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",

313mnett'~

FIRST

JLatin

.serif!)

LATIN

YEAR

PREPARATORY

TO CAESAR

BY

CHARLES

Eo BENNETT

GOLDWIN SMITH PROFESSOR

OF LA TI~

IN CORNELl" UNIVERSITY

ALLYr

AND

BACON

313o~ton aub Qtbicago

COPYRIGHT, 1909, BY CHARLES E. BENNETT.

TDO

NorbloalJ :tIlre~~

J. S. Cushing Co. - Berwick Norwood,

&

Mass., U.S.A,

Smith Co.

PREFACE. MOST teachers will measure the value of a beginning book by the thoroughness with which it prepares for the work to be

done in the second year. The work of second-year Latin in this country centres, as a rule, around the study of Caesar's Commentaries and the Latin Grammar. The present volume is intended to meet both these ends in the most successful way. In order to prepare the pupil for the intelligent and effective study of Caesar, the vocabulary has been chosen from a limited number (about 750) of the commonest words employed by Caesar in the Gallic War. The syntax, too, has been restricted, except in the rarest instances, to that employed by Caesar. At the earliest possible point consistent with honest work, simple passages of continuous prose have been introduced, giving in outline the chief features of Caesar's campaigns against the Helvetii and Ariovistus. At the close of the Lessons, Book II of the Gallic War is given with annotation. To prepare for the systematic study of the Latin Grammar, - the second main line of endeavor in the Latin work of the second year, - the grouping of the material throughout the book has been made to follow as nearly as possible the arrangement of all our Latin grammars.

By this means the grammar work

of. the second year is made to involve no re-adjustment, iii

but

iv

PREFACE.

becomes simply the consistent working out of the plan inaugurated with the beginning book. As regards the English-Latin

Exercises which accompany

the Lessons on the declensions and conjugations, the author believes that too much should not be expected from merely written work on forms. In teaching inflections nothing can take the place of incessant oral drill. It cannot be too strongly emphasized that without thorough knowledge of the forms the study of Latin or any other inflected language will always drag, and will be distasteful and profitless to the student, as well as discouraging to the teacher.

.

It is probably no exaggeration to assert that the chief defect in the teaching of Latin to-day is the failure to master the declensions and conjugations at the very outset of the study. Honest and thorough work here is the key to the solution of the difficulties that come later. An adequate knowledge of the forms does not come of itself;

o

it does not come even

by reading. It can come only by persistent, sustained attention to the forms themselves at the earliest stages of the study. Not until the student is equipped with this fundamental knowledge is he prepared to go on and pursue with profit and reasonable facility the study of syntax and the intelligent reading of a Latin author. C. E. B. ITHACA,

March 1, 1909.

TABLE

OF CONTRNTS. PART

SOUNDS, LESSON

I.

I.

QUANTITY,

ACCENT.

â&#x20AC;˘

P Aoa

Alphabet. -Sounds. -Pronunciation.

PART

-Quantity.

-Accent

II.

INFLECTIONS. II. III. IV. V.

VI.

The Parts of Speech. - Inflection. - Nouns. - Gender. _ Number Cases. - The Five Declensions First Declension First Declension (continued). - Paradigm of the Present Indicative of a Verb of the First Conjugation. -Subject. -Object. -Agreement of Verb. -Genitive . Second Declension

Second Declension (continued). -Inflection of the Present Indicative of stlm. - Predicate Nouns. -Appositives VITI. Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions.- Agreement of Adjectives. - Predicate and Attributive Adjectives . IX. Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions (continued) X. Nouns of the Third Declension. - Use of the Accusative and Ablative with Prepositions XI. Third Declension (continued) XII. Third Declension (continued). - i-Stems and Mixed Stems. XIII. Third Declension (continued). -Gender v

{) 6 8

10 12

VII.

14

16 18 20 23 26 29

vi

CONTENTS. LESSON

XIV. XV.

Fourth and Fifth Declensions Adjectives (continued). - Nine Irregular Adjectives. Adjectives of the Third Declension XVI. Adjectives of the Third Declension (continued) XVII. Comparison of Adjectives of XVIII. Comparison of Adjectives (continued). -Ablative Manner XIX. Formation and Comparison of Adverbs of Means XX. Numerals.-Ablative XXI. Personal, Reflexive, and Possessive Pronouns. - Dative of Indirect Object XXII.路 Demonstrative Pronouns XXIII. Demonstrative Pronouns (continued). - The Intensive Pronoun XXIV. Relative, Interrogative, and Indefinite Pronouns.Agreement of Relative Pronouns XXV. Conjugation. - The Four Conjugations. - Principal Parts and Verb-Stems. - Conjugation of the Indicative of sum XXVI. Subjnnctive, Imperative, Infinitive, and Participle of sum XXVII. Indicative Active of amo. - Verb Stems. - Reading Lesson: Gaul and its Divisions. - Biographical Note on Julius Caesar XXVIII. Active of amo (continued). - Verb Stems XXIX. Indicative Passive of amo. - Verb Stems. - Reading Lesson: Nat'1'oUJBoundaries of the Helvetii XXX. Passive of amo (continued). - Verb Stems. - Review XXXI. Active Voice of moues. - Verb Stems. -Reading Lesson: The Helvetii Decide to Emigrate XXXII. Passive Voice of moneo XXXIII. Active Voice of rego. - Reading Lesson: The Helvetii Decide to Go by Way of the Roman Province XXXIV. Passive Voice of rego XXXV. Active Voice of audio. - Reading Lesson: Caesar Hurries to the Scene of Action . XXXVI. Passive Voice of audio.

PAGB

30 32 35 38 40 42 44

47 50 52

55

58 62

64 70

73 76

79 83 86 90 93 97

OON TEN TS. L'ES80N

vii P.A.9B

XXXVIL

Verbs in -io of the Third Conjugation. -Reading Lesson: Caesar Prepares to Prevent the Passage of the Helvetii XXXVIII. Deponent Verbs XXXIX. Periphrastic Conjugation. - Review. - Reading Les. son: The Helmetii Attempt to Pass through the Territory of the Sequani . XL. Irregular Verbs: possum XI"I. Irregular Verbs (continued): duo - Reading Lesson: Caesar Cuts to Pieces One Division of the Helvetii. XLII. Irregular Verbs (continued): fero XLIII. Irregular Verbs (continued): volo, nolo, malo. - Reading Lesson: The Helvetii Senc! Envoys to Caesar XLIV. Irregular Verbs (continued) : flo XLV. Irregular Verbs (continued) : eo. - DefectiveVerbs.Reading Lesson: Continuation of the Negotiations. XLVI. Impersonal Verbs. -Questions. - Review

101 106

110 113 116 117 121 124 126 130

PART III. SYNTAX.

XLVII. XLVIII. XLIX. L. LI. LII. LIII. LIV. LV. LVI. LVII. LVIII.

The Accusative. - Reading Lesson: Caesar Prepares for Battle . 133 The Accusative (continued) . 136 The Dative.'- Reading Lesson: Arl'angement of the Roman Troops for Battle . 139 The Dative (continued) 142 The Genitive. -Reading Lesson : The Battle Begins. 144 The Genitive (continued). -Review 147 The Ablative. - Reading Lesson: Defeat of the Heluetii 149 The Ablative (continued) 162 The Ablative (continued). -Reading Lesson: Retreat of the Helvetii 164 The Ablative (continued) : Ablative Absolute 167 The Ablative (continued). - Reading Lesson: The . Heloetii Surrender to Caesar 169 Syntax of Adjectives 162

viii

CONTENTS.

l.ESSON

LIX.

LX. LXI.

LXII. LXIII.

LXIV.

LXV.

LXVI. LXVII.

LXVIII. LXIX.

LXX.

LXXI. LXXII.

PA..OP:

Syntax of Pronouns. - Review. - Reading Lesson: Original Number of the Helvetii and thei« Allies. The Survivors The Subjunctive in Independent Sentences: Hortatory and Jussive Subjunctive Optative Subjunctive. - Potential Subjunctive. - The Imperative. - Reading Lesson: The Gauls Complain of Ariovistus's Tyranny and Beg for Caesar's Help . Moods in Dependent Clauses. - Clauses of Purpose.Sequence of Tenses Clauses of Characteristic. - Result Clauses. - Causal Clauses. - Reading Lesson: Caesar Decides that Ario»istu« and the Germans are a Menace to Roman Interests in Gaul . Temporal Clauses: Clauses introduced by postquam, ut, ubi, simul ac. - Cum-Clauses Temporal Clauses introduced by dum and donee. Reading Lesson: Ariovistus Rejects the Proposal for a Conference. - Caesar's Demands Substantive Clauses developed from the Volitive Substantive Clauses developed from the Optative.Substantive Clauses of Result. -Indirect Questions.Review. - Reading Lesson: Ariovistus's Reply to Caesar. Conditional Sentences. - Clauses with quam quam and cum, 'although' . Indirect Discourse. - Reading Lesson: The (fel'mans and Romans Meet in Battle. The Infinitive . Participles. - Reading Lesson: Defeat of the Gm'mans and Flight of Ariovistus The Gerund and Gerundive. - The Gerundive Construction. -The Supine. -Review

167

169 172

175 178

180 182

184 187 190

193 195 198 201

RULES OF SYNTAX CAESAR'S GALLIC WAR, BOOK

164

II

209

GENERAl, LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY

247

ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY •

273

ILLUSTRATIONS. P.A.OE

Gaius Julius Caesar (British Museum) . Roman War Tower. Roman Catapult Roman Catapult . Battering-ram. . Trumpet (bucina) . Trumpet (tuba) . . . . Imperator, Legatus, Ceuturio, Lictor. . . Sword (gladitls) . . . . . . . Roman Forum, or Public Sqnare, in Caesar's Time Legionary Soldiers . . . . . . . Wall and Ditch (murus/ossaque) . . . . . . . . Cavalry (equites). . . . . . . . . . . Standard Bearers (signijeri) and Trumpeters (tubicine , cornicines) Helmets (galeae), Shields (scuta), and Standards (signa). . . Temple of Caesar at Rome Roman Citizen in the Toga. . . Bridge built br Caesar across the Rhine Slinger (jundttor). . . . . Testndo. . . . . . . . . A German Body-guard. . . . . . Bow, Arrow, and Javelin (arcus, sagitta, pilum) Caesar (Capitoline Museum) Map of Gaul . . . preceding Attack on a Besieged City

ABBREVIATIONS. abl. ace. adj. adv,

= = = = = = = = = = =

ablative. accusative. adjective. adverb, adverbial. c. common (gender). comp, comparative. conj. conjunction. dat, dative. decl. declension. dep. deponent. e.g, exempli. gratia =/01' ezample. etc. = et cetera = and so torth: f. =/eminine. gen. = genitive. i.e, = id est = that is. impel's. = impersonal, impersonally. indecl. = indeclinable. indic. = indicative. inf. = infinitiue.

interrog. intr.

lit. m., masc. n., neut. nom. p., pp. pass. pl., plu. prep. pres. pron. reI. se, ing. sup., super. tr., trans. w. 1, faith verbs

ix

= interrogative. = intransitive. = literall1/.' = masculine. = neuter. = nominative. = page, pages. = pa.,sive. = plural. = preposition. = present. = 1JrOnoun. = relative. = supply. = sirurular, = superlative. = transitive. = with. = 1St conjugation.

X

4 9 11

13 25 28

46 54 67 72

78 ]00 109

]20

138 141 ]51 ]56

]68 ]71 174

206 209

241

GAIUS JULIUS

CAESAR.

(British Museum.)

PART 1. SOUNDS,

QUANTITY,

ACCENT.

LESSON 1. 1.

.ALPHABET.

The Latin Alphabet is the same as the English except that the Latin has no w. 2.

SOUNDS CLASSIFIED.

The Vowels are a, e, i, 0, u. The other letters are Consonants. The Diphthongs are ae, oe, au, eu, ut. 3.

PRONUNCIATION.l

a) Vowels. Ii 2 as in father; fi as in they; i as in machine; o as in note ; ii as in rude;

~ as as 1: as ~ as i'i as

e

iu the first syllable of aha; in met; iu pin; in obey, melody; in put.

b) Diphthongs. ae like ai in aisle; oe like oi in oil; au like ow in how;

eu with its two elements, e and u, pronounced in rapid succession; ui occurs mainly in cui and huic. These may be pronounced as though spelled kuiee and wheek.

1The system of pronunciation here given is that employed by the ancient Romans themselves. It is often called the 'Roman method.' 2 Vowels which are long in quantity have a horizontal line above them, as I, i, 0, etc. Short vowels either have the curved mark (li., 6), or are left unmarked.

1

2

SOUNDS. c) Consonants. b, d, f, h, k, 1, m, n, p, qu, r, x, z, are pronounced as in English except that bs, bt are pronounced ps, pt. c is always pronounced as k, t is always pronounced as plain t, never with the sound of sh, as in Eng. oration. g always as in get; when ngu precedes a vowel, gu has the sound of gw, as in anguis, 1anguidus. j 1 has the sound of y as in yet. s always as in sin, gas; in suadeo, suavis, sullsco, and in compounds and derivatives of these words, su has the sound of sio. v like w. ph, ch, th, are to be pronounced practically like our simple p, k, t,

Doubled letters like 11,mm, tt, etc., should be pronounced with an endeavor to articulate both members of the combination distinctly.

4.

QUANTITY. A.

Quantity

of Vowels.

A vowel is long or short according to the length of time consumed in its pronunciation. As will be seen by comparing the sounds given in ยง 3, the long sounds take considerably more time to pronounce than the short ones. For example, the r of machine takes more time than the I of pin. No absolute rule can be given for determining the quantity of Latin vowels. The pupil can become familiar with them only by observing the quantity as marked in the paradigms, the vocabularies, and the exercises. Yet the following principles are of aid: - , 1. A vowel is long, (I.) before nf, ns, as infans, consllnsus. b) when the result of contraction; as nnum for nihilum. 1 Some

books print i instead of j.

ACCENT.

3

2. A vowel is short, a) before nt, nd; as amant, amandus. A few exceptions occnr in cases of compounds whose first member has a long vowel; as nondum (for non dum). b) before another vowel or h 1; as meus, trahO. N.B. - Long vowels should always be pronounced long (that is the only thing that' long' means); short vowels should be pronounced short.

B.

Quantity

of Syllables.

A syllable is long or short according to the lengtlL of time it takes to pronounce such syllable. 1. A syllable is long (that is, it takes a long time to pronounce it),a) if it contains a long vowel; as mater, rl!gnum.2 as causae, foedus.2 c) if it contains a short vowel followed by x, z, or any two consonants (except a mute followed by I or r)3; as axis, restat, gaza, amantts.! b) if it contains a diphthong;

2. A syllable is regularly short if it contains a short vowel followed by a vowel, by a single consonant, or by a mute with I or r; as mea, amat, patris, volucris.5

5.

ACCENT.

1. There are as many syllables in a Latin word as there are separate vowels and diphthongs. 2. Words of two syllables are accented upon the first; as tegit, m6rem. 3. Words of more than two syllables are accented upon the penult (next to the last) if that is a long syllable, otherwise upon the antepenult (second from the last); as amAvI, minfster, mfserum. 1 h was pronounced so lightly as to or in combination. 2 Such syllables are sometimes said 8 The mutes are p, e, t; b, d, g. 4 Such syllables are sometimes said S Such syllables are sometimes said

be entirely disregarded, to be long hy nature, to be long by position. to be short by position.

whetlter singly

4

ACCENT.

6.

EXERCISE.

Pronounce the following words, observing carefully the proper sound of each letter, and placing the accent upon the proper syllable. Remember to pronounce all long vowels long, all short vowels short,! 1. Majorum, amicus, Eratosthenes. 2. Queo, nascor, posco. 3. Juvenis, porrectura, abiimus. 4. Amicitia, obtineo, antiquus, 5. Neuter, Oherusct, exemplum, 6. Aggero, exiguitas, sanguis. 7. Ubit, mitto, nationes. 8. Foedus, dignitas, consensus. 9. Pervenit, efferre, instituerat. 10. Arguo, cui, phalanx. 11. Percuss us, rext, pereo. 12. Jam, suavitas, coneuescc. 13. Concede, confirmari, refero, 14. Inser6, pergredt, persuader .. 1In the division of syllables, the first consonant in a group of two or more is regularly joined with the preceding vowel; as, as-cell-dil, spec-tll.-tus, mi-nil-tro..rum. But a single consonant or a mute with I or r (pl, bl; pr, tr, etc.) is regularly joined to the following vowel; as, vo-lu-cria, ml-se-rat.

RoMAN

WAR

TOWER.

PART II. INFLECTIONS.

LESSON 7.

THE PARTS

II.

OF SPEECH.

The Parts of Speech in Latin are the same as in English; viz., Nonns, Adjectives, Pronouns, Verbs, Ad verbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections; but the Latin has no article. 8.

INFLECTION.

Of these eight parts of speech, the first four are capable of Inflection, that is, of undergoing change of form to express modifications of meaning. In the case of Nouns, Adjectives, and Pronouns, this process is called Declension; in the case of Verbs) Conjugation. 9.

NOUNS.

1. A Noun 'is the name of a person, place, thing, or quality; as Caesar, Oaesar; Roma, Rome; penna, feather; virtus, courage. 2. Nouns have Gender, Number, and Case. 10.

GENDER.

1. There are in Latin, as in English, three Genders: the Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter. 5

(

6

GENDER,

NUllfBER,

AND

CASES.

2. Gender in Latin may be either natural (that is, based on sex, as gender always is in English) or grammatical (not based on sex). 3. Natural Gender. Nouns denoting persons have natural gender, and are Masculine, if they denote males, as nauta, sailor; Feminine, if -they denote females, as mater, mother. 4. Grammatical Gender. When nouns have grammatical gender, the gender is determined:A. By signification.

Thus:-

a) Names of Rioers, -Winds, and Months are Masculine; as, Sequana, Seine; Eurus, East Wind; Aprilis, April. b) Names of Trees, Towns, and Islands are Feminine; as, quercus, oak; Corinthus, Corinth; Rhodus, Rhodes. c) Indeclinable nouns are Nenter; as, nefas, wrong.

B.

By ending.

The principles for gender by ending are given later, under the five declensions, .

11.

NUMBER.

Latin has two Numbers, the Singular and the Plural. The Singular denotes one object; the Plural more than one. LESSON III. CASES.

12.

1. There are six Cases in Latin:Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, Vocative, Ablative,

Case of Subject; Objective with oj, or Possessive; Objective with to 01' for ; Case of Direct Object; Case of Address; Objective with by, from, in, with:

THE FiVE

DECLENSiONS.

7

2. LOCATIVE. Vestiges of another case, the Locative (denoting place where), Occur in names of towns and in a few ther words. 3. OBLIQUECASES. The Genitive, Dative, Accusative, and Ablative are called Oblique Cases. 4. FORMATIONOF THE CASES. The different cases were originally formed by joining certain case-endings to a fundamental part called the stem. Thus portam (Accusative Singular) was formed by joining the case-ending m to the stem porta-, But in most cases the final vowel of the stem has united so closely with the original case-ending, that the latter has become more or less obscured. The apparent case-ending thus resulting is called a termination. 13.

THE FIVE DECLENSIONS.

There are five Declensions in Latin, distinguished from each other by the final letter of the Stem, and also by the Termination of the Genitive Singular, as follows: _ FINAL

VI':TTER

01l~ STEM.

ORK.

First Second Third Fourth Fifth

TERMINATION.

-ae -I {~ome consonant} 11

e

路Is -ils

-el

Cases alike in Form. 1. nouns 2. 3. alike, 4. Plural

The Vocative is like the Nomiaative, except in the Singular of and adjectives in -us of the Second Declension. The Dative and Ablative Plural are always alike. In Neuters the Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative are always and in the Plural end in -l. In the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Declensions, the Accusative is regularly like the Nominative.

LESSON IV. FIRST

DECLENSION.

14. Nouns of the First Declension end in -I. Feminine, and are declined as follows: -

They are

Porta, gate. SINGULAR. OASEB.

MEANINGB.

Nom. porta Gen. portae Dat. portae Ace. port am Voc. porta Au. porta

PLURAL. TERMINA-

MEANINGB.

TIONS.

a gate (subject) -a ofa gate -ae to or for a gate -ae a gate (object) -am o gate! -a with, by, from, -a in, a gate

portae portarum portis portae portae portis

gates (subject) of gates to or for gates gates (object) o gates! with, bY,fro'lll,. in, gates

TERMINATION8.

-ae -arum -is -Is -ae -is

1. The Latin has no article, and porta may mean either a gate or the gate; and in the Plural, gates or the gates.

15.

Peculiarities

of Nouns of the Pirst Declension.

1. EXCEPTIONSIN GENDER. Nouns denoting males are Masculine; as, nauta, sailor; agricola, fanner. 2. SPECIAL CASE-ENDINGS,a) The Locative Singular ends in -ae; as, Romae, at Rome. b) Dea, goddess, and filia, daughter, commonly form the Dative and Ablative Plural with the termination -Ibus; as, deiibus, fililibus. This is in order to distinguish these words from the corresponding cases of deus, god, and filius, son.

16.

VOCABULARY.

agricola, ae, m.,farmer. copia, ae, f., plenty; in plural, copJ,a.e, arum, troops; forces. filia, ae, f., daughter. Galba, ae, m., Golba (a man's name).

incola, ae, m .., inhabitant. Insula, ae, f., island. Italia, ae, f., Italy. nauta, ae, m., sailor.

8

FIRST

DECLEN SLON

9

EXERCISES.

17. 1. Agricolae, agricolam, agricolarum, 2. Insulae, msults, 3. Italiae, Galbae. 4. Filia, ftliarum, ftliabus, 5. Incolae, incolts. 6. Copiarum, copits, capias. 7. Italiam, msularum, filias. 8. Agricolts, ÂŁIliam, ftliae. 9. Incolarum, eopiam, 10. Agrieolas, nautarum, nautas, 11. Incolam, nautarum, nautls. 18. 1. To the farmers; of the sailor; 2. To the island; of the troops; by the farmer; farmers (as subject); sailors 4. To the daughters; of the daughters. ter of Galba, 6. The inhabitants of the islands; to Galba; to Italy.

RoMAN

CATAPULT.

of the inhabitants. troops. 3. Of a (as direct object). 5. To the daughisland. 7. Of the

LESSON V. FIRST

19.

Paradigm

DECLENSION

(Continned).

of the Present

Indicative

of the First

Conjugation.

SINGULAR.

Active

of a Verb

PLURAL.

1. amo, I love. amas, thou lovest, you love. amat, he, she, it loves.

amamua, we love. amatis, you love. amant, they love.

2. All verbs of the "First Conjugation are inflected like amo. Such verbs are given in the General Vocabulary with the numeral L 3. In Latin the Subject of the verb, if a personal pronoun (l, thou, he, we, etc.), is not expressed unless emphatic, but is implied in the verb.

20.

Principles

of Syntax.

1. The Subject of the Verb stands in the Nominative. 2. The Object of the Verb stands in the Accusative. 3. The Verb agrees with its Subject in Number and Person. 4. A Noun used to complete the' meaning of another Noun is put in the Genitive: as,filia agricolae, the daughter of the farmer, or, the farmer's daughter.

21.

VOCABULARY.

accuso, 1accuse. et, conj., and. incito, 1 urge on, encourage.

lando, I praise. vis to, I lay waste. voce, 1 call, summon. EXERCISES.

22. 1. Frlias agricolae laudamus.! 3. Copiae Galbae Italiam vastant, 1

2. Galba capias incitat. 4. Galbam laudamus,

The verb in Latin ordinarily stands at the end of the sentence. 10

FIRST

DECLENSION.

11

5. Copias Galbae lauds. 6. Ineolas tnsularum accnaatls. 1. Galba agricolam vocat. 8. Insulas vastamue, 9. Galbam et agricolas vocamus. 10. Ftlias agricolae voco, 11. Agricolas incitamus. 12. 'Filiam Galbae laudant, 13. Agrioolas laudas. 14. Ftliaa agricolarum voeatis. 23. 1. You 1 summon the farmers. 2. We praise Galba's I daughter. 3. Galba's daughters encourage the farmers. 4. He praises the troops. 5. The inhabitants of the island accuse Galba. 6. Galba praises the farmers. 1 Unless it is clear that the Plural is meant, you is to be regarded as the sign of the Singular. II Le, the daughter of Galba.

KoMAN

CATAPULT.

LESSON VI. SECOND DECLENSION.

24. Pure Latin nouns of the Second Declension end in Masculine; -um, Neuter; and are declined as follows: -us, -er, -ir,

Vieus, village.

Bellum, war.

TERMINATION.

Nom. Gen. "'I flat. p ~ Ace. ~ { Voc. . Abl.

vicus viet vica vtcum vrce vlca

Nom. ~ Gen. ~ flat. ~ Ace. { Voc. Po< AU.

vier vIcarum vicis vIcas vtct vids

~

Puer, boy.

TERMINATION.

-us -I

-a

bellum belli bella bellum bellum bello

-I -arum -Is -as -I -Is

bella bell arum bellis bella bella bellis

-a -um -e

Ager, field. ager agl'i agra agrum ager agra

vira virum vir vira

Nom. ~ Gen. ~ flat. ~ Ace. Po< [ Foe.

puerf puerarum pueris pueros puerl

agl'i agrorum agris agras agri agris

vil'i virorum viris viras virl viris

12

-a -a -arum -is -a

-a -is

TERMINA.TION.

puer puert puero puerum puer puero

puerfs

-a -um -um

Vir, man.

Nom. ~ Gen. "'I flat. p ~ Ace. ~ { Voc. Abl.

Abl.

-um -I

vir viTi

Wanting

-I

-a -um Wanting

-a -I -orum -Is -as -I

-Is

SECOND DECLENSION.

25.

13

VOCABULARY.

amicus, I, m., friend. auxilium, i (ii), n., aid, help. Belgae, iirum, m, pl., Belgians, a Gallic tribe. Galli, orum, m. pl., Gauls. GermAni, orum, m. pl., Germans.

imploro, I entreat. proelium, i (ii), n., battle. Sequani, orum, m. pl., Sequani, . a Gallic tribe. vexo, I harass, annou ; ravage. vicus, i, m., village.

EXERCISES.

26. 1. VIco, vlcum, VIClS. 2. AmicI, amtoorum, amtors, 3. Auxilium, auxilio, 4. Agri, agros, agrts, 5. Puerorum, puert, puerum. 6. ViriS!.vires, vir. 7. Proelia, am ice. 27. 1. Belgae et Sequanj auxilium irnplorant. 2. Amicos Gallorum laudamus. 3. Copiae Galbae Seqnanos proelio vexant. 4. Puerr vires implorant, 5. Belgae vtcos et agros Germanorum vexant. 6. Auxilium Gallorum implorant, 7. Puert filias agricolarum vexant. â&#x20AC;˘ 28. 1. Battles; by battle; of battles. 2. To a friend; of . friends. 3. The villages; to the village. 4. The troops lay waste the villages of the Gauls. 5. I entreat the help of the Germans. 6. He harasses the Gauls in battle.

BATTERING-RAM.

LESSON VII. SECOND DECLENSION (Continued).

29.

Peculiarities of Inflection in the Second Declension.

1. Most nouns in -er in' common use are declined like ager, not like puer. 2. Nouns in -ius and -ium throughout the best period of the language formed the Genitive Singular in -i (instead of -ii); as,Nom. Gen.

ingenium ingeni

mius mi

These Genitives accent the penult, even when it is short. 3. The Locative Singular ends in -i; as, Corinthi, at Corinth.

30. Inflection of the Present Indicative of the Verb sum. PLURAL.

SINGULAR.

sum, I am. i!s,l thou art, you are. i!st,l he, she, it is.

31.

sumus, we al路e. i!stis,l you are.' sunt, they are.

Principles of Syntax.

1. A Predicate Noun is one which limits its subject through the medium of the verb to be, or some similar word, as seem, become. A Predicate Noun agrees with its subject in case; as,Galba est agricola, Galba is a farmer.

2. An Appositive agrees in case with the word which it explains; as,Galba agricola, Galba, the farmer. 1

Pronounce these words, severally, i!s, i!st, i!stis, not es, est, estis. 14

15

SECOND DECLENSION. VOCABULARY.

32.

castra, 6rum, n. pl., a camp. donum, i, n., gift. oppidwn, i, n., town, walled tOWIl.

oppugno, I attack, assault. periculum, i, n., danger. vito, 1 avoid.

EXERCISES.

33. 1. Oppidt, oppidorum, 2. Estis, es. 3. Proelr, pr?eliiS, proelio. 4. Agros Gallorum, agrts Belgarum, 5. Sunt, sumus, est. 6. Castrorum, castrls. 7. Castra Sequancrum, vrcos Belgarum. 8. Pericula, pertculrs, pertcull. 34. 1. Sumus amrct 1 Gallorum, 2. Sequani agricolas, inoolas vtcorum, vexant. 3. Germant oppida Belgarum oppugnant. 4. Germaur sunt agricolae. 5. Galba, amicus Gallorum, castra Germanorurn oppugnat. 6. Bella et pericula vrtamus, 7. Estis amici agricolarum. 8. Galba pertcula proelt vitat. 9. Amicus Galbae dona laudat. 35. 1. Of battle; of battles; in battle. 2. To the of the villages. 3. The towns; of the town. 4. farmers. 5. We attack the towns of the Sequani. is a friend of the farmers. 7. You are friends Sequani. 8. You avoid the camp of the Gauls. 1A

predicate noun often follows its verb, as here.

village; Weare 6. He of the

LESSON VIII. ADJECTIVES.

36. Adjectives denote quality. They are declined like nouns, and fall into two classes,1. Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions. 2. Adjectives of the Third Declension. ADJECTIVES

OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS.

In these the Masculine is declined like vicus, the Feminine like porta, and the Neuter like 37. Thus, Masculine like vicus:-

ager,

puer,

or

bellum.

Bonus, good. SINGULAR. MA8CULINJI.

Nom. bonus Gen. boni Diu. bono Ace; bonum Voc. bone Abl. bono

FEMININ"E.

NEUTER.

bona bonae bonae bonam bona bona

bonum boni bono bonum bonum bono

PLURAL.

Nom. boni Gen. bonorum Dat. bonis Ace. bonos Voc. boni Abl. bonis

38.

bonae bonarum bonis bonas bonae bonis Principles

bona bonorum bonis bona bona bonis

of Syntax.

1. An Adjective agrees with the noun which it limits in Gender, Number, and Case. 16

.ADJECTIVES,

FIRST

2. An Adjective

AND

limiting

attributive adjective, as

SECOND DECLENSIONS.

17

its noun directly

an

agricola

bonus,

is called

a good farmer ; an

Adjecti ve limiting its noun through the medium of th \ verb esse, to be, or some similar verb, is called a predicate adjecti ve, as agricola est bonus, the farmer is good,. agricola vid6tur bonus,

39.

the farmer seems good. VOCABULARY.

jiimentum, i, n., beast of burden. magnus, a, um, lar'ge, g1'eat. multus, a, um, much; pl., many. numerus, i, m., number. parvus, a, um, small.

populus, i, m., people. Rommus, a, um, Roman;-as noun, m., a Roman. victoria, ae, f., victory.

EXERCISES.

40. 1. Populi Romani, populo Romano. 2. Magnae 1 victoriae, magnatum victoriarum, 3. Multa jumenta, multls jnmentrs, 4. Multae insulae, multas msulas. 5. Incolae bout, incolarum bonorum. 6. Parvi vtci, parvorum vicorum. 7. Magnum proelium, magna proelia, multorum proeliorum. 8. Magnum numerum, magno numero, 9. MultI incolae, multos incolas. 10. Parvarum Insularum, parvae insulae. 41. 1. Of great victories; by a great victory. 2. Many dangers; of many dangers. 3. To the Roman people; of the Roman people. 4. Many islands; many villages; many towns. 5. Of many battles; by small beasts of burden; to a large number of islands. 6. Of a small village; of the large villages; by a great battle. 7. By a small number of good beasts of burden. 1 The attributive adjective (see ยง 38, 2) in Latin, as in English, more commonly precedes the word which it limits. This is especially true of adjectives of /lumber, amount, etc. Yet other adjectives when used attributively often follow the noun; see, for example, ยง 40, 5; 45, 2.

LESSON IX. ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS (Continued).

42. Masculine like

puer : Tener, tender.. t:k!rca"fe;

Jf {

SINGULAR. MASOULINE.

FEMININE.

NEUTER.

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Voe. Abl.

teller teneri tenerd tenerum tener tenere

tenera tenerae tenerae teneram tenera tenerA

tenerum teneri tenere tenerum tenerum tenere

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Voe. A u.

teneri tenerfirum teneris teneres teneri teneris

tenerae tenerArum teneris tenerAs tenerae tenerts

PLURAL.

43. Masculine like

tenera tenerorum teneris tenera tenera teneris

ager: Sacer, sacred.

SINGULAR. MASOULINE,

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace.

Voc. Abl.

sacer sacri sacro sacrum sacer sacro

FEMIN1NE.

sacra sacrae sac rae sac ram sacra sacrA

PLURAL. MASOULINIl:,

NEUTER.

sacrum sacri sacro sacrum sacrum sacre

sacri saerorum sacriB sacros sacrf sacris 18

FEMININE.

sacrae sacrArum sacris sacrAs sacrae sacra

NEUTER.

sacra saerorum sacrfs sacra sacra sacra

ADJECTIVES,

FIRST

AND

SECOND DECLENSIONS.

19

1. Most adjectives in -er are declined like 8acer. Of adjectives in common use only the following are declined like tener; a8per, rough; lIber, free;. miser, wretched.

44.

VOCABULARY.

Britannia, ae, f., Britain. dimico, 1 contend. Helv!tii, arum, 111. pl., the Helvetii, a Celtic tribe. l!gltue, i, m., lieutenant.

Ifber, era, erum, free. para, 1 prepare, get ready. pulcher, chra, chrum, beautiful. supero, 1 overcome.

EXERCISES.

45. 1. Filiae agricolae snnt pulchrae at bonae. 2, Populus Romanus Gallos superat. 3. Galba, legatus Rornauus, magnum oppidum Sequanorum oppugnat. 4. Sequant multts proelits dlmicant. 5. Britannia est magna insula. 6. Victoria populi Romani est magna. 7. Insula est parva. 8. Helvetii magnum numerum jumentorum parant. 9. Magnae eopiae drmicant. 10. Multa jnmenta paratis, 11. Copiae Bomanas agros Gallorum vexant. 12. Magnum bellum paramus. 13. Galba magnum numerum Gallorum superat. 14. Populus Romanus est libel'. 46. 1. We get ready many beasts of burden. 2. We praise Galba, the Roman lieutenant. 3. Many Gauls and Germans contend in battle. 4. The beasts of burden are small. 5. The Sequani and Belgians are free. 6. The villages of the Germans are many. 7. We overcome a large number of the Helvetii.

LESSON X. NOUNS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION.

47. The third declension includes several distinct classes of Stems: I. Pure Consonant-Stems. II. t-Stems. III. "Mixed Stems. (Consonant-Stems which have partially adapted themselves to the inflection of t-Stems.) CONSONANT-STEMS.

48. Consonant-Stems are divided into Mute (p, b; t, d; c, g), Liquid (1, r), Nasal (m, n), and Spirant (s) Stems. Mute-Stems.

49.

Mute-Stems may end,1. In a Labial ! (p) j as, prIncep -a. 2. In a Guttural ! (s or c) j as, remex (remeg-s); dux (duc-s). 3. In a DentaP (d or t) j as, lapis (lapid -s); mIles (mII.et -s). 1.

50.

STEMS

IN A LABIAL

Princeps, SINGULAR.

MUTE

(P).

m., chief.

CASE-

CASE-

PLURAL.

ENDING.

Nom. princeps Gen. prtucipis 2 Dal. principI Acc. principem Voc. princeps Abl. principe 8

ENDING.

-s -is -I -em

prtncipss 4 principum principibus prtncipes 4 prlncipes 4 principibus

-s

-e

1 Labials are 'lip' letters; gutturals are' throat' , teeth' letters. 2 Pronounce Is, not Is. 8 Pronounce il, not Ii.

20

letters;

-es -um

-ibus -es -lis -ibus and dentals are

4 Pronounce

i5Il, not , â&#x20AC;˘.

THIRD

DECLENSION 2.

STEMS

-

CONSONANT路-STEMS.

IN A GUTTURAL

(g,

MUTE

21

C).

51.

Iu these the termination -8 of the Nominative Singular unites with the guttural, thus producing -x. R~mex, m., rower. 8INGUI_AR.

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Voe.

su.

remex remigis remigi rernigem remex remige 3.

Dux, m., leader, gene,路al.

PLURAL.

8INGULAR.

PLURAL.

remig~s remigum remiglbus remiges remig~s remigibus

dux ducis duci ducem dux duce

duc!s ducum ducibus duc~s duc~s ducibus

STEAlS

IN A DENTAL

MUTE

(d, t).

52. In these the final d or t of the Stem disappears in the N ominative Singular before the ending -so Lapis, m., stone.

l\/Iiles, m., soldier.

8INGULAR.

PLURAL.

Nom. lapis Gen. lapidis Dat. lapidi Ace. lapidem Voc. lapis Abl. lapide

lapidse lapidum lapidibus lapides lapidee lapidibus

53.

SINGULAR.

miles militis militl militem miles milite

VOCABULARY.

confirmo, I establish. cum, With, prep. with abl. eques, itis, m., horeeman ; pl., cavalry. Gallia, ae, f., Gaul.

54.

PLURAL.

milit6s militum militibuB milit~s milit6s militibus

Principle

Impero, I demand. obses, idis, m., hostage. pAx, pacis, f., peace. virtus, tutis, f., valor, virtue.

of Syntax.

Cases with Prepositions. - The Accusative and Ablative are used with Prepositions; as, ad urbem, to the city; cum oonsu1e, with the consul.

22

NOUNS

OF THE THIRD

DECLENSION.

EXERCISES.

55. 1. Pax bona. 2. Multl obsides, multts obsidibus. 3. Magna virtute, magnae virtu tis, maguam virtutem, 4. Mllites Romanj, milites Romanos, mtlitt Romano. 5. Magnae victoriae equitum Romanorum. 6. Magna virtute prrneipum. 56. 1. Equites 2. MultI mtlites magnum numerum pacem confrrmant. rum laudamus. equitibus dimicant. 9. MIlites RomanI

cum magna pertculo proelio drmieant. castra Gallorum oppugn ant. 3. Galba obsidum imperat. 4. Prrnoipes Galliae 5. Virtntem ducum et mtlitum Romano6. Dux remiges laudat. 7. Mtlites cum 8. Duces Germanorum pacem implorant. multa oppida magna virtute oppugnant.

57. 1. The great valor of the Roman soldiers. 2. To the chiefs, of the rowers, to the soldiers. 3. Of the ,avalry, to the cavalry. 4. The general demands many hostages. 5. We establish peace with (cum) 1 the chie.fs and leaders of the Germans. 6. The Roman soldiers contend with (cum)l the Helvetii. 7. You praise the leader of the rowers. J

Unless ~ith is equivalent

to by, it is regularly

to be rendered by cum.

LESSON THIRD

DECLENSION.

XI.

- CONSONANT-STEMS Liquid

(Continued).

Stems.

58. These usually end in -r; a few end in -1. Victor,

m., con'lller01路.

SINGULAR.

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Vot:. AM.

PLURAL.

victor victoris victorl victorem victor victore

victol'6s victerum victortbus victorl!s victorl!s victoribus

1. Masculine and Feminine Stems ending in a liquid form the Nominative and Vocative Singular without case-ending. Nasal

Stems.

59. These end in -n, which often disappears in the Nom. Sing. Legio, f., legion.

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Voc.

Au.

SINGULAR.

PLURAI_.

legio legionte legiont legion em legio legione

legionl!s legionum legiontbus legiOn6s legion6s Jegiontbue

Nomen, SINGULAR.

nomen nominis nomini nomen nomen nomine

n., name. PLURAL.

nomina nominum norninibue nomina nomina nomintbua

1. The case-ending is lacking in the Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative Singular of oll neuters of the Third Declension. 23

24

THIRD

DECLENSION. Spirant

60.

Mos, rn., custom.

-

CONSONANT-STEMS.

or s-Stems.

Genus, n., race.

Honor, m., honor.

SINGULAR.

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Voc. Abl.

mos morfs

mori morern mos more

honor honoris honort honorem honor houore

genus generis genert genus genus genere PLURAL.

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Voc. Abl.

mores morum mor-ibus

mores mores mortbus

genera generum generibus genera genera generibus

honores honorum honoribua honores honoree honorfbus

1. Note that the final s of the stem becomes r (between vowels) in the oblique cases. In some words, as honor, the r of the oblique cases has, by analogy, crept into the Nominative, displacing the earlier s.

61.

VOCABULARY.

agger, eris, m., embankment, '路am路 part.

altus, a, um, high, deep. arbor, oris, f., tree. Caesar, aris, m., Caesar. consul, is, m., consul. flumen, inis, n., ricer. genus, eria, n., race; kind.

in, in, on, prep. with the abl, Marcellus, I, m., Marcellus. nomen, Inis. n., name. pater, tris, m., father. Rhenus, I, m., the Rhine. silva, ae, f., forest. timor, oris, m., fear.

EXERCISES.

62. 1. Pater consulis, patrt eonsulis, 2. Aggeres altr, aggeribus altIs. 3. Consulis bont, consules bout, consulum bonorum. 4. Arbores silvae; nomina fluminum. 5. Timores militum. 6. Magna flumina, multorum fluminum, in multis Humiuibus.

THIRD

DECLENSION.

-

CONSONANT-STEMS.

25

63. 1. Agger castrdrum est altus. 2. Galba et Marcellus Bunt consules. 3. Caesar magnas capias parat, 4. Consul Romanus virtutem militum laudat, 5. Nomen flumi is est Bhenus, 6. Arbores sunt altae, 7. In alto flnmine est parva insula. 8. In par va Insula sunt multae pulchrae arbores. 64. 1. Of a high rampart, with a high rampart. 2. To the fathers of the consuls. 3. High trees i in} deep rivers. 4. In the river Rhine; the fear of the soldier. 5. The cavalry of Caesar harass the Gauls. 6. The rivers are deep. 7. We praise Galba, the consul. 8. The Germans attack the rampart of the Roman camp. 1To denote in a place, the preposition in is regularly The simple Ablative does not suffice.

TRUMPET

(bucina).

necessary In Latin,

LESSON XII. THIRD DECLENSION. - I-STEMS AND MIXED STEMS. I-STEMS. 1.

MASCULINE ANDFEMININEI-STEMS.

65. Masculine and Feminine r-Stems end iu -is III the Nominative Singular, and always have -ium in the Genitive Plural. They may have either -Is or -6S in the Accusative Plural. A few, like turris, have -im in the Accusative Singular, and -I in the Ablative Singular. 66.

Bostis,

TUj:ris, f., lower.

Nom. Gen.

u芦. Ace. Voc. Abl.

tunis tunis turd turrim turris turrf

hostis hostis hostf hostem hostis haste

-is -Is -I -00, -em -Is -i, -e

2.

ID.,

enemy. TERMlNA-

PLURAL.

TI-:RMlNA路 TION.

SINGULAR.

tunAs turrium turribus turds (-As) tunes turribus

TION.

hostes hostium hostibus hostle (-As) hostAs hostibus

-As -ium -ibua

-Is, -As -6S

-ibus

NEUTERI-STlms.

67. These end in -e, -al, or oar in the Nominative Singular. They always have -I in the Ablative Singular, -ia in the Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative Plural, and -ium ill the Genitive Plural. Sedne, seal.

Animal,

animal.

SINGULAR.

Nom. Gen. Dal. Ace. Voc. Abl.

sedile sedilis sedili sedile sedile sedili

TERMINATION.

animal auimalta animalf animal animal animall 26

Wanting

-is -i Wanting Wanting

-I

THIRD

DECLENSION.

-

MIXED

PI"URAL.

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Vac. Abl.

sedilia sedilium sedilibus sedilia sedilia sedilibus

STEAlS.

27

TEHAtlNATI0N.

auirnalia animahum animaltbus anirnalta animalia ani.naltbua

-ia

-ium -ibus -ia -ia

-Ibus

1. In most words of this class the final -I of the stem is lost in the Nominative Singular; in others it ap~ars as -e, MIXED STEMS.

68. Mixed Stems are Consonant-Stems that have partially adapted themselves to the inflection of t-stems. They have -ium in the Genitive Plural, and -l!s or -is in the Accusative Plural. SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

Caedes, t., slaughter. Arx, f., citadel. Caedes, t., slaughter. Arx, L,citadel. Nom. caedl!s arx caedl!s arcl!s Gen. caedis arcis caedium arcium Dat. caedi arci caedibus arcibus Aee. caedem arcem caedl!s, -is arcl!s. -Is Voe. caedl!s an: caedl!s arcas A bl. caede aroe caedibus arcibus 1. The following classes of nouns belong to Mixed Stems: a) Nouns in -es, with Genitive in -is j as, U~l!S, cloud; ae l!s, temple, etc, h) Many monosyllables in -s 01' -x preceded by one or more consonants; a~, u bs, city; mjns, ,~ountail~. e) Most nouns 111 -IlS and -rs; as, ehens, ellent, eohors, cohort.

t

69.

$

VOCABULARY.

eIvitlls, tlltis, f., state. hostis, is, m. enemy. mare, is, n., sea. ml!ns, mentis, f., mind. mons, montis, m., mountain.

occupo, I take possession of, seize. pauei, ae, a, few, a few; used only in pl. turris, is, f., tower.

THIRD

DECLENSION.

EXERCISES.

70. 1. Otvitatum, ctvitatibus. 2. Hostes, hostts. 3. Magna animalia, magnrs animalibus. 4. Montes altr, montibus altis. 5. Paucae civitates, paucas civitates. 6. In turribus altrs, turris altas, turrium altarum, 7. Hostes Romanorum, nomen montis. 71. 1. Mtlites Romani turris hostium oppugnant. 2. In magno mari sunt multae insulae. 3. Multa animalia sunt in. silva. 4. 'I'imor mentes militum occupat. 5. Caesar hostes proelio superat. 6. Equites Romani cum hostibus dtmicant, 7. Caesar montem occupat. 8. Paucae civitates pacem confirmant. 9. Hostes multas turris occupant. 10. Civitates Gallorum pacem implorant. 72. 1. Of high towers; to the large animals; in the deep sea. 2. To the enemy; the camp of the enemy. 3. The minds of the soldiers; the forests of the mountain. 4. The cavalry of the enemy contend with the Romans. 5. Caesar establishes peace with many states. 6. We seize many islands of the sea. 7. There are 1 large animals on the island. 1 There a,oe large animals

~

.. translate as though "large animals are,"

""~-""-~ TRUMPET

(tuba).

LESSON XIII. THIRD DECLENSION. - GENDER.

73.

General Principles

of Gender in the Third Declension.

1. Nouns in -0, -or, -os, -er, -~s are Masculine. 2. Nouns in -Ils, -l!s, -is, -ys, -x, -a (preceded by a consonant); -do, -g6 (Genitive -inis); -i6 (abstract and collective), -ils (Genitive -litis or -lidis) are Feminine. 3. Nouns in -a, -e, -i, -y, -o, -I, on, -t, oar, our, -tis are "Neuter. 4. There are many exceptions to the foregoing principles. EXERCISES.

74. 1. Fluminis altr, fluminum altorum, flnminr alto. 2. Magna maria, magnt maris, in magno mario .'3. Turris altae, tunis altas, 4. In magnis civitatibus ; parvum animal. 5. In pulchra turrt ; arboris altae, arbores altae, 6. Magnr timoris, magni timores, 7. Magna virtus equitum bonorum, 75. 1. Hostes altas turns Romanorum oppugn ant. 2. Nomen montis est Jura. 3. Maria magna sunt alta. 4. Duces Romani cum principibus Sequanorum pacem conflrmant, 5. Virtntem ducis hostium laudatis, 6. AnimiiJia pauca sunt in parva Insula, 7. Arbores pulchras magnae silvae vastamus, 8. Multa genera arborum pulchrarum sunt in agrts, 9. Aggerem occupat et turres hostium oppugn at. 76. 1. To the high trees; of the beautiful trees; of the beautiful tree. 2. Many kinds of virtue; fear of large ani. mals; the name of the beautiful tower. 3. The names of a few large rivers; to the deep sea; the valor of the consul. 4. On the high ramparts; to the great leaders. 5. We praise the leaders of the enemy. 6. We call the father of the general. 7. The fear of the cavalry is great. 29

LESSON

XIV.

THE FOURTH AND FIFTH

DECLENSIONS.

FOURTH DECLENSION. - it-STEMS.

77. Nouns of the Fourth Declension end in -us Masculine, and -u Neuter. They are declined as follows:Cornii, horn.

Fructus, fruit. SINGULAR.

Nom. fructus Gen. frfictfis Dat, fnictuf Ace. friictum Voc. fructus Abl, fructii

PLURAL.

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

fructiis friictuum friictibue fructus fructiis fructibus

cornii comus cornii -cornfi cornii cornu

cornua cornuum cornibus cornua cornua cornibus

1. A few nouns in -us of the Fourth Declension are Feminine, particularly manus, hand, and domus, house. FIFTH

DECLENSION. - e-STEMS.

78. Nouns of the Fifth Declension end in declined: â&#x20AC;˘ Dies, m., day. SINGULAR.

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Vac. Abl.

dies diei diei diem dies die

PLURAL.

dies disrum diebus dies dies diebue

-es,

and are

Res, f., thing. SINGULAH.

res r~i r~i rem res re

PLURAL.

res rerum rebus res res rebus

1. The ending of the Genitive and Dative Singular is -~i, instead of -eI, when a consonant precedes; as, 8p~I,rM. 2. With the exception of dies and res, most nouns of the Fifth Declension are not declined in the Plural. 3. Nouns of the Fifth Declension are regularly Feminine, except dies, day, and meridies, mid-d.ay, which are Masculine. Even dii!s is sometimes Feminine in the Singular. 30

FOURTH

79.

AND

FIFTH

DECLENSIONS.

31

VOCABULARY.

acies, ei, f., line of battle. colloco, I place, aI'range, station. cornu, us, n., horn " in military sense, wing of an army. de, concerning, prep. with abl, dexter, tra, trum, right. dubito, I doubt, am in doubt. tides, ei, f., jidelity, loyalty.

legio, oDis, f., legion. manus, us, f., hand; in military sense, band, force. nuntio, I announce; report, portus, us, m., harbor. reliquus, a, um, remaining. senatus, us, m., senate. spes, spei, f., hope.

EXERCISES.

80. 1. Fidel, de fide. 2. Manns, manibus, 3. In aeie, 4. Cornua, cornuum, 5. Portus, portibus, 6. Senatus, senatut, 7. Spes auxilt, multI portns, magnos portns. 8. In senatii, de spe, spet, 9. PortuI bono, magnus numerus pOl'tuum, in portibus bents. 10. Multarum rerum, de multis rebus, magnam rem, de magna re, 81. 1. GallI cum magna mann legionem Romanam oppugnant, 2. Reliquae legiones sunt in dextro cornu. 3. In portn est parva Insula. 4. Galba de fide Gallorum dubitat. 5. Caesal' multas res senatul niintiat. 6. Mtlites in acie collocat. 7. Sumus in magna spe victoriae, 8. Portus Insulae sunt bont, 9. Senatum Romanum accusamua. 10. De multts rebus dubitant. 11. Caesar legiones in acie collocat et oppidum oppugnat. 12. Dt! fide multarum legionum dubio tamus. 13. Dt! reliquIs rebus dubitatis, 82. 1. Of the senate; to the senate; concerning the senate. 2. In the harbors of the island; of the harbors. 3. Many hopes. 4. The remaining legions. 5. With the remaining legions Caesar attacks the town. 6. In the harbors are many islands. 7. The senate is in doubt concerning the loyalty of the legions. 8. He announces many things to the senate.

LESSON XV. ADJECTIVES

(Continued).

NINE IRREGULAR

ADJECTIVES.

83. Here belong: alter, the other; alius, other, another; niillus, none, no " iillus, any; neuter, neither (a/two); uter, which (0/ two) 'I totus, whole; solus, alone; linus, one, alone.

They are declined as follows: SINGULAR.

alter, the other.

alius, another, MA80ULrnE.

Nom. alius Gen. alterIus Dot. alii Ace. alium

FEMININE.

NEUTER.

alia alterlus alii aliam

aliud alterlus alii aliud

alia

alio

FEMININE.

NEUTER.

alter alterlus alteri alterum

altera alterlus alterf alteram

alterum alterlus alteri alterum

altero

altera

altero

MASOULINE.

1

Voc. AU.

alio

totus, whole.

uter, which (of two) 1

Nom. uter Gen. utrius Dat. utri Ace. utrum

utra utrius utri utram

utrum utrius utri utrum

totU8 totiU8 toti totum

tota totius toti totam

totum totiu8 toti totum

utrll

utro

toto

totA

toto

Voc.

su.

utro

1. All these words lack the Vocative. 2. The Plural is regular, and is declined like bonus. 1

Alius, which we should expect, is not found. 32

ADJECTIVES

OF THE THIRD DECLENSION.

ADJECTIVES

84.

33

OF THE THIRD DECLENSION.

These fall into three classes:-

1. Adjectives of three terminations in the Nominative Singular, - one for each gender. I a 2. Adjectives of two terminations. 3. Adjectives of one termination.

(mY;/' h)

a. , ith the exception of Comparatives, and a few other words ~ (see 搂 91. 1), all Adjectives q! tl!.e Third Declension follow the iIdlection of I-stems; i.e. they have -i in the Ablative Singular, -ium in the Genitive Plural, -is or -~s in the Accusative Plural Masculine and Feminine, and -ia in the Nominative and Accu路 sative Plural Neuter. ve1Us.J ~.

*,

85.

Adjectives

of Three Termination8.

These are declined as follows: Acer, sharp. SINGULAR. FEMININB.

MASaULINlt.

Nom. Ilcer Gen. acri8 Dat.

licns Ilcrie Ilcri llcreDl licrie ll.crI

acri

Ace. acreDl Voe. acer AU. IIcrI

NEUTlilR.

il.cre acri8 acn acre licre IIcrI

PLURAL.

Nom. acr~s Gen. liCriUDl Dat.

acr~s llcnuDl llcribus iicrlls, -Is acrl!8 acrtbus

licribus

Ace. Ilcrlls, -Is Voc. IIcrl!s AU. acribus 1. Celer, celeris, the Genitive Plural.

celere,

stoift, retains

acria acrtum ilcnbus acria acria iicribus the e before r, but lacks

34 86.

ADJECTIVES. VOCABULARY.

ager, agri, m., field. celer, eris, ere, suiift, cohors, rtis, f., COhOI路t. collis, is, m., hill. conjiiro, I conepire. dlHecto, I delight.

dono, I present. equester, tris, tre, equestrian, cavalry (as an adjective). princeps, cipis, m., chief sine, without, prep. with abl. terra, ae, f., land.

EXERCISES.

87. 1. Alia terra, alterius terrae, 2. Aliud pertculum, aliorum perreulorum. 3. TotI eohortr, totrus collis, 4. Nullt agrt, nullrus agrI. 5. AliI legioni, aliae legiones. 6. Sine ulla spe, nulltus cohortis, nullt collt. 7. Proelia equestria, proelits equestribus, proeliorum equestrium. 8. Unum proelium, aliud proelium, alit proelio, alterI proelio, 9. Victoriae celeris, victorias celeres, victorirs celeribus, victoria celerr. 88. 1. Prtncipes totrus Galliae conjurant. 2. De alirs rebus dubitamus. 3. Sine nllo tim ore aIterum oppidnm oppugnant. 4. Alio proelio dnnicat. 5'. Nunos mtlites alterius cohortis laudamus, 6. Unam legionem in dextro cornu collocat. 7. Collem alirs cohortibus occupat. 8. Germanta solrs agros donat, 9. EquestrI proelio dtmicat. 10. Spes celeris victoriae legiones deleetat. 11. Alios milites in acie collocas. 12. Senatus de fide uutus ducis dubitat. 13. Equites Roman) agros Belgarum et multarum aliarum ervitatum vexant. 89. 1. Of the whole cohort; whole cohorts. 2. Of another hill; other hills; 011 other hills. 3. Of one battle; in one battle. 4. By a cavalry battle; of cavalry battles; in cavalry battles. 5. The soldiers coutend without any hope of victory. 6. The legions attack another town. 7. We avoid the dangers of another battle. 8. Weare in doubt concerning many other things.

LESSON ADJECTIVES

90.

Adjectives

XVI. (Continued).

of Two Terminations.

Fortis, str-ong. M.

AND

Fortior,

SINGULAR. F. NEUT.

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Voc. Abl.

fortis fortis forti fortem fortis fortI

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Voc. Alit.

fortfis fortium fortibus fortfis, -Is fortfis fortibus

stronqer,

SINGULAR. I,

forte fortis forti forte forte fortI

AND

F.

NEUT.

fortior fortioris fortiori fortiorem fortior fortiore

PLURAL.

forti us forti oris fortiorf fortius fortius fortiore

PLURAL.

forti a fortium forLibus fortia fortia iortibus

fortiorfis fortiorum fortiorfbus fortiorfis fortiorl!s fortiortbus

fortiora fortiorum fortiortbue fortiora fortiora fortioribua

1. Fortior is the Comparative of fortis. All Compa~ives regularly declined in the same way) Ie') (J. COh¢QI)ClJI/' ~

91.

Adjectives

of One Termination.

Ferix, fer-tile.

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Voc. Alii.

Recl!ns, recent.

SINGULAR. M. AND F. NEUT.

M. AND F.

ferax feracis feracI feracem ferax ferac!

recens recentis recentI recentem recens recentI

SINGULAR.

ferax feracis feraci ferax ferax feracI 35

NEUT.

recens recentis recentI recens recens recentI

J

,

'!he- 3

j

36

ADJECTIVES

OF THE THIRD DECLENSION.

PLURAL.

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Vac.

Au.

feraces Ieraoium feracrbus feraces, -is feraces feractbus

PLURAL.

Ieracta feracium feracfbus feracia feracia feracibus

recentes recentium recentibus recentes, -Is recen tes recentibus

Vetus, old.

Plus, mOl'e.

SINGULAR. M. AND F.

Nom. vetus Gen. veteris Dat. veteri Ace. veterem Vac. vetus Abl. vetere

SINGULAR. M.

NEUT.

AlOD

F.

NEUT.

vetus veteris veteri vetus vetus vetere

pliis pliiris pliis pliire

PLURAL.

Nom. veteres Gen. veterum Dai. veteribus Ace. veterss Voc. veteres Abl. veteribus

recentia recentium recentibus recentia recen tia recentibus

PLURAL.

vetera veterum veteribus vetera vetera veteribus

pliires plUrium pliiribus pliires, -Is

plura pliirium pliiribus pliira

pliiribus

pliiribus

1. Fortior and vetus are declined as pure Consonant-Stems; i.e. Ablative Singular in -e, Genitive Plural in -um, Nominative Plural Neuter in-a, and Accusative Plural Masculine and Feminine in-es only. 2. PHis, in the Singular, is used only as a substantive.

