last year. I'm tryin g t o .......................

3.

general vocabulary

Phrasal verbs 2

if w e 've sold m ore this year than last year.

T h e effects of the d ru g disappear after a fe w hours. Th e effects of the d r u g ....................... after a fe w hours.

4.

A lot of people exhaust themselves th ro u g h overw ork. A lot of p e o p le .......................the m se lves........................ th ro u g h ove rw o rk.

5.

Despite the severity of the disease, m any people recover w ith the help of a ppropriate drugs. Despite th e severity of the disease, m any p e o p le ....................... w ith the help of appropriate drugs.

6.

T h ro u g h careful negotiation, they w ere able to resolve the problem . T h ro u g h careful negotiation, they w ere able t o .......................

7.

W h e n parents start to

the problem .

live apart, it can be particularly difficult for their children to cope.

W h e n p a re n ts ......................... it can be particularly difficult fo r th e ir children to

8.

A t th e opening night,

cope.

o nly a fe w audience m em bers came.

A t the o p en in g night, o nly a fe w audience m e m b e rs ............................

9.

T h e Australian partners stopped being a part of the deal at the T h e Australian p a rtn e rs ....................

last m om ent.

the deal at the last m om ent.

10. People celebrate the Chinese N e w Year by exploding fireworks in the street. People celebrate the Chinese N e w Year b y .......................

fireworks in the street.

41


general vocabulary

Phrasal verbs 2 11. It is pointless relying on people to help yo u if th e y d o n 't do as th e y prom ised. It is pointless relying on people to help you if t h e y ....................... you .............................

12. N e w g o v e rn m e n t pension plans m ean th a t m any people w ill continue w o rk in g w ell into their seventies. N e w g o v e rn m e n t pension plans mean th a t m any people w i l l ....................... seventies.

w o rk in g w ell into their

13. T h e planned changes w ere delayed because com m ittee m em bers a rgued a m o n g themselves. Th e planned changes w e r e .......................

because com m ittee m em bers argued a m o n g themselves.

14. A t the last m inute, the plans fo r the proposed m o to rw a y d id n 't take place. A t the last m inute, the plans fo r the proposed m o t o r w a y .........................

15. D u rin g the recession, m any w orkers in the prim ary sector becam e jobless. D u rin g the recession, m any w orkers in the prim ary s e c to r.......................

jobless.

16. Doctors did some tests on the patients. D o c to rs .......................

some tests on the patients.

17. M in o r econom ies, such as spending less on staff costs, can often p revent a com pany sliding into bankruptcy. M in o r economies, such a s ....................... bankruptcy.

staff costs, can often p revent a com p an y sliding into

18. W e w ere accidentally disconnected in the m iddle o f o u r pho n e call. W e w e re a ccid e n ta lly.......................

in the m iddle o f o u r phone call.

19. Once the g o v e rn m e n t rem oved quotas, the m arket was flooded w ith cheap fo re ig n imports. Once the g o v e r n m e n t .......................

quotas, the m arket was floode d w ith cheap fo re ig n imports.

20. It cost alm ost ÂŁ8 m illion to renovate the stadium , by w hich tim e the team was in serious financial difficulties. It cost alm ost ÂŁ8 m illion t o ....................... financial difficulties.

42

the stadium , by w h ich tim e the team was in serious


Complete these sentences w ith come, get, give, go or look to make a phrasal verb w ith the preposition or particle in bold. Make sure you use the correct form of the verb in each one. 1.

I loved school as a child, and never really looked forw ard to the holidays as much as th e other children.

2.

In rural districts, it can be difficult t o .................... by w ith o u t a car.

3.

Th e 'drive safely' message is finally .................... through to people, and there are n o w few er accidents on the roads.

4.

A fte r years o f decline, g o v e rn m e n t investm ent is revitalising the area, and things are finally ................... up fo r local businesses.

5.

As ticket p rice s .................... up, fe w e r people g o to the cinem a, preferring instead to stay at hom e and do othe r things.

6.

I believe th a t people w h o have to ............. after elderly relatives or o th e r dependants should receive financial support.

7.

Large com panies can no lo n g e r .................... aw ay w ith d u m p in g industrial waste in rivers.

8.

Even if you fail th e first tim e, you s h o u ld .....................................on tryin g.

9.

Scientists.................... across the cure by accident w hile the y w e re studying the health benefits of a rare tropical plant.

general vocabulary

Phrasal verbs 3

10. T h e first step to a healthier lifestyle is t o .................... up sm oking. 11. A lth o u g h m any c h ild re n ....................... up to th e ir parents, m any rebel against th e ir values and w a y of life.

12. People w h o w a n t to k n o w h o w to .............. about starting up their o w n website should read Websites Made Easy. 13. T h e gas fire heating th e co n tain er....................... out, and the apparatus started to cool d o w n rapidly. 14. W e decided not t o .................... through w ith o u r plans until w e had m ade e no u gh money. 15. Some people tend t o ............................................. d o w n on those w h o are less fortun a te than the y are. 16. W e alth y countries are usually able to .................... through a period of recession by d ra w in g on financial reserves.

17. In any dispute w ith a m ajor com pany, it is usually the custom er w h o .................... off the w orst. 18. Before I handed m y essay in, I .................... through it very carefully, checking fo r mistakes. 19. People w h o live in close proxim ity to one a no the r must try t o ....................... on w ith th e ir neighbours. 20. W h e n o u r local council tried to build a ring road a ro u nd the to w n , t h e y .................... up against a lot o f opposition.

43


general vocabulary

Phrasal verbs 4 Th e verbs and particles in the tw o boxes can be combined to make phrasal verbs, which can then be used to complete the sentences below. Decide w hich phrasal verbs go into each sentence, and w rite the answers in the crossword grid. In m any cases, you w ill need to change the form of the verb. The meaning of each phrasal verb is in italics at the end of each sentence. D on't forget that some phrasal verbs need tw o particles. Th e first one has been done as an example.

opt make set stand turn

pick take

put talk

run

after against aside down for in off on out round up with

Clues across ( ^ ) I.

4.

A cco m m o d a tio n in some cities is so expensive th a t some people cannot even afford t o _____ the eight w eeks' deposit th a t is required, (to make a deposit) A n s w e r = p u t d o w n Th e y w e re reluctant to m ake changes, b u t w e m anaged to _____ th e m _______. (to persuade

somebody) 5.

Children o f t e n _____ one o f th e ir parents, either in th e ir m annerisms o r in th e w a y th e y look, (to

resemble) 6.

A f t e r _____ a fe w unexpected difficulties, th e y decided to scrap the project, (to stop because

som ething is in the way) 8.

T h e y w e r e _____ o f the a pa rtm e nt by th e ir landlord w h e n th e y could no lo n ge r afford the rent, and ended up living on the street, (to be forced to leave)

I I . W h e n I was at school, some teachers unfairly _____ children w h o avoided sport because the y prefered m ore creative interests and pastimes, (to choose someone to attack o r criticise) 12. A lth o u g h m any com panies offer th e ir em ployees a pension p ro g ra m m e, m a ny decide t o _____ of the p ro g ra m m e and make th e ir o w n arrangem ents, (to decide n o t to take pa rt in som ething) 16. A lot o f applicants expressed an interest in the job , b u t only a h a n d f u l_____ fo r th e interview, (to

arrive for a meeting, appointm ent, etc.) 19. A ir p o llutio n c a n ______asthma and o th e r chest diseases in those most vulnerable, (to start) 20. People w h o use credit cards unw isely can e asily_____ debts of thousands o f pounds every m onth.

(to make debts go up quickly) 21. By the tim e he was 18, he h a d _____ his m ind th a t he w a n te d to be fam ous, (to decide on

som ething)

Clues d o w n M 1.

It's often a g o o d idea t o _____ some m on ey for a 'ra in y day', (to save m oney)

2.

Tech no lo g y is m o ving at such a fast pace it is no lo n ge r possible t o _____ all the latest developm ents.

(to understand o r assimilate inform ation) 3. 5.

N o b o d y w a s _____ by the go vern m en t's false figures on un e m p lo ym e n t, (to be fooled o r tricked) H e ______th e jo b th a t was offered to him , even th o u g h he was desperate fo r th e m oney, (to refuse

som ething which is offered) 7.

M ost people w i l l _____ a stressful jo b if the m on ey is g o o d e n o u g h , (to tolerate som ething which

is n o t very pleasant)

44


9.

He was unable to make the speech, so I was asked t o _____ and make it on his behalf, (to take the

place o f someone - often also used w ith 'for') 10. A lot of people a r e _____ the idea of w o rk in g fo r themselves because of the lack of a regular salary, (to be discouraged from doing something, usually because o f a potentially negative

outcom e) 13. Once bad w e a th e r _____ , people ten d to stay at hom e rather than g o out. (to start and become

perm anent) 14. Doctors and medical experts w e re unable t o _____ w h y some people survived the virus and others d id n 't, (to understand or k n o w the reason for something)

general vocabulary

Phrasal verbs 4

15. S h e _____ a story a bo u t ghosts in the cellar to stop us go in g d o w n there, b ut of course w e d id n 't believe her. (to invent a story) 17. A t the age of 38 h e _____ the post of President, b u t lacked sufficient experience to be taken seriously, (to apply for a jo b in politics, competing against other people for the same jo b ) 18. Despite massive p ro m o tio n by the tourist board, it to o k a long tim e fo r tourism t o _____ again after th e terrorist attacks, (to improve, to ge t better)

45


general vocabulary

Presenting an argument Look at this typical IELTS W riting Test Part 2 question and the sample answer w hich follows it. Underline the most appropriate w ords and phrases in bold in the answer. In several cases, both options are possible.

W rite a b o u t the fo llo w in g topic:

Some say that y o u n g people should take a break between school and university to go travelling and learn m ore about the world. Others say that it is better for them to go straight to university from school, and then go travelling w hen they have finished their studies. Discuss bo th these views and give yo u r o w n opinion. Give reasons fo r y o u r answer and include any relevant examples fro m yo u r o w n k n o w le d ge and experience. W rite at least 250 w ords.

These days, it is very co m m o n fo r yo u n g people to take tim e off studying b etw ee n school and university. M a n y o f th e m g o travelling, and spend a year o r longer visiting interesting and exotic places. (1) But / However, is it better to d o this, or to continue studying w ith o u t a break?

(2) First of all / Firstly, there are several benefits to ta k in g tim e off to travel. (3) As w ell as / In addition to m eeting lots o f interesting people, yo u can also experience cultures th a t are very diffe ren t fro m yo u r o w n . (4) I believe / I think th a t first-hand k n o w le d g e and experience o f the w o rld a ro u n d you early in life are useful things to have. (5) M oreover / Furthermore, you learn to look after yourself in different and often difficult situations. (6) Altho ugh / W hile fe w people have serious problem s w h e n th e y travel, you w ill occasionally enco u nte r situations w h e re you need to th in k and act quickly w ith o u t having friends or fam ily to tu rn to. U n fo rtunately, travelling has its disadvantages (7) also / as well, such as homesickness and culture shock. (8) Despite / Nevertheless, these inconveniences are an inevitable part o f travelling and are greatly o u tw e ig h e d by the advantages.

(9) Th e most im portant reason / Th e main reason fo r g o in g straight to university after school is the fact th a t the sooner yo u ge t qualifications, th e quicker yo u can ge t a jo b and start earning. (10) As far as I am concerned / For me, starting w o rk and m aking m o n ey is one of the most im p o rta n t things in life. I am n o t alone in this o p in io n . (11) M any consider / M any say a sound career and a g o o d salary to be one of life's m ost im p o rta n t goals. (12) Second / Secondly, if you g o straight to university, yo u learn so m any things th a t w ill help you in yo u r fu tu re life. (13) Eventually / Finally, g o in g straight to university fro m school means th a t yo u m aintain a m o m e n tu m th a t yo u m ig h t lose if yo u go travelling. (14) I mean / In other words, yo u rem ain focused on studying.

(15) In conclusion / To summarise, I w o u ld say th a t spending a year travelling b etw een school and university has its advantages and disadvantages. (16) O n the one hand / To begin, you are seeing som ething o f the w o rld . (17) After that / O n the other hand, yo u are delaying yo u r education and career. (18) In m y opinion / I opinion that, it is better to carry on w ith yo u r studies, and leave the travelling until later.

46


1 Join the first part of a sentence in the left-hand column w ith a second part from the right-hand column, using an appropriate w o rd or phrase showing reason or result from the central column. In some cases, more than one answer is possible.

1.

Th e police asked him his....

2.

He failed his exam...

3.

A persistent cough...

4.

She started haranguing the crow d...

5. 6. 7. 8.

9.

\

He spent the w h o le w eekend revising... T h e y came in quietly... He refused to lend anyone m oney... T h e bank m anager refused to lend the com pany m ore m oney... Th e school was forced to close...

\

...ensued...

...pass his exams.

...effects of...

...w ake anyone.

...p ro m pte d him to...

...was unable to enrol for the course.

...on account of...

...speeding th ro u g h the to w n .

\ \ \

\ ...as a consequence... \ \ ...affect...

12. Stress and o ve rw o rk can... 13. T h e arm y attacked w ith o u t considering the... 14. He failed to send off his application fo rm and... 15. Riots and street fig h tin g ...

/

^

...upsetting me like that? ...his lack of revision.

/ ...starting a riot.

\

...o w in g to ...

/

\ ...reason for... /

...its lo w tu rn o ve r and poor sales history. ...its action.

...on the grounds that... ...so as not to...

10. W h a t w e re your... 11. W h a t are the...

J

general vocabulary

Reason & result

...w ith the aim of...

...w hen the police officers on trial w ere acquitted. ...a large earthquake? ...people rarely repay a loan.

...in o rder to... ...consequences of... ...motives for... ...due to...

...seek professional medical help. ...different people in different ways. ...p o or student attendance.

2 N o w complete these sentences w ith an appropriate w ord or phrase from the central column of the table above. 1. Panic b u y in g ..............................................................w h e n th e stock m arket crashed. 2.

People often d o things w ith o u t considering t h e ............................................................. th e ir actions.

3.

Th e g o v e rn m e n t raised the incom e tax r a t e ............................................................. curb inflation.

4.

T h e g o v e rn m e n t raised the incom e tax r a t e ............................................................. curbing inflation.

5.

Th e governm ent raised the income tax r a t e .........................................................the rapidly rising rate of inflation.

6.

W h e n questioned, m any racists cannot give a lo g ica l............................................................. th e ir attitudes tow ards othe r racial groups.

7.

Th e soaring crime rate alarm ed the police superintendent and ...................................................... ado p t a zero-tolerance policing policy.

8.

He was a rre s te d ............................................................. he was a dan g er to others and himself.

9.

Th e fam ily was forced to e c o n o m is e .............................................................g o heavily into debt.

10. Th e fum es fro m m o to r t r a f fic .............................................................people in m any different ways.

47


general vocabulary

Shape & features 1 (Shape) Match the w ords in the box w ith the shapes. W rite the w o rd next to each shape.

a crescent a circle a cone a cube a cylinder an oval a rectangle a sphere a spiral a square a triangle

a pyramid

6.

4.

8.

7.

11.

9.

2 (Shape) Complete the crossword w ith the adjective form of these shapes.

3.

an oval

4.

a spiral

5.

a sphere

6.

a triangle

7.

a cone

8.

a cylinder

9.

a square

6

2

5

n

■■

m ■1

1 IH HU |HI ■ 1 ■1 Hi

1 1 1 1

a rectangle

I

1 1 1 1

2.

I’ I

1 1 1 1

a circle

00

1.

m

3 (Features) Match the descriptions 1 - 10 on the left w ith the objects, geographical features, etc (a) - 0) on the right. Use yo ur dictionary to check the meanings of the w ords in bold.

48

1.

Sharp, w ith jagged teeth

(a) A co un try road in ve ry p o o r condition.

2.

Steep, w ith a pointed peak.

(b ) Som ebody's hair.

3.

Rolling, w ith undulating w h e a t fields.

(c) A very old tree.

4.

Curved, w ith a smooth surface.

(d ) A knife.

5.

Th in a nd flat, w ith w o rd s and dotted lines.

(e) A s lo w -m o v in g river.

6.

W avy, w ith a fe w spiky bits sticking up.

(f) A brick.

7.

M eandering, w ith a calm surface.

(g ) A m oun ta in .

8.

W inding and bum py, w ith deep potholes.

(h ) A banana.

9.

H ollow , w ith a rough surface.

(i)

10. Thick, solid and heavy, w ith straight edges.

A gricultural countryside.

(j) A n application fo rm .


1 Look at the follow ing list and decide w hether w e are talking about something big (in terms of size, quantity or dimension) or something small. Underline your answers

1.

a minute am ount of dust Big / Small

14. a giant building Big / Small

2.

a minuscule piece of cloth Big / Small

15. a gargantuan meal Big / Small

3.

an enormous book Big / Small

16. a wide avenue Big / Small

4.

a mammoth job Big / Small

17. a broad river Big / Small

5.

a huge waste of time Big / Small

18. a tall man Big / Small

6.

a vast room Big / Small

19. a high mountain Big / Small

7.

a gigantic wave Big / Small

20. a deep lake Big / Small

8.

a tiny car Big / Small

21. a shallow pool Big / Small

9.

a monumental error Big / Small

22. a long-distance journey Big / Small

10. a colossal statue Big / Small

23. a vast crowd of supporters Big / Small

11. plenty of food Big / Small

24. tons of w ork Big / Small

12. loads of times Big / Small

25. a great deal o f time Big / Small

general vocabulary

Size, quantity & dimension

13. a narrow alleyway Big / Small 2 N o w complete these sentences using one of the expressions above. In some cases, more than one answer is possible.

1.

Before you embark o n ......................................................... .. it is essential that you are well prepared.

2.

W e s p e n t.................................................................. working on the plans for the new library.

3.

I love the Museum of Modern Art, and have been th e re .....................................................................

4. There's a small grey spot in the corner of all my photographs, so I guess .................................................................. must have got into the camera and ended up on the sensor. 5. Villages along the coast were destroyed when ....................................................... caused by the earthquake swept houses into the sea. 6.

In my opinion, playing computer games for hours on end is ..........................................................

7............................................................of the Greek god Poseidon stood by the entrance to the harbour.

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general vocabulary

Size, quantity & dimension 8.

Despite th e p o o r harvest, there w a s ...................................................................... fo r the w h o le po pulation.

9 ................................................................ called the Tham es separates the city of London fro m the suburbs to the south.

10.............................................................. gathered to see th e ir favourite football team .

11. W e a t e ........................................................... and then lay d o w n to rest.

12. Th e most impressive place in the b uilding i s ........................................................... called th e Great Hall, w hich can hold over 3,000 people.

13. W e h a v e ........................................................... to d o in th e next fe w days, so I suggest w e start as soon as possible.

14. Loch Ness i s ........................................................... in the Highlands of Scotland.

15. Th e only evidence of the crime w a s .............................................................w hich was stuck on a branch of one of th e trees in the garden.

16. 'S um o' is ........................................................... containing almost 1,000 pictures by the controversial p h o to g ra p h e r H elm u t N e w ton.

17. I h a d ........................................................... to do, so to o k the phone off th e hook, m ade myself some coffee and sat d o w n at m y desk.

18. Th e M a tte rh o rn ,........................................................... in Sw itzerland, has claimed th e lives of m any w h o have tried to climb it.

19. He m a d e ........................................................... in his calculations and had to start all over again.

20. T h e m anufacturers have b u i l t ........................................................... w hich is ideal fo r g e ttin g around the city.

21. Th e NEC in B irm ingham is........................................................... w hich is used fo r concerts and exhibitions.

22. Th e m ain feature of the to w n i s ........................................................................... lined w ith shops and cafes.

23. I could see th e key glittering at th e b o tto m o f .............................................................

24. Early European settlers in Central and South Am erica heard legends of called El D orad o w h o covered himself in gold dust.

25..............................................................ran along the side of th e house to a garden at the rear.

50


Each passage below contains 12 words which have been spelt incorrectly. Underline the words, then w rite their correct spelling in the box below.

1

Despite banning tobacco advertiseing and rising the price of cigarrettes, the goverment's anti-smoking campain has failed to have any long-term affects. It is now widely beleived that more drastic measures are neccessary. A new national comittee, which has been formed to tackle the proplem, has made several reccomendations. These include banning smoking in all public areas, and denying hospital treatment to persistant smokers who have been warned by their doctors to give up but failed to do so.

general vocabulary

Spelling

advertising

It is argueable wether good pronounciation is more important than good grammer and vocabulery. Consientious students balance their aquisition of these skills, hopeing to acheive both fluency and accuracey. English teachers should encourage there students to practise all the relevant language skills, and use their English at every oportunity. arguable

It is becommina increasingly dificult for many people to find decent accomodation in the city at a price they can afford. To put it simpley, there are to many people and not enough homes for them. Local comunity centres and charitable organiseations such as Home Front can offer advise, but it is widely agreed that the situation is no longer managable. The fact that some councils in the city are building cheap, tempory housing for lower-paid profesionals is the only official acknowlegement of this problem. becom m ing

51


general vocabulary

Stopping something Choose the best w o rd or phrase in bold to complete each sentence, using the definitions in italics after each sentence to help you. 1.

To stop yo u r hard disk becom ing to o full, yo u should delete / dissuade / sever any un w an te d program m es, (to cut o u t part o f a document, a com puter file, etc.)

2.

T h e n e w g o v e rn m e n t plans to back out of / repeal / suppress the existing legislation, (to officially

end a la w so that it is no longer valid) 3.

Increasing fuel prices does n o t usually deter / quash / rescind people fro m using th e ir cars, (to discourage people from doing som ething)

4.

T h e college tries to cancel / dissuade / give up students from taking exams w hich are n o t suitable fo r the m , (to persuade someone n o t to do som ething)

5.

T h e com m ittee decided to deny / remove / rescind its earlier resolution on th e use of its premises.

(to cancel a contract o r agreement) 6.

State m onopolies often back out of / suppress / suspend all form s o f econom ic com petition.

(to stop an activity, usually b y m aking laws o r using y o u r authority) 7.

Th e C ornucopian g o v e rn m e n t m ade the sudden decision to dissuade / rescind / sever diplom atic relations w ith th e ir n e ig h b o u rin g countries, (to end som ething such as a friendship o ra connection

com pletely and perm anently) 8.

You should never deny / put an end to / turn d o w n a g o o d jo b w h e n it's offered to yo u. (to refuse

som ething which is offered) 9.

W e decided to pull out of / remove / rescind th e com petition w h e n three o f o u r tea m m em bers becam e ill. (to decide n o t to support o r be part o f a project o r activity after yo u have agreed to)

10. Oil and p etro leu m com panies deny / scrap / repeal th a t th e y are ha rm in g the e nvironm e n t.

(to state that som ething someone has said is n o t true o r correct) 11. Travel com panies do n o t n o rm a lly give refunds if th e ir customers cancel / put an end to / sever th e ir holiday at th e last m o m en t, (to stop som ething which has been planned) 12. It's im p o rta n t to deter / remove / quash rum ours before to o m any people hear the m , (to stop

something from continuing, especially things people say or believe: rumours, doubts, speculation, etc.) 13. You should delete / give up / suppress fast fo o d and oth e r foods th a t have a high fat content if you w a n t to lose w e ig h t, (to stop doing som ething that yo u have done for quite a long time) 14. T h e y finally agreed to dissuade / put an end to / quash th e ir lo n g-stan d in g dispute and try to w o rk to g e th e r instead, (to stop som ething which has been go in g on fo ra long time) 15. I w o u ld be grateful if yo u w o u ld deter / remove / repeal m y nam e fro m yo u r m ailing list, (to take

som ething away) 16. T h e factory m a n a ge m e n t had to deny / suspend / turn d o w n operations because o f some serious health and safety issues, (to officially stop som ething for a short time) 17. W e w ere forced to give up / rescind / scrap the plans w h e n w e realised th e y w o u ld n o t w o rk , (to

decide n o t to continue w ith something such as a plan o r event, often because there is a problem w ith some aspect o f it) 18. I believe th a t the best w a y to delete / curb / repeal inflation is to increase interest rates on b o rro w in g , (to control or lim it som ething that is harmful)

52


Arrange the letters in bold to make verbs and phrases connected w ith success and failure. The first letter is in its correct place, and the w ords you need can be found in the grid at the bottom of the page by reading horizontally across >) or vertically d o w n (-!}). Success 1.

T h e tw o departm ents radheec a com prom ise over h o w to proceed w ith the project, reached

2.

D u rin g his first m o n th as head of the com pany, he w a s a b le to a o s p d im c h m ore than his predecessor had in the previous six.......................

3.

O u r team played w ell and scerdeu th e ir second w in of the season........................

4.

T h e first signs tha t a breakthrough had been aicehdve quickly became a p p aren t........................

5.

M a n y people w a n t to be rich and famous, b ut very fe w rlesaie the ir d re a m ........................

6.

Becom ing an O lym pic athlete requires hard w o rk and dedication, but fe w athletes aatnit the required standard of physical excellence........................

7.

His jou rne y up the A m a zo n flfludlei a long-cherished a m b itio n ........................

8.

A fte r several attempts, w e mndagea to solve the p ro b le m ........................

general vocabulary

Success & failure

Failure 9.

Th e y had to aadbnno the ir idea of travelling by boat, and fle w instead........................

10. Negotiations daedpsol w h e n neither side could agree on the terms and conditions........................ 11. Progress on the research project fraledte w h e n the m oney began to run o u t........................ 12. A fte r a disastrous year, the com pany fdoedl, w ith debts o f over ÂŁ2 m illion....................... 13. O u r planned visit to Sudan file turohhg w h e n w e w ere unable to get visas....................... 14. Th e com pany's plans to double prices mefdiris w he n the go vern m en t declared the ir actions illegal.

F

U

L

F

I

L

L

E

D

Q

F

W

R

T

R

A

B

A

N

D

0

N

0

E

U

S

E

C

U

R

E

D

I

0

L

C

P

A

S

D

0

D

F

L

O

G

H

J

L

K

X

E

L

A

Z

I

M

I

S

F

I

R

E

D

L

T

c

S

P

V

B

N

M

K

D

R

A

T

T

E

L

M

A

N

A

G

E

D

P

A

C

H

I

E

V

E

D

K

P

0

S

I

s

T

S

Y

J

F

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A

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A

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R

0

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G

H

Z

53


general vocabulary

Task commands 1 Look at th e list o f tasks in sentences 1 - 8. In particular, look at th e w o rd s and phrases in bold, w h ich are telling the w rite r / speaker w h a t he / she m ust do. M atch these w o rd s w ith a suitable d efin itio n o f th e task co m m a nd in A - H. 1.

A cco u n t fo r th e increased use of social n e tw o rk in g on the Internet.

2.

A n alyse th e effects o f clim ate change a ro u n d the w o rld ............

3.

Evaluate the im provem ents yo u have m ade to y o u r English since you started using this b o o k ............

4.

Com pare and contrast the tw o m achines............

5.

Define 'happiness', and say h o w im p o rta n t it is............

6.

D em onstrate th e different features on this m obile p h o n e ............

7.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages o f g ro w in g up in a big city............

8.

Elaborate o n y o u r feelings a b o u t global capitalism ............

A . Give th e m ean in g o f som ething. B.

Talk a b o u t som ething w ith som eone else, o r w rite a b o u t it from different view points.

C.

Calculate the value, im portance o r effect of som ething.

D. Explain som ething closely and scientifically. E.

Explain som ething in m ore detail th a n yo u did previously.

F.

Say w h y som ething has happened or is ha pp e nin g.

G. Show h o w som ething w orks, usually by physically o p erating it so th a t the o th e r person knows w h a t it does and h o w it w orks. H. Look at tw o things side by side to see in w h a t w a y th e y are similar and / o r different.

2 N o w d o the sam e w it h these. I.

Estim ate the costs o f setting up a w ebsite fo r the school............

2.

Exam ine the causes o f global w a rm in g ...........

3.

Illustrate the problem s caused by the increased use of private vehicles............

4.

Justify you r reasons for only considering one aspect of the p ro b le m ............

5.

O u tlin e yo u r country's enviro nm e n ta l policy............

6.

Predict the changes th a t w e are g o in g to see in inform ation tech n o lo gy in the next 10 years............

7.

Suggest w ays in w hich fo o d shortages in some countries could be solved............

8.

Trace the d e ve lo p m e n t of space travel since the 1960s..............

A.

Explain, w ith real examples, w h y som ething has happened o r is ha ppening.

B.

Say w h a t yo u th in k is g o in g to happen in th e future.

C.

Describe w h a t yo u th in k can be d o ne in o rde r to achieve som ething.

D. Calculate (b u t n o t exactly) the value o r cost of som ething. E.

Give the m ain points o f som ething, o r a broad description of som ething, w ith o u t givin g to o m uch detail.

F.

Give a brief history of som ething, in the o rde r in w h ich it happened.

