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Utah State Historical Society BOARD OF CONTROL (Terms Expiring April 1, 1933) J. CECIL ALTER, Salt Lake City WM. R. PALMER, Cedar City ALBERT F. PHILIPS, Salt Lake City


(Terms Expiring April 1, 1935) GEORGE E. FELLOWS, Salt Lake City WILLIAM J. SNOW, Provo HUGH RYAN, Salt Lake City LEVI E. YOUNG, Salt Lake City FRANK K. SEEGMILLER, Salt Lake City EXECUTIVE OFFICERS 1931-1932 ALBERT F. PHILIPS, President Emeritus WILLIAM J. SNOW, President J. CECIL ALTER, Secretary-Treasurer-Librarian HUGH RYAN, Vice President Editor in Chief All Members. Board of Control, Associate Editors

MEMBERSHIP Paid memberships at the required fee of $2 a year, will include current subscriptions to the Utah Historical Quarterly. Non-members and institutions may receive the Quarterly at $1 a. year or 35 cents per copy; but it is preferred that residents of the State become active members, and thus participate in the deliberations and achievements of the Society. Checks should be made payable to the Utah State Historical Society and mailed to the Secretary-Treasurer, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah.

CONTRIBUTIONS The Society was organized essentially to collect, disseminate and preserve important material pertaining to the history of the State. To effect this end, contributions of writings are solicited, such as old diaries, journals, letters and other writings of the pioneers; also original manuscripts by present day writers on any phase of early Utah history. Treasured papers or manuscripts may be printed in faithful detail in the Quarterly, without harm to them, and without permanently removing them from their possessors. Contributions and correspondence should be addressed to the Editor, Utah Historical Quarterly, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Utah Historical Quarterly State Capitol, Salt Lake City Volume 6

January, 1933

Number 1

EXTRACTS FROM T H E JOURNAL OF JOHN STEELE I will now state that I was born in Hollywood, county of Dourn, Ireland, March 21, 1821.* In my twentieth year I married Miss Catherine Campbell, daughter of Michael Campbell and Mary Knox.* In the year 1840, I left Belfast for Glasgow, Scotland, where I readily obtained work at a first-rate shop at boot and shoe making.* I soon found myself on one of the trades committees of one thousand who were on a strike for wages.* About this time there was a society purporting to be very old and also for the benefit of mankind formed called the Rachpbites wherein those who belonged to the society could have money to help support them when sick and means to pay funeral expenses when dead. One of the strongest points was that none of these members drank wine or any intoxicating drink of any kind. I cheerfully joined and soon found myself in a conspicuous position among them.* On the 2nd of June I had a son born A. D. 1842. I called his name John for my father. Shortly after this I heard of the Book of Mormon by seeing a hand bill posted up purporting to be an ancient writing by an ancient people who lived in America and that an angel of God had appeared by whose ministration the records of ancient America had been discovered.* I borrowed a Book of Mormon from one Graham Douglass and would repair to the banks of the Clyde on Glasgow Green and read it through in two weeks. I read P. P. Pratt's Voice of Warning and attended all their meetings and in four weeks from the first sermon I heard I was baptised.* On the 14th of March A. D. 1845 I took up my line of march for Nauvoo.* On the 15th day of January A. D. 1845 I arrived in Liverpool.* About 11 o'clock January 21 we hoisted anchor and set sail, and before 3 o'clock we were on the deep blue sea plowing away with a good 10-knot breeze for the land of Zion.* Arrived at New Orleans on the 7th of March having been six weeks and three days on sea.* On the 11th day of March shipped our luggage on board the Alex Scott for St. Louis; arrived at the mouth of the Ohio *Stars denote omissions of slight historical interest.