92.

VOCABULARY.

aditus, us, m., approach. aduleecens, entis, m., young man. communis, e, common. complurea, ra, -ium, very many, concilium, i (IT), n., council. delibera, I deliberate, consult. ditficilis, e, difficult. ferax, gen. feracis, fertile. #d!!s .. ~i, f., protection.

Haedui, arum, m. pl., Haedui, a Gallic tribe. incolumis, e, unharmed. legatus, i, m., ent'oy. naviilis, e, naval. nabilis, e, noble. omnis, e, all, every. trfbimus, i, m., tribune. Veneti, arum, m, pl., Veneti, a Gallic tribe.

ADJECTIVES.

37

EXERCISES.

93. 1. Agrorum feraciu ill , in agrrs feracibus, 2. Omnibus aditibus, ornnts aditus. 3. N obilis adulescentis, nobilium adulescentium. 4. Proelia navalia, proelirs navaIibus. 5. Concilia communia, concilirs communibus, 6. In omnibus proelits, omnium proeliorum, omnts legatos, 7. Terrae feraces, terrarum feracium, complures legati: Rcmam, 8. Omnrs agros Haeduorum, in omnibus adulescentibus, complurium victoriarum. 9. Legatorum nobilium, omnibus tribunrs legionis. 94. 1. Milites Romant sunt incolumes. 2. Cum omnibus copirs oppidum oppugnat. 3. Helvetit agros feraces Haeduarum vexant. 4. 'I'ribunos omnium legionum vocat, 5. Complnres legati fidem Caesaris implorant, 6. Belgae in coneilio commum de bello deliberant, 7. Nobiles aduleseentes aeonsat. 8. Roman! Veuetos proelio navalt superant. 9. Omnes aditus snnt difflciles, 10. Adulescens nobilis est incolumis, 11. Nullus vir fortis pertcula communia vttat, 12. Legati: Haeduorum sunt nobiles adulescentes, 13. Omnia oppida Romanorum sunt incolumia. 95. 1. In a fertile field; of fertile fields. 2. Of very many young men; with very many young men. 3. Of the common council; with noble envoys; in naval battles. 4. The young man is unharmed. 5. All the fields of the Haedui are fertile. 6. All the envoys of the Gauls entreat Caesar's help. 7. He praises all the tribunes of the legion.

XVII.

LESSON

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 96.

1.

In Latin,

as in English,

of Comparison,-the Superlative.

2.

Positive,

The Comparative

the

is regularly

there

are three

Comparative, formed

by adding

eN eut. -ius), and the Superlative

byadding-issimus

to the Genitive its ending: -

the

Singular

of

l1l9Cf

altus, high, fortis, brace, feliX,fortunate,

Positive

degrees and

the -ior

(-a, -um), deprived

h

of

.

~'1 • alti or, /t'g,ter, -/lI~ aIt·· lsslmus, { hiqhest, • l'ery mgt/. fortior, ~N& fortissimus. Ieltcior, .. ills fellcisaimus. 1 •

1

3. Adjectives in -er form the Superlative by adding -rimus to the Nominative of the Po itive, The Comparative is regular. Thus:pulcher, beautiful, celer, swift,

pulchrior, celerior,

pulcberrimus. celerrtmus.

4. Five adjectives in -ilis form the Superlative by adding -limus to the Genitive of the Positive deprived of its ending. The Com. parative is regular. Thus:facilis, easy, diffieilis, difficult, similis, like, dis imilis, unlike, humilis, low,

97.

faeilior, difficilior, similior, dissimilior, humilior,

facillimus. diffieillimus. simillimus. dissimillimus. humillimus.

VOCABULARY.

Allobroges, urn, m, pl., Allllbl'Oyes, a Gallic tri be. AVliricum, i,ll., Avul'jClt?Il, a • Gallic town,

fortis, e, brave. urbs, urbis, f., city. vallis, is, f., valley. 38

COMPARISON

OF ADJECTIVES.

39

EXERCISES.

98. 1. Urbes pulchriores, urbium puleherrimarum, urbes pulcherrimae. 2. In vallibus pulcherrimis, vallium pulcherrimarum, 3. Legiones fortiores, legionum fortissimarum. 4. Aggerum altiorum, fhimina altissima. 5. Aditii difficillimo, aditus difflciliores. 6. Frliae pulchriores, filiabus pulchricribus. 99. 1. Belgae sunt fortissimi omnium Gallorum. 2. Flumina Galliae sunt altiora, 3. Milites castra altissima oppugnant. 4. Oppida Allobrogum sunt pulcherrirna, 5. Vrcus parvus est in valle pulcherrima. 6. In exercitii Gallorum est magnus numerus equitum fortissimorum. 7. Avaricum est pulcherrima urbs totrus Galliae. 8. Aditus sunt difficillimt. 100. 1. Braver soldiers; of braver soldiers; with the bravest soldiers. 2. The most difficult approaches; by the most difficult approaches; by a more difficult approach. 3. Of the braver legion; with the bravest legion. 4. The higher camp; in the highest camp. 5. Galba is the bravest leader. 6. The approaches of the valley are most beautiful.

LESSON XVIII. COMPARISON

101.

OF ADJECTIVES

Irregular

(Continued)

Comparison.

Several Adjectives vary the Stem in Comparison; viz.,bonus, good, melior, optimus. pessimus. pejor, malus, bad, parvus, small, minor, minimus.

102.

magnus, larqe, major, maxtmua, - a multus, much, pliis, plurimus , oct

Defective Comparison.

1. Positive lacking entirely,prior,former, citerlor, on this side, ulterior, farther, propior, nearer,

primus,first. citimus, near. ultimus, farthest. proximus, nearest.

2. Positive occurring only in special cases,posterus, following,

postrl!mus, last. posterior, later, { postumus, posthumous.

exterus, foreign,

exterior, outer,

inferus, low, superus, high,

103.

( extremus, } ~ t. outermost. (ex rmus,

infimus, } l inferior, lower, { _ ouest. imus, . { supremua, last. supeIior,hlgher, summua, h'Ig hest, t VOCABULARY.

quattuor, indecl., four. quinque, indecJ.,jive. summus, a, um, highest, greatest (superl, of superus).

altitiide, inis, f., depth, height. Genava, ae, f., Geneva, a town of the Allobroges. 40

COMPARISON

OF ADJECTIVES.

41

Principle of Syntaz.

104. 4b1ative of Manner. Adjective is used to denote pugnant,

The Ablative modified by an Manner; as, - magna virtilte

they fight with .great valor. EXERCISES.

105. 1. Majora perteula, maximts perrculrs. 2. Minoribus castrts, minomm castrorum. 3. Maximr oppidr, maxima oppida. 4. Valles majores, in vallibus majoribus. 5. Oppida proxima, oppidorum ultimorum, 6. Majorum oastrorum, majora castra, 7. U rbium proximarum, in urbibus proximts, legiones optimae. 8. Legionum meliorum, legionibus pejoribus. 9. Summus mons, summa virtns, 106. 1. Reliquae cohortes minora castra oppugnant. 2. AItitado fiuminis est minima. 3. In castrts majoribus sunt qumque legiones. 4. Maximas copias paramus. 5. Quattuor eohortes in prima acie sunt. 6. Genava est extremum oppidum Allobrogum. 7. Mtlites min ore periculo dtmicant, 8. Legioues Romanae agros optirnos vastant, 9. Militl;s unrus cohortis in majoribns castrts maxima virtute dimicant. 107. 1. Of the first legion; with the first legion. 2. The larger camp; in the smaller camp. 3. Of the greatest depth; in the farthest town. 4. The soldiers of the first legion attack the smaller camp. 5. We avoid the greatest dangers.

LESSON XIX. FORMATION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS.

108. Ad verbs denote manner, degree, place, time, etc. They are for the most part derived from adjectives, and depend upon them for their comparison. 1. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the First and Second Declensions form the Positive by changing -I of the Genitive Singular to -s , those derived from adjectives of the Third Declension,by changing -is of the Genitive Singular to -iter; as,carus, pulcher, ncer,

care, dearlst ; pulchre, beautifully; acrrter, fiercely.

a. But Adjectives. in -ns change -is of the Genitive to -er to form the Adverb;

as,-

sapiens, sapienter, wisely. Audax forms andacter , 2. To form the Comparative of the Adverb, change -or of the Comparative of the Adjective to -us; to form the Superlative, change -us of the Superlative of the Adjective to -e. (carus) (pulcher) (acer) (audax)

109.

care, dearly, pulchrs, beautifully, acriter, fiercely, audacter, boldly,

carius, pulchrius, aClius, audactus,

canssime. pulcherrime. acerrime. audiicissime.

Adverbs Peculiar in Comparison and Formation. melius, pejus, magis,

bene, well, male, ill, magnopere, greatly, 42

optime. pessime. maxim!.

43

ADVERBS. multum, much, non multum, parum, saepe, often, prope, near, diu, long,

110.

fu

l til e

'

plus,

pliirimum,

minus,

miniml!.

saepius, propius, diutiue,

saepissiml!, proxime. diu:;issiml!.

VOCABULARY.

acriter, sharply, jie"c,ely (from acer). audacter, courageously (from aud1i.x). cogito, I think. dl!fl!osio, oms, f., defence. diu, adv., a long time. facile, easily (from facilis) , fortiter, b,'avely (from fortis). fuga, ae, f., flight.

impetus, us, m., onset, attack, magis, more, rather ; comp, of magoopere. maximl!, especially,. sup. of magnopere. perturbe, I aoitate , distul'b, pugoo, I jight. quam, than. tardo, I retard, check.

EXERCISES.

Ill, 1. Melius, magis, minus fortiter, optima 2. For. tius, maxime, propius, saepissime, 3. Dintissime, acerrime, pejus, 4. Facilius, minus facile, minima facile. 112. 1. Hostes diu? et acriter pugnant. 2. Mtlites magis de fuga quam de defensione castroruui cogitant, 3. Jl1menta Gallas maxime delectant, 4. Timor mentes militum magnopere perturbat. 5. Mtlites acerrime et fortissime pugnant. 6. Caesar impetum hostium facile tardat. 1. Equites minus audacter dlmicant, 113. 1. More fiercely; most fiercely; most courageously. 2. Most easily; less easily. 3. More often; greatly; in a worse way. 4. The Belgians fight more bravely than the Sequani, 5. The Romans overcome the Gauls most easily. 6. We praise the daughters very often (superlative). 11'I1e adverb usually stands immediately

before the word it modifies.

LESSON XX. NUMERALS.

114.

1. For the declension of linus, one, see p. 32. 2. Duo, two, and tres, three, are declined as follows:Nom. duo Gen. duorum Dat. duobus Ace. duos, duo Abl. duo bus Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Abl.

duae duarum duabus duas duabus

tres trium tribus tres (tris) tribus

duo duorum duo bus duo du~bU8 tria trium tribus tria tribus

3. The units from four to ten, and all the tens from ten to one hundred, are indeclinable. Hundreds are declined like the plural of bonus. 4. MIlle, thousand, is regularly an adjective in the Singular, and indeclinable. In the Plural it is a substantive (followed by the Genitive of the objects enumerated) and is declined,Nom. Gen. Dat.

milia milium milibus

Ace. milia Voc. milia AU. milibus

Examples: mfl'le homines, a thousand men; duo mnia Dum, two thousand men (literally, two thousands of men).

115.

homi-

VOCABULARY.

cHims, a, urn, distinguished, famous. ducenti, ae, a, two hundl路ed. inst6, I press on.

44

quinquliglntll., Indecl., fifty. septem, indecl., seven. trecentI, ae, a, three hundred.

45

NUMERALS. Principle of Syntax.

116. Ablative of Means. the Means or Instrument;

The Ablative as,-

is used to denote

gladiIs pugnant, they fight with swords. EXERCISES.

-117. 1. 'I'recentorum equitum. 2. Cum tribus ftliabus. 3. Tria oppida, in tribus oppidrs. 4. Duo mtlia equitum, mllle equites. 5. In duabus terrts, 6. In tribus legionibus, duo fIliI, duos fllids, tres prmcipes. 7. Nomina duoruru prmcipum, tribus ftliabus. 118. 1. Duae legiones audaeius Instant. 2. Trecentl Ger. mani sunt in castrts. 3. Tria mtlia equitum in proelio pugnant. 4. Unus Romanus tres adulescentes Germanos superat, 5. MIlle equites RomanI cum tribus mtlibus Gallorum dnnicant. 6. Ducenti equites septem vtcos vastant, 7. Nomina qutnquaginta Romanorum sunt clara. 119. 1. Of three cities, in three battles, two daughters. 2. A. thousand Gauls; with three thousand Germans. 3. Of one soldier; of two towns; for three villages. 4. With three hundred soldiers; of three hundred cavalry, 5. Two thousand cavalry. 6. We contend with three thousand Gauls. 7. Three hundred Romans retard the onset of a thousand Gauls. REVIEW.

120. 1. Sine 11.110 pertoulo alterum oppidum Belgarum oppugnamus, 2. Duas legiones in dextro cornu collocas, 3. Quattuor legatI Germanorum auxilium Caesaris, ducis Romant, implorant, 4. In oppido majore sunt tres legiones. 5. Duos colles altissimos occupamus. 6. Acerrime et fortissims dtmicatis. 7. Legiones castra minora oppugnant,

46

REVIEW.

8. Collem quinque alirs legionibus occupat. 9. Virtutern ducum Romanorum et mtlitum Iaudamus, 10. Dux maximas copias parat. 11. Virtiitem tottus acier laudamus. 12. Adulsscens nobilis vietoriam copiarum Rornanarum senatut nuntiat, 13. 'I'res legiones in altere cornu collocat.

lAIPERATUR.

LEGATUS.

CENTURIU.

LESSON

XXI.

PRONOUNS.

121. A Pronoun is a word that indicates something without naming it. 1.

PERSONAL

PRONOUNS.

122. These correspond to the English I, you, he, she, it, etc., and are declined as follows:First Person.

Second Person.

Third Person.

SINGULAR.

Nom. Gen. Dai. Ace. Voc.

ego, I mei mihi

me

til, thou

'tlli tibi

is, he; ea, she; id, it (For Declension, see ยง 13i.)

til til

su. me

tie rLURAL.

Nom. G

nos, we

{nostruDI en. nostrt

Dat. Ace. Voc. Abl.

nobts 1l0S

nobis II.

vos, you. vestrum { vestri vobis vos vos vobis REFLEXIVE

PRONOUNS.

123. These refer to the subject of the sentence or clause in which they stand; like myself, yourself, in 'I see myself,' etc. They are declined as follows: 47

• 48

POSSESSIVE

First Person. Gen. mei, of myself u«. mihi, to myself Acc. me, myself Voc. Abl. me, with myself, etc.

PRONOUNS. Second Person, tul, of thyself tibi, to thyself te, thyself te, with thyself, etc.

J. it. Third Person, "~JI, sui "'MSid/, $'t'/~ sibi se or sese

4

se or sese

1. The Reflexive of the Third Person serves for all genders and for both numbers. Thus sui may mean, of himself, herself, itself, or' of themselves; and so with the other cases of sui. III.

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.

124. These are strictly adJectives of the First and Second Declensions, and are inflected as such. They are : Fi,'st Person. meus, -a, -um, my; noster, nostra, nostrum, our; Second Person. tuus, -a, -um, thy, your (of one person); vester, vestra, vestrum, your (more than one person); Thi,'d Person, suus, -a, -um, his, her, its, their.

1. Suus is exclusively Reflexive; as,pater liberos

suos amat, the father loves his children.

Otherwise, his, her, its, are regularly expressed by the Genitive Singular of is, viz. ejus; and their, by the Genitive Plural, eorum, elrum.

125.

VOCABULARY.

ad, to,l towa/'ds, prep. w. ace. amice, in a j,'iendly manner. culpo, I blame. Dumnorlx, igis, m., Dumnorix, a chief of the Haedui. gladius, i (ii), m., sword. gratus, a, urn, pleasing, welcome. Imperator, oris, m., commander. jiidico, I judge, adiudge.

memoria, ae, f., memory, recollection. officium, i (ii), n., duty. praesto, Lperform, ' probe, I approve. quoque, also, always placed after the word it modifies. verbum, i, n, wOI·d.

1 English to is rendered by ad in Latin. if there is an idea of motion; other. wise the Dative is used.

49

PRONOUNS. Principle

of Syntax.

126. Dative of Indirect Object. The Dative is used to denote the Indirect Object; as, dona mihi dat, he Dives me presents, or, Dives presents to me. EXERCISES.

127. 1. Mihi, nobis, nos. 2. SUi, sibi. 3. Tt'!, vobts, vestrr, 4. Tl1, met, vas, tibi, vestrum, me, se. 5. Pater meus,' pater noster, patrum nostrorum, 6. Patris tut, patres vestrt, 7. Gladius meus, impera.tori nostro, officiorum vestrorum, 128. 1. Ego officium meum 1 imperatort praesto. 2. Caesar nos acriter accnsat, 3. Tua nostrt memoria mihi est grata. 4. Ad se Dumnortgem vocat. 5. Caesar de vobis amrcissime jndieat. 6. Tl1 quoque verba mea probas. 7. Ego me acenso. 8. Se culpant. 9. Equites nostrt gladits suIs pugnant. 129. 1. Of us; to you; to himself; to themselves. 2. My father; our father; our fathers. 3. Of your friend; of your friends; to my friends. 4. We call the soldiers to us (= to ourselves). 5. No other commander blames his soldiers. 6. My daughter calls me. 7. You call your son to you (= to yourself). 1 The Possessive Pronouns, noun which they limit.

nnless emphatic,

are ordinarily

placed after the

LESSON

XXII.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. IV.

DEMONSTRATIVE

PRONOUNS.

130. These point out an object as They are: -

here

or

there,

or as

previously mentioned.

hie, thi.!; iste, ilIe, is, that; idem, the same. Hie, this. PLURAL.

SINGULAR. M~ASOOLINE.

Nom. htc Gen. hujus Dat. hnic Ace. "hunc AM. hoc

.

FEMlNINE.

haec hiijus huic hanc hac

MAflOOLlNE.

NEUTER.

hi horum his hos his

hoc hujus huic hoc hoc

FEMININE.

hae harum his has his

lste, that, that of yours.

131.

SINGULAR. MASOULINE.

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. AM.

iste istius isti istum isto

FEMININE.

ista istius istt istarn ista

NBUTER.

istud istius isti istud iBto

PLURAL. MABOULINE.

Nom. isti Gen. istorum Dat. istis Ace. Istos Abl. istis

132.

F":1l.U.NINE.

istae istarum istis istas istis

NEUTRR.

ista istorum istis ista istis

TIle, that, that one, he, is declined like Iste, 50

NEUTlilR.

haec horum his haec his

DEMONSTRATIVE

133.

51

VOCABULARY.

a, um, dear. causa, ae, f., cause, condition. exercttue, UB, m., army. ignllVUB, a, um, cowardly. carUII,

PRONOUNS.

opinio,

oDiB, f., opinion,

expecta-

tion. BaluB, utiB, f., safety.

servue, i, m., slave. EXERCISES.

134. 1. Hnjus 1patris, horum patrum. 2. Huic puero, has viros, 3. Horum castrorum, huic filiae, hts ftliabus. 4. Jlltus virl, istorum virorum ; illtus opimoms, illae opmiones, 5. In isto exereitu, isttus exercitus. 6. Lllts causis, illi causae, in illa causa. 7. IUud bellum, istud proelium, ista proelia. 135. 1. Istr mtlites sunt ignavr, 2. Officia illt praestam us. 3. In illo exercitil sunt multi servt, 4. Hio pater ftlias suas vocat, 5. Vestra salus, mtlites, huic imperatort carissima est. 6. Has pueros ad nos vocamus. 7. In hac proelio equestri audacissime pugnant. 8. Mtlites nostrt illum difflciliorern aditum fortiter oppugnant. 9. Dux illtus exercitus est ignavissimus, 10. Hoc bellum est acerrimum, 136. 1. That opinion; of those opinions; of those armies. 2. To this commander; of these commanders; of these trees. 3. That slave (of yours); of those slaves. 4. The leaders of these armies are cowardly. 5. Those duties are most difficult. 6. With all these legions Caesar attacks that town. 7. Those mountains are high. 1 A Demonstrative Pronoun, like an adjective, and Case with the noun It limits. Demonstrative the noun which they limit.

agrees In Gender, Number, Pronouns regularly precede

LESSON XXIII • . DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS (Continued). - THE INTENSIVE PRONOUN. Is, that, this ; he, she, it.

137.

SINGULAR. MA.SOULINE.

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Abl.

is ejus ei eum

eo

. FEMININE.

ea ejus ei earn ea

N"IJTlI:R •

id ejus ei id

eo

PLURAL. MASOULINE.

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Abl.

ei or i'i eorum eis or ils eos eis or Us

FEMININB.

NEIJTlI:R.

eae earum ets or its

ea eorum eis or ea els or ·us

eas eis or ita

us

Idem, the same.

138.

SINGULAR. MASOULINlI.

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Abl.

idem ejusdem eldem eundem eadem

FEMININlil.

NEUTER.

eadem ejusdem eidem eandem eadem

idem ejusdem eidem idem eodem

52

THE INTENSIVE

PRONOUN.

53

PLURAL. MASOULINE.

FEMI.NINlil.

NEUTEE.

eidem } Nom. { ildem

eaedem

eadem

Gen. Dat. Ace. Abl.

earundsm eisdern easdem eisdem

eorundem etsdem eadem eisdem

eorundem eisdem eosdem elsdern

The Nom. PI. Masc. also has idem, and the Dat. Abl. PI. isdem or iisdem. V. THE INTENSIVE PRONOUN.

139. The Intensive Pronoun in Latin is ipse. It corresponds to the English myself, etc., in ' I my;;[f; he himself.' SINGULAR. MA.SOULINE.

FEMININE.

Nom. ipse Gen. ipstus ipst Ace. ipsum Abl. ipso

ipsa ipsfus Ipst ipsam ipsa

»«.

NEU'l'lilR.

ipsum ipslus ipsi ipsum ipso

PLURAL. M A.80OLINE.

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace.

Au.

FEMININE.

ipsi ipso rum ipsls ipsos ipsis

140.

ipsae ipsarum ipsts ipsas ipsis VOCABULARY.

bene, 1oell. facultll.s, lltis, f., abundance,supply.

labor, oris, m., labo?·.

NEUTllR.

ipsa ipsorum ipsis ipsa ipsis

sex, indeel., six. summus, highest, greatest; s~s (§ 102, 2).

BUp.

of

EXERCISES.

141. 1. Ejusdem exercitns, in eadem exercitn, 2. Eae causae, de ets causts, 3. Eorundem laborum, ersdem labori-

PRONOUNS.

54

bus, 4. Servi ipsrus, servos ipsos. dem oprnionis, earundem portarum. eadem castra, eidem exercitur,

5. Eodem Iabore, ejus6. In eadem causa,

142. 1. Ejus nomen est Galba. 2. De ea causa bene judi. cat. 3. Sex cohortes ejus legionis portas ipsas oppidi oppug· nant. 4. De ersdem rebus judicamus, 5. In eadem causa sunt alii Galli. 6. Eidem equites illum laudant. 7. In eo oppido est summa faeultas omnium rerum. 8. Eam ad nos voeo. 9. Patrem eorum laude, 143. 1. The same causes; of the same armies, concerning the same duties. 2. That gate; of those gates. 3. Of the slave himself; concerning the slaves themselves. 4. I call him; I call her j I call them. 5. I call his 1 father; I call their 1 father. 6. We praise the commander himself of that army. 7. That camp is on the island itself. 1

I.e. 'the father of him,' • the father of them.'

here; §l24,l..&~S/.lUs.

'('~CC>

rr:r J 6

~

~o/.ht./VP-,.

~r()1n-

SWORD

Suus must not ~

(gladtus).

used

LESSON

XXIV.

RELATIVE, INTERROGATIVE, AND INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. VI. THE RELATIVE

PRONOUN.

144. The Relative Pronoun is clined: -

qui,

SINGULAR. MABOULlliE.

FEMINll'E.

Nom. qui Gen. ciijus Dat. cui Ace. quem Abl. quo

It is de-

PLURAL.

NEUTER.

MA8CUL1.NE.

quod ciijus cui quod quo

qui quorum quibus quos quibus

quae ctijus cui quam qua

who.

VII. INTERROGATIVE

F}~:\II~INE.

quae

quarum quibus quas quibus

NEUTER.

quae quorum quibus quae quibus

PRONOUNS.

145. The Interrogative Pronouns are quia, who? (substantive) and qui, what? what kind of? (adjective). 1. Quia, who? SINGULAR. MASC.

Nom. Gen. Dat, Ace. Abl.

AND FElt£.

quis cujus cui quem quo

PLURAL.

NEUTER.

quid cujus cui quid quo

Inflected like the Plural of the Relative Pronoun.

2. QuI, ioluu ! what kind of? is declined precisely like the Relative Pronoun; viz. qui, quae, quod, etc. VIII.

INDEFINITE

PRONOUNS.

146. These have the general force of some one, anyone, as shown in the following list: 55

56

INDEFINITE

PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES.

SUBSTANTIVES. M. H

AND

F.

~

id

!801ne one,

~ . qmsquam,

NEUT.

FE>!.

aliqua,

allq nod Borne.

quisque,

quaeque,

quodque,

qurdam,

quaedam,

quod dam,

aliquI,

something.

J

{any on6, anything.

ld qUI quam,

~

MASo.

NEUT.

u

.

'l.uidque,6(W".

a eertat芦 quidam,

quaedam,

qutddsm,

{

per801lJ

each. { a certain.

or thing.

1. In the Indefinite Pronouns, only the pronominal part is declined. Thus; Genitive Singular aliciijus, ciijusquam, etc. 2. Note that ali qui has aliqua in the Nominative Singular Fenrinine, also ill the Nominative and Accusative Plural Neuter. 3. Quidam forms Accusative Singular quendam, quandam; Genitive Plural quorundam, quarundam i the m being changed to n before d.

147.

Principle of Syntax.

Agreement of Relative Pronouns. The Relative Pronoun agrees with its Antecedent in Gender, Number, and Person, but its Case is determined by its construction in the clause in which it stands; as,mulier quam laudll.mus, the woman whom we praise; oppida quae oppugnamus, the towns which we attack.

148.

VOCABULARY,

armo,Ial'm. dubito, 1 hesitate, waver. dux, ducis, m., leader. erro, 1 err, am mistaken. fugo, I put to flight. hlbema, Orum, n, pl., wintm'q~tal'tel's.

homo, mini., m., man, human being. (3 c 6/M)) praeda, ae, f., booty. si, if spero, 1 hope, hope for,. governs . the acc.

EXERCISES.

149. homo?

1. Miles quidam, Quod oppidum?

mflitibus quibusdam.路 3. Cuique ctvitatr,

2. QuI cnjusque

PRONOUNS.

57

servi. 4. Praeda ali qua, in proelio aliquo, 5. Homo qutdam, hominis cnjusdam. 6. Quamque cohortern, Cujus I auctoritas ? In qua ctvitate ? 7. Oppidorum quorundam, in oppidts quibusdam, viro cuidam. 8. Cuiquam, quidquam, cujusquam. 9. Mulieres, quas laudas, 10. Oppidum, cnjus incolas oppugnamus. 11. Colles, quos occupat. 12. Amicus, cui gladium dono. 13. Amici, quibus gladios donatis, 14. Pertcula, quae vitant. 15. Oopiae, quas proelio vexamus. 16. Galli, quorum I auxilium imploramus, 17. AmiCUS,quem amo, 18. Agricolae, quorum I mills amamus, 150. 1. Cohortes quasdam in bfbernis collocat. 2. 8i quisquam salutem sperat, errat. 3. Dux mtlitibus, qul oppidum oppugnant, praedam donat, 4. Legiones laudat quae hostrs fugant. Servos armat qut in eastris sunt. 6. Collem quendam occupat. 7. Quis hunc hominem accusat ? 8. Caesar prtncipes cujusque civitatis ad se vocat. 9. Quod oppidum oppugnatis ? 10. Quae castra hi milites oppugnant? 11. Quis vestrum salutem urbis sperat ? 12. Htc imperator legiones culpat quae pericula vitant.

o.

151. 1. A certain man; of certain men; concerning certain things. 2. To each cause j some cause; some men. 3. What man? What battle? 4. Of each army; concerning each slave. 5. This commander arms certain legions. 6. Booty delights some soldiers. 7. What towns (dO)2the soldiers attack? 8. They attack a certain town of the Belgians. 1 argus I

and quOrum (lit. of whom) are often best translated whose. This word is not to be translated.

LESSON

XXV.

CONJUGATION.

152. A Verb is a word which asserts something; as, est, The inflection of Verbs is called

he is : amat, he loves. Conjugation.

153. Verbs have Voice, Mood, Tense, Number, Person: 1. Two voices, - Acti ve and Passive. The Active Voice represents the subject as acting or being j as, video, I see j sum, I am. The Passive Voice represents the subject as acted upon; as, vocamur, we are called. 2. Three Moods, -Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative. The Indicative Mood is used in stating facts, or inquiring after facts; as, spero, I hope j quid speras, what do you hope? The force of the Subjunctive is explained in the Syntax (Part IlL). The Imperative is used in commands, requests, entreaties, etc. 3. Six Tenses, - Present, Imperfect, Future, Perfect, Pluperfect, Future Perfect. These correspond respectively to the English Present, Past, Future, Present Perfect, Past Perfect, Future Perfect. But the Subjunctive lacks the Future and Future Perfect, while the Imperative employs only the Present and Future. 4. Two Numbers, - Singular and Plural. 5. Three Persons,-First,

Second, and Third. 58

CONJUGATION

OF

sum.

59

154. These make up the so-called Finite Verb. Besides this, we have the following Noun and Adjective . Forms: ~:;f/~s l!er&j ocon: 4t!>(v~ lJc nG,n / u~ 0,,19 In ,1tcJi.路 1. Noun Forms, - Infinitive, Gerund, and Supine. J'\.=. ,. 2. Adjective Fonus, - Participles (including the Gerundive).

~'-"'1ac:/f;

VIS;;

155. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs. Verbs that take a Direct Object are Transitive Verbs; as, tll amlimus, we love you. Other verbs are Intransitive; as, imus, we go, manllmus, we ,路emain. THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS.

156. There are in Latin four regular Conjugations, distinguished from each other by the first vowel of the termination of the Present Infinitive Active, as follows:CONJUGATION.

r.

n.

nr. IV. PRINCIPAL

INFINITIVE TERMINATION.

DISTINGUIBnING VOWEl ..

-lire -lire -i!re -ire

PARTS

a II

i! i

AND VERB-STEMS.

157. 1. PRINCIPAL PARTS. The Present Indicative, Present Infinitive, Perfect Indicative, and the Perfect Participle 1 constitute the Principal Parts of a Latin verb,so called because they contain the different stems, from which the full conjugation of the verb may be derived. 2. VERB STEMS. Conjugation consists in adding certain endings to the different Stems of the Verb, as will be explained more fully later. 1 Where the Perfect Participle is not iu use, the Future Active Participle, It occurs, is giveu as one of the Principal Parts.--

if

4 .

OF sum.

CONJUGATION

60

INDICATIVE

sum.

OF

158. The irregular verb sum is so important for the conjugation of all other verbs that its inflection is given at the outset. PRINCIPAL

PRES,

IND.

sum

PRE8. L~b~.

PARTS.

PERF, INn.

FUT,

PRESENT

PARTIe.'

futilrus

fui

esse

TENSE. PLURAL.

SINGULAR.

sumus, we are, estis, you are, sunt, they are.

sum, I am, es, thou art, you are, est, he is;

IMPERFECT,

eramus, we were, erlltis, you were, erant, they ioere,

eram, I was, eras, thou wast, you wel'e, erat, he was;

FUTURE. PLURAL.

SINGULAR.

erimus, we shall be, eritis, you will be, erunt, they will be.

era, I shall be, eris, thou wilt be, you will be, erit, he will be;

PER1<'ECT.

fuI, I have been, I was,2 fuimus, we have been, we were, fUistI, thou hast been, thou wast, you fuistis, you have been, you were, were, fuerunt t Iuere, '} they have been, they were. fuit, he has been, he was j PLUPERFECT.

fueram, J had been, fueramus, we had been, fueras, thou hadst been, you had been, fuerlltis, you had been, fuerat, he had been, fuerant, they had been. FUTURE

PERFECT.

fuerimus, we shall have been, fuero, I shall have been, fueris, thou wilt (you will) have been, fueritis, you will have been, fuerint, they will have been. fuerit, he will have been; 1 The Perfect Participle is wanting in Bum. These two meanings are designated reH]lcctively as the Present Perfect (1~en) and the Historical Perfect (I ~), 2

CONJUGA.TION

159.

OF

BU1n.

61

VOCABULARY.

ante, before, infront of, prep. with ace. i, m., Bibulus (a man's name). firmus, a, um, firm; strong. fossa, ae, f., ditch, trench. Bfbulus,

fbi, adv., there, in that place. inopia, ae, f., lack, need. n~ndum, not yet. quondam, formerly. ubi, where, rel. and interr, adv

EXERCISES.

160. 1. Eratis, fuerat, fuistis. 2. Estis, 3. Eritis, erant, fuere. 4. Fuistr, erimus, fueris, fueritis. 6. Era, erunt, fuerint. erit. 8. Bunt meliores, es melior, fuistis mus amici, sumus ll\gatL 10. Agricola sumus.

fuerimus, fuerant. eras. 5. Fueras, 7. Eris, fueratis, optimt, 9. Erafuerat, agricolae

161. 1. Fossa erat ante oppidum. 2. Hi legati in castris Caesaris fuerant. 3. Haec civitas quondam fuerat flrmiasima, 4. Hae septem legiones in Italia erant. 5. Quis fuit dux horum mtlitum? 6. Caesar et Bibulus consules fuerunt, 7. Magna erit inopia omnium rerum. 8. Ubi fuistis ? 9. In oppido Haeduorum fuimus. 10. Nondum ibi fueramus, 11. Ubi pater noster fuit? 12. Vas, mtlites, qut omnia pertcula vrtatis, iguavissimt estis. 13. In illo oppido Belgarum nondum fueratis, 162. 1. We were; we shall be; we had been. 2. I have been; he will have been; he will be. 3. You have been; you were; they will have been. 4. I have not yet been consul. 5. These consuls were cowardly. 6. Where had yom father been? 7. He had been in the camp of the enemy. 8. We have been in many towns of the Gauls. 9. Before this camp was a deep trench.

LESSON

OF sum

CONJUGATION

163.

XXVI. (Continued)

Subjunctive.1 PRESENT.

.:

PLURAL.

SINGULAR.

simus, let us be, may we be, sitis, be ye, may you be, slat, let them be, may they be.

sim, may I be, sis, be thou, mayest thou be, sit, let him be, may he be;

IMPERFECT.

essemus, we should be, essetis, you would be, essent, they would be.

essem, I should be, esses, thou uiouldst be, esset, he would be j

PERFECT.

fuerim fueris fuerit

fuerimus fueritis fuerint

(The meanings of the Perfect Subjunctive must be learned in Bub ordinate clauses.) PLUPERFECT.

fuissem, I should have been, fuisses, thou uiouldst have been, fuisset, he would have been;

Pres, es, be thou; Fut. esta, thou shalt be, esta, he shall be i

fuissemus, foe should have been, fuissetis, you would have been, futsaent, they would have been.

Imperative. este, be yeo estate, ye shall be. suuta, they shall be.

Infinitive. Pres. esse, to be. Perf. fuisse, to have been. Fui. futiirus esse.?to be about to be.

Participle.

Fut, futiirus,8 about to be.

1The meanings of the different tenses of the Snbjunctive are so many and so varied, particnlarly in subordinate clauses, that no attempt can be made to give them here. For fuller information the pupil Is referred to the Syntax. 2 For futiirus esse the form fore is often used. 8 Decline like bonus, -a, -UJn.

/Jo

k abed/- '!P" le: ":"2~~

tuL-- PoR0.

CONJUGATION

164.

OF sum.

63

VOCABULARY.

amieitia, ae, f., friendship. beltua, a, um, happy. brevia, e, short, brief. elvia, elvia, m., citizen, fellow citizen. eontentua, a, um, contented. f~lix,gen.f~lieia, fortunate, happy.

inter, among, between, prep. with ace. l~x, l~gia, f., law. perpetuus, a, um, perpetual. puer, pueri, m., boy. eub, undel', prep. with abl,

EXERCISES.

165. 1. Fuisse, futurus esse. 2. Sit, srtis, 3. Fuisset, fuissemus. 4. Es, esto, sunto. 5. Esses, essetis, essemus, 6. Stmus, essent, esse, futurus, 7. Contentus fuisset, sit felix, sint fellces. 8. Este, esset, estote. 9. Fuissetis beatr, fuisset beatus, 10. Essem, fuisses, srs. 166. 1. Sint mel ctvea incolumes, sint beat!! 2. Fslrcea stmus l 3. Sub hoc imperatore content! fuissemus, 4. Leges breves sunto l 5. Es bonus imperator ! 6. Est6 fIrmus! 7. Este fortes mtlites l 8. HI puerI futllrI sunt adulescentes, 9. Inter nos sit amtcitia perpetua! 10. Sine his laboribus milites fortiores fuissent. 11. In alia oppido felIcior fuisses, 167. 1. Let them be; I should have been; they would have been. 2. To have been; be thou; they shall be. 3. May he be; he would have been. 4. May there be friendship between you and me. 5. May we be happy. 6. Let this law be brief. 7. I should have been glad. 8. Under another leader the soldiers would have been braver.

LESSON XXVII. FIBST

~OR a-) CONJUGATION. -ACTIVE

VOICIL

Ame, I love. PRINCIPAL

PARTS.

PRRS. IND.

PRES. INF.

PRRF. IND.

amO

amare

amavl

Indicative

168.

PRESENT

PER".

PASS. PARTlO.

amatua

Mood. TENSE.

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

arne, I love, amlis, you love, amat, he loves;

amamus, we love, amllti8, you love, amant, they love. IMPERFECT.

amabam, I was loving, 1 loved, arnabas, you wel'e loving, etc" amabat, he was loving, etc.;

amllbamu8, we were loving, etc., arnlibatis, you were loving, etc., amabant, they were loving, etc. FUTURE.

amabe, I shall love, amabfs, you will love, amllbit, he will love;

amabtmus, we shall love, amabitis, you will love, arnllbunt, they will love. PERFECT.

amavr, I have loved, Lloved, amavistl, you have loved, you loved, arnavtt, he has loved, he loved;

amavirnus, we have loved, we loved, am avis tis, you have loved, you loved, amavsrunt, -lire, they have loved, they loved.

PLUPERFECT.

amaveram, I had loved, amaveras, you had loved, arnaverat, he had loved;

ainii.veramu8, we had loved, amaveratas, you had loved, amaverant, they had loved. FUTU!n;

PERFECT.

amaverd, I shall have loved, amaverie, you will haoe loved, amavertt, he will have loved;

amii.verimus, we shall have loved, amuverttts, you will have loved, amnvertnt, they will have loved. 64

.ACTIVE

65

OF ami).

1. VERB STEMS. Observe that the Present, Imperfect, and Future are formed by adding the proper endings to one and the same stem, am-, This is called the Present Stem. Similarly the Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect are formed from the stem amav-, This is called the Perfect Stem.

169.

VOCABULARY.

animus, I, m., mind. Arlovistus, i, m., .Ario'Vistus, king of the Germans. classis, is, f., fleet. eonsilium, i (ii), n., plan. e, ex, from, out of, prep. with abl.; ex must be used before vowels or h. gens, gentis, f., tl'ibe:l~//e路

jam, adv., already. jugum, I, n., yoke; ridge(ofmoun. tains), lItus, oris, D., shore. lOCUS,I, m., place; pl. loea,

orum,

D.

niivis, is, f., ship, boat. pars, partis, f., part, side. saepe, adv., often.

EXERCISES.

170. 1. Laudabimus,laudavistis. 2. Laudaverant, laudabat, laudabit, 3. Judicavimus, [ndicaverimus, [ndicaveras. 4. Superabit, superabas. 5. Occupant, occupaverunt, 6. Laudavit, laudabamus, laudaverant. 7. Oceupabitis, oceupabatis, occupabis. 8. Collocavistt, collocaveras, collocaveris, 9. Superabunt, superaverimus, superavero, 171. 1. Ariovistus castra minora oppugnabat, 2. Rune locum ex duabus partibus oppugnaverunt. 3. Naves et remiges parabimus. 4. Omnia litora classibus oceupavit, 5. Timor animos omnium ocoupaverat, 6. In summo jugo montis duas legiones eolloeavimus. 7. De bello vos ipst [ndicabitis, 8. Has gentes, milites, jam saepe superavistis. 9. Legiones in proelio dimicabant. 10. Quis hoc consilium probabit ? 11. Caesar plurima jumenta jam paraverat. 12. Has qutnque legiones in eo loco eollocabimus. 13. Pacem et amteitiam cum his ctvitatibus nondum confirmavimus.

66

ACTIVE

OF amQ.

172. 1. I have summoned you; I was summoning you. 2. You summoned me; we shall summon you; they had summoned you. 3. We praised him; they had praised him; I was praising him. 4. The soldiers will fight; they have fought; we have fought. 5. Caesar had got ready many ships. 6. He will station two legions in that place. 7, I have not yet approved these plans. 8. Who had approved those words? 173,

Gaul and its Divisiol18.1

Gallia est magna terra quae inter Rhenum flumen et Oceannm jacet." Hujus terrae sunt tres partes, quarum unam " incolunt 4 Belgae, aliam Aquitant, tertiam Celtae, qut nostra lingua 5 Gallt appellantur." Horum omnium fortissimt sunt Belgae. 1 This and the sixteen following passages of connected disconrse form a continuous narrative of Caesar's campaign against the Helvetii, as detailed in full in Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War, Book I., chapters i.-xxix. In the passages of con tinuous narrative, the pnpil will cons nIt the General Vocabulary at the end of the book for the words that have not been given in previous lessons. 2 jaeet: lies: 3rd sing. pres. indic. 8 unam, ali am , terti am : understand partera with these words. 4 ineolunt: inhabit; 3rd plu. pres. indio. 5 nostra lingua: in ou,' language; i e. in Latin. 6 appellantur ; an called; 3rd plu. pres. indic. pass.

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE ON JULIUS

CAESAR.

The Helvetian War, which is the subject of the connected reading in this and the following lessons, was a part of the first campaign of Julius Caesar during his governorship of Gaul. This account is simplified and greatly abbreviated from the one which he wrote in his own Commentaries. That these Commentaries should have been read for centuries in the schools seems especially fitting, since they display the literary style, the military genius, the eloquence, and the forethought of the greatest personality of Roman history. As an introduction to the story told in the following pages, a very brief account of Caesar's life is here given. Born of an old patrician family, Gaius Julius Caesar entered at an early age the field of politics, which was considered the fitting activity of a young Roman of high birth. In spite of his aristocratic connection, he at once recognized the strength of the popular party, and allied himself with it. Immediately his exceptional ability showed itself, and we find him at the age of fifteen the holder of an important public office, and at twenty-two the winner of the civic crown, which was conferred for military distinction. Serving the State with great credit in various offices, and "neglecting no opportunity to ingratiate himself with the people, he had reached the highest magistracy of the Roman State - the consulship - at the age of forty-two. It was at this time that he formed the famous coalition (called the First Triumvirate) with Pompey, who had won unbounded popularity by his military achievements, and Cras-

68

Ii

BlOGRAPHWAL

.NOTE ON JULIUS

CAESAR.

69

sus, the richest man in Rome. Working in concert, these iliree were supreme. Through the influence of his powerful allies, Caesar was appointed governor of the Roman provinces of Gaul for five years, and, upon the expiratiou of his term, for a second period of five years. His Commentaries belong to this time, when perhaps his plans for becoming master of Rome were quietly forming themselves. During these years not only did he conquer Gaul, but he replenished his purse, and trained the army on whose efficiency he built his fortunes. Before the ten years of his governorship had elapsed, the death of Crassus in Parthia brought about a breach with Pompey, which widened into civil war, and ended with Caesar's triumph over his rival at Pharsalus (48 B.O.) and his elevation to the supreme power at Rome. In this office Caesar's greatest work was done. He established beneficent governments for the provinces, corrected the calendar, and instituted numerous much needed reforms. In the height of his power, at the age of fifty-seven, he was struck down by a band of conspirators - not, however, before he had firmly laid the foundation of that great Roman Empire which was to give the world for more than two centuries a better government than any considerable 'part of it had ever known.

::JM/v.LJJ _YJ

S!e.J~-

1-".1 (j1JM1/olJ{lhle.

lnedaJl __ ~ ~RdJ k MU1 LL de.t7rcyeJL rd tLc/PLiT~ Jt~fdwIJtJ~kt. an tD.VU~Pr.;//)/l PJPrAdPJn! r: o, 1k-r!!},hJt!f ~t.J~. ~ ':.JJ:Jd k Ii . /) wcudd Y-dtle l:s:Pm 10 Um1Jni112emil tdptlJN:LeP- mul'der

-.luhU<l

.

fr

f?lfdt.Lr1lye h wJ._Ih~aJ Wtz ~ ~

t¥-¥JJ'-J!.

oi

IJJ:1JL

~QJ

aMf2., ~

dAis

jr)r~J"

oj ~-e

....

,.•• 1:& chlffi tl

LESSON XXVIII. ACTIVE OF ami) (Continued).

174.

, Subjunctive. PRESENT. SINGULAR.

,"" .-

PLURAL.

/eJ~ ~ve

aml!mus, let us love, 1nt1"t:J eve forkametis, love, may you love, ament, let them love, may they love

amem, may I love, aml!s, love, may you love, amet, let him love, may he love,

IMPERFECT.

amll.rem, I should love, amlirl!s, you would love, amll.ret, he would loue ;

am1l.rl!mus, we should love, amll.rl!tis, you would love, amarent, they would love. PERFECT.

amsverim

amaverfmus

amaverfs

amaverItis amaverint

amaverit

PLUPERFECT.

amavissem, I should have loved, alllavisses, you would have loved, amavisset, he would have loved ;

amavissl!mus, we should have loved. amavissetis, you would have loved, amiivissent, they would have loved.

Imperative. Pres, ama, lore tliou ; Put. am1l.to, thou shalt love, amato, he shall loue ;

mnate, love yeo amli.tate, ye shall love. amanto, they shall love.

Infinitive.

Participle.

Pres. amare, to love. Perf amavtase, to have loved. Put. amiitiirus esse, to be about to'love.

Pres. am1l.ns,l loving. (Gen. amantis) Fut, arniitiirus, about to looe,

Gerund. amandI, of loving. amanda, for loving. arnandum, loving. amanda, by loving.

Supine.

Gen. Dat. Ace. Abl,

1

For declension

Ace. Ab!.

amiitum, to love. amatil, to love, be loved.

of amina, see ยง 91, recina.

70

FIRST

CONJUGATION. -AGTIl-E

VOICE.

71

1. VERB STEMS. Observe that the Present and Imperfect Subjunctive, the entire Imperative, the Present Infinitive, Present Participle, and the Gerund are formed from the Present Stem. The Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive, along with the Perfect Infinitive, are formed from the Perfect Stem. The Future Participle, Future Infinitive, and the Supine are formed from a third stem amAto,known as the Participial Stem.

175.

VOCABULARY.

arma, orum, n. pI., m'ms. bello,l I make war, carryon war. cupidus, a, um, fond, eaaer. hora, ae, f" how'. intrA, within, prep. with ace. medius, a, um, middle, 1nidclleof multitiido, dinis, f. multitude.

nunc, now, temporal adv. patrla, ae, f., country, fatherland. pedes, itis, m., foot-soldier ; in pl., in/antl'y, pllinities, ei, f. plain. tempto, 1, I attempt, make trial of vadum, t, n., ford.

EXERCISES.

176. 1. Para, paranto, 2. Paravisse, parandt, parando, 3. Bellare, bellaturus esse. 4. 'I'emptemus, temptavissemus. 5. Laudato, laudavisse, laudavisset, 6. Laudaturus, laudans, laudent. 7. Laudando, laudaret, lauda, 8. Dtmicandr, dunicavissent, dtmieent, 9. Dtmicate, dtmicans, dtmieavisse. 177. 1. Patriam amemus ! 2. Hoc oppidum sine ullo periculo oppugnavissernus, 3. Arm a, mtlites, parate l 4. Caesar vadum hujus fiuminis temptare parat, 5. III media planitie nunc drmicaturt sumus. 6. Helvetit erant cupidt bellandr. 7. Intra unam horam classes hostium superavtssemus, 8. Cum magna multitndine peditum oppidum oppugn are parabat. 9. Temptate, mtlites, illum collem oceupare. 10. Rae duae cohortes, victoriam sperantes, aeriter pngnabant. 1 Verbs of the First Conjugation are so regular that their Principal Parts are not given in full. They are indicated in the Vocabularies by the figure I, and unless otherwise stated, their Principal Parts are regularly formed In -i, -Ire, -lLvI,-lLtU8,precisely like amo.

72

-0'

.:

FIRST

CONJUGATION. -ACTIVE

VOICE.

178. 1. Let the soldiers contend; the soldiers would have contended. 2. 'I'o have contended; about to contend; by contending. 3. May he approve our words; he would have approved your words. 4. Who would have praised this man? 5. The aoldiers try to seize that hill. 6. Praise all these soldiers. 7. We are about to attack another town. 8. All the Gauls are fond of fighting.

LEGION AllY SOLDIERS.

LESSON FIRST

XXIX.

(OR ii-) CONJUGATION. -

PASSIVE

VOICE.

Amor, I am loved. PERF.

PRES. INF.

P~ES. INn.

PRINCIPAL PARTB.-alllor

amll.ri

1~9.

Mood.

Indicative

!ND.

amltuB BUm

PRESENT TENSE. I am loved.

SINGULAR. amor ambiB amll.tur

amantur hU路EIl!I'EOT. I waS loved.

q,mtbar amibiri., amlblltur

PLURAL. amll.mur amaroini

or ..,..

amlblmur a.mllbimlnl

a. mlbantur FUTURE.

I shall be laved. Il,mlbimur amlbimlut 3mlbuntur

amlbQt "lTliberiB, or -re amlbltur PERFECT. amatus amatue amaluB

amatus amatue amatus

I have been loved or I was (-a, -urn) sum as est PLUPERFECT. I had been loved. eram erb erat

loved. amati (-ae, -a) sumus amali eBtiB amiitl Bunt

amMI ermuB amitl eritiB amati erant

FUTURE PERFECT. I shall have been loved. amitl erimus amiitl eritis am itt Grunt

amatue era amituB eriB "mitu' ent

78

74

FIRST

CONJUGATION. -

PASSIVE

VOICE.

1. VERB STEMS. Observe that the Present, Imperfect, and Future be long to the Present Stem, the remaining tenses to the Participial Stem. 180. ~ .:

VOCABULARY.

adventus, us, m., a?·rival. centum, indecl., hund1·ed. exspecto, 1, I expect, await. finitimus, a, um, neighboring. friimentum, i, n., grain.

frustra, adv., in vain. funditor, toris, m., slinger. postridie, adv., on the next day. postulo, 1, I demand. • vulnero, 1, I wound. EXERCISES.

181. 1. Laudabor, laudamini, laudabuntur, 2. Vocatus sum, vocatl erant. 3. Vulnerantur, vulnerabamur, 4. Exspectamur, exspectabantur, 5. Culpatr eramus, culpatt erunt. 6. Exspectabitue, exspectata est, exspectatae erant. 7. Laudati estis, laudaberis, laudabimiut, 8. Superati sumus, superantur, superabor. 9. Vulneratur, vulneratus sum, vulnerabimur. 182. 1. Reliqua pars exercitus friistra exspeetabatur, 2. Hi fortes militea superatt sunt, 3. Amtcitia cum ftnitimts clvitatibus confIrmat~l erato 4. Centum funditores vulneratt sunt. 5. Frumentu.n postulatur. 6. Ejus adventus postrtdie nuntiatus est. 7. Naves et remiges parabuntur. 8. Hae c6piae armatae! sunt. 9. Haec oppida oppugnata! erant. 10. Haec victoria equitum nostrorum jam nuntiata erato 11. Copiae et friimentum friistra parabantur, 12. Omnes feraces agrt Gallorum jam vastatI erant. 13. IlIae gentes frnitimae superatae erunt, 183. 1. We shall be praised; we have been praised; we had been praised. 2. She was praised; she will be praised; she had been praised. 3. You are expected; you will be 1 Observe that in the compound tense of the Passive the Participle in Gender and Number with its SUbject, precisely like an adjective.

agrees

FIRST

CONJUGATION. -PASSIVE

VOICE.

75

expected; they will be expected. 4. Who was being praised? 5. All these towns will be attacked. 6. The Gauls had often been overcome. 7. These six ships have been got ready. 8. On the following day many soldiers were wounded. 184.

Narrow Boundaries of the HelvetU.

Helvetit quoque erant Celtae. Eorum fInes fuerunt angustI. Undique locI natfira continebantur ; 1 ilna ex parte" flumine Rheno, Iatissimo 3 atque altissimo ; altera ex parte Monte Jilra altissimo,' quI est inter Sequauos et Helvetios ; tertia/ Lacil Lemanno et flumine Rhodano, 1 continebantur: were hemmed in; 3rd plu. imperfect indic. pass. 2 una ex parte, altera ex parte: on one side, on the other side; literally, from one side, from the other side. 8 latissimo, altissimo: very broad, very deep; a common force of the superlative. 4 altissimo: very high. 6 tertia: understand ex parte.

LESSON

XXX.

PASSIVE OF amo (Continued). .:::

SUbjunotive.

185 .

PRESENT.

May I be loved, let him be loved. SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

amllD1Ur amAmini amentur

amer amerts, or -re ametur IMPERFECT.

I should be loved, he would be loved, amaremur amarer amaremini amareris, or -re amareutur amaretur PERFECT.

amati simus amati sitis amati sint

amatus sim amatus sis amatus sit PLUPERFECT.

I should have been loved, he would have been loved. amati essemus amati essetis amati essent

amatus essem amatus esses amatus esset Imperative. Pres. Put.

amamini, be ye loved.

arnare, be thou loved; amator, thou shalt be loved, amator, he shall be loved;

amantor, they shall be loved.

Infinitive. Pres. Perf. Fut.

Participle.

amart, to be loved. amatus esse, to have been loved. amatum iri, to be about to be loved.

Perf.

amatua, loved, haIling been loved. Gerundive amandus, to be loved, deservinq to be loved.

76

FIRST

CONJUGATLON.-PASSIVE

VOICE.

77

1. VERB STEMS. Observe that the Present and Imperfeot Subjunetive, the entire Imperative, the Present Infinitive, and the Gerundive belong to the Present Stem, the remaining forms to the Participial ~ 1;he Perfect Stem is not represented in the Passive.

~

186.

VOCABULARY.

ezitium, i eli), n., destruction. expugno, 1, 1 take by storm. non, not. statim, at once, immediately. templum, i, n., temple. viz, scarcely, with diJficult1l.

castellum, i, n., fort. convocc, 1, 1 call together. dIUgentia, ae, f., diligence. equus, i, m., horse. exoite, 1, I/lU,' up, rouse. ezistlmo, 1, 1 think, consider.

EXERCISES.

187. 1. Laudetur, laudemur, culpentur, 2. Laudatus es路 set, laudati essemus, 3. Excitari, excitatus esse, superandus, 4. Convocatus, culpatus, 5. Superatt essemus, culpatt essent. 6. Pararr, parandus. 7. Collis oeoupetur, collis occupatns esset. 8. Vocatus essem, vocatr essetis, voeata esset. 9. V 0centur, vocatus, voeatus esse. 10. Extstiman, exrstimandus, existimetur. 188. 1. A.rma et equt statim parentur. 2. Magnae classes summa dtligentia parandae sunt. 3. HI hostes non una Iegione superatI essent. 4. Sine nobts hoc castellum vix expugnatum esset. 5. Senatus in hoc templum con vooetur. 6. Sine te hae magnae copiae non paratae essent. 7. Diligentia mtlitum nostrorum Iaudetur. 8. HI mtlites vix laudatt essent. 9. Sine auxilio nostro facile superatt essetis. 10. Omnes portae sunt oppugnandae. 11. Maximus numerus navium statim paretur. 12. Hae legionss in eo loco collocandae sunt. 13. Exitium hnjus exercitus vrtandum est. 189. 1. Let them be called together; they would have been called together. 2. The senate must be (= is to be) called together at once. 3. We should easily have been overcome.

78

REVIEW.

4. You would scarcely have been praised. 5. These towns would have been taken by storm most easily. 6. Your words would not have been approved. 7. The onset of the enemy must be retarded. REVIEW.

190. 1. Maximi exercitl1s summa diligentia paratr sunt. 2. Haec castella hostium jam expugnata erant, 3. Haec oppida statim oppugnabuntur. 4. Adventus legatorum nuntiabitur. 5. Timor animas peditum ignavorum occupaverat. 6. Hae gentes, mtlites, jam saepe superatae sunt. 7. Cohortes proelio dtmioabunt, 8. Quis fuit dux harum copiarum ? 9. Caesar prrneipes cnjusque civitatis ad se voeavit. 10. Hae pulchrae urbes nos delectant. 11. Adventum tuum exspectabo, 12. Arma et frumentum parabantur, 13. AmIcI nostrt sunt vocandt,

WALL

AND

DITCH

(murus fossaque).

LESSON SECOND

XXXI.

(OR e-) CONJUGATION. -ACTIVE Monee,

I advi .â&#x20AC;˘e.

PRINCIPAL

Pus. INn.

PARTS.

PRES. TNf.

monee

PERF. IND.

monere

191.

PERF. PASS. PARTIO.

monui

Indicative PRESENT

V01CE.

monitua

Mood.

TENSE.

SINGULAR.

I advise. PLURAL.

monee monl!s monet

monl!mus monetis monent

IMPERFECT.

I was advising, or I advised.

monebam monl!blls monl!bat

moneblimus monl!bltis monsbant; FUTURE.

I shall advise.

monl!be monebta monebtt PERFECT.

monl!bimus mOlli5bitis monebunt

I have advised, or I advised.

monui monuiatf monuit

monuimus monuistis monusrunt, I had advised.

PLUPERFECT.

monueram monueras monuerat FUTURE PERFECT.

monuerimua monuerlltis monuerant I shall hane advised.

monuere monueris monuerit

monuerimus monueritis monuerint 79

or ere

80

ACTIVE

OF 1nQneo.

Subjunctive.

192. PRESENT.

May I advise, let him advise.

SINGULAR.

PLURAl".

moneam moneas moneat ,

moneamus moueatts moneant

IMPERFECT.