G. W rite o r talk a b o u t th e different aspects (e.g., causes, results) o f som ething. H. S h o w th a t you have a go o d reason fo r d o in g som ething, especially if o th e r people th in k you have d o ne som ething w ro n g or bad.


1 Use the w ords and phrases in the boxes to complete the sentences. Pay particular attention to the words that come before or after the words and phrases. Part 1: One action or situation occurring before another action or situation

by the time

earlier

formerly

precede

previously

prior to

1...................................................the advent of the Industrial Revolution, pollution was virtually unheard of.

general vocabulary

Time

2 ...................................................the arm y had restored order, the city had been almost com pletely devastated. 3 ................................................ k n o w n as Bom bay, M um bai is India's most vibra nt and exciting city. 4.

A sudden d ro p in tem p e ra ture w ill u s u a lly ................................................. a blizzard.

5.

It was m y first trip on an aeroplane................................................... I'd always go n e by train.

6.

Th e Prime M inister m ade a speech praising charity organisations w o rk in g in M o za m biq ue . ................................................. th a t day he had promised massive econom ic aid to stricken areas.

Part 2: One action or situation occurring at the same time as another action or situation

at that very moment

during

1....................................... the minister was the streets.

in the meantime

while

m aking his speech, thousands of dem onstrators to o k to

2...................................................the speech the y jeered and shouted slogans. 3.

Th e minister continued speaking.................................................. the police w ere ordered onto the streets.

4.

He finished the speech w ith a w o rd of praise for the police.......................................................... people began th ro w in g bottles and bricks, and the riot began.

Part 3: One action or situation occurring after another action or situation

afterwards

as soon as

following

1.................................................. the earthquake, emergency organisations around the w orld swung into action. 2 ....................................................... the stock m arket collapsed, there was panic buying on an unprecedented scale. 3. Th e Klondike gold rush lasted from 1896 to 1910..........................................................., the area became practically deserted overnight.

2 Look at these words and phrases and decide if w e usually use them to talk about (1) the past, (2) the past leading to the present, (3) the present or (4) the future. Try to w rite a sentence for each one.

a few decades ago as things stand at the turn of the century at that point / moment in history back in the 1990s between 2003 and 2005 by the end of this year ever since for the foreseeable future for the next few weeks for the past few months from 2006 to 2011 from now on in another five years' time in medieval times in my childhood/youth in those days last century lately nowadays one day over the coming weeks and months over the past six weeks sooner or later these days

55


general vocabulary

Useful interview expressions 1 Here are some com mon spoken expressions that you m ight find useful in the IELTS Speaking Test. Put each expression into the correct box in the table according to its function. 1.

C o u ld I just say th at : -

11. I d o n 't en tire ly ^ g ree.

2.

W h a t are yo u r view s o n ...?

12. I see things rather differently myself.

3.

D o -y o tt-ag r ee th at. -?

13. Let me inte rru p t you there.

4.

Sorry to in te rru p t,...

14. W h a t d o you th in k a b o u t...?

5.

Excuse me fo r in te rru p tin g ,...

15. Sorry to b u tt in,...

6.

I a g fe e .

16. Tha t's just w h a t I think .

7.

W ell, as a m a tte r o f fact,...

17. That's right.

8.

I c o u ld n 't agree m ore.

18. W ell, actually,...

9.

That's m y vie w exactly.

19. W hat's yo u r opin ion ?

10. W h a t are yo u r feelings a b o u t...?

Agreeing w ith somebody

20. I'm afraid I disagree / d o n 't agree.

Disagreeing w ith som ebody / d o n 't e n tirely agree.

/ agree.

Interrupting somebody C o u ld 1ju s t say th a t... ?

Asking som ebody for their opinion D o y o u agree th a t...?

2 N o w do the same w ith these.

56

1.

In e th e r^ w o rd ^ -.-

11. I'm sorry?

2.

W h a t I m ean is...

12. To p u t it a n o th e r w a y ...

3.

M a y I th in k a b o u t th a t fo r a m om ent?

13. Let me th in k a bo u t th a t fo r a m om en t.

4.

So, in conclusion,...

14. That's an interesting question.

5.

C o uld y o u repeat th e question?

15. T o sum m arise,...

6.

Perhaps I should m ake th a t clearer by saying...

16. W h a t was that?

7.

Let m e see.

17. W h a t I'm tryin g to say is...

8.

In short / b rie f,...

18. Hrom , h o w can-l put-/-say-this?

9.

To sum u p ,...

19. So, basically;.::

10. I'm afraid I d id n 't catch that.

20. W o u ld yo u m ind repeating that?


Asking for clarification or repetition Could yo u repeat the question ?

G iving yourself time to think H m m , h o w can 1p u t / say this?

Saying something in another w a y In other words...

general vocabulary

Useful interview expressions

Summ ing up w h a t you have said So, basically...

3 Fill in the gaps in these extracts from lELTS-style interviews w ith a suitable expression from Exercise 1 or 2. In each case, more than one answer is possible.

1. Interview er:

W h y are so m any people obsessed w ith celebrities?

Student: Interview er:

W h y are so m any people obsessed w ith celebrities?

Interview er:

A lot of people say th a t w e 've becom e to o reliant on technology. W hat's yo u r opinion?

Student:

....................................................................... In fact, I th in k th a t it's taking over o u r lives.

3. Interviewer:

Do yo u th in k th a t people in places like India, Bangladesh and o ther African countries w o rk h a rde r... b ut d o n 't you m ean Asian countries?

Student: Interviewer:

O f course, yes, that's w h a t I m eant.

4. Interviewer:

Some professional sports people are paid far to o m uch. Do you agree?

Student:

...................................................................... First of all, I th in k th a t there are times w h e n the salary the y're paid is justified, b u t then again, a lot of th e m ...

5. Interview er:

T h e w a y parents behave can have a p ro fo u n d effect on h o w their children develop. Do yo u agree?

Student:

Yes I do. Children need people w h o can influence the m in a positive way, and w h o can show the m the difference betw een rig ht and w ro n g ............................................................ th e y need go o d role models.

6. Interview er:

Some people say th a t private vehicle o w nership should be banned, and w e should all use public transport. A re the y right, do you think?

Student:

......................................................................First of all, public transport can't always take you exactly w h e re yo u w a n t to go. Secondly, it's expensive and unreliable. Th e n there's the problem w ith ....

57


topic-specific vocabulary 58

Architecture 1 Put the w ords and phrases in the box into their appropriate category in the table beneath. Some w ords or phrases can go into more than one category. Th e material in this m odule basically remains the same, w ith the exception of the follow ing changes:

art deco concrete controversial elegant energy-efficient an eyesore facade foundations functional glass high-rise apartments high-tech international style low-rise apartments modernist multi-storey car park post-modern pleasing geometric forms porch practical reinforced concrete skyscraper standardised steel stone timber traditional ugly walls well-designed

B u ild in g m aterials (6 w o rd s / phrases)

A e sth e tic p e rcep tio n ( h o w w e feel a b o u t a b u ild in g ) (6 w o rd s / phrases)

Types o f b u ild in g (4 w o rd s / phrases)

A rch ite ctu ra l style (6 w o rd s / phrases)

Parts o f a b u ild in g (4 w o rd s / phrases)

Features (th a t m ake the b u ild in g e a sy to live o r w o r k in ) (4 w o rd s / phrases)


2

1.

Complete these sentences w ith an appropriate w o rd or

Th e building i s ......................................................... It's been A . destabilised

2.

B. d e m o te

C. dem olish

B. preservative

C. presentable

B. architecture

C. architectural

B. internal cities

C. in n e r cities

T h e council hope to reduce crime in the to w n by introducing n e w ........................................................ facilities so tha t people have som ething to do in the evening. A . sociable

9.

C. slum s

Some of the problem s in o u r ....................................................................................................are d ru g related. A . inter-cities

8.

B. scrums

Sir Richard Rogers is t h e ........................................................ w h o designed the Lloyds building in London. A . architect

7.

C. estu a ry

You can't knock d o w n tha t house; there's a ........................................................ order on it w hich makes it illegal to destroy it. A . preservation

6.

B. state

Th e city council are goin g t o .........................................................the old church and built a n ew one in its place. A . dem obilise

5.

C. d e fu n ct

Th e re are several ru n -d o w n districts inside th e city w h e re the housing is in a bad state, a lthough most of th e s e ........................................................ are going to be replaced by high-rise apartments. A . slum ps

4.

B. derelict

ruined and abandoned fo r years.

She lives on a large h o u s in g ...................................................................................near the centre of th e city. A . estate

3.

phrase from A , B or C.

topic-specific vocabulary

Architecture

B. socialist

C. social

Th e cinema is going to be closed for tw o m onths w hile the o w n e rs ........................................................it. A . renovate

B. rem onstrate

C. reiterate

10. If you w a n t to add an extension to yo u r house, you w ill need ........................................................ permission from you r local council.

A. planning

B. construction

C. plotting

11. In the US, the gro u n d floor is called t h e ........................................................ floor.

A. basement

B. first

C. bottom

12. O n e w a y of creating m ore space in a house is to convert t h e ........................................................ into an extra room .

A. attic

B. ceiling

C. roof

59


topic-specific vocabulary

Architecture 3 Complete this report w ith w ords and phrases from Exercises 1 and 2. In some cases, more than one answer is possible, and you w ill need to change the form of one of the words.

Report from the director o f the West Twyford Town Planning Committee T h e last year has been a busy one fo r the W est T w y fo rd T o w n Planning C om m itte e. O u tlin e d b elow are a fe w o f the areas w e have concentrated on.

1.

A pplications fo r 1.......................................... .............. permission fro m hom e ow ners w h o w a n t to d evelop th e ir properties have increased by 50 per cent. How ever, m any of these hom es are historic buildings and have 2.........................................................orders w hich p revent th e m fro m being altered externally. A t present, w e can only a llo w ow ners to 3.........................................................the inside of th e ir hom es (including installing central heating and im proved w all insulation).

2.

Last sum m er w e invited several 4 .........................................................to design plans fo r the n e w council offices on Peach Street. W e eventually chose Barnard, Jackson and Willis, a local com pany. It was generally agreed th a t th e ir design, w hich included a grey tin te d 5......................................................... 6 at the fro n t o f the b uildin g, was the m ost aesthetically pleasing. T h e y are currently in the process o f laying the 7 ...........................................................fo r the n e w building, w hich w e understand is taking some tim e as the land must be drained first.

3. In response to a lot o f com plaints a b o u t the lack of 8 ......................................................... facilities in the to w n , it was agreed at last m onth's m eeting th a t funds should be set aside fo r the construction of a n ew sports centre and yo u th club.

4. Several 9 ......................................................... buildings w hich have been ruined and a bandoned for over five years are to be knocked d o w n . In th e ir place, a n e w housing 10......................................................... w ill be built. This w ill provide 20 n e w homes w ith in the next tw o years.

5. Everybody agrees th a t the n e w shops on the H igh Street are 11............................................................It is certainly tru e th a t the y are very ugly and o u t of keeping w ith the oth e r buildings on th e street. In future, w e must ensure th a t all n e w buildings are b uilt in a 12.........................................................style so th a t th e y fit in w ith the older buildings a rou nd the m .

6. Th e re has been an increased crime rate in the 13......................................................... to the east of the to w n . W e plan to dem olish these ru n -d o w n areas w ith in the next eight years and re-house the residents in n e w 14.........................................................apartm ents in the Berkely Heath district.

In an a tte m pt to help th e e nvironm ent, w e are g o in g to make the to w n hall m ore 15.......................................................... W in d o w s w ill be d oub le-gla zed , walls and ceilings will be insulated and w e will replace the current central heating system.

M y next report w ill be in tw o m onths' tim e. A n y b o d y w ishing to discuss these issues can contact me on extension 287.

60


1 Look at the extracts from newspaper reviews, and decide w h a t is being talked about in each one. Choose yo u r answers from the box.

Fine / Visual arts

abstract art a still life

a landscape

photography

a portrait

a sculpture

Literature

an autobiography a novel poetry

a biography

a collection of short stories

drama

topic-specific vocabulary

The arts

Performing arts

a ballet a concert an opera a play

a film

a modern dance piece

a musical

1.

M im i Latouche is g e ttin g a little to o old fo r this kind o f th in g , and as I w atched her pirouette across the stage in a tu tu tw o sizes to o small, she rem inded me not so m uch of a swan as a rather ungainly cro w ........................................

2.

T h e scenery w as w o n d e rfu l. T h e costumes w e re marvellous. T h e cast w ere incredible. I wish I could say the same a bo u t the script. Th e p la yw rig h t should be shot.......................................

3.

In his n e w book on Ernest H em ingw ay, acclaimed w rite r Michael Norris has b ro u g h t the great m an to life in a w a y n o b o d y else co u ld .......................................

4.

M o ve over M ichelangelo! You have a rival. V itto rio M anelleto's m arble pieces e m b o d y the hum an form in a w a y th a t has not been achieved in over 500 years.......................................

5.

I had to study the picture fo r almost tw o m inutes before I realised w h o it was. It was none other than o u r Q u ee n . I d o u b t she w o u ld have been am used.......................................

6.

Th e re are no great tenors in Britain. T h a t is until now . Brian Clack's perform ance in La Traviatta sent shudders d o w n m y spine. W h a t a m an! W h a t a voice! W h a t a size! ...................................

7.

H erbert von Erding has been conducting n o w fo r almost 40 years, and his final appearance yesterday was greeted w ith a standing ovation from both musicians and mem bers of the audience.

8.

Stone A n g e l is an hilarious tale a bo u t the fall and rise of an opera singer. I picked it up and d id n 't p u t it d o w n until I had finished. A fantastic b o o k ........................................

9.

Dylan Tho m as show ed rem arkable eloquence, and this latest com pilation of some of his finest prose w ill surely be a bestseller. ...................................

10. Bruschetta's studies of dead animals m igh t not be to everyone's taste, b ut it is impossible to deny his skill in representing inanim ate objects like these on canvas....................................... 11. He usually w orks in black and w h ite , and in m y opinion that's the m edium he should stick to. His colour shots are to o static and are heavily over-filtered, the strong lighting washes o u t any subtlety, and m uch of it is o u t of focus.......................................

61


topic-specific vocabulary

The arts 12. Shot entirely on location in Iran, this is perhaps the director's finest hour. A stunning setting, fine perform ances fro m the leads, and a cast of thousands of extras m ake this a tru ly visual feast.

13. T h e p aintin g shows a lot o f red circles and triangles inside squares flo ating in the sky above a y e llo w sea, and is titled 'Contractual O b lig a tio n M e tam orph osis'......................................... 14. 'D a w n V ie w of Lo n d o n ' takes in the w h o le of the city as seen fro m the to p of Parliam ent Hill, a lth o ugh the artist has rem oved some of the less attractive buildings from the fo re groun d .

2 The w ords in bold in these sentences are either w ron g, or the w ron g w o rd form has been used. Change them so that they are correct. 1.

Tonight's perform o f Romeo and Juliet begins at 7.30.

performance

2.

Cam ford University Press havejust released a collection of Shakespeare's w orkings...................................

3.

A n e w lim ited editor of the CD 'H ere w e g o !' by rock g ro u p Glass Weasel contains a D V D of their latest tour. ...................................

4.

His last book received some excellent revues in the papers........................................

5.

Tate M o d e rn is currently run nin g an exhibit of Tracey Emin's early w o rk ........................................

6.

Th e British National O pera says th a t it is delighted w ith the governm ent's promise of a ÂŁ500,000

granting...................................... 7.

Tickets have already sold o u t fo r the first day's show ing of To m Cartmill's paintings at the National A rt Galley.....................................

8.

Ernest H e m in g w a y was one of the tw e n tie th century's most fam ous novels.....................................

9.

French impressionism, w hich included M oney, M a n e t and Degas, had a p ro fo u n d influence on n in e te e nth -ce ntu ry a rt........................................

10. A pp are ntly, O ld h a ve n Press are g o in g to publication a collection of short stories w ritte n by schoolchildren........................................ 11.1 loved the film's atmosphere music and use of visual m etaphor.

...................................

12. I've always had an a rty eye, and th in k I w o u ld m ake a g o o d fashion photo grap he r. ................................... 13. I hate reality shows, talent shows and similar television program m es tha t form the bulk of today's popularity cu ltu re ........................................ 14. Orson W elles' film Citizen Kane was m ade over 70 years ago, but remains a cinema masterpiece.

15. A n d re Breton is w id e ly regarded as the fo u n d e r of the surreal art m o ve m e n t........................................ 16. T h e college runs a varied p ro g ra m m e of cultured activities w hich are open to o rdin ary members of the public........................................

62


3 Complete this extract from a radio programme w ith the w ords or phrases from Exercises 1 and 2. In some cases, more than one answer is possible, and you will need to change some of the w o rd forms. Hello, and w elcom e to today's edition of 'B u t is it A rt? '

N ow , I d o n 't usually enjoy 1.............................................................- all those pirouettes and pas de deux's and dying swans usually send me to sleep, b ut last night's 2 ............................................................. of Sleeping

Beauty at N ureyev Hall had me on the edge of my seat. A n d I'm not the only one: rave 3

in th e national press praised the excellent cho reography and the

incredible stage set. It's on again to n ig h t, b ut you'll have to m ove fast if you w a n t a ticket!

Th e

current

4 .............................................................

of

M onetto's

paintings

at

the

W he atle y

topic-specific vocabulary

The arts

A rt

5............................................................. has been a disappointm ent. Th e pictures themselves are excellent, especially the great artist's 6.............................................................of film stars, and of course his stunning 7............................................................. of a vase of daffodils, but the lighting inside the room was terrible. I w o u ld have th o u g h t that, having received a govern m en t 8 ............................................................. of almost

ÂŁ100,000, the W heatley Arts Council could have invested it in some goo d lights.

Fans of the great tw e n tie th -ce n tu ry 9 .............................................................. d elighted to

hear th a t Swansong

Press are goin g

to

G eorge O rw ell w ill be

release a collection

of his greatest

w hich w ill o f course include A nim al Farm and Nineteen Eighty

10............................................................

Four. Also included are some rare short stories w hich w e re n ot 11.............................................................. until after his death. Look o u t for the book, w hich will be in the shops from the end of the m onth.

O n the subject of books, a n e w Charles

W orsenm ost

is

due

to

12............................................................. be

released

in

January.

of the

W orsenm ost

life of conductor

conducted

his

last

13............................................................. in 1998 after a long and eventful career. This is highly recom m ended for anyone w h o is rem otely interested in classical music.

Have you ever w an ted to be an 14.............................................................singer? W ell, now's your chance! Th e National Music Com pany are looking fo r tenors and sopranos to audition fo r a new production o f M ozart's Marriage o f Figaro. If yo u 're interested, w e'll give you the n um b er to call at the end of the program m e.

Potential Michelangelos and Henry Moores can try the ir hand at 15............................................................. this w eekend. Th e Gleneagles M useum is holding a series of workshops w hich will give you the chance to chip aw ay at a lum p of stone to produce a piece of three-dim ensional art. There's no need to book - just tu rn up at the d oor on Saturday at nine o'clock.

A n d n o w here's tha t n um b er I promised y o u ....

63


topic-specific vocabulary

Business & industry 1 Look at sentences 1 - 1 6 , and replace the w ords and phrases in bold w ith a w o rd or phrase in the box w hich has an opposite meaning.

credit demand for employees loss net private recession state-owned industries take on

expenditure exports lending retail shop floor unskilled labourers white-collar

1.

W e have a lim ited s u p p ly o f co m p u te r base units.

2.

Last year, o u r co m p an y m ade a huge p ro fit.

3.

O u r gross profits are up by alm ost 150 per cent on last year.

4.

Banks across the co un try are rep o rtin g a sharp d ro p in b o rro w in g .

5.

T h e co m p an y w ill d e b it y o u r bank account w ith ÂŁ528 each m o n th.

6.

T h e w ho lesa le m arket has experienced a d o w n tu rn since the recession began.

7.

T h e g o v e rn m e n t is enco u ra gin g sh ort-term investors to p u t th e ir m o n ey into the p u b lic sector.

8.

Private enterprises are un d er a lot o f financial pressure.

9.

S killed w o rk e rs are d e m a n d in g a 15 per cent pay rise.

10. If this continues, w e w ill have to la y o f f m em bers o f staff.

11 . B lu e -colla r w orkers across the coun try are d e m a n d in g im proved w o rk in g conditions.

12. He w orks fo r a co m p an y w hich im p o rts camera e quip m e nt.

13. A lot o f people have benefited fro m the recent b o o m in the electrical industry.

14. T h e m a n a g e m e n t refuse to com prom ise on the qua lity of th e ir products.

15. O verall re ve n u e is d o w n by almost 15 per cent.

16. A fight broke out in the boardroom over terms and conditions of em ploym ent. (Note: you will have to change the preposition in to on)

64


2

Match the words and phrases in the first box w ith a dictionary definition from the list A - R below.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

a utom ation un e m plo ym e n t inflation balance of paym ents taxation GNP

A . Th e

B.

percentage

7. interest rates 8. prim ary industry 9. secondary industries 10. service industries 11. nationalised industries 12. m o n o po ly

charged

fo r

;

b o rro w in g

money.

(The

13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

o u tp u t incom e tax VAT deficit key industry salary

Bank

of

England

has

raised

topic-specific vocabulary

Business & industry

Industries involved in the m anufacture of goods. ( ............................................................. rely on the

ready supply o f ra w materials.) C.

Th e value of goods and services paid fo r in a country, including income earned in other countries. (Last ye a r's ............................................................. was close to ÂŁ25 billion.)

D. Th e

a m o u n t w hich

a firm ,

m achine or

produces. (The factory has doubled its

person

in the last six m onths.) involved

in

the

production

Industries

F

Installing m achinery in place of w orkers ( ............................................................. can be a m ixed blessing

;

of

raw

materials.

(Coal m ining is an im portant

E.

- machines usually tend to be o u t o f order w hen y o u need them m ost.) G. Industries w hich do not make products but offer a service such as banking, insurance and transport. ( ............................................................. have become more im portant in the last decade.) H. Th e difference in value betw een a country's imports and exports. (The governm ent is trying to reduce t h e ............................................................. deficit.) I.

Th e a m o u n t by w hich expenditure is m ore than receipts in a firm's or country's accounts. (The com pany announced a tw o m illion p o u n d ............................................................... )

J. A system w h e re one person or com pany supplies all of a product in one area w ith o u t any com petition. (The state has a ............................................................. o f the tobacco trade.) K.

Industries w hich w ere once privately o w ned, but n o w belong to the state. (Workers in ............................................................. are to ge t a 3 per cent p a y rise.)

L.

Lack of w o rk . (The figures f o r ............................................................. are rising.)

M . T h e action of im posing taxes. (M o n e y raised b y ............................................................. pays for all

governm ent services.) N. Th e most im portant industries in a country. (O il is a ............................................................. which is

essential to the country's economy.) O . A state in an econom y w h e re prices and wages are rising to keep pace w ith each other. (The governm ent is trying to k e e p ............................................................. d o w n b e lo w 3 per cent.) P.

A tax on m oney earned as wages or salary. (S h e p a ys ............................................................. at the lowest

rate.) Q . A tax imposed as a percentage of the invoice value of goods or services. A n indirect tax. ( ............................................................. in Britain currently runs at 20 p e r cent.) R. A fixed a m oun t of m oney tha t you earn each m onth of year from yo u r jo b (I receive an annual ............................................................. o f ÂŁ30,000)

65


topic-specific vocabulary

Business & industry 3 Complete this extract from a business programme w ith words and phrases from Exercises 1 and 2. In some cases, more than one answer is possible, and you will need to change some of the w o rd forms.

1..................................................................................rates are to rise by a furth er half a per cent next m onth, putting furth er pressure on hom eow ners paying m ortgages. It will also discourage people from 2..................................................................................m oney from the high street banks, w h o are already under a lot of pressure. Last year, the National Bank was forced to 3 .................................................................................. 2,000

members

of

staff across the

country,

adding

to

the

country's

rapidly

rising

rate

of

4 .................................................................................

5..................................................................................... rose in the last year by almost 6 per cent, despite the governm ent's pledge to keep price and w a g e rises no high er than 3 per cent. This has had a negative im pact on 6 ..................................................................................... .. since the strong p oun d coupled w ith rising prices has m ade it alm ost impossible fo r foreign com panies to buy British goods and services. Especially affected

are

the

7 .....................................................................................

prod ucin g

pharmaceuticals

and

chemicals.

8 ...................................................................................... w orkers in 9 ....................................................................................... industries across the country are d e m a n d in g high er 10........................................................................................ Unions and w orkers are negotiating w ith 11......................................................................................chiefs for an e ig ht percent rise. This follows th e announ ce m en t th a t the gove rn m e n t w a n t m ore investors to put their m oney into the 12......................................................................................sector.

13......................................................................................

for

hom e

com puters

has

finally

overtaken

the

14 ...................................................................................... m aking it once again a seller's m arket. Th e re is n o w a tw o -w e e k w a itin g list to receive a n e w com puter. This has pushed prices up by almost a third .

Bradford Aerospace Technologies, w h e re overall 15........................................................................................ fo r sales of aircraft parts has d ro p pe d by almost 10 per cent in the lastquarter,

w ill shortly become a

16......................................................................................industry in a final desperate a tte m pt to keep it open. T h e g o ve rn m e n t has promised it will keep on the current w orkforce.

Bad news too for Ranger Cars, w h o this w eek announced a 17................................................................................. of almost ÂŁ5 million. A spokesman for the com pany blamed high labour costs and the reluctance by union leaders to approve increased 18......................................................at the firm's factories. The y insist that the installation of new machinery will lead to redundancies.

66


1

Complete these sentences w ith an appropriate w o rd or phrase from A , B or C.

1.

M r and Mrs Smith live at hom e w ith th e ir tw o children. Th e y are a typical exam ple of a m odern family. A . e xte n d e d

2.

B. b rin g a b o u t

C. b rin g up

B. upraising

C. u p liftin g

B. d iv id e d

C. d ive rg e d

M a n y m en believe t h a t ...............................................is th e responsibility of a w o m a n . A . childhelp

8

B. childcare

C. childaid

is a particularly difficult tim e of life fo r a child. A . Convalescence

9.

C. m o n o -p a re n t

Mrs Kelly i s ...............................................and finds it difficult to look after her children on her o w n . A . d ivo rce d

7.

B. m o th e r-o n ly

W h e n I was a child, I had a very t u r b u le n t ................................................. A . u p b rin g in g

6.

C. e xte n d e d

Some parents need t o ...............................................their children m ore strictly. A . b rin g d o w n

5.

B. e n la rg e d

Mrs Jones lives on her o w n and has to look after her tw o children. Th e re are a lot of families like hers. A . s in g le -p a re n t

4.

C. com pact

M r and Mrs Popatlal live at hom e w ith th e ir aged parents, children and grandchildren. Th e y are a typical exam ple of a tra d itio n a l...............................................family. A . nuclear

3.

B. nuclear

topic-specific vocabulary

Children & the family

B. Adolescence

C. Convergence

A person's behaviour can sometimes be traced back to his/her................................................. A . creative years

B. fo rm u la tin g years

C. fo rm a tive years

10. T h e co untry has seen a sharp d ro p in t h e ...............................................in the last fe w years. A . birth rate

B. b a b y rate

C. bo rn rate

11. She has f i v e ............................................... w h o rely on her to look after them . A . d epe ndants 12

B. dependers

C. dependents

crim e is on the rise, w ith over 30 per cent of thefts being com m itted by yo u n g people und er the age of eighteen. A . J u n io r

B. Ju ve n ile

C. Children

2 M atch sentences 1 - 1 2 w ith a second sentence A - M . Use the key w ord s and phrases in bold to help you. 1.

M r and Mrs W h ite are very authoritarian parents.

2.

M r Bowles is considered to be to o lenient.

3.

M r and Mrs Harris lead separate lives.

4.

Billy is a w ell-ad juste d kid.

5.

Th e M annings are not very responsible parents.

6.

M y parents are separated.

7.

Parents m ust look after their children, b ut the y shouldn't be over-protective.

8.

Professor M aynard has m ade a study of the cognitive processes of yo u n g children.

g y


topic-specific vocabulary

Children & the family 9.

I'm afraid m y yo ungest child is ru n n in g w ild .

10. She looks q uite different fro m all her siblings. 11. Th e re are several different and distinct stages o f d e ve lo p m e n t in a child's life. 12. T o n y was raised by a foster fa m ily w h e n his o w n parents died. A . T h e y d o n 't look after th e ir children ve ry w ell. B.

He is fascinated by the w a y th e y learn n e w things.

C.

He very rarely punishes his children.

D. I live w ith m y m o th e r and visit m y fathe r at w eekends. E.

He never listens to a w o rd I say, and is always playing tru a n t fro m school.

F.

Brothers and sisters usually bear some resemblance to one another.

G. A lth o u g h th e y are m arried and live together, th e y rarely speak to each other. H. T h e y are ve ry strict w ith th e ir children. I.