river March 20th and soon got to St. Louis.* I went to work for Mr. Bates on 3rd street at boot making. Made money. My wife would do the fine stitching and I would side them up and bottom them. After working there three months. I started for Nauvoo July 8th, 1845. We landed at the upper stone house in a soaking rain. We had some house furniture along. I put my bedstead up in the shelter of the upper stone house spread an open bedtick over some boards I found and made a tent.* I soon found plenty of work at the boot and shoe factory in Nauvoo; but very soon the scene was changed, the mob becoming so rampant I had to guard nights and work days. The mob boasted they would destroy the city if Jesus Christ should stand at our head. On the 15th day of August I joined the Masonic Fraternity, and soon became well acquainted with the old brethren, and on the 12th day of September, I joined the Nauvoo Legion and the 29th Quorum of Seventies, got my license from John D. Lee, clerk of Joseph Young, President, recorded book A page 16, no. 594 (or 597) of the General Record of Quorums.* On the 20th of September A. D. 1845 I and a number of the others were detailed to bring up the guns. So we went to President Young's yard and found what was then called the old sow and pigs very neatly covered over and in a wagon box so that no one would suspect it was any thing but an old wagon. We ran them to the Temple, had them taken care of and worked with a will. I had.no wagon of my own at this time but when the mob was so bold and was wishing to drive us before our time the warlike spirit of my fathers awoke in me and sooner than I would be driven I would let them have all the steel was in me, and said to my shopmate, Hartley Mercer, "If you will shoot down one of the mob, I will go into their ranks and get his gun;" so that was agreed upon, but I was spared the trouble for on the evening before mentioned, after bringing up the guns, I was told to go to Captain Farnham's house and bring up the muskets. Forty stand of arms was brought up, five wagons having previously been prepared. Forty of us got in after dark so that spies could not see where we were going. Started for Macedonia where the mob had threatened to burn the carding machines. When we got to the corner of Joseph's farm, the Captain ordered us to load our guns. I did load mine and never tasted any thing so sweet in my life as did the powder. I felt I was an old soldier for my father used to train me with his walking cane when I was a child about twelve. At night we arrived at Macedonia, were paraded before Uncle Billy Perkins' house as he was called. Volunteers were called for. I volunteered to stand



guard on the carding machine as that was the night set to burn it. Brother Mercer said to me if you go I will go too on guard. He was a good man then, but his faith failed him, he joined Strang afterwards. So we stood there over an hour when we heard the rattle of a wagon in the distance. W e thought that it was them and we prepared, unbuttoned our cartridge boxes, saw to our priming, found all ready. I said, "Brother Mercer, you stand in the shade of the crooked fence. I will stand in the shade of the porch;" as there was a small moon, "and I will bring them to a halt and you grab the horses as they come over an old rattling bridge close by." W e verily thought they were the mob so we both sprung out at once. I brought my gun up within six feet of them as they sat in the wagon, and demanded, "Halt!" Brother Mercer at the same time caught the horses. It was quite a surprise to the midnight travelers as they returned from a long ride to find themselves prisoners in their own town. We were strangers to them and so were they to us, but after much questioning, I found it was Utica Perkins and long Andy as he was called, both brethern. So we let them go.* I labored hard gathering corn and potatoes then was sent to Nauvoo for ten days, staying at Brother Clark's house and Sister Clark was as a mother to me, doing as much for me as though I were her own son. On the 30th of September we all returned home as some change had taken place in affairs. W e hid our guns in the bottom of the wagons among straw. One thing here is worthy of note, when we drove into town the mob heard us come and all hostile intentions were stopped for the time being and as the men dare not show face, they sent their wives to visit Sister Perkins' house. Our guns were standing in the corner of their parlor and the women all declared there were 500 stand of arms there they knew and when we walked out so that we could be seen every body said there were 500 of us and 200 Indians. As there were 2 Indians got in and came along to see what was done, so you can see how the wicked are afraid and often when no man pursue and the magnitude of their own evil deeds makes good men multiply in their sight.* On the 28th day of January, I and my wife were called upon to go into the House of the Lord and get our endowments, and on the 8th day of February the last public meeting was held in the Temple. At that time there was a great sensation caused by the sisters who had been washing out the floors. Brother James Houston was keeping fires in the stoves for them. They thought the floors did not dry fast enough to suit them, and wood was applied freely to the stoves. One of them became red hot, ignited the shingle's and all was soon in a blaze, February