I should advise, he would advise. moneremus moneretis monerent

monerem moneres moneret PERFECT.

monuerlmus monuerrtts monuerfnt

monuerim monueris monuerit PLUPERFECT.

I should have advised, he uiould 71Ul,eadvised. monuissemus monuissetis monuissent

monuissem monuieses monuisset Imperative. Pres. mons, advise thou; Put. moneta, thou shalt advise, moneta, he shall advise;

monere, advise yeo monetote, ye shall advise. monento, they shall advise.

Infinitive.

Participle.

Pres. monere, to advise. Perf. monuisse, to have advised. Put. monitiirus esse, to be about to advise.

Pres. monsne, advising. (Gen. mouentts.) Put. monitiirus, about to advise.

Gerund.

Supine.

Gen. Dat.

Ace. AU.

monendi, of advising. monendo, for advising. monendum, advising. monendo, by advising.

Ace. monitum, to advise.

su.

monita, to advise, be advised.

SECOND CONJUGATION.-ACTIVE

VOlCE.

81

1. VERB STEMS. The Present, Perfect, and Participial Stems include the same moods and tenses in the Second, Third, and Fourth Conjugations as in the First. 193.

VOCAlIULAHY.

angustus, a, um, narrow.

mUitllrls, e, milttar'V.

debeo, ere, ui, itus, lowe; with an infinitive, Louqtit: deus, i, m., god. equitatus, us, m., cavalry. finis, fll, m., end, boltlldul'Y; in

moveo,

pI., terl'itory,

habeO, ere, uI, !tUB, I have, pos-

sess. maneo, ere, milnBi, manBurus,1 I remain.

ere,

movi,

motus,

I

move.

prohibeo, ~re, ui, itus, I keep off, keep away (tr.). signum, t, n., Sigll, starldtltd. sustineO, ere, BustiI1ui, I wtthstand. time6, ete, ui, I fear. video, llre, vIdi, VIIIUB, I Yell.

EXERCISES.

194. 1. Habebimus, habuimus, habeamus, istis, sustinuerat, 3. 'I'imebat, timebit, timeant. vtderat, 5. Mansisti, manseras, manseris. manemus, mansisse, 7. Prohibuit, prohibuistis, prohibeamus. 8. Habe, habitiirus, habeat. videramus, vidimus, viderunt.

2. Sustinu4. Vtdit, 6. Mansit, prohibebit, 9. Vldistt,

195. 1. Hae crvitates in amrcitia Haeduorum manserant. 2. Helvetit flues angustus habebant, 3. Hostes signa mtlitaria jam vtderant. 4. Impetum equitatns nostrt fortiter sustinuerunt, 5. Helvetit ex eo loco castra movent. 6. Quis eos timebit ? 7. Hostes prohibere debemus. 8. Del hostes路 prohibeant! 9. Hostes prohibete l 10. Magnum numerum equitum et peditum habebimus. 11. In hoc oppido manebimus, 12. Quis locum videt quem hostes occupaverunt ? 13. Eosdem amlcos habemns et habuimus. 1 See

p. 59, footnote.

82

"" ::

SECOND

CONJUGATION.

-

ACTIVE

VOICE.

196. 1. We have seen YOu; we shall see YOu; he had seen you. 2. We were fearing; you had feared; he will fear. 3. To have feared, to have seen; fearing, seeing. 4. May he have; we should have had; he shall have. 5. You ought to remain in this place. 6. We had seen the standards of the enemy .-7. We should easily have kept the enemy away. 197.

The Helvetii Decide to Emigrate.

Itaque 13 ftnibus suts egredi1 et alias sedes petere 1 constituerunt." Per biennium jumenta, earros, frumentum parabant ; in tertium annum 3 profectionem lege conftrmant,' Ubi jam paratr fuerunt, oppida sua omnia, quadringentos vteos, reliquaque 5 privata aedificia ineenduut." 1 egredi, petere: to go out, to seek; pres. infs., dependent on constituerunt, constituerunt: they resolved .. 3rd plu. perf. indio. 8 in tertium annum: for the third year. 4 confirmant: they set; present with the force of the perfect, a very common usage in Latin. It is called the Historical Present. S reliquaque: composed of reliqua and -que (' and '), which is always thus attached to the word which it connects. Snch words are called enclitics. 8 incendunt: they set fire to ; 3rd plu. pres. indic. 2

h

LESSON SECOND

XXXII.

(OR eo) CONJUGATION.-PASSIVE Moneor, PRES.

I am advised. PRES.INF. mon~rI

IND.

PIUNCIPAL PARTs.-moneor Indicative

198.

VOICE.

PERF.

IND.

monitus sum

Mood.

PRESENT TE~SE. I am advised.

SINGULAR. moneor rnonllris monetur

PLURAL. monemur mon~mini monentur

IMPERFECT. I was advised. monllbllmur mon~bll.minr

monebar monllbll.ris, or ore monllbll.tur

monsbantur

FUTURE. I shall be advised. monebor monllberis, monllbitur

monebtmur monl!!biminI monl!!buntur

or -re PERFECT. I have been advised, I was advised.

mouitt sumus rnonitf estis lIlonitrsunt

monitus sum monitus es monitus est PLUPERFECT. I had been advised.

monitr erlmu. monitr erltis monitr erant

monitus eram monitus erll.s monitus erat FUTURE PERFECT. I shall have been advised.

monitr erimus monitr eriti. monitr erunt

monitus er6 monitus eris monitus erit 83

84 ,I

SECOND CONJUGATION.-PASSIVE

199.

VOICE.

Subjunctive. PRESENT.

May I be advised, let him be advised. PLURAL.

SINGULAR.

moneamur monellminI moneantur

monear monearts, or ore moneatur IMPERFECT.

I should be advised, he uuruld be advised. moneremur monereminI monerentur

monlirer mon6reris, or ore mon6rl!tur PERFEOT.

moniti simus moniti sitis monitl sint

mouitus sim monitus sIs' monitus sit PLUPERFECT.

I should have been advised, he would have been advised. monitr essemu8 monitl essl!tta moniti essent

monibus essem monitus esses monitus esset Imperative. Pres. monere, be thou adinsed ; Fut. monl!tor, thou shalt be advised, monetor, he shall be advised;

monemini, be ye advised.

monentor, they shall be advised.

Infiuitive. Pres. monerf, to be advised. Perf. monitus esse, to have been advised. Fut. monitum irt, to be about tq be advise4.

Participle. Perf. Gerundive

monitus, advi.~ed, having been advised. monendus, to be advised, deserving to bQ advised,

SECOND CONJUGATION.

200.

-PASSIVE

VOICE.

8&

VOCABULARY.

admodum, quite, very much. aequus, a, um, level. apertus, a, um, open. [crease. augeo, ere, auxi, auctus, I inbarbarus, a, um, barbarian ; as noun, m., a barbarian. celeriter, quickly. compleo, !re, evi, lltus, I fill up. contineo, ere, ui, I confine.

imber, imbrls, m., rainstorm. moveo, ere, movi, motus, 1 move; touch, ajrect. perterreo, ere, ui, itus, I telTify. suspicio, onis, f., suspicion. teneo, ere, uf, I hold. vetus, gen. veterls, old. vide or, !ri, villUS Bum (passive of video), be seen; seem.

EXERCISES.

201. 1. Movstur, movebantur, 2. Perterrentnr, perterrsbantur, perterritI erant. 3. Contineatur, continebuntur. 4. Viderf, vIsus esse, videndus. 5. Augert, auctus esse. 6. Vtsus est, visae erant, visl sunt, 7. 'I'imere videntur, tim ere videbatur, timere vtsa est. 8. Prohibebamur, prohibitI sumus, prohibita erato 9. Prohibeantur, prohibert, 202. 1. Milites in castrts imbribus continebantur, 2. Barbart admodum perterritl sunt. 3. Equites hostium in aequo loco vtsr sunt, 4. Memoria nostrae veteris amtcitiae movebar. 5. Susptcicnes Gallorum augebantur. 6. Agri nostrt vastarl non debent. 7. Equites nostrI illud oppidum expugnavisse videntur. 8. Fossae celeriter eomplebuntur, 9. Loca aperta tenebantur, 10. 'I'imores nostri auctt sunt, 203. 1. We seem; he seemed; you had seemed. 2. They will be terrified; we had been terrified. 3. Your suspicions were increased. 4. The camp had been moved. 5. Our soldiers seem to have filled up the trench of the enemy. 6. The onset of the barbarians will be bravely withstood. 7. The Gauls must be kept away. 8. These trenches would have been quickly filled up.

LESSON XXXIII. THIRD

(OR

CONSONANT) CONJUGATION. - ACTIVE VOICE. Rege, I rule. PRES. IND.

PRINCIPAto

PARTS.

204.

PRJ's.INF.

-rego

Indicative

IND.

PERF.

ren

PASS. PARTIQ,

rectus

Mood.

PRESENT SINGULAR.

PERF.

regere

TENSE.

1rule.

rego regis regit

PLURAL.

regimus regitis regunt IMPERFECT.

regebam regebb regebat

I was ruling, or I ruled. regebiimus regebatis regebant FUTURE.

I sliall rule. regam reges reget

regemus regetis regent PERFECT.

I have ruled, or I ruled, rexi rexisti rexit

reximua : l'existis rexerunt. or -ere PLUPERFECT.

rexeram rexeras rexerat

Iliad ruled. rexeramus rexeratis rexerant FUTURE

PERFECT.

I shall luuie ruled. rexere rexeris rexerit

rexertmus l'exeritis rexertnt 86

ACTIVE

87

OF rego.

Subjunctive.

205.

PRESENT.

May I rule, let him rule. PLURAL.

SINGULAR.

reglimus reglitis regant

regam regia regat IMPERFECT.

I should rule, he would I'ule. regertmus regeri!!tis regerent

regerem regerse regeret PERFECT.

rexerimus rexeritis rexertnt

rexerim rexerls rexerit PLUPERFECT.

I should have ruled, he would have ruled. rexisstmus rexissttis renssent

rexissem renssts rexisset Imperative. Pres. Fut.

rege, rule thou; regito, thou shalt rule, regito, he shall nile;

Pres. Perf. Fut.

regere, to rule, l'exisse, to have ruled, rectiirus esse, to be about 10 rule. Gerund.

regite, rule yeo regitote, ye shall rule. reg-unto, they shall rule. Participle.

Infinitive.

Gen. Oat. Ace.

Au. 1.

regendI, of ruling. regen do, for rulinq. regendum, I'uling. regendo, by rulinq. VKRB

Pres. regi!!ns, ruling. (Gen. regentis.) P'lt, rectilrus, about to rule. Supine.

Ace. rectum, to rule. Au. rectil, to rule, be ruled.

STEMS. See ยง 168, 1; 174,1.

88

THIRD CONJUGATION-ACTIVE

206.

VOICE.

VOCABULARY.

in, on, in, prep. with abl, of place auxilia, erum, n. pl., auxilial'y where. troops, auxiliaries. instruo, ere, dxi, dctus, I drato citerior, ius, adj., n!Ja1'er,hither, tiP, arranqe. committe, ere, mIsI, missus, 1 iter, itineris, n., journey, march. bl'ing toqether; with proelium, litterae, arum, f., a letter. to join T:attle,. mitte, ere, misi, missus, I send. censtitu6, ere, ui, dtus, I decide, omnine, adv., altogethel'; in all. determine. pene, ere, posui, positus, I put, eontendo, ere, tendi, tentum.! place, establish. I hurry, ha ten. defende, ere, fendi, fensus, I praesidium, i (n), D., gar1'ison. provincia, ae, f., province. defend. reduce, ere, dilxi, ductus, I lead gere, ere, gessi, gestus, I cm'l'y on, back. perform ; with bellum, to wage. relmquo, ere, liqui, lictU8, I hie, here, at;this place. leave, leave behind. Hispania, ae, f., Spain. in, into; prep. with ace. EXERCISES.

207. 1. Mittebat, mittent. 2. Mlsit, mtseratis, mtserunt. 3. Reltquisset, reltquisse, relinquens. 4. Instrllxel'at, tnstrnxerimus. 5. Posuimus, posuerat, ponant, 6. Beliuquemus, reltquimus, reIIqui~set. 7. Defendat, defendere, defendite, 8. Defendunt, defendent, defenderunt, 9. Mrsistr, mittat. 208. 1. Litteras in Hispaniam Citeriorem 2 mtsit. 2. In hane provinciam magnrs itineribus contendebat. 3. Hlas provincias audacter defendite. 4. Galba legiones in eastra reduxerato 5. Caesar aciem in media colle mstruxit. 6. Bellum gerere constituimus. 7. Proelium committamus, 8. Partem auxiliorum ibi reltquerat, 9. Hre praesidium posuerunt, 10. Has provincias fortiter defendemus. 11. Quis has legatos ad senatum mrsit? 12. Capias in Vleum proximum statim 1 In the caseof intransitive verbs, the Perfect Passive Participle is given in the nenter form. 2 That is, Spainnorth of the river Ebro.

THIRD

CONJUGATION.

-

ACTIVE

VOICE.

redueemus. 13. A.mi:cossuos relinquere constituit. multrs genti.bus provinciae eiterioris bellum geretis. 209. 1. We defended the city; they will defend the city. 2. I a letter; they had sent a letter. have defended; let him defend. 5. I shall leave a garrison in this legions into Spain. 7. He had

89 14. Cum

they had defended the city; sent a letter; we shall send 3. Let us defend; we should 4. To send; to have sent. place. 6. Caesar sent two decided to defend the camp.

8. We waged war in Gaul.

210.

The Helvetii Resolve to Go by Way of the Roman Province.

Erant omnlno itinera 1 duo. qui bus demo 2 egredi: 8 poterant 4 ; unum Ii pel' Sequanos, angustum et difficile, inter Montem Juram et Elumen Rhodanum, vix 6 qua singult carrl ducerentur; alterum 1 per provinciaru nostram," multo facilius et expedttius." Hoc itinere egredi: constituerunt 10 atque ad rrpam Rhodant omues convenerunt.ll 1 itinera: routes; nom. plu, of iter, itineris. 2 domo: from home. egredi: to {IOout, as in ยง 197. 4 poterant: we,'e able; 3rd plu, imperfect indic. /I unnm: understand iter. 6 vix qua singuli carri ducerentur: where carts coula sccrcetu be drawn one by one. 1 alterum: understaud iter. 8 provinciam nostram: our province was the name given to that part of Gaul which had been subjugated by the Romans and erected into a province in 120 B.C. It was in the southeastern part of modern France. 9 multo facUius et expeditius: much easier and more convenient; literally, easier and more convenient by much: facilius and expeditius are the nom. sing. neut. of the comparative, limiting iter understood. 10 CODBtituerunt: they resolved; as in ยง 197. 11conveDerunt: they assembled; 3rd plu. perf. Indio.

8

LESSON

XXXIV.

THIRD CONJUGATION.-PASSIVE

VOICE.

,Regor, I am ruled, PRES. INn.'

PRES. /.NY.

PRINcllPAL PARTs.-regor

211.

Indicative SINGULAR. regor regeris regitur

regebar regebaris, regebatur

regI

PERF.

Mood.

PR~:SENTTENSE. I am ruled.

PLURAL. regimur regiminI reguntur

IMPERFECT. I was ruled. 01'

regeblimur regl!baminI

-re

regsbantur

FUTURE. [ shall be ruled. regar regerts, or -re regetur

(NO.

rectus sum

regemur regl!minI regentur

PERFECT. [ have been ruled, or I was ruled. rectus sum rectI rectus es rectI rectus est recti PLUPERFECT. I had been ruled. rectus eram rectI rectus eras rectI rectus erat rectI FUTURE PERFECT. I shall have been ruled. rectus era rectI rectus eria rec tI rectus erit rectI 90

sumus estis Bunt

erlimus eratis erant

erimus eri tis erunt

THIRD

CONJUGATION.

-PASSIVE

VOICE.

91

Subjunctive.

212.

May I be ruled, let him be ruled, PLURAL.

SINGULAR.

reglimur regllminl regantur

regal' regllris, or -re regiitur IMP~;RFF.CT.

I should be ruled, he would be ruled. regerer regererte, regeri!tur

01'

regeri!mur regeri!minl regerentur

-re PERFECT.

rectisimus recti sitis recti sint

rectus sim rectus sis rectus sit PLUPERFECT.

I should have been ruled, he would have been ruled, recti essllmus recti esslitiB recti essent

rectus essem rectus essi!s rectus esset Imperative. Pres. regere, be thou ruled ; Put. regitor, thou shalt be ruled, regitor, lie shall be ruled j

regiminl, be ye ruled. reguntor, they shall be ruled. Participle.

Infinitive. Pres. regl, to be ruled. Perf. rectus esse, to have been ruled. Fut, rectum In, to be about to be ruled.

Perf. Gerundive

rectus, ruled, having been ruled. regendus, to be ruled, deserving to be ruled.

92

THIRD CONJUGATION. -PASSIVE

213.

VOICE.

VOCABULARY.

cogo, ere, coegi, coactus, Iforce, compel. contra, against, prep. with ace. deduco, ere, duxi, ductus, Tlead away. '"" ducenti, ae, a, two tuindreii: duco, ere, dftXi, ductus, I lead. expeditus, a, um, unencumbered, light-armed. interea, adv., in the meanwhile.

instruo, ere, struxi, structus, 1 fit out. longus, a, um, long; navis longa, war-ship. munitio, oms, f., fortification. qua, where. superior, ius, higher. trado, ere, didi, ditus, Ihatuiooer, tum, then, at that time. ulterior, ius, farther.

EXERCISES.

214. 1. Deducitur, deducti erant. 2. Cogimur, eoactr sum us. 3.: Ducantur, ducti essent, ductus esse. 4. Mittemur, mittentur, missf sum us, 5. Relinquebamur, relinquebatur, relinquetur, 6. Bellum geretur, bellum geratur, bellum gestum est, bellum gestum esset. 7. Ducendus, duct, 215. 1. Interea castella quoque posita sunt. 2. Duae cohortes ad aliam partem munttionum dedu.euntur. 3. Venett has naves relinquere eoguntur. 4. 'I'res Iegiones in Galliam U'lteriorem 1 missae sunt, qua bellum tum gerebatur. 5. Duae legiones expedttae contra hostes ducentur. 6. Naves longae omnibus rebus mstructae erant, 7. In leers superioribus proelium commissum est. 216. 1. Hostages had been sent; hostages will be sent; hostages have been sent. 2. We shall be defended; he had been defended; she had been defended, 3. These legions have been led to the other camp. 4. A garrison has been left here. 5. You would have been compelled to remain. 6.. Many wars will be waged. 7. Two legions were sent against the enemy. . 8. These ships will be fitted out with aU things. 1That is, Gaul beyond the Alps.

LESSON FOURTH

XXXV.

(OR i-) CONJUGATION.

- ACTIVE VOICE,

Audio, I hear. PRINCIPAL

PARTS.

PRES. IND.

PRES. INF.

PERF. IND.

audio

audire

audivI

Indicative

217.

PRESENT SINGULAR.

PERF, PASS. PARTIO.

auditus

Mood. TENSE.

I hear.

audio audis audit

PLURAL.

audtmus auditis audiunt IMPJ<:RFECT.

audiebam audUiblls audU~bat

I was hem'ing, or I heard. audi~bamus audUibltis audU~bant FUTURE.

I shall hear. audtemus ltUdi~tis audient

audiam audi~s au diet PERFECT.

audtvt audivistI audivit

I have heard, or I heard. audivimua audivistis audiverunt, or -~re PLUPERFECT.

Lhad

hem-d.

audiveram audiverAs audiverat

audlverarnua audiveriitis audiverant FUTURE

PERFECT.

I shall have heard. audiver6 audiverls audiverit

audrvertmua audiveritis audiverint 93

·94

d.CTIVE

218.

OF audiO.

Subjunctive. PRESENT.

May I hem', let him hear. SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

audiam auafas .audi"dt

audillmus audiitia audiant IMPERFECT.

I should hear, he would hear. audirem audirl!s audiret

audirl!mus audirl!tis audirent PERFECT.

audiverim audiverfs audiverit

audiverfmus audiverltis audiverint PLUPERFECT.

I should have heard, he would have heard. audivissem audivissl!s audivisset

audivissl!mus audivisslltis audivissent

Pres. audi, hear thou; Fut, audito, thou shalt hear, audito, he shall hear;

Imperative. audite, hear yeo audttote, ye shall hear. audtunto, they shall hear.

Infinitive. Pres. audire, to hear. Perf audivisse, to have heard. r«. auditfirus esse, to be about to hear. Gen. Dat. Ace. Abl. 1.

Gerund. audiendl, of hearing. audiendo, for hearing. audiendum, hearing. audiendi5, by hearing. VEIlB

STEMS. See §

Participle Pres. audillns, hearing. (Gen. audientis.) Fut. auditiirus, about to hear. Supine.

Ace. Abl,

168,1; 174,1.

auditum, to hear. aUdi/.il, to hear, be heard.

FOURTH

219.

CONJUGATION. -ACTIVE

VOICE.

95

VOCABULARY.

agmen, miniB, n., a1'my (on the march); column. antel, previously, before. convenia, ire, veni, ventum, come together. eadem, adv., to the same place. flima, ae, f., report. fere, almost, about, practically. impedia, ire, Iv! (li), ltuB, I impede, hinder. mora, ae, f., dela.y.

miinio, ire, lvi, ltuB, Ifortify. niintiuB, I (li), m., messenger. occlBio, OniB, f., occasion, opportunity. postea, afterwards. reper.o, ire. repped, repertua, I discover. undique, adv., from all parts or sides. venio, ire, veni, ventum, I come.

EXERCISES.

220. 1. Vl;nerat, veniet, veniat. 2. Repperimus, reppereramus, 3. Munlvl;runt, munient, mnntvimus, 4. Convenisse, impedttnrus esse. 5. Muniendo, mnntvissent. 6. Venire, veniendI, venissem. 1. Yenietis, vensrunt, veniebat, 8. Veniamus, venIte, veneras, 9. Mnniebatis, muntvit, mnntvisse, 221. 1. Caesar reliquas capias quae nondum convenerant exspectabat, 2. Ll;gatI fere totIus Galliae undique conveniunto 3. Eadem eonvenimus, 4. Has nuntios audiamus, 5. Haec castra, mrlites, sine mora mnntte. 6. Hanc famam antea audtveramus. 7. Equitatus noster agrnen hostium impediet, 8. Non facile occasionem postea reperiemus, 9. Complures nnntit vl;nl;runt. 10. lllum altum collem mttniebatis. 11. Nos omnes eadem oonveniamus, 12. Talem occasionem non facile repperissemus, 13. Reliquas Iegiones, quae impeditae erant, exspectabamus. 222. 1. We were fortifying; we have fortified; they will fortify. 2. They were assembling; they have assembled; they would have assembled. 3. He came; he will have come; let him come. 4. Fortify this camp, soldiers! I I

The Vocative ordinarily stands second in the sentence.

96

FOURTH

CONJUGATION. -.ACi'IVE

â&#x20AC;˘ VOICE.

5. The enemy hindered the march of our army! 1 6. Tho Germans assembled on all sides from the forests. 7. We have heard the report of that battle. 8. I afterwards discovered these things.

223.

Caesar

Hurries

to the Scene

of Action.

Ubi Caesar haec 2 audtvit, maturavit ab lube proficrscr" et maximrs itineribus ' in Galliam Ulteriorem 6 contendit et ad Genavam 6 pervenit, Provinciae totI maximum numerum mtlitum imperat" (erat omnrno in Gallia Ulteriore legio una); pontem, quI erat ad Genavam," jubet rescindI. Ad eum Helvetil legatoS'ttlittunt, nobilissimos civitatis, cujus legationis 9 Nammeius et- erucloetius principem locum obtinebant. 1 Use agmen, minis, n. 2 haec: these things .. ace. plu, nent. 8 proficisci: to set out .. pres. inf, 4 maximis itineribus: by forced stages .. literally, by t!le greatest journeys. 6 Galliam Ulteriorem: Further Gaul.. i.e. Ganl beyond the Alps. 6 ad Genavam: to the vicinity of Geneva. 1 provinciae toti imperat:. he levied on the whole province .. literally, to the whole province. a ad Genavam: near Geneva. 9 cujus legationis: on which legation .. literally, of which, etc.

/ LESSON XXXVI. FOURTH CONJUGATION. -PASSIVE

VOICE.

Audior, I am heard. PRINCIPAL

PARTS. -

PRES. IND.

PRES. !NF.

audior

aud!rI

PERF. IND.

auditus Bum

Indicative Mood.

224.

PRESENT

TENSE.

I am heard.

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

audimur audImin! audiuntur

audior aud!ris auditur IMPERFECT.

I wa.~heard. audU!bar audil!blris, or -re audiebltur

audil!blmur audil!blmini audiebantur

FUTURE.

I shall be heard, audiar audil!ris, or -re audil!tur

audil!mur audil!mini audientur

PERFECT.

I have been heard, or I was heard. auditua sum auditus es auditus est

audit! sumus audit! estis auditI sunt PLUPERFECT.

I had been heard. auditus eram auditus erls auditus erat

auditI eramus audit! erltis audit! erant

FUTURR: PERFECT.

I shall have been heard. auditus era audttus eris auditus erit

audit! erimus audit! eritis auditl erunt

97

98

FOURTH

CONJUGATION.

225.

-

PASSIVE

VOICE.

Subjunctive. PRESEN'l'.

May J le heard, let him be heard. ""'SINGULAH.

PLURAL.

-audiar audiarta, or -re audi1tur

audilmur audilmini audiantur IMPERFECT.

I should be heard, he would be heard, audirer audireris, audiretur

01'

audtremur audiremini audirentur

-re PERFECT.

auditua sim audttus sis audttus sit

auditI sImus auditI sItis auditi sint PLUPERFECT.

I should have been heard, he would have been heard. audltus essem auditus esses audltus esset

auditf essemus auditI essetis auditI essent Imperative.

Pres. audire, be thou heard ,Put. auditor, thou shalt be heard, auditor, he shall be heard ;

audi'plini, be ye heard. audiuntor, they shall be heard.

Infinitive, Pres. Pelf. Put.

audiri, to be heard. auditus esse, to have been heard. auditum Iri, to be about to be heard.

Participle. Perf

auditus, heard, having been heard. Gerundive audiendus, to be heard, deserving to be h!ard.

FOURTH

226.

CONJUGATION.-PASSIVE

VOICE.

99

VOCABULARY.

angustfae, Arum, f. pl., a narroto pass. aqua, ae, f., water. captfvus, i, m., captive. eireumvemo, ire, vAni, ventus, 1 surround. extra, outside, beyond, prep. with ace. idoneuB, a, um, suitable. invemo, ire, vAnI, ventus, I find, cOlne llpon. natura, ae, f., nature.

nihil, indecl. n., nothing. OpUB, operia, n., work, fortification. paene, almost, nearly. poena, ae, f., p路unishment. proeurro, ere, eueurri, eursum, I j'un forward. regia, omB, t., region. Bimul, toqether, at the same time. temere, rashly. vox, voeiB, f., voice, word.

EXERCISES.

227. 1. lnvenrtur, inventus erato 2. lmpedimur, impediebatur, impedtrt, 3. Impedttus, impedtti eramus, 4. Inventus esse, inveniendus, 5. Invenietur, inventi erunt, inventus esset. 6. Urbs munietur, urbs munita erat, urbs mnnttur. 7. Urbes mnniebantur, urbes munrtae sunt, urbes mnniantur. 8. Circumvenimur, circumventus est, circumventus esset, circumveniendus. 9. Reperietur, repertus esse, repertus, reperti sunt. 228. 1. Locus idoneus, natura munrtus, repertus est. 2. Nihil de poena oapttvorum audttum erato 3. Pedites nostrt altitudine aquae impediebantur, 4. Angustiis impedismur, 5. Castra magnts operibus muntta sunt. 6. Voces militum simul audiebantur. 7. Magna copia frumenti in his regionibus inventa est. 8. Una oohors, quae temere extra aciem proeucurrerat, paene circumventa est. 9. Nihil reperietur, 10. Castra majora munienda sunt. 11. Altae arbores in hac silva inventae sunt. 12. Tllud oppidum alta fossa. circumventum est. 13. Multae voces in castrls auditae sunt.

100

FOURTH

CON.TUGATION. -PASSIVE

VOICE.

229. 1. We were surrounded; they had been surrounded; they will be surrounded. 2. He was heard; we had been heard; she win be heard. 3. Let him be heard; they would have been heard; to be heard. 4. These captives were surrounded with two cohorts of soldiers. 5. Nothing has been discover;;{. 6. No-other voice will be heard. 7. The larger camp ought to be fortified.

CAVALRY

(equites).

LESSON XXXVII.' VERBS IN -io OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION.

230. 1. Verbs in -ie of the Third Conjugation take the endings of the Fourth Conjugation, wherever the latter endings have two successive vowels. This occurs only in the Present System (ยง 168, 1; ยง 174, 1). ACTIVE VOICE. - Capio, I take.

231.

PRINCIPAL PRIIS. IND.

capio,

PARTS.

PRES.INF.

PERF. IND.

Pli:RF. PASS. PARTIe.

capere,

cepi,

captus.

Indicative Mood. PR~~SENT TENSl'. PLURAL.

SINGUJ,AR.

capio, capis, capit

capimus, capitis, capiunt.

j

IMPERF}~CT.

capiebarn, -iebas, -iebat

capiebamus, -iehatis,

j

-iebant,

FUTURE.

capiemus, -ietis, -ient.

capiam, -ies, -iet; PERFECT.

cepi, -istt, -it

cepimus, -istis, -erunt, or -ere,

j

PLUPERFECT.

ceperam, -eras, -erat

ceperamus, -erabis, -erant.

j

FUTURE

PERFECT.

espere, -eris, -erit;

ceperimus,

101

-eritis, -erint.

102

VERBS

IN

-io

OF THE THIRD

CONJUGATION.

Subjunctive. PRESElST. PLURAL.

SINGULAR.

capiamus, -iatis, -iant,

capiam, -ias, -iat ;

IMPERFECT.

-...i"

. caperemus,

caper.om, -eres, -eret ;

-eretis, -erent.

PERFECT.

ceperimus,

ceperim, -erts, -erit;

-errtis, -erint.

PLUPEUFECT.

c~pisselll, -isses, -isset ;

cepissemus,

-issetis, -issent.

Imperative. capite. capitote. capiuuto.

Pres. eape; Fut. capito, capite ;

Participle.

Infinitive.

Pres. capiens.

Pl路es. capere. Pelf. cepisse. Fut. capturus esse.

Ful.

Supine.

Gerund. Gen. capiendt. Dat. capiendo. Ace. capiendum. capiendo. Abl.

232. PRINCIPAL

PASSIVE

PARTS. -

capturus.

LIce. captum.

Au.

captu.

VOICE. - Capi01', l am taken.

PliES. IND.

PRE'. INF.

eapior,

capi,

Indicative PRESENT

capior, caperis, capitur ;

PERF.

Ixn,

captus sum.

Mood. TENSE.

capimur, capiminI, capiuntur.

IMPERFECT.

capiebar, -iebal'is, -iebatur ;

capiebaruur,

-iebamiut, -iebantur

VERBS

IN

-io

OF THE

THIRD

CONJUGATION.

103

FUTURE. SINGULAU.

PLURAL.

capiar, -ieris, -ietur ;

capiemur, -iemint, -ientur, PERFECT.

captus sum, es, est;

capti sumus, estis, sunt. PLUPERFECT.

captus eram, eras, erat ; FUTURE

captus era, eris, erit;

captt eramus, eratis, erant. PERFECT.

captl erimus, eritis, erunt. Subjunctive.

csplar, -iaris, -iatur ,

caplamur,

-iamint, -iantur.

IMPERFECT.

caperer, -ereris, -eretur

j

caperernur,

-eremint, -erentur,

PERFECT.

captus sim, sis, sit;

captl stmus, sltis, siut, PLUPERFECT.

captus essem, esses, esset;

captt esse mus, essetis, essent.

Imperative. Pre.~. capere ; Fut. capitol', capitor; Infinitive. Pres. capi. Pelf. captus esse. Fut. captum 11'1.

capimiut. capiuntor. Participle. Pelf Gerundive

captus. capiendus.

104 233.

VERBS

IN

-io

OF THE THIRD

CONJUGATION.

VOCABULARY.

accipto, ere, cepi, ceptus, 1 receive. capio, ere, cepi, captus, I take, aclopt; capture. diripio, -"jtre, rlpui, :r:eptus, I plunder. facio, ere, feci, factus, I make, do; passive irregular; see ยง 275. filius, i (ii), m., son. fugio, ere, fiigi, fugitiirus, I flee. interficio, ere, feci, fectus, I kill.

libertas, tatis, f., liberty. majores, um, m, pl., ancestors. mandatum, i, n. command, order. natio, oms, f., nation, tribe. paliis, liidis, f., mm'sh. pons, pontis, !D., bridge. rex, regis, m., king. riirsus, again. subito, suddenly. supp!oicium, i (li), D" torture, punishment.

EXERCISES.

234. 1. Accipiunt, aceipiebamus, aceipiamus. 2. Fugiam, f'ugerant, fugisse, 3. Faciebat, facient. 4. Accipitur, accipietur, accept us erato 5. Accipt, accipiendus, acceptus esset. 6. Interfectus est, interficientur, interfecta erato 7. Interfecerunt, interficiendus, interfecisse. 8. Accipiens, accipiendo, accipis, accipietis ; fugit, fugit. 235. 1. In eo flnmine pontem fecerat. 2. Prrncipes harum nationum bellum facient. 3. Hastes rursus subito impetum fecerunt. 4. Libertatem a majoribus accepimus. 5. Haec mandata accepta erant. 6. Duo fIliI hujus regis captr sunt. 7. Aliud consilium capiamus. 8. Hostes in palndes fugerunt. 9. Obsides magnts supplicirs interfectl sunt. 10. Hoc oppidum drripiebatur. 11. Ftlia regis capta est. 12. Ex hoc oppido magnum numerum jumentorum drripuimus, 13. HIe homo interfict debet. 236. 1. We were taking; I had taken; they will take. 2. Let us take; let him take; taking. 3. They would have fled j he would have been killed. 4. They will be killed; they were killed. 5. Let us make a bridge! 6. This camp

VERBS

IN

-io

OF THE THIRD

CONJUGATION.

105

was plundered. 7. The envoys of the king were received. 8. We received your commands. 9. We shall flee from these dangers. 237.

Caesar Prepares to Prevent the Passage of the Selvetti.

Caesar autem eIs nihil pollicitus est.1 LeglU1>s ad Idns Aprflts I ad se revertt" jussit. Lnterea ea legione 4 quam secum ! habebat mtlitibusque quI ex provincia convenerant, a Lacu Lemanno (quI in flumen Rhodanum Influit) ad Montero Juram (quI fines Sequanorum ab Helvetits drvidit) milia passuum undevrgintI8 murum fossamque perducit, Ibi praesidia disponit et castella commnnit, 1 pollicitus est: p7'omised. I ad Idus Aprilis: on the Ides of April; literally, at the Ides of April (April 13th). 8 reverti: to return, infinitive. 4 ea legione: with that le,qion; limiting perducit in line 6. โ€ข secum: with him; literally with himself; the preposition cum is regularly appended to the personal and reflexive pronouns. 6 milia paasuum undeviginti: for nineteen miles; literally, for nineteen thousands of pa .es (see ยง 114,4), A thousand paces was a

Roman mile, about five thousand feet.

LESSON XXXVIII. DEPONEN1' VERBS.

238. Deponent Verbs have, in the main, Passive forms with Active meaning. Buta) They have the following Active forms: Future Infinitive, Present and Future Participles, Gerund, and Supine. b)' They have the following Pas ive meanings: always in the Gerundive, and sometimes in the Perfect Passive Participle;

as,sequendus, to be followed;

239.

adeptus, having been attained.

Paradigms of Deponent Verbs areJ.

CONJUGATION.

miror, mirlirl, mIrlitus sum, admire.

II.

CONJUGATION.

vereor, verl!rI, veritus sum, fear.

III.

CONJUGATION.

sequor, sequI, seciitus sum, follow. IV.

CONJUGATION.

largior, largIrI, largItus sum, give. III.

CONJUGATION

(IN

-ior).

patior, patI, passus sum, suffer.

106

DEPONENT

107

VERBS.

Indicative Mood

n.

I. Pres. miror miraris miratur miramur mlraminl mirantur ...mpf. mirabar Fut, mirabor Perf. miratus sum Plup, mlratus eram F.P. miratus e1'O

vereor vereris veretur

veremur veremini verentur verebar verebor veritus sum veritus eram veritus e1'O

III. sequor sequeris sequitur sequimur sequimini sequuntur sequebar

sequar seciitus sum seciituseram seciitus ero

IV. larglor largiris largitur largimur largimini largiuntur largiebar lar iar largitus sum largitus eram largitus ero

m. (in -ior) patior pateris patitur patimur patimini patiuntur patiebar patiar passus sum passus eram

largiar largirer largitus largitus

patiar paterer passus sim passus essem

passus ero

Subjunctive. Pres. Imp. Perf. Plup.

mirer mirarer miratus sim miratus essem

sequar sequerer seciitus sim seciitus essem

verear vererer veritus sim veritus essem

sim 'essem

Imperative. sequere sequitor

verere veretor

Pres. mlrare Ji'ut. mirator

largire Iargitor

patere patitor

Infinitive, vereri veri tus esse veritiirus esse esse

Pres. mirari Perf· miratus esse Fut. miratiirus

largiri sequi seciitus esse largitus esse largitiirus seciitiirus esse esse

patI passus esse passiirus esse

Participle •. Pres. Fut. Perf· Ger.

mirans miratiirus mir&tus mirandus

verens veritiirus veritus verendus

sequens seciitiirus seciitus sequendu8

patii!n8 passiirus passus patiendus

largien8 lar§itiiru8 largitu8 largiendus

Gerund, pat1endI largiendI 8equendi verendI mlrandI mirando, etc. verendo. etc. sequendo. etc. largiendO. etc. patiendO. etc.

Supine, mirii.tum,-tii

veri tum, -tii

seciitum,-tii

largitum.

-tii

j>assum. -8il

108

DEPONENT

240.

VERBS.

VOCABULARY.

adorior,oriri, ortus Bum,I attack. audeo, lire, aUBUB Bum, semidep.," I dare. colloquor, I, locutus sum, I conVeI'se, confer. conorr- I, !ltUB Bum, I endea'IJor, auemr芦. l!gredior, I, gressus Bum, I mm'ch out. insldiae, Arum, f. pl., ambush, plot. Jura, ae, m., the JU7'a, chain of mountains on the west of Switzerland. moror, llrI, !ltus Bum, I tarry, delay.

nllmo, m., no one, dat., nl!minI, ace. nllminem; gen. and ahl. not used. paulum, adv., a little. Pompejus, eI, m., Pompey. proficIscor, I, fectuB sum, I set out. progredtor, I, gresaua sum, I advance, go forward. propter, on account oj, prep. with ace. reBisto, ere, reBtttI, I resist. revertor, tI, I retu7路n. RhodanuB, I, m, the Rhone.

EXERCISES.

241. 1. Audebimus, .adortus, adortus est. entur, 4. Adoriendus, bar, eonatus sum. 7. Morata est, morata moratus, morando, quantur,

ausl erant, ausus. 2. Adoriebatur, 3. Progredimur, progressus, progredimorans, collocntt eramus. 5. Oona6. Moremur, moramur, moramint, esset, morans. 8. Moratus esse, 9. Collocatr sumus, colloquimur, collo-

242. 1. Hostes agmen nostrum ex tnsidirs adortt sunt. 2. Nemo resistere ausus est. 3. Caesar de salute communt cum Pompejo colloqusbatur. 4. Helvetit ex finibus suts egress I sunt. 5. Inter montem Juram et Humen Rhodanum iter facere conantun 6. Propter has causae proficrscemur. 7. Hostes non diu moratI sunt. 8. Equites paulum progresst revertuntur. 9. Insidias verebamur, 10. In hanc urbem celeriter revertentur. 11. Rune collem natura munttum defendere conabimur. 12. NatUra loct exercitum morata est. 1 A few vcrbs have active forms in the Present elsewhere. These are called semi-deponent.

ystem, but passive form~

DEPONENT

VERBS.

109

243. 1. He was marching forth; they marched forth; let us march forth. 2. We ought to return. 3. We have tar. ried; you were tarrying; they had tarried. 4. I set out; he will set out; they would have set out. 5. Noone dared to march forth. 6. We have not yet endeavored to send this letter. 7. Who will dare to resist ? 8. The troops advanced a little. 9. We shall return.

STANDARD

BBARERS

(slgnlferi) and

TRUMPETERS

(tubicines, corniclues).

LESSON PERIPHRASTIC

XXXIX. CONJUGATION.

244:V"fhere are two Periphrastic Conjugations,- the Activefand the Passive. The Active is formed by combining the Future Active Participle with the auxiliary sum, the Passive by combining the Gerundive with the same auxiliary. The Active Peri hrastic Con 'u tended or future act; the Passive expresses or duty. Active Periphrastic Pres. Imp. Ftlt. Perf. Plup. Fut.P.

amlttiirus amatiirus amlttiirus amlttiirus amlttiirus amitiirus

Conjugation. - Indicative Mood. (-a, -um) sum, I am about to love. eram, I was about to love. ero, I shall be about to love. fUi, I have been (was) about to love. fueram, I had been about to love. fuero, I shall have been about to love. Subjunctive.

Pres. Imp.

Perf. PIlip.

amatiirus amitiirus amlttiirus amitiirus

sim, may I be about to love. essem, I should be abollt to love. fuerim fuissem, [should have been about to love. Infinitive.

Pres. Perf.

amitiirus esse, to be about to love. amlttUrus fuisse, to have been about to love.

Passive Periphrastic Pres.

Conjugation. - Indicative Mood.

Imp .

amandus (-a, -um) sum, I am to be loved, must be loved. amandus eram, I was to be loved.

Fut Pe/~" Plup. Fut, P.

amandus amandus amandus amandus

ero, L shall deserve to be loved. fui, I was to be loved. fueram, I had deserved to be loved. fuero, [shall have deserved to be loved. 110

PERIPHRASTIC

CONJUGATION,

111

Subjunctive. Pres. Perf路 Plup.

amandul amandul amandus amandus

Pres. Perf路

amandul 8SS8,to deserve to be loved. amandus fuisse, to have deserved to be loved.

Imp.

lim, may I deserve to be loved. e118m, I should. deserve to be loved. fuerim fuissem, I should have deserved to be loved. Infinitive.

245.

VOCABULARY.

caedl!s, is, f., slaughter. libero, I, I set free, conservo, I, I preserve. loquor, i, lociitus sum, I speak. dl!do, ere, dl!didi, itus, I give up, post, after, prep. with ace. surrender. recuso, 1, I refuse. fortiina, ae, f., fortune. tot, so many, indecl. incommodum, i, n., disaste7'. vita, ae, f., life. EXERCISES.

246. 1. Liberaturus eram, liberaturr eramus, 2. Conservandus est, conservandi fuerunt, 3. Liberandt sunt, lrberandt erunt. 4. Locutnrus fuit, lociltilrI fuerant. 5. Profecturus fut, profeeturt eramus, profectura est. 6. 'I'radendus est, tradendt sunt, tradenda est. 7. 'I'raditurus es, traditurus fuistl, traditurt fueruut. 8. Sequendus est, sequendt erant. 247. 1. Equites ex casters egressurt sunt. 2, Post hoc proelium se dedituri erant, 3. Nunc cum magna eaede drmicaturt sunt. 4. De his tot incommodts locuturus fuit. 5. VItae nostrae et fortanae conservandae sunt. 6. Hae urbes sunt Iiberandae. 7. Auxilium non est recusandum.' 8. Hostes hoc oppidum dtrepturt erant. 9. Haec oppida non dtripienda Bunt. 10. Hae naves longae omnibus rebus mstruendae sunt. 11. De magna caede hostium locnturus fUI. 12. Inter nos et vas amIcitia conftrmanda est. 1 est recusandum = recusandum est; such Inversions are common.

112

REVIEW.

248. 1. We had been about to speak. 2. The soldiers were on the point of attacking (= were about to attack) this town. 3. She was about to set out. 4. That camp must be defended. 5. Peace must be established with other states. 6. Our liberty must be defended. 7. He was about to wage war. 8. We were on the point of surrendering ourselves.' REVIEW.

249. 1. Mandata regis nondum accepimus. 2. Magnus pons in hoc flumine faciendus est. 3. Debes haec castra expugnare, 4. Equitatus signa vtdit quae in alto colle posita erant. 5. Mane in hoe loco! 6. Proelium in loco aperto commtserunt, 7. Suspteionem timoris vttare debes, 8. Diligentiam nostram augeamus ! 9. Praesidium parvum in provincia ulteriore positum est. 10. Hi: veteres amrci non relinquendt sunt, 11. Multae naves longae Instrueutur. 12. Hac fama perterrebatur, 13. Voces captrvorum in casters auditae sunt.

250.

The Helvetii Attempt to Pass through the Territory of the Sequani.

Helvetit quod 2 hac 3 transire 4 non poterant, alterum iter temptaverunt, Jam per angustias 6 et fmes Sequanorum suas copias traduxerant et in Haeduorum fInes pervenerant eorumque agros populabantur. Haedui legatos ad Caesarem mittunt et auxilium rogant. Item Allobroges qUI trans Rhodanum vtcos possessionesque habebant, fuga se ad Caesarem recipiunt," atque opem ab eo petunt. 1 See

ยง 123. quod: because. s hac: by this way; adv. 4 transire: to pass,' info 6 anguetiae: the pass referred to is that Oll tlie iter anqustum et d(fficile mentioned in ยง 210. 6 fuga se recipi unt: betook themselves in flight. 2

LESSON

XL.

IRREGULAR

VERBS.

251. A number of Verbs are called Irregular. The most important are sum, do, fero, vola, nolo, mAlo, eo, fio. 252. The Inflection of sum has already been given. Its various compounds are inflected in the same way. Examples areabsum

abesse

ad sum praesum

adesse praeesse

afui

afutiirus

Pres. Partie. absens (absentis), adfui praefui

am absent absent.

adfutiirus praefutiirus

Pres. Partie. praesens

(praesentis),

am present am in charge oj present.

253. Possum. In its Present System possum is a compound of pot- (for pote, able) and sum; potu! is from an obsolete pot~re. PRINCIPAL

possum,

PARTS.

potut,

posse, Indicative

Mood. PLURAL.

SINGULAR.

Pres. Imp. Fut. Perf Plup. F.P.

to be able.

possumus, potestis, possunt. poteramus. poterimus. potuimus. potueramus. potuerimus.

possum, potes, potest; poteram; potero , potui j potueram ; potuero ,

Subjunctive. SINGULAR.

Pres. Imp. Perf Plup.

possim, possis, possit ; possem; potuerim; potuissem;

Pres.

Infinitive. posse. Pelf. potuisse.

PLURAL.

posslmus, possrtis, possint. possemus, potuertmus. potuissernus. Participle. Pres. potens (as an powerfill. 113

adjective),

114 254.

IRREGULAR

VERBS.

VOCABULARY.

desum, deesse, defui, defutiiIUs, I am wantillg, fail. excedc3, ere, cessi, cessurus, 1 depart from. longe, adv., faÂť.

potestas, tatls, f., powel', opportunity. sententia, ae, f., sentiment, opinion. talis, e, such. vulnus, eris, n., wound.

.

EXERCISES,

255. 1. Potuerant, potuisse, potuissem. 2. Adfuerunt, adfuisse, adsit. 3. Afuisse, afuissent, aberunt, 4. AfUi, afuturus, absens, 5. Aderant, adero, adfuistt, 6. Potut, posse, poterat. 7. Potero, potuero, poterunt, potuerint. 256. 1. Equites et naves et frumentum Romants deerant 2. Potestas pugnandi non deerit, 3. Duces nostri adfuerunt, 4. Hostes non longe aberant. 5. Tales sententiae probart non possunt. 6. Mrlites qur vulnera acceperunt ex aeie excedere non poterant, 257. 1. He could; 1 they could; you can. 2. He will be able; they had been able; may he be able. 3. We should have been able; to have been able. 4. He was in charge; I had been in charge; they will be in charge. 5. We were absent; they would have been absent; to have been present. 6. We shall be present; we had been present; let him be present. 1I.e.

he was able.

LESSON IRREGULAR

XLI. (Continued).

VERBS

Do, I give.

258. PRINCIPAL

PARTS. -

do,

dAre,

dedI,

dAtuâ&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;˘

Active Voice. - Indicative. Pres. Imp. Fut, Perf Plup. F. P.

do, das, dat; dabam, etc.; dabo, etc.; dedi; dederam j dedero j

Pres. Imp. Perf Plup.

dem; darem ; dederim j dedissem ;

damns, datls, dant, dabamus, dabimus, dedimus. dederamus, dederimus, Subjunctive. demus, daremus, dederlmus, dedissemus, Imperative.

Pres. daj Fut. daW; dato j Infinitive. Pres. dare. Perf. dedisse. Put. daturus esse.

date. diitote, dants. Participle. dans. dlitiirus.

Gerund.

Supine.

dandi, etc.

datum, datU.

1. The Passive is inflected regularly dAd, dAtur, dAblltur, dlr~tur, etc. 116

with the short vowel.

Thus :

116 259.

IRREGULAR

VOCABULARY.

jus jurandum; gen. juris jurandi, n., oath (jus and jiirandum are declined separately). negotium, i (ii), n., business. .:

VERBS.

ommno, adv., altogethm', at all. pecunia, ae, f., money. publicus, a, um, public. responllum, i, n., answer.

EXERCISES.

260. 1. Dabat, damus, dedistis, dederitis. 2. Dedisse, de. derant, dent. 3. Dabas, datis, daturt estis, 4. Dandt, data erat, daturus esse. 5. Dabatur, dart, datr erant. 261. 1. Pecunia publica Pompejo datur, 2. Mtlitibus signum dedit. 3. Omnes legatI qut aderant jus jurandum dederunt. 4. Hoc negotium nobrs dat. 5. Agros harum nation urn nobts dedistr, 6. SequanI multos obsides Ariovisto dederant. 7. Quis mihi hanc pecuniam dabit? 8. Nll11um responsum omnmo tibi dederunt, 262. 1. I had given; to have given; having been given. 2. You will give; he would give; I should have given. 3. To be given; it had been given; it would have been given. 4. We gave; he will bave given; let him give. 5. Much 1 money had already been given. 6. We sball give much' money to you. 7. He would have given much money to us. 263. Caesar Cuts to Pieces One Division of the Selveti!. Flumen est Arar,~ quod per fines Haeduorum et Sequanorum in Rhodanum tnfluit, Id Helvetit ratibus ac lintribus transI路 bant." 'I'res partes copiarum jam traductae erant; quarta pars citra flumen reliqua erato Caesar de tertia vigilia ' cum tribus legionibus e castrts profectus.! ad earn partem pervenit, quae nondum transierat, et magnum numerum conctdit, 1 For' much money' the Latin says,' great money.' 2 Flumen est Arar: there is (l river, the A"ar (by name). 8 transibant: were crossing. 4 do tertia vigilia: in the third watch. 8 profeotus: having Bet out; from proficiscor, It limits Oaesar,

LESSON XLII. IRREGULAR VERBS (Continued). Fera, I bear.

264.

ACTIVE VOICE. PRINCIPAL

fere,

PARTS. -

Indicative

tulI,

fene, Mood.

PLURAL.

SINGULAR.

fero, fers, fert ; Pres. Ierebam ; Imp. feram; Fut. Perf; ' tull ; tuleram; Plup. tulero ; Fut.P. Subjunctive. feram; Pres. ferrem; Imp. tulerim; Perf路 tulissem ; Plllp. Imperative. Pres. fer; Fut. ferto ; ferro ; Pres. Perf: Fut. Gen. Dat. Ace. Abl.

IltuB

ferimus, fertis, ferunt. ferebamus. feremus. tulimus. tuleramus. tulerimus, feramus. ferremus, tulertrnus, tulissemus, ferte. fertote, 拢erunto. Participle. Pres. ferens,

Infinitive. ferre. tulisse. liitiirus esse.

Fut.

]iitiirus. Supine.

Gerund. ferendi.

ferendo. Ace. Abl.

ferendum. Ierendo,

117

lll.tum. llLtii.

118

IRREGULAR PASSIVE

PRINCIPAL

PARTS. -

VERBS. VOICE.

ferri,

feror,

Indicative

IAtUBBum,

Mood. PLURAL.

SINGULAR .

Pres. Imp. Fut. Pelf. Plup. F.P.

to be borne

.feral', ferris, Iertur ; ferebar ; feral' ; latus sum; latus eram; latus ero ;

ferimur, ferimini, feruntur, ferebamur. feremur, lati sumus. lati eramus, lati erimus,

Subjunctive. Pres. Imp. Pelf Pl'up.

ferllmur. ferremur, lati simus. lati essemua.

ferar; ferrer; latus sirn ; latus essem ; Imperative.

Pres. Fut.

ferre; fertor; fertor;

ferimint, feruntor.

Infinitive. Pres. Pelf. Fl,t.

Participle.

ferri.

Iatus esse.

Perf Gel'.

latull1 Iri.

latus. ferendus.

So also the Compoundsaff 1'0

afferre

aufero confero rnfero l'efero

auferre

couferre Inferre referre

attuli abstuli contuli Intuli rettuli

allatua ablatus collatus illitus relatus

bring take away collect bring agaillsl bring back

IRREGULAR

265.

VERBS.

119

VOCABULARY.

affero, ferre, attulI, allAtus, I bring. calamitAs, tAtis, f., calamity. condicio, oDis, f., condition, terms. confero~ ferre, tuli, collAtus, 1 bring together; s6 conferre, betake one's self. ignominia, ae, f., ignominy, disgrace. impedimentum, I, n., hindrance; in pI., baggage.

n6 . . . quidem, not even; emphatic negative, emphasizing the expression placed between n6 and quidem. perfero, ferre, tun, lAtus, I carry th1'ough, convey; endure. protinus, forthwith, straight-

~. refero, ferre, rettuli, relAtus, I bring back. subsidium, i (ii), n., assistance. tumultus, ds, m., upl路ising.

EXERCISES.

266. 1. Afferet, attulimus, attulisse. 2. Latus esse, la.u essent, ferendus. 3. Perfertur, perferebantur, perlatt sunt. 4. Refert, rettulerunt, rettulissent. 5. Rettulisse, relati sunt, referuntur. 6. 'I'ulerunt, ferenda, laturus. 7. Tulisse, ferens, ferebat, 8. Affertur, afferetur, allatus esse. 9. Referens, referendi, relaturus. 10. Contulisse, collatus, 267. 1. Hostes ne prImum quid em impetum tulerunt. 2. NobIs subsidinm ferebat, 3. Pompejus se protinus in castra contulit. 4. Helvetii impedImenta in unum locum contuler,unt. 5. HIc niintius condiciones pacis affert. G. Farna de hoc tumultu allata est. 7. Multas calamitates pertulimus. 8. Ea fama ad Caesarem perlata est. 9. Signa militaria referuntur, 10. Ignominiam ferre non possumus. 11. Hte nnntius farnam de tuuiultn attulit. 12. Siue hac Bpi! hos labores numquam pertulissem. 13. Magna copia friimentI allata erato 268. 1. We bore; we have borne; he had borne. 2. He would have borne; by bearing; to have borne. 3. Let us bear; we were bearing; they will bear. 4. Let us endure;

120

IRREGULAR

VERBS.

to have endured; enduring. 5. The standards were brought back. 6. The Helvetii betook themselves to the mountain. 7. We shall bear assistance to you.! 8. Who will be able to endure these tortures? 1 Use

the Dative â&#x20AC;˘

.:

HELMETS

(galeae),

SWELDS

(scuta), and

STANDARDS

(sigua).

LESSON XLIII. mREGULAR

269.

VERBS

(Continued).

Volo, nolo, mno. PRINCIPAL

volo, nolo, mAlo,

velIe, nolle, mAlle,

PARTS.

volui, nolui, malur,

to wish, be willing, to be unwilling. to prefer.

Indicative Mood. Pres.

ra.Âť,

yolo, vis, vult; volumus, vultis, volunt. volebam. volarn, volul. volueram, voluero.

Pres. Imp. Perf. Plup.

velim, -is, -it, etc. vellem, -es, -et, etc. voluerim. voluissem.

Imp. Fut. Perf. Plup.

nolo, non vis, non vult; nolumus, non vultis, nolunt, nolebam. nolam, noluf, nolueram, noluero.

ma.lo, mavls, ma.vult; malumus, mavultia, malunt. rnalebam. mslam, malut, malueram, maluero,

Subjunctive. nclim, nollem. noluerim, nolulseem.

malim, mallem, maluerim. mnluissem,

Imperative. Pres. noli, nollte, Fut. nolito, nolito j nolitote, nolunt6.

Pres. Perf.

velIe. voluisse,

Pres.

volens.

Infinitive. nolle. noluisse. Participle. nolens. 121

mille. mliluilllleo

122 270.

IRREGULAR

VERBS.

VOCABULARY.

desero, ere, serui, sertus, I abandon, desert, negle/;t. discedo, ere, cessi, cessiirus, I depart. hiic, adv., hither.

marltimus, a, um, of the sea, maritime. ora, ae, f., coast. qul!.re, adv., wherefore, why? semper, always. socius, i (li), m, ally, comrade.

EXERCISES.

271. 1. Malumus, maluimus, malebat, 2. Mavultis, maluisset, noluisse, 3. Volueratis, voluistt, volueris. 4, Voletis, volebas, voluisse. 5. Mavis, maluisse, mavult, 6. Malit, malet, maluit, 7. Volueram, voluissetis, voluit. 8. Non vult, nolet, noluerant, 272. 1. Ab ora maritima discedere nolebat, 2. Quare socios nostros semper vex are vultis? 3. Hue venire noluimus. 4. Officium' suum deserere noluerat, 5. Maluiasemus in his loots manere, 6. Ab hoc oppido discedere neluissem. 7. Has victorias laudare volebamus, 8. In hac urbe manere malumus. 273. 1. We wished; we should have wished; to have wished. 2. I had been unwilling; you were unwilling; you are unwilling. 3. To have preferred; he would have preferred; he had preferred. 4. He had been unwilling to withdraw. 5. No one preferred to remain here. 6. We do not wish to abandon our country. 7. He will prefer to depart from this town. 274.

The Helvetli Send Envoys to Caesar.

Post hoc proelium Caesar secntus est. Pontem in Arari 1 in Arari: river.

1

reliquas copias Helvetiorum fecit atque ita exercitum tra.

over the' .AmT. The Latin speaks of making a bridge in a

IRREGULAR

VERBS.