O f all o f these, the teenage years are the m ost difficult.

J.

C hildren need the freedom to ge t o u t and experience the w o rld a ro u nd the m .

K.

He's happy at ho m e and is d o in g w ell at school.

L.

M a n y families take in children w h o are n o t th e ir o w n .

3 C om plete this case stu d y w ith one o f the w o rd s o r phrases fro m Exercises 1 and 2. Y o u w ill need to change o n e o f th e w o rd form s.

Bob's

problem s

began

d urin g

his

1......................................................

years.

His

parents

got

2 ..................................................... w h e n he was yo u n g , and neither of the m w a n te d to raise him or his b ro th er and sister, so he was 3 ..................................................... by a 4 ....................................................... chosen by his parents' social w orker. Unfortunately, his foster fathe r was a strict 5..................................................... and often beat him . Bob rebelled against this strict 6 ........................................................ and by the tim e he was eight, he was already 7..................................................... .. stealing from shops and playing truan t. By the tim e he reached 8..................................................... .. som etim e a round his 13th birthday, he had already appeared in court several times, charged w ith 9 ..................................................... crime. T h e ju d g e blam ed his foster parents, explaining th a t children needed 10..................................................... parents and guardians w h o w o u ld look after them properly. Th e foster father objected to this, p ointing o u t that Bob's 11..................................................... -

his tw o brothers and sister - w ere 12.....................................................

children w h o behaved at hom e and w o rk ed well at school.

This has raised some interesting questions a b o u t the m odern fam ily system. W h ile it is true th a t parents should n o t be to o 13...................................................... w ith children by letting th e m d o w h a t the y w a n t w h e n th e y w a n t, or be to o 14...................................................... by sheltering the m fro m the realities of life, it is also tru e th a t the y should not be to o strict. It has also high lig hted the disadvantages of the m odern 15...................................................... fam ily w h e re the child has on ly its m o th e r and father to rely on (o r the 16...................................................... family, in w hich the m o th e r or fathe r has to struggle particularly hard to support the ir 17...................................................... ). In fact, m any believe th a t w e should return to traditional fam ily values and the 18...................................................... fam ily: extensive research has show n th a t children from these families are generally better behaved and have a better chance

68

o f success in later life.


1

Match the w ords and phrases in the box w ith their correct definition 1 - 1 0 .

barrister break the law defendant offender solicitor victim witness

judge

jury

law-abiding

1.

A person appointed to make legal decisions in a court of law .......................................

2.

A g ro u p of 12 citizens w h o are sw orn to decide w h e th e r som eone is guilty o r innocent on the basis of evidence given in a court of law .......................................

3.

A person w h o sees som ething happen o r is present w h e n som ething happens.......................................

4.

A person w h o appears in a court of law accused of doing som ething illegal........................................

5.

A person w h o is attacked or w h o is in an accident........................................

6.

A qualified lawyer w h o gives advice to members of the public and acts for them in legal matters.

7.

A person w h o commits an offence against the law .......................................

8.

A lawyer w h o can present a case in c o u rt.......................................

9.

A n expression used to describe som eone w h o obeys the law .......................................

topic-specific vocabulary

Crime & the law

10. To do som ething th a t is illegal.......................................

2 Th e follow ing groups of sentences describe the legal process which follows a crime. However, w ith the exception of the first sentence, the sentences in each group are in the w ron g order. Put them into the correct order, using the key w ords and phrases in bold to help you. Some of these words appear in Task A. P a rti A . O n e night, Jim Smith com m itted a serious crime. = Sentence 7 B.

Jim asked the officer fo r a solicitor to help h im .......................................

C.

A t the same tim e, the police arranged fo r a barrister to prosecute h im .......................................

D. T h e y to o k him to the police station and form ally charged him w ith the crim e....................................... E.

W h e n the trial began and he appeared in court fo r the first tim e, he pleaded his innocence.

F.

Th e next m o rn in g the police arrested h im .......................................

Part 2 A.

His barrister also said he was innocent and asked the court to acquit him. = Sentence 1

B. W h ile he was in prison, he applied fo r parole ........................................ C.

As a result, the ju d g e sentenced him to tw o years in prison.......................................

D. He was released after 18 m o n ths....................................... E.

However, there w ere several witnesses, and the evidence against him was o ve rw he lm in g .

F.

Having all the p ro o f the y needed, the ju r y returned a gu ilty verdict.

...................................

Part 3 A.

U nfortunately, prison failed to rehabilitate him and after his release he continued w ith his misdeeds, attacking an old w o m a n in the street. = Sentence 1

B.

Jim prom ised to reform and the pensioner w ith d re w her call fo r m ore severe retribution.

69


topic-specific vocabulary

Crime & the law C.

W ith this in m ind, instead o f passing a custodial sentence, he fin e d him a lot of m oney and ordered him to d o c o m m u n ity service ......................................

D.

He was re -a rre ste d and returned to c o u rt........................................

E.

His n e w victim , a pensioner, th o u g h t th a t the ju d g e was being to o le n ie n t on Jim and called for the reinstatem ent o f corp o ra l p u n is h m e n t and capital p u n is h m e n t! .................................

F.

A t his second trial the ju d g e agreed th a t prison was n ot a d e te rre n t fo r Jim ........................................

3. N o w look at this extract from a politician's speech and complete the gaps w ith one of the words or phrases from Exercises 1 and 2. In some cases, more than one answer may be possible.

A re you w orrie d abou t crime? I am. W e read it every day in the papers. A terrible crime has been 1............................................................ , the police have 2............................................................ someone, he has appeared in fro n t of a jury in a 3............................................................of law, he has 4 ............................................. ............... his innocence b u t has been fo un d 5.............................................................. o f his crime and he has been 6 .............................................................. to 10 years in prison. W e are all very relieved tha t the criminal is being punished fo r his 7.............................................................. and 8................................................................. citizens like you and me can sleep m ore safely at night.

But w h a t happens

next? W e all hope, d o n 't w e, th a t the prisoner w ill benefit fro m

9

society's

...... th a t a spell in prison w ill

m ake him a better person. W e all hope th a t he w ill 11............................................................. and become like us. W e all hope th a t w h e n he is eventually 12............................................................. and let loose on the streets, 1

But

he w ill

be a go o d

character, th e th re a t of a no the r spell

in jail

being

a

suitable

3 ........................................................... w hich w ill stop him fro m breaking the law again. O h yes.

let's face

it.Th e

reality

is usually very

different. Th e

prisoner

m ay

be

released

on

14 .............................................................. before the end of his sentence. He will try to re-en ter society. But then he often becomes a 15............................................................. himself, unable to find w o rk and rejected by society. It isn't long before he's back in prison again.

So w h a t alternatives are there, I hear you say. W h a t can w e do to the 16........................................................... to make sure he doesn't com m it another crime? There are alternatives to prison, of course, such as 17

in which he will provide a service to those around him. O r he can pay a

large 18............................................................. Alternatively, w e could establish a more severe system of punishment, including 19......................................................... and 20.............................................................. but w e like to consider ourselves civilised, and the idea of beating or executing someone is repellent to us. O h yes.

T h e answer, o f course, is far simpler. W e need to be to u g h n o t on the crim inal, b u t on the cause of the crime. W e should spend less o f the taxpayer's m on ey fu n d in g the 21.............................................................. and 22..............................................................and all the o th e r people w h o w o rk fo r th e legal system, and pu t the m o n ey instead into suppo rting deprived areas w hich are the b reeding grounds fo r crime. W e in the ConLab Party believe th a t everyb o d y needs a g o o d chance in life,and fo rw a rd . V ote fo r us n o w !

70

this is a go o d step


1

Look at the sentences below and fill in the gaps using the appropriate w o rd from A , B or C.

1.

He d id n 't get a go o d grade the first tim e he did his IELTS exam, so decided t o .............................. it. A . resit

2.

C. h ig h e r

B. fare

C. g ra n t

B. p o w e rs

C. abilities

B. senior

C. h ig h e r

W e should make the best of e v e r y ............................ to learn. A . chance

9.

B. u p p e r

A lth o u g h she already had a first degree from university, she decided tha t she w an ted to w o rk tow ards a .............................. degree later in life. A . fu rth e r

8.

C. H ig h e r

Education helps us to acquire know ledge and learn n e w .................................. A . skills

7.

B. Fu rth e r

He received a local g o v e rn m e n t.............................. to help him pay fo r his course. A . fee

6.

C. old

A fte r he left school, he decided to go on t o .............................. education and applied for a place at E dinburgh University. A . fu rth e r

5.

B. mature

A lth o u g h she had left school and was w o rk in g , she w e n t to evening classes at the local College of .............................. Education. A . Upper

4.

C. repair

People w h o attend university later in life are often c a lle d .............................. students.

A. aged 3.

B. rem ake

topic-specific vocabulary

Education

B. o p p o rtu n ity

C. ava ilab ility

N o w a d a y s ,........................... education is p ro m o ted a lot in schools. A. body

B. h ealth

10. A large n um b er o f parents are dissatisfied w ith t h e .............................. th e ir children into private schools instead. A . g o v e rn m e n t

B. n a tio n a l

C. vita lity education system, and put C. state

11. Because so m any students find exams stressful, some colleges offer a system o f ........................................ assessment instead. A . co n tin u a l

B. co n tin uo u s

C. co n tin u in g

12. He has read a lot of books a n d .............................. a lot of know ledge. A . acquired

B. w o n

C. achieved

13. University students have a ..............................w h o they m eet on a regular basis to discuss the ir w ork. A . teacher

B. tu to r

C. lecturer

14. The re w ere m ore than 50 students at Professor B ry a n t's.............................. on city planning. A . lecture

2

B. sem inar

C. tu to ria l

Complete the passage on the next page w ith a suitable w ord or phrase from the box.

course day release degree discipline enrol evening class graduate kindergarten literacy numeracy on-line pass primary qualifications secondary skills

71


topic-specific vocabulary

Education W h e n M ichael was three years old, he started g o in g to a local (1 )............................................................. and school, w h e re he

tw o years later began a tte n din g his local (2 )............................................................. learned

basic

(3 ).............................................................

such

as (4 )..............................................................

and

(5 )................................................................A t the age o f 11, he started at (6 )............................................................... school.

He w asn't

a

very keen

pupil,

(7 ) ..................................................................

and

H owever,

his teachers often when

he

to o k

com plained

his

th a t

school-leaving

he

lacked

exams,

he

(8 ) .............................................................. the m all w ith go o d grades. W h e n he

left school at the age of 18, he decided he w an ted to continue his studies. He foun d a

university w hich offered a full-tim e (9 ).............................................................in M o d e rn A rt and Design, and (1 0 ).............................................................on it a fe w days before his 19th birthday. For three years he w orked hard, and ( 11) .............................................................w ith a (1 2 )..............................................................in M od e rn A rt and Design. A fte r that, he did an (1 3 )............................................................ course in P hotography from a college in the US. Th e (1 4 ).............................................................. th a t he had gained, com bined w ith

his creative talents,

impressed an advertising agency th a t he w a n te d to w o rk for, and the y offered him a job . T h e agency encouraged him to develop his passion fo r all things creative, and w h ile the y w e re n 't prepared to offer him (1 5 )............................................................... to study d u rin g w o rk in g hours, the y paid fo r him to join an (1 6 )............................................................. at his local College of Further Education. 3 N o w read this essay and com plete the gaps w ith one o f the w o rd s or phrases from Exercises 1 and 2. You w ill need to change the form of some of the w ords. 'Y o u are n e v e r to o o ld to learn'. D o y o u agree w ith this statem ent? Education is a long process that not only provides us w ith basic (1 ).......................................................... such as (2 ).......................................................... and (3 ).......................................................... , but is also essential in shaping o ur future lives. From the m om ent w e enter (4 ).......................................................... as small children, and as w e progress th ro ug h (5 ).............................................................................................................................................. and (6 ).. ed w e are laying the foundations for the life ahead o f us. W e must (7 ).......................................................... ourselves to w o rk hard so tha t w e can (8 )..........................................................

exams and gain the

(9 ) .......................................................... w e will need to secure a good job. W e must also (10 ) .......................................................... valuable life skills so tha t w e can fit in and w o rk w ith those around us. A n d of course ( 11) .......................................................... education helps us to understand h o w w e can stay fit and healthy. For most people, this process ends w h e n the y are in the ir m id-to-la te teens. For others, however, it is the

b egin n in g

of

a

lifetime

of

learning.

A fte r

they

finish

school,

m any

progress

to

(1 2 )............................................................. education w h e re the y w ill learn m ore useful skills such as com puter literacy or basic business m anagem ent. Others will (1 3 )............................................................. on a program m e of (1 4 )............................................................. education at a university w he re , w ith hard w o rk , the y w ill have the o p p o rtu n ity to (1 5 ).............................................................. after three or fo u r years w ith a w ell-earned (1 6 ) A fte r that, they m ay w o rk fo r a w hile before o p tin g to study for a (1 7 ).............................................................

degree - an M A , fo r example, or a PhD. Alternatively, they

m ay choose to attend an (1 8 ).............................................................

after w o rk or, if the y have a

sym pathetic em ployer, obtain (1 9 ).............................................................

so th a t they can study d urin g the

w eek.

And

if the y

live

a

long

(2 0 ).............................................................

way

from

a college

or

university,

they

m ig h t fo llo w

an

course using the Internet. In fact, it is largely due to the

proliferation o f com puters tha t m any people w h o have n ot been near a school fo r m any years, have started to study again and can p rou dly class themselves as (2 1 )................................ ............................ students. W e live in a fascinating and constantly changing w o rld , and w e m ust continually learn and acquire n e w k n o w le d g e if w e are to a da pt and keep up w ith changing events. O u r schooldays are just the b e g in n in g of this process, and w e should m ake th e best of every ( 2 2 ) .............................................................

72

to develop ourselves, w h e th e r w e are 18 o r 80. You are, indeed, never to o old to learn.


1 Match the first part of each sentence in the left-hand column w ith its second part in the right-hand column. Use the w ords and phrases in bold to help you. Check that each sentence you put together is grammatically correct. 1.

Some m odern agricultural m ethods have been heavily criticised,...

(A ) ...in m any countries poaching is considered m ore serious than d ru g sm uggling.

2.

If yo u w e a r a fu r coat in public,...

3.

It is illegal to kill pandas, tigers...

(B) ...and rare breeds parks are very popular w ith many.

4.

If w e d o n 't d o m ore to protect pandas,...

5.

A lot o f British people are interested in unusual animals,...

6.

National parks in Kenya are currently recruiting experts...

7. 8. 9.

In an a tte m pt to preserve forests around the country...

(C) ...in w ildlife management. (D ) ...the governm ent's conservation program m e has been very successful. (E) ...they'll soon be extinct. (F) ...w ith battery farming in particular receiving a lot of condem nation. (G ) ...it was fascinating to observe th e ir natural

behaviour.

W e w o u ld like to carry o u t m ore scientific study into rainforests...

(H ) ...on a successful panda breeding program m e.

I d o n 't like zoos because I think...

(I)

10. I saw a fascinating d o cum entary a bo u t the w a y animals live in Venezuela and th o u g h t... 11. Th e Chinese g o v e rn m e n t has spent a lot of m oney... 12. Hunters have killed so m any animals that...

...keeping animals in captivity is cruel.

(J) ...or any oth e r endangered species. (K) ...b u t it is often difficult to get people to fu n d the research. (L) ...you risk com ing un der attack from animal

rights activists.

2 Replace the phrases in bold in these sentences w ith a w o rd or phrase from the box so that the sentences sound more natural. There are three words or phrases that you do not need.

acid rain biodegradable packaging contaminated deforestation ecosystem emissions environmentalists erosion fossil fuels genetically modified global warming green belt greenhouse organic pesticides pollution rainforest recycle things renewable 1.

In Britain, b uilding is restricted or com pletely banned in the area o f fa rm in g la n d o r w o o d s a n d parks w h ich surro un d s a t o w n .....................................

2.

M a n y companies are developing boxes, cartons a n d cans w h ich can easily be deco m p ose d b y o rganism s such as bacteria, o r b y su n ligh t, sea, w ater, etc. .................................

3.

T h e b u rn in g of some fuels creates carbon dioxide, carbon m o n o xid e , su lp h u r dioxide , m eth a ne a n d o th e r gases w hich rise into the atm osphere.......................................

4.

Farmers have cleared hectares of thick w o o d e d la n d in tropical re gio ns w h e re the precip itatio n is v e ry h ig h .....................................

5.

Planting trees provides some protection fro m the g ra d u a l w e a rin g a w a y of soil......................................

6.

W e should all try to process w aste m ateria l so th a t it can be used a gain .....................................

7.

These potatoes are cu ltiva te d naturally, w ith o u t using a n y chem ical fertilisers o r pesticides.

8.

This bread is m ade fro m w h e a t w hich has been altered a t a m olecu la r le ve l so as to change certain characteristics w h ich can be inherited. .................................

9.

The process o f re m o v in g the trees fro m an area o f la n d is destroying millions of acres of w o o d la n d every year. ...................................

topic-specific vocabulary

The environment


topic-specific vocabulary

The environment 10. P o llu te d p re cip ita tio n w h ich kills trees falls a long distance a w a y fro m the source of the pollution.

11. H um a n beings have had a devastating effect on the liv in g th ings, b o th large a n d sm all, in m any parts o f the w o rld ........................................ 12. T h e gases a n d o th e r substances w hich com e from factories using oil, coal and oth e r fuels w hich are th e rem ains o f pla nts a n d anim als can cause serious dam age to the e n viro n m e n t...................................... 13. D o n 't d rin k th a t w a te r! It's been m a d e d ir ty b y so m e th in g b e in g a d d e d to i t

.................................

14. Friends o f th e Earth, Greenpeace and oth e r p e o p le concerned w ith p ro te ctin g the e n v iro n m e n t are h o ld in g a fo ru m in L o n d o n n e x t m o n th ...................................... 15. The h e a tin g up o f the earth's atm osphere b y p o llu tio n is threa ten ing life as w e k n o w it.

3 N o w look at this essay and complete the gaps w ith one of the w ords or phrases from Exercises 1 and 2. In some cases, more than one answer w ill be possible. You may need to change the form of some of the words.

'Environm ental degra d atio n is a m ajor w o rld problem . W h a t causes this problem , and w h a t can w e d o to prevent it?' There is no doub t that the environm ent is in trouble. Factories burn 1........................................................... which produce

2................................................................................... ,

and

this

kills

trees.

At

the

same

3 ......................................................... gases rise into the air and contribute to 4 ........................................................... w hich

threatens

to

melt

the

polar

ice

cap.

M eanwhile

farmers

clear

huge

areas

of

5......................................................... in places such as the A m azo n to produce feeding land for cattle or w ood for building. Rivers and oceans are so heavily 6......................................................... by industrial waste that it is no longer safe to go swim m ing. Cars pum p out poisonous 7............................................................which w e all have to breathe in. 8......................................................... and overfishing are killing off millions of animals, including whales, elephants and other 9............................................................In fact, all around us, all living things large and small which comprise our finely balanced 10............................................................ are being systematically destroyed by human greed and thoughtlessness. Th e re is a lot w e can all do, however, to help prevent this. Th e easiest th in g , of course, is to 1

1......................................................... waste material such as paper and glass so th a t w e can use it

again. W e should

also check th a t the things w e

buy from

superm arkets are packaged

in

12 .............................................................. packaging w hich decomposes easily. A t th e same tim e, w e should make a conscious effort to avoid foods w hich are 13............................................................. (at least until som eone proves th a t th e y are safe both fo r us and fo r th e e nviro nm e n t). If you are tru ly com m itted to protecting the e nvironm ent, of course, you should only buy 14............................................................. fru it and vegetables, safe in the kn ow led ge th a t the y have been naturally cultivated. Finally, of course, w e should buy a smaller car, as these cause less 15..............................................................tha n large saloons or SUVs. Even better, w e should try to make m ore use of public transport. T h e serious 16.............................................................. , how ever, do m uch m ore. T h e y are aw are of the global issues involved and w ill actively involve themselves in 17.............................................................. by m aking sure o u r forests are kept safe fo r fu tu re generations. Th e y w ill oppose activities w hich are harm ful to animals, such as 18.................................................................A n d th e y w ill cam paign to keep the 19.............................................................. a rou nd o u r to w n s and cities free from n e w b uildin g. W e cannot all be as com m itted as them , b u t w e can at least do o u r o w n little bit at grass roots level. W e, as humans, have inherited the earth, b u t th a t doesn't mean w e can d o w h a te ve r w e like w ith it.

74


1 Look at the dictionary definitions, and arrange the letters in bold to form the words they are defining. The first letter of each w o rd is underlined. W rite your answers in the crossword on the next page. (Each definition is followed by a sample sentence in italics w ith the w o rd removed). 1.

2.

3.

Natural substances fo u n d in food th a t are necessary to keep yo u r b o dy healthy. Each one is given a nam e using a letter of the alphabet, aimvistn (Apples contain several essential_____ )

9.

O f fo o d: providing th e substances th a t people need in o rde r to be healthy, nitsortiuu (A healthy, _____ meal)

10. Natural substances fo un d in some foods th a t you need fo r go o d health, amerlins

Som eone w h o chooses n o t to eat m eat or fish, geetrvanai ( I've been a _____ since I

was 13)

W e ak o r ill because yo u do not eat e no u gh, or because yo u d o not eat e n o u gh of the rig ht foods. Inomaisheurd (24 per cent o f

children in the school were found to be

)

( Milk contains calcium, one o f the most im p o rta n t _____ for maintaining strong bones)

topic-specific vocabulary

Food & diet

11. Oil fo u n d in m eat. taf. (You should trim the

o ff m eat before yo u cook it) 4.

Substances fo un d in fo o d th a t supply yo u r body w ith heat and energy, bocaratydesrh

(Bread, potatoes and rice are a go o d source o f _____ ) 5.

A substance fo u n d in fo o d such as meat, eggs and m ilk th a t people need in order to g ro w and be strong, pntiroe ( Children w ho lack sufficient _____ in their diet are

often ill)

12. Th e parts of fruit, vegetables and grain tha t yo u r body cannot digest, brfie ( Dietary

helps protect us from disease) 13. Heavier than you should be. w origvehet (I'm a couple o f kilogram m es _____ )

14. Food th a t has recently been picked, caught or prepared, sfrhe ( vegetables are

much nicer than frozen ones) 6.

A substance in yo u r blood th a t can cause heart disease if you have to o m uch of it.

eroclshtloe. ( There are m any foods that claim to reduce _____ levels) 7.

A serious lack of fo o d th a t continues fo r a long tim e and causes m any people in a country to becom e ill or die. anfeim (The crop failure caused w idespread _____

in the region) 8.

15. Units fo r m easuring h o w much energy you g e t from fo od, ridesao (There are over 150

in a small packet o f crisps) 16. Describing food th a t has had chemicals or oth e r substances added to it. percedsos (_____ meat keeps for longer than natural

meat)

A condition in w hich som eone is to o fat, in a w a y th a t is dangerous fo r th e ir health,

eoitbys (The report highlighted the problems caused b y ch ild h o o d _____ )

75


topic-specific vocabulary

Food & diet

2 M atch sentences 1 - 1 0 w ith a second sentence A - J. Use the key w o rd s and phrases in bold to help y o u . In som e cases, m ore tha n one a n sw e r is possible.

1. 2.

3.

4. 5. 6.

A lot o f people are allergic to nuts M a n y people do n o t trust genetically m odified foods. O rg a n ic fru it and vegetables are quite expensive, b u t m ay be better fo r you. I refuse to eat eggs fro m b a tte ry chickens.

A . This is because th e y are cultivated naturally, w ith o u t using any chemical fertilisers or pesticides. B. As a result, w e m ay have to im p o rt a lot of basic foods. c T h e y are n o t sure th a t altering the com position of cells to change certain characteristics is safe. D

I o n ly eat m eat fro m free ran ge animals. To o much rain has prevented crops from ripening properly.

T h e harvest has been very bad this year. F.

7.

I like to k n o w th a t the anim als have e n o u gh space to express th e ir natural behaviour.

If th e d ro u g h t continues, there w ill be serious fo o d shortages.

8.

Th e re has been an increase in cases o f salm onella, listeria, e.coli and o th e r types of fo o d poisoning.

9.

T o o m any people fail to eat a balanced diet.

10. Fast fo o d is very popular.

This is in spite o f the fact th a t it is fatten ing and unhealthy.

G. It can be difficult to trace th e sources of some o f these. h

. T h e y should m ake an effort to consume sufficient quantities of the different food groups. T h e y have a bad physical reaction if th e y eat them .

â&#x2013; *'

A nim als should n ot spend th e ir lives confined in small cages.

76


3 Complete this article w ith the w ords and phrases from Exercises 1 and 2. In some cases, more than one answer is possible.

Children love eating (1 ).............................................................. , but burgers, chicken nuggets and other heavily (2 )............................................................. food products no t only contain a large n um b er of unhealthy chemicals and

other additives,

but also

lack the

essential

(3 ).............................................................

and (4 )............................................................. tha t a child needs. In addition, the y also contain a lot of (5 )............................................................. and (6 )............................................................... w hich, if eaten in quantity, can result in childhood (7 )............................................................ (in fact, a recent survey suggests th a t 39 per

topic-specific vocabulary

Food & diet

cent of 8 - 15 year-olds are seriously o ve rw e ig ht).

M a n y children end up (8 ).............................................................. , since they eat too much of the w ro n g sort of food. In fact, in m any parts of the developed w orld , a lot of children show similar symptoms to those in poorer developing countries, w h e re food (9 ).............................................................cause thousands of deaths fro m starvation, especially in the w ak e of natural disasters w hich ruin crops and in some cases totally destroy the annual (1 0 )............................................................... Furtherm ore, the large am ounts of ( 11) ............................................................. in animal and dairy products (a com m on feature of fast food) are believed to be partly responsible for increased cases of heart disease in yo u n g people, a recent p henom enon th a t is causing great concern.

It is therefore im portant children learn the benefits of eating a (12 )............................................................ , as it is im portant they consume sufficient quantities of the different food groups. Th e y should be encouraged to eat m ore (13 )............................................................ fru it and vegetables, and also m ore food tha t is high in (14 )............................................................ Th e y should still be allowed the occasional burger or pizza, but these should be seen as an occasional treat rather than form ing the main part of their diet.

77


topic-specific vocabulary

Geography 1 Put the w ords and phrases in each list in the first box in order according to their sizes. (1 = the smallest, 4 = the largest). In each list, there is one w o rd that does not belong w ith the others.

1. 2. 3 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

forest • tree • copse • beach • wood road • peak • footpath • track • lane mountain • hillock • shore • hill • mountain range gorge • plain • waterfall • hollow • valley gulf • ridge • inlet • bay • cove cliff • brook • river • estuary • stream city • continent • tributary • county • country pond • ocean • sea • cape • lake 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

1 ........... ............ , 1 ........... ............ , 1 ........... ............ , 1 ........... ............. 1 ........... ............. 1 ........... ............. 1 ........... ............. 1 ........... ............ ,

2 ........... ............ , 3 ........... ............. 2 ........... ............. 3 ............ ............. 2 ........... ............. 3 ............ ............. 2 ........... ............. 3 ............ ............ , 2 ........... ............. 3 ............. ............. 2 ........... ............ , 3 ........... ............. 2 ........... ............. 3 ............. ............. 2 ........... ............ , 3 ........... .............

4 ........................ 4 ........................ 4 ........................ 4 ......................... 4 ........................ 4 ........................ 4 ........................ 4 ........................

2 Put these w ords and phrases into their correct category in the boxes b elow and on the next page. Some can be included in more than one category.

beach

cape

cliff

densely populated irrigation plateau

coast fertile

mountainous ridge

urban sprawl

coastline

shore vegetation

glacier mouth source

highlands overcrowding summit

depopulation

industrialised peak

tributary

peninsula

under-developed

waterfall

Geographical features associated w ith w a te r a nd the sea

78

conurbation

Geographical features associated w ith land, hills a nd m ountains


W ords a n d phrases associated w ith agriculture a n d ru ra l la n d

W ords a n d phrases associated w ith to w n s a n d cities

topic-specific vocabulary

Geography

3 Complete this report of a journey w ith words and phrases from Exercises 1 and 2. In some cases. more than one answer is possible.

W e began o u r jo u rn e y in the capital, Trinifuegos, a 1...........................................................conurbation of almost 10 m illion. It is not a pretty place; heavily 2 ............................................................. w ith huge factories belching o u t black fumes, and miles of 3........................................................... as housing estates and shopping centres spread o u t fro m th e 4 ...........................................................centre fo r miles. It was a relief to leave.