9th, 1845, but was soon extinguished by all hands in town turning out. There was a continuous line of wagons from the river to the temple, and people worked with a will. However all was soon quieted down again.* I cannot leave Nauvoo without giving you a few items of some of the men of that city so far as they have come under my observation. I will here mention John E. Page, one of the Twelve Apostles. When the news was spread abroad that we were going west to where the foot of white man never trod, the faithful saints began to make wagons, parch corn and have it ground into meal so that it would keep a long time and in various ways prepare for a long journey not knowing to where or how long it would take to perform it, but trusting in the Lord, through our leaders, Brigham Young and the rest of the Twelve.* I got ready and started from Nauvoo on the 4th day of May, A. D. 1846. I must here mention I hired my passage in Brother Samuel Burgess' wagon, not having team and wagon of my own. I made him and his family boots and shoes to haul me and my folks I knew not where. And as there was his folks and my family and our effects to go in one wagon and only one yoke of cattle and a pair of 2 yearling calves to haul it you may suppose we e'duld not bring much but our provisions which consisted of parched corn meal but leave we had to and go we must, so I got up and left all my furniture standing as we were wont to use it. The clock hung on the mantle piece, and every thing as though we were just gone out on a visit, only the beds were gone but not the bedsteads. I wanted a hammer for something after I started and returned to the house and found three of our enemies quarreling who should have the clock. I opened my toolchest, took out my hammer, closed the lid and sat down upon it, and heard them awhile, then started on my journey, crossed the Mississippi that day and followed on as fast as we could, leaving many friends behind, and many who never followed, some apostatised, some went to St. Louis, some laid down in death, and so we were again scattered. Got to Indian Creek, Iowa, on the 20th May. Laid there to the 6th of June, I having my customary shake once a day and at farthest once in two days regular. Got to Grand River, west of Pisgah, camped there until Colonel Allen came along with his aide authorized to raise a Battalion of Mormons of 500 men. You can better imagine my feelings than I can describe them. I must ask pardon for thinking or saying they may all go to hell together. I will see them (meaning the whole United States) in hell before I will fire one shot against a foreigner for them those who have mobbed, robbed, plundered and destroyed us



all the day long and now seek to enslave us to fight for them. I could not find words hard enough to say in just anger for that kind of treatment. However President Brigham Young, Richards, Kimball, Benson and others came to us on the Missouri (?) stream and preached faith into us for we were all mad. They said it would all be overruled for the best, and the only thing left for us was to furnish 500 men and march against the Mexicans, and they would try what could be done to have us get the country of California for fighting for it, and also get discharged with our guns and accoutrements, for said they we know there is a deep settled plan if we do not raise these'men that the mob will come against us and cut us all off, and not allow us to cross the Missouri River. And that Battalion must be raised if I, Brother Kimball, Brother Richards and the rest of the Twelve should go in thought of it and proceeded on our journey. At last arrived at the Bluffs, as it was called Council Bluffs and agreed to enlist and enrolled myself in Company D under Captain Nelson Higgins and started for the Missouri River.* We mustered at what was called Sarpey (?) Point, a Frenchman who kept a trading post there where we fitted out for our journey, having our names enrolled on the 16th day of July, A. D. 1846.* As near as could be made out there were about 20,000 inhabitants in the1 city of Nauvoo, many fine buildings, costly mansions, many fine farms cultivated round the city, plenty of woodland close by and a beautiful situation, a large Masonic hall, of which I had the honor to be a member, several stores, and upon a high commanding bl-uff stood our magnificent and beautiful Temple from the top of which could be seen far out upon the prairie, up and down the Mississippi River, see the river boats playing up and down, and large rafts of logs and lumber floating down to market below.* The 500 men having arrived at the Missouri River, we were organized into five companies under five captains.* In all we had 513 men and 20 women who got the privilege to go along with their husbands.* I also had my wife and my daughter Mary who was about five years old when we started from camp and from our old friends. I left all my earthly effects with brother Louis Zabriskie, took one blanket apiece for me and my wife, a tin cup apiece, knife and fork apiece, and a spoon, and for the first time laid us down on the cold ground one blanket under and one over us, and then I felt as though it was hard fare. W e were both sick of ague and fever, I having two shakes a day, and I had been in that situation for many months; we made several short drives. Col. Allen was a very good kind