123

dl1xit. Helvetit repentrno ejus adventl1 common, 1 lega.tos ad eum mittunt; cnjus legationis Dtvico princeps fuit, qui in bello Cassiano" dux Helvetiorum fuerat, Is ita cum Caesare egit: 8 " SI pacem nobtscum f facies, in eam partem 8 Ibimus atque ibi manebimus, ubi voles; sin bello II nos persequl voles, remintscere 7 prtstinam virtntem Helvetiorum," 1commoti: alarmed; agreeing with Helvetii. I bello Calliano: the Cassian War is so called from Lucius Cassius, a Roman general, defeated by tbe Helvetli some fifty years before the events here narrated. legit: par leyed; from ago. f nebiscum i cum Is regularly appended to the personal pronoun. I in eam partem: to that quarter, to that place. I bello: bll war, or, in war. 7 reminiluere: remember/Imperative.

LESSON IRREGULAR

275.

XLIV.

VERB~

(Continued).

Fio (Passive of facio).

PRINCIPAL

PARTS.

-fio,

fieri,! factus sum, to become, be made, occur. Indicative

Mood. PLURAL.

SINGULAR.

fiii, fis, fit; fiebarn ; fiam ; factus sum; factus eram; factus ero;

fimus, fitis, fiunt. fiebii.mus. fiemus. facti sumus, facti eramus, facti erimus,

Perf Plup,

Subjunctive. fiam ; fierem; factus simi factus essem;

fiamus. fieremus. facti simus. facti essemus,

Pres.

fi;

Pres. Imp. Fut. Perf Piup, Ful.P. Pres.

Imp.

Imperative. Infinitive. Pres. Perf Fut.

Participle.

fieri. factus esse. factum rrt,

276.

me.

Perf Ger.

factus. faciendus,

VOCABULARY.

causa, ae, f., cause, reason. certus, a, um, sure ; cam par. certior; in phrase certtor fieri, be informed (made more eel'tain). concursus, us, m., a running together. creber, bra, brum, frequent. 1The

i is regularly

ob, on account of, prep, with ace. per, thro!tgh, by means oj, prep. with ace. perfuga, ae, m., deserter. pro, in front of, prep. with abl. repentinus, a, um, sudden.

sbort before er in this verb.

124

IRREGULAR

277. 1. Fiebat, factum est, fiat. tus, 3. Fieri, factus esse, fIunt. est.

VERBS.

125

2. Fit, factum erat, fac4. Fieret, ftamus, facta

278. 1. Ob earn causam erebra proelia fIebant. 2. Ex castrts Gallorum fit fuga repentina. 3. De his rebus per perfugas certior factus est. 4. Pro castrts magnus concursus fi:ebat. 5. Nos de hoc Gallorum tumultn certiores facti sumus. 6. Ob has causas illud factum est. 279. 1. We had become; may he become; they would have become. 2. Caesar had been informed concerning this thing. 3. You and Pompey had been made consuls. 4. By this disaster you and your brother became captives (nominative). 5. The Gauls will not become free. 6. Many battles took place in Italy.

LESSON XLV. IRREGULAR VERBS (Continued).

Eo.

280. PRINCIPAL

PARTs.-eo,

ire,

ivi (ii),

Indicative

itum (est), to go.

Mood.

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

eo,

Pres. Imp. Fut. Perf Plup, Fut. P.

is, it; ibam; ibo; ivi (it) ; iveram (ieram); Ivero (iero) ;

Pres. Imp. Perf Plsip,

eam; irem; iverim (ierim); ivissem (iissem, issem);

Pres, Put.

i;

Pres. Perf Fut.

ire. ivisse (iisse, Isse), itiirus esse.

imus, His, eunt, Ibarnus. Ibimus, ivimus (iimus). iveramus (ieramus). tverimus (ierimus). Subjunctive. eamus. Irernus. ivernnus (ierimus). ivissemus (iissemus, Issemus).

Imperative. ite. itote, eunto.

ito, ito; Infinitive.

Participle. Pres. iens. (Gen. euntis.) Fut. iturus.

Gerund.

Supine.

eundi, etc.

1. Transitive compounds of as, adeor, adiris, aditur, etc.

itum, itu, eo

admit the full Passive inflection;

126

IRREGULAR DEFECTIVE

VERBS.

Defective Verbs lack certain forms. the most important:281

USED MAINLY IN THE PERFECT

Coepl, I have begun, I began.

The following are

SYSTEM.

Memini, I remember.

Indicative Perf coept, PLup. coeperam, Fut. P. coepero,

127

VERBS.

~

adl, I hate.

Mood.

memini. memineram. meminero.

001. oderam, odero,

Subjunctive. Perf Plup .

coeperim. coepissem.

meminerim. meminissem,

â&#x20AC;˘

ooerim. ooissem.

Imperative. Sing. memento;

Plur. mementote.

Infinitive. Perf Fut.

coepisse. coeptiirus esse.

Perf. Fut.

coeptus, begun. coepturus.

meminisse,

odisse, osurua esse.

Participle. osus. osiirus.

I. Note that meminl and 6dl, though Perfect in form, are Present in sense. Similarly the Pluperfect and Future Perfect have the force respectively of the Imperfect and Future; as, memineram, I remembered; 6der6, I shall' hate.

128 282.

IRREGULAR

VERBS.

VOCABULARY.

adeo, ire, ii, itus, I go to, visit. circiter, adv., about. circumeo, ire, ii, itus, I go around, surround, clam, secretly. duodecim, indeel., twelve. eo, adv., thither, to that place. Incipto, ere, cepi, ceptus, Ibegin. Ineo, ire, ii, itus, I etuer upon; consillum inire, form a plan.

initium, i (ii), n., beginning. injuria, ae, f., wrong, injustice. intereo, ire, ii, Iturus, I pel' ish. Mosa, ae, f., the river Meuse. redao, ire, ii, iturus, I return. sinister, tra, trum, left. trans, across, prep. with ace. transeo, ire, ii, Itue, 1 cross. turpis, e, base. unde, whence.

EXERCISES.

283. 1. Meminerat, meminero, meminisse. 2. Adiisse, adiisset, adeamus, 3. Eundo, iturus esse, ierat. 4. RedImus, rediimus, redeamus, 5. Intertbit, interierant. 6. Interiisse, interiturus, interiit. 7. Transibamus, transiit, transrbunt, 8. Adtmus, adrbant, adii. 9. Redibitis, redierunt, redtbas, rediens. 10. Odisse, odit, 6derat. 284. 1. Hastes sinistrum cornu eircumtre eonantur. 2. Magna pars exercitns interiit. 3. Caesar eo, unde rediimus, profictscitur, 4. Circiter duodecim milia Germanorum Rhenum transtbant. 5. Hastes transeundt initium faciunt. 6. Equites, qul trans Mosam ierant, nondum redierant. 7. Has nationes adibimus. 8. Barbart consilia de bello clam intre incipiunt. 9. Hoc flumen transire coeperunt, 10. Has injurias memineramus. 11. 'I'urpes ctvts odimus, 12. Ex hac provincia in urbem redierat. 13. Omnes injuriaa meministi quas pater tuus pertulit. 14. Quare initium trauseundt fecistr? 285. 1. We were returning; we should have returned; to have returned; they will cross. 2. They had crossed; they crossed; he will cross. 3. You will remember; they were remembering; we bate; let us bate; be hated. 4. I had

IRREGULAR

VERBS.

129

begun to cross the river. 5. Two thousand cavalry 1 per. ished. 6. The cavalry of the enemy went around the camp of the Romans. 7. This river is crossed 2 by a ford. 8. The soldiers will return.

286.

Continuation of the Negotiations.

HIS legatIs Caesar ita respondit: "81 obsides mihi a vobIs dabuntur, et sr Haeduis S de injurits 4 satisfacietis quas ets sociisque 6 sorum intulistis, vobts cum 6 pacem faciam." Dtvico respondit: "Helvetii obsides accipere, non dare/ consueverunt." 8 Post hoc responsum discessit. Postero die 9 Hel vetii castra ex hoc loco moverunt, Caesar idem fecit et cum equitatii hostes sequebatur. Ita dies circiter qutndecim 10 non longo intervallo 11 iter fecerunt.u 1 See ยง 114,4. 2 See ยง 280, 1. 8 si Haeduis satisfacietis: if you make amends to the Haedui. 4 de injuriis: for the damages. 5 eis sociisque eorum: upon them and their allies (dative). 6 vobiscum: for cum appended to personal pronouns, compare ยง274, nobiscum. 10bsides accipere, non dare: to receive hostages, not to give (them); dependent on consueverunt. 8consueverunt: are 'accustomed; the perf. of consuesco has the force of the pres. 9 postero die: on the following day. 10 dies circiter quindecim: for about.Tifteen days. 11 non longo intervallo: at no long distance (ablative). U iter fecerunt: they marched; literally, made their wa1l.

LESSON XL VI. IMPERSONAL

VERBS.

IMPERSONAL

"7

QUESTIONS.

VERBS.

287. Impersonal Verbs correspond to the English it _ snows, it seems, etc. They have no personal subject, but .may take an Infinitive, a Clause, or a Neuter Pronoun j as, me pudet hOc fecisse, lit. it shames me to have done this; hoc decet, this is fitting. Examples are: _ paenitet

~

oportet accidit

paeuitere lieere oportere accidere

paenituit licuit oportuit accidit

it it it it

repents, it causes regret is permitted is fitting happens.

Specially to be noted is the impersonal use of such Passi ve forms as,curritur pugnatum est ventum est veniendum est

lit. lit. lit. lit.

it it it it

is run was fought has been come must be come

I.e. some one runs i.e. the battle raged i.e, some olle has come Le. somebody must come.

QUESTIONS.

288. Questions may be either Word-Questions or Sentence-Questions. 1. WORD-QUESTIONS. These are introduced by the various inter. rogative pronouns and adverbs; such as-quia, qui, quo, qUi, etc. Thus:quia venit, who comes? quam diii manebrt, how long will he stay 1 130

IMPERSONAL 2.

SENTENCE-QUESTIONS.

a) By ~

implying

131

VERBS.

These are introducedthe answer'

yes';

as,-

nc5nne vidlls, do you not see 1

b) By num implying the answer' nuiii"ei8Pectls,

do you expect 1

no';

as,-

(I.e. you

don't expect, do you ').

c) B,Y the enclitic -ne, appended

to the emphatic word (which usually stands first), and simply asking for information; as,vidllsne, do you see 1 VOCABULARY.

289.

conourro, ere, cum, concursum, run togethel路. dicc5, ere, dixi, dictus, I say. lIberi, c5rum, m., children (freeborn).

mellor, ius, better, comp. of bonus. -n~, enclitic interrog, particle, asking for information. neglego, ere, llzi, llctU8, I neglect.

nonne, interrog. particle, expecting answer" yes." Dum, interrog. particle, expecting answer" no." profugio, ere, fUgi, fugittlrus, I flee, escape. quando, when 'I quo, whither, interrog. and reI. adv. scribo, ere, Bcripsi, BCriptuB, I write. vir, viri, m., man.

EXERCISES.

290. 1. Auda.cter resistendum est. 2. Undique ad signa concurritur.! 3. Eo conventum est.' 4. Nonne has litteras scripsisti? 5. N um virl boni patriam defendere recusant? 6. Num hos liberos neglexistt ? 7. Quando meliorem virum vidsbis ? 8. Hasne sentenbias probavistis ? 9. Quo profugerunt? 10. Quid dtxistt ? 11. Undique ad signa concursum est. 12. Nonne vetera incommoda meministl? 13. Non oportet officium neglegere. 14. Licet res meliores sperare. it i, run together, I.e. the men rush. , Lit. it was assembled thither, l.e. men assembled there.

1 Lit.

132

QUESTIONS.

291. 1. When will you come to us ?1 2. Where have you 4. What been? 3. Where (=whither) have they gone? 6. You would you have said? 5. Did you not see us? they rewill not neglect your duty, will you? 7. Have 9. Who turned? 8. Would you have written this letter? will remain here? .:: REVIEW.

292. 1. Eo rediimus unde profecti eramus, โ€ข 2. Initium hnjus rei meminisse non potul. 3. Aliud consilium inrre clam coeperunt. 4. Non vult ullrua hominis amicus fieri. 5. Caesar de tumultu Gallorum certior fiet. 6. 'I'alia incommoda vix perferrr possunt, 7. Fama hujus tumultus statim ad Caesarem allata est. 8. Omnia pertcula hujus itineris fortiter perfers. 9. Magna copia frumenti in his oppidts aderat. 10. Omnis spes salutis deest. 11. Hos montes videre vix poteris. 12. Helvetit post quinque. menses 2 in frnes sues redire coactr sunt, 13. Caesar cum ets de paeis condicionibus eolloquebatur. 1 See 2

ยง 125, footnote

1.

miinsis, is, m., month.

PART III. SYNTAX.

LESSON XLVII. THE ACCUSATIVE.

293. The Accusative is the case of the Direct Object. It may express: a. The person or thing affected by the action; as,consulem interfecit,

he slew the consul.

b. The result produced by the action; as,librum scripBl, I wrote a book. TWO ACCUSATIVES-DIRECT OBJECT AND PREDICATE ACCUSATIVE.

294. 1. .Many Verbs of Making, Ohoosing, Oallin,Q, Showing, and the like, take two Accusatives, one the Direct Object, the other a Predicate Accusative; as,urbem Romam vacant,

they call the city Rome,

Here urbem is Direct Object, Romam Predicate Accusative. 2. The Predicate Accusative may be' an Adjective as well as a Noun; as,' bastes boc iter perlculosum rendered this route dangerous.

reddiderant,

the enemy

had

3. In the Passive the Direct Object becomes the Subject, and the Predicate Accusative becomes Predicate Nominative; as,urbs Roma voolta

est, the city was called Rome.

133

134

THE ACCUSATIVE. VOCABULARY.

295.

aedificium, i (ii), n., building. alacer, cris, ere, eager. appello, 1, I name, call. Bacenis, is, ~., Bacenis, a forest in Germany. ::

deUgo, ere, legi, lectus, I choose. dolor, oris, m., gl'ief efficio, ere, feci, fectus, I make, render. frater, tris, m., brothel'. hiemo, 1, I pass the winter. incendo, ere, cendi, census, I set on fire.

inimicus, i, m., a (personal) enemy. Lentulus, i, m., Lentulus, a man's name. Octodiirus, i, m., Octoduru8, a city of the Veraari: opportiinus, a, um, fit, opportune. praetor, oris, m., praetor. privltus, a, um, private. pugna, ae, f., fight, battle. -que, and, enclitic conj. sentio, ire, sensi, sensus, I feel.

EXERCISES.

296. 1. Haec res hostes ad pugnam alacriores effecerat, 2. Populus Romanus Lentulum praetorem fecit. 3. Galba in vtco qut Octodurus appellatur hiemat. 4. Helvetit hunc locum opportunissimum judicaverunt. 5. Caesarem de his rebus certiorern faciunt. 6. Htc homo dux delectus est. 7. Suum fratrem inimteum jndicaverat, 8. Haec silva appellatur Bacenis, 9. Helvetii vteos reliquaque privata aedificia incendunt. 10. Dolorem sentimus. 11. Magnum exercitum paravimus. 12. Galli hunc montem Jl1ram appellaverunt, 13. Virt"ils imperatoris mtlites forti ores efficit. 297. 1. We have made Galba leader. 2. Galba had been made leader. 3. 'I'he Helvetii called this town Geneva. 4. The valor of the commander made 1 the soldiers braver. 5. The Belgians were adjudged the bravest of the Gauls. 6. Caesar adjudged the Belgians the bravest of the Gauls. 7. Whom, 0 soldiers," will you choose (as) commander? 1 Use 2

llfliciil. The Vocative regularly

stands iu the second place in the sentence.

THE

298.

ACCUSATiVE.

135

Caesar Prepares for Battle.

Paulo post 1 ab 2 exploratoribus certior factus est, hostes sub monte eonsedisse 8 octo milia passuum 4 ab ipstus 6 castrls, D~ tertia vigilia 8 T. Labienum cum duabus legionibus summum jugum mantis ascend ere jussit. Ipse de quarta vigilia eodem itinere quo 1 hostes ierant," ad eos contendit equitatumque omnem ante se mtsit. Labienus, postquam montem occupavit, nostros exspectabat. Caesar autem per falsum niintium deceptus," proelium hoc die non eommtsit, 1paulo pOBt: a little afteruiartls ; lit. afterwards by a little ; post is the ad verb. 2 ab: by. 8 hostes Bub monte conBediBBe: that the enemy had encamped at the foot of a mountaim ; dependent on certior factus est ,. lit. was informed the enemy to have encamped, etc. 4 octo milia paBBuum: eight miles away,. Accnsative of Extent of Space, ยง 301. 6 ipBiuB: referring to Caesar. 6 de tertia vigilia : as in ยง 263. 7 eodem itinere quo: by the same route as; lit. by the same route by which. 8 ierant: from eo. 9 per falsum nuntium deceptue: one of Caesar's aides falsely reported to him that the hill W?,S occupied, not by Labienus, but by the Helvetii.

LESSON XLVIII. THE ACCUSATIVE (Continued). TWO ACCUSATIVES. - PERSON AND THING.

299. 1. Some Verbs of Asking, Demanding, Teaching, etc., take two Accusatives, one of the Person, the other

of the Thing; as,t~ haec rogo, I ask you this; t~ litteras doceo, I teach you (your) letters. 2. In the Passive construction the Accusative of the Person becomes the Subject, and the Accusative of the Thing is retained; as,is omnes artes edoctus est, he was taught all accomplishments.

TWO ACCUSATIVES

WITH

COMPOUNDS.

300. 1. Transitive compounds of trans may take two Accusatives, one dependent upon the Verb, the other upon the Preposition; as,mnites ÂŁliimen tradiicit, he leads his soldiers across the river.

ACCUSATIVE

OF TIME AND SPACE.

301. IJ:!!:.rationof Time and ]Jh;tent of Space are denoted by the Accusative; as,quadragint1i annos vixit, he lived forty years; arbor~B qUinquagint1iped~s altae, trees fifty feet high. 136

I,

r.1!heJqlt) J

187

THE .ACCUSATIVE. ACCUSATIVE

OF LIMIT

OF MOTION.

302. 1. The Accusative of Limit of Motion is used,a. With names of Tow7UI; as,R~ '.

vllnl, I came to Rome;

With .domum, home j domes, to their (your, our) homes to the country; as,d~

revertitur,

j

riis,

he returns home.

2. Other designations of place than those above mentioned require a Preposition (in or ad) to denote Limit of Motion; as,ad Italiam

303.

vllnit, he came to Italy. VOCABULARY.

I,ab, from, prep. with abl.; before a vowel or h, the form ab must be used. ac (atque), and, and also; ac is not used before vowels. annua, i, rn., year. Athllnae, ~rum, f., .Athens. blduum, I, n., two days. eottidill, adv., every day, daily. domus, us, f., house, home. flligfte, 1, I demand. Hfbllrus, I, m., Hiberus, a river in Spain. interim, in the meanwhile. monee, llre, ui, itus, I advise, warn.

obtinee, llre, ni, tentus, I occupy, hold. ops, opfs, f. (nom. sing. is not used), power, help; in pl., resources. passus, us, m., pace (five feet). pete, ere, ivl (ll), !tus, I seek, l路equest. pollieeor, llri, ftus sum, I promise. rllgnum, i, n., kingdom. roge, 1, I ask. seseenti, ae, a, six hundred. trAduce, ere, diixi, ductus, I lead across.

EXERCISES.

304. 1. Caesar interim cotttdie Haeduos frllmentum, quod pollicitI erant, flagitat, 2. A te opem peto, 3. Sine perIculo ac timore copias Hiberum traduxit. 4. Sententiam rogatus est. 5. Hoc me rnones. 6. Dece~ annos regnum obtinuit. 7. Btduum in hts loots moratus est. 8. HIc

138

THE ACCUSATIVE.

locus ab hostibus sescentos passus aberat. 9. Capias domum reduxit, 10. Atb,enas redierat. 11. In Galliam contendimus. 12. Decem milia passuum reducti sunt. 13. Te pecuniam quam mihi debebas flagitavi. 14. IlIa turris trlginta pedes alta fnit. 305. 1. I shall teach you all these things. 2. We had been taught these things. 3. I have demanded the money of you. 4. These envoys requested help from Caesar. 5. Have you been asked your opinion? 6. Caesar will lead his troops across the Rhine. 7. We remained here ten years. 8. The camp of the enemy is a thousand paces distant. 9. We shall come to Rome. 10. Return home.

TEMPLE

OF CAESAR

AT RoME.

LESSON XLIX. THE DATIVE. DATIVE OF INDIRECT OBJECT.

306. The Dative is the case of the Indirect Object. The Dative of Indirect Object is used,1. With tra.nsitive verbs in connection with the Accusative hanc pecilniam

j

as,-

mihi dat, he gives me this money.

2. With many intransitive verbs; especially with verbs signifying favor, help, injure, please, displease, trust, distrust, command, obey, ser1le, resist, indulge, spm'e, pardon, envy, threaten, believe, persuade, and the like, as,Caesar popullribus favet, Caesar favors (i.e, is favorable to) the popular party. amIcIs confIdo, I trust (to) my friends. 3. With many verbs compounded with the prepositions: ad, ante, com- (con-), in, inter, ob, post, prae, pro, sub, super, and sometimes circum; as,amIcUs succurrit, he helps the afflicted; exercituI praefuit, he !Casin command of the army; eum exercituI praeH!cI, I put him in charge of the army.

307. confido,

VOCABULARY.

ere,

fiBus sum, semi-

dep., I trust.

in1ero, ferre, tuli, mAtus, I bring upon. [present at. Intersum, esse, foi, futurus, I am LabUlnu8, I, m., LabienuJl, a lieutenant of Caesar. mulier. er1s, I., '/Comall. 139

noeeo, ere, ur, Itilrua, I injure, harm, parco, ere, pepereI, parBtlrua, I spare. persuAdeo, ere, BulBI, BulBum, I persuade. plaeeo, lire, ur, plaelttlrua, 1please.

140

THE DA1'lVE.

ere, feci, fectus, I put in charge. praemium, i (ii), n., reward. praesum, esse, lui, I am in charge of recens, gen., recentis, recent. praeficid,

res piiblica, gen., rei piiblicae, f., state, j路epublic. Babinus, i, m., Sabinus, a lieutenant of Caesar.

sermd, onis, m., conversation. terror, oris, m., terror.fear,

EXERCISES.

308. 1. ReI publicae nocetis, 2. Caesar mulieribus pepercit. 3. Sabinus et magnts praemils persuasit, 4. Caesar el mnnttionr quam fecerat Labienum praefeeit. 5. Laudat eos qut huic negotio praefuerant. 6. Mtlites nostrI maximum terrorem hostibus Inferunt. 7. Caesar buic legiont propter virtutem maxima confldebat. 8. Hoc consilium nobts placet. 9. Ego huic sermonj interfur, 10. M'ilitibus propter recentem victoriam magna praemia donat, 11. Parcite, ctves mel, reI publicae. 12. Nl111islegatrs verbts mets persuadere potueram, 13. Nos illt negotio praefecerat. 309. 1. We shall present rewards to our soldiers. 2. t had already given you 1 the letter. 3. Let us spare these children! 4. We have not injured you. 5. Trust these soldiers! 6. I had persuaded all these envoys. 7. I should easily have persuaded your brother. 8. We sball put you in charge of the smaller camp. 9. Caesar was in charge of many legions. 10. Who will bring war upon us? 310.

Arrangement

of the Roman Troops for Battle.

Postero dil! HelvetiI nostros it novissimo agmine" InsequI ao laces sere coeperunt, Postquam Caesar id animadvertit, copiaa suas in proximum collem subducit equitatumqno, qur sustineret lObserve that the special sign of the indirect object (to, for) lacking in English. The pupil must have regard to the meaning. 2 a novissimo agmine: on the rear; lit. from the rear.

is often

THE DATIVE.

141

hostium impetum,' mtsit. Ipse interim in colle medio" triplicem a.ciem InstriiXit legionum quattuor veteranarum , sed in summo jugo duas legiones," quas in Gallia Citeriore proxime eonscrtpserat et omnia auxilia collocavit ac totum montem hominibus complevit. 1 qui

impetum: to withstand the attack; lit. who should 2 in colle medio: i.e. half-wall up the hill. 8 legiobjects of collocavit.

sustineret

withstand the attack. ones, auxilia.:

ROMAN CITIZEN IN THE TOGA.

I~ESSON L. THE DATIVE (Continued) â&#x20AC;˘ .:

DATIVE OF AGENCY.

311. The Dative of Agency is used with the Gerundive; as,haec nobis agenda sunt, these things must be done by us; mihi eundum est, I must go (lit. it must be gone by me). DATIVE OF POSSESSION.

312. The Dative of Possession is used with the verb sum; as,mihi est liber, I have a book (lit. a book is to me). DATIVE OF PURPOSE OR TENDENCY.

313. The Dative of Purpose or Tendency denotes the end toward which an action is directed or for which something exists; as,castris locum dliligere, to choose a place for a camp. 1. The Dative of Purpose or Tendency is often used in connection with another Dative of the object to which; as,nobis sunt odio, they are an object of hatred to us (lit. are to us for hatred). DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES.

314. The Dative is used with adjectives signifying: friendly, unfriendly, similar, dissimilar, equal, near, related to, suitable, ete., as,mihi inimicus, hos:ile to me; proximus ripae, next to the bank; castris idoneus locus, a place suitable for a camp. 142

THE DATIVE.

315.

143

VOCABULARY.

adversus, a, um, adverse. colloquium, I (li), n., conference. conspectus, us, m., view, sight. mco, ere, dixi, dictus, I appuint. facinus, facinoris, n., crime. pAr, gen. paris, equal. pils, pedis, m., foot. profcio, ere, jilcl, jectus, Ltnrmn, cast.

prozimus, a, um, nearest, next; see ยง 102.1. sciltum, I, D., shield. ti!lum, I, n., javelin. Tri!veri, orum, m. pI., Treveri, a tribe of Belgians. ilsus, ils, m., use, service. ventus, I, m., wind.

EXERCISES.

316. 1. Patria nobts defendenda est. 2. Acriter ncbrs resistendum est.! 3. Mrlitibus sunt scuta telaque, 4. QuInque cohortes castrls praesidia reltquit. 5. Una res mtlitibns magna usuj erato 6. Dies colloquia dictus est. 7. HIe ventus nobts adversus est. 8. Nulla poena huic facinorI pdr est. 9. Trevert proximI Rheno sunt. 10. Haec verba tibi et amicIs tuts probanda sunt. 11. Conailium vestrum nobts magna usut erato 12. Galli exercitui Romano pares non erant, 317. 1. This camp must be bravely defended by us. .2. We must make resistance (= it must be resisted by 11S j ยง 287). 3. The Helvetii had many villages. 4. The Romans had large fleets, 5. Let us appoint a day for a conference. 6. Caesar chose a place for a camp. 7. This place was suitable for a cavalry battle. 8. These villages are next the sea. 9. This thing was of great assistance 2 to us. 1 See ยง S

311, 2d example. Compare the fifth sentence in the Latin Exercise.

LESSON LI. THE GENITIVE. GENITIVE WITH NOUNS.

318. A noun used to complete the meaning of another noun is put in the Genitive. 319. The Genitive of Possession denotes ownership; as,domus CiceraniB, Cicero's house. 1. The Possessive Genitive is often used predicatively, especially with esse and fieri; as,domus est Ciceranis,

the house i.~ Cicero's.

320. The Subjective Genitive denotes the person who makes or produces somethinq or who has a feeling; as, dicta Ciceranis, the utlemnces of Cicero; timares liberarum. thefears of the children.

321. feeling;

The Objective Genitive denotes the object of an action or as, metus de arum, fear of the gods.

322. The Genitive of the Whole (Partitive the whole of which a part is taken; as,-

Genitive) denotes

magna pars hominum, a great part of mankind. 1. The Genitive of the Whole occurs especially with the Neuter of Prououns, or of Adjectives used substantively; as, quid cOnsill, what purpose 1 (lit. what of purpose 1); pHis auctoritlitis, more authority (lit. more of authority).

323. Genitive of Quality. tive is used to denote quality;

The Genitive as,-

modified

by an Adjec-

vir magnae virtiitis, a man of great valor; fOBBaquindecim pedum, a trench fifteen feet wide (ur deep).

144

145

THE GENITIVE. 1. The Genitive of Quality is often used predieatively; hlc vir est magnae virtiitis,

324.

as,-

this man is of great valor.

VOCABULARY.

Amitto, ere, mlsi, mil8us, I lose. ancora, ae, f., anchor. arcesso, ere, lvI, !tus, I summon. armlltllra, ae, f., equipment. cllterI, ae, a, the rest, the other. custodia, ae, f., custody. dIco, ere, dixl, dictus, I utter. imperium, i (li), n., rUle, C01llmand. jiistus, a, um, just. levis, e, light.

modus, I, m., manner, kind. nonniillus, a, um, some (ยง 83). pAbulum, I, n., forage. quantus, a, um, how much, how great' ntis, enough, indeel. 8upersum, esse, fuI, I remain, am left:

tantus, a, um, 80 much, 80 great. vlillum, I, n., intrenchment. via, ae, f., road, way.

EXERCISES.

325. 1. Ancorae navium amissae sunt. 2. Imperium popult Romanr justissimum erato 3. Ceterta cohortibus custodiam capttvorum tradidit, 4. Quantum viae superest? 5. Tantum pabult deerat, 6. Castrfs erat satis praesidI. 7. Dux pedites levis armaturae arcessIvit. 8. Erat vallum decem pedum in altitndinem. 9. Nonnullae sententiae ejus modt dicebantur. 10. HIc adulescens summae dIligentiae fuerat. 11. Turres magnae altitudinis copias impediunt. 12. Quantum frumenti et pabult defuit ? 13. Adulescentem hnjus modI semper amamus, 326. 1. Caesar's legions were brave. 2. The onset of the Gauls was withstood. 3. This victory of our troops was most welcome to the Romans. 4. Your recollection of my favors is most welcome to me. 5. How much forage was in the camp? 6. There was not enough money} 7. These soldiers were of the greatest valor. 8. Our soldiers filled up a trench ten feet in 2 depth. 1Translate:

โ€ข Not enough of money was.'

2

Use in with the ace.

rp

146 327.

-...? .;7

THE GENITIVE. The Battle Begins.

Helvetii cum omnibus sujs earrts secutr! impedtmenta in unum locum contulerunt ; 2 ipst, eonfertissima 3 aeie, sub prtmam nostrarn aciem successerunt; Caesar equos omnium ex conspectu removit at que cohortatus 4 suos proelium commtsit . Mrlites, qui ~ loco superiore ptla mlserunt, facile hostium phalangem perfregerunt, 1 secuti: jollowing. 2 contulerunt: from con/era. 8 confertissima acie: 1n a very dense line oj battle. 4 cohortatus suos: having encouraged his men.

LESSON LII. THE GENITIVE GENITIVE

(Continued).

WITH ADJECTIVES.

328. The Genitive is used with Adjectives signifying desire, knowledge, mem01'y, participation, power,fulness, and their opposites; as,\

studiosus discendi, desirous of learning peritus bellI, skilled in war; cupidus bellI, desirous of war. GENITIVE

WITH

VERBS.

329. The Genitive is used with (remember), oblivIscor (forget); 1 as,animus praeterltorum

j

memtnr,

remlnlBcor

meminit, the mind j'emembers the past.

Genitive with Impersonal Verbs.

330. The Irn personals pudet, it shames; paemtet, it causes regret, take the Accusative of the person affected, together with the Genitive of the object toward which the feeling is directed; as,pudet mil tuI, I am ashamed of you (lit. it shames me afyou).

Interest. 331. With interest, the person or thing concerned is denoted by the Genitive; as,patris interest, it concerns the fathe,'. 1 These also often govern

the Accusative,

147

especially

(~f.~ ~)

of a neut, pron. or adj.

148 332.

.-

THE GENITIVE. VOCABULARY.

beneficium, r (11), n., kindness, favor. contuml!lia, ae, f., insult. dl!fectio, oDis, f., revolt. etiam, also. genus, eris, n.; kind .

imperitus, a, um, inexperienced. obliviscor, i, oblitue sum, forget. paenitet, it causes regret. pll!nus, a, um, full. pristinus, a, um, pl路istine.

EXERCISES.

333. 1. Plena est vtta pertculorum. 2. Hujus generis pugnae imperItI sumus, 3. Harum contumeliarum meminimus. 4. Helvetit prIstinae suae virtntis non oblIvIscuntur. 5. Hnjus defectionis eos paenitet. 6. Vita ilhus mnlieris periculorum plena fuerat. 7. Nonne beneficiorum nostrorum meministis? 8. PrIstinae defectionis obltvtseamur ! 334. 1. The Helvetii were fond of war. 2. They remembered the valor of their ancestors. 3. We shall not forget your favors. 4. Do you remember this revolt? 5. We regret this war. 6. We were inexperienced in dangers. REVIEW.

335. 1. Amtcoa tuos horum verborum paenituit. 2. Bellornm hujus modi imperttus fuit. 3. Satis peciiniae mihi non edt. 4. Fossa decem pedum pro castris erato 5. Ceteri, quI supererant, mtlites levis armaturas erant. 6. Incolae hnjus Insulae Italiae proximi sunt. 7. Proximum diem colloquia dIximus. 8. Pax et amtcitia omnibus ctvitatibus magno usut sunt. 9. Tela et scuta Gallis fuerunt, 10. Eis mtlitibus parcam quibus semper confrsus sum. 11. Hoc sermons alits facile persuasit, 12. Rae recentes victorias senatut placuerunt,

LESSON LIlI. THE ABLATIVE.

336. The Ablative unites in itself three cases which were originally distinct both in form and in meaning; viz. The Genuine Ablative, or from-case. The Instrumental, or with-case. The Locative, or where-case.

(~t~)

GENUINE ABLATIVE

USES.

Ablative of Separation. 337. The Ablative of Separation is construed sometimes with, sometimes without, a preposition. The preposition is omitted especially with verbs ofjreeing, depriving, lacking, and with adjectives of similar meaning; as,perJculIalJberltus,

freed from dangers.

Ablative of Agent. 338. The Ablative accompanied by k Cab) is used with passive verbs to denote the personal agent; as,I Caesare acciisltus est, he was accused by Caesar. Ablative of Comparison. 339. The Ablative is used with Comparatives 10 the sense of than; as,patria mihi vitI cllriorest, my country is dearer to me than life. 1. But pUis,ampUus (more), minus (less), and longius (furt1ler) are oftenused 8S the equivalentsof pliis quam, minus quam, etc.; 88,-

pliis decem hominยงs aderant, more 149

t1lan ten men were present.

150 340.

a, ab,

~'

VOCABULARY.

by, prep. with abl, amplius, mOI'e. amplus, a, um, gl'eat, glOl'ious, commeatus, ,us, m., supplies, dissensio, oni!!, f., disagl'eement. expello, ere, puli, pulsus, I drive out, genus, eris, n., stock, family. lOCUS, i, m., place ; family. nascor, i, natus sum, I am born. obsidio, onis, f., siege.

occido, ere, cidi, cis us, I kill. possessio, oms, f., possession. repello, ere, reppuli, repulsus, I drive back, repel. septingenti, ae, a, seven hundred. Ubii, orum, m., Ubii, a German tribe. Usipetes, urn, m., Usipetes, a German tribe. viginti, twenty, indecl.

EXERCISES.

341. 1. Caesar Ubi03 obsidione IIberavit.. 2. HelvetiI flnibus surs excesserunt. 3., Usipetes propter disseusiones possessionibus surs expulsI sunt. 4. Hostes Caesarem commeatu prohibuerunt, 5. Hostes a mIlitibus nostrrs repulsI sunt. 6. Nihil est bominibus carius lrbertate. 7. Amplius vlgintI YlcI incenduntur. 8. Iu eo proelio minus septingentI mtlites occlsl sunt, 9. Plus quinque milia captlvorum li. Caesare occtsi sunt. 10. Nos magna tim ore Itberavistr. 11. Hostes a fInibus nostrrs reppulimns. 12. Quis est melior fratre tuo ? 13. Nemo illos mllitesab hts mnnttionibus prohibebit,

342. 1. The Germans were driven out of tbeir villages. 2. We shall free our ffolluw-citizens from fear. 3. The Romans drove back the Gauls from the rampart of the camp. 4. We kept the cavalry away from the ford of the river. 5. More than a hundred towns were captured by Caesar. 6. What is nobler than friendship? 7. Is not virtue better than friendship? 8. More than two hundred German horsemen were driven back by us.

151

THE ABLATIVE.

Defeat of the Helvetii.

343.

Dill atque acriter pugnatum est.' Diutius cum sustinere nostrorum impetus non possent," alit se in montem receperuut, Ad mulaliI8 ad impedImenta et carr os suos se eontulerunt. tam noctem 4 ad 5 impedImenta pugnatum est, propterea quod pro vall06 carros objecerant" et e loco superiore tela coniciebant et nostros vulnerabant, Diu cum pugnatum esset," impedtmentIs castrIsque nostrI potltl sunt." 1 pugnatum est: the battle raged; lit. it was fouqht ; ยง 287. 2 cum non possent: when they could not; ยง 413, 8 alii. , . ali: : some, ,. others. 4 ad multam noctem: till far into the night. 6 ad: at; near. 6 pro vallo: as a rampart. 7 objecerant: from obicio. 8 cum pugnatum esset: for the cum clause, see above on cum possent, 9 impedimentis potiti sunt: got possession oj the baggage; for the abl. see ยง 344,1.

โ€ข

HIUDU";

BUILT

BY CAKSAR

ACROSS

THE RHINE.

LESSON

LIV.

THE ABLATIVE (Continued). INSTRUMENTAL USES. Ablative of Means.

344. The Ablative is used to denote means ment; as,-

Ot'

instru路

sagittll vulnerlltus est, he was wounded by an arrow.

<

The Ablative of Means is used with:1. tYtor, fruor, fungor, potior, and vesoor; as,dIvitiis fttitur, he uses his wealth (lit. he benefits himself by his wealth) ; vitii fruitur, he enjoys life (lit. he enjoys himself by life). 2. '!ith

opus est, there is need; as,-

t!uoe nobis opus est, we need a leader (lit. need is to us, etc.), 3. With Verbs of filling and Adjectives of plenty; fossiis lapidibus stones.

as,-

oompll!vllrunt, they filled the trenches with

Ablative of Cause.

345. The Ablative is used to denote cause; as,multa gloriae cupiditAte flloit, he did many things on account of his lOlle of glory. Ablative of Manner.

346. The Ablative modified by an adjective is used to denote manner; as,magnAgravitAte loquitur, he speaks with great dignity. a. Where there is no adjective, c~

is used; as,-

oum gravitAte loquitur, he speaks with dignity. 152

THE ABLATIVE.

347.

153

VOCABULARY.

adddco, ere, ddJd, ductue, I lead on, impel. celerltllB, lltie, f., speed. conficio, ere, fAc!, fectus, I exhaust. d5ditio, OniB,f., surrender. dltrlmentum, I, n., lOBS, damage. dignitllB, lltie, f., dignity, rank. Aruptio, OniB,f., sally. grlltia, ae, f., influence. inopia, ae, f., lack.

laceBBo, ere, laceBBlvi, lace. llltuB, I harass. noctumue, a, um, at night. opus, n., need, Indecl. pervenio, Ire, vAni, ventum, I come, arrive. ratio, OniB,f., reason. recipio, ere, olpl, ceptus, I take back ; with reflexive eA, to retreat. iiter, t, ileUBBum, I use.

EXERCISES.

348. 1. Helvetit, inopia omnium rerum adductr, lega.tos da deditione ad Caesarem mise runt. 2. Equites portts eruptionem faciunt. 3. Hostes equites nostr6s proelio lacessere coeperunt, 4. Galli, vulneribus confectt, se recepl!runt. 5. Opus est celeritate, 6. Montem multitndine hominum compleverunt. 7. Hoc ea ratione fecit. 8. Tua. gra.tia, dignitate, ope 1 uti yolo. 9. Eadem celeritate nocturno itinere ad mare pervenit, 10. Galli cum magno detrimento repulsi Bunt. 11. Helvetit summa. celerita.te ex flnibus Gallorum exeeaserunt. 12. Na.ves his causra ad terram redire coaetae sunt. 349. 1. The soldiers had been exhausted by the long march. 2. We shall use the help of the Gauls. 3. The trenches were filled by the soldiers with large stones. 4. We shall need cavalry and infantry. 5. He spoke with great dignity. G. From fear of danger the envoys withdrew from the camp. 7. The Helvetii were not contented with their narrow boundaries. lin Latin tile.conjunctlon members of an enumeration.

â&#x20AC;˘ and' is often omitted between the last two

LESSON LV. THE ABLATIVE (Continued). INSTRUMENTAL USES

.-

.The Ablative with

(CONTINUED).

Ablative of Accompaniment .

350.

paniment,.

cum

is used to denote accom.

as,-

cum comitfbus profectus est, he set Ollt with his attendants. Ablative of Degree of Difference.

351. The Ablative is used with comparatives and words involving comparison (as post, afteruiards : ante, before ; superlre, surpass) to denote the degree of difference,. as,trtbus pedibus altior, three feet hiqher (lit. higher by three feet). Ablative of Quality.

352. The Ablative, modified by an adjective, is used to denote quality,. as,vir magnli virtilte, a man of great courage. 1. The Ablative of Quality may also be used predicatively; ss,vir est magnli virtiite, the man is of great courage. Ablative of Price.

353. The Ablative of Price is used with verbs of buyas,-

ing and selling,.

servum parve pretie ~mit, he bought the slace for a small price. Ablative of Specification.

354. The Ablative of Specification is used to denote that in respect to which something is or is done; as,Helv~tii omnibus GaUls virtilte praestiibant, surpassed all the Gauls in valor. 154

bn

the Helvetians

TH:F; A.BLATIVE.

155

1. The Ablative of Specification is used also with digous, worthy, and Indigo us, unwortky; as,hooore digoi, wortllY of honor.

355.

VOCABULARY.

ante, adv., before. antecl§do, ere, ceslli, cessiirus, I precede. auctorttlls, litis, f., auth01'ity, influence. • digous, a, um, wOl·thy. fidl§s, el, f .• confidence. oihllo, abl., by nothing. paulo, abl., by a little.

post, aftenoards. solvo, ere, solvl, soliitus, Tloose , of ships, unmo01'" olivl§s solvere, set sail. .upero, I, I surpass. taleotum, I, n., a talent (about $1200). vl§odo, ere, vl§odidl, vl§od1tus, I sell.

EXERCISES.

356. 1. Ipse cum equitatu anteeedit, 2. Paucts ante diebus profectt sumus, 3. Paulo post naves solvit, 4. Adversum proelium equestre paucis ante diebus factum erato 5. Haee civitas erat magna auctoritate, 6. Nihilo minus Helvetit id, quod constituerant, facere conantur, 7. Hos agros sex talentls vendidit, 8.. Ille dignus est fide. 9. Omnes dignitate superat, 10. Tunis deeem pedibus quam munttio altior fuit. 11. Nonne hto homo amtcitia vestra dignus est? 12. Nemo te auctoritate superat. 13. GallI cum magna. man'ii. hoe oppidum oppugnare ooeperuut .

357. 1. Caesar set out with four legions. 2. He returned home with his brother. 3. A few years before, Caesar had first come into Gaul. 4. A few years after, he returned to Rome. 5. This plan is much better. 6. He sold this house for ten talents. 7. Are we not worthy of the highest honor? 8. This man surpassed the rest in virtue. 9. The enemy were superior in number.

156 358.

'"" .:

THE ABLATIVE. Retreat of the Helvetti.

Ex eo proelio circiter hominum mtlia! CXX supertueruntt eamque totam noetem" continenter ierunt; 4 denique die quarto~ in ftnes Lingonum pervenemnt, quoniam et" propter vulnera mtlitum et sepulturam occrsorum 7 nostrI eos sequI non potuerant. Caesar Lingones 8 eos frumento 9 aut alits rebus juvil.re vetuit, Ipse post ttlduum cum omnibus copits eos sequt coepit. 1hominum milia: § 114, a; hominum is Genitive of the Whole; § 322. superluerunt: from supersum. 8 eam totam nootem: § 301. , i81'1lDt: from eo, 8 die quarto: on the fourth day. 6 et ..• et: both •.. and. I occisorum: of the slain. 8 Lingones eos juvare vetuit: forbade the Lingones to help them, 9 frumento, rebus: § 314. 20

SLINGER

(Iuuditor).

LESSON LVI. ABLATIVE ABLATIVE

(Continued). ABSOLUTE.

359. The Ablative Absolute is grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. It generally consists of a noun or pronoun limited by a participle; as,urbe captA, civlls fugllrunt, when the city had been captured, the citizens fled (lit. the city having been captured). 1. Instead

of a participle

we often find an adjective

as,-

(alSo

I/)

or a noun;

k ailtslil/e)

vlv& Caesare, rh pilbUca salva erat, while Caesar loaS alive the state was safe (lit. Caesar [being] alit'e) ; P1a6ne et GabiDio c6nsulibus, in the cOflBulship of Piso and Gabinius (lit. Pi80 and Gabinius [being] consuls). 2. The Ablative Absolute is generally best translated by a subordinate clause, i.e. by a clause introduced by when, as, since, if, though, etc.; or by a prepositional phrase (in, during, after, by); or by an activ.e participle with its object.

360.

VOCABULARY.

cog6, ere, collgJ, colctus, I collect. conjilrltlo, 6w, f., conspiracy. M., abbreviation for Mlrcus, i, m., Marcus (a man's name).

Messalla, .e, m., Messalla (a man's name). ped1tltus, us, m., infantry. Pieo, OW, .m., PiIIo (a man's name).

EXERCISES.

361. 1. Barbari, magna. multitiidine peditatns C04CtA,t ad eastra venerunt. 2. Is, M. Messalla et M. Pisone consulibus, 1 Avoid translatinjt the Ablative Absolute by the English Nominative Absolute. Find a natnral English equivalent.

167

158

THE ABLATIVE.

conjurationern fecit. 3. Hostes, tnsidits in silvts collocatts, adventnm Romanorum exspectabant, 4. Praesidio qumque cohortium reltcto, contra hostem profictscitur. 5. Me duce, mllites, agros Sequanorum vexavistis et oppida eorum cepistis. 6. Exigua parte aestatis reliqua, Caesar in Britanniam profectus est. 7. HIs rebus cognitrs, ab Rheno flumine decessit. 8. Ooncilio habibo, nuntios in omnes partes mtserunt, 9. Commisso proelio .. diutius nostrorum impetum hostes sustinere non potuerunt, 10. Hac magna classe amissa, ad oram Galliae statim rediit. 362. 1. In the consulship of Pompey and Crassus the Germans crossed the Rhine. 2. When these tribes had been overcome, Caesar returned to winter-quarters. 3. In our consulship the Helvetii were driven back and killed. . 4. Having taken many towns by storm, this commander was waiting for his fleet. 5. Having heard of the arrival of Marcellus, we sent envoys to him. 6. When all the arms had been collected from this town, he set out for (in) the territory of the Ubii

ttnÂŤ, rn"llm).

LESSON LVII. ABLATIVE ABLATIVE

(Continued).

OF PLACE AND TIME.

(LOCATIVE

USES.)

Ablative of Place. A. Place where.

363. The place where is regularly denoted by the .Ab· lative with the preposition in; as,in urbe habitat,

he dwells in the city.

1. But names of towns-except Singulars of the First and Second Declensions - stand in the Ablative without a preposition; as,Carthlgini, at Carthage;

Athenls, at Athens.

B. Place from which.1

364. Place from which is regularly deuoted by the Ablative with the preposition ab, de, or ex.; as,ab Italil

profeotua eat, he set out from Italy.

1. But names of towns and domO, from horne, stand in the Ablative without a preposition; as,ROml profectua eat, he set (Jutfrom Rome. Ablative of Time.

366. The Ablative is used to denote the time at which or within which; as,1 Place from which, thoogh strictly a •Genuine Ablative' use, Is treated here for the sake of convenience. 159

THE ABLATIVE.

โ€ข 160

quirtli. horli. mortuus est, he died at the fourth hour; liina octo et viginti diebus cursum conficit, the moon completes its orbit within twenty-eight days. THE LOCATrvE.

366.

The Locative case occurs:-

1. Regularly in the singular of names of towns and small islands of the :first and second declensions, to denote the place in which; as,Romae, at Rome; 2. In a few special words;

Corinthi, at Corinth (see ยง 29,3). as,-

domi, at home;

367.

humi, on the ground.

VOCABULAR~.

Aprilis, e, adj., of April. despero, 1, I despair, Ka1endae, arum, f., Kalends (first of the month). Roma, ae, f., Rome.

tempus, oris, n., time. tertius, a, um, third. triduum, I, n., three days. vigilia, ae, f., watch (of night).

the

368. 1. Athenis morabamur. 2. Romae erat magnus tumultus. 3. Roma in Galliam contendit. 4. A Gallia Romam trtduo redtbit, 5. Tertia vigilia e castrts profectus est. 6. Eo tempore mtlites de sua salute desperabant, 7. Kalendts AprIlibus has Iitteras mrst, 8. Illa nocte Insidias Gallorum reppererunt, 9. Ego et frater meua Roma Athenas rediimus. 369. 1. In these places were large forests. 2. He remained one day at Geneva. 3 On that day I saw you and your friends at Avarieum, 4. From Athens we returned to Rome. 5. From Rome we hurried into Gaul. 6. We set out in the first watch. 7. You were consul III that year. 8. Within six years I shall be consul.

THE ABLATIVE.

370.

161

The Helvetii Surrender to Caesar.

Helvetit omnium rerum inopia adductt t legatos ad Caesarem de deditione mlserunt, Caesar eos2 in eo loco quo " tum erant suum ad ventum exspectare jussit. Eo 4 postquam Caesar pervenit, obsides et omnia anna quae habebant poposcit. His tra.ditis,6 omnes in deditionem aecepit, eosque in fines suos, unde profecti erant, revert! atque oppida vreosque," quos incenderant, restituere jussit. 1 adducti: induced, forced, impelled. 2 eos exspectare jussit: ordered them to await. I quo: in which. 4 eo: thither, there .. the adverb. 6 hia traditiB: ยง a59; his refers to arms and hostages. 8 oppida, vieoa: objects of restituere.

LESSON LVIII. SYNTAX ADJECTIVES

OF ADJECTIVES. USED SUBSTANTIVELY.

371. Adjectives, including Possessive and Demonstrative Pronouns and Participles, are often used as Sub~tantives in the Plural. The 짜asculine denotes persons; the Neuter denotes thin s; as,docti, learned men; nostri, our men; pl!.rva, small things. COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES.

372. 1. The Comparative often corresponds to the English Positive with' rather,' 'somewhat,' 'too'; as,senectiis

est loquacior,

old age is ralher talkative.

2. So the Superlative often corresponds to the Positive with' very';

as,fortissimus,

bravest, or very brave.

OTHER PECULIARITIES.

373.

Certain Adjectives may be used to denote a part of an object, chieflyextrilmus (end of), summus (top of), medius (middle of), Imus (bottom of) ; 1 as,summus

374.

mons, the top of the mountain. VOCABULARY.

abeo, ire, ii, 1tilrus, go away. crildi5, ere, dldi, dltum, believe. extrilmus, a, um, extreme, end of. gravis, e, heavy, difficult. h1ems, ls, f., winter. hortor, ArI, lltus sum, I exhort. 1 In

nox, noctis, f., night. plilrIque, aeque, aque, most. pri5cildo, ere, cew, ces.i1ruII, I advance. respondeo, ilre, .pondI, .ponSUB, I answer, reply.

this use the Adjective precedes the Nonn.

162

SYNTAX

OF ADJECTIVES.

163

EXERCISES.

375. 1. Caesar suos hortatus est. 2. Plerlque haec eredunt. 3. Mihi pauca respondit. 4. Via gravior erato 5. Numerus lElgat6rum erat maximus, 6. Usipetes extrElma hieme Rhenum transierunt. 7. GallI media. nocte ex eastrts egressi: sunt. 8. Nostrt ad aggerem processerunt, 376. 1. Our (men)! withstood the onset of the barbarians. 2. I said all these (things) in the senate. 3. He remembers many (things)." 4. Most (persons) heard this. 5. Our (men) seized the top of the mountain. 6. In the last part of the .summer we were informed of these things." 7. The march was somewhat difficult. 1 Words

in parenthesis are not to be translated. See ยง329, footnote. S The substantive use of neuter pronouns and adjectives is regularly confined to the Nominatlve and Accusative Cases; riB must be used here. 2

J...ESSON LIX. SYNTAX

OF PRONOUNS.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

377. 1. The Personal Prcnouns as subjects of verbs are generally not expressed except for emphaeie, contrast, or cleamesÂŤ, Thus ordinarily: video, I see ,.

amat, he loves.

But ego tl! video, et til ml! vidl!s, I see you, and you see me. 2. The Genitives mei, tui, nostri, vestri, are used only as Objective Genitives; nostrum and vestrum as Genitives of the Whole. Thus:memor tur, mindful of you,. nl!mo vestrum, no one of you. POSSESSIVE

PRONOUNS.

378. The Possessive Pronouns are generally not employed except for the purpose of clearness. Thus: _ But-

patrem amo, I love my father. patrem tuum amo, I love your father. Ipse.

379.

1. Ipse, literally self, acquires its special force from the context; as, i'J" eo ipso dill, on that very day. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.

380.

Alius, another, is often used correlatively; as,-

aliud loquitur, aliud sentit, he say.~one thing, he thinks another. So likewise alter, the other; as,alter exercitum perdidit, army, the other sold it.

164

alter

vi!lndidit, one ruined

tke

8YNTAX

OF PRONOUNS.

165

VOCABULARY.

381.

clldo, ere, ceE, ceBBuruB, I yield, withdraw. comclo, ere, conjllci, oonjeotus, I hurl. dWero, ferre, diBtu1i, dilltuB, I differ. ezituB, dB, m., exit, passage. fiducla, ae, I., conjldence.

mBtltiitum, i, n., institution. lauB, laudiB, I., praise. mereor, Arl, meritua aum, 1 deserve. miserioordia, ae, I., pity. premo, ere, preBei, preaBuB, I press, crowd. lIUbe6, Ire, ii, ittlrua, I approach.

EXERCISES.

382. 1. Tua nostrI fIdiicia mihi grata est. 2. MultI vestrum laudem meritI sunt. 3. Misericordia. vestrI movebar. 4. Hostas in exitll portarum sese premebant, 5. GallI InstitiitIs atque Iegibus inter se differunt. 6. N ostrI ipsa. multitndine navium perterrebantur. 7. Ipsa loot natura perIculum repellebat. 8. Ne eO quidem tern pore quisquam loco cessit. 9. Harum fIlia.rum altera occrsa,' altera capta est. 10. AliI tela conicinnt, aliI vallum subeunt, 383. 1. I was touched by your recollection of me. 2. Part of us went away. 3. Your pity of us touched my father. 4. He was driven out by his own S fellow-citizens. 5. They had long contended with 8 each other. 6. We have long contended with each other. 7. Some fought with swords, others with javelins. 8. One was killed, another fled. 9. The one fled, the other was captured. REVIEW.

384. 1. Sequanos et Helvetica obsides inter se dare jussit. 2. Ea. ipsa. nocte htc nobilis captIvus ad suos fugit. 3..A. 1

Supply

S his

eBt

from the following capta

own: use the proper form of

eBt.

BUUBâ&#x20AC;˘

â&#x20AC;˘ Compare the fifth sentence in the Latin exercise.

166

SYNTAX

OF PRONOUNS.

suis interfectus est. 4. Nostri multitiidine harum navrum perterriti sunt. 5. Alius nos laudabit, alius culpabit, 6. Bont non sunt semper pulehrr. 7. Hae dissensiones clvium nunc multo crebriores fuerunt, 8. De his rebus extrema hieme certior factus es. 9. Decem equites Romani 'P'ltis vtgintr Germanos a castrts reppulerunt, 10. Hto minus lUduum moratt eramus, 11. Minima dlligentia iisus es. 12. Agricolae his parvis agrts content! non erunt. 385.

Original Number of the Helvetii and their Allies. Survivors.

The

In castris Helvetiorum tabulae 1 repertae sunt, litterts Graects eonfectae," in quibus nominatim ratio 3 confecta erat eorum qul arma ferre poterant; et separatim puerorum,' senum, mulierumque. Summa 5 erat : Hel vetiorum milia CCLXII; Tulingorum, milia XXXVI; Latohrtgorum XIIII; Raurac6rum XXIII. Eorum," qut domum 1 redierunt, censu habito, ut Caesar imperaverat, milia CCLVIII abesse reperta sunt," ltabulae. list", 2 confectae, made out, written; participle agreeing with tabulae. 3 ratio: an cteCO!tnt. โ€ข puerorum, senum, mulierum: depending on ratio, understood, 5 summa: the sum total. 6 eorum censu habito: when a census had been taken of those; ยง 359. 1domum: Accusative of Limit of Motion; ยง 30'2,b. S abesse repert& sunt: werefound to be missing. The greater part of this vast number of missing people had probably perished.

LESSON

LX.

THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN INDEPENDENT

SENTENCES.

386. The Subjunctive is used in Independent Sentences to express something1. As willed - Volitive Subjunctive; 2. As desired - Optative Subjunctive; 3. Conceived of as possible - Potential VOLITIVE

Subjunctive.

SUBJUNCTIVE.

387. The Volitive Subjunctive has the following varieties: A.

HORTATORY

SUB.JUNCTIVE.

388. The Hortatory Subjunctive expresses an exhortation. This use is confined to the first person pfu-;al of the .Present. The negative is nl!. Thus: elmus, let us go; nl! dl!spl!rl!mus, let us not despair. B.

JUSSIVE

SUBJUNCTIVE.

389. The Jussive Subjunctive expresses a command; as,drcat, let him tell. 1. Negative commands, i.e. prohibitions, are usually expressed by means of noll (nolite), with a following infinitive; as,noli hoc facere, don't do this (lit. be unwilling to do) I

390.

noll

J'rI2, ~CABULARY.

accido, ere, cessr, cessurus, I draw near. consIdo, ere, sidi, I settle. cilro, 1, I care jar, take care of. diBiBto, ere, diBtitr, I cease. dimitto,ere, mlsl, miSSUB, llet go.

disciplina, ae, f., discipline. mas, moris, m., custom. ni, not. retineo, ire, ur, tentus, I retain. silmo, ere, sumpsl, .ilmptu., I take. 167

168

SUBJUNCTIVE

IN INDEPENDENT

SENTENCES.

EXERCISES.

391. 1. Mores atque disciplrnam majorum retineamus ! 2. Hanc oeeasionem ne drmittamus I 3. Omnes proelio desistant! 4. Haec curentur l 5. Ille accedat! 6. Noll discedere I _7. N olrte, mtlites, officia vestra deserere ! 8.;-Nemo incolas hujus insulae laces sat ! 9. Noll talia verba probare ! 10. Amicorum meminertmus ! 11. Omnes amrot mel me defendant! 12. Helvetii in Gallia ne consrdant l 13. Arma sumamus ! 392. 1. Let us withstand the onset of the enemy! 2. Let us not abandon our duty! 3. Let Ariovistus return home! 4. Let the Germans not ravage the fields of the Gauls! 5. Let him keep the Germans away from the Rhine! 6. Do not go away! 7. Do not join battle!