As soon as w e g o t into the countryside, things im proved considerably. Th e climate is dry and it is difficult to g ro w anything, b ut thanks to 5..........................................................., w hich helps bring w a te r in from the Rio Cauto (the huge river w ith its 6........................................................... high up in the sn ow covered 7...........................................................of the Sierra Maestra 8 .............................................................), the land is fertile e no u gh to g ro w the sugar cane on w hich m uch o f the econom y is based. W e saw fe w people, how ever, as m any have m oved to the to w ns and cities to look fo r m ore profitable w o rk . It is largely due to this rural 9 .......................................................... th a t th e sugar-cane industry is suffering.

Further south and w e entered the H o lguin 10............................................................. w ith m ountains rising high above us on both sides. Th e land here drops sharply to the sea and the slow -m oving w aters of the Rio Cauto give w a y to 11.......................................................... w hich tu m b le over cliffs, and small, fastm oving 12...........................................................w hich are not even w id e e no u gh to take a boat. A t this point, the road w e w e re travelling along became a 13...........................................................w hich was only just w id e e no u gh fo r o u r vehicle, and then an unpaved 14.......................................................... w hich almost shook th e vehicle to pieces.

A n d then suddenly, the Pacific 15....................................................... was in fro nt of us. O u r destination was the to w n of Santiago de Gibara, built on a 16....................................................... sticking out into the blue waters. Th e countryside here undulates gently, w ith low 17....................................................... covered in rich tropical jungle. Th e open 18....................................................... surrounding the 19...........................................................of the Rio Cauto as it reaches the ocean is rich and 20....................................................... , ideal for grow ing the tobacco plants which need a lot of w arm , dam p soil.

Tha t night I lay in m y cheap hotel, listening to the waves gently lapping the 21................................................... and

w hen

I eventually

fell

asleep,

I dream t

of

the

people

w ho

had

first

inhabited

this

22..................................................... almost 2,000 years before.

79


topic-specific vocabulary

Global problems 1 Complete sentences 1 - 1 5 w ith the correct w o rd or phrase from A , B or C. In each case tw o of the options are incorrectly spelt. 1.

Thousands o f buildings w ere flattened in the San Francisco.................................................................... of 1906. A . earthquack

2.

B. typ h o n e

C. ty p h o o n

B. vulcano

C. volcanoe

B. explosiones

C. explosions

T h e A m e ric a n ..........................................................................of 1861-1865 was fo u g h t betw een the south and th e north. A . civil w a r

8.

C. to rn a d d o

Several....................................................................w ere heard during the night as the arm y occupied the city. A . explossions

7.

B. to rn a d o

T h e ..........................................................................has been d o rm a n t fo r years, b u t last m o n th it showed signs of n e w life. A . volcano

6.

C. huriccane

T h e .......................................................................... caused immense dam age in the regions along the coast. A . taifun

5.

B. hurriccane

A ..........................................................................struck the southern coast w ith trem endous force. A . to rn a d o e

4.

C. earthquaik

T h e ..........................................................................dam aged properties all along the coast. A . hurricane

3.

B. earthquake

B. sivil w a r

C. c iw il w a r

Th e re has been a m a jo r ............................................................................on the m otorw ay. A . acident

C. acciddent

B. accident

9 .............................................................................. rain has b ro u g h t serious problem s. A . Torrential

C. Torrantial

B. Torential

10. Th e storm caused w id e s p re a d ..........................................................................along the coast. A . d e w a s ta tio n

C. devastation

B. d evu sta tion

11. T h e ..........................................................................w e re caused by heavy rain. A . floodes

C. flouds

B. floods

12. Relief w orkers are b rin ging food t o ..........................................................................-stricken areas. A . d ra u g h t

C. d ro u h g t

B. d ro u g h t

13.............................................................................is w idespread in parts of Africa, w ith millions suffering from m alnutrition. A . Fam ine

C. Fam inne

B. Fa m m ine

14. T h e authorities are taking steps to prevent a n ..........................................................................of cholera. A . ep ide m m ic

C. eppidem ic

B. epidem ic

15. T h e ......................................................................... was spread from rats to fleas and the n on to humans. A . p la g u e

C. p la igu e

B. p la q u e

2 Complete the sentences w ith an appropriate w o rd or phrase from the box. In some cases, more than one answer is possible.

80

broke out casualties disaster spread suffering survivors

erupted

refugees

relief

shook

1.

T h e disease

...... rapidly, killing everyb od y in its path.

2.

T h e f i r e ......

th ro u g h the slums, destroying e verythin g.


3.

W h e n the v o lc a n o ........................................................................., people panicked and tried to escape.

4.

Th e g r o u n d .........................................................................violently w h e n the earthquake began.

5.

Fierce f ig h t in g ....................................................................... betw een govern m en t soldiers and rebel forces.

6.

A funeral was held fo r t h e .........................................................................of the fire.

7.

A n aid convoy was sent to h e lp .........................................................................of the hurricane.

8

fro m th e conflict in M a n tagua have been fleeing across the border.

9.

T h e p o or people in the city have experienced t e r r ib le ......................................................................... as a result of the disaster.

10. International aid agencies are tryin g to b r in g .........................................................................to the starving population.

topic-specific vocabulary

Global problems

3 Complete this report w ith w ords and phrases from Exercises 1 and 2. In some cases, more than one answer is possible. R E P O R T F R O M T H E IN TE R N A T IO N A L C H AR ITIES S U P P O R T F O U N D A T IO N (ICSF) Th e last year has been a particularly busy one fo r the ICSF. O u tlin e d b e lo w are a fe w of the areas w e have been busy in. 1.

Follow ing 1..................................................................... rain in eastern M ozam lum bi in January, millions w ere made homeless as 2..................................................................... waters rose. The w ater also became polluted and there was a cholera 3..................................................................... as people continued to use it for drinking and cooking. Furthermore, as the harvest had been destroyed and there was not enough food to go round, 4 ..................................................................... became a problem. Charities around the w o rld w orked particularly hard to bring 5..................................................................... to the area.

2.

M o u n t Etsuvius, the 6 .........................................................................w hich had been d o rm a n t since 1968, 7 .........................................................................suddenly in A pril. Thousands had to be evacuated to camps 30 miles from the disaster area. Th e y still have not been rehoused.

3.

Th e 8 ......................................................................... in the Caribbean in July, w hich saw w in d speeds of up to 180 miles per hour, caused immense 9 .........................................................................on m any islands. Islands off the Japanese coast also suffered their w orst 10.........................................................................in almost 30 years, w ith prolonged w inds in excess of 150 miles per hour. The re w ere m any 11.........................................................................w h o had to be evacuated to hospitals w hich w ere not properly equipped to deal w ith the disasters.

4.

Th e 12.........................................................................in the northern part of Somopia continued into its second year, w ith

millions of acres of crops destroyed by lack of rain. M eanw hile, the

13.........................................................................betw een those loyal to the president and those supporting the rebel leader continued into its fifth year. 14.........................................................................from the conflict have been fleeing across the border, w ith stories of atrocities com m itted by both sides. 5.

In October, a fire 15.........................................................................th ro u g h Londum , the ancient capital of Perania. T h e

16......................................................................... , w hich probably started in a bakery,

destroyed thousands of homes. The re w ere several 17.........................................................................w hen the fire reached a fireworks factory, and a num ber of people w ere killed. 6.

A n outbreak of bubonic 18......................................................................... was reported in the eastern provinces of Indocuba in Novem ber. It is believed to have been caused by a sudden increase in the n um b er of rats breeding in the sewers.

A full report w ill be available in February, and will be presented to the appropriate departm ents of the United Nations shortly afterwards.

81


topic-specific vocabulary

Healthcare 1 Match the sentence in the left-hand column w ith a sentence in the right-hand column. Use the w ords and phrases in bold to help you. P R O B LEM S (A ) Illnesses w hich affect the circulation of blood are particularly co m m on w ith people w h o are o ve rw e ig h t.

1.

Mrs Brady has suffered fro m terrible rh e u m a tism fo r years.

2.

M o re w o m e n tha n m en are affected by arthritis.

3.

A ir co n d itio n in g units are often responsible fo r spreading infections a ro u n d an office.

(C ) Th e y can easily be spread fro m one person to another.

4.

C ardiovascular disease is becom ing m ore co m m o n in Britain.

(D ) Pains o r stiffness in the jo in ts o r muscles can be ve ry difficult to live w ith .

5.

T o o m uch exposure to the sun can cause skin cancer.

6.

It is im p o rta n t n o t to eat to o m uch foo d w ith a high cholesterol content.

7.

T o o m any people these days live a s e d e n ta ry lifestyle.

8.

People in positions o f responsibility often have stre ss-related illnesses.

9.

Prem ature babies are vu ln era ble to illnesses.

(B) This is deposited on th e walls o f the arteries and can block the m .

(E) Th e y d o n 't ge t e n o u g h exercise. (F) This is because th e ir im m u n e system is not pro p erly developed. (G ) A n yo n e w h o has ca ug ht th e virus is rem inded th a t it cannot be treated w ith antibiotics, and th e y should stay inside until th e s ym p to m s have passed. (H ) T h e painful in fla m m a tio n o f a jo in t may require surgery. (I)

10. Healthcare professionals say tha t hospitals around the country are suffering from serious u nderfunding.

How ever, th e g o v e rn m e n t denies it has m ade cutbacks to th e National Health Service.

(J) H o w e ve r the re are drugs w h ich can slow d o w n its cell-destroying properties. (K ) Once th e body's cells start g ro w in g abnorm ally, a cure can be difficult to find.

11. T h e A ID S virus is incurable. 12. T h e co un try is currently experiencing its w o rst flu e p ide m ic fo r over 30 years.

(L) T h e pressures of a h ig h -p o w e re d jo b can cause nervous strain, w hich m ay require drugs.

2 Replace the w ords or phrases in bold in these sentences w ith a w o rd or phrase from the box so that the sentence sounds more natural. There are three w ords or phrases that you do not need. CURES

active a diet consultant conventional medicine debilitating diagnose holistic medicine minerals operation protein surgeon therapeutic traditional medicines vitamins welfare state 1.

If you suffer fro m a bad back, a massage m ay be able to cure o r relieve th e disorder.

2.

O n e o f the secrets o f rem aining in g o o d health is to choose fo o d to e a t th a t is high in fibre and lo w in fat.

3.

M ost people, w h e n the y are ill, rely on m o d e rn pills a n d tablets to cure them .

4.

Som e o ld -fa s h io n e d cures fo r illnesses, such as herbal tablets and remedies, are becom ing increasingly popular.

5.

M a n y people are tu rn in g to treatm e nts w h ic h in v o lv e th e w h o le p e rso n , in clu d in g th e ir m e n ta l hea lth , ra th e r th a n ju s t d e a lin g w ith th e s ym p to m s o f th e illness.


6.

Doctors sometimes refer th e ir patients to a medical specialist attached to a hospital.

7.

It takes m any years of trainin g to becom e a doctor specialising in surgery.

8.

M eat, eggs and nuts are rich sources o f a com pound which is an essential part o f living cells, and which is essential to keep the hum an b o d y w orking properly.

9.

O n his holiday, he had to take essential substances which are n o t synthesised b y the b o d y b u t are fo u n d in fo o d and are needed for g ro w th and health, because the fo od he ate lacked the B and C groups.

10. Calcium and zinc are tw o of the most im po rtan t substances fo u nd in food. 11. M ost doctors recom m end an energetic lifestyle, w ith plenty of exercise. 12. British people enjoy free healthcare thanks to the large am ount o f m on ey which is spent to make

topic-specific vocabulary

Healthcare

sure th e y have adequate health services. 3 N o w look at this extract fro m a m agazine article and com plete th e gaps w ith one o f th e w o rd s or phrases fro m Exercises 1 and 2. In som e cases, m ore tha n one a n s w e r m a y be possible.

A cure fo r the future in the past? For over 50 years, the people of Britain have relied on the 1........................................ to make sure they have adequate health services. But n o w the National Health Service is sick. Governm ent 2........................................ and 3........................................ are forcing hospitals to close, and w aiting lists for treatm ent are getting longer. Under such circumstances, it is no surprise that more people are turning to private (but expensive) healthcare. For some, however, there are alternatives. T h e y are tu rn in g th e ir backs on m odern pills, tablets and o th e r 4 ...............................................It seems paradoxical, b ut in an age of microchips and high technology, 5

(the old-fashioned cures th a t o u r grandparents relied on ) is m aking a

comeback. Consider these case studies: M aude is 76 and has been suffering from 6............................................. fo r almost 10 years. "T h e inflam m ation in m y joints was almost unbearable, and m y doctor referred me to a 7........................................... at the London Hospital. I was told tha t I needed 8........................................... .. b ut w o u ld need to w a it fo r at least tw o years before I could have the operation. In desperation, I started having massage sessions. To m y surprise, these w ere very 9........................................... .. and w hile the y d id n 't cure the disorder, the y did relieve it to some extent." Ron is 46. His high -p o w e red city job was responsible for a series of 10.......................................... illnesses, and the drugs he took did little to relieve the nervous strain. "I read about treatm ents w hich involve the w ho le person rather than the individual 11.......................................... . b ut I had always been sceptical about 12.............................................However, m y friend recom m ended a dietician w h o advised me that part of m y problem was 13.......................................... -related. Basically, the foods I was eating w ere contributing to m y disorder. She gave me a list of foods tha t w o uld provide the right 14.......................................... and 1

5...................................... to keep me in go o d health. A t the same time, she recom m ended a more

1

6...................................... lifestyle - running, swim m ing, that kind of thing. I'm a bit of a couch potato,

and the 17.......................................... lifestyle I had lived was com pounding the problem . N o w I feel g re a t!" So is there still a place in o u r lives fo r m odern medicine? W h ile it is true th a t some infections and viruses m ay be prevented by resorting to alternative m edicine, m ore serious illnesses such as 18............................................ need m ore drastic measures. W e do need o u r health service at these times, and w e sh o uld n 't stop investing in its future. But w e m ustn't fo rg e t th a t fo r some com m on illnesses, the cure m ay lie in the past.

________

83


topic-specific vocabulary

The media 1 Match the w ords and phrases in the box w ith their definitions 1 - 1 2 . W rite the w o rd or phrase after each definition.

broadcasts broadsheets coverage current affairs download information overload the Internet journalists log on reporters tabloids website

1.

La rg e -fo rm a t quality newspapers

2.

Sm a ll-fo rm at n e w sp a p e rs............................

3.

People w h o w rite for newspapers or p e rio d ica ls............................

4.

Th e a m o u n t of space o r tim e given to an event in newspapers or on television

5.

Political, social and econom ic events tha t are happening n o w ............................

6.

Radio or television program m es

7.

To enter a password and start to access a com p uter sy ste m ............................

8.

People w h o w rite articles or make broadcasts a b o u t events in the news

9.

To transfer pages fro m a w ebsite on to y o u r o w n c o m p u te r ............................

10. T h e international n e tw o rk linking millions of c o m p u te rs ............................ 11. A n expression referring to the inability of a hum an to process everything he or she sees or h e a rs ............................ 12. A collection of on -line pages created by a company, organisation o r individual

2 Complete this extract from a television interview w ith an appropriate w ord or phrase from the box.

censorship chequebook journalism entertainment exploiting freedom of the press gutter press information integrity invasion of privacy investigative journalism libel media tycoon paparazzi readership unscrupulous Interviewer:

W elcom e

to

today's

program m e.

Toda y

we

will

be

discussing

the

1............................................................. and asking the question: Should w e a llow newspapers and television channels to print or say w h a te ve r they like? In the studio I have television personality T im o th y Blake and 2.............................................................

Rupert Poubelle,

m ulti-m illionaire o w n e r of the Daily Views newspaper. Tim othy, let's start w ith you.

T.B.:

Th a n k

you.

In

my

opinion,

3...........................................................

it's

tim e

of

the

the

go vern m en t

press

in

imposed

order

to

stricter prevent

4 ............................................................ journalists and reporters from m aking m oney by 5............................................................ people. I have often accused M r Poubelle'sorganisation of 6................................................................- nowadays I can't even sunbathe in m y garden w ith o u t being photograp he d by his hordes of 7 ................................................................ Th e y're like vultures. A n d everything the y print abou t me is lies, com plete rubbish.

Interviewer:

But isn't it true that the media provides us w ith valuable 8.......................................................... and 9............................................................ and censorship w o u ld deprive us of much of this? Rupert?


R.P.:

O f course,

Mr,

Blake's accusations are u n foun de d , as are the accusations of

10............................................................. w e have received. However, I can safely say th a t the D a ily Views never pays people huge am ounts of m o ney fo r stories. W e have far to o m uch 11.............................................................fo r that. A n d d o n 't fo rg e t th a t m y paper also has an excellent reputation fo r 12................................................................R em em ber it was us w h o uncovered corruption in the banking system, and ran a series o f articles on child labour in clothing factories. W e give o u r 13............................................................. w h a t the y w a n t, and that's w h a t really counts. T.B.:

But most of w h a t you report isn't really news. A n d a lot of it is just a big pile of lies. Sensational stories made up to entertain people. Typical 14........................................................ behaviour, in other words. I'm amazed 15......................................................................yet.

nobody

has

sued

you

for

topic-specific vocabulary

The media

3 N o w read this essay and complete the gaps w ith one of the w o rd s o r phrases from Exercises 1 and 2. You w ill need to change the form of some of the w ords. 'Th e media plays a valuable role in keeping us inform ed and entertained. However, m any people believe it has to o much p o w e r and fre ed om .' Discuss you r views on this, giving examples and presenting a balanced a rgum e nt both in favour of, and against, the p o w e r and freedom of the media. Barely a hundred years ago, if w e w an ted to stay inform ed a bo u t w h a t was going on in the w orld , w e had to rely on w o rd of m outh or, at best, newspapers. But because com m unication technology was very basic, the news w e received was often days or weeks old. W e still have newspapers, of course, but they have changed almost beyond recognition. W hether w e choose to read the 1........................................................... w ith their quality 2..........................................................of news and other 3............................................................ by to p 4 ......................................................... and articles by acclaimed 5............................................................ or w e prefer the popular 6.........................................................., w ith their lively gossip and colourful stories, w e are exposed to a w ealth of inform ation barely conceivable at the beginning of the last century. W e also have television and radio. News 7.............................................................let us k n o w a bo u t w o rld events practically as the y happen, w hile sitcoms, chat shows and docum entaries, etc. keep us entertained and inform ed. A n d there is also 8 ............................................................., w h e re w e can access inform ation fro m millions of 9 .............................................................a round the w o rld w hich w e can then 10............................................................. on to o u r o w n com puters. However, these forms of 11.......................................................... and 12.......................................................... (or 'infortainm ent' as they are sometimes collectively called) have their negative side. Famous personalities frequently accuse the 13.......................................................... (and sometimes even respectable papers) of 14 by gangs of 15........................................................... w h o follow them around w ith their cameras and long lenses. Newspapers are often accused of 16.......................................................... by angry politicians w h o hate reading dam aging lies about themselves, and there are frequent accusations of 17.......................................................... , w ith 18...........................................................reporters paying people vast sums of m oney to tell them about the crime they com m itted or w h a t their famous neighbour has been up to. O f course, it's not just the papers which are to blame. Television companies have cast their 19.......................................................... aside to get a good story, and you cannot even 2 0...........................................................to the Internet w ith o u t seeing som ething shocking or unacceptable. 2 1...........................................................argue that they are just giving people w h a t they w ant, but in m y opinion, people should not always g e t w h a t they w ant. M a n y argue tha t the go vern m en t should impose stricter 22............................................................. to prevent such things happening. But others argue tha t 23............................................................. is the keystone of a free country. Personally, I take the view tha t w hile the media may occasionally abuse its position of power, the benefits greatly o u tw e ig h the disadvantages. O u r lives w o u ld be much em ptier w ith o u t the w ealth of inform ation available to us today, and w e are better people as a result.

85


topic-specific vocabulary

Men & women 1 Look at the w ords and phrases in bold in these sentences and decide if w e generally consider them to have a positive connotation or a negative connotation. 1

Th e y w o u ld never a dm it it, b u t m en and w o m e n are in a continuous pow er struggle at w o rk . Positive / N egative

2

M ost major com panies are male-dom inated.

3

It's a fact that, w h e n it comes to p ro m o tin g th e ir employees, some com panies still discriminate on the basis o f som eone's sex. Positive / N egative

4

A recent survey suggests th a t m any professional w o m e n w o rk in g fo r large com panies and organisations often hit a glass ceiling at some p o in t in th e ir career. Positive / N egative

5

Professional businesswom en, especially those in senior m a na ge m en t positions, are m ore astute than m en. Positive / N egative

6

In m y experience, th e y are also m ore versatile.

Positive / N egative

7

W hat's m ore, th e y are better at multi-tasking.

Positive / N egative

8

T h e y can also be m uch m ore ruthless w h e n necessary.

9

M y elder b ro th e r is such a male chauvinist!

Positive / N egative

Positive / N egative

Positive / N egative

10 As far he is concerned, w o m e n are little m ore tha n sex objects.

11 He is com pletely unreconstructed.

Positive / N e ga tive

Positive / N egative

12 Som e m ig h t say th a t he's a bit of a dinosaur.

Positive / N egative

13 M y y o u n g e r brother, on the othe r hand, has egalitarian views.

Positive / N egative

14 He believes in equality betw een m en and w o m e n .

Positive / N egative

15 He doesn't th in k th a t w o m e n are the weaker sex.

Positive / N egative

2 Use the w ords and phrases in the box to complete the conversation.

battle of the sexes breadwinner childrearing gender roles household management male counterparts practical role division Sex Discrimination Act social convention stereotypes

Chris:

I th in k th a t cleaning and cooking are a w om an's job . A fte r all, m en are no good at

1....................................................

86

Sam:

I disagree.

Chris:

A n d in the w orkplace, w o m e n a re n't very 2 ............................................................. . are they?.

Sam:

In w h a t w ay?


Chris:

In the w a y th a t there are a lot of things they can't d o as w ell as m en can . Such as, er, w ell, I can't th in k of a nyth in g in particular at the m om ent.

Sam:

Exactly.

Chris:

W ell, let's face it, w o m e n never do as w ell as th e ir 3........................................... .................at w o rk .

Sam:

I've never heard such unreconstructed rubbish. Thank goodness the 4....................................................... exists to prevent your views being put into practice. A n d I suppose you think that w om en are only

topic-specific vocabulary

Men & women

good for changing babies' nappies, and other tedious aspects of 5.........................................................

Chris:

No, b ut I do believe th a t in a m odern household, there should be a clearly defined

6

................................................................ M en are go od at DIY, fo r exam ple. M ost w o m e n aren't.

A n d I'll always believe th a t it's the m an w h o should be the 7 ............................................................. , p ro vid in g fo o d and shelter fo r his family.

Sam:

W ell, all I can say is th a t I'm glad yo u r ideas of 8 ...................................................... ...... are n o t shared by most people.

Chris:

Nonsense! A lot of people believe in traditional 9 ............................................ ................: the man goes o u t to w o rk , the w o m a n stays at hom e. It's as simple as that.

Sam:

M en

at

w o rk

and

w om en

at

1 0 ....................................................................

hom e? W ith

Com e

on,

people

love, like

those you

are

such around,

typical the

1 1...........................................................w ill continue to rage on and on.

Chris:

O h give it a rest, Dad. I'm right, and you k n o w I am.

Sam:

Sorry, Christine, but w e 're in the tw en ty-first century now. You need to m ove w ith the times.

3 Complete this essay w ith words and phrases from Exercises 1 and 2. In some cases, more than one answer is possible.

A totally 1........................................................... society, in which sexual 2........................................................... between men and w o m e n is the norm , is still a long w a y off. This is certainly the case if you watch certain television programmes, w here men are often portrayed as the 3............................................................ bringing m oney hom e to the w ife, w h o is often depicted as the 4 ..........................................................., prone to extrem e em otions and tem per tantrum s. But is this really the case? Is it still fair to create 5........................................................

such as this? A fte r all, as more w om en go out to w ork, and

more men stay at hom e to look after the house and children, it is becoming clear that so-called 6........................................................ are m erging and disappearing.

87


topic-specific vocabulary

Men & women Take

the

7

office

w orkplace

as

an

example.

For

years,

businesses

and

com panies

w ere

Th e directors, managers and othe r senior executives w ere always

male, the secretaries and personal assistants almost always female. This was probably because m en w ere traditionally seen as m ore 8............................................................ . m ore able to deal w ith the cu t-an d thrust of business. However, n o w w o m e n are proving th a t they can be just as to u g h , if not tougher, w hile sim ultaneously being m ore 9 ............................................................and caring. In fact, in m any ways, w o m e n are m uch better at 10............................................................ . w hich is vital in m odern business w h e re you are expected to do m ore than one job. A n d thanks to the 11............................................................ . w o m e n are paid the same as m en. It w o u ld appear that, in m any cases, the 12............................................................ is a dying breed (alth o ugh , unfortunately, there are still m any 13............................................................ men in the w orkplace w h o think they can do everything and anything better than their fem ale colleagues, and there are still cases w h e re w o m e n clim bing up th ro u g h the ranks ge t to a p oin t w h e re the y hit a 14............................................................ and cannot clim b any higher).

A t home, too, there is less evidence of 15.......

........................It is no longer the w om an w h o

does all the cooking, cleaning and 16.................

............ Such 17.........................................................

is n o w often shared equally. 18.............................

no longer expects the w o m a n to stay indoors

all day w hile the man stays out until all hours.

The good

news, therefore, is th a t w o m e n no longer need to feel the y are

regarded as m ere

19.............................................................................................................................................. o r the underdogs in a 20.w ith 21.................................................................... In fact, m any believe th a t in the 22........................................................... .. it is w o m e n w h o have com e o u t on top.

88


1 Use a dictio na ry to fin d the differences b e tw e e n the w o rd s and phrases in bold in th e fo llo w in g groups. 1.

make a p ro fit & m ake a loss

11. a b a n k & a b u ild in g society

2.

e xtra va g a n t & fru g a l / econom ical

12. a d isco unt & a re fu n d

3.

a curren t account & a d ep o sit account

4.

a loan & a m o rtg a g e

13. som ething w hich was a bargain, som ething w hich was o ve rpriced and som ething w hich was e xo rb ita n t

5.

to de p o sit m oney & to w ith d r a w m o n e y

6.

a w a g e & a salary

7.

bro ke & b a n k ru p t

8.

shares, stocks, & d ivid e nd s

9.

incom e ta x & excise d u t y

14. w orthless & priceless 15. save m o n e y & in ve st m o n e y 16. infla tion & deflation 17. incom e & exp e n d itu re 18. to le n d & to b o r ro w

10. to credit & to d e b it 2 M atch the sentences in colum n A w ith the sentences in colum n B. Use the w o rd s and phrases in bold to help yo u . C o lum n A

Colum n B

1.

T h e m anaging director believes the com pany should start producing pocket com puters.

2.

I always p ut m y m o ney in a building society and not in a bank.

3.

I can't afford to buy a n e w car right now . I d o n 't have e no u gh money.

4.

I always spend a lot of m oney w h e n I go on holiday.

E.

T h e n I ge t hom e to find o u t I've run u p a huge o ve rd ra ft at the bank.

5.

I came into a lot of m oney recently w h e n m y uncle died.

F.

O f course, th e potential global m a rk e t fo r the m is enorm ous.

6.

Look at this cheque th a t came in the post this m o rn in g fro m Revenue and Customs.

G.

Fortunately I receive u n e m p lo ym e n t benefit.

7.

I've been spending to o m uch recently.

8.

In m y country, there are a lot of very p oor people and only a fe w rich ones.

9.

I lost m y jo b last m o n th.

10. I retire next m onth. 11. Prices are rising quickly everyw here.

A.

I'm really looking fo rw a rd to spending m y pension.

B.

T h e cost o f liv in g seems to g o up every day.

C.

O f course, it's always so difficult to econom ise.

D. Shops all over the country are m aking huge reductions on just a bo u t everything.

H. Th e re is a very uneven d istrib ution o f w ealth. I.

T h e interest the y pay me is m uch higher.

J.

It's th e first tim e I've in h e rite d som ething.

K.

It seems to be some kind o f tax rebate.

L.

M aybe I should consider g e ttin g one on credit.

12. Th e January sales start to m o rro w .

3 N o w read this passage and com plete the gaps w ith one o f th e w o rd s o r phrases fro m Exercises 1 and 2. You m a y need to change th e fo rm of som e of the w o rd s. Financial advice fro m a fa th e r to a son. In th e play H a m le t by W illia m Shakespeare, a father gives his son some financial advice. 'N e ith e r a b o rro w e r

nor

a

lender

be',

he says.

He

is trying

to

tell

his son th a t

he

should

never

1............................................................. m oney from anyone because it w ill make it difficult fo r him to m anage his finances. Likewise he should never give a financial 2 ............................................................. to a friend because he w ill probably never see the m oney again, and w ill probably lose his friend as w ell.

topic-specific vocabulary

Money & finance


topic-specific vocabulary

Money & finance T h e play was w ritte n over 400 years ago, b u t to d a y m any parents w o u ld give similar advice to th e ir children. Im agine the conversation th e y w o u ld have n o w : Son:

Right, Dad, I'm off to university now .

Father:

A ll right, son, b u t let me give yo u some sound financial advice

Son:

O h com e on. D a d .......

Father:

Now

listen, this is im portant. T h e

first th ing

you

before you go.

should do

is to make sure you

balance yo u r 3.......................................................... - the m oney you receive from me - and your 4 .......................................................... - the m oney you spend. If you spend to o much, you will end up w ith an 5.......................................................... at the bank.D o n 't expect me to pay it for you. Son:

But it's so difficult. Things are so expensive, and the 6................................................................ goes up all the tim e. 7 ............................................................. is run nin g at a b o u t 10 per cent.

Father:

I know , b u t you should try to 8 ................................................................... A vo id expensive shops and restaurants. Also, put yo u r m oney in a go o d 9 ................................................................ Th e y offer a m uch high er rate o f 10............................................................. tha n banks. Also, avoid buying things 11................................................................

Son:

Father:

W h y? Because shops charge you an 12.............................................................. a m oun t of m oney to buy things over a period of tim e. It's much better to 13........................................................... a little bit of m oney each w eek so tha t w he n you see som ething you w an t, you can buy it outright. Try to w ait for the sales, w h e n shops offer huge 14........................................................... and you can pick up a 15............................................................. A n d try to get a 16...............................................................

Son:

Father:

H o w d o I d o that? Easy. W h e n you buy something, ask the shop if they'll lower the price by, say, 10 per cent. Next, w he n you eventually get a job and are earning a good salary, try to 17............................................. ........... the m oney in a good company. Buy 18........................................................... in governm ent organisations or 19......................................................... in private companies.

90

Son:

O K , Dad, I've heard e n o u gh .

Father:

O n e final piece of advice, son.

Son:

W ha t's that. Dad?

Father:

To th in e o w n self be true.

Son:

You w h a t?


1 Choose the most suitable explanation or interpretation, A or B, for the following sentences. Use the words and phrases in bold to help you. 1.

People enjoy the m obility th a t o w n in g a car gives them . A . People e n jo y be in g able to travel easily from one place to another. B. People e n jo y be in g able to drive very fast.

2.

W hat's yo u r destination ? A . W here have y o u com e fro m ? B. W here are y o u g o in g to ?

3.

Congestion in the city centre has increased dramatically. A . It is n o w easier to drive a ro u n d the city centre than it was before. B. It is n o w m o re difficult to drive a ro u n d the city centre than it was before.

4.

Th e local council w ants to reduce the risks to pedestrians. A . The local council w ants to make it safer for people to w alk a lo ng the street. B. The local council w an ts to make it safer for drivers a n d th e ir passengers.

5.

Th e pollution in m y city is terrible. A . The air q u a lity in m y city is ve ry poor. B. There is a lo t o f crime in m y city.

6.

Traffic-calming measures are becom ing increasingly com m on th ro u g h o u t the country. A . People have to drive m ore slow ly because o f the increased n u m b e r o f police in villages a n d towns. B. People have to drive m ore carefully thro ugh towns a n d villages because o f specially-built obstacles in the road.

7.

Th e centre of Cam ford has been designated a traffic-free zone. A . You ca nn ot take y o u r car in to the centre o f Cam ford. B. You can park y o u r car fo r free in the centre o f Cam ford.

8.

Container lorries and o ther large vehicles dominate o u r roads. A . There are a lo t o f large vehicles on the roads. B. There a re n 't m a n y large vehicles on the roads.

9.

Y o u n g drivers have a higher accident risk than older drivers. A . Y o u n g drivers are m ore likely than o lder drivers to be invo lve d in a crash. B. Y o un g drivers are less likely than o ld e r drivers to be in vo lve d in a crash.

10. Public transport is heavily subsidised in most areas. A . The g o ve rn m e n t has m ade public transport cheaper to use b y g ivin g m o n e y to bus a n d train companies. B. The g o ve rn m e n t has m ade p u b lic transport m ore expensive to use b y increasing the price o f ro a d tax. 11. Th e junction of London Road and Holly Street is an accident black spot. A . A lo t o f traffic accidents happen here. B. N o t m a n y accidents h appen here. 12. Th e city council needs to a do p t an effective transport strategy w ith in the next five years. A . The city council needs to fin d a b e tte r w ay for people to g e t into, a ro u n d a n d o u t o f the city. B. The city council needs to encourage m ore drivers to b rin g th eir cars into the city.

topic-specific vocabulary

On the road


topic-specific vocabulary

On the road 2 Look at sentences 1 - 1 0 and decide w h a t has, or hasn't, happened (sentences A - J). Use the w ords and phrases in bold to help you. 1.

A m bulance driver to policeman: 'The pedestrian's injuries are very severe and he has to g o to hospital.'

2.

Ju d ge to driver: â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;D rin k -d riv in g is a serious offence and I the re fore ban you from d riving fo r a year.'

3.

D riving instructor to student driver: 'Stop! That's a pedestrian crossin g1 .â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

4.

Exam iner to student driver: 'You d o n 't k n o w e n o u g h a bo u t th e H ig h w a y C o de yet to pass yo u r th e o ry test.'

5.

Policeman to driver: 'D o yo u realise yo u w e re sp e e d in g back there, sir?'

6. 7.

D river to a friend: 'I can't believe it! He gave me a heavy fine and six points on m y licence.' Police officer to radio interview er: 'Jo y rid in g has increased by alm ost 50 per cent and I am u rg in g everyone to th in k tw ice before th e y ge t involved in this stupid activity.'

8.

Television news presenter: 'So far this year there have been 27 fatalities on Oxfordshire's roads.'

9.

City council officer to journalist: 'As p art of o u r n e w transport strategy, w e are g o in g to construct cycle lanes in and a ro u nd th e city.'

10. City council officer to journalist: 'T h e "Park a n d R id e " scheme has been very successful over the last year.' A . S o m ebo dy is unfam iliar w ith the g o v e rn m e n t publication containing the rules fo r people travelling on roads. B.

M o re people have been leaving th e ir cars in designated areas outside a city and catching a bus into th e city centre.

C. A lot o f cars have been stolen, m ainly by yo u n g people w h o w a n t some excitem ent. D. A person w a lk in g in th e street has been hit and badly hu rt by a vehicle. E.

S o m ebo dy has decided to m ake it safer to use bicycles.

F.

S o m ebo dy has alm ost driven th ro u g h a red light and hit a person w a lk in g across the road.

G. S o m ebo dy has had to pay m o n ey because of a d rivin g offence. H. S o m ebo dy has consum ed an illegal a m o u n t of alcohol before d riving th e ir car. I.

A lot o f people have been killed in traffic-related accidents.

J.

S o m ebo dy has been d riving to o fast.

3. Complete this article w ith the w ords and phrases in Exercises 1 and 2. In some cases, more than one answer is possible, and you w ill need to change some of the w o rd forms. 1.......................................................... and 2.......................................................... on Britain's roads are increasing from year to year: last year, 2,827 people w ere killed and almost 300,000 hurt in traffic-related accidents. Most of these w ere caused by drivers 3.......................................................... in built-up areas, w h e re m any seem to disregard the 30m ph limit, o r 4 .......................................................... , especially around Christmas, w he n m ore alcohol is consumed than at any other tim e. In m any cases, it is 5............................................................ w h o are the victims, knocked d o w n as they are w alking across the street at 6.............................................................by drivers w h o seem to have forgotten that the rules of the 7.............................................................order you to stop at red lights. But these innocent victims, together w ith the help of the police and local councils, are fighting back. In Oxford, a city plagued by 8........................................................and 9.......................................................... caused by traffic, and a notorious accident 10........................................................ for pedestrians and cyclists, the city council has recently implemented its new 11........................................................, which has improved the flo w of traffic to the benefit o f those on foot or on tw o wheels. 12........................................................measures such as bollards and speed humps have slowed traffic dow n. 13........................................................schemes have helped reduce the num ber of cars in the city, as office workers and shoppers leave their cars outside the city and bus in instead. Cornmarket Street, the main shopping thoroughfare, has been designated a 14........................................................

,

closed

to

all

vehicles

during

the

day.

There

are

more

15........................................................on main routes into the city, making it safer for the huge num ber of students and residents w h o rely on bicycles to get around. A n d 16........................................................public transport has helped to keep d o w n the cost of using buses. Meanwhile, the police and the courts are

92

coming dow n hard on drivers w h o misuse the roads, handing dow n large 17........................................................ on selfish, inconsiderate drivers w h o believe it is their right to 18........................................................the roads.


1.

Replace th e w o rd s and phrases in bold in th e sentences w ith a suitable alternative from the box.

advances analysed breakthrough combined cybernetics development discovered experimented genetic engineering innovations invented life expectancy molecular biology nuclear engineering proliferated react research safeguards a technophile a technophobe 1.

T h e com pany is carrying o u t scientific s tu d y to find a cure fo r A ID S .......................................

2.

T h e p la n n in g a n d p ro d u c tio n o f the n e w com p uter system w ill take some tim e .......................................

3.

M o d e rn hom e e nte rta in m e nt systems and o ther m o d e rn in ve n tio n s are changing everyone's lives.

4.

Some elements change th e ir chem ical com position w h e n mixed w ith water.

5.

T h e scientists have created a n e w m achine to autom ate the process.......................................

6.

W h o was the person w h o fo u n d penicillin?

7.

W h e n th e fo o d was e xa m in e d closely a n d scientifically, it w as fo u n d to contain harm ful bacteria.

8.

Rain jo in e d to g e th e r w ith C 0 2 gases produces acid rain.......................................

9.

Ron is te rrifie d o f m o d e rn technology.

topic-specific vocabulary

Science & technology

...................................

...................................

...................................

10. G eoff is v e ry interested in m o d e rn te chnology.

...................................

11. Protection against accidents in this laboratory are m in im a l....................................... 12. Th e com panies p e rfo rm e d scientific tests w ith different types of glue before the y fo u n d one tha t w o rk e d properly. ................................... 13. Brian is studying the techniques used to change the g e netic com position o f a cell so as to change certain characteristics w h ic h can b e inherited. ................................. 14. Sarah is studying the th in g s w h ic h form the structure o f liv in g matter.

...................................

15. Christine is studying h o w in fo rm a tio n is co m m un icated in m achines a n d electronic devices in com parison w ith h o w it is co m m un ica te d in the brain a n d n e rvo us system ..................................... 16. Neil is studying th e d iffe re nt w a y s o f e xtra cting a n d co n tro llin g e n e rg y fro m ato m ic particles.

17. Th e re has been a sud d en success in the search fo r a cure fo r cancer.

...................................

18. The n u m b e r o f yea rs a p e rso n is lik e ly to live has increased a great deal thanks to m odern m edicine and techn o lo gy....................................... 19. Th e n u m b e r of schools offering co m p uter p ro g ra m m in g courses has q u ick ly increased in the last ten years........................................ 20. In spite of all the progress it has m ade in th e last 50 years or so, medical science still know s little abo u t the b ra in .......................................

93


topic-specific vocabulary

Science & technology 2. The person describing their com puter in this passage is not very familiar w ith com puter term inology. Replace the phrases in bold w ith more appropriate w ords and phrases from the box.

base unit chat rooms components crashed download email files gaming hardware Internet keyboard laptop load log on monitor mouse PC printer scanner software stream virus websites wireless

O K , here's m y n e w desktop com puter w hich has been designed to be used b y just one person (1

) ......................................................... As you can see, it has five parts w hich make up the w ho le thing

(2) .............................................................. Now, the large box w ith the slots and sliding disc carrier (3) .......................................................... is the most im portant part. It carries all the stuff that makes the com puter w o rk ( 4 ) ............................................................ You can also put in ( 5 ) ........................................................... your

own

games

and

other

program s

used

by

computers

for

doing

particular

jobs

( 6 ) ........................................................... like photo processing and office suites. Next to it there is the thing that looks like a small television ( 7 ) ..........................................................so you can see w h a t the com puter is doing. To the right o f that, there is the machine that lets yo u make colour copies of the docum ents and other things that yo u create on the com puter (8) .......................................................... (this particular one incorporates a machine y o u can use to copy pictures on to yo u r com puter, a bit like a photocopier ( 9 ) ..........................................................). You control the com puter using the rectangular flat th ing w ith all the letters and num bers on (1 0 ).......................................................... or the object w ith the little w heel on the top w hich yo u can m ove across the desk (11) .............................................................These usually have a lead connecting them to the computer, but as you can see, m ine is not physically connected to the computer, and instead sends electronic signals th ro u g h the air ( 1 2 ) ............................................................

It's a

very

useful

machine,

of

course.

Once

you

start

using

it

by

entering

a

passw ord

(13 ) ........................................................... ,you can create inform ation th a t y o u store un d e r a particular nam e (14 ) ........................................................... and docum ents, m o ve ( 1 5 )..............................................................pictures fro m yo u r camera and, w ell, loads of things really. Th e best thing, however, is th a t you can access the th in g th a t links com puters fro m a ro und the w o rld ( 1 6 ) ...............................................................You can check o ut millions o f special co m p uter pages created b y com panies, organisations and individuals all ove r the w o rld ( 1 7 ) ............................................................ . go shopping, play games (I really enjoy playing gam es on m y co m p uter ( 1 8 ) ............................................................ ), play ( 1 9 ) ............................................................ music and videos, and send electronic letters to ( 2 0 ) ............................................................ your friends and family. It's also great fo r contacting people using online places w h e re people com m unicate w ith each other in real tim e ( 2 1 ) ............................................................ and other social n etw orkin g sites.

Unfortunately,

I

can't

let

you

use

it

at

the

m om ent

because

it

stopped

w o rk in g

(22 ) ........................................................... at the w eekend, and I can't ge t it to w o rk again. I'm rather w orried tha t

it's g o t

a technical fault th a t

som eone

created

on

purpose

to

affect

my

com puter

(23 ) ................................................................ However, you can have a go on my small com puter tha t I can carry around w ith m e (2 4 )............................................................ if you like. If I can find it. Th e last tim e I rem em ber

94

seeing it was last night on the bus, w h e n I was com ing hom e from my office at the M inistry of Defence.


3 N ow look at this essay and fill in the gaps w ith one of the words or phrases from Exercises 1 and 2. In some cases, more than one answer will be possible. You may need to change some of the w ord forms.

'Te c h n o lo g y has com e a lo n g w a y in the last 50 years, a n d o u r lives have becom e b e tte r as a result. O r have th e y?'

T h e last 50 years have seen m ore changes tha n in th e previous 200. Th e re have been m any rem arkable advances average

in

m edicine

and

medical

1...............................................................

techn o lo gy w ay

th a t

beyond

have

th a t

of

helped our

to

increase

ancestors.

our

Incredible

topic-specific vocabulary

Science & technology

2..............................................................such as satellite television have changed th e w a y w e spend o u r leisure hours. Perhaps th e m ost im p o rta n t 3 ..............................................................., how ever, has been th e m icrochip. N o b o d y could have im agined, w h e n it was first 4 ............................................................... , th a t w ith in a m atter o f years, this tin y piece of silicon and circuitry w o u ld be fo u n d in alm ost every household object fro m th e kettle to th e video recorder. A n d n o b o d y could have predicted th e sudden p roliferation o f com puters th a t w o u ld com pletely change o u r lives, a llo w in g us to access info rm a tio n fro m th e o th e r side o f th e w o rld via th e 5............................................................... or send messages a ro u nd th e w o rld by 6 ............................................................... at th e to uch of a b u tto n . M e a n w h ile , 7 ............................................................... into oth e r aspects of info rm a tio n te ch n o lo g y is m aking it easier and cheaper fo r us to talk to friends and relations a ro u nd th e w o rld . G o o d news fo r 8 ............................................................... w h o

love m od ern technology,

bad

news fo r the

9 ...............................................................w h o w o u ld prefer to hide fro m these m od ern miracles.

But everything has a price. Th e developm ent of 10............................................................

led to mass

autom ation in factories, w hich in turn led to millions losing their jobs. Th e genius of Einstein led indirectly to the threa t of nuclear w a r and the dangerous uncertainties of 11.................................. (w e

hear o f

accidents

and

mishaps

at

nuclear

power

stations

around

the

w o rld ,

w he re

1 2......................................................... to prevent accidents w ere inadequate). T h e relatively n e w science of 1 3......................................................... has been seen as a m ajor step forw a rd , b ut p uttin g m odified foods on to the m arket before scientists had properly 14............................................................ the m was perhaps one of the most irresponsible decisions of the 1990s. M eanw hile, pharmaceutical companies continue to 15............................................................ on animals, a move tha t m any consider to be cruel and unnecessary.

O f course w e all rely on m odern science and technology to im prove o ur lives. However, w e need to make sure th a t w e can control it before it controls us.

95


topic-specific vocabulary

Sport 1 Look at th e definitions, and a rran ge th e letters in bold to m ake the w o rd s th e y are d efin ing . W rite y o u r a nsw ers in th e grid (th e first letter o f each w o rd is already in place). If y o u d o this correctly, y o u w ill reveal a n o th e r w o rd in the shaded vertical strip.

1

Som eone w h o w atches a public activity o r event, especially a sports event, pateorsct

2

M o n e y given to an organisation to help pay fo r som ething, often an event, soriponpshs

3

A m an w h o plays sport, m astsnopr

4

To be involved in an activity w ith o th e r people, atek rpta ni

5

To start d o in g som ething regularly as a habit, jo b o r interest, etka pu

6

A person, team , business o r g ro u p th a t som eone is com p eting against, popitioo n s

7

A large b uildin g, usually w ith o u t a roof, w h e re people play and w atch sports events, utism ad

8

T o w in against som eone in a gam e, fig h t o r election, efetda

9

Som eone w h o likes to w atch a particular sports team , and w an ts th a t team to w in . potesprru

10 A large b uildin g, usually w ith a roof, w h e re sports events take place in a central area, raane 11 Som eone w h o plays a sport o r does an activity as a jo b rather tha n fo r e njo ym e nt, nesprsioalof

2 Im agine th a t y o u are a professional sports playe r and keen spectator. H o w w o u ld y o u feel in the fo llo w in g situations, h a p p y ( ( § ) ) o r u n h a p p y ( 0 ) ) ?

96

1.

Y o u r team has been p ro m o te d.

@

(§ )

2.

Y o u are sent o ff d u rin g a gam e.

3.

Som eone believes yo u have been tak in g perform an ce -e n ha ncin g drugs.

4.

People say yo u are grossly o ve rp aid .

5.

Y o u r team has reached the final.

6.

In a 100 m etre race, yo u beat y o u r personal best.

(^ )

(g )

@ @

(R ) (0 )

© ©

©


7.

You have been disqualified fro m taking part in a com petition.

8.

You have failed a dope test.

9.

Y o u r team has been relegated.

@

(g )

0 )

(g ) (^ )

(R )

10. Y o u r country's national football team qualifies for the W o rld Cup. 11. Y o u r feel th a t yo u r team has no team spirit.

@

(g )

(ยง )

(g )

12. Th e re are a lot of hooligans at a match yo u attend.

(g )

13. In a cycling race, you outdistance the othe r com petitors.

(g ) (ยฃ5)

14. People say yo u are always committing professional fouls.

(ยง )

topic-specific vocabulary

Sport

(g )

15. W h e n yo u w alk on to the pitch to play a gam e, the spectators start jeering, booing and shouting

abuse.

@

@

16. T h e spectators cheer w h e n yo u w alk on to the pitch. 17. You outplay yo u r o p p o n e n t in a gam e of squash.

(g )

@

18. A new spaper article accuses yo u o f match fixing.

(^ )

(g )

3 Complete this passage w ith words and phrases from Exercises 1 and 2. In some cases, more than one answer is possible, and you w ill need to change some of the w ord forms.

For m any people, football is more than just a game. W hether they're ( 1 ) .......................................................... on the

terraces,

(2)

.........................................................

on

their

favourite

team,

or

w hether

they're

( 3 ) .........................................................players ( 4 ) .......................................................... a major match, football is a w ay of life. The y could not conceive of a w orld in which the 'beautiful gam e' does not exist. For them , nothing can match that magical m om ent w hen their team ( 5 ) ........................................................ for a major competition like the W orld Cup, ( 6 ) .........................................................then ( 7 ) .......................................................... the opposition in a resounding victory. And, apart from seeing their team lose, nothing can be worse for them than seeing their favourite team ( 8 ) ........................................................ at the end of the season: to see your team moved d ow n from the first division can be a heartbreaking experience. Anyone w h o has ever been inside a ( 9 ) .........................................................during a major match can testify to the passion people have for the game.

However, there is an ugly side to football. It only takes a fe w (10) ............................................................ th ro w in g bottles, invading the pitch and ( 1 1 ) ........................................................... at the players to ruin a match. This has been a problem for a long tim e, but evidence suggests that it is getting worse. There is criticism, too, that m any to p players are (1 2 ).........................................................People cannot understand h o w they can justify their huge salaries simply for kicking a ball around a pitch. Th e y get even angrier w he n these extremely w ealthy yo u ng men are caught using (1 3 )............................................................. or are ( 1 4 ) ............................................................in disgrace d urin g a match fo r ( 1 5 ) ............................................................. against other players. There is also the m ore recent problem of ( 1 6 ) ............................................................ com m itted by players, coaches, officials and corrupt referees. Acting dishonestly to get the result you w a n t not only goes against the spirit of the game, people say, but also gives the gam e a bad reputation.

97


topic-specific vocabulary

Town & country 1 Match the sentences in the left-hand column w ith the most appropriate sentence in the right-hand column. Use the w ords and phrases in bold to help you.

1.

Lo ndo n is a tru ly cosm o po lita n city.

2.

A m odern m e tro p o lis needs a go o d integrated tran sp o rt system.

3.

Lo ndo n suffers a lot fro m traffic congestion.

4.

P o v e rty in the in n e r-c ity areas can b re e d crime.

5.

6.

B.

Shops, libraries, hospitals and ente rta in m e n t complexes are just a fe w of them .

C.

Chief a m o n g these are concerts and exhibitions.

D.

In particular, I enjoy th e a tm o sphere that is unique to the city.

E.

Prices in London are particularly exorbitant.

F.

W ith o u t the m , th e y are unable to function pro p erly as cities.

G.

It is especially bad d u rin g the rush hour, w h e n thousands of co m m uters try to enter o r leave the city.

Cities a ro u n d the w o rld have seen a huge p o p u la tio n explosion.

B irm in gham has plenty o f am enities.

7.

A lot o f people visit Paris fo r its cultural events.

8.

Cities in p o o re r countries often lack basic infrastructures.

9.

A . D ru g abuse is also a big p roblem .

H. Stress-related illnesses are ve ry co m m on in cities like N e w York.

I.

N ow adays the re are m ore c ity d w e lle rs tha n ever before.

J.

Everyw here yo u g o the re are b u ild in g sites, pede strian precincts, blocks o f flats and h o u s in g estates spreading into the countryside.

T h e pressures o f m o d e rn c ity life can be difficult to deal w ith .

10. T h e cost o f liv in g in some places can be very high.

11. A lot o f people appreciate the a n o n y m ity o f living in a large city.

K. T h e y like to feel th a t th e y can do som ething w ith o u t everyb o d y kn o w in g a b o u t it.

L. 12. I love the urba n lifestyle I lead.

98

M ost people use buses and the u n d e rg ro u n d to ge t to the banks and offices w h e re th e y w o rk .

13. In Singapore, private cars are banned fro m the central business district at p e a k periods.

M . Unfortunately, this is som ething th a t most large capital cities lack.

14. U rb a n s p ra w l is prevalent in m ost cities.

N. It's a m e ltin g p o t fo r people fro m all parts o f the w o rld .


2 Match the sentences in the left-hand column w ith an appropriate response in the right-hand column. Use the words and phrases in bold to help you.

1.

I enjoy a ru ral lifestyle.

2.

Th e re isn't m uch p o llu tio n if you live outside a to w n .

3.

Th e re is a lot of p ro d u ctive la n d in this area.

4.

In recent years, there has been a lot of m ig ra tio n fro m the to w ns to the cities.

5.

Th e g o v e rn m e n t has prom ised to leave the green belt alone.

D. M ostly w h e a t, oats and barley. E.

Really? H o w m uch is th a t in acres ?

6.

Th e re has been a huge reduction in the a m o u n t of arable la n d over the last 20 years.

F.

I'm not surprised. W ith such terrible prospects w ith in tow ns, d e p o p u la tio n is inevitable.

7.

M y uncle's farm covers almost 800 hectares.

G. W ell I can't see much evidence of cultivation.

8.

W h a t are the m ain crops g ro w n in this area?

H. Do you? I always find there's n o thin g to do in the countryside.

A.

Really? So w h y are w e seeing so much construction in th e countryside around London?

B.

I'm not so sure. All those pesticides and chem ical fertilisers th a t farmers use now adays can't be go o d for the e n viro n m e n t.

C.

That's prob ab ly because w e im po rt more fo o d from abroad.

topic-specific vocabulary

Town & country

3 Com plete this article w ith w o rd s and phrases from Exercises 1 and 2. In som e cases, m ore tha n one a n sw e r is possible. For seven years I lived in Singapore, a 1...........................................................of almost three million people. Like London, Paris and N e w York, Singapore is a 2...........................................................city, w ith people from different parts of the w o rld living and w o rk in g together. I enjoyed the 3........................................................... lifestyle I led there, and m ade the most of the superb 4 ............................................................. ranging from the excellent shops to some of the best restaurants in the w orld . In the evenings and at weekends there w ere always 5...........................................................; w ith such diverse attractions as classical western music, an exhibition of M alay art or a Chinese opera in the street, it was difficult to get bored. Perhaps most impressive, however, was the remarkable transport 6.............................................................. w ith excellent roads, a swift and efficient bus service and a state-of-the-art un dergro und system w hich could whisk 7 from the suburbs straight into the heart of the city (this was particularly im portant, as the governm ent banned private cars from entering the 8 ........................................................... during the m orning and afternoon 9............................................................ in order to reduce 10...........................................................on the roads and 11............................................................from the exhausts). O f course, living in a city like this has its disadvantages as w ell. For a start, the 12 can be very high - renting an apartm ent, fo r example, is very expensive. A n d as the city is expanding, there are a lot o f 13................................................................w he re n ew apartm ents are continually being built to deal w ith the 14............................................................... w hich is a direct result of the govern m en t encouraging people to have m ore children. Fortunately, Singapore doesn't suffer from problems th a t are com m on in m any cities such as 15............................................................. w hich is partly the result of the govern m en t imposing very severe penalties on anyone bringing narcotics into the country, so it is safe to w alk the streets at night. In fact, the 16............................................................. housing estates there are probably the safest and most orderly in the w orld . Singapore w o u ld n 't be ideal for everyone, however, especially if you come from the countryside and are used to a 17........................................................... lifestyle. Th e traditional villages that w ere once com m on have disappeared as the residents there realised there w ere no 18.............................................................. for their future and m oved into n ew governm ent housing in the city.Nowadays, there is very little 19 around the city, which means that Singapore imports almost all of its food. A n d despite a 'green' approach to city planning, the 20........................................................... w hich has eaten into the countryside has had a detrim ental effect on the 21................ .......................................... .. .

9 9


topic-specific vocabulary

Travel 1 Look at th e fo llo w in g sentences and decide if th e y are tru e o r false. If th e y are false, explain w h y . 1.

A tra ve l a g e n c y is the same as a to u r operator. Tru e / False

2.

A p ackage to u r is a holiday in w hich the price includes flights, transfers to and fro m the a irpo rt and a cco m m o datio n. True / False

3.

A n a ll-inclu sive holiday is a holiday in w h ich the price includes flights, transfers, accom m odation, fo o d and drink. Tru e / False

4.

W h e n passengers em bark, th e y g e t off an aeroplane o r ship. Tru e / False

5.

W h e n passengers disem bark, th e y ge t on an aeroplane o r ship. Tru e / False

6.

T h e first th in g yo u d o w h e n yo u g o to an a irp o rt is g o to the check-in. Tru e / False

7.

T h e first th in g yo u do w h e n yo u arrive at yo u r hotel is check in. Tru e / False

8.

T h e opposite o f a package to u ris t is an in d e p e n d e n t traveller. Tru e / False

9.