'l'EBTUDO.

LESSON

LXI.

OPTATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE. - POTENTIAL SUBJUNCTIVE. - THE IMPERATIVE. OPTATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE.

393. The Optative Subjunctive negative is nil.

expresses a wish.

The

1. The Present Tense, often with utinam, is used where the wish is conceived of a$ possible; as,utinam veniat, may he come! dt istaee prohibeant, may the gods prevent that! n' venlant, may they not come! 2. The Imperfect expresses a regret that something is not so now; the Pluperfect, that something was not so in the past. The Imperfect and Pluperfect are regularly accompanied by 'Qtinam j as,utinam istud ex anima drcerls, would that you loere !laying that in earnest! (i.e. I regret that you are not saying it in earnest) ; utinam nl vl!nisset, would that he had not come. POTENTIAL SUBJUNCTIVE.

394. The Potential Subjunctive expresses the ideas conveyed by the English auxiliaries should, would; as,fortilnam faeUius reperiiB quam retineb, you would find Fortune more easily than you would hold her. THE IMPERATIVE.

The Imperative is used in commands, admonition', entreaties, laws, etc.; B.S,395.

'gredere ex urbe, depart from the city; m1h1 ignosce, pardon me.

169

170

THE IMPERATIVE. (

396.

VOCABULARY.

aestas, litis, f., summer. averto, ere, vertI, versus, I avert. eonsiimo, ere, siimpsI, siimptus, Iu.t& up. do, dire, dedi, datus, I give, l'flnder.faeills, e, easy.

intellego, ere, leD, leetus, 1 know, undel·stand. jiis, jiiris, n., right, power. opera, ae, f., assistance. patior, I, passus sum, Lsuffe», utinam, affirmative particle. vinco, ere, vioi, victus, I conquer.

EXERCISES,

397. 1. Haec susptcio avertatur l 2. Utinam pater meus haec intellegeret! 3. Utinam hanc aestatem in his operibus ntj consnmpsissemus ! 4. Illt ne vincant! 5. Nemo haec supplicia patiatur, 6. Hoc facilius videatur, 7. Auxilium a te non postulem. 8. Vestro duct, mtlites, operam date. 9. Consules summum jus habento. 10. Utinam hi legati discedant, 11. Quis haec consilia- probet? 12. Velim hanc rem melius intellegere. 13. Relinquite hunc locum et domum redite I 14. Utinam opera tua usus essem! 398. 1. Would that we had better defended the lives and fortnnes of our fellow-citizens! 2. May our country not suffer any harm! 3. Would that these soldiers were braver! 4. Would we had not abandoned our duty! 5. What would seem better? 6. I should scarcely believe you. 7. Defend, fellow-citizens, the common safety. 399. The Gauls Complain of Arlovistus's

Tyranny and Beg

for Caesar's Help.l

Bello> Helvetiorum confecto, legati totius fere3 Galliae, pl'incipes civitatum, ad Caesal'em convenerunt. Locutus est 1 This and the five following passages of connected discourse deal with Caesar's campaign against Ariovistus, which is given in the second half of Book I of Caesar's Commentaries, 2 § 359. 8 fere: with totiU8.

171

THE IMPERATIVE.

pro hts Dtvitiaous Haeduus atque de injurits Ariovistl, regis .Germanorum, questus est. Hle 1 centum et vrginti milia Germanorum 2 trans Rhenum traduxerat, qut multos Galles e sepal'tem Galliae occupitbant.f dibus8 expulerant optima~~ 1 ille: referring to Ariovistus. laking possession of.

A

GERMAN

2

ยง 322.

8

ยง 337.

BODY-GUARD.

4

occupabant: were

LESSON LXII. MOODS IN DEPENDENT CLAUSES. CLAUSES OF fU~O~ In onk't- "f>J

400. The Subjunctive with u , express Purpose; as,-

_l

s ;, tn.tlLt..-

ne

and

quo

.J4 {~

t:

is used to

edimus, ut vivamus, we eat that we may live. adjiita me quo hoc fiat facili,us, help me, in order that this may be done more easily. poreas clausit, ne quam oppidani injiiriam acciperent, he closed the gates, lest the townspeople should receille any injury. a. A Relative Pronoun (qui) or Relative Adverb (ubi, unde, quo) is frequently used to introduce a Purpose Clause; as,Helvetilleglltos mis6runt qui dtoerent, the Helvetii sent envoys to say (lit. who should say).

SEQUENCE OF TENSES.

401. 1. In all dependent clauses, the tenses of the Subjunctive usually conform to the so-called 'Sequence of Tenses.' By the Sequence of Tenses, Principal Tenses of the Indicative are followed by Principal Tenses of the Subjunctive, Historical by Historical. 2. The Principal Tenses of the Indicative are: Present, Future, Present Perfect (p. 60, footnote), Future Perfect. The Historical Tenses are: Imperfect, Historical Perfect (p. 60, footnote), Pluperfect. 3. In the Subjunctive the Present and Perfect are Principal tenses, the Imperfect and Pluperfect, Historical. 172

SEQUENCE Examples

173

OF TENSES. of Sequence.

PRINCIPAL SEQUENCE,-

video quid faciliB, I see what you are doing. vid~bo quid faciliB, I shall see what you are doing. vldero qutd facias, I shall have seen what you are doing. video quid fi!!ceris, I see what you have done. vid~bo quid f~cerls, I shall see what you have done. vldero quid facerla, I shall have seen what you have done. HISTORICAL SEQUENCE,-

vidi!!bam quid faceri!!s, 1 saw what you we,'e doing. vldl quid facer~s, 1saw what you were doing. vlderam quid facer~s, I had uen what you were doing. vidabam quid fi!!cissi!!s,I saw what you had done. vldi quid fi!!cissas, I saw what you had done. videram quid fi!!cissi!!s,I had seen what you had done.

4. The Present and Imperfect Subjunctive denote action, the Perfect and Pluperfect, completed action.

402.

incomplete

VOCABULARY.

Aquitfulia, ae, f., .Aquitania, a district of Gaul. conjungo, ere, junxi, junctus, I unite. Crassus, I, m., Crassus (a man's name). exBillto, ere, exstiti, I arise.

matus, us, m., revolt. nil, lest, that . . â&#x20AC;˘ not.

quo, in order tbat ; regularly used with Comparatives. remaneo, are, mansi, mllnsiirus, I remain. ut, that, in order that.

EXERCISES.

403. 1. Orassus in Aquttaniam proficrseitur, ne tantae nationes conjungantur. 2. Locum castrls idoueum delegit ne eommeatu prohiberetur. 3. Caesar cum equitatu profictscitur ne ullus 1 motus exsistat. 4. N onnuli! rernanebant ut suspteionem timoris vttarent, 5. Quo iter expedItius faceret, 1In Latin we regularly find in order that no, etc.

/

ne quis

= in order that no (one);

ne

unul =

174

MOODS IN

DEPENDENT

CLAUSES.

impedimenta relrquit, 6. Legates mIsit qut haec nnntiarent 7. Castra in leers superioribus posuit ne quis! ea oppugnaret, 8. Unam legionem reltquit, quae castra defenderet. 9. Barbaros expulimus ut vos tim ore et perteults ltberaremus. 10. Oppidum mununus quo ctves hostibus facilius resistant.

~ .wi.

1. We dId these {things) that we might be free. 2. We do these (things) that we may be free. 3. Caesar chose men to fortify the camp. 4. We put Galba in charge of the captives in order that none 2 should flee. 5. We fortified the camp with a trench in order that we might defend it. 6. ,Caesar joined battle, in order that greater armies might not assemble. 1 In Latin we regularly find

ne

quis = in order that no (one);

in order that no, etc. 2 Translate, lest any.

Bow, ARRow,

AND JAVELIN

(arcus, sagitta, pilum),

ne

iillus =

LESSON LXIII. CLAUSES

or

CHARACTERISTIC. - RESULT CAUSAL CLAUSES.

CLAUSES.-

CLAUSES OF CHARACTERISTIC.

405. 1. A relative clause used to express some quality or characteristic of an indefinite or general antecedent is called a Clause of Characteristic, and stands in the Subjunctive; as,multa sunt, quae mentem which sharpen the wits.

acuant,

there are many things

2. Clauses of Characteristic are used especially after such expressions as sunt qui, there are (some) who; ni!mo est qui, there is n(l one who; ilnus est qui, there is only one who; etc. Thus: sunt qui dicant, there are (some) who say; nllmo est qui putet, there is nobody who thinks. RESULT CLAUSES.

406. The Subjunctive with Result; as,-

ut, ut non,

is used to denote

mons altissimus impendllbat, ut perpauci prohibllre possent, (l very high mountain overhung, so that a very few could stop them. ~e

CAUSAL CLAUSES. •

C/l

'/&,,9r;c..<;.) IItfetr i>&::£lIJ5e /~

407. 1. Causal Clauses introduced by quod, 'quia, quo-v mam, take the Indicative when the reason is that of the writer or speaker ; the Subjunctive when the reason is viewed as that of another. Thus:175

176

OA USAL

CLA USES.

eos timeo quod diffido copiis nostris, I fear them, because I distrust our troops. acciisatus est quod corrumperet juventiitem, he was arraigned on the ground that he was corruptinq the young. (Here the reason is not that of the writer but of the accuser. Hence the Subjunctive.)

2:'" Cum causal takes the Subjunctive;

whe,)

b!.l:.CltJ(,/it

qu~cum

I

(1J)C{, (UUJOI>e..-. ./

./

408.

as,-

.$';x:ÂŁ, Se ~

ita sint, since this is so.

--

~

'1lis 15 ...---

VOCABULARY.

accidit, ere, accidit, it happens. approptnque, 1, I approach. barbarus, a, um, barbarous. commiitiitio, onis, f., change. consisto, ere, cOllstiti, I consist. cum, because, since. \ d6spicio, ere, exi, ectus, I despise. jiiro, 1, I swear, take ~ath. obsideo, ere, sedi, sessus, I blockade.

paucitAs, litis, f., fewness, small number. quod, because. quoniam, inasmuch as, conj. renovo, 1, Lrenein. scio, scire, scivi, scitus, I know. sub1evo, 1, I relieve. tam, so (of degree). iinus, a, um, alone.

EXERCISES.

409. 1. Nemo erat quI non juraret. 2. MultI sunt quI haec sciant. 3. NUlla via erat quae non obsideretur. 4. Caesaris adventu tanta cornmutatio rerum facta est ut nostrI proelium renovarent, 5. Non tam barbarus sum, ut haec non sciam. 6. Caesar Gallas accnsat quod ab ers non sublevetur. 7. Hoc acciderat quod GallI legionem nostram propter paucitatem despiciebant. 8. Quoniam Germant appropinquant, castra movebimus, 9. Hostes acriter pugnaveruut, cum in una virtute omnis spes salutis cousisteret. 10. N emo erat quI redrre vellet. 11. ~aesar pngustias obsederat, ut hostes ex fInibus suts exIre non PO~Dt. /'

CAUSAL

CLAUSES.

177

410. 1. Who is there that! says these (things)? 2. These soldiers were so brave that they feared no one. 3. The enemy were so terrified that they fled into the forests. 4. This place was such that our (men) could easily defend it. 5. Inasmuch as these (things) are so, we shall remain in this place. 6. Because no one else was present, he accused us. 7. He accused you because (= on the ground that) you did not resist the enemy.

411.

Caesar Deoides that Ariov1atus and the Germans are a Menace to Roman Interests in Gaul.

HiS verbts 2 legatorum audttrs, Caesar animos Gallorum eonfrrmavit atque ets auxilium suum pollicitus est. Hac oratione 2 habits, concilium dtmtsit, EI3 vero vidsbatur perIculosum, sl plures Germani Rhenum transtrent" et magna eorum multitudo in Galliam ventret,' Praeterea Ariovistus ipse tantam arrogantiam sumpserat ut 5 non ferendus videretur. Itaque Caesar ad eum legatos mittere constituit, qut colloquium postularent." 1 Observe that this Is the relative that = who. 2 ยง 359. 3 Ei: dative; join with periculosum; ยง 314. 4 transirent, veniret: should cross; should come.

out ... videretur: that he seemed unbea1;pble (lit. not to be borne); jerendus is the gerundive. For the snbjunctlve, see ยง 4.06. 6 ยง 400, a.

LESSON LXIV. TEMPORAL CLAUSES. TEMPORAL CLAUSES

INTRODUCED BY postquam, 'Itt, 'ltbi, simul ac, etc. .

412. 1. Postquam, after; ut, ubi, when; simul ac (simul as soon as, referring to a single past occurrence, take the Perfect Indicative; as,atque),

post quam audivit vicisse suos, 'sans' inquit 'vixi,' after he heard that his troops had conquered, he said, 'I have lived enough.' TEMPORAL

CLAUSES INTRODUCED

BY cum.

413. Cum temporal (' when '), referring to the past, takes the Indicative (Imperfect, Historical Perfect, or Pluperfect) to denote the point of time at which something occurs; the Subjunctive (Imperfect or Pluperfect) to denote the situation or circumstances under which something occurs; as,erlis consul, cum mea domus lirdl!bat~ you were. ,co1J.ml at the time when my house burned up; CUIY) c. ~ :fljif' cum hoc dixisset, omnl!s abil!runt, when he had said this, all went away. Cum '!itn}craL '

414. Cum temporal, referring to the Present or Future, takes the Indicative i as,cum tl! video, semper .gaudeo, when I see YOll. I am always glC/d.

178

TEMPORAL

415.

CLAUSES.

179

VOCABULARY.

animadverto, ere, verti, versus, I notice. cognoBco, ere, novi, nitUB, I learn, become acquainted toith. comperio, ire, peri, pertus, Ifind onto cum, tohen, conj. i!!icio, ere, i!!ji!!ci, i!!jectuB, I thrust out; Bi!!i!!icere, rush. forth.

exeo, ire, ii, exitiirus, I go out, go forth. factio, oDiB,f., faction. postquam, after, conj. quaere, ere, quaesivi, quaesitus, I inquire. simul ac (atque), as soon as. Bubdiico, ere, diixI, ductus, 1 toithdrato. ubi, tohen.

EXERCISES.

416. 1. Postquam id animadvertit, Caesar copias suas III eollem proximum subduxit, 2. Caesar ubi id comperit, se in Galliam reeepit. 3. Simul ac te vtdt, hoc sensr, 4. Cum Caesar in Galliam venit, duae factiones erant. 5. Caesar cum ex captIvIs quaereret, hanc causaru reperisbat. 6. Cum ad id oppidum accessisset, puerI mulieresque pacem petIverunt. 7. Ut equitatus noster se in agros ejecit, hostes ex silvts exIbant. 8. Cum venies, cognosces. 9. Postquam amrcos tuos ibi vtdt, ad te redit, 10. Eo anna cum Cicero consul erat hae msidiae compertae sunt. 417. 1. After Caesar made the bridge, he marched into Germany. 2. When he heard these (things), he went away. 3. As soon as I saw you, I entreated your help. 4. On that day when you spoke in the senate, very many were present. 5. When the Gauls had seen our (men), they fled into the forests.

LESSON LXV. V

TEMPORAL

CLAUSES

(Continued).

.:

CLAUSES

INTRODUCED

BY dum

AND donee.

418. 1. Dum, while, takes the Present Indicative with the force of an Imperfect; as,dum pugnat, sagitta ictus est, while he was fighting, he was struck by an arrow.

2. Dum and donee, as long as, take the Indicati ve; as,dum anima est, spAs est, as long as there is life, there is hope.

3. a.

Dum, donee,

and

quoad,

until, take-

The Indicative, to denote an actual event; as,dOnee rediit, fuit silentlum, there was silence till he carne.

b.

The Subjunotive, to denote expectancy;

as,-

exspeotAvit Caesar dum nAves oomren!rent, Caesar waited for the ship.~to assemble.

419

VOCABULARY.

adversarius, ii, m., adversary. ago, ere, egI, ictus, I do. oommiinio, ire, tvI (it), Itus, strongly fortify. Domltius, i (li), m., Domitius (a man's name). d6nee, until.

dum, while; as long as; until. magistrAtus, fts, m., magistrate. Ma.l1lla, ae, f., MaI路seilles. perticio, ere, fici, fectus, I accomplish. silentium, i (it), n., silence. tamen, nevertheless, yet.

EXERCISES.

420. 1. Dum haee inter eos aguntur, Domitius Massiliam pervenit. 2. Huie magistratui restitt, dum potut. 3. Donee rediisti, nos ibi remausimus. 4. Caesar exspeetavit dum haec 180

TEMPORAL

181

CLAUSES.

mandata ad hostes perferrentur. 5. Exspectabimus dum ceterI amici nostrt accedant, 6. Exspectavi dum eetert amici mer acoesserunt. 7. Dum adversarit castra communi. unt, collem occupavimus.

421. 1. While the troops were assembling, Caesar consulted with the tribunes. 2. As long as Caesar was in Gaul, he was waging war. 3. We waited six days till you should come. 4. While these things were being accomplished, we withdrew. 5. As long as they remain here, they are safe (tncolumfs, e).

422.

Ariovistus

Reject. the Proposal Caesar's Demands.

for a Conference.-

Er legationt Ariovistus respondit: "Quid negoti1 Caesart! aut populo Romano2 est in mea Gallia, quam bello" vtct ? 81 quid 4 Caesar vult, ad me veniat P Ad eum non lbO." HIs responsrs 6 ad Caesarem relatts, iterum ad eum Caesar legatos cum hts mandatts misit : "No1I1 plures Germanos trans Rhenum in Galliam traducere l Redde etiam Gallts obsides quos habes ! Nisi haec facies, injurias Gallorum ulctscar." 1 quid negoti: what business? lit. what of business? s § 344. 4 quid: anything,. the indefinite pronoun. 11loli traducere: do not lead I § 389, 1.

§ 322. .'I

§ 389.

2 6

§ 312. § 359.

LESSON LXVI. SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES.

423. A Substantive Clause is one which serves as the 'f" Subject or Object of a verb, or denotes some other case relation. SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES DEVELOPED

FROM THE VOLITIVE.

424. The Subjunctive with ut and n~ is used in Substantive Clauses developed from the Volitive after verbs signifying to admonish, request, command, grant, resolve, and the like; as,p~stulo ut fiat, I demand that it be done (dependent form of the Jussive fiat, let it be done I); orat n~ abells, he begs that you will not go away; huic concedo, ut ea praetereat, I allow him to pass that by; d~crevit senatus ut Opimius videret, the senate decreed that Opimius should see to it.

425. The Subjunctive with ne, quominus, and quin is used iu Substantive Clauses after verbs of hiudering; as,n~ lustrum perficeret, mol'S prohibuit, death prevented him from finishing the lustrum. prohibuit quo minus in unum coirent, he prevented themfrom cominq together.

426.

VOCABULARY.

Boji, orum, m,pl., Boji, an ancient tribe. concedo, ere, cessi, cessiirus, I grant. decemo, ere, crevi, cretue, I decree, decide, impero, 1, I command. itaque, acc01路dingly. omnIno, at all (with negatives). permitto, ere, misi, missus, I permit.

praecipto, ere, cepi, ceptus, 1 enjoin. quominus, from (with verbs of hindering) . reddo, ere, reddidi, redditus, J 1'eturn, give back. reicio, ere, rejeci, rejectus, 1 liur! back. restituo, ere, ut, utus, 1 restore. sequor, i, secutus sum, I seek. transporto, 1, I transport,

182

SUBSTANTIVE

CLAUSES.

183

EXERCISES.

427. 1. Equitibus imperat ut hostibus terrorem inferant. 2. Haque Caesar suts praecepit ne nllum omntno telum in hostes reieerent. 3. Has civitates hortatur, ut populi Romani fidem sequantur. 4. Haeduls concessit ut Bojos in frnibus suts collocarent. 5. Sequants permtsit ut hos obsides redderent. 6. Deerevimus ut hae Iegiones Rhenum transportarentur. 7. Eos prohibui ne excederent. 8. Me prohibuit quominus haec restituerem. 9. Mihi persuasit ut Massiliae manerem. 10. Cicero senatum monuit ne haec pericula neglegeret. 11. Sufs praecepit ut proelium statim committerent. 428. 1. I commanded the soldiers 1 to attack this town. 2. Caesar commands the soldiers 1to attack this town. 3. He commands them- not to cross the river. 4. Ariovistus permitted his cavalry 1 to ravage the fields of the Gauls. 5. The senate decreed that the soldiers should march forth. 6. We hindered the enemy from crossing this river. 1 Use

the Dative.

LESSON LXVII. SUBSTANTIVE

CLAUSES (Continued).

SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES DEVELOPED FROM THE OPTATIVE.

429. The Subjunctive with ut and ne is used in Substa~tive Clauses developed from the Optative. Thus:1. With verbs of wislling malo; aSj-

and desiring,

especially opto, volo,

opto ut in hoe eoneilio nemo Improbus reperilltur, I hope that in this council no bad man may be found (here ut reperiatur represents a simple optative of direct statement, viz. nemo improbus reperilltur, may no bad man befoundl). 2. With verbs of fearing (timeo, metuo, vereor). means that, lest; and ut means that not j as,-

Here nl

timeo ne veniat, I fear that he will come (originally: may he not come! I'm afraid [he will]) j timeo ut veniat, I fear that he will not come (originally: may he come! I'm afraid [he won't]). SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES OF RESULT.

430. The Subjunctive with ut and ut Substantive Clauses of Result. Thus: -

non IS

1. As object clauses after verbs of doing, accomplishing.

used in Thus: _

gravitlls periculi facit ut auxilio egeamus, the seriousness of the danger makes us need aid (lit. makes that we need). 2. As the subject of impersonal verbs; as,ex quo efficitur, ut voluptlls non sit summum bonum, from which it follows that pleasure is not the greatest good. 184

SUBSTANTIVE INDIRECT

185

CLAUSES.

QUESTIONS.

431. The Subjunctive is used in Indirect after verbs of asking, inquiring, and the like. Like Direct Questions, Indirect Questions troduced-

Questions may be in-

a. By Interrogative Pronouns (who, what) or Adverbs (where, when, how, etc.); as,dlc mihi ubi fuer18, quid fecerls, tell me where you were, what you did. b. By Dum or -ne, without distinction of meaning;

as,-

quaesivit num salvum esset scutum, or salvumne scutum, he asked whether his shield was safe.

432.

VOCABULARY.

contr6versia, ae, f., controversy. Idl106, ere, dilxl, duotus, I lead

lorek. ita, 80 (of manner). IIlSltio, oms, f., embassy. 111na, ae, f., moon. opt6, 1, I desire. orlltio, oms, f., speech. plebs, is, f., common people.

.. set

praeterell, besides. primes, j!1'st, j!1路stly. rescindi5, ere, soidl, acissus, 1 tear down. sIo, 80 (of manner). tergum, I, n., back. verti5, ere, vertl, versus, I turn; terS- vertere, j!ee.

EXERCISES.

433. 1. Opto ut haec ara.tia plebt placeat, 2. Optamus ne uUa.s controversias habeamus. 3. Praeterea versbatur ne hostea pontem rescinderent. 4. Veritus sum ut legiones ex eastrts educerentur. 5. Ita factum est ut hostes statim terga verterent. 6. Sic effecit ut regem in potesta.te sua haberet, 7. Eadem nocte accidit ut luna plena esset. 8. Ab his quaesivit quae et quantae civitates in armis essent. 9. Primo a. te quaere hnjusne l~gatianis princeps sis. 10. Opto ne me hro inveniat. 11. Factum est ut eO die in urbe remaneret,

186

SUBSTANTIVE

CLAUSES.

12. Eum rogavt quid fecisset, 13. Veritus sum ut hoc pertculum a ctvibus mets averteretur. 434. 1. I fear that our (men) will flee. 2. Caesar feared that his (men) would flee. 3. We fear that the soldiers will Dot withstand the onset of the barbarians. 4. We desire that you mai be free. -5. It happened that ships were lacking. 6. We hi-ought it about that you were informed of these things. 7. I asked the envoys what they wished. 8. I asked them whether the Germans had crossed the Rhine. asvrsw. 435. 1. Nolite haec facere! 2. FIliI mandata patris SUI perficiant l 3. Timor mentesvestras ne occupet! 4. Utinam te vrdissem t 5. Utinam hastes ne adessent! 6. Nemo haec credat, 7. Proficiscere ex hac urbe! 8. Multos Iabores pass us sum ut te defenderem. 9. Hlc remanst, quo auxilio ejus diutius uterer, 10. Castella ibi collocavit De Gallt suos circumvenrre possent. 11. Quis est qut haec dicere audeat? 12. .AmICI mel tanta sunt dtligentia ut nihil neglegant, 13. Hostes simul atque signa nostra vIde runt nuntios mrserunt, qUI pacem peterent. 436.

Ariovistus's Reply to Caesar.

"Non mea sponte 1 Rhenum transii, neque sine magnts praemits pollicitationibusque domum relrqut, Sades, quas in Gallia habemus, nobts a Gallts" ipsts concessae sunt, Numquam ante hoc tempus exercitus populi Romani e flnibus" suae provinciae ' egressus est. Quid vis aut cur in meas possessiones venistt ? Nisi decades atque exercitum ex his regionibus deduces, te non pro amtco a sed pro hoste a habebo." 1 mea sponte: of my own accord. 2 ยง 338. 8 ยง 337. f suae provinciae: oj their province, i.e. the Roman province in southern Gaul. 5 pro amico, pro hoste: as ajriend, as an enemy; lit.jor aJriend,jor an enemy.

LESSON LXVIII. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. - CLAUSES WITH qua1uquam. CONDITIONAL

SENTENCES.

Conditional Sentences are complex sentences consisting of two parts, the Protasis (or condition), usually introduced by sl, if, or nisi, unless, and the Apodosis (or ,conclusion). There are three types of Conditional Sentences: 437.

438.

First Type. - Simple Conditions (Nothing implied as to the Reality of the Supposed Case).

In Simple Conditions the Indicative is used in both Protasis and Apodosis; as,sl hac dlcis, errls, if you say this, you are mistaken; sl hac dixisti, erravisti, if you said this, you were mistaken.

439.

Second Type. -'

Should'

â&#x20AC;˘..

'Would'

Conditions.

In 'Should' ... 'Would' Conditions the Subjunctive (Present or Perfect) is used in both Pl'otasis and Apodosis; as,sl hoc dlcls, err6s,

440.

if you

should say this, you would be mistaken.

Third Type. - Conditions Contrary to Pact.

In Conditions Contrary to :Fact, the Subjunctive is used ill both Protasis and Apodosis, the Imperfect referring to present time, the Pluperfect to past,. as, I sl amIcus meus adesset, gaud6rem, if my friend Ulerehere, 1 should rejoice. sl hac dlxiss6s, errlviss6s, if you had said this, you would have been mistaken.

187

188

CLAUSES

WITH quamquam,

CLAUSES INTUODUCED BY. quamquam,

etc. cum, although.

441. 1. Quamquam, although, is followed by the Indicative; as,quamquam festinas, non est mora longa, although you ure in haste, the delay is not long. 2. Cum, although, is followed by the Subjunctive; as, miSnon adjuvit, cum posset, he did not help me, though he was able.

442.

VOCABULARY.

animus, i, m., soul, heart. Atticus, i, m., Atticus, the friend of Cicero. cum, though. honor, oris, m., honor. immortllls, e, immortal. incertus, a, um, uncertain. Ifber, era, erum,!ree. mando, 1, I assign. mars, mortis, f., death. nisi, unless.

opprimo, ere, pressl, pressus, I overwhelm. pateo, /Sre,patui, lie open. provideo, ere, vidi, mUll, I provide, take care. quamquam, although. valeo, Ire, nI, fturns, avail, prevail. vis (vis), f., fJiolence; pl., vlriSs, fum, strength.

1 ยง 352. 2 Observe that come really equals shall come. Hence the future must be used. In conditional sentences the English present often has the force of the future, and must be so rendered in Latin.

CLAUSES

WITH quamquam,

etc.

189

you should come to Rome, you would see us. 4. If you had told me this, I should not have set out. 5. If our fleet were at hand, we should wish nothing else. 6. Although boats were lacking, Caesar decided to cross the Rhine. 7. Though no one is here, I shall remain.

"

LESSON LXIX. INDIRECT DISCOURSE (OriitiQ

Obliqua).

445. 'When the language or thought of any person is quoted without change,路 it is called Direct Discourse; as,Caesar said, 'The die is cast.'

When, on the other hand, one's language or thought is made to depend upon a verb of saying, thinking, etc., that is called Indirect Discourse; as,Caesar said that the die was cast; Caesar thought that his troops were victorious. MOODS IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE.

446. Declarative Sentences upon becoming Indirect .change their main clause to the Infinitive with Subject Accusative, while all subordinate clauses take the Subjunctive ; as,diJl:6runt sll habllre qUlledam rlls, qUlls petere vellent, they said they had (lit .. said themselves to have) certain things which they wished to request. (Direct: hab6mus qUiladam rlls qUIlB peters volumus.) TENSES IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE. A.

TENSES OF THE INFINITIVE.

447. The tenses of the Infinitive denote time, not absolutely, but with reference to the verb on which the,'Ijdepend. Thus: 190

..

INDIRECT

191

DISCOURSE.

a. The Present Infinitive represents an act as occurring at the same time with the time of the verb on which it depends; as,dIcit se facere, he says he is doing (lit..,ays himself to do); dIxit se facere, he said he was doing (lit. said himself to do). b. The Perfect Infinitive represents an act as occurring before the time of the verb on which it depends; as,dIcit se fecisse, he says he has done (lit. says himself to have done) ; dIxit se fl5cisse, he said he had done (lit. said himself to have done).

c. The Future Infinitive represents an act as occurring after that of the verb on which it depends;

as,-

dicit se factdrum esse, he says he will do (lit. says himself to be about to do) ; dlzit se factiirum esse, he said he would do (lit. said himself to be about to do). B.

TENSES

OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE.

448. These'follow the regular principle for the Sequence of Tenses, being Principal, if the verb of saying is Principal; Historical, if it is Historical; as,dIcit se leglltos videre, quI venerint, he says he sees the envoys who have come; dIxit se leglltos videre, qui venissent, he said he saw the envoys who had come.

449.

VOCABULARY.

advenio, Ire, veni, ventum, I arrive, arbltror, llJf, ltull IIUID, I consider. lncolo, ere, ul, cultue, I inhabit. Inferior, iue, inferior (ยง 102,2). Jn1IrmuI, a, um, weak. modo, just, just now.

neque (nee), nor. onerllrlus, a, um, burden-bearing; nllves onerlriae, transports. pello, ere, pepull, pulsus, I ro,", defeat. poeterus, a, um, following (ยง 102, 2).

puto, 1, I think.

tt

4

192

INDIRECT

DISCOURSE.

EXERCISES.

450. 1. EXIstimo has legioues, quae modo advenerint, infrrmas esse. 2. N eque arbitral' hostes sine injuria transitul'os esse. 3. Intellegimus maximas nationes a Caesare pulsas esse. 4. Caesar intellexit copias quas haberet non esse rnferiores. 5. Num putavistis eos qul hos agros incolerent discessuros esse? 6. Postero die Caesar certior factus est naves onerarias, quas coegisset, captas esse. 7. Nuntius dixit montem, quem Caesar occupart voluisset, ab hostibus teneri. 8. Nemo putat hoc oppidum expugnart posse. 9. Caesar arbitrabatur has civitates sibi arnicas esse. 10. Drxt eos, qul hanc Insulam incoluissent, discessisse. 451. 1. It is reported that the Gauls are fortifying the hill which they have seized. 2. It is reported that the Gauls will fortify the hill which they have seized. 3. It is reported that the Gauls have fortified the hill which they have seized. 4. It was reported that the Gauls were fortifying the hill which they' had seized. 5. It was' reported that the Gauls would fortify the hill which they had seized. 6. It was reported that the Gauls had fortified the hill which they had seized. 452.

The Germans and Romans Meet in Battle.

Cum Ariovistus postulata Caesaris respuisset,' Caesar potestatem pugnandt 2 ei dare eonstituit. Itaque, triplict acie 8 instrncta, usque ad castra hostium accessit. Tum Germani suas copias castrls ' eduxerunt generatimque eonstituerunt, Ita acriter nostrt in hostes, signo 8 dato, impetum fecerunt itaque s celeriter hostes procurrerunt, ut nostri prlts 6 utI non possent 1 et gladits 8 pugnare cogerentur," 1

2 pugnandi: the gerund, dependent on potestatem. 8 § 359. 6 itaque celeriter: and so swiftly; itaqU8 = et ita. • § 344, L

§ 413.

4 § 337. r § 406.

8

§ 344.

LESSON LXX. THE INPINITIVE. INFINITIVE

WITHOUT SUBJECT ACCUSATIVE.

453. The Infinitive without Subject Accusative is used as the Subject of eBt and various impersonal verbs; as,dulce et decorum eat pro patriA morl, it is sweet and noble to die for one's country.

454. The Infinitive without Subject Accusative is used as the Object of many verbs, particularly aftervo1o, milo, nolo;

INFINITIVE

debeo, ought; Btatuo, decide, etc.

audeo, dare,

WITH SUBJECT ACCUSATIVE.

455. The Infinitive with Subject Accusative is used as the Subject of est and various impersonal verbs; as,nihil in bello oportet

contemnl, nothing ought to be despised

in wllr, (lit. nothing to fe .d~S lif~d, is .I!!!:i!!.9)l"~. h07hM .rÂť oran: IA- tttt. 70 .p:."

456. The I'::lnitive with S je~Accusative Object after many verbs. Thus: -

J ~.

i used as

a. With verbs of saying, thinking, knowing, perceiving, and the like. This is the regular construction of Principal Clauses of Indirect Discourse, and has received full illustration in the preceding lesson. 6. Also with jubeo, order, and veto, forbid;

as,-

Caesar mDitAs pontem facere JUBsit, Caesar ordered the soldiers to make a bridge.

193

)

194 457.

THE

INFINITIVE.

VOCABULARY.

compard, 1, I get ready. constat, stAre, stltlt, it is evident. dispono, ere, posuf, positus, I di.,tribute. jubeo, lire, jussl, jussus, Lorder. lapis, ldis, m., stone. I1cet, lire, I1cuit, it is permitted. nanclscor, I, nactus sum, Iprocure.

necesse est, it is necessary. oportet, it behooves; it is fitting. opus est, it is necessary. ordo, in1s, m., rank. pro, prep, with abl., for, in behalf of.

servo, 1, I preserve. statuo, ere, ut, iitus, I decide.

EXERCISES.

458. 1. Opus est copiam frumenti nanciscL 2. N ecesse est castra vallo muuire. 3. Non licet in urbem revertr. 4. Gallia ltbera esse debet. 5. Statui praesidia disponere, 6. Constat magnum numerum barbarorum ad castra veuisse. 7. Hos vtcos incendi oportet. 8. Caesar milites jussit ordines servare, 9. Jussit naves comparart, 10. Hostes ex omnibus partibus lapides eonicere statue runt. 11. Hae legiones ex hiberuts egredt non ausae sunt, 12. Officium est mtlitum Romanorum pro imperatore et patria fortiter pugnare, 13. Irnperator nos jussit agros Sequanorum vastare, 459. 1. It was necessary to do many (things) at the same time. 2. It is necessary to be brave in battle. 3. We wish to be brave. 4. Endeavor to be good. 5. It behooves us to set out at once. 6. It is necessary (for) us to fortify this camp. 7. It behooves us to be brave. 8. I ordered you to summon the tribunes. 9. We ordered the messengers to be dismissed.

I LESSON LXXI. PARTICIPLES.

460. 1. TENSES OF THE P AR'flCIPLE. The tenses of the Participle express time, not absolutely, but with reference to the verb upon which the Participle depends. a. The Present Participle denotes action occurring at the same time with that of the verb. Thus:audio t6 loquentem, I hear you speaking (i.e. you are speakÂť ing and I hear you) ; audi6bam til loquentem, I heard you speaking (i.e. you were speaking, and I heard you); audiam t6 loquentem, I shall hear you speaking (i.e. yOIl will be speaking and I shall hear you). b. The Perfect Passive Participle denotes action occurring before that of the verb. Thus:loctltus tacei5, having spoken I am silent (i.e. I have spoken and am silent) ; loctltus tacul, having spoken, I was silent (i.e. I spoke and then became silent) ; loctltus tac6bi5, having spoken, I shall become silent (i.e. I shall speak and then become silent).

c. The Future Participle, as a rule, is not used except in the Active Periphrastic Conjugation (p. 110). d. The actual time of the action of a participle, therefore, is determined entirely by the finite verb with which it is connected. 2. Participles are often equivalent to an English clause, relative, temporal, causal, conditional, etc.] as,-

subordinate

omne malum nlBcllns facile opprimitur, every evil is easily crushed at birth; mente utI non possumus, cibi5 et pi5tione compilltl, ifgorged with food and drink, WfI cannot use our intellects.

196

196

P ARTICIP LEB.

3. Often, too, the participle is equivalent to a coordinate clause; as,Ahiila Maelium occupiitum ioterl!mit, Ahala surprised and killed Maelius (lit. killed Maelius having been surprised'y, 4. Participles, being Adjectives, agree with their nouns in Gender, Number, and Case.

461.

VOCABULARY.

casus, us, m., chance, haeard. oerne, ere, I perceive. coospicio, ere, spexi, spectus, Fsee. experior, iri, pertua sum, I try, test. laboro, 1, I toil; in battle, be hard pressed.

murus, i, m., wall. oculus, I, m., eye. perssquor, t, llsciltull llUm, 1 follow up. submitto, ere,' mIei, missus, 1 send, despatch. tueor, lid, I guard, watch.

EXERCISES.

462. 1. Eis, quos laborantes eonspexit, subsidium aubmtsit, 2. Virtlltem vest ram multis proelits expertus, vas nunc ad alios casus voce. 3. Oculus se non videns alia cernit. 4. Caesar has pulses per sequitur. 5. Turrim mtlitibus tuendam tradidit, 6. Milites jam vulneribus confectos, bono animo esse jnbet. 7. Nostri hostts ex castrts egredientes adortt sunt, 8. Htc rex a populo ex urbe ejectus, cum exercitll rediit. 9. Insidias veritus decessit. 10. Hostes castra minora adorientes vtdt, 463. 1. This soldier was killed (while) fighting in the first line of battle. 2. (Though) exhausted with many wounds, we did not abandon our leader. 3. When he had been summoned, he came at once. 4. We put to flight the cavalry (who had been) driven back. 5. Caesar left these captives to be guarded.

PARTICIPLES.

464.

197

Defeat of the Germans and Flight of At".ovistus.

Cum diu pugnatum esset,' omnes hostes terga 2 verterunt neque 8 prius 4 fugere destiterunt quam ad flnmen 6 Bhenum, qut cireiter quinque mtlia 6 passuum 1 ex eo loco aberat pervenerunt, Ibi pauct tranare eontenderunt aut, lintribus 8 inventts, salutem reppersrunt, In his fuit Ariovistus, qur, navioulam 9 dsligatam ad rrpam naetus," ea 11 profugit. Equites nostrt, reliquos 12 onmes consecntt, interfecerunt, Hoc proelio 8 nuntiato, multi alii Germant, qul ad rlpam convsnerant atque flnmen transire parabant, domes 18 redierunt, 1 ยง 413. 2 terra verterunt: lit. turned their backs, i.e. fled. I nBque deltiterunt: and did not cease. 4 prius .โ€ข. quam: = priusquam. 6 ad !lumen Bhenum: with perueuerunt. 6 ยง 301. 1 ยง 322. 8 ยง 359. g Ilaviculam: object of nactus. 10nactuB: from nanciscor. 11ea: referring to nauiculam. It reliquoB omneB: object both of consecuti and of interfecerunt, 18 ยง 302, b.

...-

LESSON LXXII. GERUND AND GERUNDIVE. - SUPINE. GERUND AND GERUNDIVE.

465. Of the four cases in which the Gerund occurs, only the Genitive, Accusative, and Ablative are in common use; as,cupidus audiendi, desirous of hearing; ad agendum nlituB, born for action; mens discende alitur, the mind is fed by learning. Gerundive

Construction

instead

of the Gerund.

466. 1. Instead of the Gerund with a Direct Object, another construction is commoner. This consists in putting the Direct Object in the case of the Gerund and using the Gerundive in agreement with it. This is called the Gerundive Construction. Thus:GERUND

CONSTRUCTION.

GERUNDIVE

cupidus urbem videndi, desirous} 'd b"d . th e city; . cupr us ur 18 oif seemg

CON8TRUOTION.

VI

d en as;

delector erAtores legende, I am } d I -'b I dr" readinq the orators. e ector orAtor! us egen ... charmed with 2. The commonest use of the Gerundive Construction is with ad to denote purpose; as, ad pAcem petendam venerunt, they came to seek peace (lit. for peace to be sough/). THE SUPINE. 467. The Supine in -um is used after Verbs of motion to express purpose; as,leglitI ad Caesarem grAtuliitum venerunt, Caesar to congratulate him. 198

envoys came to

TilE

468.

SUPINE.

199

VOCABULARY.

ad, for (denoting purpose), prep. with ace. adminiBtro, 1, I perform. ali~DU8, a, um, unfavorable. cauBli, abl., for the sake of; the dependent genitive precedes. consector, liri, litUB BJlID,I follow up. effugio, ere, fiigi, fugitiiruB, I escape. ezploro, 1, I examine.

orlitor. oriB, m., orator, envoy. praedo, onis, m., robber. reddo, ere, reddidi, reddituB,l rendel路. spatfum, i (li), n., space, time. Themistocl~B, IB, m., Themistocles, an Athenian statesman. tiituB, a, um, safe. versor, liri, lituB Bum, be engaged in.

EXERCISES.

469. 1. Nulla fnit causa colloquenc1i. 2. Spatium silmamus ad cogitandum. 3. 'I'bemistocles maritimds praedones conseetando mare tutum reddidit. 4. Caesar in his loets navium parandarum causa moratur. 5. Multi reges bellorum gerendorum cupidt fuerunt, 6. Tempus ad proelium committendum alienum fuit. 7. Ipse anteeedit ad itinera exploranda, 8. In his rebus administrandts versabatur, 9. Pacem petttum oratores mittit. 10. Htc locus ad pugnandum idoneus est. 11. Caesar hortandl finem fecit. 12. Cum amtcts de urbe Itberanda colloquebamur. 470. 1. (There) was no opportunity of withdrawing. 2. The envoys came for (the purpose of) conferring with Caesar. 3. By saying these (things) he made the soldiers more eager for fighting. 4. For the sake of saving the city, we have given much 1 money. 5. He marches out from camp for (the purpose of) attacking this town. 6. We have come to announce this victory. 1 Use magnU8.

200

THE SUPINE.

REVIEW.

471. 1. Ora.musl ut finem dtcendt facias,

2. Veritus est ne omnia ltmitteret. 3. 'I'imemus ut nobis sit satis praesidt, 4. Tibi praecept ne haec officia neglegeres. 5. Nobis imperat ut tela paremus. 6. Accidit ut pauot incolumes redrrent. 7. Optamus ne quis effugiat. 8. Te rogavr quem locum delegissee. 9. Caesar Ariovistum rogavit quam ob rem Rhenum transiisset. 10. Si haec dtxisses, laetus fuissem. 11. Intellegimus omnes homines natura ltbertatern am are. 12. Caesar intellegebat quanto cum perteulo id fecisset. 13. Bellt InferendI causa a Gallia in Britanniam msulam transiit, I

Oro, 1,

beg.

RULES OF SYNTAX. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The subject of the verb stands in the nominative. The object of the verb stands in the accusative. The verb agrees with its subject in number and person. A predicate noun agrees with its subject in case. An appositive agrees in case with the word which it explains. 6. An adjective agrees with the noun which it limits in gender, number, and case. 7. The relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in gender, number, and person, but its case is determined by its construction in the clause in which it stands. 8. Man verbs of making, choosin , calling, showing, and the like take two accusatives I ne the direct ob' ct ~ t f?~other a redicate accusative 294 lUI'~ !l VO~ 9. SOlle verbs of asking, demanding, teaching, etc., take two accusatives, one of the person, the other of the thing (299). 10. TramItive compounds of trans may take two accusatives, one dependmg upon the verb the other u on the pre osition @.QO). 11. Duration of time and extent of space are denoted by the = accusative (301). 12. The accusative of limit of motion is used with names of towns, and with domum, domaB, and rUB (302). 13. The accusative and ablative are used with prepositions. 14. The dative is the case of the indirect object (306, 1). 15. The dative is used with many verbs signifying javor, help, injure, please, displease, trust, distrust, command, obey, serve, resist, indulge, spare, pardon, envy, threaten, believe, persuade, and the like (306, 2). l路ff!x;I../~ lnihi -

201

202

RULES

OF SYNTAX.

16. The dative is used with many verbs compounded with the prepositions ad, ante, circum, com- (con-), in, inter, ob, post, prae, pro, sub, super (306, 3). 17_ The dative of agency is used with the gerundive (311)_ 18. 'I'he dative of possession is used with the verb sum (312)_ 19. The dative of purpose or tendency denotes the end toward which an action is directed or for which something exists (313)_ 20. The dative is used with adjectives signifying j1-iendly, u1ifriendly, similm', dissimila1-, equal, nea1', related to, suitable, etc. (314): 21. A noun used to complete the meaning of another noun is put in the genitive (318). 22. The genitive of possession denotes ownership (319). 23. The subjective genitive denotes the person who makes or produces something, or who has a feeling (320)_ 24_ The objective genitive denotes the object of an action or feeling (321). 25. The genitive of the whole denotes the whole of which a part is taken (322). 26. The genitive modified by an adjective is used to denote quality (323). 27. The genitive is used with adjectives signifying desire, knowledge, memo1'y, participation, power, julness, and their opposites (328)_ 28. The genitive is used with memini, reminiscor (' I remember '), and with obliviscor (' I forget ') (329). 29. The impersonals pudet (' it shames ') and paenitet (' it causes regret ') take the accusative of the person affected, along with the genitive of the object toward which the feeling is directed (330). 30. With interest, the person or thing concerned is denoted by the genitive (331). 31. The ablative of separation is construed sometimes with, sometimes without, a preposition (337). 32. The ablative accompanied by i (ab) is used with passive verbs to denote the personal agent (338)_

RULES

OF SYNTAX.

203

33. The ablative is used with comparatives in the sense of , than' (339). 34. The ablative is' used to denote means or instrument (344). 35. The ablative is used to denote cause (345). 36. The ablative modified by an adjective is used. to denote manner (346). 37. The ablative with cum is used to denote accompaniment (350). 38. The .ablative is used with comparatives and words involving comparison to denote the degree of difference (351). 39. The ablative modified by an adjective is used to denote quality (352). 40. The ablative of price is used with verbs of buying and sellillg (353). 41. The ablati ve of specification is used to denote that in respect to which something is, or is done (354). 42. The ablative absolute is grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. It generally consists of a noun or pronoun limited by a participle (359). 43. Place where is regularly denoted by the ablative with the preposition in (363). 44. Place from which is regularly denoted by the ablative with i (ab), de, or ex (364). 45. The ablative is used to denote the time at which or within which (365). 46. The hortatory subjunctive expresses an exhortation (388). 47. The jussive subjunctive expresses a commaud (389). 48. The optative subjunctive expresses a wIsh (393). 49. The potential subjunctive expresses the ideas conveyed by the English auxiliaries should, ~vould (394). 50. The imperative is used in commands, admonitions, and entreaties (395). 51. The subjunctive with ut, De, and quo is used to denote purpose (400). 52. By the sequence of tenses principal tenses of the indica-

204

53.

54. 55.

56. 57.

58.

59. 60. 61. 62. 63.

64. 65. 66.

RULES

OF SYNTAX.

tive are followed by principal tenses of the subjunctive; historical by historical (401). A relative clause used to express some characteristic of an indefinite or general antecedent is called a clause of characteristic and stands in the subjunctive (405). The subjunctive with ut, ut non, is used to denote result (406). Causal clauses introduced by quod and quia take the indicative when the reason is that of the writer or speaker; the subjunctive, when the reason is viewed as that of another (407). Cum causal takes the subjunctive (407,2). Postquam, 'after'; ut, ubi, 'when'; Bimul ao, 'as soon as,' referring to a single past act, take the perfect indica ti ve (412). Cum temporal referring to the past takes the indicative to denote the point of time at whicfiOsomething occurs; the subjunctive to denote the situation or circumstances under which something occurs (413). Cum temporal referring to the present or future takes the indicative (414). Dum,' while,' takes the present indicative with the force of an imperfect (418,1). Dum and donee, 'as long as,' take the indicative (418,2). Dum,' until,' takes the indicative to denote an actual fact; the subjunctive to denote expectancy (418, 3). The subjunctive with ut and ne is used in substantive clauses developed from the volitive after verbs signifying to admonish, request, command, grant, resolve, and the like (424). The subjunctive with ne, quominus, and quin is used in substantive clauses after verbs of hindering (425). The subjunctive with ut and ne is used in substantive clauses developed from the optative (429). The subjunctive with ut and ut non is used in substantive clauses of result (430).

RULES

OF SYNTAX.

205

67. The subjunctive is used in indirect questions after verba of asking, inquiring, and the like (431). 68. In simple conditions the indicative is used in both protasis and apodosis (438). 69. In' should' . . . 'would' conditions the subjunctive, present or perfect, is used in both protasis and apodosis (439). 70. In conditions contrary to fact the subjunctive is used in both protasis and apodosis, the imperfect referring to present time, the pluperfect to past (440). 71. Quamquam, 'although,' is followed by the indicative (441,1). 72. Cum,' although,' is followed by the subjunctive (441, 2). 73. Declarative sentences, upon becoming indirect, change their main verb to the infinitive with subject accusative, while all subordinate clauses take the subjunctive (446). 74. The tenses of the infinitive denote time, not absolutely, but with reference to the verb on which they depend (447). 75. The infinitive without subject accusative is used as the subject of est and various impersonal verbs (453). 76. The infinitive without subject accusative is used as the object of many verbs (454). 77. The infinitive with subject accusative is used as the subject of est and various impersonal verbs (455). 78. The infinitive with subject accusative is used as the object of many verbs (456). 79. The tenses of the participle express time, not absolutely, but with reference to the verb on which the participle depends (460). 80. Instead of the gerund with a direct object, another construction is commoner. This consists in putting the direct object in the case of the gerund, and using the gerundive in agreement with it. This is called the gerundive construction (466). 81. The supine in -um is used after verbs of motion to express purpose (467).

CAESAR (Capitoline

Museum).

6'

2째

o

50째

z

-r-

l6

GAUL at the time of CAESAR. SCALE OF ROMAN I

~O

i

10

60

80

d

Longitude

iO

West

MILES I

100

150

CAESAR'S GALLIC WAR. BOOK CHAPTERS

1-28. -

WAR

II. AGAINST

THE

BELGIAN

CONFEDERACY.

League of the Belgians against

Caesar.

1. CUM 1 esset Caesar in Citeriore 2 Gallia, ita 8 utI supra « demeustravimus,' crebrt ad eum l'umores afferebantur," litterIsque 1 item Labienl" certior 9 fIebat, omnes Belgas, quam 10 tertiam esse Galliae partem dtxeramus," contra populum Romanum conjnrare 11 obsidesque inter 12 se dare. Conjn-n randI hae eraut causae : prImum, quod verebantur, nll,18 The events narrated in Book IT of Caesar's Commentaries belong to the year 57 B.C. The Helvetian War and the War with Ariovistus, which are comprised in Book I, occurred in the previous year, 08 B.C. 1 cum esset: 413.- 2 Citeriore Gallia: northern Italy, a part of Caesar's province. 8 ita uti: as ; literally, so «s. 4 supra: referring to the statement made at the close of Book I of the Commentaries. 5 demonstravimus, dixeramus: the editorial' we.' 6 afterebantur, certior fiebat: imperfect of repeated action, a very common use of the imperfect. 7litteris: 3-14. 8 Labieni: Labienus had been left in charge of the winter quarters of Caesar's army in the territory of the Sequaui. 9 certior fiebat, etc.: was informed

that all the Belgae •..

toere combinin,lJ . . • and ezchanging

hostaae«;

literally, all the Belqae to combine and to give,. eoniurare and dare are principal clauses in indirect discourse depending on certior fiebat,. 446. Belgas is snbject accusative of the infinitives. 10 quam: uilu»; referring to Belgas, bnt attracted to the gender and number of the predicate noun,partem,. quam is the subject of esse. 11 conjurare: were forming a league, were combining. 1ll inter se: to each other, or, with dare, were ezchangin,g .. literally, between, or, among themselves. 18 ne exercitus noster adduceretur: that our army would be led ; ne ad£luceretur is a Substantive Clause Developed from the Optative; 429. • The numerical

references

are to tho sections

209

of this book,

210

OAESAR'S

GALLIC

WAR.

omnI 1 pa.cata. Gallia, ad eos" exercitus noster adduceretur ; deinde, quod ab nonnullts Gallts sollicitabantur, partim 8 qur, ut 4 Germanos 6 diutius in Gallia vel'sarr noluerant, ita popult" RomanI exercitum hiemare atque inveterascere in 15 Gallia molests ferebant ; partim S quI mobilitate 7 et levitate animr novts a imperils studebant ; ab nonuullts 9 etiam, qul minus facile regnum imperio 10 nostro consequr poterant. Caesar advances to meet the crisis.

2. Hrs nuntirs litterrsque commotus Caesar duas legiones in Citeriore Gallia novas conscrrpsit et inita 11 aestate, 10 in Ulteriorem Galliam quI12 deduceret, QuIntum Pedium legatum mIsit. Ipse, cum prtmum pabult copia esse inciperet, ad exercitum venit. Dat IS negotium Senonibus reliqutsque Gallts, quI ftnitimt Belgrs 14 erant, utII5 ea, quae 16 10mni pacata GaIlia: if all Gaul should be subdued,. Ablative Absolute with the force of a condition; 359. 2 ad eos: against them. 8 partim qui ..• partim qui: 80me of whom ... others of uihorn ; literally, partly (by those) who ••• partly (by those) who. The antecedent of qui is (ab) eis understood, 4 ut noluerant: just as they had been unwilling. 6 Germanos venan: referring to the presence of the Germans under Ariovistus in the preceding year; Germanos is the subject accusative of versaM. II populi Romani .•. ferebant: were loath to have the army of the Roman people winter in Gaul and become established (there). The infinitives are the object of ferebant ; in Gallia limits both biemare and inueterascere. 7 mobilitate, levitate: 345. 8 novis imperils: a chan.ge of control,. i.e. a change from Roman control; literally, new controls. For the dative, see 306, 2. The two classes of malcontents were (1), those who objected to the presence of a Roman army in Gaul; (2) those who on general principles desired a change. Both these classes of Gauls urged the Belgae to resist the Romans, thinking that Belgian success might free central Gaul also from Roman domination. 9 ab nonnullis: supply in sense, 8011icitabantur. 10imperio nostro: under our rule ; Ablative of Attendant Clrcumstauce. 11 inita aestate: at the be,ginning of 8ummer,. literally, summer having been begun,. 3159. 12qui deduceret: Relative Clause of Purpose; 400, a. The antecedent of qui is Pedium " with deduceret understand as object eas, referring to leqione«. 18dat negotium: practically equivalent to he directed. 14 BeIgls: 314. lli uti cognoscant, certiorem faciant: to learn, to inform,. Substantive Clauses Developed from the Volltive (' let them learn, let them inform '), dependent upon the idea of ordering inyolved in dat negotium,. 424. 16quae gerantur: gerontur is subjunctive in accordance with the general

WAR AGAINST

THE BELGIAN

CONFEDERACY.

21]

apud eos gerantur, cognoscant seque 1 de his rebus certiorem faciant, Hi2 constanter " omnes nnntiaverunt, manus" cogi, exercitum in unum locum conduct. Tum vero dubitandum 6 non extstimavit, qurn 8 ad eos 1 proflcrsceretnr, Re frumentaria eomparata, castra movet diebusque S circiter qutndecim ad fines Belgarum pervenit, The Remi espouse the Roman

5

cause.

3. Eo 9 cum ds improvtso celeriusque 10 omnt optnione venisset, Remi, qul proximt Galliae 11 ex Belgts 12 sunt, ad eum lsgll.tos 18 Iccium et Andecumborium, prtmoa crvitatis, mtserunt, qut haec 14 dtcebant : "Nos 16 nostraque omnia in 10 fidem 18 atque potestatem populi ROma.nI permittimus, Heque 17 cum Belgts reliquts consensimus neque contra. populum Romanum omntno conjnravimus. Paratt sumus obsides dare et imperata tua facere et te oppidrs 18 recipere et frQmente cetertsque rebus juvare, Reliqui omnes Belgae in 15 armis sunt, Germantque qut cis Rhenum 19 incolunt sese cum his conjuuxerunt, tantusque est horum omnium furor, principle that a clause dependent upon a SUbjunctive is Itself attracted Into the subjunctive. The construction Is called Subjunctive by Attraction. 1 Ie: him; literally, himself, referring to Caesar. 2 hi: i.e. the Benones and other neighbors of the Belgians. 8 eonltanter: not cOnltantly, but uniformly; all told the same story. 4 manue . band." forces. 6 dubitandum (elle) non, eto.: concluded that he must not hesitate. 8 quin profioiaceretur: to set out. After verbs of doubting we regularly have quin. with the subjunctive. 7 ad e08: against them. 8 diebul quindeeim: 31';"'>. 9 eo: the adverb. 10 eeleriul omni opinione: more swiftly than anyone e~ected; 339. 11 Galliae: 314. 12 ex Belgil = Betqarum, 1B legatol: as envoys; predicate accusative. 14 haec dieebant: i.e. spoke as follows. 16 nOI nOltraque omnia: ourselves and all our possessions: objects of permittimus; nostra Is the possessi ve used as a noun; 371. 18 in fidem ••• per. mittimUI: put under the protection and power. The Reml had been vasaals of their powerful neighbors, the Suessiones, and apparently saw In the coming of the Romans an opportunity to shake off the rule of their hated masters. This seems the secret of their prompt submission to Caesar. 17 neque ••• neque: neither ••• nor. 18 oppidiB: in our towns; but the ablative Is one of Means; 344. 19 oil Bhenum: i.e. to the west. Caesar is speaking from the point of view of the province of Gaul. Some of the Germans had crossed the Rhine and were at this time li ving on the west side of the river.

212

CAESAR'S

GALLIC

WAR.

ut ne Suessiones I quidern," fratres S consanguineosque nos. tros, qut eodem jure 4 et Isdem legibus utuntur unumque I magistratum nobtscum habent, deterrere potuertmus," quIn 7 cum hrs consenttrent." Fighting

strength of the Belgian tribes.