M ass to u rism can have a negative effect on the e nviro nm e n t. Tru e / False

10. Ecotourism is tourism w hich has a negative effect on the e nviro nm e n t. Tru e / False 11. T h e w o rd s trip, excursion, jo u r n e y and v o y a g e all have the same m e an in g. Tru e / False 12. It is always necessary to have a visa w h e n yo u visit a different country. Tru e / False 13. A flig h t fro m Lo ndo n to Paris could be described as a lo n g -h a u l flig h t. Tru e / False 14. Flying e c o n o m y class is m ore expensive th a n flyin g business class. Tru e / False 15. A Canadian citizen flying fro m T o ro n to to Vancouver w ill have to fill in an im m ig ra tio n card before she arrives. Tru e / False 16. C u ltu ra l to urism is th e same as sustainable tourism . Tru e / False 17. T h e p e a k season is th e tim e o f the year w h e n m any people are tak in g th e ir holiday. Tru e / False 18. A cruise is a holiday w h e re yo u g o som ew here (usually A frica) to w atch and take pho to grap hs of w ild anim als Tru e / False 19. A n arm cha ir tra ve lle r is som eone w h o books holidays and flights on the Internet. Tru e / False 20. A to u ris t trap is a place th a t is visited by m a ny tourists and is the re fore cro w d e d and expensive. Tru e / False 2 C o m p lete th e sentences w ith a suitable w o rd o r phrase fro m th e box.

border controls culture shock deportedeconomic migrants emigration expatriates immigration internally displaced persona non grata refugees repatriated UNHCR

100

1.

A t th e b e g in n in g o f th e war, thousands o f ............................................... fled over the b ord e r to the next country.

2.

Since the civil w a r began, alm ost am illion people have been forced to m ove to a nothe r part of th e country. T h e s e .......................................................................... persons are n o w w ith o u t foo d or shelter.

3.

N in ete en th-cen tury governm ents e n c o u ra g e d ........................................................ to th e colonies.

4.

T h e g o ve rn m e n t is e n c o u ra g in g ............................................... because o f the shortage of w orkers in key industries.

5.

M o vin g from a large European city

to the small village in the Himalayas was som ething of a

6.

Thousands o f B ritis h .................................................live in the G ulf States, w h e re m any o f th e m have h ig h -p o w e re d jobs.


7.

T h e ............................................... is under a lot of pressure o w in g to the huge n um b er of displaced persons around the w o rld .

8.

He w a s ............................................................... from the country w h e n his visa expired.

9.

Because he had a criminal record, the govern m en t d id n 't w a n t him to enter the country, declared h i m ............................................... and asked him to leave immediately.

10. A fte r the econom y collapsed in the east, thousands o f ...............................................headed west in the hope of finding a go o d job. 11. People w h o are caught trying to enter the country illegally are usually held in a detention centre before b e in g ................................................. 12

w ere tightened in order to reduce the n um b er o f people illegally entering the country.

topic-specific vocabulary

Travel

3 N o w look at this essay and com plete the gaps w ith one of the w o rd s o r phrases from Exercises 1 and 2. In som e cases, m ore than one answ er m ay be possible. You w ill need to change the form of som e of the w o rd s. T ra v e l: the o th e r side o f the c o in ' Most

of us have,

atsome

point in our lives, experienced the joys of travel. W e go to

a

1...........................................................to pick up some brochures, or look on the Internet for a cheap holiday deal. W e book a tw o -w e e k 2.......................................................... w ith flights and accom m odation included (or if w e are 3............................................................. w e make our o w n w a y to the country and travel around from place to place w ith a rucksack on o ur back). W e make sure w e have all the right currency, our passport and any 4 ...........................................................that are necessary to get us into the country. W e go to

the

airport

and

5................................................................

We

strap

ourselves

into

our

tiny

6...........................................................aircraft seats and a few hours later w e 7............................................................ from the aircraft, strange n ew sights, smells and sounds greeting us. Nowadays, it seems, the w hole w o rld goes on holiday at once: the age of 8 ...........................................................is in full swing! But fo r the great m ajority of people around th e w orld , travel fo r the m is done in the face of great adversity and hardship. T h e y never get to indulge in an 9............................................................. holiday in a luxury hotel w ith all meals and drinks included. Th e y never get to explore the lush A m a zo n Rain Forest or the frozen wastes of the Arctic on an 10.............................................................holiday. For them , travel is a m atter of life and death. I refer, of course, to all the 11............................................................. escaping from their o w n countries, or the 12............................................................., m oved from one part of their country to another by an uncaring governm ent, or 13............................................................... forced to find a jo b and seek a living w herever they can. Can you imagine anything worse than the misery these people must face? Let's not confuse them w ith those 14.......................................................... w h o choose to live in another country and often have nice houses and high salaries. These people are simply desperate to survive. As well as losing their homes because of w a r or famine or other natural disasters, they must come to terms w ith their new environm ent: for many, the 15.............................................................can be to o great. A n d w hile m any countries w ith an open policy on 16............................................................will welcom e them in w ith open arms, others will simply turn them away. These people become 17.......................................................... , unw anted and unwelcome. Even if they manage to get into a country, they will often be 18.......................................................... or repatriated. The ir future is uncertain. Som ething to think about, perhaps, the next tim e you are 19...............................................................to yo u r five-star hotel by a palm -fringed beach or sitting in a coach on an 20............................................................. to a pretty castle in the countryside.

101


topic-specific vocabulary

Work 1 H o w w o u ld you generally feel, happy ( ^ ) or unhappy ( g ), if you were in the follow ing situations? Use the w ords and phrases in bold to help you decide. 1.

T h e co m p an y yo u w o rk fo r is w ell k n o w n fo r its jo b security.

2.

You are suddenly m ade re d u n d a n t

3.

You receive a p ro m o tio n .

4.

You are given an in c re m e n t

©

®

5.

You w o rk unsociable hours.

(c3)

0 )

6.

You have a s te a d y jo b .

7.

You had adverse w o rk in g conditions.

8.

You suddenly find yourself u n e m p lo ye d .

9.

You need tim e off w o rk because of re p e titive strain injury.

@

(c )

©

®

0 )

(R )

@

(§ ) (5 )

(§ ) @

(g )

10. T h e office w h e re yo u w o rk has sick b u ild in g syn d ro m e . 11. You receive reg ula r p erks as part of yo u r jo b . 12. Som ebody calls yo u a w orka h olic.

(^ )

(^ )

(3) (3 )

(§ ) (g )

(g )

(§ )

13. Y o u r com pany gives yo u plenty o f incentives.

(^ )

@

14. Y o u r boss announces th a t there is g o in g to be some d o w n s iz in g o f the w o rk fo rce.

@

15. You have a lot o f jo b satisfaction.

(g )

16. Y o u r co m p an y has a generous incen tive scheme.

@

(g )

17. You receive a com m ission fo r th e w o rk you have done . 18. You receive su pp o rt fro m a u n io n. 19. You are un d e r stress. 20. You are forced to resign.

(^ )

(^ )

(g )

0 )

(g ) (g )

(§ )

21. You receive a c u t in yo u r salary.

(g )

(g )

@

22. Y o u r co m p an y gives yo u sickness b e n e f it 23. You find yo u r jo b very d e m a n d in g .

(£ )

24. Y o u r boss tells yo u th a t you have p o te n tia l.

(g )

®

@

(R )

25. Y o u r boss tells yo u th a t you lack in itia tive and m o tiv a tio n . 26. Everyone at w o rk ig n o re s you.

102

(q )

@

(g )

(^ )

(g )

Q )

(g )


2 Match sentences 1 - 6 in box A w ith one of the sentences A - F in box B. W rite the person's name after each sentence A - F. Use the w ords and phrases in bold to help you. Box A. 1.

Sam antha is the assistant m anager of a bank and she w orks from 8.30 to 5.30 every day.

2.

Tracy w orks on the production line of a factory w hich makes cars. She uses a m achine to spray paint on to th e finished car parts.

3.

Jane w orks fo r herself. She is a photographer. She w orks every day fo r a bo u t e ig ht o r nine hours.

4.

Jeanette is a cleaner fo r a com pany in B irm ingham , b u t she only w orks there fo r a bout three or fo u r hours a day.

5.

Claire has a p o w e rful jo b in the personnel office of a large m ultinational com pany. She is responsible fo r em ploying n e w people and ge ttin g rid of those th a t the com pany doesn't w a n t to em ploy any m ore.

6.

M arie w orks in the finance d ep artm en t of an international college in O xford.

topic-specific vocabulary

Work

Box B. A . She is a sem i-skilled b lu e -co lla r w o rk e r in a m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s try ............................ B.

She is s e lf-e m p lo ye d and w orks full-tim e. She likes to describe herself as freelance.

C.

She is responsible fo r h irin g a n d firin g ............................

D. She ca leu lates the w ages, salaries, pension contributions and m edical insurance contributions of all the staff............................. E.

She is a fu ll-tim e w h ite -c o lla r w o rk e r in a service in d u s tr y . ..........................

F.

She is an unskilled p a rt-tim e e m p lo ye e ............................

103


topic-specific vocabulary

Work 3 N o w read this essay and complete the gaps w ith one of the words or phrases from Exercises 1 and 2. You will need to change the form of some of the words.

'Som e p e o p le live to w o rk , a n d o thers w o r k to live. In m o s t cases, this d epends o n th e jo b th e y h a ve a n d th e co n d itio n s u n d e r w h ich th e y are e m p lo ye d . In y o u r o p in io n , w h a t are th e elem ents th a t m ake a jo b w o r th w h ile ? '

In answ ering this question, I w o u ld like to look first at the elem ents th a t com bine to m ake a job undesirable. By avoiding such factors, potential 1............................................................. are m ore likely to find a jo b th a t is m ore w o rth w h ile , and by d o in g so, hope to achieve happiness in th e ir w o rk .

First of all, it doesn't m atter if you are an 2 .............................................................w o rk e r cleaning the floor, a 3.............................................................4 ..............................................................w o rk e r on a production line in one o f the 5............................................................., o r a 6 .............................................................. w o rk e r in a bank, shop o r one o f the o th e r 7 ............................................................. : if you lack 8............................................................., w ith the k n o w le d ge th a t you m ig h t lose yo u r jo b at any tim e, you w ill never feel happy. Everybody w o u ld like a 9............................................................. in w hich he or she is gu ara nte ed w o rk . Nowadays, however, com panies have a high tu rn o ve r of staff, 10.............................................................n e w staff and 11

others on a w ee kly basis. Such com panies are n o t p o pula r w ith

th e ir workers.

Th e same can be said o f a jo b in w hich yo u are p u t u n d e r a lot of 12............................................................. and w orry, a jo b w hich is so 13............................................................. th a t it takes over yo u r life, a jo b w h e re yo u w o rk 14............................................................. and so never ge t to see yo u r fam ily o r friends, or a physical jo b in w h ich yo u do the same th in g every day and end up w ith the industrial disease th a t is always in the papers now adays - 15................................................................

W ith all these negative factors, it w o u ld be difficult to believe th a t there are any elem ents th a t make a jo b

w o rth w h ile . M o n e y is, o f

course,

1 6...................................................................

But

th e prim e m otivator, and e veryb o d y w ants a go od of

course

th a t

is

n ot

all.

The

chance

of

17............................................................. , of being given a better position in a com pany, is a m otivating factor. Likewise, 18............................................................. 1 9............................................................

scheme

to

such as a free lunch or a co m pany car, an

make

yo u

w o rk

hard

such

as

a

regular

2 0 ............................................................. above the rate of inflation, 21............................................................... in case you fall ill and a com pany 22............................................................. scheme so th a t you have some m oney w h e n you retire all com bine to make a jo b w o rth w h ile .

Unfortunately, it is not always easy to find all of these. Th e re is, however, an alternative. Forget the office and th e factory floor, become 23................................................................ and w o rk fo r yourself. Your future m ay n ot be secure, but at least you w ill be happy.

104


Page 1 Addition, equation & conclusion 1 Addition

Equation

Conclusion

and along w ith also as w ell as besides furth erm o re in addition m oreover to o w hat's m ore

equally correspondingly in the same w a y likewise similarly

in conclusion in brief therefore thus to conclude to summarise to sum up briefly w e can conclude tha t

answers

Answers

2 1. Furtherm ore / In addition / In M o re over / W hat's m ore (this is less form al than the other expressions), 2. As w ell as / Besides (n o t In addition, as this w o u ld need to before the verb), 3. Likewise / Similarly / In the same w a y (the m ain verb in both sentences is the same {respect), so w e can use a w o rd / phrase of equation here), 4. As w ell as / A lo n g w ith , 5. Also / Furtherm ore / In addition / M o re o ve r / W hat's m ore, 6. Likewise / similarly, 7. Likewise / In the same w a y / Similarly, 8. In brief, 9. In brief / W e can conclude that, 10. The re fore (to sum up, to conclude and to summarise are usually used to conclude a lo nger piece of w ritin g . Thus is slightly m ore form al than therefore, b ut has the same m eaning)

Page 2 Around the w orld

1

~

1. the Far East, 2. A ntarctic (Antarctica is the nam e of the continent, and is not preceded by the), 3. Australasia, 4. th e Indian subcontinent, 5. Central Am erica, 6. Latin Am erica, 7. southern Africa (South Africa is the nam e o f a country), 8. the U nited K ingd om , 9. Europe, 10. the G ulf States, 11. Scandinavia, 12. capital (Traditionally, a capital city is th e city in a co untry w h e re the g o ve rn m e n t is based. Cities w hich are larger th a n the capital cities of a country, for example, Istanbul, are often k n o w n as principal cities)

2 1. A fg h a n , 2. A rg e n tin e , 3. Australian, 4. Bangladeshi, 5. Belgian, 6. Brazilian, 7. Canadian, 8. Danish, 9. Egyptian, 10. English / British, 11. Finnish, 12. Greek, 13. Indian, 14. Iranian, 15. Iraqi, 16. Irish, 17. Israeli, 18. Japanese, 19. Kuw aiti, 20. Lebanese, 21. M alay / Malaysian, 22. Mexican, 23. M oroccan, 24. Dutch, 25. N orw egia n , 26. Pakistani, 27. Peruvian, 28. Filipino, 29. Polish, 30. Portuguese, 31. Russian, 32. Saudi Arabian, 33. Scottish / British, 34. Spanish, 35. Swedish, 36. Swiss, 37. Tha i, 38. Turkish, 39. Welsh / British, 40. Yem eni

Pages 3 - 4 Changes 1 The words and phrases in this module are particularly useful for Part 1 o f the IELTS W riting Test, where yo u m ay be asked to write about changes shown in tables o r graphs. 1 1. increased / rose / w e n t up (in any order), 2. fell / drop pe d / w e n t d o w n / declined (in any order), 3. rem ained steady / rem ained constant (in either order), 4. fluctuated / peaked at / reached a peak of (in either order)

2 1. gra du ally / steadily (in either o rder), 4. u p w a rd trend

2. slightly,

3. dram atically / sharply (in either order),

3 T h e n um b er of visitors to Seahaven (1) increased / rose / w e n t up (2) gradually / steadily betw een A pril and June, then (3) increased / rose / w ent up (4) dramatically / sharply in July, and continued to (5) go up / increase / rise in A ugust. For the first fo ur months, visitor num bers to B ridgeport (6) fluctuated, b u t then (7) dropped / fell / declined / decreased / w e nt dow n (8) dramatically / sharply

105


answers

Answers in the final m o n th . W e stha m pto n visitor num bers (9) remained constant / remained steady from A p ril to June, the n (10) increased / rose / w e nt up (11) slightly in July and finally (12) peaked a t/ reached a peak o f 11,000 in A ugust. Overall, there was an (13) upw ard trend in th e n u m b e r o f visitors to Seahaven and W e stha m pto n , b u t a (14) d o w n w a rd trend in th e n u m b e r of people visiting Bridgeport. (R em em ber to vary yo u r vocabulary in W ritin g tasks. Try n o t to use the same w o rd to o often. If, for exam ple, yo u use increase in one part, use rise in another, and go up in another.)

Pages 5 - 6 Changes 2 1 1. altered /alter, 2. sw itching / sw itched, 3. adjust / adjust, 4. faded / faded, 5. varies / vary, 6. reduce / reduce, 7. deteriorate / deteriorated (w e can also say worsen or ge t worse), 8. swell / swells, 9. exchanged / exchange, 10. renovate / renovate

2 1. replaced / replace, 2. a da pt / adapted, 3. disappear / disappeared, 4. p ro m o te d / p rom o te d, 5. relax / relax, 6. im prove / im pro vin g, 7. expand / expanded, 8. cut / cutting, 9. tra n sfo rm e d / tra n s fo rm e d , 10. declined / declining

Page 7 Condition

1 1. p ro vid in g that* yo u return, 2. provided that* I have, 3. unless you ge t ( unless means the same as if yo u don't), 4. on condition that* th e y tid y (o n condition that is q uite fo rm a l), 5. as long as w e continue, 6. no m a tte r h o w m uch yo u, 7. h o w e ve r m a ny books you, 8. w h e re ve r you * W e can o m it that after providing, provided and on condition. W e can also use the before condition. Note: A ll o f these sentences can also begin w ith the conditional w o rd or phrase. For exam ple: You can b o rro w m y dictionary providing that yo u return it before you go hom e = Providing that you return it before yo u go home, yo u can b o rro w m y dictionary. W h e n w e do this, w e are shifting the emphasis o f the sentence to the conditional clause.

Pages 8 - 9 Confusing w ords & false friends 1 1. abroad / aboard, 2. action / activity, 3. advise / advice, 4. effect / affect, 5. appreciable / appreciative, 6. p revent / avoid, 7. beside / Besides, 8. Shortly / briefly, 9. canal / channel, 10. conscious / Conscientious, 11. considerate / considerable, 12. continual / continuous, 13. control / inspect, 14. objection / criticism, 15. in ju r y / harm / dam age, 16. f o r / w h ile / d u r in g , 17. H o w e ve r / M oreover, 18. w o u n d e d / injured

Pages 1 0 - 1 1 Confusing w ords & false friends 2 1. jo b / w o rk , 2. lie / lay, 3. w atch / look at, 4. lose / loose, 5. make / cause, 6. nature / countryside, 7. per cent (often w ritte n as one w o rd : percent) / percentage, 8. p erm it / permission, 9. personal / personnel, 10. possibility / chance, 11. practise / practice (n o te th a t in A m erican English, practice is both a noun and a ve rb ), 12. Priceless / worthless, 13. principle / Principal / principal / principle, 14. tro u b le / p ro blem , 15. procession / process, 16. rise / raise, 17. re m e m b e r/ rem ind, 18. respectful / respectable, 19. to le ra n t/ to le ra b le , 20. t r e a t / cure

O th er confusing words o r false friends include: actually + now , already + yet, afraid o f + w o rrie d a bout, b rin g + fetch, conduct + direct, discover + invent, driver + chauffeur, fo rm ida b le + w o n d e rfu l, fun + funny, g o + play (fo r sports and games), com e along w ith + fo llow , kind + sym pathetic, lend + b o rro w , overcom e + overtake, pass + take (an exam ), receipt + recipe, scenery + view, sensible + sensitive, special + especially, take + bring

Pages 1 2 - 1 3 Context & meaning 1

1

106

2 (suggested answers), nocturnal: active at night rather than during the day. / cites: mentions something as an example or explanation of something else. / coherently, spoken or w ritten so that all the different parts fit together, and / or which are easy to understand. / feat something impressive that someone does.


3 (a) burden, (b ) prolific, (c) initiative, (d ) resilient, (e) sways, (f) elusive, (g ) im plem ent, (h ) arduous, (i) fringe, (j) prohibitive, (k) exhaustive, (I) forage, (m ) stacks, (n ) im perative, (o ) m ediocre

answers

Answers

Rem em ber th a t some w o rds can have a different m eaning d ep en d in g on th e ir context. For exam ple, prohibitive can also m ean lim iting something, or preventing something from being done (e.g., prohibitive anti-piracy laws). In addition to looking at th e context in w hich a w o rd appears in o rder to w o rk o u t its m eaning, you should also identify its function (is it a noun, verb, adjective, adverb, etc?). Some of the w ords in Exercise 2 can have a different function w ith o u t changing th e ir form , d ep en d in g on h o w the y are used (e.g., burden can be a verb as w ell as a n o u n ).

Pages 1 4 - 1 5 Context & meaning 2 1 1. Incorrect (stop som eone or som ething from m aking progress or deve lop in g), 2. Correct, 3. Incorrect (speak publicly to a g ro u p of people), 4. Incorrect (badly built or m ade, and so likely to break easily), 5. Correct, 6. Incorrect (becom e a full m em ber of a g ro u p or society), 7. Incorrect (the start of som ething), 8. Incorrect (inventing o r using n ew ideas), 9. Incorrect (gradually becomes n a rro w e r tow ards one end), 10. Correct, 11. Incorrect (nice to look at), 12. Correct

2 1. Incorrect (ro u g h and hard), 2. Incorrect (spread ideas, beliefs, etc., to a lot of people), 3. Correct, 4. Incorrect (able to be done, or w o rth d o in g), 5. Incorrect (believe o r say th a t som ething was w ritte n , said, painted, etc, by a particular person), 6. Incorrect (an official d o cum e nt that, a m o ng o th e r things, prevents som eone fro m copying som eone else's invention), 7. Correct, 8. Incorrect (to be reasonable o r necessary), 9. Correct, 10. Incorrect (connected w ith som ething, b ut not a necessary or im po rtan t part of it), 11. Incorrect (to make or persuade som ebody to do som ething), 12. Incorrect (had changes m ade in order to im prove it) Pages 16 - 17 C o n text & m eaning 3 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

' infancy: the tim e w h e n you are a baby or very yo u n g child. personnel: the people w h o w o rk fo r a com pany or organisation. p ro lo n g: to make som ething last longer. w in d sw e p t: having a lot of w in d , and not m any buildings o r trees to protect it. threefold: three times as m uch, o r three times as m any (also w ritte n three-fold. O th e r num bers can be used: twofold, tenfold, etc.). scholars: people w h o study a particular subject and k n o w a lot a bo u t it, especially if the subject is not scientific. recipient: (fo rm a l) som eone w h o receives som ething. centrepiece: the most im p o rta n t object or decoration in a particular place. m ultitude: a very large n um b er of things o r people. num eracy: basic skills in mathematics. lifespan: the length of tim e th a t an anim al or hum an lives. m onetary: consisting o f money, o r able to be measured in money. gra nd e ur: an impressive quality th a t a place, object o r occasion has. standpoint: a w a y of considering som ething from someone's p oin t of view.

2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

epicentre: the area of land directly over the centre of an earthquake. outpatients: people w h o receive medical treatm ent at a hospital, but do not stay there for the night. validate: to officially prove th a t som ething is true or correct. w idespread: happening o r existing in m any places, o r affecting m any people. seafarers: people w h o w o rk or travel regularly on the sea, especially sailors. spatial: relating to the size, shape and position of things (the 'ro o t' w o rd is space). m onorail: a railw ay system in w hich trains travel on a single metal track. auditory: relating to hearing. industrious: always w o rk in g very hard.

107


answers

Answers 10. longevity: having a long life or existence. 11. draw back: a feature o f som ething th a t makes it less useful tha n it could be. 12. showcases: shows som eone o r som ething in a w a y th a t attracts a tte n tion and emphasises their g o o d qualities. 13. wilderness: an area o f land w h e re people d o n o t live o r g ro w crops, and w h e re there are no buildings. 14. illiterate: unable to read or w rite .

Page 18 Contrast & comparison 1. A , 2. B, 7. C, 8. A ,

3. B, 4. C ( differentiate and distinguish have exactly the same m e a n in g ), 5. C, 9. B, 10. C, 11. A , 12. C, 13. C, 14. B, 15. B (this is an inform al expression)

6. A ,

Page 19 Emphasis 8t misunderstanding 1 1. F,

2. B,

3. E,

4. C,

5. A ,

6. D

2 1. accentuated / emphasised, 2. p ro m in e n t, 3. accent / emphasis / stress, 4. p u t gre at stress, 5. crucially im p o rta n t / extrem ely im p o rta n t / of crucial im portance, 6. emphasis 3 1. confused, 2. confusion, 3. m ix-u p (this is an inform al w o rd ), 6. assumed, 7. mistaken, 8. impression

4. obscure,

5. m isapprehension,

Page 20 Focusing attention 1 1. simply, 2. largely, 3. prim arily, 4. mainly, 5. exclusively, 8. notably, 9. mostly, 10. purely, 11. chiefly

6. particularly,

7. specifically,

T h e w o rd in th e bold vertical box is principally.

2 O n ly o r solely: simply, exclusively, purely, specifically In m ost cases, norm ally, o r th e m ain reason fo r som ething: chiefly, largely, mainly, mostly, notably, particularly, prim arily.

iPages 21 1. D,

2. A ,

22 Generalisations & specifics 3. B,

4. H,

5. L,

6. E,

7. O ,

8. F,

9. I,

10. J,

11. N,

12. M ,

13. G,

14. C,

15. K

2 Specific things: the specifics, characteristics, details, exemplifies, illustrate, illustration, itemise, m inutiae, peculiar to, peculiarity, technicality General things: generalisations, o utline, gist, in general

O ther words and phrases yo u m igh t find useful include: fo r the most part, generalities, in general terms, on the w h o le , to generalise, list (as a ve rb ), specify

Page 23 Groups

1 People in general: cro w d , ga n g, g ro u p , huddle, th ro n g A g ro u p o f people w o rk in g to g e th e r: cast, com pany, crew, platoon, staff, team Anim als: flock, herd, litter, pack, shoal (o f fish. W e can also say school), sw arm * Objects: batch**, bunch, bundle, pile (w e can also say heap), set, stack * sw arm can also be used inform ally fo r a large g ro u p o f people ( Swarms o f police officers

surrounded the building)

108

** batch can also be used to talk a b o u t a n u m b e r of people th a t arrive o r are dealt w ith at the same tim e ( This n e w batch o f students seems very nice)


Answers 2 l.h e r d , 2. cast, 3. swarms, 4. piles/stacks/heaps, 5. shoals / schools, 6. crew, 7. set, 8. staff, 9. bunch, 10. cro w d / th ro n g (or, m ore inform ally, swarm), 11. packs, 12. g ro u p / huddle, 13. flocks, 14. batch, 15. bundle, 16. g a n g s / c ro w d s / g ro u p s

Page 24 H o w something works â&#x2013; => The words and phrases in this m odule are particularly useful for the IELTS Listening Test (where yo u m ay hear someone describing h o w som ething works) or Part 1 o f the IELTS W riting Test (where yo u m ay be shown a picture or diagram o f something, and have to explain h o w it works). 1. A therm ostat A therm ostat fQQtOjQS a strip o r coil of steel and a strip o r coil of copper, one on to p of the other. As the strip / coil heats up, the metals expand, but one does it faster than the other. Th e strip / coil bends and connects w ith a switch, w hich turns off the p o w e r supply. W h e n the strip / coil cools d ow n, the metals contract and th e switch is disconnected. T h e therm ostat is adjusted using a dial or oth e r control. 2. A disc player A disc player (fo r exam ple, in a co m p uter) has several com p o n e n t parts. A disc is inserted into the player and begins to spin. A t the same tim e, a thin beam of light called a laser strikes th e disc and converts digital signals into sounds o r images, w hich can be heard th ro u g h speakers o r view ed on a screen. V o lum e o r brightness can be increased or decreased by means o f a b u tton , knob o r o ther control. Now adays, discs are largely being replaced by storage devices like m em ory sticks, w hich have no m o ving parts. 3. A n aerosol In an aerosol, liquid and gas are compressed in a metal and / o r hard plastic tub e . This can be released fro m the tu b e by pushing a b u tto n , w hich opens a valve. W h e n the liq u id -g a s com bination leaves the tu b e and mixes w ith oxygen, it rapidly expands. 4. A n aircraft M ost aircraft are made of a lum inium , and require tw o forces to a llo w the m to fly: thrust and lift. As th e aircraft moves fo rw a rd on the g ro u n d und er th e p o w e r of its engines, air flows over th e w ings. As it accelerates / moves faster, creating / producing m ore thrust, a vacuum is created / formed over the w ings. This creates / produces lift. T h e aircraft is pulled into th e air by the force of this lift. 5. A digital camera A digital camera consists of tw o m ain parts: a b ody and a lens. W h e n a b utton is pressed on the body, a w in d o w in the lens called a shutter opens and light enters th e camera. T h e a m o u n t of light g o in g into th e camera is controlled by both the speed of this shutter, and a smaller w in d o w called an aperture. Both the shutter speed and the size of the aperture can be adjusted by the person using th e camera. Th e light hits a sensor in the body of the camera, w hich records the light as a digital im age. T h e im age is recorded / stored on a m e m ory card in th e camera, and this can later be downloaded o n to a com puter.

O ther words and phrases yo u m ig h t find useful include: fold, reflect, reverse, revolve, start, stop, tu rn , tu rn d o w n , turn up, unfold, u n w in d , upload, w in d Note: W h e n w e describe h o w an object w orks and there is no oth e r person or a ge nt involved in o u r description, w e use the active voice ('...lig h t enters the ca m era...', '...th e metals expand...'). W h e n there is a person involved in th e process, w e usually use th e passive voice (is / are + a past participle: 'T h e therm ostat is adjusted...', '...liq u id and gas are compressed...'). W e use the passive voice w h e n w e d o not k n o w w h o does the action o r process, o r because w e d o n o t need to say w h o does it.

Page 25 Joining / becoming part of something bigger

_

.

1. linked, 2. am algam ated / m erged, 3. blended, 4. m erged / am algam ated, 5. incorporated, 6. integrated / assimilated, 7. assimilated / integrated, 8. to o k over / sw allow ed up (swallowed up is less form al than took over. W e can also say acquired), 9. g o t to g e th e r (an inform al phrase. W e can also say m et o r assembled, w hich are slightly less inform al), 10. to o k over / sw allow ed up


answers

Answers 2 1. alliance, 2. union, 3. federation, 8. blend, 9. coalition, 10. m e rger

4. alloy,

5. co m p o u n d ,

6. synthesis,

7. unification,

Page 26 Likes & dislikes

_

1. Positive, 2. Positive, 3. Negative, 4. Positive, 5. Negative, 6. Negative, 7. Negative, 8. Positive ( fancies in this context is an inform al w a y o f saying w ou ld like to), 9. Positive, 10. Positive, 11. Positive, 12. Positive, 13. Negative, 14. Positive, 15. Positive, 16. Negative, 17. Positive, 18. Positive

attract, captivate, disgust, fascinate, repel and tem pt can be active ( N e w technology fascinates me). bu t are m ore co m m o n ly passive (/ am fascinated b y n e w technology) Pages 27 - 29 Location &. direction â&#x2013; => Language o f location and direction is particularly useful fo r the IELTS Listening Test, where you m ay be asked to locate places or other things on maps o r plans.

1 1. directly opposite, 2. to the west of, 3. on the south side of, 4. to the east of, 5. on the left-hand side o f (w e can just say on the left side of), 6. in the m iddle of, 7. halfw ay along (w e can also say halfw ay up), 8. parallel to, 9. at rig ht angles to (w h e n som ething is at a 90° angle to som ething else, w e can also say th a t it is perpendicular to it), 10. on the n o rth side of, 11. halfw ay betw een, 12. diagonally opposite, 13. surrounded by, 14. on, 15. on the corner o f

2 You are g o in g to A (the hotel) Note: A crossroads is a place w h e re one road crosses another. A crossroads is a typ e o f junction (a place w h e re one road crosses o r joins a n o th e r). T h e A m erican w o rd is intersection). 3 To the superm arket 1. G o to the end, 2. tu rn right, To the language school 7. G o along, 8. tu rn right, 13. on yo u r rig ht

3. take the first,

9. crossroads,

4. on yo u r left,

10. Take the first,

5. second / last,

11. on yo u r left,

To the book shop 14. G o along, 15. tu rn left, 16. crossroads, 17. the end, 18. tu rn left, 20. on yo u r right, 21. G o past, 22. last, 23. on y o u r rig ht

6. on yo u r left

12. first,

19. take the second,

Pages 30 - 31 Modified w ords 1 2. biannual (som ething th a t is biannual occurs tw ice a year, som ething th a t is 3. a utob iogra ph y, 4. transform ed, 5. predeterm ined, 6. sem i-final (this can also be w ritte n as one w o rd , semifinal, o r tw o w ords, semi final), 7. postgraduate, 8. co-w orkers, 9. m icro-organism s (this can also be w ritte n as one w o rd , microorganisms, o r t w o w ords, micro organisms), 10. unisex, 11. substandard, 12. circum navigate, 13. International, 14. m o n o lin gu a l, 15. underachiever, 16. o ve rp o pu late d 1. teleconferences,

biennial occurs once every t w o years*),

* Rather confusingly, som ething th a t is biw eekly occurs tw ice a w ee k o r once every t w o w eeks (e.g., A biw eekly newsletter). Som ething th a t is bim onth ly occurs tw ice a m o n th o r once every tw o m onths (e.g., a bim onthly m eeting).

2

110

1. m icrowaves, 2. telecom m unications, 3. unilateral, 4. sem i-detached, 5. autopilot, 6. bilingual, 7. circum vented, 8. p o st-w ar (this can also be w ritte n as one w o rd , postwar), 9. prem ature, 10. o ve rw e ig h t, 11. subconscious, 12. coeducational (w e can also w rite this co-educational), 13. underestim ated, 14. transatlantic (n o te th a t Atlantic does n ot begin w ith a capital letter in this w o rd , b u t w o u ld need to w h e n used on its o w n ), 15. interrelationship, 16. m o n o to n e


Pages 32 - 33 Objects & actions

1

answers

Answers 1. freeze, 2. spin, 3. slide, 4. evaporate, 5. congeal (fo r blood, w e w o u ld say clot), 6. rotate, 7. w o b b le , 8. leak (w e could also say escape. Th e noise it makes is a hiss), 9. vibrate (if the glass is loose in the fram e, it w o u ld also rattle), 10. fade, 11. rise, 12. erode, 13. smoulder, 14. expand, 15. stretch, 16. crack (if the glass breaks completely, it shatters), 17. spill, 18. explode

2 1. revolve, 2. subside, 3. flow , 4. 10. spread, 11. trickle (if the w a te r 13. crum ble, 14. contract, 15. ring som eone is calling yo u ), 16. sink,

m elt, 5. bounce, 6. gro w , 7. set, 8. condense, 9. meander, is com ing o u t very slow ly in small drops, w e say drip), 12. burn, (w e also use this w o rd fo r the noise a telephone makes w h e n 17. float, 18. e rupt

3 1. froze, 2. float, 3. rising, 4. fades, 5. condense, 6. subsided, 7. revolved, 8. set, 9. trickle, 10. stretched, 11. bounce (w e can also bounce ideas around. These are inform al expressions), 12. leaked

Page 34 Obligation 8c option

_

.

1. False (you m ust take yo u r o w n pencil and eraser), 2. True, 3. False (he had to pay the m oney back), 4. False (they d o n 't have to pay any income tax at all), 5. True, 6. False (the companies make th e m w o rk long hours: the em ployees have no choice), 7. True, 8. False (you can attend the classes if yo u w a n t to ), 9. False (you must w e a r a crash helm et. W e can also use the w o rd obligatory), 10. True

2 1. obliged / required, 2. no alternative, 3. liable for, 7. required, 8. force, 9. optional, 10. exem pt

4. compulsory,

5. voluntary,

6. m andatory,

Pages 35 - 36 Opinion, attitude & belief 1 * 1. tolerance, 2. obsessed, 3. reckon (this is quite an inform al w o rd ), 4. suspect, 5. bigoted, 6. d o u b t, 7. fanatical, 8. dedicated, 9. o pinion, 10. pragm atic, 11. com m itted, 12. regarding, 13. disapproval, 14. m aintain, 15. concerned, 16. cynical, 17. exception, 18. convinced, 19. traditional, 20. conservative

2 1. suspicious, 2. pragm atic, 3. fanatical, 4. disapprove, 5. o p in io n , 6. dedication / com m itm ent, 7. tolerate, 8. conservative / traditional, 9. d o u b t, 10. m aintain / reckon / suspect / d o u b t

Page 37 Opposites: adjectives 1. clear, 2. easy, 3. graceful, 4. detrim ental, 5. approxim ate, 6. innocent, 7. even, 8. scarce, 9. flexible, 10. m arked, 11. crude, 12. delicate, 13. dim , 14. o b lig a to ry (w e can also say compulsory), 15. reluctant, 16. w idespread, 17. costly, 18. chronic

Page 38 Opposites: verbs 1. accepted, 2. denied, 3. retreating, 4. agreed, 5. defended, 6. dem olished, 7. simplified, 8. a bandon, 9. deteriorated, 10. Rew arding, 11. low ered, 12. fo rb id d en , 13. fell, 14. loosen, 15. w ith d re w , 16. retained, 17. accelerates, 18. ignored

Page 39 Ownership, giving, lending & borrowing 1 1. landlords ( landlady = female. W e can also say landowner), 2. Proprietors / Owners, 3. owners, 4. property, 5. estate / property, 6. possessions, 7. belongings {possessions usually refers to everything w e o w n, for example, our homes, furniture, etc. Belongings usually refers to smaller things, for example, briefcase, mobile phone, etc.), 8. loan, 9. m ortgage, 10. tenants, 11. rent, 12. donation

M ortgage, rent and loan can also be verbs.

111


answers

Answers 2 l .l e n d ,

2. hire,

3. b o rro w ,

4 .^ ,

5. present,

6. S ,

7. allocate,

8. provide

Page 40 Phrasal verbs 1 1. up, 2. o ut, 3. up to, 4. off, 5. on, 6. up w ith , 7. d o w n , 8. o u t of, 9. out, 10. out, 11. up, 12. in, 13. up w ith , 14. o ut, 15. o ut, 16. into, 17. on, 18. behind, 19. d o w n / back on, 20. o u t, 21. over, 22. w ith , 23. fo rw a rd , 24. back on

Pages 41 - 42 Phrasal verbs 2 1. broke d o w n , 2. w o rk o ut, 3. w e a r off, 4. w e a r ... o u t, 5. pull th ro u g h , 6. sort o ut, 7. split up, 8. show ed up, 9. pulled o u t of, 10. letting off, 11. l e t ... d o w n , 12. carry on, 13. held up, 14. fell th ro u g h , 15. ended up, 16. carried out, 17. cu ttin g back on, 18. c u to ff, 19. did aw ay w ith , 20. d o up

Page 43 Phrasal verbs 3 1. looked, 2. get, 3. g e ttin g , 4. looking, 5. go , 6. look, 7. get, 8. go, look, 12. go, 13. w e n t, 14. go, 15. look, 16. c o m e / g e t, 17. comes, 18. lo o k e d / w e n t, 19. get, 20. came

9. came,

10. give,

11.

Pages 4 4 - 4 5 Phrasal verbs 4 Clues across 1. p u t d o w n , 4. ta lk ...ro u n d , 5. take after, 6. ru n n in g up against, 12. o p t out, 16. tu rn e d up, 19. set off, 20. run up, 21. m ade up

8. tu rn e d out,

11. picked on,

Clues d o w n 1. p u t aside (set aside has th e same m eaning, b u t does n o t fit in th e crossw ord), 2. take in, 3. taken in, 5. tu rn e d d o w n , 7. p u t up w ith , 9. stand in (also used w ith for. I was asked to stand in fo r him ). 10. p u t off, 13. sets in, 14. m ake o ut, 15. m ade up, 17. ran for, 18. p ic k u p

Page 46 Presenting an argum ent ^ You w ill find the words and phrases in this m odule useful in Part 2 o f the IELTS W riting Test, and also in the Speaking Test (especially Part 3, where yo u are asked to talk a bo u t a topic and say w hat yo u think a bout it). 1. H ow ever, 2. First o f all / Firstly, 3. As w ell as / In a dd ition to, 4. I believe / I think, 5. M o re o ve r / Furtherm ore, 6. A lth o u g h / W h ile , 7. as w ell, 8. Nevertheless, 9. T h e most im p o rta n t reason / T h e m ain reason, 10. As far as I am concerned / For me, 11. M a n y consider, 12. Secondly, 13. Finally, 14. In o th e r w ords, 15. In co n clu s io n /To summarise, 16. O n th e one hand, 17. O n th e o th e r hand, 18. In m y o p in ion Note: T h e sample answ er is lo n ge r tha n you w o u ld need to w rite in the IELTS. W h e n you are asked to present an a rg u m e n t, yo u should always look at it fro m tw o sides, giving reasons w h y you agree and / or disagree before reaching a conclusion. It is usually best to present yo u r a rg u m e n t in fa vo u r o f som ething just before the conclusion.

Page 47 Reason 81 result 1

112

1. T h e police asked him his reason fo r speeding th ro u g h the to w n , 2. He failed his exam due to / on account o f / o w in g to (these phrases have th e same m e an in g as because of) his lack o f revision, 3. A persistent cough p ro m p te d him to seek professional medical help, 4. She started h a ran gu in g the cro w d w ith the aim o f starting a riot, 5. He spent the w h o le w ee ke nd revising in o rd e r to pass his exams, 6. T h e y came in quietly so as n ot to w ak e anyone, 7. He refused to lend anyone m oney on th e gro unds th a t people rarely repay a loan, 8. T h e bank m anager refused to lend the com pany m ore m o n ey on account o f / due to / o w in g to its lo w tu rn o v e r and p o o r sales history, 9. T h e school was forced to close due to / on account of / o w in g to p o o r student attendance, 10. W h a t w e re you r m otives fo r upsetting me like that?, 11. W h a t are the effects of a large earthquake, 12. Stress and o ve rw o rk can affect different people in diffe ren t ways, 13. T h e arm y attacked w ith o u t considering th e consequences o f / effects o f its action, 14. He failed to send off his application fo rm and as a


consequence was unable to enrol fo r the course (as a consequence has the same m eaning as as a 15. Riots and street fig h tin g ensued w h e n the police officers on trial w e re acquitted.

result),

answers

Answers 2 1. ensued, 2. consequence of / effects of, 3. in order to, 4. w ith the aim of, 5. on account of / due to / o w in g to, 6. reason for, 7. p ro m p ted him to, 8. on the grounds that, 9. so as not to, 10. affect

Page 48 Shape & feature 1 1. a pyram id, 8. a crescent,

"

'

2. a spiral, 3. a circle, 4. an oval, 5. a triangle, 6. a cube, 9. a square, 10. a cylinder, 11. a rectangle, 12. a cone

7. a sphere,

2 1. circular, 9. square

2. rectangular,

3. oval,

4. spiral,

5. spherical,

6. triangular,

7. conical,

8. cylindrical,

For w ords like pyram id, crescent and cube, w e add -sh a p e d (a pyramid-shaped building, a cube-shaped

container) 3 1 .(d ),

2. (g),

3. (i),

4. (h ),

5. (j),

6. (b ),

7. (e),

8. (a),

9. (c),

10. (f)

Pages 49 - 50 Size, quantity & dimension 1 1. small (no te the pronunciation of minute in this sense: / m al'nju:t/), 2. small, 3. big, 4. big (this is an inform al use o f the w o rd m am m oth), 5. big, 6. big, 7. big, 8. small, 9. big (this is an inform al use of the w o rd monum ental), 10. big, 11. big, 12. big (this is an inform al use o f the w o rd loads), 13. small, 14. big, 15. big, 16. big, 17. big, 18. big, 19. big, 20. big, 21. small, 22. big, 23. big, 24. big (this is an inform al use of the w o rd tons), 25. big

2 1. a long-distance journey, 2. a great deal of tim e, 3. loads of times, 4. a m inute a m o u n t of dust, 5. a gigantic w ave, 6. a huge waste of tim e, 7. A colossal statue, 8. plenty of foo d, 9. A broad river, 10. A vast cro w d of supporters, 11. a garga ntu an meal / plenty of fo od, 12. a vast room , 13. a m a m m oth jo b / to n s o f w o rk , 14. a deep lake, 15. a minuscule piece of cloth, 16. an enorm ous book, 17. a m a m m o th jo b / to n s of w o rk , 18. a high m o un ta in , 19. a m onum ental error, 20. a tin y car, 21. a gia nt building, 22. a w id e avenue, 23. a shallow pool, 24. a tall m an, 25. A n a rro w alleyw ay

Page 51 Spelling Th e incorrectly-spelt w ords are underlined and corrected below .

1 Despite b anning tobacco advertising and raising the price of cigarettes, the governm ent's anti­ sm oking cam paign has failed to have any lo n g-term effects. It is n o w w id e ly believed th a t m ore drastic measures are necessary. A n e w national com m ittee, w hich has been form ed to tackle the problem , has m ade several recom m endations. These include b anning sm oking in all public areas, and denying hospital tre a tm e n t to persistent smokers w h o have been w a rn e d by the ir doctors to give up b u t failed to do so.

2 It is arguable w h e th e r g o o d pronunciation is m ore im portan t than go o d gra m m a r and vocabulary. Conscientious students balance th e ir acquisition of these skills, h o p in g to achieve both fluency and accuracy. English teachers should encourage their students to practise all the relevant language skills, and use th e ir English at every o p p o rtu n ity.

3 It is becom ing increasingly difficult fo r m any people to find decent accom m odation in the city at a price the y can afford. To p u t it simply, there are to o m any people and not e no u gh homes fo r them . Local co m m u n ity centres and charitable organisations such as Hom e Front can offer advice, b ut it is w id e ly agreed th a t the situation is no longer m anageable. Th e fact th a t some councils in the city

113


Answers are b uildin g cheap, te m p o ra ry housing fo r low e r-p a id professionals is the o n ly official a ck n o w le d ge m e n t o f this problem . Page 52 S to p p in g so m e thing 1. delete, 2. repeal (w e can also say abolish), 3. deter, 4. dissuade, 5. rescind, 6. suppress, 7. sever, 8. tu rn d o w n (w e can also say decline), 9. pull o u t of, 10. deny, 11. cancel, 12. quash, 13.give up, 14. p u t an end to, 15. rem ove (less form ally, w e can say strike, b u t o n ly if w e are referring to som ething on paper: Strike his name from the list), 16. suspend, 17. scrap, 18. curb Page 53 Success & failure 1. reached, 2. accomplish, 3. secured, 4. achieved, 5. realise, 6. attain, 7. fulfilled, 8. m anaged*, 9. a b a n do n , 10. collapsed, 11. faltered, 12. folded, 13. fell th ro u g h , 14.misfired * W e manage to do som ething, o r w e succeed in doing som ething (H e m anaged to pass his exam / He succeeded in passing his exam). Page 54 Task com m ands

i 1. F,

2. D,

3. C,

4. H,

5. A ,

6. G,

7. B,

6. B,

7. C

8. E

2 1. D,

2. G,

3. A ,

4. H,

5. E,

O th er words and phrases which yo u m ig h t find useful include: calculate, characterise, classify, c o m m e n t on, consider, deduce, describe, determ ine, differentiate b etw een, distinguish b etw een, evaluate, explain, give an account of, identify, list, show, state, summarise Page 55 Tim e 1 Part 1: 1. Prior to (this phrase is usually fo llo w e d by a n oun o r by an -in g verb. For exam ple: Prior to m oving to the country, he had to learn the language), 2. By the tim e, 3. Form erly (w e could also use Previously, b u t Form erly w orks better in this context), 4. precede, 5. Previously. 6. Earlier (w e could also use Previously) Part 2: 1. W h ile (w e can also say As or Just as. Note th a t while is usually used to talk a b o u t long actions. For short actions, w e w o u ld use w hen), 2. D u rin g (w e can also say Throughout. D uring and throu gho u t are fo llo w e d by a n o u n ), 3. In the m eantim e, 4. A t th a t ve ry m o m e n t Part 3: 1. Fo llo w ing (this w o rd is always fo llo w e d by a n o u n . W e can also say A fter), 2. As soon as (w e can also say Once o r The m om e nt / m inute that. These w o rd s and phrases are always fo llo w e d by an action: Once the sh o w had ended, we w e n t hom e), 3. A fte rw a rd s

2 (1) In th e past: a fe w decades ago, at th a t p o in t / m o m e n t in history, at th e tu rn o f the century, back in th e 1990s, b etw ee n 2003 and 2005, fro m 2006 to 2011, in m edieval times (n o te th a t medieval can also be spelt mediaeval), in m y childhood / yo u th , in those days, last century (2) T h e past leading to th e present: ever since, fo r the past fe w m onths, lately, o ver the past six weeks (3) T h e present: as things stand, now adays, these days (4) T h e fu tu re : by th e end o f this year, fo r the foreseeable future, fo r the next fe w weeks, fro m n o w on, in a n o th e r five years' tim e, one day, over the com ing w eeks and m onths, sooner o r later


Pages 56 - 57 Useful In te rvie w expressions _

answers

Answers A g re e in g w ith som ebody: I agree. / 1co uld n 't agree m ore. / That's just w h a t I think. / That's m y view exactly. / That's right. Disagreeing w ith som ebody: I d o n 't entirely agree. / I'm afraid I disagree / d o n 't agree. / 1see things rather differently m yself./W e ll, a c tu a lly .../ W e ll, as a m atter o f fact,... Inte rru pting som ebody: Could I just say th a t...? / Excuse me for in te rru p tin g ,... / Let me interrupt you there. / Sorry to b u tt in ,... / Sorry to in te rru p t,... ( You shouldn't interrupt the examiner too

often. In any case, the examiner will leave you to do most o f the talking) Asking som ebody fo r th e ir o pinio n: Do you agree th a t...? / W h a t are yo u r feelings a b o u t...? / W h a t are yo u r views o n ...? / W h a t do you think a b o u t...? / W h a t's yo u r o pinion? ( You probably w o n 't need to use these expressions yourself in the Speaking Test, b u t yo u are likely to hear the examiner

use them)

2 Asking fo r clarification o r repetition: Could you repeat the question? / I'm afraid I d id n 't catch that. / I'm sorry? / W h a t was that? / W o u ld you m ind repeating that? Saving som ething in a no the r w ay: In o th e r w o rd s ... / Perhaps I should make th a t clearer by saying... / T o p u t it a no ther w a y,... / W h a t I'm tryin g to say is... / W h a t I m ean is... G iving yourself tim e to think: H m m , h o w can I p ut / say this? / Let me see. / Let m e th in k a b o u t th a t fo r a m o m en t. / M ay I think a bo u t th a t fo r a m om ent? / That's an interesting question. S um m ing up w h a t vo u have said: So. basically,... / In short / b rie f,... / So, in co n c lu s io n ,.../ To sum m arise,... / To sum u p ,... 3 1. A n y 2. A n y 3. A n y w o u ld here). 4. A n y

expression from the 'Asking fo r clarification or repetition' box. expression fro m the 'A g re e in g w ith som ebody' box. expression fro m th e 'In te rru p tin g som ebody' box except Could I just say tha t...? (w hich be used before giving an o p in io n rather than correcting a mistake, as th e student is do ing

expression from the 'G iving yourself tim e to think ' box except M ay I think about that for a m om ent? (w hich w o u ld require a response fro m the interview er before the student continues).

5. A n y expression fro m the 'Saying som ething in a nother w a y' box. 6. A n y expression from the 'Disagreeing w ith som ebody' box. Pages 58 - 60 Architecture

1 B uilding materials: concrete, glass, reinforced concrete, steel, stone, tim b e r Aesthetic perception: controversial, elegant, an eyesore, pleasing geom etric forms, ugly, w e lldesigned Types of b uilding: high-rise apartm ents (in the UK, the w o rd flat is usually used instead of apartment), low-rise apartm ents, m ulti-storey car park, skyscraper A rchitectural style: art deco, international style, modernist, post-m odern, standardised, traditional (ihigh-tech could also be included in this category) Parts of a b uilding: foundations, facade, porch, walls Features: energy-efficient, functional, high-tech, practical

2 1. B,

2. A ,

3. C,

4. C,

5. A ,

6. A ,

7. C,

8. C,

9. A ,

10. A ,

11. B,

12. A (w e can also say loft)

3 1. planning, 2. preservation, 3. renovate, 4. architects, 5. glass, 6. fagade, 7. foundations, 8. social, 9. derelict, 10. estate, 11. an eyesore, 12. traditional, 13. slums, 14. high-rise / low-rise, 15. energy-efficient

O ther words and phrases which yo u m igh t find useful include: O th e r types of b uilding: b un ga lo w , castle, cottage, detached house, m aisonette, m a no r house, m ansion, palace, sem i-detached house, shopping centre / mall, terraced house O th e r parts of a b uilding: basem ent / cellar, chimney, roof, staircase, walls Verbs: construct, design, m odernise, plan Others: developm ent, low-cost, m ass-produced, prefabricated, standardised

115


answers

Answers Pages 61 - 63 T h e arts 1 1. a ballet, 2. a play, 3. a biography, 4. a sculpture, 5. a portrait, 6. an opera, 7. a concert, 8. a novel, 9. a collection o f short stories, 10. a still life, 11. p hoto grap hy, 12. a film , 13. abstract art, 14. a landscape

2 1. perform ance, 2. w orks (o r work), 3. edition, 4. reviews (a revue is a typ e o f perform ance w ith songs, dances and h u m o u r), 5. exhibition (an exhibit in the context o f a rt is an object th a t form s part o f an exhib itio n), 6. grant, 7. G allery (a galley is a typ e o f ship or a kitchen on a ship or plane), 8. novelists (w e can also say writers), 9. Impressionists ( Impressionism is th e style of p ain tin g), 10. publish, 11. atm ospheric, 12. artistic, 13. popular, 14. cinem atic, 15. Surrealist (the n o un is Surrealism), 16. cultural 3 1. ballet, 2. perform ance, 3. reviews, 4. exhibition, 5. Gallery, 6. portraits, 7. still life, 8. gra nt, 9. novelist, 10. w o rk s/n o ve ls , 11. published, 12. biography, 13. concert, 14. opera, 15. sculpture

O th e r words and phrases which yo u m ig h t find useful include: actor, artist, author, collection, exhibit, p op art, pro d uction , produce, sculptor Pages 64 - 66 Business & industry

_

1. dem a n d for, 2. loss, 3. net, 4. lending, 5. credit, 6. retail, 7. private, 8. S ta te-ow n e d industries, 9. Unskilled labourers, 10. take on (w e can also say em ploy o r hire), 11. W hite-collar, 12. exports, 13. recession, 14. em ployees (w e can also say staff o r workers), 15. expenditure, 16. shop flo o r (...a fight broke o u t on the shop floor. In this context, th e shop floor is th e area in a factory w h e re products are m ade. This phrase can also be used to m ean the w orkers in a factory, n o t the m anagers)

2 A . interest rates, B. secondary industries, C. G N P (= Gross National Product), D. o u tp u t, E. prim ary industry, F. a uto m atio n, G. service industries, H. balance o f paym ents, I. deficit, J. m onopoly, K. nationalised industries, L. un e m p lo ym e n t, M . taxation, N. key industries, 0 . inflation, P. incom e tax, Q . V A T (= Value A d d e d Tax), R. salary 3 1. Interest, 2. b o rro w in g , 3. lay off, 4. un e m p lo ym e n t, 5. Inflation, 6. exports, 7. secondary industries, 8. B lu e -co lla r/W h ite -co lla r, 9. sta te-o w n e d / nationalised, 10. salaries, 11. m a na ge m en t, 12. public, 13. Dem and, 14. supply, 15. revenue / incom e, 16. nationalised, 17. deficit, 18. a uto m a tio n Pages 67 - 68 Children & th e fam ily

1 1. nuclear, 2. extended, 3. single-parent, 4. b rin g up (w e can also say raise o r rear), 5. u p b rin g in g , 6. divorced, 7. childcare, 8. adolescence (the n oun is adolescent), 9. fo rm a tive years, 10. birth rate, 11. dependants (the adjective is dependent), 12. Juvenile

2 1. H (authoritarian can also be a no un : a strict authoritarian), 8. B, 9. E, 10. F, 11.1, 12. L 3 1. form ative,

2. C,

3. G,

4. K,

5. A ,

6. D,

7. J,

2. divorced, 3. b ro u g h t up, 4. foster fam ily (a child w h o lives w ith a foster fam ily is a foster child), 5. a uthoritarian, 6. u p b rin g in g , 7. ru n n in g w ild , 8. adolescence, 9. juvenile, 10. responsible, 11. siblings, 12. w ell-adjusted, 13. lenient, 14. over-protective, 15. nuclear, 16. single-parent, 17. dependants, 18. extended

116


Answers Pages 69 - 70 Crime & the law 1 1. jud ge , 2. jury, 3. witness, 4. defendant, 5. victim, 6. solicitor (called an attorney in the US), 7. offender, 8. barrister, 9. law abiding, 10. break the law

2 Part 1 (in o rder): A , F, D, B, C, E Part 2 (in o rde r): A , E, F, C, B, D Part 3 (in o rder): A , D, F, C, E, B 3 1. com m itted, 2. arrested / charged, 3. court, 4. pleaded, 5. guilty, 6. sentenced, 7. misdeeds, 8. la w -a b id in g / innocent, 9. retribution, 10. rehabilitate, 11. reform , 12. released, 13, deterrent, 14. parole, 15. victim , 16. offender, 17. co m m un ity service, 18. fine, 19. + 20. corporal punishm ent / capital punishm ent (in either orde r), 21. + 22. judges / barristers/ juries / solicitors (any o f these in any order)

O ther words and phrases yo u m igh t find useful include: accuse, adm it, convict (n o u n + verb), conviction, deny, lawyer, pass a verdict, punish, punishm ent, revenge, send to prison, statem ent, w ro n g d o e r

Different types o f crime (and the people w ho com mit them): b igam y (a bigam ist), b urgla ry (a burgla r), espionage (a spy), fo rg ery (a fo rg er), hijack (a hijacker), hooliganism (a hooligan), m urder (a m urderer), piracy (a pirate), rape (a rapist), robbery (a robber), shoplifting (a shoplifter), terrorism (a terrorist), vandalism (a vandal)