4. Cum ab his quaereret, quae." civitates quantaeque in armIs essent et quid 9 in bello possent, sic 10 rep erie bat : Plerrque Belgae a Germants 11 ortt sunt Rhenumque 12 anti. quitus traduett propter Iocr fertilitatem ibi consederunt, Gallosque, qui ea loca incolebant, expulerunt, Hi IS erant 10 soli qul patrum memoria,'! omnt 16 Gallia vexata, Teutonos 16 Cimbrosque intra suos fines ingredt " prohiberent ; IS qua 19 ex re fiebat,20 ut 21 earum rerum memoria 22 magnam sibi 28 auctoritatem in re mtlitart snmerent, De numero eorum Remt omnia exploraverant, propterea quod, propin15 quitatibus 24 affrnitatibusque conjunctr," sciebant quantam 2lI multitudinem quisque 27 in commuut Belgarum concilio ad id 5

I Suessiones: object of deterrere. 2 ne ... quidem: no, even. 3 fratres nostros: the Sues iones were really masters of the Remi. The statements of the envoys were not entirely frank. 4 jure, legibus: 344, 1. 6 unum magistratum nobiscum: i:e. the same ruler as we; the Latin always says nobiscum, not cum nobis. 6 potuerimus: 406. 7 quin ... consentirent: from leagltin.q themselves with these .. 425. 8 quae essent, possent: 431. v quid possent: how strollg they were; literally, what they were able. 10 sic: as follows. II a Germanis orti sunt: this view is hardly correct; the Belqae were probably of Celtic origin. 12 :ahenum: dependent on trans in composition in traducti. 13 hi: viz. the Belgae, 14 memoria: 365. 160mni Gallia vexata: when all (the rest of) Gaul was ravaged .. 359. 16 Teutonos Cimbrosque: for several years prior to 101 B.C. these barbarians had ravaged Gaul. They were finally crushed by Marius in 102 and 101 B.C. 17 ingredi: from entering ; literally, to enter; the object of prohiberent. 18 prohiberent: SUbjunctive in a Clause of Characteristic; 405. 19 qua ex re: and from thi8 circumstance; literally, from which circumstance. 20 fiebat: it happened. 21 ut Bumerent: a Substantive Clause of Result: 430. It is subject of the Impersonal/lebat. 22 memoria: 345. 28 Bibi: withsumerent; 300,1. 24 propinquitatibus aftinitatibusque: by ties Of blood and marriage. 26 conjuncti: viz. to the Belgae. 26 quantam pollicitus eBBet: 431. 27 quiBque: i.e. each chieftain of the different tribes.

WAR AGAINST

THE BELGIAN

CONFEDERAcr.

213

bellum pollicitns esset. Plnrimum 1 inter eos BellovacI I virtute 3 et auetoritate et hominum numero valebant; ht centum milia hominum conficere 4 poterant ; ex eo numero sexaginta mIlia pollicitI erant tottusque belli imperium postnlabant, Suessiones erant ftuitirnt Remorum, et fInes IS latissimos feracissimcsque agros possidebant, Apud eos Dtvitiaous nostra etiam memoria rex fuerat, totlus Galliae potentissimus, qni cum 5 magnae partie 6 harum regionum, tum Britanniae imperium obtinuit, Nunc rex Galba erat; ad hunc 7 propter justitiam prudentiamque 8 summa 9 totIus 10 belli omnium voluntate deferebatur ; hI oppida duodecim habebant et qutnquaginta hominum 10 mIlia pollioebantur ; totidem 11 N ervit," qut maxims feri habentur " longissimeque absunt; quindecim milia Atrebates, Ambiant " decem milia, Morin! xxv milia, Menapit vii ruilia, CaletI x mIlia, 15 Veliocassss et Viromandut totidem, Aduatucr xix milia; Oondrnsr, Eburones, Caerost, Paemanl, qut 15 uno nomine 16 Germant 17 appellantur, xl milia.

Caesar takes. up a position

011

the Axona.

5. Caesar Rernos cohortatus llberaliterque prosecntus, omnem 19 senatum ad se con ventre

18 oratione principum-20

1 plurimum valebant: had the greatest influence; literally, availed most. Bellovaci: their name survives in that of the modern town of Beauvais, 8 virtute, etc. : 354. 4 con1lcere: muster. G cum ... tum: not only ... but also; literally, when ••• then, or, while ..• at the same time. 6 partis: dependent upon imperium. 7 ad hunc: upon him. 0 prudentiam: wisdom. The word seldom has the narrow meaning of our' prudence.' 9 Bumma: cond'lct, or direction. 10 hominum: 322. 11 totidem: viz.IiO,OOO. 12 :Nervii, AtrebateB, etc.: as verb, underst:mdpolliceb(lIItur from the preceding sentence. 18 habentur: are regarded. 14 Ambiani, Caleti: these designations survive in the modern town names, Amiens, Calais. 15 qui: referring only to the laBt four tribes. 16 uno nomine: i.e. by the general name. 17 Germani: these are appl\rently the Germani qui cis Rhenum incolunt of chapter 3. lollberaliter oratione prOB8CutuB: having adtlressed them with friendly UJords; literally, haVing attendell them generously in his toords. 19 Benatum: some council of elders, corresponding rougWy to the Roman Senate. I

214

CAESAR'S

GALLIC

WAR.

que liberos obsidss 1 ad sll adduct jussit. Quae omnia ab his diligenter 2 ad diem facta sunt. Ipse Drvitiacum 3 Haeduum magnopere 4 cohortatus docet, quanto 5 opere reI6 publicae communisque 1 salutis intersit, manus 8 hosIl tium distinsrr, ne 9 cum tanta multitndins uno tempore conflrgendum sit. Id 10 fieri posse, si suas ccpias Haedut in -fInes Bellovaeorum iutrodnxerint net eorum agros populart coeperint. His datis mandatrs, eum ab sl! dtmittit. Postquam omnes Belgarum copias in unum locum eoactas 12 10 ad se venIre vrdit, neque 13 jam Ionge abesse, ab eis,14quos mIserat, exploratoribus et ab Remis cognovit, flumen IfAxonam, quod 16 est in extremis Remorum ftnibus, exercitum traducere maturavit atque ibi 11 castra posuit. Quae 18 res 1 obsides: as hostaoes ; predicate accusative. 2 diligenter ad diem: punctually to the day. 8 Divitiacum Haeduum: not to be confounded with the Di-

vitiacus mentioned above, who was already dead. This Divitiacus was under obligations to Caesar for the recent liberatiou of the Haedui from the tyranny of Ariovistus, as described in Book I.; hence it was natural that Caesar should appeal to him for aid at this juncture, 4 magnopere: earnes/ly. 5 quanto opere . . . intersit: how greatly it concerned the republic and the common safety; 431. Though writteu as two words, quanto opere is practically as much an adverb as the preceding magnopere. 6 rei publicae, salutis: the genitive, see 331; rei publicae means the Roman state. 7 communis: i.e. of the Romans and the Haeduans. s manus hostium distlneri: for the banda of the enemy to be kept apart; manus is the subject accusative of distineri, while tiistineri itself is the subject of the impersonal intersit, 9 ne con1ligendum sit: lest it be necessary tofight; literally, lest it have to be fought; 400. The periphrastic conjugation is often thus used impersonally; 287. 10 id fieri POSSll: that that could be done, namely, that the forces of the enemy could be kept from uniting; posse depends upon the idea of saying implled in the context; 446. 11 introduxerint et coeperint: subordinate clauses in Indirect discourse; 446. 12 coactas ad se venire: had been assembled and were coming. For the participle as the equivalent of a coordinate clause, see 460, 3. 18 neque jam, etc... and learned that they were no longer far Off. The two elements of neqlle must often thus be separated, and connected In translation with different parts of the sentence. 14 ab elB exploratoribus: limiting cognovit. 16 fiumen Axonam: governed by the preposition trans In traducere. The A:l:ona is the modern Aisne. 16 quod: its gender Is deter. mined by fiumen; not by A:l:onam. 17 ibi: i.e. at the point where he crossed the river. This was at Berry路au-Bac, where remains of Caesar's fortifications have been brought to light in modern times. 18 quae reo: actfon; Sq1). ;Jec~ of lIluniebqt, redde/)at, and efficiebat.

t"~

WAR

AGAINST

THE BELGIAN

CONFEDERACY.

215

etllatus unum eastrorum rlpIs fll1minis mnuisbat et, post' eUID quae erant, tuta ab hostibus 8 reddebat et, commeatl1s 4 ab Remts reliquIsqne crvitatibns ut sine perIculO ad eum portart possent, effleiebat.r In eo flumine 8 pons '"';Trat. Ibi 8 praesidium ponit et in altera parte 1 flnminis QIlIntum IS 'I'itnrium SabInum legatum cum sex cohortibus relinquit; castra in altitudinem 8 pedum 9 duodecim va.llo, foasaque duodevrgintt " pedum muutrt j ubet.

Bibrax,

a town of the Remi, attacked by the Belgae.

1.-\

6. hts castrIs oppid UID Remorum nomine 11 Bibrax aberat milia 12 passuum octo. I d ex itinere 18 magno impetn io Belgae oppugnare coeperunt. Aegre eo dill sustentatum 14 est. Gallorum 18 eadem atque Belgarum oppugnatio est haec. Ubi, eireumjecta 18 multitudine hominuin totIs 11 moenihns, undique in murum lapidss jacI coeptl18 sunt 1 et .•• et: on the one hand ... on the other; correlative use of at. muniebat: protected. I poat eum quae erant, etc.: made his rear aect.lre: literally, rendered safe from the enemy (those things) which were behind him. The antecedent of quae Is ea understood, the object of reddebat; tuta la • predicate adjective limiting this ea. 8 ab hoatibua: Ablative of Separation with tuta. 4 commeatua .•. e1B.clebat:made it possible for supplies to be brought; literally, brou.qht it about that supplies could be, etc.; ut posllent Is a Substantive Clause of Result, the object of ejJ!ciebat; ttt would ordinarily stand at the beginning of this clause; but, for the purpose of emphasis, commeatus Is put first. 6 in eo ftumine: across that river. This Is the regular Latin Idiom. 8 ibi: i.e. at the bridge on the north side of the Alsne, which here runs east and west. 1 altera parte: i.e. on the south side of the river. 8 in altitudinem: in hei,qht; literally, into height. 9 pedum duodeclm: Genitive of Quality, limiting vallo; 323. 10 duodeviginti pedum: i.e. eighteen feet in breadth at the top. Its sloping sides natnrally made the bottom much narrower. 11 nomble: Ablative of Specification. 12 milia: Accusative of E%Jo tent of Space; 301. 1lI ex Itinere: on the march; i.e. they did not contemplate B protracted siege. 14 aUltentatum eat: the assault toas withstood. 16 Ban. rum ••• oppugnatio: the mode of assault of the Gaul~, the same as that 0/ the Belgian.s, is as follows. 18 circumjecta multitudlne: Ablative Ab_ lnte. 11 totil moeDibua = the whole town; dative j Indirect object of circum[eeta; 306.3. 18 coepti lunt: when the dependent infinitive Is paufve, eot'pltll ,urn Is regularly used instead of coepi.

216

C.AESAR"S GALLIC

WAR.

mnrusque dMl!nsoribus 1 nudatus est, testudine ~ factA, portae succendunt murumque subruunt. Quod 3 tum 4 facile fHibat.5N am cum tanta multitude lapides ac tela conicerent," in rnuro consistendt 1 potestas 8 erat nullt, 5 Cum fmem oppugnandi nox feciaset, Iccius 9 Remus, summa nobilitate 10 et gratia inter suos," qul tum oppido 12 praefuerat, linus ex eis, qul legati 13 de pace ad Caesarem venerant, nuntium ad eum 14 mittit, nisi subsidium sibi 15 submittatur," sese diutius sustinere 11 non 10 posse."

The Belgae abanclon the assault on Bibraz.

7. E619 de 20 media nocte Caesar lsdem 21 ducibns usus, qut nuntit ab Iccio venerant, Numidas 2'2 et Cretas sagittarios et funditores Baleares 23 subsidio " oppidanrs mittit; 1 defensoribus: Ablative of Separation. 2 testudine facta: having made a testudo ; testudo was the name given to a special military formation in which the shields of the soldiers overlapped oue au other like the scales of a tortoise. 3 quod: i.e. this mode of attack. 4 tum: 011 the present occasion. 5 facile fiebat: was easily put into operation. 6 conicerent: the plural, since multitude is a collectivc noun. 1 consistendi: the gerund; used as Objective Genitive with potestae. 8 potestas erat nulli: no one had the ability, no one could; nulli is Dative of Posse sion; 312. 9 lccius Bemus: Iceius, qne oj the Bemi. 10 summa nobilitate: of the highest rank. Ablative of Quality; 352. 11 BUOS: his countrymen. 12 oppido: dative; indirect object of praejuerat; 306, 3. lij legati: as envoys; predicate nominative with venerant. limiting qui. His embassy is referred to 011 p. 211, line 9. 14 ad eum: i.e, to Caesar. 15 Bibi, sese: probably to be taken as plurals referring to the Remi. 16 submittatur: subordinate clause in indirect discourse; 446. 17 sustinere: here used absolutely in tbe sense of hold Oltt. 18 pOBBe: â&#x20AC;˘ principal clause iu indirect discourse, depending upon the idea' of saying Involved in nuntium mit/it; 4-16. 19 eo: i.e. to Blbrax, 20 de: about. 21 iBdem ducibus usus: employing the same mell as gUides: ducibus is in predicate relatiou to isdem. Note that US/l,1 bere has the force of a present participle, i.e. it denotes action occurring at the same time as that of the main verb, -using. 22 Numidas et Cretil.s: ofteu mentioned as bowmen j the words are here used as adjectives j ere/lis Is au irregular form (Greek accusative). 23 Baleares: the inhabitants of the Balearic Islands were famons in antiquity for their skill as sllngers. The story went that the Balearic boys were allowed no dinner until they could bl'iug it dowu with their slings. 2~ subsidio: Dative of Purpose; 313.

WAR

AO.AINST

TIlE BELGIAN

CONFEDERACY.

217

quorum adventu et 1 RemIs cumepe t defensionis studium propugnandt accessit, et hostibus 3 eadem de causa. spes ! potiundt oppidt discessit. ltaque paulisper apud oppidum mora.tI agrosque Remorum depopulatt, omnibus vtcrs aedificitsque, quo 6 adtre potuerant, ineensts, ad castra Caesaris 5 omnibus 6 oopits coutenderunt et a. mllibus 7 passuum minus duobus castra posuerunt ; quae castra, ut fumo atque tgnibus significabatur, amplius 8 mtlibus passuum octo in latitudinern patsbant,

Caesar prepare« jor an engageln/lnt.

8. Caesar prrmo et 9 propter multitudinem hostium et 10 propter eximiam optnionem 10 virtu tis proelio 11 supersedere statuit; eottdie tamen equestribus proeliIs, quid 12 hostis virtute posset et quid nostrI auderent, perlclitabatutJ Ubi nostros non esse tnteriores intellexit, loco IS pro castrIs ad aciem 14 Instruendam natura opportuno atque idoneo, quod 11115 is collis, ubi castra posita erant, paululum ex planitie edi1 et ... et: on the one hand ... and on the other. 2 cum spe defensionis: along with the hope of a (su.ccessful) defence. 8 hostibus: fro lit the enemy; the dative, as here, sometimes denotes separation. 4 spes potiundi oppidi: hope of ga'lning the town; the gerundive construction; 466. The ending -undi for -endi sometimes occurs in the gerund and gerundive. 6 quo: the adverb, equivalent to ad quae, referring to »tcis and aediticiis. 6 omnibus copus: Ablative of Accompaniment without cum. 7 a milibus, ete., less than two miles 0.0'; it is here an adverb meaning o.tr, a~vay; milibus i8 Ablative of Degree of Difference, 351; minu" is introduced without affecting the construction of the sentence; 339, 1. 8 amplius milibus: milibus is here Ablative of Comparison with the adverb amplius. 9 et ..• et: both ••• and. IOopinionem virtutis: their reputation for bravery. 11 proelio supersedere: to refrain from battle; proelio is Ablative of Separation; 337. 12 quid hOIUs virtute poiset: what the enemy's melUe was; literally, tvkat the enemy availed in valor. IS 1000 .•. idoneo: since there was a place, etc. ;

Ablative Absolute, equivalent to a causal clause ; 359. 14 ad aciem iustruendam: to be joined in thought with opportune atque idoneo. 16 quod is collis, ete.s explaining why the place was suitable for drawing up a line of battle; namely, there was rising ground of just sufficient width for an army ill battle array, while steep declivities protected the flanks.

218

CAESAR'S

GALLIC

WAR.

tus 1 tantum 2 adversus in latitndinem patebat, quantum 3 Iocr acies Instriicta oecupare poterat, atque ex utraque parte t lateris dejectus 6 habebat 6 et in frontem 7 leniter fastIgatus paulatim ad planitiem redibat, ab utroque 8 latere ejus 5 collis transversam 9 fossam obdiixit circiter passuum 10 quadringentorum et ad extrernas 11 fossas castella constituit ibique tormenta 12 colloeavit, ne, cum aciem metruxisset," hostes, quod tan tum multitiidine poterant.t' ab lateribus 16 pugnantes 16 sues 17 circum venire possent. Hoc facto, dua10 bus legionibus," quas proxime censcrrpserat, in castrts relrctis, ut, sl quo opus esset," subsidio ro duct possent, reliquas sex Iegiones pro castrts in acie constituit. Hostes item suas capias ex castrts eductas 21 instriixerant. 1 editus: being elevated. 2 tantum adversus in latitudinem, etc.: was as wide in front (i.e. on the side toward the enemy, -the west) as a line Of battle when drawn up could fill; tantum is an Accusative of Extent of Space, 301; adversus is an adjective agreeing with collie, the subject of pate bat ; loci is a Genitive of the Whole (322) with quantum; we should have expected it to limit tan tum. 8 quantum: object of occupare. t ex utraque parte: on each side. 6lateriB dejectuB: lateral declivities. 6 habebat: the subject is still collie. 1 in frontem leniter, etc.: and in front, sloping gently, gradually returned to the plain. Remember that the front is the western side. 8 ab utroque: the principal clause of this long sentence begins here. 9 tranBverBam fOBBam: at right angle8, namely, to the line of the eminence. 10 paBBuum q1tadringentorum: four hundred paces (long); Genitive of Quality; 323. 11 ad extremaB fOBBas: at the ends of the ditches; 373. 12 tormenta: engines for hnrling missiles, such as javelins or heavy stones. See pp. 9, 1l. 18inBtruxisset: SUbjunctive by Attraction to posset ; see note on p. 210, line 13. U poterant: as the explanation of the writer, this clause stands in the in-, dicative. 16 ab lateribus: on the fianke. 16 pugnanteB: limiting SUDS. 11BUOB:his men. 18duabus legionibuB quaB proxime conBcripserat: i.e. the thirteenth and fourteenth legions enrollOO in Hither Gaul in the Bpring of this year; see chapter 1. As usual Caesar spares his raw troops, holding them back as reserves for a critical emergency. 19 si quo opus esset: ifit was necessary for them to be led anywhere; quo is the indefinite adverb, limiting duci to be supplied. This duci (or, with subject accusative, eos duci) is the subject of esset; esset is attracted into the snbjnnctive. 20BUbsidio: Dative of Purpose; 313. 21eduotaB instruxerant: i.e. had led them lorth and drawn them up; 460, 3.

W.AR .AGAINST

THE BELGIAN

OONFEDERAOY.

219

The Belgae attempt to cut off Caesar'« supplies.

9. Palns erat non 1 magna inter 2 ftO&t1:I:l'm atque hOBtium exereitum. Hane sr nostri transirent,8 hostes exspeeta.bant; nostrr autem, si f ab Illrs initium transeundt fieret, ut 5 impedttos aggrederentur, paratt in--a;rmis erant. Inte, rim proelio 8 equestrt inter duas aeies contendebatur, Ubi 5 noutrt transeundt initium fa.eiunt, seeundiore 1 equitum proelio nostrrs," Caesar suos in eastra rednxit, Hostes protinus ex eo loco ad flumen Axonam eontenderunt, quod 9 esse post nostra eastra demonstratum est. Ibi, vadts xepertIs, partem suarum eopiarum tradncere conatf sunt, eo 10 eonsilio,I° ut,U sr possent,'! caatellum.P eui praeerat QUintus Titilrius legatus, expugnarent ponternqus interseinderent; si 14 minus potuissent, _agl'os Remorum popularentur,J5 qut magno 18 nobis usut ad bellum 11 gerendum erant, eommeatnque18 nostros prohiberent, " 111 1 non magna: i.e. small. 2 inter nostrum . • . exercitum: between Oltr army and that of the enemy. The possesaive pronoun nostrum Is made coordinate with the genitive hostium. 8 si nostri transirent: indirect question with si; a rare usage. f sl . . • fieret: in case a beginning should be made. The clause is subordinate to a{f!lrederentur, which In turn is subordinate to parati, 8 ut impeditos aggrederentur: that the" mi,qht attack them encumbered .. impeditos limits cos understood, referring to the enemy. 8 proeUo •.. contllndebatur: a cavalry battle was (n progress " literally, it was being contended in a cavalry battle. r SlOun. diore proelio: although the battle was more favorable.. Ablative AbllOlute; 3119. s nostris: with 8ecundiore.. 314. 0 quod esse, etc.: wh(oh, it has been shown, was behind our camp.. literally, which to be behind our camp has been 8hown .. quod Is the subject of e88e.. eBse Is SUbjectof the Impersonal demonstratum /l8t. 10 eo consilio: with this object. U u' expugnarent: a Substantive Clause of Purpose, In apposition with eo comma. 12 Ii possent, sl potmssent: Subjunctive by Attraction. 11 casteUum: at the southern end of the bridge. Their plan was to cr088the river and surprise Sabinus from the rear. If sl minus potulasent: if they 8hould not be able. 16 popularentur, prohiberent: ut must be supplied with these. The claBBesare further appositives of eo cOMilio. 1& magno ulm: Dative of Purpose. IT ad bellum gerendum: for waging war. 18 CODDIleatllque: commeatu is an Ablative of Separation.

220

CAESAR'S

GALLIC

WAB.

The Belgae are defeated. and disperee to their homes with further losses.

10. Caesar certior 1 factus ab Titurio, omnem equitatum et levis 2 armaturae N umidas, funditores sagittariosque ponte 8 tradncit atque ad eos 4 contendit, Acriter in eo loco pugnatum est. Hastes impedrtos nostrt in flumine 5 aggressr, magnum eorum numerum oectderunt ; pel' /I eormu corpora reliquos audacissime 6 transire conantes T multitndine telorum reppulerunt ; primos, qut transierant, equitat118 circumvent os interfeeerunt, I Hastes, ubi et de expugnando oppido 9 et de flnmine 10 transeundo spem 10 se fefellisse intellexerunt neque II nostros in locum iniquiorem progredi pugnandt causa vtderunt, atque ipsos res 12 frumentaria deficere coepit, consilio convocate, eonstitueruut, optimum 13 esse, domum suam 14 quemque revertr, et, quorum l.l in fines prtmum Romani: exerci15 tum introduxissent;" ad eos defendendos undique convenire, ut 11 potius in suls quam in alients ffnibus deeertarent et factus: i.e, having been informed of the situation. 2 levis :Numidas: light-armed Numidians; literally, Numidians of light equipment; Genitive of Quality; 323. 3 ponte: by the bridge; Ablative of the Way By Which. 4 ad eos contendit: the Belgians were to the west of the bridge, probably about two miles from Berry-au-Bae, II per: over. 6 audacissime: Caesar often pays such tributes as this to the bravery of his antagonists. It may be only an Indirect way of enha'nclng the glory of his own achievements. T conantes: agreeing with reliquos, 8 equitatu circumventos interfecerunt: they surrounded with the cavalry and cut to pieces ; 460, 3. 9 oppido: Bibrax ; see chapters 6, 7. 10 spem se fefellisse: that hope had disappointed them ; 446. 11 neque: and â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;˘ not, as often. 12 res frumentaria dell.cere coepit: the Gauls were inexperienced in systematic campaigning, Ordinarily they provided insufficient supplies for lengthy operations, and hence were often forced to disperse prematurely to their homes. In the present instance Caesar was thus able to attack and subjugate each tribe singly. 13 optimum esse, ete.: that it was best for each to return to his own home; esse is the object of eonstituerunt ; optimum is a predicate adjective, limiting reuerti, the subj.ect of esse. 14 domum suam: 30'2. 15 quorum: its antecedent Is eos in the next line. 16 introduxissent: Subjunctive by Attraction; see iJ. 210, lin 6 13. l1ut deeertarent, uterentur: purpose clauses. Note that decerlo means more than merely 'contend'; it implies fighting to a finish. 1 certior armaturae

WAR

AGAINST

TJ/E BELGIAN

CONFEDERACY.

221

domesticIs copits I reI frumentariae ilterentur. Ad . eam sente~ 2 cum 8 reliquts causts haec quoque ratio eos dednxit, quod 4 Dtvitiacum 8 atque Haeduos fInibus 8 Bellovaeorum appropinquare cognoverant, His 1 persuadert, ut 8 diutius morarentur neque II suts auxilium ferrent, nonlS poterat. -11. Ell. I'e constitnta, secunda vigilia magno cum strepita ac tumultu castrts egressr, ~uno 10 certo ordine neque imperio, CUID 11 sibi quisque prtmum itineris locum pete ret et domum 12 per venire properaret, fMerUllt,13 ut consimilis 10 fugae 14 profectio videretur, Hac re statim Caesar per speeulatores cognita, iusidias veritus,UI quod, qua 18 de causa discederent, nondum perspexerat, exercitum If equitatum que castris 18 continuit. Prima lnce confIrmata. 111 re ab exploratoribns," omnem equitatum, qut 21 novissimum 15 agmen moraretur, praemtsit, 1 cepile : for the ablative, see 344, 1. 2 sententiam: re.~ollltion. 8 cum reliquil caulis: along with other reascns, to be taken with haec quoque ratio. 4 quod cognoverant: the fact that they knew; explanatory of haec ratio. Note that the pluperfect of coqnosco has the force of an imperfect of the verb 'know.' 6 Divitiacum .•• appropinquare: i,e, Divitlacus was CODlplyiug with Caesar's request, made above, p. 214, liue 6. 8 flnibuI: for the dative, see 306, 3. 1 his persuaderi non poterat: these (the Bellovaci) could not be persuaded ; literally, it could not be persuaded to these, Verbs that govern the dative in the active, can be used in the passive only impersonally. 8 ut morarentur: to delay; a substantive clause dependent upon persuaderi. II neque ••• ferrent: and to forego lendin.q aid to their countrymen; literally, and (-que) not (ne-) to lend. 10 nullo certe ordine, ete.: without a?ty definite arrangement and direction; Ablative of Attendant Circumstance. 11 cum peteret: a causal clause. 12 domum: 302. 18 fecerun' ut .•• videretur: they made their departure Beem, etc.; literally, brot/ght about that their departure seemed; lit videretur is a Substantive Clause of Result, the object of feceruni ; 430. 14 fugae: dative. 18veritul: fearing. 18 qua de causa discederent: why they were withdrawing; indirect question; 431. 17 exercitum: here the infantry as contrasted with the cavalry. 18caatril: with teneo and contineo, the camp is considered as the means rather than the place; hence the simple ablative. 19 con1lrmata re: when the fact waB e.tablished, namely, of their retreat. ~ exploratoribus: sCOllt.: diller~nt from the spies (Ilpeculatores) who mingled among the enemy in disguise. II qui moraretur: Relative Clause of Purpose; 400. a.

222

CAESAR' 8 GALLIC WAB.

HIs 1 QuIntum Pedium et Lueium Auruneuleium Cottam legatos praefecit j Titum Labienum legatum cum legionibus tribus subsequI jussit. HI2 novissimos adortI et multa mIlia 8 passuum prosecntr magnam multitudinem IS eorum fugientium 4 conctderunt, cum 6 ab extreme 8 agmine, ad quos 1 ventum erat, eonsisterent fortiterque impetum nostrorum mtl itum sustinerent, priores," quod abesse a pertculo viderentur 9 neque nlla necessitate neque imperio continerentur, exaudtto clamore,10 perturbatts ordinibus, io omnes in fuga sibi 11 praesidium ponerent." \ Ita sine ullo pertculo tantam 18 eorum multitudinem nostrI interfeeerunt, quantum fuit diet spatium; sub occasum solis sequt destiterunt seque in castra, ut erat imperatum, recliPerunt. Novio(lunum

12. Postridie

surrenders.

ejus diet Caesar, priusquam ~ se hostss 15 ex terrore ac fuga reciperent, in ftnes Suessionum, quI proximi Rernts 16erant, exercitum duxit et magno itinere 17 14

1 his: plural, as referring to the collective noun equitatum, For the dative, see 306, 3. 2 hi: referring to the Infantry and cavalry just mentioned. 8 multa milia: 301. 4 fugientium: as they fled. 6 cum consisterent, etc.: cum is causal, and iutroduces the reason for the great slaughter, namely, only those on the rear of the Belgian host stood their ground, while the rest, iustead of joining in the defence, hurried on madly in quest of safety. 6 ab extrema agmiDe: at the rear. t ad quos ventum erat: the antecedent of quos is ei understood, the subject of consis terent,those to whom they had come; literally, to whom it had been come. 8 priores = sed priores (those in front); Asyndeton; priores is the subject of ponereni, 9 viderentur, continerentur: Subjunctive by Attraction. 10 exaudito clamore, perturbatis ordiDibus: two Ablatives Absolute; but the first is the cause of the second, i.e. the ranks were thrown into disorder at the sound of the shouting. 11 aibi: Dative of Reference. 12 praesidium ponerent: sought (literally, placed) security. 18 taDtam .•. quantum: as many as time allowed; literally, as great a number as was the duration of the day,a careless and inexact comparison. 14 poatridie ejus diei: a curious Idiom for' on the following day'; literally, •on the following day of that day.' 16priulquam reciperent: with anteqllam and priusquam, the subjunctive Is nsed to denote anticipation or expectancy. Note that se reciperent here means • recovered.' It Is used differently in Iille 13 above. 18 Remil' dependent upon prozimi; 314. 11 magna itinere: by a rapid march.

WAR AGAINST

THE BELGIAN

CONFEDERACY.

223

ad oppidum N oviodunum 1 eontendit. Id ex itinere S oppugnare conatus, quod vacuum 3 ab defensaribus esse audiebat, propter latitudinem fossae milrique altitudinem, paueis 4 defendentibus, expugnare non potuit. Castris munttrs, vtneas 4 agere," quaeque 1 ad oppugnandum ilsui I) erant, comparare eoepit. Interim omnis ex fuga. Suessianum multitude in oppidum proxima nocte conveuit, Celeriter vineis ad oppidum actrs, aggere [acto 8 turribusque 9 constitatrs, magnitudine 10 operum, quae neque vide rant ante 11 Galli neque audierant," et eelerita.te Romanorurn 10 per mot! legat6s ad Caesarem de deditione mittunt et, pctentibus 13 Remis, ut conservarentur," impetrant, 1 Noviodunum: the name means' Newtown.' 2 ex itinere: i.e. without stopping to Institute a regular siege. 3 vacuum ab defenloribus: lacking defenders; vacuum is in predicate agreement with the omitted subject of eS3e; defensoribus Is an Ablative of Separation; 337. f paucia defendentibua: Ablative Absolute with adversative force, - though few defelllled it. S vineaa: movable sheds or mantlets, to protect the soldiers as theyapproached the walls of the enemy. Their dimeusions are given as eight feet broad, seven feet high, and sixteen feet long. S agere: to move up, adllance. 7 quaeque = et quae; the antecedent of quae is ea nnderstood, the object of comparare. 8 aggere jacto: tohen an agger or siege-lerrace had been thrown up. This was begun at some distance from the enemy's walls and gradually approached them at right angle.~as its construction advanced, the end toward the enemy being protected by sheds and other defences. It was built as high as the hostile wall against which it was Intended, and when completed furnished an easy avenue of approach to the battlements of the besieged. 9 turribua conatitutis: these towers were called turres ambulatoriae, literally, â&#x20AC;˘ walking towers,' so designated because they were on rollers and could be moved from place to place. In the construction of an agger they were often of service In protecting the workmen by harassing the enemy. These towel'S were of several stories and sometimes rose to a height of ninety feet. They were supplied with battering rams and engines for hurling heavy missiles against the enemy. See p. 4. 10 magnitudine operum: dependent npon permoti. 11 ante: the adverb. 12 audierant: had heard 01. 18 petentibua Bemia: since the Remi begged. 14 ut conaervarentur: a substantive clause, object of petentibu3; 424.

224

CAESAR'S Submission

GALLIC

WAR.

oj the Bellonaei.

13. Caesar obsidibus 1 -acceptts prtmts CIvitatis atque ipstus Galbae regis duobus mils, armIsque omnibus ex oppido traditrs, in deditionem' Suessiones accepit exercitumque in Bellovacos ducit, QuI2 cum se suaque omnia in Ii oppidum Bratuspantium contulissent, atque ab eo oppido Oaesar cum exercitii circiter Inilia passuum quinque abesset, omnes majores 3 natii ex oppido egresst ll)aniis ad Caesarem tendere et voce significare eoepsrunt, sese 4 in ejus fidem ac potestatem ,venIre neque 5 contra populum Romdnum armts 10 contendere. 6 Item, cum ad oppidum accessisset castraque ibi poneret, puert" mulieresque ex muro, passrs 8 manibus suo more," pacem ab Romania 'Petie~L1nt. 14. Pro his 10 Divitiacus (nam post discessum 11 Belgarum, dlmissls Haeduorum copits, ad eum reverterat) facit 12 15 verba: Bellovacos omnI tempore in fide 18 atque amteitia civitatis Haeduae fuisse; impulses 14 ab suts prtnoipibus, qUI dtcerent," Haeduos, a Caesare in servitiitem redactos," omnes indignitates contumeliasqne perferre, et " ab Haeduts def'ecisse et 11 populo Romano bellum intulisse. QUI18 ejus 1 obsidibus acceptis primis, etc.: after their leading men had been received a' hostages; obsidibus is in predicate relation to priuiis and liberis. 2 qui cum: when they. 8 majores natu: the elders; natu is an Ablative of Specification;:l54. 4 sese ... venire: that they submitted. to (literally, came into) his protection and power. 6 neque: anti ... not. 6 contendere: we

might have expected the future here; but the present is more vivid,-they

did not fight. 1 pueri: children, including both girls and boys. 8 passis: from pando. 9 suo more: according to their custom; to be joined closely wi~ passiÂŤ manibus. Stretching out the hands was their way of indicating submission. 16 his: the Bellovaci, 11 post discessum Belgarum: i.e. after the different tribes had dispersed owing to the failure of their supplies, as explained above, p. 221, line 6. 12 facit verba: spoke. 18 in fide atque amicitia civitatis: i.e. had been loyal and friendly. 14 impuIsos: as indio cated by the position, the emphasis of the 8entence rests on this word, - it

because they had been impelled by their chiefs, ... that they harl revolted, etc. 16 dicerent: subordinate clause in indirect discourse. 16 redactos: the participle. 11 et ... et: both .â&#x20AC;˘. and. 18 qui: its antecedent is

tea&.

eo., understood,

the subject of pro/tlfJi88C.

WAR

AGAINST

THE BELGIAN

CONFEDERACY.

225

consill prtneipes fuissent, quod 1 intellegerent, quantam ealamitatem ciVitati intulissent," in Britanniam profngisse. Petere non solum Bellovacos, sed etiam pro his Haeduos, ut sua 3 elementia ac mansuetudine in eos 4 ntatur.' Quod sf fecerit,6 Haeduorum auctoritatem apud omnes Belgas am-5 plificatnrum," quorum 8 auxilits atque opibus, si 9 qua bella inciderint, sustentare consuerint," 15. Caesar honoris 11 Drvitiaci atque Haeduorum causa sese eos in fidem receptl1rum et conservatnrum dixit; et quod erat civitas 12 magna 13 inter Belgas auetoritate atque 10 hominum multitndine 14praestabat, sexcentos obsidss poposcit. HIs traditts omnibusque armis ex oppido 15 collatrs, ab eo loco in fines Ambianorum pervenit ; qut se suaque omnia sine mora dediderunt.

Description of the Nervii.

Eorum 16 fines N ervit attingebant ; quorum de natl1ra.llS moribusque Caesar cum quaereret, sic 11 reperiebat : Nl111um aditum esse ad eos 18 meroatoribus ; 19 nihil pati 20 vini n 1 quod: causal. 2 intulissent; this would be subjunctive (of indirect question) even iu the direct discourse. 8 sua: his usual, or, his well known. 4 in BOS: toward them. 6 utatur: this and the remaining subjunctives of this chapter are in the present. and perfect tenses, instead of the imperfect and pluperfect, as though dependent upon a principal tense, thus giving greater vividness to the narration (repraesentatio). 6 quod si fecerit: il he do this; feeent represents a Iuture perfect of direct discourse. 1 ampliticaturum (esse) : the subject is cum understood, referring to Caesar. 8 quorum; its antecedent is Belt/as. 9 si qua: whatever. 10 consuerint: equivalent to a present in the sense of be ioout; its subject is ei understood, referring to the Haedui. U honoris Divitiaci causa: all a mark of honor to Diviliacull. Caesar's policy was to enhance the prestige of the Haedui, by attributing this act of pardon to the influence of Dlvltiacua, 12 civitas: namely, of the Bellovaci. 18 magna auctoritate; Ablative o[ QualitYi 352. 14 multitudine: Ablative of Specification. 16 oppido: Bratuspantium. 16 eorum: namely, of the Ambiani; the word is emphatic by position. 11 sic: as followlI. IS ad e08: limiting aditum. 19 mercatoribus: Dative of Possession, i.e. merduuus had no aCCll3I1. W pati: as subject understand cos, referring to the Nervii. 21 vini: Genitive of the Whole with nihil,-lIo willc.

226

CAESAR'S

GALLIC

WAR.

reliquarumque rerum ad luxuriam 1 pertinentium inferri,' quo~his rebus relanguescere animos et remitti virtl1tem eXisti~rent ; 3 esse homines feros magnaeque virtl1tis; inorepitare atque incusare reliquos Bel gas, qut se populo l) Romano dedidissent patriamque 4 virtl1tem projecissent ; eonftrmare, sese neque legates missuros neque ullam condicionem paois accepturos. The Nervii and their allies plan to attack Caesar by surprise.

16. Cum per eorum ~ fines triduum iter 6 fecisset, inveniebat ex capttvts, Sabim 1 flumen a castrls suls non am10 plius milia 8 passuum x abesse; trans id flumen oumes Nervios consedisse adventumque ibi Romanorum exspectare una cum Atrebatibus et Viromanduis, fmitimfs suls (nam his utrlsque persuaserant, uti eandem belli fortunam expertrentur 9) ; exspectart etiam ab his Aduatucorum copias 15 atque esse in itinere; mulieres," qutque 11 per aetatem ad pugnam inutiles viderentur, in eum locum 12 conjecisse, quo IS propter paludea exercitui J4 aditus non esset. 17. His rebus cognitis, exploratores centurionesque praemittit, qul 15 locum idoneum castns deligant, Cum ex 16 W deditI'aiis Belgrs reliqutsque Gallrs complures Caesarem 1 ad luxuriam pertillentium: i.e. which tend to encourage self-indulgence. inferri: to be imported. 8 existimarent: subordinate clause in indirect discourse. 4 patriam: the adjective. 6 eorum: referring to the Nervil. 6 iter: the line of Caesar's march was first north-west, and then north-east. 18abim 1iumen: the modern Sambre, a tributary of the Meuse. B milia: Accusative of Extent of Space (301) j amplius is introduced without affecting the constructionof the sentence; 339,1. o uti ..â&#x20AC;˘ Ilxperirentur: 424. IOmulieres: the object of conjecisse, 11 quique = et qui. The antecedent of qui Is e08 understood, object of conjeci8se. 12 eum locum: a place. 18 quo esset: not merely a subordinate clause in indirect discourse, but a Clause of Characteristic; hence the subjunctive would have been used even in the direct form; quo is the adverb, equivalent to ad or in quem. 14 exercitui: Dative of P0889ssion; 312. 16 qui deligant: Relative Clause of Purpose. Note that after the Historical Present either principal or historical sequence may follow. 18 ex dediticiis: of th08e who had surrendered; used instead of the ¡Genltl ve of the Whole, with complure8.

2

WAR

AGAINST

THE BELGIAN

CONFEDERACY

â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;˘

227

seciltI una. 1 iter facerent, qutdam ex hts, ut postea. ex captIvIs eognitum est, eorum 2 dierum eonsuetudine itineris ' nostrI exercitils perspecta, nocte ad N ervios pervenerunt atque his demonstrarunt, inter singulas legiones impedtmentorum magnum 3 numerum intercedere,' neque 4 esse II quicquam uegott, cum prIma legio in castra 6 venisset 1 reliquaeque legiones magnum spatium abessent, hanc sub sarcints 8 adorlrt ; qua 9 pulsa impedtmenttsque dtreptts, futurum," ut reliquae 11 contra 12 consistere non auderent . . Adjuvilbat 13 etiam eorum consilium quI rem deferebant,10 quod N ervil anttq uitus, cum 14 equitatn nihil 14 possent (neque enim 16 ad hoc tempus eI reI11 student, sed, quicquid possunt, pedestribus valent copits), quo 18 facilius fInitimorum equitatum, sl praedandI causa. ad eos venissent,t9 impedlrent, tenerIs arboribus 110 incIsIs atque InflexIs crebrYsque 111 1 una: the adverb. 2 eorum dierum consuetudine, etc.: h'J.ving noticed the customary march of our army during those days; con8uetudine Is limited by dierum and itineris, while itinerls is further limited by e:l:ercitU8. 8 magnum numerum: a l(trge amount. 4 intercedere; i.e. was placed between. 6 neque esse quicquam negoti: and there wa, no diJIicully; quicquam Is predicate accusative with esse, the subject of e8se being adoriri In line 8, below; negoti is Genitive of the Whole. 6 in oaatra: the Romans regularly constructed a fortified camp when they came to

the end of the day's march, 7 venia set, abessent: corresponding respectively to the future perfect and future of direct statement. 8 sub sarcinis: i.e. carrying the heavy packs of rations, tools, and cooking utensils regularly borne by every soldier. 9 qua pulsa, ete.: the Ablatives Absolute here denote means, - by routinrl this, etc. 10 futurum ut non auderent: equivalent to non ausuras esse , literally, it would be (happen) that they would not dare .. ut non auderent is a Substantive Clause of Result, the subject of futurum (esse). 1l reliquae: namely, legiones. 12 contra: the adverb. 18 adjuvabat etiam eorum consilium, etc.: a thin.q that also supported the advice of these was the fact that, etc.; literally, it 8upported their advice that the Nervii, etc.; (tdjuvabat Is emphatic, and hence heads the sentence. 14 cum: here causal. 15 nihil: for the accusative, see note on p. 217, line 12. 16 neque enim: nor indeed; enim did not originally mean for, but nou), indeed. This meaning has for the most part disappeared In classical Latin, but survives in a few phrases like neque enim, 8ed enim, etc. H ei r81: i.e. cavalry forces;'for the dative, see 306, 2. 18quo impedirent: In purpose clanses quo is regularly used, if there Is a comparative in the sentence. 19veDi8sent: Subjunctive by Attraction. lIlarboribus iDoiBia,

228

CAESAR'S

GALLJU

WAR.

in 1 latitudinem ramts enatrs et rubis sentibusque inter. jectts," effecerant," ut 4 mstar 3 murr hae saepes 8 munr mentum praeberent, quo 7 non modo S non intrart, sed ne perspict quidem posset, Hrs rebus cum iter agminis nostrt s impedtretur, non omittendum 9 sibi 10 consilium 11 Nervit exrstimaverunt, Site 01 Oaesar's camp on the Sabls.

18. Loci natura erat haec," quem 13 locum nostrt castrrs 14 delegerant, Collis ab summo aequaliter 13 deeltvis ad flumen 16 Sabim, quod 17 supra nominavimus, vergebat, Ab 10 eo flumine pari: 18 accltvitate oollis nascebatur 19 adversus 20 huic 21 et contrarius, passas circiter ducentos Infimus 22 apertus,23 ab24 superiore parte silvestris, ut non facile introrsus perspici posset. Intra eas silvas hastes in occulto sese canetc.: translate the Ablatives Absolute by clauses introduced by after, - after

cutting into, etc. 1 in latitudinem: sidewise. The young trees had merely been cut enough to make it possible to bend them over to a horizontal position without destroying their vitality. 2 interjectis: i.e. planted In between. 8 effecerant: its subject Is Neruii, p. 227,1. 11. The clause quod effecertmt is the subject of the impersonal adjunabat; 4 ut praeberent: Substantive Clause of Result, the object or effecerant, 6 instar muri: like a wall; instar Is in apposition with munimentum. G hae saepel: the farmers of this locality fence in their fields to-day with hedges of this same kind. r quo: into which; the ad verb. 8 non modo ••• posset: which not only could not be penetrated, but not even seen through; literally, into which it not only could not be entered, etc.; intrari and perspiei are used impersonally. 9 omittendum: understand esse. 10 libi: by them; Dative of Agency; 311. 11 consilium: i.e. the project of attacking the first legion. 12 haec: explained by what follows. 18 quem locum ••• delegerant: the spot chosen was on the heights near the modern hamlet of Neuf Mesnil, The antecedent Is repeated In the relative clause, as often In Caesar. 14 caltris: Dative of Purpose. 15 aequaliter: evenly, regularly. 16 ad flumen: with vergebat. 17 quod: the gender is determined by jlumen, Dot by Sabim, IS pari acclivitate: Ablative of Quality; i.e. the second hill had the same slope as the first. 19 nascebatur ; rose. 20 adversus et contrariul: oppoBite and acr088 (the stream). 21 huic: for the dative, see 314. 22 inflmus: at the base. 28 apertus: as opposed to the wooded portion above. 24 ab superiore parte; at the top.

WAR

AGAINST

THE BELGIAN

CONFEDERACY.

229

tinebant ; in aperto loco secundum 1 flnmen paucae stationes 2 equitum videbantur, Elumiuis erat altitude pedum a circiter trium, The Belgae attack the camp.

19. Caesar equitatu praemisso, subsequebatur omnibus ' copits ; sed ratio ordoque agminis aliter se habebat," ac 5 Belgae ad Nervios <letulerant. Nam quod hostibus appropinquabat, oonsuetudine 6 sua Caesar sex legiones expedttas r ducebat ; post eas totius exercitus impedimenta collocarat ; II inde duae Iegiones, quae 9 proxima ccnscrtptae eraut, tatum agmen claudebant praesidioque 10 impedrmen-ro tis erant, Equites nostrt cum funditoribus sagittaritsque flumen transgressi cum hostium equitatn proelium commtserunt. Cum se illt identidem in silvas ad suos reciperent ac rnrsus ex silva in nostros impetum facerent neque 11 nostri longius, quam 12 quem ad flnelll porrecta 13 loca aperta per-rs tinebant, eedentes U rnsequt auderent, interim legiones sex, quae primae venerant, opere 111 dtmenso castra milnIre cospsrunt, Ubi prima impedtmenta nostri exercitiis ab eIs, qut in 1 secundum: the preposition, along. 2 stationes: pickets:.. 8 pedum trium: Genitive of Quality; 323. 4 omnibus copus: Ablative of Accompaniment; here used without the preposition cum. 6 aliter Ie habebat ae, etc.: was dijJ'erent from what the Belgians had reported; literally, had itself otherwise than; ac with comparatives and similar words often means than. The compound subject ratio ordoque is construed with a singular verb, since ratio ordoque constitutes one idea. 8 conluetudine sua: according to his cu.~torn. 1 expedltas: i.e. they had been relieved of their heavy packs (sarcinae), and were ready for battle i ezpeditas Is In predicate relation to leqiones, 8 collocarat = collocaverat. 9 quae proxime conlcript&e erant: the thirteenth and fourteenth. 10 praesidlo: Dative of Purpose; 313. 11 neque : and • •• not, Introduciug auderent. t2 quam quem ad bem: than as far as; for quam ad eumfinem ad quem. 13 porrecta pertinebant: literally, eztended stretched out j but porrecta is superfluous to our sense, and may be omitted In translation. H cedentel: limiting eos understood, the object of insequi. 15 opere dlmenao: having laid out the works. Note that dimenso, though the perfect participle of a deponent verb, Is here used passively; 238, b.

230

CAESAR'S

GALLIC

WAR.

silvis abditl latebant, visa I sunt, quod 2 tempns inter eos 3 committendi 4 proeli convenerat, ita ut intra silvas aciem ordinesque constitueraut atque ipst sese confirm averant/ subito omnibus copits provolaverunt impetumque in 5 nostros 6 equites fecerunt, His facile pulstsae proturbatts, incredibili celeritate ad flnmen decucurrerunt, ut paene llno tempore et 7 ad silvas et in flnmine et jam in manibus 8 nostrts hostes viderentur," Eadem autem eeleritate ad verso 10 colle ad nostra castra atque eos, qut in opere 10 occupatt 11 erant, contenderunt. The .Roman! aI'e unprepared, but their discipline stands them in good stead.

20. Caesart " omnia iino tempore erant agenda: vexillum 13 proponendum.o signum is tuba dandum, ab opere 16 revocandI mtlites, quI17 paulo " longius aggeris 19 petendI 1 viBa Bunt: were seen. 2 quod tempus .•• convenerat: the moment which had been agreed upon. Grammatically tempus is the subject of convenerat, but logically it is iu appo ition with the general idea involved in ubi ..• visa sunt. 8 inter eos: this phrase modifies convenerat. 4 committendi proeli: jor joining battle. Note that proeli limits tempus, and committendi is the gerundive agreeing with proeli, 6 sese confirmaverant: had determined (to do). 6 ncstros equites: those who had crossed the river

with the slingers and archers. t et ... et .•• et: correlative use; note the emphasis of the repetition. 8 in manibus nostris: close beSide us. The distance between the two camps was about three-quarters of a mile. Probably not more than ten minutes elapsed, after the Gauls emerged from cover, before they reached the Romans. 9 viderentur: were seen, like visa sunt above. 10 adverso colle: tiP the hill .. literally, the hill being against them .. Ablative Absolute. 11 occupati erant: were busied .. occupati is here an adjective. 12 Caesari ..• agenda: by Caesar, all things had to be done at onetime .. Oaeeari is Dative of Agency; the emphasis on the word is indicated by its position. 18 vexillum: the crimson banner set up as a signal for battle. 14 proponendum, dandum: with these and the following gerundives erat or erant must be supplied. 16 Bignum tuba dandum: i.e. the signal for forming in battle array. 16 ab opere: i.e. the camp, which they had begun to fortify. 17qUi: as antecedent supply ei, the subject of arcessendi (erant). 18 paulo 10ngiuB: i:e, somewhat further than usual. 1» aggeriB: here not in the sense of embankment, but of the materials used in constructing the rampart of the camp, such as timber, stone, etc.

WAR

AGAINST

THE BELGIAN

OONFEDERAO~.

281

causa prooesserant, arcessendr, aoies Instruenda, mrlitss cohortandr, signum 1 dandum. Qull.rum rerum magnam partem temporis brevitas et incursus hostium impediebat.t HIs difficultatibus duae 8 res eraut subsidio, scientia atque [lSUS mtlitum, quod 4 superioribus proelits exeroitatt," 6 quid 8 fierI oporteret, non minus commode ipSI1 sibi praescrtbere, quam ab alits docert poterant, et quod ab opere singulIsque legionibus singulos legll.tos 8 Caesar discedere nisi 9 munttts castrts vetuerat. HI propter propinquitatem et eeleritatem hostium nihil l" jam Caesaris imperium eX-10 speetabant, sed per se, quae videbantur," administrabant,

Oaesar hurries about, encouraging

his troops.

21. Caesar, uecessarits 12 rebus imperatts, ad cohortandos mtlites, quam 13 in partem fors obtulit, decucurrif et ad legionem decimam devenit, Mtlites noaH longiore oratione eohortatus, quam utl suae pristinae virtutis memoriam r60 16 tinerent neu 15 perturbarentur animo 16 hostiumque impetum 1 lignum: i.e. for the engagement. 2 impediebat: for the singular verb with compound subject, see the note on habebat, p,229, line 5. • duae rei: lIamely, (1) scientia atque usus militum, (2) quod •.• vetuerat. 4 quod ••• poter&ll.t: explanatory of seientia atque usus. 6 exercitati: agreeing with the subject of poterant, 6 quid oporteret: indirect question, the object of praellcribere. 1ipsi sibi: the reflexive pronouns are often thus emphasized by the ad. dition of ipse, which in such cases, instead of standing in apposition with the reflexive, more commonly agrees with the subject. In this use, iplle Is often untranslatable in English; thus here it serves merely as a contrast with ab alUs. 8legatos: the regular commanders of the legions. 9lliai mUDitiB casml: until aj'ter the camp should be fortified .. literally, unless the camp !lcwing been fort~fied.. Ablative Absolute, 10 nihil jam: no longer; but nihil is more emphatic than non. II videb&ll.tur: seemed best. 12 necellariil rebus: i.e. only the absolntely Indispensable things. 18 quam in panem fori obtulit: in the direction which chanc- suggested .. for in eam partem ill quam, etc. 14 non longiore oratione quam uti, etc.. in no more words tha n Ilecessary to urge them to retain, etc.; the clause uti retinerent depends upon the notion of urging or exhorting suggested by oratione. 15 neu: net'e (neu), and not neque, Is regularly used to Introduce an added negative Substantive Clause Developed from the Volltlve. 16 animo: Ablative of Specification.

2132

CAESAR'S

GALLIC

WAR. '

fortiter sustinerent,' quod 2 non longins hostes aberant, quam 8 quo telum adigt posset, proelt conimittendt signum dedit. Atque in 4 alteram. partem item cohortandi causa profectus pugnantibns 6 occurrit. 'I'ernporis tanta fuit ex5 igurtaa hostiumque tam paratus ad dimicandum animus, ut non modo ad insignia 6 accommodanda, sed etiam ad galeas 7 induendas scutisque 8 tegimenta detrahenda tempus defuerit," Qnam 10 quisque ab opere in partem casu devenit quaeque n prima signa conspexit, ad haec 12 con10 stitit, ne in quaerendts SUiS]8pugnandi tempus dimitteret. Fighting

under difficulties.

22. Instru.cto exercitu, magis ut 14 loci natura dejeetusque collis et necessitas temporis, quam ut rei mflitaris ratio atque ordo postulabat, cum diversae 15 legiones aliae 16 alia in parte hostibus resisterent, saepibusque 17 densissimts, 15 ut]8 ante demonstravimua, intsrjectts P prospectus impedtretur, neque certa " subsidia colloeart neque, quid in quaque 1 sustinerent: the introductory conjunctiou is uti, p. 231,1.15. 2 quod •.• aberant: to be joined in thought with signum dedit. 8 quam quo ... posset: than the cast of a spear; literally, than (a point) to which a spear could be hurled; quo posse I is a Clause of Characteristic; 405. 4 in alteram partem: namely, to the right wing. 6 pugnantibus: i.e. already jightin.q; puonantibu« agrees with eis understood, the indirect object of occurrit ; 306,3. 6 ad insignia accommodanda: for adjustin.q the decorations (to the helmets); by insiqniu we are probably (0 understand the crests of thc helmets. 7 ad galeas induendas: ou the march the helmets were not worn on the head, but were suspended about the necks of the soldiers. See the illustration, p. 72. 8 SCUtis tegimenta detrahenda: except in battle, the shields were covered by cases to protect them from injury and the effects of the weather j scutis is Ablative of Separation. 9 defuerit: the perfect subjunctive is here used as a historical tense. 10 quam quisque ab opere, etc.: to whatsoever place each one happened to come from the fortification. 11 quaeque = et quae. The antecedent of quae is haec. 12 ad haec: i.e. ad haec signa, by these. Strict balance or the sentence would have required, in hac parte et ad haec. 18 suis: understand signis. 14 ut: CIS. 16 diversae: bein.q separated. 16 aliae alia in parte: some in one place, others in another; 380. 11 saepibus: Ablative of Means. 18 ut ante demonstravimus: namely, p. 228, line 2 If. 19 interjectis: which were scattered here and there. 20 certl;

WAR

AGAINST

THE BELGIAN

CONFEDERAcr.

233

parte opus esset, providert,' neqne nb \1no omnia irnperia administrart poterant, Haque in tanta rerum intquitate fortunae 2 quoque eventl1s varit sequebantur, Two legions on the left ?'out the .L1ll"ebates. Two in the centre rout the Viromandui. The remaining two are attacked by the Neroii.

~ Legionis nonae et decimae mrlites, ut 3 in sinistra parte aeie 4 coustiterant, ptlts emissra, cursu I> ac laasitudine 5 exanimatos vulneribusque confeetos Atreba.tes (nam his 6 ea 7 pars obvenerat) celeriter ex loco 8 superiors in flumen eompulerunt et transire conantes 9 tnsecnta gladits magnam partem eorum impeditam 10 interfeceruut. Ipst 11 transire flnmen non dubitaverunt et in locum intquum progresst 10 riirsus resi"stentes hostes, redintegrato 12 proelio, in fugam conjecerunt, Item alia 13 in parte dtversae 14' d uae legiones, undeciuia et octava, profltgatts Viromanduis, quibuscum erant eongresst, ex loco superiore, in ipsts is fluminis rtpts proeliabantur, At taUs 16 fere castris a fronte 17 et a. alnis-rs tra parte nl1datis/8 cum 19 in dextro cornu legio duodecima BubBidia: i.e. reserves in fixed places; the principal clause of the sentence beglns here; subsidui is the ubject of poterant, 1 provideri: dependent upon poterat (impersonal} understood, to be supplied from poterant, 2 fortunae quoque eventus varii: various vicissitudes of fortune al,o. 8 ut ... tonBtiterant: in accordance with their position, etc.; IlterallY,imt as thell were posted (had taken their stand). 4 acie: a rare form of the genitive. 6 cursu ac laBBitudine: of two coordinated ideas the second is often merely explanatory of the first, as bere. 6 hiB: 306, 3. 7 ea parB: i.e. that division of the enemy, namely, tbe Atrebates. S ex loco Buperiore: i.e. the Romans occupied the higlJer ~round. 9 conanteB: agreeing with the omitted object of in.,ecuti. 10 impeditam: i.e. lJy tbe confusion of their retreat and the passage of the stream. 11 ipBi: namely, the Romans. 12redintegrato proelio: the Ablative Absolute is explanatory of resi,telltes,renewing the fight and again resisting. 18 alia in parte: namely, in tbe centre, directly in front of the camp. 14 diverBae: i.e. some distance apart, not side by side, as ordinarily. 16in ipBiB ripiB: on the very bank. 16 totis fere caBtrlB: fere very commonly stauds after the word it modifies, thu~ separating the adjective from its noun. 17 a fronte, a BiniBtra parte: in front, on the left side. 18 nudatiB: the very success of the four legioll~ brougbt tbe two remaining one8 into the gravest danger. 19 cum ooutt-

234

CAESAR'S

GALLIC

WAR.

et non magno 1 ab ell intervallo septima constitisset, omnes NerviI confertissimo agmine, duee 2 Boduognato, quI summam 3 imperI tenebat, ad eum locum eontenderunt ; quorum pars ab aperto 4 latere legiones circum ventre, pars 5 summum 5 castrorum locum petere coepit. The situation of the Romans becomes desperate.

24. Eodem tempore equites nostrI levisque S armatnrae pedites, quI cum T eis 8 una fuerant, quos 9 prlmo10 hostium impetn pulses dtxeram, cum 11 se in castra reciperent, adversrs 12 hostibus occurrebant ac rnrsus aliam in partem fugam 10 petebant, et calones, qui a decumana 13 porta ac summo 14 jugo collis nostros 15 victores flnmen 16 transisst;l conspexetis set : a causal clause explanatory of the statement totis fere castris nudatis. But the expression is somewhat inexact. The real reason why the camp was left exposed was that the two legions protecting its front (the 8th and 11th) along with two others protecting its left (the 9th and 10th) had ad vanced in pursuit of the routed Atrebates and the Viromandui, leaving only the right of the camp protected (by the 7th and 12th legions). 1 mapa intervallo: Ablative of Degree of Difference, depending upon the comparative notion implied in ab ea. 2 duce Boduognato: 4-blative Absolute. 8 summam imperi: i.e. the chief command. 4 ab aperto latere: on the ezposed flank, namely, the right. The expression originally applied to the individual soldier, who carried his shield in the left hand, thus leaving his right side exposed. 6 summum castrorum locum: the hei[Jht where the camp was, literally, the highest place of the camp .. castrorum is what is called an Appositional Genitive. slevis armaturae pemtes: such as bowmen, slingers, etc... Genitive of Quality; 323. T cum una: along with. 8 eis: the equites. 9 quos: its antecedent is equites and pedites, 10 primo impetu puIs os (esse): namely, at the river, when the Gauls emerged from the woods and rushed forth to the attack. 11 cum ... reciperent: in order to return to camp, they had to recross the stream and ascend the hill. 12 q.dversis: face to face .. in predicate agreement with hostibus .. for the dative, see 306,3. 18 a decumana porta: the porta decumann, or decuman gate, was located at the rear of the Roman camp. 14 ac summo jugo: tbese words do not designate a different place from decumana porta, but are explanatory of it. The camp was on the upper slope of the hill, so that the decuman gate, being at the rear of the camp, was at the very crest of the elevation. 16 nostros victores: our victorious troops. 16 t1umen transiss8: in pursuit of the routed Atrebates, as described in chapter 23.

WAR AGAINST

THE BELGIAN

CONFEDERACY.

235

rant, praedandt ' causa egressr, cum respexissent et hostes in nostrts castris versart vidissent, praecipites 2 fugae s~sa mandabant, Simul eorum," qul cum impedrmentrs veniebant, clamor fremitusque oriebatur,' alitque a aliam in partem perterritI ferebantur, li Quibus omnibus rebus permotr equitss Treveri,' quorum 1 inter Galles virtiitis S optnio est aingularis, qut auxilt causa a. ctvitate 9 ad Caesarem misst vsnerant, cum 10 multitudine hostium castra nostra complert.P legionea 12 premt et paene circumventas teneri, calones, equites, funditores, Numidas 10 dtversos 18 diseipatosque in omnes partes fugere vtdissent, desperatrs It nostrIs rebus, domum contenderunt; Romanos pulsos 18 superatosque, castrls 18 impedtmentrsque eorum hostes potttos cIvita.tI rennntiaverunt, Caesar's heroic example saves the day.

25. Caesar ab 11 decimae legionis cohortations ad dex-lli trum cornu profectus, ubi 18SUDS urgert, signrsque in Unum locum collatrs, duodecimae legionis confertos mtlites sibi 19 ipsos ad pugnam esse impedrmento vrdit, quartae cohortis 20 1 praedandi caula: the camp followers, seeing part of the enemy in flight. naturally assumed that the victory was complete,and hence set forth in quest of plunder. 2 praecipitel: precipitately; agreeing with calones. I eorum qui, etc.: these were the drivers of the baggage-train guarded by the 13th and 14th legions, which were bringing up the rear. 4 oriebatur: singular verb witb compound subject expressing a single Idea. 6 alii allam in partem: 80me in one direction, other. in another; 380. a Treveri: here an adjective. 1quorum: the relative refers not alone to the cavalry of the Treveri, bnt to the whole tribe. 8 virtutill opinio: reputation for valor. D a civitate: the state Is conceived of as l\ persou, hence the preposition. 10 oum: the conjunction, introducing vidi88ent. 11compleri, prem!, etc .; dependent on vidiallent. 12Iegiollel: namely, the 7th and the 12th, 18 diverlol: the participle (from diverto), not the adjective. If deaperatis IlOltril rebuI: de8puirin,q oj our fortune8. 16pullOI Iuperatolque: understand e88e. 18 caatril impedlm8lltillque: governed by potitos (688e);344,1. 17ab: from, in the local, not the temporal sense. 18ubi: Introducing vidil. 19libi iplol ad pugnam, etc.: hindel'6d each other in.flyhtin,q. 20 quartILe cohortill: the fourth cohort occupied the extreme left of the front line, a particularly exposed position j hence the casualties detailed by Caesar.

236

CAESAR' 8 GALLIC

WAR.

omnibus centurionibus occrsts, signitero interfecto, signo I amisso, reliquarum cohortium omnibus fere centurionibus aut vulneratts aut occrsrs (in his prtmiprlo 2 P.l Sextio Baculo, fortissimo viro, multts 3 gravibusque vulneribus II confeeto, ut jam se sustinere non posset); ubi vrdit reliquos esse tardiores ! et uounullos ab novissimts," deserto proelio, . excedere ae tela vitarei hostes neq ue 6 a froute ex mferiore loco subeuntes intermittere et ab utroque latere tnstare et rem 7 esse in angusto, neque ullum esse subsidium quod 10 submittI posset; scuto 8 ab novissimts unI militI detracto, quod ipse eo U sine seuto venerat, in prrmam aciem processit, centurionibusque nominatim appellatis, reliquos 10 cohortatus mtlites signa U inferre et manipulos 12 laxare jussit, quo facilius gladits utI possent. Cujus adventu spe illata mtli15 tibus ac redintegrato animo, cum pro 13 se qnisque in conspectu imperatoris etiam 14 in extremts suis rebus operam navare cuperet, paulum hostium impetus tardatus est. Reinforcements

arrive.

26. Caesar, cum septimam legionem, quae jiixta 13 constiterat, item urger! ab hoste vtdisset, tribunos mtlitum 1 signa amisso: tbe loss of the standard was naturally felt as a disgrace. primipilo confecto: the primipUus was properly the commander of the first maniple of the first cohort of a legion, but military custom gave him control, not only over his own maniple and cobort, but to a certaiu extent over the entire legion. 8 multis gravibusque = many severe. f tardior8s: rather listless. 6 ab novissimis: at the rear. 6 neque subeuntes intermittere: and did not stop advancing; neque is correlative with et in the next line. In the foregoing description notice how admirably the rapidly sketched details accord with the scene of confusion which Caesar is aiming to depict. 7 rem esse in augusto: that mat/ers hod reached a critical pase ; literally, were in anal'. row place .. angusto is the adjective used substantively. 8 scuto millti detr&cto: snatching a ~hield from a soldier; militi is Dative of Separation. 9 eo: the adverb. 10 reliquos milltes: object of cohortatus. 11 signa in. ferre: i.e. to advance. 12 manipulos laxare: ta open up the companies. 18 pro S8 quisque: each to the best af his ability. 14 etiam in extremis suis rebus: even in their desperate situation. 16 juxta: i.e. neal' the 12th legion, of which Cae ar has just been speaking. I

WAR AGAINST

TilE BELGIAN

CONFEDERAcr.

237

monuit, ut paulatirn sese legiones! conjungerent et conversa" signa in hostes inferrent. Quo facto cum alits alit subsidium ferrent neque timerent, ne a.versi 8 ab boste circumvenirentur, audacius resistere ao fortius pugnare eoeperunt, li Interim rmlites legionum 4 duarum quae in novissimo agmine praesidio impedtmentrs fuerant, proelio mintiato cursu" incitato, in summo colle ab hostibus conspiciebantur, et Titus Labienus castris 6 hostium potttus et ex loco 7 superiore, quae res in nostris castris gererentur, eonspicatus, 10 decimam legionem subsidio nostrts mtsit, QUi 8 cum ex equitum et calonum fuga, quo in loco res esset," quantoque in periculo et castra et legiones et imperator versaretur,lI cognovissent, nihil 10 ad celeritatem sibi reliqut fecerunt. The Romans

defeat and almost annihilate spares the survivors.

the Ne1'fJii.

Caesar

27. Borum adventu tanta rerum commntatio est facta, ut nostrI, etiam qut vulneribus confecti procubuissent," scntrs 12 innixi proelium redintegrarent, calones 13 perterri-

15

llegiones: the 7th and the 12th. 2 conversa signa ••• Werrent: face about and advance upon the enemy; Iiterally, bear their changed standards; Substantive Clause Developed from the Volitive; dependent upon monuit ('let them bear, etc.'). The nature of the evolution here mentioned is thoroughly obscure. As shown by the following aversi, the Roman legions evidently secured their own rear from attack. Very likely they stood back to back. a averai: in the rear; literally, turned away; agreeing with the subject of circumvenirelltur. 41egionum duarum: the 13th and 14th. II cunu incitato: atfullapeec/. 6 castris hOBtium: this was across the river, whither Labienus had advanced in pursuit of the Atrebates. r ex loco superioro: the high ground of the opposite bank gave Lablenus a full view of the struggle going on around the camp of the Romans. 8 qui cum: qui refers to the soldiers of the 10th legion; cum Introduces cognovi8sent. I esset, versaretur: Indirect questions; 431. Note that versaretur agrees in nnmber with Its nearest subject. 10 nihil .•• fecernnt: made all possible speed; literally, left nothing (of) undone in point of speed; reliqui is a predicate genitive. 11prooubuiBsent: SUbjunctive by attraction to tbe following redintegrarent. I~ scutis: ablative with inni:r:i, the regular construction with innitor. 18 calones: the SUbject of occurrerenl.

238

CAESAR'S

GALLIC

WAR.

tos hostes conspicatt etiam inermes 1 armatrs occurrerent, equitss vero, ut turpitudinem fugae virtute delerent, ornni, bus in Iocis pugnae se 2 Iegionarits mtlitibus 8 praeferrent. At hostes etiam in extrema spe salutis tan tam virtutem II praestiterunt, ut, cum prrmt 4 eorum cecidissent, proximt jacentibus 6 tnsieterent atque ex eorum corporibus pugnarent; his 8 dejectrs et coaeervatts cadaveribus, qut" superessent, ut 8 ex tumulo tela in nostros conicerent e et ptla 10 intercepta remitterent; ut 11 non nequtquam tantae virtutis 10 homines [udiearr deberet auscs esse transire latiesimum fillmen, ascend ere altissimas rtpas, sublre intquiasimum locum, quae 12 faciJia 13 ex difficillimIs a'nimI magnitndo redegerat, 28. Hoc proelio facto et prope ad interne cion em gente ac nomine .Nerviorum redaeto, majores natll, quos llna. rs cum puerts lllulieribnsque in aestuaria ac paludes coujectos drxeramus.> hac pugna nllntiata, cum P victoribus nihil impedttum," victIs nihil tlltum arbitrarentur, omnium, qut 1 inermes: limiting colones, 2 se ••• praeferrent: strove to show (literally, showed) themselves superior to the regular soldiers. The cavalry was furnished mainly by the allies; less was ordinarily expected of it than of the legionaries. 8 militibus: Dative of Indirect Object with a compound of prae ; 306, 3. 4 primi: the foremost. 6 jacentibus insisterent; took their stand upon the fallen. 6 his, etc ... in English we need a conjunction (and) to join this clause to the preceding; Asyndeton. 1 qui superessent: the survivors. The antecedent of qui is the SUbject of conicerent ; superessent is attracted into the subjunctive. 8 ut ex tumulo: from a mound, as it were; namely, a mound of dead bodies. 9 conicerent: in the same construction as insiste"ent and pugnarent; i.e. exhibited such valor that the survivors, etc. 10 pila intercepta remitterent: when the pi/um had once been hurled, its slender point usually bent, so that It could not be effectively returned by the enemy. The desperation of the Nervi! is here emphasized by their frantic attempts to utilize these pila. 11 ut non nequiquam, etc ... so that it ought not to be thought that men of 80 nrea: bravery dared Without reason (i.e. without prospect of success) to cr088. The emphasis of the clause rests upon non nequiquum ; ausos esse is the subject of deberet, 12 quae: things tohich; the antecedent of quae is found in the preceding infinitives. 13 facilia ••. redegerat: luul ren,dered easy from being most difficult; facilia is predicate accllsative. 14dixeramus: i.e. prior to the description of the battle. 16 cum: since. 18 impeditum, tutum: predl. cate adjectives with nihil.

CONFLICT

WITH

THE ADUATUCI.

289

supererant, consens\11egil.tos ad Caesarem mlserunt sllque el dediderunt, et in com memoranda. ctvitatis oalamitate ex sexcentIs 1 ad tres senatores, ex hominum mtlibus LX vix ad qutngentos qut arma ferre possent, st'!se redactos esse dtxllr.unt. Quos Caesar, ut in miseros ac supplicss usus 25 misericordia videretur," dtligentissime conservavit sutsque fluibus atq ne oppidts uti j ussit et fInitimIs imperavit, ut 4 ab injuria et maleficio se suosque prohiberent,

CHA.PTERS

29-33.

-CONFLICT

The Aduatuci

WITH THE AnUA.TUCI.

take refuge in a stl¡onghold.

29. Aduatuer, dll quibus supra scrtpsimus, cum 6 omnibus copirs auxilio 8 N ervits venIrent, hac pugna nllntia.ta.,10 ex itinere domum reverterunt , cnnctts oppidts castellIsque desertts, sua omnia in unum oppidum egregie natura mllnltum contulerunt, Quod 1 cum ex omnibus in circuitii partibus altissimas rl1pes dejectusqus haberet, Ilna. ex parte leniter accltvis aditus in latitudinem non am plius ducentO-15 rum 3 pedum relinquebatur j quem locum duplicI altissirno miiro munierant ; tum 9 magnt ponderis sax a et praeacntas trabes in 10 miiro collooabant." IpSI erant ex Cimbrts " TeutonIsque prognatr, qut, cum iter 13 in provinciam nostram atque Italiam facerent, ers 20 impedImentIs, quae secum agere 14 ac portare non poterant, 1 ex sexcentis ad tres, etc.: the Nervii shrewdly exaggerate their losses, in order to move Caesar's pity. 2 usus: i.e. usus esse. 8 videretur: here not seem, but be seen. 4 ut prohiberent: Substantive Clause Developed from the Volitive; object ot imperavit. 6 cum: the conjunction. G auxilio: Dative of Purpose; 313. 1 quod cum: adversative,-while this ..â&#x20AC;˘ (yet). s dncentorum pedum: Genitive of Quality limiting aditus; ampliu8, as usual, does not affect the construction of the sentence. 9 tum: at that time. 10 in muro: on the wall. 11 collocabant: i.e. they were en.gaged in placi71.l1them. 12 ex Cimbris Tentonis: see note on p. 212, line 11. IS iter facerenl;: were making a raid. 14 agere, portare: a.gere, literally drive, suggests that the impedimenta consisted partly of cattle and horses.

240

CAESAR'S

GALLIC

WAR.

citra flnmen Bhenum depositrs, custodiam 1 ex suts 2 ae praesidium sex milia hominum una 8 reltquerunt, HY' post eorum 6 obitum multos annes a flnitimis exagitatt, cum alias 6 bellum inferrent, alias illatum defenderent, 5 consensn eorum 1 omnium pace facta, hunc sibi domicilio locnm 8 delegerunt. Theil' contempt for the Roman siege toorks.

30. Ac prImo adventu9 exercitus nostri erebras ex oppido excursiones faeiebant parvultsque proelits cum nostrts contendebant; postea valla pedum 10 XII, in circuitu xv 10 milium 11 crebrtsq ue castellts eireumruuuitl oppido 12 sese continebant, Ubi, vrnets 13 actis, aggere exstructo, turrim pro cui constitut vtderunt, primum irridere 14 ex mnro atque increpitare vocibus, quod U tanta machinatio a tanta16 spa,. tia tnstitueretur : Quibusnam 11 manibus aut quibus viribus 15 praesertim homines tantulae staturae (nam plerumque omnibus 18 Gallfs prae magnitudine cor porum suorum brevitas nostra contemptui 19 est) tanti oneris turrim in muro sese collocate posse eonfrderent ? 20 1 custodiam ac praesidium: as a guard (ot the property) and a garrison (of the place); predicate accusatives. 2 ex suis: from their number; Ilterally, from their own (people). The phrase limits milia. a una: i.e. aloug with the impedimenta. 4 hi: i.e. those left as a guard. 6 eorum: the Cimbri and Teutoni, who were defeated by Marius in 102 and 101 n.c, 6 alias ••• defenderent: at one time waged o.Oensive war, at another time defensive (Iiteral ly, warded 0.0' wm' bl'Ollflhtartail1.~tthem). 1 eorum, omnium: i.e. all their enemies. 8 locum: reqion. 9 adventu: Ablative of Time. 10pedum XII: i.e. twelve Ieet in height. 11 XV milium: pedum, 1I0t passuum, is to be understood. 120ppido: in the town .. but tbe ablative is one of Means. 18 vineis. aggere, turrim: see p. 223. 14 irridere, increpitare: Historical Infinitives. The Historical Iufinitive is freely used in L'ltin as the equivalent of a past tense of the indicative. lD quod institueretur: the reason in the minds of the Aduatuci; hence the subjunctive; 407. 16 a tanto spatio: so far awnJl; n is an adverb; tanto spatio is Ablative of De~ree of Difference. 11 quibusnam: with what ••• pray? 18 om· nibus Gallis: in the eyes of all the Gauls. The case is dative. 19 contemptui: Dativc of PurpoHc. 20 contlderent: qucHtiollS in iudirect discourse often stand in Lho sllbjunctivo.

242

CAESAR'S They surrender,

GALLIC

WAR.

but secretly retain weapons.

31. Ubi vero moverr ! et appropinquars moenibus vIde. runt, nova atque inusitata specie commott legatos ad Caesarem de pace mrserunt, quI ad hunc modum locl1tI: 2 Non 3 se extatimare, Romanos sine ope deorum bellum gerere, qui 4 5 tantae altitndinis machinationes tanta celeritate promovero possent j se suaque omnia eorum potestatr permittere drxerunt. Unum s petere ac deprecarr : sI forte pro 6 sua clementia ac mansuetndine, quam 1 ipsI ab ali Is audtrent, statuisset," Aduatucos esse conservandos, ne 9 se armIs 10 m despoliaret, Sibi 11 omnes fere fInitimos esse inimlcos ac suae virtl1tI12 in videre ; a qui bus se defendere, traditfs 18 armIs, non possent. Sibi 14 praestare, sI in eum M casum deducerentur, quam vts 16 fortunam a populo Romano patr," quam ab hts per cruciatum interficI inter quos dominart 15 consueasent." 32. Ad haec Caesar respondit: se magis consuetndine sua quam merito eorum clvitatem conservatnrum, st, priusquam 19 murum aries attigisset, se dedidissent; sed deditionis nullam esse condicionem nisi armts traditrs, se id, 20 quod in N ervits 20 fecisset, facturum ffnitimisque imperatn1 moveri: as subject understand turrim. 2locuti: for locuti sunt. 8 non: placed first for emphasis; it logically belongs with sine. 4 qui possent: since they could. 6 unum: one thing; explained by the clause ne despoliaret, 6 pro: in accordance with. 7 quam aUdirent: i.e. which they were continuo aUy hearing of. 8 statuisset, ete.: if he should decide that the Aduatuci were to be spared. 9 ne despoliaret: let him not deprive them, etc.; imperative clause in indirect discourse. 10armis: Ablative of Separation. 11sibi: with inimicos. 12virtuti: for the dative, see 306, 2. 18traditis armiB: if they should surrender their arms ; 359. 14 Bibi praeBtare: it was better for them. 16in eum caBum: to that pass, namely, of being thus exposed to the vengeauce of their neighbors. 16quamviB fortunam: any visitation whatever; quamvis is the indefinite pronoun. 11pati, inter1lci: subjects of the impersonal praestare. 18conBuesBent: for consuevissent. 19priuBquam ... attigiBBet: i.e. without waiting for a continuance of the siege operations; attigisset represents a future perfect indicative of direct statement. After the actual storming of a city began. a voluntary snrrender was no longer possible. For the aries, see p. 13. 20in NerviiB: in the case of the Nervii.

J

CONFLICT

WITH

THE ADUATUCI.

243

rum, ne I quam deditrcits populi Romani injuriam Inferrent. Re m1ntiatll. ad suos, illt se,'i1.quae imperarentur, facere JIxer\mt. Armorum magna 8 multitudine de muro in fossam, quae erat ante oppidum, [acta, sic ut prope summam 4 I) mnrt aggerisque altitudinem acervt armorum adaequarent, et tamen circiter parte tertia, ut postea. perspectum est, ce1a.ta. atque in oppido retenta, portts patefactIs, eo die pace a sunt ust, Caesar thwal-ts their attempted treachery, and sells them into slavery.

33. Sub vesperum Caesar portas elaudt mrlitssque ex 10 oppido exIre jussit, ne quam 6 nocta oppidant a. mtlitibus injnriam acciperent. 1111, ante inito, ut intellectum est, consilio, quod deditione facta. nostros praesidia deductiir1s aut dsnique ! indIligentius servaturos crediderant, partim cum ets, quae retinuerant et celaverant, armis, partim scntrs lIS ex cortice factIs aut vIminibus s intextIs, quae subito, ut temporis exiguitas postulabat, pellibus indiixerant, tertia. vigilia, qua'minime arduus ad uostras mnnrtiones ascensua videbatur, omnibus copits repente ex oppido eruptionem fecerunt. Celeriter, ut ante Caesar imperaverat, Ignibus significa- 20 tione facta, ex proximts castellts eo 10 concursum est pugnatumque ab hostibus ita acriter est, ut 11 a virIs fortibus 1 Ile quam .•• inferreDt: not to inflict any damaqe ; a Substantive Clause Developed from the Volltive. In these, as in Purpose Clauses, ne quisis regularly used instead of Itt nullus. 2 ae facere dixerunt: said that they did, or would do. We should have expected a future tense, but the present lends greater vividness to the narrative by suggesting Immediate compliance• • mapa muUitudine: with [acta, 4 aummam muri aggeriaque altitudinem: the full height of the wall and armer; i.e, the arms filled the apace between the fortlficatiolls and the head of the agger, which had already neared the walla. 6pace I11Jlt 1lIIi: obseroed peace. 6 quam: the Indefinite pronoun, allY. , denique: at least. 8 viminibua intextia: woven willowwork: like cortice, lI:ovemedby ez. 9 qua: where, 10 eo CODCuraumen: they ran thither: 287. 11 u.t a viria fortibua pugnari debuit: as brave men were bound to flght; debuit and pugnari are impersonal.

CAESAR'S

GALLIC

WAR.

in extrema spe salutis iulquo loco contra eos, quI ex vltllO turribusque tela jacerent, pugnart debuit, cum in una' virtute omnis spes salutis consisteret, Occlsrs ad 2 hominum milibus quattuor, reliqut in oppidum reject! sunt. 5 Postridie ejus diei refractts portis, cum jam 3 defenderet nemo, atque intromissrs militibus nostrts, sectionem ejus oppidt uni versam Caesar vendidit, Ab ets, qui emerant, capitum 4 numerus ad eum relatus est milium 6 qutnquaginta triuui,

CHAPTERS

34, 35. -

CONCLUDING

EVENTS

OF

THE

YEAR.

Publius Crassus reduces several tribes along the coast. 10

ts

34, Eodem tempore a Public Crasso, quem cum legione iina miserat ad Venetos, Venellos, Osismos, Coriosolitas.s Esuvios, Aulercos, Redones, quae 1 sunt maritimae etvitates s Oceanumque attingunt, certior factus est, omnes eas civitates in dicionem potestatem que populi Romani esse redactas, Caesar places the anny in winter quarters. A thanksgiving COÂťl1llelllO1'ating liiÂŤ victories is decreed at Rome.

20

35. His rebus gestts; omni 9 Gallia pacata, tanta hujus bellI ad barbaros optnio perlata est, utI ab ers nationibus, quae trans Rhenum incolerent.l" legatI ad Oaesarem mitterentnr, qut 11 se obsides daturas 12 imperata facturas pollicerentur, Quas legationes Caesar, quod in Italiam 13

1in una virtute: in valor alone. 2 ad: about. S jam: longer. 4 capitum: 6 milium quinquaginta trium: as being.fifty-three thousand .. predicate genitive. 6 Coriosolitll.s: Greek accnsative plnral. 1 quae: the relative is attracted to the gender of the predicate noun. s civitates: nations, tribes, as often in Caesar. 9 omni Gallia pacata: i.e. all those portions which offered organized resistance to the Romans. 10 incolerent: subjunctive by attraction to mitterentur. J1 qui pollicerentur: a Relative Clause of Purpose, 1288 daturas, facturas (esse): the speakers identify themselves with their nationes: hence the feminine geuder. Note the Asyndeton in daturas,facturas. 18 in ltaliam: i,e. cisalpine Gaul, one of Caesar'~ provinces.

persons,

CONCLUDING

EVENTS

OF THE

YEAR

245

Illyricumque properabat, inita proxima aestate ad se revertl [ussit, Ipse, in Carnutes,' Andes, 'I'uronos, quaeque 2 civitates propinquae hts locIs erant, ubi bellum gesserat, legionibus in htberna deductrs, in Italiam profectus est. Ob easque II res ex litterIs 1I Caesaris in dies qutndecim supplicatio ! decreta est, quod I ante id tempus accidit nulll.6 lOamutes, Andes, Turonos: these names survive in the town names Chartres, Anjou, and Tours. 2 quaeque civitates = et in eas civitates quae. a ell:litteris: in accordance with despatches. 4 supplicatio; a public thanksgiving. Prior to this no supplicatio had ever been decreed for a longer period than twelve days. I quod: its antecedeut is the previous statement. 6 nulli: for nemini, i.e. the adjective for the substantive. Note the emphasis produced by placing this word at the end of the sentence .

GENERAL LATIN-ENGLISH

VOCABULARY.

-Of the twelve hundred words In thIs Vocabulary, only about two-thirds are em. ployed In the Lessons of the hody of the hook (see Preface). The remainder oeeur In the Second Book of Caesar. Regular verbs of the first conjugation are Indicated by the numeral! following the present indicative.

NOTlll.

A aetts A., abbreviation for Aulus, .Aulus. adeo, ire, ii, itiirus, go to, fJisit, i, ab, prep. w. abl., from; by. approach. abdb, ere, dim, dltus, hide. adigo, ere, egi, ictus, hurl, drive. abeo, ire, ii, itiirus, go away; pass. aditus, iis, m., approach, access. absum, esse, ifui, ifutiirus, be ab- adjuvo, ire, jiivI, jiitus, help. sent, be distant (§ 252). adminisbro, 1, perform, execute, ae (atque), and, and also; than; cal'I'Y out. ac is not used before vowels. admodum, quite, very much. accedo, ere, cessi, cessiirus, draw admoneo, ere, ui, itus, remind, neal', approach; be added to. wal·n. accido, ere, im, happen. adolesco, ere, levi, gl'ow tip. aecipio, ere, epi, eptus, receive. adorior, iri, ortus sum, attack. acclivis, e, sloping. adsum, adesse, adfui, adfutiirus, acclivitis, itis, f., ascent, slope, be present, be at hand (§ 252). rise. Aduatuci, orum, m, pl., the ..Aduatuci, a. Belgian tribe. . aeeommodb, 1, adjust. aecurro, ere, cucurri, cursum, run adulescens, centis, m., young man. to, run tip; hasten. advenio, ire, veni, ventum, arrifJe. acciiso, 1, accuse. adventus, iis, m., arrival. icer, icris, icre, sharp, fJigorous, adversirius, ii, m., ad"ersary. keen, severe. adversum, adversus, prep. w. aco., aeervus, i, m., heap, pile. against. acies, ei, f., line of battle. adversus, a, urn, adverse; in front, icriter, sharply, jlercely. facing. ad, prep. w. acc., to, towards, aedificium, i (ii), n., bUilding. against; for (denoting purpose) ; aegre, with difficulty. near; at; according to. As aclv., aequiliter, evenly, uniformly. about. aequus, qua, quum, level, just. adaequo, 1, equal. aestis, tii.tis, f., summer. addiico, ere, diixi, ductus, lead, aestuii.rium, i, n., estuary, marsh. bring; lead on, impel. aetis, tatis, f., age, time of life. 247

2-1:8

Gli-'XEIUL

LATIN-ENGLISfl

affero

T~o'CABuLARr.

aries bl'ing an, interrog. particle, 01'; whether. (§ 2M). ancora, ae, f., anchor, affinitis, tatis, f., j'elationship by Andecumborius, i, m., Andecum· mm·riage. borius, a Gaul. agel', agri, m., field, land. Andes, ium, m. pl., the Andes, a agger, eris, m., embankment, j'amGallic tribe. part; material for an aggm', angustiae, arum, f. pl., a narrOtD aggredior, I, gressus sum, attack. pass. agmen, minis, n. aI'my (on the angustus, a, urn, narrow. mal'eh), column. animadverto, ere, vertI, versus, ago, ere, egi, actus, dj'ive, lead, notice. brinq up, advance, do; pm·ley. animal, malis, n" animal. agricola, ae, m., farmer. animus, I, m. mind, soul; couraqe, alacer, cris, ere, eager, lieart ; spij'it, disposition, jeelalias, at another time. aliis • .. ings, temper, alias, at one time . • • at an- annus, I, m., yem·. ~ other. ante, prep. w. ace" before, in front alienus, a, urn, of others, oj another ; of; adv., before, ago, pj·eviously. unfaoorabte. antea, preoiouslu, before. aliqui, aliqua, aliquod, adj., some anteeedo, ere, eessi, cessiirus, pre. (§ 140). cede. aliquis, aliquid, some one, some- antequam, conj., before. thing (§ 146). antiquitus, adv., in former times, aliter, otherwise. long ago, anciently. pUus, a, ud, other, another, else antiquus. a, urn, ancient. (§ 83). apertus, a, um, open, clear. Allobroges, um, the Allobroqes, a appello, 1, name, call. Gallic tribe. appropinquo, 1, approach. alter, era, erum, the other; second Aprilis, e, adj., Of Apj·it. (§ 83), apud, prep. w, ace., among, at, altitiido, inis, f', height; depth. neal', with, at the home of. altus, a, um, high, deep; as noun, aqua, ae, f., 10atel·. altum, I, n., the deep, the deep sea. Aqultani, orum, Ill. pl., AquitaAmbiini, orum, m. pl., the Ambiani, nians, a Gallic tribe. a Belgian tribe. Aquitinia, ae, f., Aquitania, a disamice, adv" in ajriendly mannel" trict of Gaul. amicitia, ae. f" fj'iendship. Arar, is, m., the Arm', a river i amicus, I, m., fj·iend. the modern Sa6ne, amitto, ere, misi, missus, lose. arbitror, triri, tritus sum, amo, 1, love. reckon, estimate, consider. amplifico, 1, enlarge, extend, in- arbor, oris, f., tree. crease. arcesso, ere, lvi, !tus, summoll. amplius, aLlv"1nm'e. arduus, a, um, steep, amplus, a, urn, ample, gIOl·IOliS. aries, etis, Ill., !'am; battering-ra111. affero, ferre, attuli, allitus,

I

GENERAL

LATIN-ENGLISH

Ariovi.tu. Ariovistus, I, m., AI'iovistIlS, a king of the Germans. arma, arum, n. pl., arms. armitiira, ae, f., equipment. armitus, a, um, aI·med. arma, 1, aI·m. arrogantia, ae, f., arrogance. arx, arcis, f., citadel. ascends, ere, endi, ens us, ascend. ascensus, Us, m., ascent. at, but. Athenae, arum, f. pl., Athens. atque, and, and also; see ae, Atrebites, urn, m, pl., the Atrpbates, a Belgian tribe. Atticus, i, m., Attieus, a friend of Cicero. attinga, ere, attigi, attictus, touch, border on. attuli, perf. of a1fera. auctiiritis, titis, f., auth01'ity, influence. audicter, courageously, braoeiu, boldly. audix, gen. audicis, couraqeous. audeo, ere, ausus sum; semi-dep., clare. audia, ire, ivi, Itus, hear, heal' of. aufugia, ere, CUgi,fugitiirus, flee. augea, ere. auxi, auctus, iI/crease (tr.). Aulerci, arum, m. pl., the AulPl'd, a Gallic tribe. Aulus, i, m., Aulus, a man's name. Aurunculeius, i, m., Am'uncl/leius, a man's name. aut, or; aut. • • aut, either • or. autem, however; but. auxilium, i (ii), n" aid, help; in pI. auxilia, arum, n., auxiliary troops, alcxilim·ies. Aviricuui, i, n., A'vClriculll, a Gallic town.

VOGABULARr.

249

cadaver

averta, ere, ti, versus, avert, turn away, turn aside. Axona, ae, m., a river; the modern Aisne. Baoenis, is, f., Bacenis, a forest. Baculus, i, m., Baeulus, a Roman centuriou. Baleires, urn, m. pl., inhabitants of the Balearic Isles; as adj., Balearic. barba, ae, f., beard. barbarus, i, m., a barbatian; adj., us, a, um, barbm·ian. beatus, a, urn, happy. Belgae, arum, m. pl., Belgians, a Gallic tribe. bello, 1, make war, carryon war. Bellovaci, arum, m, pI., the Bellovaci, a Belgian tribe. bellum, i, n., wal'. bene, adv., well (§ 100). beneficium. i (ii), n., kindness. Bibrax, actis, f., Bibrax, a town of the Remi. Bibulus, i, m., Bitmtu», a man's name. biduum, i, n., tlVOday.~. biennium, I, n., IIVO!lPIl1·~. Boduognitus, i, m., Bo(/uognatus, a chieftain of the Nervii. Baji, orum, m. pl., the Boji, an ancient tribe. bonus, a, urn, good; in pI., bona, arum, n., property. Brituspantium. i, n., Bratu8p(lIltimn, a Gallic town. brevis, e, short, brief; brevi, within a Sh01'ttime. brevitis, itis, f., shol'tness; 1010 statut·e. Britannia, ae, f., Britain. C., abbreviation for Giius, Gaius. cadaver, is, n., corpse, dead boal/.

250

GENERAL

LATIN-ENGLISH

VOCABULARY.

cado cohors oado, ere, cecidi, cisiirus, fall. fieri, be informed ; eertiorem facaedes, is, I., slaughter. cere, inform. Oaerosi, orum, m. pl., the Oaerosi, ceteri, ae, a, the rest ; the others. a Belgian tribe. Cicero, onis, m., Cicero. Caesar, aris, m., Caesar. Cimbri, orum, m. pl., the Cimbrians, calamitis, titis, f., calamity, disasa Germanic tribe. ter. circiter, adv., about. Caleti, orum, m. pl., the Caleti, circuitus, us, m., circuit. a Belgian tribe. cireumeo, ire, ii, itus, go around, cilo, onis, m., ';(JTIly:followm路. surrousui. eapio, capere, dlpi, captus, take ; circumicio, ere, jeei, jectus, thj'ow tulopt ; capture. around ; place around. captivus, I, m., captive, pj'iSOnel'. circummiinio, ire, Ivi, itus, suj'round caput, itis, n., head ; person. by a wall, protect. Oarnutes, urn, m. pl., the Oarnutes, circumvenio, ire, vem, ventus, 3.!(ra Gallic tribe. j路ound. carrus, I, m., cal't, wagon. cis, prep. w. acc., this side of. carus, a, um, dear. citerior, ius, comp, adj., nearer, Cassianus, a, um, Cassian ; pertainhither. ing to Cassius. citra, prep. w. acc., this side of. castellum, i, n., fort, redoubt. civis, is, m., citizen, fellow-citizen. castra, orum, n. pl., a camp. civitas, tatis, f" state. casus, us, m., chance, accident ; mis- clam, secretly. fortune ; plight. clamor, oris, m., shout, shoutcatena, ae, f., chain. ing. Catilina, ae, m., Catiline. elarus, a, urn, clear, loud ; distincausa, ae, f., cause, gj'oltnd, j'eason ,. guishecl. condition; causa, abl. ,for the sake classis, classis, f., fleet. of,. the dependent genitive pre- claudo, ere, clausi, clausus, shut, cedes causa. close,. bl'ing up. cedo, ere, cessi, cessurus, yield, clemens, gen. entis, merCiful. withdj'aw, reM路eat. clementia, ae, f., clemency, mercy. celer, eris, e, SWift. Cn., abbreviation of Gnaeus, Gnaeus, celeritas, tatis, f., speed, swiftness. a man's name. celeriter, quickly. coacervo, 1, pile up. celo, 1, conceal. coepi, coepisse, began, have begun Celtae, arum, m. pI., Celts. (搂 281). Perf. also coeptus sum. census, us, m., census. cogito, 1, think. centum, hundred, indecl. cognosco, ere, non, nitus, learn,. centurio, onis, m., centlwion (comcognovi. I ~'now. mander of a hundred men). cogo, ere, coegi, coactus, force, cerno, ere, perceive. compel; collect. certus, a, um, sure, certain, definite ,. cohors, cohortis, f., cohort (division compo certior, in phrase certior, of a legion).

GENERAL

LATIN-ENGLISH

cohorU.tio cohortatio, onis, f., encouragement, cheering. cohortor, 1, exhort, cheer, encourage. collatus, perf. pass. participle of confero. eollsga, ae, m., colleague. collis, is, m., hill. colloco, 1, place, arrange, station. colloquium, i (ii), n., conference. colloquor, i, lociitus sum, confer. eommeatus, us, m., supplies. eommemoro, 1, recount. committo, ere, misi, missus, bring toqether ; with proelium or pugnam, to join battle. commode, conveniently, readily. commoveo, ere, mon, motus, move, stir up, alarm, excite .. induce. commiinio, ire, ii, itus, strongly fortify· commiinis, e, common. commuta.tio, onis, f., change. comparo, 1, get ready. eompello, ere, pnli, pulsus, drive. eomperio, ire, peri, pertus, find out. eompleo, ere, plevi, plstus, fill up. compliires, pliira, gen. ium, very many. concedo, ere, cessi, cessiirus, grant. eoncido, ere, cidi, cisus, cut to pieces. concilio, 1, reconcile, win over. concilium, i (ii), n., cowICi/. concnrro, ere, i, cursum, run together. concursus, us, m" a running together. condicio, onis, f., condition, terms. Condriisi, orum, m.pl., the Condl'usi, a Rcl!1:iantribe. conduco, ere, duxi, ductus, lead together, bring together .. hire. confero, ferre, tuli, collatus, bl'ing together .. se conferre, betake one's self (§ 264).

VOCABULARY.

261

conspicio confertus, a, um, packed together, dense, crowded. coMcio, ere, leci, fectus, finish, complete, prepare; muster ; exhaust. confido, ere, IlBus sum, trust, semidep, (§ 306, 2). oonIll'mo, 1, establish, confirm .. encourage .. affirm, declare. con1ligo, ere, fui. fiiotum, contend, fight. congredior, i, gressus sum, meet, encountel·. conicio, ere, jeci, jectus, hl.l1'l.. cast .. put. eonjungo, ere, jiinxi, jiinctus, join, unite. conjiiratio, onis, f., conspiracy. conjiiro, 1, take oath together ..f01'm a league .. conspire. conor, iri, itus sum, endeavor, attempt. consanguineue, a, um, of the same blood ; kindred. As noun, kinsman. conscribo, ere, scripsi, scriptns, write together.. enroll. eonsector, irl, atus sum, follow up. consensus, us, m., agreement. consentio, ire, sensi, sensiirus, agree with,. combine, unite. consequor, i, seciitus sum, follow up, ovel·take .. attain, acquire. conservo, 1, preserve, save, spare. consido, ere, edi, essus, settle, camp. oonsilium, i (ii), n., plan, design, pUlyose,. council,. advice. consimilis, e. like, exactly like. consisto, ere, stiti, stand, take a stand,. stand one's ground,. consist .. depend on. conspectus, us, m., view, sight. conspicio, ere, spexi, spectus, see.

252

GENERAL conspicor

conspicor,

LATIN-ENGLISH

VOCABULARY. dicurro

arl, atus sum, catch sight Orassus, I, m.,

Orassus, a man's of, obsel've. name. coustanter, steadfastly, unifol·mly. ereber, bra, brum, frequent; thick, constat, impers., it is evident (§ 287). dense. constituo, ere, ui, iitus, place, credo, ere, didi, ditum, believe station j decide, determine. (§ 306, 2). consuesco, ere suevi, suetus, be- Cretes, urn, m. pl., Cretans j as adj., come accustomed ; consue vi, 1 am Cretan. accustomed, am wont. cruciatus, US, m., torture. consuetudo, inis, f., custom. culpo, 1, blame. consul, ulis, m., consul. 1. cum, prep. w. abl., with. consumo, ere, sfimpsi, sumptus, 2. cum, conj.,when,. because, since ; ~tse up, consume. though,. cum ... tum, not only contemptus, us, m., contempt, ob. . . but also ; cum primum, as ject of contempt. soon as. contendo, ere, tendi, tentum, hurl,,!" oiinctus, a, urn, all. Ihasten ; conteiui ; strive, struggle. cupidus, a, urn, fond, eager. contentus, a, urn, contented. cupio, ere, cupivi, cupitus, desire, continenter, continuously. be eager. contineo, ere, ui, confine, hem in, cur, adv., why'! hold, hold in check. curo, 1, care for, take care of. contra, prep. w. acc., against, op- cursus, US, m., running j pace, posite. As adv., against, in oppocoul·se. sition. custodia, ae, f., a guard j custody. contrartus, a, um, contrary to, opposite. de, prep. w. abl., concerning j of, eontrfiveraia, ae, f., controversy. from. contumelia. ae, f., affront; insult, debeo, debere, debui, debitus, ouie ; convenio, ire, veni, ventum, come with a dependent infinitive, ought,. together, assemble ; meet ; conpass., to be due. venit, it is agreed upon. decedo, ere, cessi, oossurus,H'ithconverto, ere, verti, versus, turn, draw. turn about. decem, indecl., ten. convoco, 1, call together. dsoerno, cernere, erevi, cretus, eopia, ae, f., plenty,. in pI. copiae, decree,. decide (by combat), flght. arum, troops, forces. decerto, 1, flght, flght it out. Coriosolites, urn, m. pl., the Coriosa- decimus, a, urn, tenth. lites, a Gallic tribe. decipio, ere, ciipi, ceptus, deceive. cornu, us, n., horn j in military declivis, e, sloping. sense, wing of an army. decumanus, a, urn, decuman, in corpus, oris, n., body. decumana porta, the decuman gate cortex, icis, m., bal·k. in a Roman eamp; see Notes. coti:lie every day, daily. decurro, ere, curri, or cucurri, curCotta, ae, m., Cotta, a man's name. surus, run duwn,. rush, hasten.

GENERAl.

LATIN-ENGLISH

dliditIciuB dediticius, a, um, that has surrendel·ed. As noun, dediticn, prisoners of war. deditio. onis, f., surrender. dildo, dere, didi, deditus, give up, RUM·ender. dediicG, ere, diixi, ductus, lead rtU!ay; remove; cOnlluct; lead, bring. defectio, onis, f., revolt. defendo, ere, fendi, fensus, defend; ward o.ff. delensio, onis, f., defence. defensor, oris, m., dejetuler. defero, ferre, tuli, latus (§ 264), confer upon, bestoui ; report. delicio, ere, feci, fectus, fail; revolt. deicio, ere, dejeci, dejectus, dislodge. deinde, then, afterwards. dejeetus, us, m., descent, slope, declivity. delitus, perf. pass. participle of defero. delecto, 1, delight. deleo, ere, evi, etus, wipe out; des/roy. dehoero, 1, deliberate, consult, deligo, 1, tie to, fasten /0. deligo, ere, legi, lectus, choose. demonstro, 1, point out, show. denique, finally; in short, at least. densus, a, um, dense, thick. depano, ere, posui, positus, put aside, place, put, leave. depopulor, arl, atus sum, lay waste. deprecor, I, en/l'eat, beg. desero, ere, serni, sertus, abandon, desert. desisto, ere, stiti, cease. despero, 1, despair, despair of. despicio, ere, spexi, spectus, despise. despolio, 1, stl'ip, deprive.

VOCABULARY.

253

diu desum, deesae, defni, defutiirus, be wanting, fail (§ 252). deterred, ere, ui, itus, frighten off; deter, preoent. detraho, ere, traxi, tractus, draw off; snatch. detrimentum, i, n., loss, damage, harm. deus, i, m., god. devenio, ire, veni, ventum, COllie, arrive, dexter, tra, trum, rigM; as subst, (so, manus), right hand. dieio, onis, f., 8'l.IJay. dico, ere, dixi, dictus, say; utter; appoint; call. dies, ei, m, or f., day. differo, ferre, distuli, dilatum, differ (§ 264). difficilis, e, difficult. difficultis, atis, f., difficulty. dignitas. titis, f., dignity. dignus, a, um, worthy. diligenter, carefullsj, scrupulously. diligentia, ae, f., diligence. dimetdor, iri, mensus sum, measure off.

dimico, I, contend, fight. dimitto, ere, misi, missus, let go, lose; dismi..~s, disband. diripio, ere, ripni, reptus, pluuder. diruo, ere, mi, rutus, tear dOlon, destroy. discedo, ere, cessi, cessUrns, depal·t, tOithd,·aw. discessus, us, m., departure. disciplina, ae, f., discipline. dispono, ere, posui, positus, station here and there; distribute. dissensio, onis, f., disagreement. dissipatus, a, um, scattered. distineo, ere, ui, tentus, hold apart, keep apart. diu, adv., a long time.

.. 254

GENERAL

LATIN-ENGLISH

diiltiU8

diiitiuB, comp, of diii. diversus, a, urn, d\Oerent; seporated. Divico, oniB, m, Divico, a Helvetian chieftain. divido, ere, i~i, Isus, clivide. Divitdacus, "I, m. Dinittacus, a man's na1P.d. do, dare, dedi, datus, give, "ender; pitt, set. doeeo, ere, ui, doctus, teach, show. dolor, oris, m. qrief. domeaticus, a, urn, of one's horne, one's own. domicilium, i, n., home, abode. dominor, 1, be master, rule. Domitius, i (u), m., Domitius, a man's name, domus, iis, f., house, home. donee, until. dono, 1, present. donum, i, n., gift. dubito, 1, doubt, be in doubt; hesitate, waveI'. ducenbi, ae, a, t100 lnuulred. diicfi, ere, diixi, ductus, lead, dmw. dum, while; as long as; until. Dumnorix, rigis, Ill., Dumnol'ix, a chief of the lIaedui. duo, duae, duo, two (§ 114, 2), duodecim, indecl., twelve, duodecimus, a, urn, twe((th. duodeviginti, indccl., eighteen. duplex, icis, double. dux, ducis, m., leader.

VOCABULARY.

excite effugiO, ere, fUgi, fugitiirus, escape. ego, mei, I. egredior, gredi, gresaus BUm,mal'ch out. egregie, ,'emarkably, excellently. eicio, ere, jeci, jectus, thrus; out; Beeicere, rush forth. ejus modi, of that kind (§ 323). elii.tuB, perf. pass. participle of effero.

electuB, a, um, chosen, picked. emitto, ere, misi, missus, hurl, dischal'ge. emo, ere, emi, emptus, buy. enii.scor, i, nii.tus sum, grow out. enim, for; cannot begin a sentence, eo, adv., thither, to that place. eo, ire, ivi (ii), itum, go, mat'ch, (§ 280). eodem, to the same place. eques, itis, m., horseman; in pI., cavall'y, hOl·sernen. equester, tris, tre, equestrian; cavalry (as adj.). equitatus, iis, m., cavalry. equus, i, m., horse. erro, I, e1'1',be mistaken. emptio, onis, f., sally. Esuvii, orum, m. pl., the Esuvii, a Gallic tribe. et, and j et. • ,et, both, .• and; as adv., also, even. etiam, also; even. eventus, iis, m., outcome, vicissitude. everto, ere, ti, sus, overturn, destroy, ii, ex, prep. w. abl.,from, out of, of; ex, prep. w. ab!., out Of; see e. e is not used before vowels or h. exagito, 1, harass. EburoneB, um, m. pl., the Ebll1'ones, exanimii.tus, a, um, breathless. a Relgian tribe. exaudio, ire, ivi, itus, hear, hear editus, a, um, elevated, lofty, high. plainly, ediico, ere, diixi, duCtUB,lead forth. excedo, ere, cessi, cessiirus, leave, efficio, ere, feci, fectus, make, rendepart from. del'; do, bl'ing about. excito, 1, stir up, rouse.

GENERAL

LATIN-ENGLISH

VOOABULARY.

255

furor brinq ; lift, ratse ; lend (of help); say. fertilitis, itis, f., fertility. ferus, a, urn, wild, savage, fierce. fides, ei, I., fidelity, loyalty, proteetion ; confidence, allegiance. fiducia, ae, f., confidence. filia, ae, f., daughter. filius, i (ii), m., son. finis, is, m., enti ; boundary,. in pl., territory. finitimue, a, um, neighboring, near ; as noun, Imitirni, neighbors. fio, fieri, factus sum, become, be made ; occur, happen ; pass. of facio (§ 275). IlI'JIlUS, a, um, firm, strong. f1.igito, 1, demand. f1umen, inis, n., river. fore, fut. infin, of sum (§ 163, footnote 2), fors, fortis, f., chance. forte, by chance. fortis, e, bmve, valiant. fortiter, bravely. fortiina, ae, f., fortune ; pI. fortunae, irum, f., fortune (possessions). fossa, ae, f., ditch, trench, facile, easily. friter, tris, 01" brother. facilis, e, easy. fremitus, us, m., upl'oar, noise. faeinus, inoris, n., crime, deed. frons, ntis, f., forehead ; front. facio, ere, reci, factus, make, do, frumentirius, a, urn, pertaining to exeeute ; pass. irreg. (§ 275). grain,. res friimentiria, grain, factio, onis, f., faction. gmin supplies. facultis, titis, f., sllpply. frumentum, i, n., grain. falla, ere, fefelli, deceive, disappoint, friistri, adv., in vain. fuga, ae, f., flight. balk. falBus, a, um, false, mistaken. fugio, ere, fiigi, fugitiirus, flee, lama, ae, f., reputation, I'eport. escape from. fastigitus, a, um, sloping. fuga, 1, put to .flight. relix, gen. relicis, fortunate, happy. fiimus, i, m., smoke. ferix, gen. fericis, fertile. funditor, oris, m., sUngel'. fere, almost, about, practically. furor, oris, m., frenzy, fury, excitefero, ferre, tuli, litus, bear, CaI'I'y, ment.

excursio excursiii, iinis, f., sally. exeo, ire, ii, iturus, go forth, go Ollt. exercitii, I, train, practise. exercitus, US. m., army. exiguitas, itis, f., scantiness. exiguus, a, UIn, small, scanty. eximins, a, urn, extl'aordinary. existirnii, 1, think, consider. exitiurn, i (Ii), n., destruction. exitus, us, m., exit, passage. expeditus, a, urn, unencumbered, light-al·med,. easy. expellii, ere, puli, pulsus, drive out, banish. experior, iri, pertus sum, try, test. expliiritor, oris, m., scout. exploro, 1, examine, discover, find out. expugnb, 1, take by storm. exsisto, ere, stiti, arise. exspecto, 1, expect, await. exstruo, ere, striixi, striictus, build, throw up. extri, prep. w. ace., outside, beyond. extrernus, a, UIn, extreme, olltel'most ; end of.

256

GENERAL

LATIN-ENGLISH

rOCABULARY.

imperlitum furtum 2. hie, adv., here, at this place. fiirtum, i, n., theft. futiirus, a, um, future participle of hiemo, 1, pass the wintel'. hiems, is, f., winter. sum. Hispania, a.e, f., Spain. Giius, i, 111., Gailts, a man's name. hodie, to-day. homo, minis, m., man. (A bbreviated C.) Galba, ae ., Galba, a man's name. honor, oris, m., honor. nora, ae, f., hour. galea, ae, f~, helmet. hortor, ari, atus sum, exhort, U/·ge. Gallicus, a~ um, Gallic. hostis, is, m., enemy; especially Gallus, i, m., a Gaul. frequent in pl., the enemy. Ga-llia, ae, r., GaUl. Genava, ae, f., Geneva, a town of hiic, hither. the Allobroges. ibi, there, in that place. generatim, by teibes. gens, gep-tis, f., tribe; gens (divi- Iceius, i, m., Iccius, a Gaul. idem, eadem, idem, the same. sion of the Roman people). genus, eris, n.) stock, family, kind. identidem, again and again. idoneus, a, um, suitable, adapted,fit. Germani, orum, m. pl., Germans. gero, ere, gessi, gestus, carru, tee aI', Idiis, uum, f. pl., the Ides, the 13th of the month, but the 15th of calTY on, perform ; with bellum, March, May, July, and October. to wage; of office,to lu.ld, igitur, therefore, accordingly,. nuw. gladius, i (ii), m., sword. (Stands usually after first word in Gnaeus, i, m., Gnaeus, a man's clause.) name. (Abbreviated On.) ignivus, a, urn, cowardly. gratia, ae, f., influence. gratus, a, um, pleasing, welcome; ignis, is, m., fire. ignominia, ae, f., ignominy, di .•grateflll. grace. gravis, e, heavy, lrulen ; difficult; ille, illa, illud, ttuu ; that one; he, severe, serious. she, it. habeo, ere, habui, habitus, have, Illyricum, i, n., Flluricum, a country lying on the eastern shore of the pos~e~s, holel,. considel', I'eganl; Adriatic Sea. of a speech, deliver. imber, imbris, m., I·flin-storm. hie, by this way, here. Haedui, orum, m., Haedui, a Gallic immortilis, e, i/mlwl·tal. tribe. impedimentum, i, n., hindl'ance; in pl., /Jaggage. Haeduus, i, m., a Haeduan. Helvetii, orum, m., Helvetii, a impedio, ire, ivi (n), !tus, impede, Celtic tribe. hindel'. moerna, orum, n. pl., wintel'- impeditus, a., urn, hindered, hamquarters. perecl, embarrassccl. Hiberus, i, m., the lliberus (modern impello, ere, pull, pulsus, impel. Ebro), a river in Spain. imperator, toris, m., commander. 1. hic, haec, hoc, pron., this. imperatum, i, n., command.

GENERAL

LATIN-ENGLISH

VOCABULARY.

257

inter imperitua inermis, e, unarmed. imperitus, a, um, inexperienced. imperium, i (ii), 1'ule, sway, cos- infero, ferre, tull, illitus, bring trol, command,. order ; gO'lJern- in, import ; b,'ing upon, bring against, illflict,. produce (§ 2M). ment. impero, 1, command,. demand,. inferior, us, lower, inferior (§ 102, 2). order ; reign,. lev!!. infimus, a, um, superl, of inferior impetro, 1, seCU1'eone's request. (§ 102, 2) ; bottom, at the foot. impetus, is, m., onset, attack, infirm us, a, um, toeak. imploro, 1, entreat. improvisus, a, um, unezpected ; de infiecto, ere, flexi, fiexus, bend, bend over. improviso, unexpectedly, in, prep. w, abl., in, on, denoting infiuo, ere, uxi, uxum, flow into. rest in a place; among,. w. ace., ingredior, i, gressus sum, march into, enter. into, in, to, against, touards ; inimicus, a, um, hostile. As noun, under, inimicus, i, m., a (personal) meendo, ere, cendi, census, set on enemy. jil·e. iniquitis, ii.tis, f., unfavorable ness, incertus, a, um, uncertain. difficulty. mcido, ere, i.di, fall upon ; befall, iniquus, a, urn, unfavorable. oceur ; fall in with, initium, i (ii), n., beginning. incido, ere, cidi, cisus, cut into. injUria, ae, f., wrong, iI/justice. incipio, ere, cepi, ceptus, begin. incito, 1, set in motion, quicken ; innitor, i, nixus or nisus sum, lean on, rest on. urge on, encourage. inopia, ae, f., lack, need. incola, ae, m., inhabitant. incolo, ere, colui, cultus, inhabit, insequor, i, seciitus sum,fall ow after. insidiae, irum, f., pI., ambush,. dwell. plots ; treachery. incolumis, e, unharmed, uninjured, insigne, is, n., device, decoration. incommodum, I, n. disaster. in sisto, ere, institi, stand upon, Ineradibilis, e, i Ilcredible. increpito, 1, blame, chille,. mock, instins, pres. participle of iusto. instar, indec!. n., likeness .. w. gen., taunt. like. incursU8, is, m., onset. instituo, ere, ui, itus, set up,. in:<tiinciisO, 1, accuse, jind fault with. tute, appoint. inde, thence, then. indignitas, itis, f., indignity, insult. instititum, i, n., institution. insto, ire, iti, press on, be eager. indiligenter, carelessly. instruo, ere, striixi, striictus, draw indoles, is, f., nature,. character. up, arrflnge,. jit out. indicii, ere, dixi, ductus, lead in,. insula, ae, f., island. drato in,. draw,. cover, intellego, ere, lexi, lectus, know, induo, ere, ui, itus, put on. understand. ineo, ire, ii, itus, enter upon,. begin ,. consilium inire, form a plan inter. prep. w. ace., among, betloeen, in the midst of. (§ 280).

258

GENERAL

LATIN-ENGLISH

interc~do intercedo,' ere, eessf, cessiirus, go betsoeen ; lie betuieen, intel路vene. intercipio, ere, cepi, ceptus, intercept. interea, in the meanwhile. intereo, ire, ii, iturus, perish. interest, wconcerns, impers., from intersum. interficio, ere, leci, fectus, kill. intericio, ere, jeci, jectus, throw betuieen ; place between, plant between. interim, in the meanwhile. intermitto, ere, misi, missus, let pass ; stop, cease, interrupt. Internecio, onis, f., destruction, annihilation. interscindo, ere, scidi, scisaus, tear down. intersum, esse, fill, futfirue, be present at ; interest, impers., it conce1'1ts. intervallum, i, n., interval, distance. intexo, ere, texui, textus, weave. intra, prep. w. acc., within. intro, 1, enter. introduco, ere, duxi, ductus, lead in. intromitto, ere, misi, misaus, let in. introrsus, adv., within. inusititus, a, um, unwonted. iniitdlis, e, useless. invenio, ire, vern, ventus, find. inveterasco, ere, grow old, become establi hed. invideo, ere, vidi, visum, envy. invitus, a, urn, lllnoilling. ipse, a, um, self. irrideo, ere, risi, mus, deride, ridicule. is, ea, id, that,. he, she, pl., they. iste, a, nd, that,. that of YOUI路S. ita, so (of manner); as. Italla, ae, f., Italy.

it,.