Pages 7 1 - 7 2 Education

__

_

1. A (w e can also say retake), 13. B, 14. A

2. B,

3. B,

4. C,

5. C,

6. A ,

7. C,

8. B,

9. B,

10. C,

11. B,

12. A ,

2 1. kindergarten (w e can also say nursery or nursery school), 2. primary, 3. skills, 4. + 5. num eracy / literacy (in either order), 6. secondary, 7. discipline, 8. passed (Th e opposite of pass is fail), 9. course, 10. enrolled, 11. graduated (this can also be a noun : a graduate. A graduate is a student w h o has finished a course at university. A student w h o is still at university is called an undergraduate), 12. degree, 13. on-line, 14. qualifications, 15. day release, 16. evening class 3 1. skills, 2. + 3. literacy / num eracy (in either order), 4. kindergarten, 5. primary, 6. secondary, 7. discipline, 8. pass, 9. qualifications, 10. acquire, 11. health, 12. further, 13. enrol, 14. higher, 15. graduate, 16. degree, 17. higher, 18. evening class, 19. day release, 20. on-line, 21. m ature 22. graduate

O ther words and phrases which yo u m igh t find useful include: adu lt education, campus, co-educational, com prehensive school, faculty, infant school, ju n io r school, private education, resources, subject, take /sit an exam

Pages 73 - 74 Th e environment 1 1. F (the opposite of an anim al w hich has been raised on a battery farm is a free-range anim al, e.g., a free-range chicken. Eggs can also be described as free-range: I only eat free-range eggs), 2. L, 3. J (some of these animals are called protected species, w hich means it is usually illegal to kill th e m ), 4. E, 5. B, 6. C, 7. D, 8. K, 9. I, 10. G, 11. H, 12. A (w e can also say hunting, a lth ough there are some differences. Poaching means to hunt illegally) 2 1. green belt, 2. biodegradable packaging, 3. greenhouse, 4. rain forest (often w ritte n as one w o rd , rainforest), 5. erosion, 6. recycle, 7. organic, 8. genetically m odified (often abbreviated to GM ), 9. Deforestation, 10. Acid rain, 11. ecosystem, 12. emissions + fossil fuels, 13. contam inated (w e can also say polluted), 14. environm entalists, 15. global w a rm in g


Answers 3 1. fossil fuels, 2. acid rain, 3. greenhouse, 4. global w a rm in g , 5. rain forest, 6. contam inated, 7. emissions / gases, 8. Poaching, 9. end a ngere d species, 10. ecosystem, 11. recycle, 12. biodegradable, 13. genetically m odified, 14. organic, 15. po llutio n, 16. environm entalists, 17. conservation program m es, 18. battery farm in g, 19. green belts

O th er words and phrases which yo u m ig h t find useful include: bottle bank, carbon dioxide, CFC gases, climatic change, degra d atio n, destruction, energy-efficient, the greenhouse effect, legislation, over-fishing, ove rp o p u la tio n , the o zo n e layer, radioactive waste, recycling facilities, re-use, rising sea levels, toxic waste, waste disposal

Pages 75 - 77 Food & diet 1 1. vitam ins, 2. nutritious (the n o un is nutrition (general) o r nutrient (specific). A person w h o specialises in the study o f n utritio n and advises on diets is called a nutritionist), 3. vegetarian (this w o rd can also be an adjective: a vegetarian diet), 4. carbohydrates, 5. protein, 6. cholesterol, 7. fam ine, 8. obesity (th e adjective is obese), 9. m alnourished (the n o un is m alnutrition), 10. minerals, 11. fat, 12. fibre ( digest = change into substances y o u r b o d y can use), 13. o ve rw e ig h t, 14. fresh, 15. calories (the adjective is calorific: W hat is the calorific content o f a bar o f chocolate?), 16. processed (the chemicals and o th e r things in processed fo od are called

additives)

2 1. I (the n oun fo r allergic is allergy. Some people also have a foo d intolerance, w hich means they cannot digest certain foods properly: James has an intolerance to wheat), 2. C, 3. A , 4. J o r D, 5. D or J, 6. E, 7. B, 8. G, 9. H, 10. F (fast fo o d is also often called ju n k food) 3 1. fast fo o d, 2. processed, 3. vitam ins / minerals, 4. minerals / vitamins, 5. fat / carbohydrates, 6. ca rb o h yd ra te s/fa t, 7. obesity, 8. m alnourished, 9. shortages, 10. harvest, 11. cholesterol, 12. balanced diet, 13. fresh, 14. fibre

Pages 78 - 79 Geography 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

~ tree, copse, w o o d , forest ( beach does n ot belon g in this g ro u p ) fo o tp a th , track, lane, road {peak does n o t belong in this g ro u p ) hillock, hill, m o un ta in , m oun ta in range (shore does n o t belong in this g ro u p ) hollow , go rg e, valley, plain ( waterfall does n ot belo n g in this g ro u p ) inlet, cove, bay, g u lf ( ridge does n ot belong in this g ro u p ) brook, stream, river, estuary (cliff does n o t belong in this g ro u p ) city, county, country, co n tin e nt ( tributary does n ot belo n g in this g ro u p ) p o nd , lake, sea, ocean (cape does n ot belon g in this g ro u p )

2 G eographical features associated w ith w a te r and the sea: beach, cape, cliff, coast, coastline, glacier, m o u th (o f a river), peninsula, shore, source (o f a river), tributary, w aterfall G eographical features associated w ith land, hills and m ountains: cliff, glacier, highlands, m ountainous, peak, plateau, ridge, sum m it W o rds / phrases associated w ith agriculture and rural land: d e p o p u la tio n , fertile, irrigation, u n d er-de ve lop e d, ve ge tation W o rds / phrases associated w ith to w n s and cities: conurb atio n, densely p o pulated, industrialised, o ve rcro w d in g, urban sprawl 3 1. densely po pula ted , 2. industrialised, 3. urban spraw l, 4. city, 5. irrigation, 6. source, 7. peaks, 8. m o u n ta in range, 9. d ep o p u la tio n , 10. Valley, 11. waterfalls, 12. brooks / streams, 13. lane, 14. track, 15. Ocean, 16. cape / peninsula, 17. hills, 18. plain, 19. delta, 20. fertile, 21. shore / beach, 22. co un try


Answers Pages 80 - 81 Global problem s

1 1. B,

2. A ,

3. B,

4. C,

5. A ,

6. C,

7. A ,

8. B,

9. A ,

10. C,

11. B,

12. B,

13. A ,

14. B,

15. A

Note: A hurricane is the nam e w e give to a tropical storm w ith strong w inds and rain w hich originates in the Caribbean or Eastern Pacific. Similar storms w hich o riginate in the Far East are called typhoons, and those w hich o riginate in the Indian Ocean are called cyclones.

2 1. spread, 2. spread / sw ept (in this context, swept is always fo llo w e d by through), 3. erupted, 4. shook, 5. broke out, 6. casualties, 7. survivors/casualties, 8. Refugees/Survivors, 9. suffering, 10. relief 3 1. torrential, 2. flood, 3. epidem ic, 4. fam ine, 5. relief, 6. volcano, 7. erupted, 8. hurricane, 9. devastation, 10. typ h o o n , 11. casualties, 12. d ro u g h t, 13. civil war, 14. Refugees / Survivors, 15. sw ept / spread, 16. accident, 17. explosions, 18. plague Pages 82 - 83 Healthcare 1 1 . D, 8. L,

2. H (a com bination of 1 and 2 is called rheum atoid arthritis), 3. C, 4. A , 5. K, 6. B, 7. E, 9. F (w e can also say th a t their bodies lack resistance to illness), 1 0 . 1 (Th e National Health Service, often abbreviated to the NHS, is a system of free doctors, nurses, hospitals and clinics supported by th e g o ve rn m e n t in the UK. M a n y people prefer private healthcare because it is generally considered to be m ore efficient), 11. J, 12. G

2 1. therapeutic (the noun is therapy. A person w h o provides a therapeutic service is called a 2. a diet (in this context, diet refers to the fo o d w e eat. If w e go on a diet, w e eat less in o rde r to lose w e ig h t), 3. conventional m edicine, 4. traditional medicines, 5. holistic m edicine (an exam ple of this is aromatherapy), 6. consultant (w e can also say specialist), 7. surgeon (surgery is the tre a tm e n t of disease w hich requires an operation to cut into o r rem ove part of the body. D o not confuse this w ith a surgery, w hich is a room o r b uilding w h e re a norm al doctor* sees th e ir patients), 8. protein, 9. vitamins, 10. minerals, 11. active (the opposite o f this is sedentary, see Exercise 1), 12. w elfare state (o th e r features o f th e w elfare state in th e U K include providing citizens w ith adequate housing, education and m o ney if the y are unable to w o rk )

therapist),

* Called a fam ily doctor o r general practitioner ( GP) in th e UK. 3 I . w elfare state, 2. + 3. cutbacks + un d e rfu n d in g (in either order), 4. conventional medicine, 5. traditional m edicine, 6. arthritis, 7. consultant, 8. surgery, 9. therapeutic, 10. stress-related, I I . symptoms, 12. holistic medicine, 13. diet, 14. + 15. vitam ins + minerals (in either order), 16. active, 17. sedentary, 18. arthritis / cancer / cardiovascular disease

O ther words and phrases which yo u m ig h t find useful include: b lood pressure, consult, curable, cure, m ental health, physical health, prescription, prevention, remedy, research, the W o rld Health O rganisation (the W H O ) Pages 84 - 85 T h e m edia

1 1. broadsheets, 2. tabloids, 3. journalists, 4. coverage (fo r radio and television, w e often use the w o rd airtime), 5. current affairs, 6. broadcasts, 7. log on, 8. reporters, 9. d o w n lo a d , 10. the Internet, 11. inform ation overload, 12. website

2 1. freedom of the press, 2. m edia tycoon (w e can also say media m ogul o r press baron*), 3. censorship, 4. unscrupulous, 5. exploiting, 6. invasion of privacy, 7. paparazzi, 8. + 9. inform ation + ente rta in m e nt (in either order), 10. chequebook journalism , 11. integrity, 12. investigative journalism , 13. readership, 14. g u tte r press, 15. libel * This is inform al and slightly negative, as it suggests the person has to o m uch influence.


answers

Answers 3 1. broadsheets, 2. coverage, 3. current affairs, 4. reporters, 5. journalists, 6. tabloids, 7. broadcasts, 8. the Internet, 9. websites, 10. d o w n lo a d , 11. + 12. info rm a tion + e nte rta in m e nt (in either o rde r), 13. g u tte r press/tabloids, 14. invasion o f privacy, 15. paparazzi, 16. libel, 17. che q ue b o o k journalism , 18. unscrupulous, 19. integrity, 20. log on, 21. M edia tycoons / Journalists / Reporters, 22. censorship, 23. fre ed o m o f th e press

O ther words and expressions which yo u m igh t find useful include: Types o f television p ro g ra m m e : chat show, com m ercial**, docum entary, dram a, gam e show, m akeover show, q u iz show, reality show, sitcom, soap opera, tale n t show, variety show, w e a th e r forecast Parts o f a new spaper: advertisem ent**, colour supplem ent, editorial, e nte rta in m e nt, fashion, financial, headline, horoscope, lead story, local news, national news, readers' letters (also called letters to the editor), sport, w hat's on Others: d o w n m a rk e t, hig h b ro w , jou rna l, lo w b ro w , read b etw ee n the lines, slander, state-controlled, tu n e in, upbeat, upm arke t ** Television and radio stations sh o w commercials, newspapers and m agazines p rint advertisements. H ow ever, the w o rd advertisements (often shortened to adverts or, m ore inform ally, ads) is often used instead o f commercials.

Pages 86 - 88 M en & w o m en 1 1. negative, 2. negative, 3. negative, 4. negative (a glass ceiling is an unfair system th a t prevents some people, especially w o m e n , fro m reaching the most senior positions in a co m p an y or organisation), 5. positive, 6. positive, 7. positive (if yo u are g o o d at m ulti-tasking, yo u are goo d at d o in g m ore th a n one th in g at the same tim e ), 8. negative (this could also be positive, d e p e n d in g on yo u r p o in t o f vie w ), 9. negative, 10. negative, 11. negative ( unreconstructed in this context is a relatively n e w w o rd , often used to describe a person, usually a m an, w h o has old-fashioned ideas, especially a b o u t w o m e n and th e ir role), 12. negative (in form a l: in this context, a dinosaur is som eone w h o is very old-fashioned and no lo n ge r useful o r effective), 13. positive, 14. positive, 15. negative

2 1. household m a n a ge m e n t (w e can also say domestic chores or housework), 2. practical, 3. male counterparts, 4. Sex Discrim ination A ct (a British law w h ich states th a t m en and w o m e n should be treated equally, w ith equal pay, term s and conditions fo r d o in g the same jo b , etc.), 5. child rearing, 6. role division, 7. b re a d w in n e r (w e can also say financial provider), 8. social convention, 9. g e n d e r roles, 10. stereotypes, 11. battle o f the sexes (a rather old-fashioned phrase w hich is often used hum orously) 3 1. egalitarian, 2. equality, 3. breadw inner, 4. w ea ke r sex, 5. stereotypes, 6. g e n d e r roles, 7. m a le-do m in ate d, 8. ruthless, 9. astute / versatile, 10. m ulti-tasking, 11. Sex Discrim ination A ct, 12. m ale chauvinist, 13. unreconstructed, 14. glass ceiling, 15. role division, 16. child rearing, 17. household m a na ge m en t, 18. Social con ve ntio n, 19. sex objects, 20. p o w e r strug gle / battle o f the sexes, 21. m ale counterparts, 22. battle o f th e sexes / p o w e r struggle

Pages 89 - 90 M oney 8t finance 1

120

1. Profit is th e m o n ey yo u gain fro m selling som ething, w hich is m ore th a n the m on ey yo u paid for it. Loss is m o n ey yo u have spent and n o t g o t back. 2. Extravagant describes som eone w h o spends a lot o f m oney. Frugal describes som eone w h o is careful w ith m oney. Economical describes som ething th a t is n ot expensive to use o r run. 3. A current account is a bank account fro m w hich yo u can take m o n ey at a ny tim e . A deposit account is a bank account w hich pays you interest if yo u leave m on ey in it fo r some tim e (w e can also say savings account o r notice account). 4. A loan is m o n ey w h ich yo u b o rro w to buy som ething. A m ortgage is a special kind o f loan used to buy p ro p e rty (a house, a flat, etc.) over a period o f tim e. 5. To deposit m o n ey is to p u t m o n ey into a bank account. To w ith d ra w m on ey is to take m o n ey o ut o f a bank account ( deposit can be a n oun o r a verb. T h e n o un of w ith d ra w is withdrawal).


6. A w a g e and a salary are m oney yo u earn fo r d o in g a job , b ut a w a g e is usually paid daily o r weekly, and a salary is usually paid m onthly. W e also use salary to describe th e a m o u n t of m oney yo u earn over a year (He earns an annual salary o f £40,000). 7. If you are broke, you have no money. This is an inform al w o rd . If you are bankrupt, you are not able to pay back m oney yo u have b o rro w e d . This is a very serious financial situation fo r som eone to be in. 8. In th e UK, shares are one of th e m any equal parts into w hich a com pany's capital is divided. People w h o buy the m are called shareholders. Stocks are shares w hich are issued by the go vern m en t. D ividends are parts o f a com pany's profits shared o u t a m o ng the shareholders. 9. Incom e tax is a tax on m oney earned as w ages or a salary. Excise d u ty is a tax on certain goods produced in a country, such as cigarettes o r alcohol. 10. To credit someone's bank account is to p u t m oney into the account. To d eb it someone's bank account is to take m o ney o ut. In th e UK, m any people pay fo r telepho ne bills, etc., using a system called direct debit, w h e re m o ney is taken directly from th e ir bank account by the com pany providing the goods o r services. 11. Traditionally, a bank is a business organisation w hich keeps m oney fo r customers and pays it o ut on dem and, o r lends the m money. A buildin g society is m ore usually associated w ith saving m oney or lending people m oney to buy property. These days, there is very little difference betw een them . 12. A discount is the percentage by w hich a full price is reduced to a buyer by the seller. A refund is m o ney paid back w h e n , fo r exam ple, return in g som ething to a shop (it can also be a verb: to

answers

Answers

refund). 13. A bargain is som ething w hich is b o u g h t m ore cheaply th a n usual. Som ething w hich is overpriced is to o expensive. Som ething w hich is e xo rbitan t costs m uch m ore tha n its true value (£12 fo ra

cheese sandwich? That's exorbitant!). 14. A w o rth less object is som ething w hich has no value. A priceless object is an extrem ely valuable object. 15. If yo u save money, you p u t it to one side so tha t yo u can use it later. If yo u invest money, you put it into property, shares, etc., so th a t it w ill increase in value. 16. Inflation is a state o f econom y w h e re prices and w ages increase. Deflation is a reduction in econom ic activity. 17. Incom e is th e m oney yo u receive fo r d o in g som ething. Expenditure is th e m oney you spend. 18. If yo u lend m oney, yo u let som eone use yo u r m oney fo r a certain period of tim e. If you b o rro w m oney fro m som eone, yo u take m oney fo r a tim e, usually paying interest (Can yo u lend me £20

until the end o f the m onth?).

2 3. L, 4. E, 5. J, 6. K (Revenue and Customs - full nam e: Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs, abbreviated to HM RC - is the British go ve rn m e n t d e p a rtm e n t th a t deals w ith taxes), 7. C, 8. H, 9. G, 10. A , 11. B, 12. D 1. F,

2 . 1,

3 1. bo rro w , 2. loan, 3. incom e, 4. expenditure, 5. overdraft, 6. cost of living, 7. Inflation, 8. economise, 9. buildin g society, 10. interest, 11. on credit, 12. exorbitant, 13. save, 14. reductions, 15. bargain, 16. discount, 17. invest, 18. stocks, 19. shares

O ther words and phrases which yo u m ig h t find useful include: cash, cheque, corporation tax, credit card, currency, debit card, debt, disability allowance, equity, inheritance tax, investm ent, negative equity, o ve rd raw n , rate o f exchange (o r exchange rate), receipt, social security, statem ent, u p w a rd ly / d o w n w a rd ly m obile, w e a lth y Pages 91 - 92 O n the road 1 1. A ,

2. B,

3. B,

4. A ,

2. H,

3. F, 4. A ,

5. A ,

6. B,

7. A ,

8. A ,

9. A ,

10. A ,

11. A ,

12. A

2. 1 . D,

5. J,

6. G,

7. C,

8. I,

9. E,

10. B

Notes: M ost large to w n s and cities in th e U K have 'Park and Ride' schemes. These are large car parks outside city centres w h e re drivers can park th e ir cars, often fo r free. T h e y can then take a bus into the city centre.

__________

121


answers

Answers Distances and speed limits in the U K are in miles (1 mile = a b o u t 1.6 kilom etres) and miles pe r hour ( m ph ). T h e m axim um speed lim it is 60m ph on single-lane roads outside tow ns, or 7 0m ph on dual carriagew ays and m o to rw ays (a lth o u g h this m ay increase to 80m ph on m o to rw a ys in th e near fu tu re ). In most b u ilt-u p areas, th e m axim um speed lim it is usually 20 o r 30m ph. Drivers w h o are caught speeding can face penalties ran gin g fro m a fine to im prisonm ent, d e p e n d in g on h o w fast th e y w e re d riving and w h e re . T h e y also receive 'p e n a lty points' on th e ir d riving licence, and can have th e ir licence suspended. D rin k -d rivin g is considered a serious offence. O ffenders autom atically have th e ir d riving licence suspended fo r at least a year, w ill norm ally receive a fine and in extrem e cases (especially w h e re the y cause an accident), m ay go to prison. 3 1. + 2. injuries + fatalities (in either orde r), 3. speeding, 4. d rin k -d rivin g, 5. pedestrians, 6. pedestrian crossings, 7. H ig h w a y Code, 8. + 9. congestion + po llution (in either orde r), 10. black spot, 11. tran sp o rt strategy, 12. Traffic calm ing, 13. Park and Ride, 14. traffic-free zone, 15. cycle lanes, 16. subsidised, 17. fines, 18. do m in ate

O ther words and phrases which yo u m ig h t find useful include: Objects in th e street: bollard, contraflow , crossroads, jun ction , kerb, pelican crossing, pavem ent, speed cam era, traffic cones, traffic island, traffic lights, zebra crossing Others: accelerate, brake, carriageway, central reservation, cut in, hard shoulder, highw ay, m o to rw a y, overtake, skid, slip road, swerve, tailgate Pages 93 - 95 Science & te c h n o lo g y 1 1. research, 2. d eve lo p m e n t, 3. innovations, 4. react, 5. invented, 6. discovered, 7. analysed, 8. com bined, 9. a techn o ph ob e , 10. a techn o ph ile (in fo rm a lly called a techie), 11. safeguards, 12. experim ented, 13. genetic eng in e erin g , 14. m olecular biology, 15. cybernetics, 16. nuclear e ngin e erin g, 17. b re ak thro ugh , 18. Life expectancy, 19. proliferated, 20. advances

2 1. PC (= personal com puter), 2. com ponents, 3. base un it (w e can also say hard drive o r disc* drive), 4. ha rdw a re , 5. load (w e can also say install), 6. software, 7. m onitor, 8. printer, 9. scanner, 10. keyboard, 11. mouse, 12. wireless, 13. lo g o n , 14. files, 15. d o w n lo a d , 16. Internet, 17. websites, 18. ga m in g , 19. stream, 20. em ail (this w o rd can also be a noun : send an email. It can also be w ritte n w ith a hyphen: e-mail**), 21. chat rooms, 22. crashed, 23. virus, 24. laptop (w e can also say notebook. Sm aller laptops are called netbooks. Small com puters w hich yo u control using yo u r fingers or a tool like a pen are called tablet PCs) * Also often spelt disk ** T h e letter e in email means electronic, and is used as a prefix fo r m any things connected w ith com puters, the Internet and m odern techn o lo gy: e-book, e-commerce, e-learning, e-reader, e-shopping, e-ticket, etc. 3 1. invented, 2. life expectancy, 3. innovations, 4. b re ak thro ugh , 5. invented, 6. Internet, 7. em ail, 8. research, 9. technophiles, 10. technophobes, 11. cybernetics, 12. nuclear engineering, 13. safeguards, 14. genetic e ngin e erin g, 15. analysed, 16. experim ent Pages 96 - 97 Sport

1 1. spectator, 2. sponsorship (the people or organisations w h o provide the m oney are called sponsors. Th e verb is to sponsor), 3. sportsman (a w o m a n w h o plays sport is a sportswoman), 4. take part in, 5. take up, 6. opposition, 7. stadium*, 8. defeat (often used in the passive voice to describe the losing team or player: Once again, Chelsea have been beaten in the final. W e can also say beat), 9. supporter (Th e verb is to support. W e can also say fan, w hich can be used fo r other things as well, including music groups, film stars, etc., 10. arena**, 11. professional (this can be an adjective or a noun) * Im p o rta n t football matches, baseball matches, etc., are often played on a pitch in a stadium.

122

** Im p o rta n t basketball matches, volleyball matches, etc., are often played on a court in an arena.


Answers T h e w o rd in the shaded vertical colum n is competitors (= the sportsmen and sportsw om en w h o take part in a sports com petition).

2 1. ©, 2 . ©, 3 . © , 4 . © , 5 . ©, 1 5 . ©, 1 6 . ©, 1 7 . ©, 1 8 . ©

6.©,

7.©,

8.©,

9.©,

1 0 . ©,

1 1 . ©,

1 2 . ©,

1 3 . ©,

1 4 . ©,

3 1. spectators / supporters / fans, 2. cheering, 3. professional, 4. taking part in, 5. qualifies, 6. reaches the final, 7. defeats / beats, 8. relegated, 9. stadium , 10. hooligans, 11. shouting a b u se /je e rin g , 12. grossly overpaid, 13. perform ance-enhancing drugs, 14. sent off, 15. com m ittin g professional fouls, 16. match fixing Pages 98 - 99 T o w n & co u n try

1 1. N,

2. M ,

3. G,

4. A ,

5. I,

6. B,

district is often abbreviated to CBD),

7. C, 8. F, 14. J

9. H,

10. E,

11. K,

12. D,

13. L (central business

2 1. H,

2. B,

3. G,

4. F,

5. A ,

6. C,

7. E,

8. D

3 I . m etropolis, 2. cosm opolitan, 3. urban, 4. amenities, 5. cultural events, 6. infrastructure, 7. com m uters, 8. central business district (C B D ), 9. rush hou r / peak periods, 10. congestion, I I . pollution, 12. cost of living, 13. building sites, 14. po pulation explosion, 15. d ru g abuse, 16. inner-city, 17. rural, 18. prospects, 19. productive land / cultivation / arable land, 20. urban sprawl, 21. e nviro nm e n t

O ther words which yo u m ig h t find useful include: developm ent, em ploym ent, facilities, outskirts, p ro perty prices, residents, residential, suburbs, un e m plo ym e n t Pages 100 - 1 0 1 Travel

1 1. False (a travel agency, sometimes called a travel agent's, is a place w h e re you g o to buy a holiday or ticket, and a tour operator is the com pany w hich sells the holiday to you via the travel agency) 2. True 3. True 4. False (they get on) 5. False (they g e t off) 6. True 7. True 8. True 9. True 10. False (ecotourism is supposed to be tourism tha t benefits or has a neutral effect on the e nviro nm ent, a lth ough this is not always the case) 11. False (they all have a slightly different m eaning: use yo u r dictionary to find o ut w h a t these are) 12. False (it depends on the country you are from and w h e re you are go in g. Citizens of the European U n io n , fo r exam ple, do not need a visa if th e y are flying to a no the r EU country) 13. False (it is a short-haul flig ht) 14. False (it is cheaper. W e can say tourist class or coach class instead of econom y class) 15. False (you only need to fill in an imm igration card w h e n you go to a nother country, but see n um b er 12 above) 16. False (cultural tourism is a holiday taken in order to visit places th a t are culturally interesting, or to attend a cultural event. Sustainable tourism is tourism th a t causes m inim al dam age to the enviro nm e n t, similar to ecotourism ) 17. True (W e can also say high season. Th e opposite - the tim e of year w h e n not m any people take a holiday - is called the lo w season or offseason) 18. False (a cruise is jo u rn e y on a ship fo r pleasure, especially one th a t involves visiting a series of places. A holiday w h e re you w atch w ild animals is called a safari)


Answers 19. False (an armchair traveller is som eone w h o finds o u t w h a t a place is like by w a tch in g travel program m es on television, reading travel books or looking at travel websites on the Internet) 20. Tru e (w e can use the adjective touristy to describe places like this)

2 I. refugees, 2. internally displaced, 3. e m ig ra tio n , 4. im m igra tio n , 5. culture shock, 6. expatriates (o fte n inform ally shortened to expats), 7. U N H CR (the United Nations High Commission for Refugees), 8. d ep orte d , 9. persona non grata (a Latin phrase w h ich describes a fo re ign person w h o is n o t allow ed to visit o r stay in a no the r co un try), 10. econom ic migrants, I I . repatriated / d ep o rte d , 12. b o rd e r controls 3 1. travel agency, 2. package tour, 3. ind e p e n d e n t travellers, 4. visas, 5. check in (th e place w h e re yo u check in fo r a flig h t at an a irport is called the check-in desk / counter), 6. eco no m y class, 7. disem bark, 8. mass tourism , 9. all-inclusive, 10. ecotourism , 11. refugees, 12. internally displaced, 13. econom ic m igrants, 14. expatriates, 15. culture shock, 16. im m igra tion , 17. persona non grata, 18. d ep o rte d , 19. checking in, 20. excursion Pages 102 - 104 W o rk

_

1. © , 2. © , 3. © , 4. © (w e also say pa y rise), 5. © , 6. © , 7. © , 8. © , 9. © (o fte n abbreviated to RSI), 1 0 . ©, 1 1 . ©, 1 2 . ©, 1 3 . © , 1 4 . ©, 1 5 . ©, 1 6 . ©, 1 7 . ©, 1 8 . ©, 1 9 . ©, 2 0 . © , 2 1 . © , 22. © (w e also say incapacity benefit), 23. © (a lth o u g h some people enjoy having a d em a n din g jo b ), 2 4 .© , 2 5 © 26©

2 A . Tracy (E), B. Jane (A ), C. Claire (B), D. M arie (F), E. Sam antha (C), F. Jeanette (D ) 3 1. em ployees, 2. unskilled, 3. semi-skilled, 4. blue collar, 5. m a nu fa cturin g industries, 6. w h ite collar, 7. service industries, 8. jo b security, 9. steady job , 10. hiring, 11. firing, 12. stress, 13. d e m a n d in g , 14. unsociable hours, 15. repetitive strain injury (RSI), 16. salary, 17. p rom otion , 18. perks, 19. incentive, 20. increm ent, 21. sickness benefit, 22. pension, 23. self-em ployed

O th er words and phrases which yo u m ig h t find useful include: candidate, dismiss, dismissal, em ployer, fixed incom e, interview , interview ee, interviewer, leave (= a form al w o rd fo r a holiday fro m w o rk : She's on leave a t the m om ent), m anual w orker, overtim e, profession, recruit, recruitm ent


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