VOCABULARY.

lassitudo itaque, accordingly, and so. item, likewise. iter, itineris, n., journey,. march; way,. iter facere, march ; travel. iterum, again. jaceo, ere, ui, itiirns, lie, recline. jacio, ere, jeci, jactus, hUI'I, throw; throu: up. jam, already, nOlO. Jiniculum, I, n., the hill Janiculum. jubeo, ere, jussi, jussus, order. judice, 1, judge, adjudge. jugum, I, n., yoke; ridge (of mountains) . jumentum, i, n., beast of burden. Jura, ae, m., the Jura, chain of mts, on the west of Switzerland. jiiro, 1, swear, take oath. jus, juris, n., right, pouer ; law, code. . jus jiirandum, jUris jiirandi, n., oath. justitia, ae, f., justice. justus, a, um, just. juvo, are, jfivi, jutus, assist, help, aid. juxta, adv., near by. Kalendae, arnm, f. pl., Kalends (first of the month). L., abbreviation of Lucius, Lucius, a man's name. Labienu8, i, m., Lal1ienus, a famous lieutenant of Caesar. / labor, oris, m., labor, exel路tion. lll-bOro,1, toil; suffer,. in battle, be hard pl路essed. bcesso, ere, cessivi (ii), itus, Itar\ ass. I~Qus, us, m., lake. la~tus, a, um, glad, JOYful. lapis, idis, m., stone. lassitudo, inis, f., weariness.

GENERAL

LATIN-ENGLISH

lateo lateo, ere, ui, lurk. Iatitiido, inis, f., breadth; in lititiidinem, sidewise. Latobrigi, orum, m, pl., the Latobrigi, an ancient tribe. litus, a, um, broad, wide. latus, eris, n., side, flank. Iaudfi, 1, praise. laus, laudis, f., praise. laxo. 1, loosen, opel~ up. legitio, onis, f., embassy. legatus, i, m., lieutenant " envoy. legio, onis, f., legion. legionirius, a, um, legionary, belonging to the legion. Lemannus, i, m. (Lake) Lemannus,o the modern Lake Geneva. Ieniter, gelltly. Lentulus, i, m., Lentulus, a man's name. levis, e, light. levitis, atis, f., lightness, instability. lex, legis, f., laur, liber, Iibera, liberum, free. hoeriliter, generously. liberi, orum (um), m. pl., children (free born). hoero, 1, free; acquit. hoertis, tatis, f., liberty. licet, impers., it is pel'mitted (§ 287). Lingones, um, pl., the Lingones, a Gallic tribe. lingua, ae, f., tongue; language. linter, tria, f., skiff. littera, ae, f., a letter (of the alphabet); pI. litterae, arum, letter, epistle. litus, oris, n., shot·e. lOCUS, i, m.; pI., loca, firum, n., place; family. longe, adv., far. longus, a, um, long. loquor, loqui, lociitus sum, speak.

VOCABULARY.

259

maritimu. Lucius, i (ii), m., Lucius, a. man's name. liina, ae, f., moon. lux, lucis, f., light; primi luce, at daybreak. liixuria, ae, f., luxury, self.indulgence. M., abbreviation for Mircus, i, m, Marcus, a man's name. michinitio, iinis, f., contrivance, engine. magis, mOI'e, rather, comp, of magnopere. magistritus, us, m., magistrate, ruler. magnitiido, inis, f., size, greatness. magnopere, greatly, earnestly (§ J09). magnus, a, um, large, great. major, larger, greater, comp. of magnus; major nitii, elder (lit. greater as to birth) ; majores, urn, m, (sc, nitu), elders; ancestors. male, adv., badly, ill (§ 109). maleficium, i, n., wI·ong-doing. milo, mille, milui, prefer (§ 269). malus, a, um, bad. mandatum, i, n., command, order. mando, 1, assign, commit, consign, betake. maneo, ere, minsi, minsiirus, remain. manipulus, i, m. (military company), maniple. minsuetudo, inia, f., gentleness, leniency. manus, us, f., hand; in military sense, band, force. Marcellus, i, m., Marcellus, a man's name. mare, is, n., sea. maritimus, a, um, of the sea, mario time.

I

260

GENERAL

LATTN-ENGLISH

MaBllilia Massilia, ae, f., lIlarseilles. mater, tria, f., mother. maturo, I, hasten. maxime, especially, sup. of magnopere (ยง 109). maximus, ~ um, greatest, super!. of magnus. medius, a, ~m, middle, the middle of. melior, ius, better; comp, of bonus. memini, isse, l'emember (ยง 281). memoria, ae, f., memonj, recollection, Menapii, orum, JU, pl., the Menapii, a Belgian tribe, mens, mentis, f" mind, mercator, oris; m. trader, meritum, i, n. merit, desert. Messalla, ae, m., Messalla, a man's name. meus, a, um, my. miles, itis, m. soldier. militaris, e, military. mille, indec!., thousand (ยง 114,4) ; pl., milia, ium. minime, adv., least (ยง 109). minimus, a, um, superl, of parvus, minor, less, camp. of parvus ; minor natu, younger. minus, adv., less ; si minus, if not. miser, a, um, ~ol'etched,unfortunate. misericordia, ae, i., pity, mercy. mitto, ere, misi, missus, send, hurl. mobilitas, atis, i" fickleness. modo, only,. just, just now; as conj., pl'ovided tliat. modus, i, m" manner, kind. moenia, ium, n. p!., toalls (of a city). moleste, with trouble, with vexation. mollio, ire, ivi, itus, soften. moneo, ere, monui, monitus, advise, warn. mons, montis, m., mountain, llill. mora, ae, f., delay.

VOCABULARY.

n~ Morini, orum, m. pl., the Morini, a Belgian tribe. moror, ari, moratus sum, delay; ta1'1'Y, unoer, mars, mortis, f., death. mos, moria, m., custom; pl., mores, . characier. Mosa, ae, m., the river Meuse. motua, us, m., revolt. moved, ere, movi, motus, move; touch. mulier, mulieris, f., tooman.' mulbitiidfi, inis, f, multitude; nttmber. multo, by much, abl. of multum. multus, a, um, much; pI., many. miinimentum, i, n., fortification, defence. munio, ire, ivi (ii), itus, fOl'tify, protect. munitio, onis, f., fortification, mfinus, eris, n., reward. miirus, i, m., uiall, nam, f01', Nammeius, i, III., an Helvetian. naneiscor, i, nactus sum, procure, find. nascor, I, natus sum, be 1100'n, rise. natio, onis, f., nation, tribe. natura, ae, f" nature, charactel'. (natus, us), m., only in the abl. sing., natu, as to birth (in phrases expressing age). nauta, ae, m" sailor. navalis, e, naval. navicula, ae, f., small boat, navis, is, f., ship, boat, navo, 1, do with energy,. operam navare, act Vigorously, or manfully. ne, not,. lest,. that . , โ€ข not,. from (a[ter verbs of hindering); ne . . . quidem, not even, emphatic

GENERAL

LATIN-ENGLISH

-ne negative, emphasizing the expression placed between ne and quidemo -ne, enclitic interrog. particle, asking for information. nee (neque), nor; and not. necessarius, a, um, necessary, UI'gent. necesse est, impers., it is necessary. necessitis, atis, f., need, necessity. neglego, ere, len, lectus, neglect. negotium, i (ii), n., business; trouble, difficulty. nemo, m., defective noun, no one; ace. neminem, dat. nemini ; other cases lacking. neque (nee), nor, and'not. nequiquam, in vain, without reason. Nervn, orum, m, pl., the Neroii, a Belgian tribe. neu, and not. neuter, tra, trum, neither (§ 83). nihil, indecl., nothing; as adv., not, no. nihUo, abl., by nothing; nihUo minus, none the less. nisi, unless, except. nlibilis, e, noble. nobilitis, titis, f., nobility; rank. noceo, ere, nocni, nocitiirus, inJUI'e, hm'm. noctii, by night. nocturnus, a, um, at night. nlilli, nolle, nolui, be unwilling (§ 269). nomen, inis, n., name. nominatim, MV., by name; item by item. nlimino, 1, name, mention. non, not,. non solum (nlin modo) • •• sed etiam, not only ••. but also. nlindum, not 1/~t.

VOCABULARY.

261

occiaio nonne, interrog. particle expecting answer " yes. " nonnfillus, a, um, some. nonua, a, um, ninth. noster, tra, trum, ow'; nostri, our men, our soldiers. novem, indecl. adj., nine. Noviodiinum, i, n., Noviodltnum, a Gallic town. novus, a, um, nelo; novissimns, a, um, last, rear ; noviBBimum agmen, the rear. nox, noctis, f., night. niido, 1, strip, deprive,. expose. niiIlus, a, um, no (§ 83). num, interrog. particle expecting answer "no" j in indirect questions, whether. numerus, i, m., numbel', q?lantity. Numidae, arum, m. pl., Numidians,. as adj., N?lmidian. numquam, never. nunc, now. niintio, 1, announce, report. niintius, i (Ii), m., messenger; me&sage. ob, prep. w. aec., on account of. obdiiob, ere, diin, ductus, extend, run, cOll8truct. oberro, I, loander about. obicio, ere, objeci, objectus, throw in the face of; throw up. obitus, us, m., death, des/ruction. obliviscor, i, oblitus sum,lm·get. obBes, idis, m., hostage. obsideo, ere, sedi, sessus, blockade. obsidio, onis, f., siege; oppression. obtineo, ere, ni, tentus, OCCI/PY, hold, obtain, sectll'e; preoail. obvenio, ire, veni, ventum, Illeet, encounter. occisio, linis, f., occasion, opportu· nity.

262

GENERAL

LATIN-ENGLISH

occasUB occssus, iis, m., setting; occasus solis, sunset. oecido, ere, occidi, occisus, kill. occultus, a, urn, hidden; in occulto, ih hiding. oecupo, 1, take possession of, seize; occupy. -...s" occurro, ere,' cum, cursum, rlln to meet; meet. Oceanus, i, m., the ocean. octivus, a, um, eighth; oetavus decimus, eighteenth, Octodfirus, I, m., Octodurus, a village of the Veragri. octo, indeeJ., eight. oculus, i, m., eye. odi, odisse, hate (§ 281). offero, ferre, obtuli, oblitus, offer; suggest; se offerre, volunteer. officium, i (ii), n., duty. omitto, ere, misi, missus, omit, overlook, neglect. omnmo, ad 1'., in all, altogethel' ; with negatives, at all. omnis, e, all, evert). onerarius, a, um, bUI'den-beal'ing; naves onerariae, transports. onus, eris, n., weight. opera, ae, f., assistance, e.tfOl't. opinio, onis, f., opinion, expectation; I'eputation. oportet, ere, oportuit, it behooves, ought (§ 287). oppidanus, a, urn, of the town; as noun, oppidii.ni, townspeople, oppidum, i, n., town, walled town. opportiinus, a, um, fit, Oppol'tune, suitable. opprimo, ere, pressi, pressus, overwhelm. oppugnatio, oms, f., assault, method of assault. oppugno, 1, attack, assault. ops, opis, f. (nom. sing, is not

VOCABULARY. parvulus

used), powel', help; in pl., resources, assistance. optime, sup, of bene (§ 109). optimus, a, um, sup. of bonus (§ 101).

opto, 1, desire. o:pus, indecl., n., need; opus est, it is necessaru ; there is need. opus, eris, n., ioork ; fortification. ora, ae, f., coast. oratio, onis, f., speech, words. orator, oris, m., orator ; envoy. ordo, inis, m., rank; order, arrangement. orior, orm, ortus sum, arise, spring, be descended, ortus, perf. participle of orior. Osismi, orum, m. pl. , Osismi, a Gallic tribe. ostendo, ere, tendi, tentus, show, explain, P., abbreviation of Pfiblius. pabulum, i, n., fOI'age, food (of animal ). paco, 1, subdue, reduce to peace. Paemani, orum, m. pl., the Paemani, a Belgian tribe. paene, almost, nearly, paenitet, ere, paenituit, impers., it causes regret (§ 287), palfis, Iudis, f., marsh. pando, ere, pandr, passus, unfold, open, stretch out. pir, gen. paris, equal. paratus, a, urn, ready, prepared. parco, ere, peperci,parsiirus, spare, (§ 306, 2). paro, 1, pl'epare, get ready. pars, partis, f., part, division; side; dil'ection, quarter. partim, pal'Uy. parvulus, a, urn, slight, insignificant, trifling.

GENERAL

LATIN-ENGLISH

parvu8 parvus, a, um, small. passus, us, m., pace (five feet). patefaeio, ere, leci, factus, open. pateo, ere, ui, lie open, extend. pater, patris, m., father, ancestor. patior, i, paasus sum, suife1'" allow. patria, ae, f., COltntl'y,fatherland. patrius, a, um, ancestral. pauci, ae, a, few, used onl in pI. paucitis, itis, f., ,fewness, small nttlnber. paulitim, little by little, gradually. paulisper, for a little while. paulo, ab!., by a little. paululum, a very little, slightly. paulum, a little, for a little. pix, icis, f., peace. pecunia, ae, f., money. pedes, itis, m., foot-soldier ; in pl., infant1·y. pedester, tris, tre, infantry (as adj.),

Pedius, i, m., Pedius, a Roman lieutenant. peditatus, iis, m., infantry. pellis, is, f., skin, hide. pello, ere, pepuli, pulsus, drioe ; drive out, banish; rout, defeat. per, prep. \Y. acc., through, over, among; by means Of, through the instrumentality of,. on account Of; during. perdo, ere, didi, ditus, lose. perdiico, ere, duxi, ductus, conduct; extend, construct. perfero, ferre, tuli, latus, carry through, convey, endure (§ 204). perficio, ere, leci, fectus, accomplish. perfriugo, ere, fregi, frictus, break th1'Ough, dest1·oy. perfuga, ae, m., deserter. periclitor, 1, make trial. periculosus, a, um, dangerous. periculum, i, n., danger.

VOCABULARY.

263

pondu8 permitta, ere, misi, missus, pertllit, grant, intrust, delivC1', cede (§ 306, 2). permoveo, ere, movi, motus, move deeply,. astonish, alarm. perpetuus, a, um, perpetual. persequor, i, secutus sum, follow up. perspicio, ere, spexi, spectus, see, see throuqh ; learn, understand. persnadeo, ere, suisi, suisum, persuade. perterreo, ere, ui, itus, ten·ify. pertineo, ere, ui, pertatn, tend to; extend, reach, perturbo, 1, agitate, throw into con. fusion, disturb. pervenio, ire, veni, ventum, come, arrive. pes, pedis, m., foot. peto, ere, ivi (Ii), itus, seek, request ; attack. phalanx, angis, f., phalanx, solid mass of troops. pilum, i, n., javelin, spear. Piso, onis, ru., Piso, a man's name. placeo, ere, ui, iturus, please. planities, ei, f., plain. plebs, plebis, f., common people. plenus, a., um, full. plerique, aeque, aque, most. plerumque, for the most part, generally. plures, a, more,. several; plural of pliis (§ 91). plurimus, a, um, sup. of multus (§ 101). plus, camp. of multus (§§ 91, 101). poena, ae, f., penalty, punishment. polliceor, eri, itus sl1m,promise. pollicititio, onis, f., promise. Pompejus, Pompei, m., Pompey, a man's name. pondus, eris, n., weight.

264

GENERAL

LATIN

E"VGLISH

rOGABULARl-.

pono pro pono, ere, posui, positus, put, praefero, ferre, tuli, latus, choose. place, set up, establish; castra prefer (§ 204); put before; se ponere, pitch a camp. praeferre, outdo. pons, pontis, ui., bridge. praefieio, ere, leci, fectus, put populor, 1, lay waste, decastate. in charge, place in command. populus, i, m., people. (§ 306, 3) . • porrectus, ai-11m,euended. praemitto, ere, misi, missus, send porta, ae, f.,..gate. ahead, send in advance. porto, 1, carry, bring. praemium, i (Ii), n., retoard, portus, us, 111., harbor, praescribo, ere, scripsi, scriptus, posco, ere, poposei, demand. prescribe, direct. possessio, onis, f., possession. praesens, praesentis, present, pres. possideo, ere, sedi, StlSSUS, possess. participle of praesum, used as adj. possum, posse, potui, I.e aU e, be praesertim, especially. poicerful, can (§ 253). praesidium, i eli), glll'rison, gum'd; post, adv., aftenoards. sojet», .•el·urity, protection. post, pr p. with-acc., after, behind. praesto, are, iti, itus, surpass, expostei, afteruards, eel; perform, .•tun», exhibit; posterns, a, urn, following (§ 102, 2); praestat, it is better. posteri, arum, m., descendants. praesum, esse, fui, fu~us, be in postquam, conj., after. charge of (§ :?52 ; 30H, 3). postremo, adv., finally. praeter, prep. w. aco., except, bepoetridie, adv., on the next day. sides. postulitum, i, n., demand. praeterei, besides. postulo, 1, demand. praetor, oris, m., praetor. potens, entis, pres. participle of premo, ere, pressi, pressus, press, possum, used as adj., pouierful, crowd; pasa., be hard pressed. potestis, itis, f., power, 0PPOI'- primipilus, i, m., primipilus (first tUllity, possibility. centurion of the first cohort). potior, iri, itus sum, gain posses- primo, fil'st, at first, firstly. simi of. primum, .lir.-t./01' the first time. potius, 1·ather. primus, a, urn, first, foremost, leadprae, prep. w. abl., in comparison ling; super!. of compo prior loith. (§ 102, 1). praeaciitus, a, um, shm'pened at the princeps, ipis, m., chief; leadl'l', point. illstigator; as adj., .first. praebeo, ere, ui, itus, fm·ni~lI. prior, us,former, before (another) ; afford. priores, those in adVallCe (102, praeceps, ipitis, hea£llong. 1). praecipio, ere, cepi, ceptus, en- pristinus, a, urn, pristine, former. join. priusquam, before. praedo., o.e, f., booty. privitus, a, urn, private; as noun, praedo, onis, Ill., 1·obbe1·. privitus, i, m., a private citizen. praedor, 1, plundel·. pro, prep. w. ab!., before, in fronl.

GENERAL

LATTN-ENGLISll

probo of; for, instead of'; in behalf of; in accordance with. probe, 1, approve. procedo, ere, eessi, eessfirus, advance; go ahead. procul, fa,', far off, at a distance. procumbo, ere, cubui, lie dUlIJIt. procnro, 1, care f01', have charge of. procurro, ere, eucurri, eursum, run forward. proelior, 1, flght. proelium, i (ii), n., battle. profectio, onis, f., departure. proficiscor, I, profectus sum, set out. prolligo, 1, put to rout. profugio, ere, fugi, fugitiirus, f'ee, escape; flee for refuge. prognitus, a, um, descended. progredior, i, gressus sum, advance, go forwal·d. prohiblo, ere, ui, itus, keep away, keep o.ff; keep from, prevent. proicio, ere, jeci, jectus, throw for'IDaI'd;cast; tM'OIOatoay, abandon. ptomoveo, ere, movi, motus, move

YOC.ABULARr.

265

quidam

provincia, ae, f., province. provolo, 1, fly fortoard, proxima, superl. of prope (§ 109), recently. proximus, a, um, nearest, next (§ 102, 1).

priidentia, ae, f., foresight, prudence; wisdom. publicus, a, um, public. Piiblius, i (ii), m.. Publius, a mall's name. puer, i, 111., boy. pugna, ae, f., battle. pugno, 1, fight. pulcher, ehra, chrum, beautiful. pulsus, perf. pass. participle of pello, puto, 1, think.

qui, adv., where. quadringenti, ae, a, four hundred. quaero, ere, quaesivi, qUaeeitUB, seek; inquire. qualia, e, rel., as; such as; interrog., of uituu. sort'l 1. quam, how? 2. quam, than. forioard, quamquam, although. prope, neal'ly, almost. quamvis, though, although. propero, 1, hasten. propinquitis, itis, f., nea"ness; quando, interrog., when. quantum, tun» much; as 1IIuch as. kinship, blood relationship. quantus, a, um, Iun» great; as propinquus, a, um, neal'. qreat a.~. pro pono, ere, posui, positus, place quire, reI. and interrog., trhereji're. in front ; set up. propter, prep. w. ace., on account of. quirtus, a, um, fo/trth. propterei, on that account, there- quasi, tiS if. quattuor, indec\., foUl'. fore; propterei quod, because. -que, enclitic conj., and. propugno, 1, defend oneself. pro~e~uor, i, secutuB sum, falloto; queror, i, questus Bum, complain. qui, quae, quod, toho, tohich. ai1'i!.re8tt...-J quia, conj., because. prospectuB, us, Ill., vieto. quicumque, quaecumque, quodprotinus, !uI·thIOieh, straightway. cumque, whoever, whatever. proturoo, 1, thl'OIOinto confusion. pro video, ere, vidi, visus, provide, quidam, quaedam, quiddam or quoddam, a certain (§ 146). take care; foresee.

266

GENERAL

LATIN-ENGLISH

VOCABULARY.

renovo qu1dem receioe ; with reflexive se, recover, quidem, indeed, even; of course; retreat. ne , . . quidem, not even, quin, that not ; by which not, but reciiso, 1, refuse. red do, ere, reddidi, redditus, rethat, that, from. turn, give back ; render, make. quinam, quaenam, quodnam, what, redeo, ire, ii, itiirus, return, go back pmy! (§ 280). qnindecim, i decl., fifteen" redigo, ere, egi, ictus, reduce ; quingenti, ae, a, five hundl'ed. qUinquiginti, indecl., fifty. render. quinque, indecl., five. redimo, ere, emi, emptus, ransom. quintus, a, um, fifth, redintegro, 1, l·enew. Quintus, i, m., Quintus, a man's Redones, um, m, pl., the Redone8, a name. Gallic tri be. quis, quid, interr. pron. who, uiha; 'I reduco, ere, diixi, ductus, lead back. quis, qua (quae), quid, indef. pron. refero, ferre, rettuli, relituB, bring and adj., any, anyone (§ 146), back, return; bl'ingi report quisquam, quaequam, quidquam (§ 264). (quicquam), any, anyone (§ 146). reficio, ere, leci, fectus, l·ebuild. quisque, quaeque, quidque (quic- ref ringo, ere, fregi, frictus, break que), each (§ 146). down. quisquis, quicquid, whatever. regio, onis, f., region. quivis, quaevis, quodvis, any you regnum, i, n., regal power, kingdom. Wish, any whatever, reicio, ere, rejeci, jectus, hurl \. quo, rel. and interr, ad v., whither, back, dl'ive back, I'epulse. to tohich. . relanguesco, ere, become enfeebled. 2.. quo, conj., in order that. relitus, perf. pass. participle of quod, because, on the gl'ound that. refero, quominus, from (after verbs of hin- relictus, perf. pass. participle of redering). Iinquo. quondam, fo?'merly, once upon a relinquo, ere, liqui, Iietus, leave, time. leave behind. quoniam, conj., inasmuch as. reliquus, qua, quum, remaining, quoque, also, always placed after left; rest of. the word it modifies. remaneo, ere, mansi, minsurus, remain. rimus, i, m. branch, remex, igis, m., rOtoer. ratio, onis, f., reckoning, account; Remi, orum, m. pl., the Remi, a theory; ?'easoni consideration; Gallic tribe. plan. reminiscor, i, rememher. ratis, is, f., raft. remitto, ere, misi, missus, relax; Rauraci, orum, m. pl., the Rauraci, send back, hU1'l back. an ancient tribe. removea, ere, movi, motus, l'emove. recens, gen. recentis, recent. Remus, i, m., one of the Remi. recipio, ere, cepi, ceptus, take flack, I renovo, 1, renew.

GENERAL

LATIN-ENGLISH

r8niintio renuntio, 1, bring back loord, report. repeUo, ere, reppuli, repulsus, d,-tve back, repel, repulse. repente, suddenly. repentinus, a, um, sudden. reperio, ire, repperi, repertus, discover, find, secm路e. res, rei, f., thing, affair, circumstance; pl., fortunes. rescindo, ere, rescidi, rescissus, tear down. resisto, ere, restiti, resist (搂 306,2). respieio, ere, exi, ectus, look back. respondeo, ere, respondi, responsus, answel', reply. respOnsum, i, n., answer, reply. res publica, gen. rei piiblicae, f., state, repub~ic. respuo, ere, ui, reject. restituo, ere, ni, iilus, restore. retineo, ere, ui, tentus, retain. revertor, I, return ; perf., reverti. revoco, 1, recall. rex, regis, m., king. Rhenus, I, m., Rhine. Rhodanus, i, m., Rhone. ripa, ae, f., bank. rogo, I, ask. Roma, ae, f., Rome. Rominus, a, um, Roman; 88 noun, a Rornan. riibus, i, m., bramble, bramble-bush. rumor, oris, m., rumor, report. riipes, is, f., cliff. riirsus, again.

I

VOCABULARY.

267

senritus saroina, ae, f., pack, bundle, load, baggage. satis, adv. and noun, sufficiently; enough. satisfacio, ere, feci, factum, satisfy, make amencls. saxum,.i, n., rock: scientia, ae, f., knowledge. scio, ire, scivi, scitus, know. scribo, ere, scripsi, scriptus, write; of laws, draw up. scutum, I, II., shield. se, reflexive, he; himself, herself (搂 123). sectio, onis, f., booty. secundus, a, um, second; favorable. secundum, prep. w. aec., along. sed, but. sedecim, indecl., sixteen. sedes, is, f., seat, abode, dwellingplace. semper, always. senitor, tom, m., senator. senitus, iis, m., senate. senex, senis, m., old man; 88 adj., old. Senones, um, m, the Senones, a Gallic tribe. sententia, ae, f., opinion, sentiment, decision. sentiO, ire, sensi, sensus, feel, percei"e. sentis, is, f., briar, briar-bush. separitim, separately. septem, indecl., seven. septimus, a, um, seventh. Sabinus, i, m , Sabintl8, a lieutenant septingenti, ae, a, se"en hund,路ed. sepultiira, ae, f., burial. of Caesar. Sabis, is, m., a Belgian river, the Sequani, orum, m. pl., Sequani, a Gallic tribe. modern Sambre. sequ3r, i, secutus sum, follow; saepe, often. seek. SMpeS, is, f., hedge. sagittarius, i., m., archer, bowman. sermo, oDis, m., conversation. servitiis, iitis, f., servitude, bondage. salus, liitis, f., safety, welfare.

268

GENERAL

LATIN-ENGLISH

servo servo, 1, save; presel've, maintain. servus, i, m., slave. sescenti, ae, a, six hundred. sex, indec!., six. sexaginta, indecl., sixty. sexcenti, ae, a, six hundred. Sextius, i, m. ,,~xtit!s, a man's name, sextus, a, um. sixth; sextus decimus, sixteenth: si, if; si minus, if not. sic, so (of manner). signifer, i, 1U., standard-bearel', significatio, onis, f., sign, signal. significo, 1, show; mean, signum, i, n., signal,. standm·d. silentium, i (ii), n., silence, silva, ae, f., fores: silvestris, e, 1000ded. simul, together, at the same time. simul ac (atque), as soon as. sin, couj, but if. sine, prep. w. abl., without. aingularia, e, single, singular, special, exceptional. singuli, ae, a, one at a time, each, separate. sinister, tra, trum, left, left hand, socius, i (ii), m. ally, comrade. sol, is, m., sun. sollicito, 1, excite, aI'ouse; tamper toith, solum, only; non solum ..• sed etiam, not only ... but also, salus, a, um, alone, only (§ 83). solvo, ere, solvi, soliitus, loose; of ships, unmoor; naves solvere, set sail, sonus, i, m" sound. spatium, i (ii), n" space, distance; time. species, ei, f., sight. specnlator, oris, m" spy. spero, 1, hope, hope for,. governs the acc.

VOCABULARY. Hummus

spes, spei, f., hope, spiritus, iis, m., breath ; arroqance. sponte (abl. of obsolete spons), of one's own accord ; voluntarily. statim, at once, immediately. statio, onis, f., station, post,. picket. sta tua, ae, f., statue. statuo, ere, ui, iitus, decide, statiira, ae, f., stature. strepitus, iis, m., noise, "proal'. studeo, ere, ui, be eager, P(ly attention to. studium, i, n., zeal, eaqerness, enthusiasm. stultitia, ae, f., folly. sub, prep. w. ace. and ab!., under; towards, subdiico, ere, niixi, ductus, withdrato, leael away; snatch away. subeo, ire, ii, itiirus, approach (§ 280), subito, suddenly. sublevo, 1, relieve. submitto, ere, misi, missus, send, despatch. subruo, ere, ui, utus, undermine. subsequor, i, seeiitus sum, follow, follow after. subsidium, i (ii), n, assistance; pI. reinforcements. succedo, ere, cessi, cessiirus, approach, drmo near; follow,. succeed. suceendo, ere, cendi, census, set fire to, Suessiones, urn, m. pl., the Suessiones, a. Belgian tribe. sul, self, onese~f (§ 123). sum, esse, fui, futiirus, be. summa., ae, f., sum, total, supreme contl'ol, management. summus, hi(/hest, gl'eatest, top of, top (§ 373); sup. of superus (§ 102, 2).

GENERAL 81lmO

LA7'IN-ENGLISH

VOCABULARr.

269

trAnsfgG

Bumo, ere, Biimpsi, siimptuB, take, tempt6, 1, attempt, try, make trial assume. of. superior, us, higher, upper, above; tempus, oris, n., time. former; comp, of superue (ยง 102, tendo, ere, tetendi, tentus, stretch; 2). stretch out; stretch one's course; Bupero, 1, ovel'come, defeat, surpass; go. be superior. ten eo, ere, ui, hold. Bupersedeo, ere, siidi, seasum, re- tener, a, um, tender, young. frain from. tergum, i, n., back; i tergo, from superaum, esse, fui, remain, be over, behind. survive. terra, ae, f., land, a land, country. supplex, icis, m., suppliant; also terror, oris, m., terror, fear. used adjectively. tertius, a, um, third. supplicatio, oms, f., thanksgiving, testiido, inis, f., tortoise; a !p.ilitary supplicium, i (ii), n., torture, punformation. ishment. Teutoni, orum, m. pI, the Teutons, supra, prep. w. ace, and adv., above. a Germanic tribe. As adv., previously. Themistocles, is, m., Themlstocles, supremus, a, um, superl, of superus an Athenian statesman. (ยง 102, 2). timeo, ere, ni, fear. suspiciO, onis, f., suspicion. timor, oris, m., fear. sustento, 1, hold out, sustain, en- Titiirius, i, m., Titul'ius, a man's dure. name. sustineo, ere, ui, withstand,' hold Titus, i, m., Titus, a man's name. out. tollo, ere, sustuli, sublitus, raise, sUBtuli, 1>erf. indo act. of tollo. pick up ; take, take away. suus, a, um, his; her; its ,. their. tormentum, i, n., engine, for hurl. ing missiles. T., abbreviation of Titus. tot, indecl., so many. tabula, ae, f., tablet; pI. lists. totidem, Indeel., the same number, talentum, i, n., a talent (about just as many. $1200). totus, a, um, whole, entire (ยง 83). talis, e, such. trabs, is, f., beam. tam,80 (of degree). trado, ere, trididi, triditus, hand tamen, nevertheless, yet. over. tantulus, a, um, so slight. tridiico, ere, dixi, ductus, lead tantum (n. of tantus), so much. across; lead through. tantus, a, um, so great. trino, 1, swim across. tardo, 1, retard, check. trins, prep. with acc., acrOB8. tardus, a, um, slow, listless. trinseo, ire, ii, itus, cross; cross regimentum, 1, n., c017ering. over. telnm, i, n., javelin. trinBgredior, I, gre8BUBBum, cross. temere, rashly. trinBigo, ere, iigi, ictuB, pass, โ€ข templnm, i, n., temple. spend.

270

GENERAL

LATIN-ENGLISH

VOCABULARY.

versor trlnsportCi tra.nsporto, 1, transport, set across. urgeo, ere, urBi, press, hard press. transversua, a, um, crosswise, CI·OSS.Usipetes, um, m., Usipetes, a Gel' man tribe. trecenti, ae, a, three hundred. iisque, even. tres, tria, three (§ 114, 2). Treveri, orum, III. pl., Trevel'i, a USUS,US, m., experience; use, service, advantage. tribe of Belgians. tribiin11s, i, ID., tribune, officer in a ut, as; that, in order that " with R() n legion j also a tribune of verbs of fearing, that not. uter, utra, utrum, into adj., which the, plebs. (of two)? tridulim, i, n., three days. uterque, utraque, utrumque, gen. triple(l:, icis, triple. utriuaque (cf. § 83), each (of tu, tu~, thou, yOI' (§ 122). tuba, ae, I., trumpet, two); in pl. both (of two parties). tueor, ~ri, gum'd, watch. Tulingi, OrUID,m. pl., the Tulingi, uti, Bee ut. an ancient tribe. utinam, affirmative particle (§ 393) .-tum, then, at that time. iitor, i, UBUBBum, use (§ 344, 1) • tumulus, I, m., mound. utrum, whether. tumultus, us, m., tumult; uprising. tunc, then. vacuus, a, um, vacant, empty. Turoni, orum, m, pl., the TUI'oni, a vadum, i, n., ford, shallow water. Gallic tribe. valeo, ere, ui, valiturus, be strong; turpis, e, base. avail, prevail. turpitudo, inis, I., shame, disgrace. vallis, valliB, I., valley. turris, is, I., tower. vallum, i, n. wall, breastworks; tutus, a, nm, safe, secure. intrenchment. tuus, a, um, thy, youl' (§ 124). varlus, a, um, various. vasto, 1, lay toaste. ubi, rel, and in terr. adv., where; Veliocassaa, om, m, pl., the Veliowhen. casses, a Belgian tribe. Ubii, orum, ID" Ubii, a German vendo, ere, didi, ditus, sell. tribe. \V'euelli, orum, m. pl., Venelli, a ulciscor, I, ultus sum, avenge. Gallic tribe. fillus, a, um, any (§ 83). Veneti, orum, m. pl., Veneti, a Galulterior, us, farther, more distant lic tribe. (§ 102). venifi, ire, veni, ventum, come. una, together. ventus, i, m., wind. unde, whence. verbum, i, n., tOOI'd. iindecimus, a, um, eleventh, vereor, eri, itus sum, fear. iiudeviginti, indecl., nineteen. vergo, ere, extend. undique, from all pal'ts or sides. vero, indeed, but. univerBuB, a, um, all, complete. verBor, ari, atus Bum, move about; iiuus, a, um, one, alone (§ 83). be engaged in; be involved ill; urbs, urbis, I., city. stay, I'emain.

GENERAL

LATIN-ENGLISH

verte> verto, ere, verti, versus, turn. ; terga vertere, flee. Verucloetius, i, Verucloetius, an Helvetian envoy. vesper, i, m., evening. vester, vestra, vestrum, your. veteranus, a, um, vetm路an. veto, are, ui, itua, forbid. vetus, gen. veteris, old, long-standing. vexillum, i, n., banner, flag. vexo, 1, harass, annoy; ravage. via, ae, f., way, road. victor, oris, m., victor, as adj., vietorious, victoria, ae, f., victolOY. vicus, i, m., village. video, ere, vim, visus, see; in pass" be seen; seem, appear; seem best. vigilia, ae, f., watch (of the night). viginti, indecl., twenty. vimen, inis, n., osier, willow shoot. vineo, ere, vici, viet us, conquer. vinea, ae, f., vineyard, trellis; shed, used to protect soldiers in siege operations.

VOCABULARY.

271

vulnus vfnum, i, n., wine. vir, I, m., man. vires, pi. of vis. Viromandui, orum, m. pl., the Viromandui, a Belgian tribe. virtus, tiitis, f., valor, virtue. vis, vis, f. (ace. vim), violence; number; vim faeere, do violence, violate; pi. vires, ium, strength. visus, perf. pass. participle of video. vita, ae, f., life. vito, 1, avoid. vix, scarcely, with dijJIculty. voco, I, call, summon; name. volo, velIe, volui, loish, be willing, (搂 269). voluntas, atis, f., wish, desire, willingness, consent. vox, vocis, f., voice, word, exclamation. vulgo, gen路erally. vulnero, wound. vulnus, eris, n., wound.

ENGLISH-LATIN abandon abandon, dssero, ere, serul, sertus. (able), be able, possum, posse, potui. absent, be absent, absum, esse, Mul, Mutfirus. (account), on account of, propter, prep. w. ace. accuse, a cnso, 1. across, trans, prep. w. ace. adjudge, jiidico, 1. advance, progredior, I, gressns sum. advice, consilium, I (ii), n. after (adv.), post. after (conj.), postquam. after, post, pl·ep. w. ace. afterwards, postea. against, contra, prep. w. ace. all, omnis, e. almost, paene. already, jam. although, though, quamquam; quamvts j cum. always, semper. ancestors, majores, um, tn. and, et; -que (enclitic); atque. announce, niintio, 1. another, alius, a, ud. answer, respondeo, ilre, spondI, sponsum, any, fillus, a, urn (§ 8~). anybody, anyone, anything, quisquam, quaequam, quidquam; quia, quid. a.ny you please, quilibet, quaelibet, quidlibet or quodlibet (§ 146).

VOCABULARY. bear appoint, dtco, ere, dixi, dictus. approach, noun, aditus, fis, m. approach, verb, appropinquo, 1; adeo, ire, it, itus, approve, probo, 1. Ariovistus, Ariovistus, I, m, arm, armo, 1. arms, arma, orum, n. pl. army, exercitus, fis, m. army on the march, agmen, minis, n. arrival, ad ventus, fis, m. as long as, dum. as soon as, simul atque (ac), ask, rogo, 1. assemble (intrans.), convenlo, Ire, vent, ventum. assistance, subsidium, I (il), n.; auxilium, I (it), n. (at hand), be at hand, adsum, esse, adful, adfutiirus. at once, statim. Athens, Atheuae, arulJl, f. attaci:, ado rior, 11'1, nrtus sum. attack, assault (a town),oppugno, 1.

avoid, vito, 1. bad, malns, a, urn. barbarian (adj.), barbarus, a, UID; (noun), barbarus, I, m. battle, proelium, I (ii), n. be, Bum, esse, ful, futnrus. be able, possum, posse, potul, (§ 253). bear, faro, ferre, tuli, lii-tus.

272

ENGLISH-LATIN beast of burden beast of burden, jilmentum, I, n. beautiful, pulcher, chra, chrum. because, quod; quia; cum (§ 407, 2). become, fio, fleri, factus sum. before (prep. and adv.), ante. before (con}.), antequam, priusquam, begin, coepi, coepisse (§ 281.) behoove, it behooves, oportet, lire, oportuit (§ 287). Belgians, Belgae, arum, m. believe, credo, ere, crMidI, creditus, betake oneself, contero, ferre, tull, collatus, with the rejlex1l1epron better, melius, between, inter, prep. w. ace. blame, cul po, are, ii.vI,li.tus. boat, navis, is,f. booty, praeda, ae, f. born, be born, nascor, I, natus sum. born, natus, a, urn. both, each, uterque, utraque, utrumque. boundary, finis, is, m. boy, puer, ert, m. brave, fortis, e. bravely, fortiter; from the ad}., fortis, e. bridge, pons, pontis, m. brief, brevis, e. 'r bring, allero, ferre, auult, allatus, bring about, efficio, ere, flicI, fectus. bring against, Infero, ferre, tull, illatus, with dat. of indirect obi. (§ 306,3). . bring back, refer~, ferre, rettull, rellUus. Britain, Britannia, ae, f. brother, frater, trls, m. by (of personal agent), 1\, ab, prep. w. abl. Caesar, Caesar, Is, m. call (name), appeIJo, 1. call (summon), vocO, 1.

VOGABULAllY.

278

courageoull1y call together, convocO, 1. camp, castra, orum, n. can (be able), possum, posse, potut, captive, captlvus, i, m. capture, capio, ere, clipI, captus, cause, causa, ae, f. cavalry, equltss, urn, m. pl. of eques, itis j of cavalry, eqnestrian, equester, tris, tre, cease, dlisistO, ere, dlistitl. certain, certain one, quldam, quaedam, quiddam, or quoddam (146). charge, be in charge, praesum, esse, fut, constl'ued with dat. (§ 306, 2). charge, put in charge, praeficib, ere, fliel, fectus, comtrued with dat. (§ 306, 3). children,llberI, orum (um), m. choose, dliligO, ere, lligi, ll!ctus. circumstance, res, et, f. citizen, fellow-citizen, clvis, is, m. city, urbs, urbis, I. coast, om, ae, f. cohort, cohors, rtis, f. collect, colligo, ere, legi, llictus. come, veniO, Ire, vlinI, ventum. command (noun), mandatum, I, •• command (verb), Impero, 1. commander, imperator, Oris, m. common, communis, e. compel, cogo, ere, coligl, coll.ctus. concern, it concerns, interest, esse, fuit. concerning, dli, prep. w. abl. confer, colloquor, I, locil.tus sum. conference, colloquium, r (U), n. consul, cOnsul, is, m. consult (with), dliUber~, 1. contend, dImicO, 1. contented, contentus, a, um. council, concilium, I (it), n. country, native country, patria, &e,/. courageously, audll.cter, from mU. audllJr, acis.

274

ENGLISH-LATIN cowardly

VOCABULARY.

flee endeavor, conor, ari, atus sum, dep, endure, perfero, ferre, tuli, latus. enemy (in military sense), hostis, is, m.; (collectively), hostes, iuin, danger, perlculum, I, n. m. dare, audeo, ere, ausus sum, semi- enemy (personal), inimicus, I, m. dep. , enough, satis (ยง 322). dau tel', filia, ae, f. entreat, imploro, l. day, dies, ei, m. envoy, legatus, r, m. decide, constituo, ere, ui, iitus. establish, confirm Ii, 1. decree, decerno, ere, crevl, cretus, even, etiam, deep, altus, a, um, not even, ne ... quidem, with the defend, detendo, ere, fendi, fens us. emphatic w01'cl 01' phrase between. deliberate, delrbero, are, avI, atus. ever, always, semper. delight, delecto, 1. exhaust, wear out, conficio, ere, demand, f1agito, 1. feci, fectus. depth, altitudo, inis, f. expect, exspecto, 1. desire, wish, opto, l. difficult, difflcilis, e. family (stock), genus, eris, n. dignity, dignitas, atls, r. farmer, agricola, ae, m. discover, reperio, ire, repperi, reper- father, pater, patris, m. tus. favor, beneficium, i (ii), n. dismiss, dimitto, ere, mlsi, missus. fear (noun), timor, Oris, m. distant, be distant, absum, esse, fear (vel'b), timeo, ere, ul, afui, afutiirus. fellow-citizen, clvis, is, m. do, facio, ere, feci, factus. fertile, ferax, acis. doubt, be in doubt, dubito, 1. few, panel, ae, a. drive back, repello, ere, reppuli, field, agel', agrl, m. repulsus. fiercely, acriter ; /1'0'111 the adj., acer, drive out, expello, ere, pull, pulsus. acris, acre. duty, officium, i (it), n. fifteen, qutndecim, fight, pugno, 1. each, quisque, quaeque, quidque. fill up, cornpleO, ere, eVi, etus. each (of two), uterque, utraque, find (by sem'ching), reperio, ire, raputrum que. peri, repertus. each other, sui, sibi, se j also nos, find (come upon), inveniq, ire, veni, VOs,used refleXively. ventns. eager, alacer, alacris, alacre. first, adj., primus, a, urn. easily, facile, /1'0'111 adj. facilis, e. first, adv., primuU1. easy, facUis, e. fit out, equip, illstruO, ere,' iixI, else, alius, a, ud. iictus. embankment, rampart, agger, eris, five, qUinque. m. flee, flee from, fugio, ere, fugi, encourage, incito, 1. fugi tiirus. cowardly, ignavus, a, um. Crass us, Crassus, I, m. cross, transe5, ire, ii, iturus,

ENGLISH-LATIN Beet fleet, classis, is, I(following), on the following day, postrldie,

fond, fond of, cupid us, a, um, foot, pes, pedis, m. forage, pabuluui, I, n, ford, vadum, I, n. forest, sil va, ae, Iforget, obliviscor, t, oblttus sum. fortify, miiniO, Ire, Ivl, Itus, fortune, fortiina, ae, f. fortune (in sense of pl'operty), fortiinae, arum, Ifour, quattuor. free (adj.), libel', a, um, free, set free, lfbero, 1. friend, amicus, I, m. friendship, amlcitia, ae, Ifrom, a, abo from, out of, ~, ex. from (= of), with verbs of demanding, etc., a, abo from, after verbs of hindering, etc., quominus, ne, front (adj.), primus, a, um, Galba, Galba, ae, m. garrison, praesidium, i (iI), n. gate, porta, ae, IGaul (a Gaul), Gallus, I, m. Gaul (the count?·u), Gallia, ae, Igeneral, dux, duels, m. Geneva, Genava, ae,1German (a Ge?'man),Germanus, I,?n. Germany, Germania, ae, f get ready (trans.), paro, 1. give, do, dare, dedi, datus. glad, laetus, a, urn. go, eo, Ire, Iv! (ii), itum (§ 280). go around, circumeo, ire, IvI (Ji), itus (§ 280). go away, abeo, ire, ii, itiirus. good, bonus, a, urn. great, magnus, a, um (§ 101).

VOCABULARY.

275

how many

greatest (of qualities), summus, a, um. greatly, magnopere. (ground), on the ground that, quod. guard, watch, tueor, erl. Haedui, Haedul, orum, m. happen, be done, fiO, fieri, factus sum. happen, it happens, it befalls, impersonal, accidit, ere, accidit. happy, beatus, a, um, harass, vexo, are, avt, Mus. harbor, portus, Us, m. harm, detrimentum, t, n. hate, MI, odlsse (§ 281). have, habeo, ~re, ut, itus, he, is (ea, id) (§ 137). hear, hear of, audio, Ire, lvI, ttus, heart, courage, animus, I, m. helpe-auxiltum, I (it?, n. Helvetii, Helvetli, orum, m. her, suus, a, urn (§ 124,1), rejtexiIJe. here, hie. high, altus, a, urn. highest (of qualities), summus, a, urn. hill, collis, is, m. himself, herself, etc., SUI, sibl, 8~, reflexioe. hinder, impede, lmpedio, Ire, tvt, Itus.

his, suus, a, urn, reflexive. (home), at home, doml (§ 366, 2). home (to one's home), domum (§ 302, b). honor, honor, Oris, m. hope, apes, et, Ihorsemau, eques, Itis, m. hostage, obses, idis, m. house, domus, iis, f, how much, followed by gen. of th, whole (§ 322), quantum. how many, quot, indecl.

276

ENGLISH-LATIN

hundred hundred, centum, hurry, contendO, ere, tendt, tum.

ten-

I, ego, meL if, Ili... eon}. in, in, prep. to. abl. inasmuch &s, quonlam (ยง 407, 1). increase (trailS.), augeo, ere, auxI, auctus. infantry, pedite , urn, m. inform, certiOrem faciO, ere, feel, factus. be informed, certior no, fieri, factus sum. inhabitant, incola, ae, m. injure, noceo, ere, ut, itiirus, with the dat. (ยง 306, 2). . into, in, prep. se. ace. island, insula, ae, f Italy, Italia, ae, f.

VOCABULARY. move lead across, trll.dilcO, ere, uiixi, duetus, leader, dux, duels, flI. leave, relinquO, ere, Itqut, !Ictus. legion, legio, onis,.r. lend (help), ferO, ferre, tult, latus. less, minus. lest, ne, letter (an epistle), litterae, arum, f. liberty, ltbertas, atis, f lieutenant, legatus, I, m. life, Vita, ae, Jlike, similis, e. line of battle, acies, el, Jlittle (a little), paulum, long (adj.), longus, a, um, long (adv.), diii. love, amO, are, avi, ll.tus. loyalty, fides, el, f.

make, facio, ere, feci, factus. make (somebody 01' something safe, bold, clear, ezc.), reddo, ere, redjavelin, telum, I, n. didi, redditus, join (battle), committe, ere, mtst, man, homo, in is, m., the genel'al missus, term ; man cs opposed to woman, or as a compFmentary designakeep away, ward off, prohibeo, ere, tion, vir, virt, m. ul, itus. many, multi, ae, a; very ma.ny, kill, in terficiO, ere, feel, fectus. complures, a; gen. complnriuui. kind, genus, generis, n. march (noun), iter, itineri , 11. king, rex, regis, m. march (vel'b), iter facerc, lit., make know, cio Ire, Ivl, Itus. amal'ch.

lack, be lacking, desum, deesse, deful (ยง 252). land, ager, agrl, m. land (opposed to water), terra, ap,/. large, magnus, a, urn (ยง 101). last, last part of, limiting a nOli 11, extremus, a, urn (ยง 373). law, statute, lex, legis,f. lell.d, diicO, ere, diixi, ductus. lead, lead out, lead away, dediicO, ere, duxI, ductus.

march forth, egredior, I, gressus sum. messenger, nuntius, I (it), 'm. mile, mille passus, lit., thousand paces; pl., milia passuum. money, pecunia, ae,f. more (ado.), magis. more (substantive), pliis, pliiris, n. most, plerique, aeque, aque. mountain, mOns, montis, m. move, moveo, ere, movi, mOtus.

ENGLISH-LA1'1N muoh much, iuultus, a, um, my, meus, a, urn, name, nomen, inis, n. narrow, augustus, a, uiu. naval, navalis, e. necessary, it is necessary, necesse est. need, there is need, opus est (§ 344,

VOCABULARY.

277

recollection ought, debeo, ere, ul, itus; it behooves, oportet, ilre, oportuit. our, our own, noster, tra, trum, overcome, supero, are, avt, atus.

pace (::: 5 feet), passus, us, m. part, pars, partis, f. peace, pax, pacis, f. people, populus, I, m. 2). perish, int reo, Ire, u, itdrus (§ 280). neglect, neglego, ere, lexi, lectus. permit, permitto, ere, mtsr, misnext, proximus, a, um (§ 102, 1; sus. 314). persuade, persuadeo, 6re, sullBI,suano, nullus, a, urn, sum (§ 306, 2). no one, nsmo, dat. nemlnr, ace. pity, misericordia, ae, f. nilminem; gen. and abl. wanting. pity, it excites pity, miseret, mise. noble, nobllis, e. rilre, miseruit, impersonal. not, non, nil. place, locus, I, m. (not), is not? does not? etc., nonne place in charge, in command over, (§ 288, 2). praeficio, ere, fMI, fectus, with not even, nil . . . quidem, with the the dat. of indirect obJ. emphatic word between. plan, consilium, I, n. not yet, nondum. plunder, dlrlpio, ere, ripuI, reptus. nothing, nihil, indecl. Pompey, Pompejus, Pompei, m. now (at the present time), nunc. power, potestas, lUis, f.; denotes number, numerus, I, m. the power that is vested in an offiCial. of, concerning, dil, prep. with abl. praise, laude, 1. often, saepe. prefer, malO, mlllle, miUul (§ 269). on, in, prep. toith abt. present, give, dOnll, 1. on all sides, undique, adlo present, be present, adsum, esse, one, un us, a, um, fO.l,futiirus (§ 252). one . • . another, alius • . . ailus; prevail, valell, ere, valuI, Itdrus. the one . • • the other, alter • put in charge, praeflclo, ere, f60., alter. fectus (§ 306, 3). onset, impetus, 11s,m. put to 1I.ight,fugll, Ire, lvI, ItuR. opinion, sententia, ae, f. opportunity, occiisiO,llnis, J. quickly, celeriter, adv., from eM order, levy, imper6, 1. adj., celer, eris, ere. order, command, jUbell, oIre, jussl, jus us. rampart, agger, erls, m. other, another, alius, a, ud. ravage, vexll, 1. other, the other, alter, a, um. receive, accipill, ere, Cilpl, ceptus. others, all the others, cilten, ae, a. recollection, memoria, ae, j.

278

ENGLISH-LATiN

regret regret, it causes regret, paenitet, ere, uit, impersonal (§ ~87 ; 330). remain, maueo, ere, mans], mans iirus, remaining, reliquus, a, urn. remember. bear in mind, me mini, i~(§ remind,

329).

ad moneo, ere, uI, itus: replY, respondeo, ere, respondI, responsus, report (noun), fll-ma, ae,j. report (verb), niintiO, 1. reputation, fll-ma, ae, f. request, seek, peto, ere, petivl (ii), Itus.

resist, resisto, ere, restitI, with dat. (§ 30Q, 2).

VOCABULARY. sword sell, vendo, ere, vendidi, venditus, senate, seuatus, iis, m. send, mitto, ere, mlsl, missus, Sequani, Sequaul, orum, m. set out, proflctscor, I, fectus sum. she, ea, f. of is (§ 137). ship, navis, is, j. (sides) on all, undique, since (causal), cum. six, sex, indecl, slave, servus, I, m. small, parvns, a, urn (§ 101). so (of degree), tam. so, thus (of manne7'), ita, stc, so great, tantus, a, urn. so many, tot, indecl. soldier, mtles, itis, m. some, something, aliquis, ali.g:U&, aliquid or aliquod, some . . . others, aliI.. • aliL 'Bon, filius, I, m. Spain, Hispanla, ae, f. spare, parco, ere, pepercI, parsnrus

rest, the rest, cetert, ae, a. retard, tarde, 1. return, revertor, i; redeo , Ire,iI, itum, revolt, motus, iis, m. reward, praemium, I (iI), n. Rhine, Rhenus, I, m. river, fiiimen, inis, n. (§ 306, 2). Roman, ROmanus, a, um; & Roman, speak, loquor, I, lociitus sum; dtco, ROmanus, I, m. ' ere, dlxl, dictus. Rome, Roma, ae, f. standard, signum, I, n. stater clvitas, lI.tis, f. safety, salfis, iitis, j. station, co11000,1. sake, forthe sake, causa, with gen. " stone, lapis, idis, m. the gen. always precedes. such, talis, e. same, idem, eadem, idem (§ 138); suddenly, subito. at the same time, simuJ. suffer, patior, I, passus sum. save, servo, 1. suitable, idOneus, a, urn. say, dico, ere, dixI, dictul. summer, aestlts, atis, f. scarcely, vix. summon, VOCO,1. sea, mare, is, n. (superior), be superior to, supenl, 1. see, video, lire, vIdl, vlsua. surpass, superO, 1. seem, videor, llrT,vlsus surn. surrender (oneself), dMo, ere, dl!seize, occupo, 1. dldl, dMitus. self, oneself, suI, Blbl, Bll. surround, circumveniO, Ire, vAnL Belf . (i.e. I myself, you yourself, ventus. ttc. ), ipse, in apposition with the suspicion, susplciO, onls, f. subject or object. sword, gladius, I (II), "t.

ENGLISH-LATIN take

take, seize, caplo, ere, cept, captus. take by storm, expugno, 1. talent, talentum, I, n. tarry, moror, ari, atus sum. teacll, doceo, ere, uI, doctus. tell, say, dlco, ere, dixl, dictus. ten, decem, indecl, terrify, perterreO, ere, uI, territus. than, quam, conj.,. see also § 839. that, is, ea, id; ilIe, ilia, illud, that of yours, iste, Ista, Istud. that, ret. pron., qui, quae, quod. that, in order that, ut ; qul quae, quod '1.0. the subj. ,. '1.0. comp .. quo. that, on the ground that, quod. that, lest, 'With verbs of fearing, ne. that not, in order that not, ne. that not, loith verbs of fearing, ut, that (of result), ut, . that not, ut non, ' their, their own, suus, a, um. they, see he, she, etc. thing, res, rei, f. this, hie, haec, hoe. those, as antecedent of rel., et, eae, ea. thou, tii, tur, though, quamquam, quamvts, etsr, cum. thousand, mflle ; pl., milia, lum, n. three, treB, tria. three hundred, trecenti, ae, a. till, dum, donee, conj. time, tempus, oris, n. to, ad, prep. to. ace. (top) top of, toith a noun, summus, a, urn (§ 373). torture, supplicium, J (ii), n. touch, moveO, ere, mOvI, mOtus. tower, tunis, is,.r. town, oppidum, I, n. tree, arbor, oris, f. trench, fossa, ae, I.

VOCABULARY.

279

who? tribe, gilus, gentis, f. tribune, tribiinus, I, m. troops, coplae, arum, f. trust, COnfldO,ere, I18US sum, Bern£.. dep, (§ 306, 2). try, make trial, tempto, 1. twenty, vigintl. two, dUO, duae, duo. two hundred, ducenti, ae, a. under, sub., prep. 'W.ace. unharmed, ineolumis, e. until, dum, donee, quoad. unwilling, invltus, a, um; be unwilling, nolO, nolle, nOluI. us, nOs, nostrum, nostri, pl. of ego. Of. § 377, 2. use, iitor, I, Usus SUlD. valor, virtiis, iitis, f. Veneti, Veneti, orum, m. very many, complures, eompliirium. victory, victoria, ae, f. village, vleus, I, m. virtue,' vlrtns, ll.tis, f. voice, VOx.. vocia, f.

aj

wage, gero, ere, gessr, gestus. wait, wait for, exspeetO, 1. war, bellum, I, n. watch, vigilia, ae, f. welcome, gratus, a, urn. what? quls (qui), quae, (quod). whateF.~uisquis,quidquid. when? quando, I when, l·el., ubi, ut, cum. where? ubi. where, rel., ubi. whether, nurn, one. whither, quO. while, conj., dum (§ 418). who? quis.

gen.

quid

27P

280

ENGLISH-LATIN who

who, which, rei. pl'on., qut, quae, quod. whole, totus, a, urn (ยง 83). winter quarters, hiberna, orum, n, wish, volo, velie, volu!. ~ with, cum, prep. to, abl, withdraw, dtscedo, ere, cesst, ces..:~ snrus. without, sine, prep. to, abl. withstand, sustineo, ere, ut, tentus. wo?d, verbum, i, n. work (a toork), opus, eris, n.

VOCABULARY. your

worthy, dignus, a, um. wound (noun), vulnus, eris, n. wound (vel'b), vulnero, are, avI., atus, write, scrtbo, ere, scrIpsI, scriptus. year, ann us, t, m . (yet), not yet, nondum. you, tii, tui. young man, adulescens, entis, m. your, your own, tuus, a, urn ; vester, tra, trurn โ€ข


First Year Latin: Preparatory to Caesar