man and felt, for us in our situation, and he had the doctor wait constantly upon the sick, especially my wife. About the 28th of July the health of the Company began to improve, passed through several small towns, came through Jamestown on the 29th, also through St. Joseph, also a town called Bloomingtoh Friday 31st.* August 1st, 1846, we came to F o r t Leavenworth after crossing the Missouri River, marched to our camp grounds in good order. There were 400 volunteers quartered there and about 70 regular troops.* Stayed here until the 15th, when we took our departure to join General Kearney's army as fast as we could. He had gone on before with all the troops he could get at the time for Santa Fe. When we got our belts, guns, knapsacks, haversacks and canteens on we were harnessed up like a mule and to a sick man it was anything but comfort. The weather was uncommonly hot.* August 26th, news arrived of the death of Colonel Allen, on the 27th arrived at Council Grove. This was called after a council that was held between the Government and the Indians, in which the Government bought ten miles wide from Fort Leavenworth to Bents' Fort on the Arkansas River. Here Captain Hunt was nominated our commandant in place of Col. Allen.* Wednesday September 2nd, we travelled very fast for 16 miles and came up with a company of Missouri Cavalry Volunteers. We now are fairly launched upon a prairie desert where water is scarce.* Now we have neither wood nor water and the land is nearly a level plain as far as the eye can reach.* At last came to a small eminence from whence I could see many thousands of buffalo. The country was literally black with them for more than four miles square. Here we were ordered up at four o'clock in the morning with the promise that we would stop and cook breakfast soon, but we made 30 miles first, and then by chance found a hole full of water among some rocks, where we had all the water we needed. W e found names cut in' the rocks as early as 1826. We killed a few buffalo, but as we were on a forced march and tired where water was very uncertain we did not hunt much only where the buffalo crossed our road. Antelope are plenty through this country, our cooking must be done with buffalo chips, and it would do a person good to see the men when they began to draw close to camp, draw their ramrods, not to ram home cartridges but to stick it through the largest chip they could find and string them on as long as one could be put on there like as many pancakes. And then to see the cooking, as many times the cakes were laid on the burning chips to finish baking.*



My mess consisted of myself, Levi Savage, Ezra Feytoot. Hayward Thomas, also my wife and little daughter Mary. When I drew out tent and camp equipage for the mess I got another tent which I used for my family.* Here Capt. Nelson Higgins and several families left us for Bents Fort.* After crossing the Arkansas we came up with Col. Price's command and delivered up to them the ammunition we had in charge for them. Wednesday 16th of September. We lay to all day where John D. Lee and Howard Egan came up; they had many letters for the boys.* At last arrived at Shade Springs on the Cimarron River.* W e have to dig wells when we camp.* This place is called the Cold Spring. The country is still hilly, sandy, and rocky. Met some of the Santa Fe traders who told us it was 250 miles to that place. There are mountains in the distance of blue ether which can be seen for several days as though we did not get any nearer them, called the Rabbit Ears or Mule Ears.* October 1st, 1846, we came 15 miles and camped one mile from wood or water. Here a project was got up by Lieut. Smith. The Battalion was to be divided and the strongest men and animals go ahead, so 250 men were selected, and all the sick, weak, and disabled were left also all the gave out stock.* I say we, for as I had my wife and little girl along, I was to stay behind. We had the beef stock that never had looked through a bow, and I concluded I would drive the team the women rode in. From the top of this hill, our faded ranks could be seen straggling along for nearly the whole 30 miles as teams and men were nearly gave out. The Spaniards could see our command for all this distance, and as they had a fort built of logs and trees, at the end of a long lane of road where their cannon could rake us for nearly four miles. (They had nine pieces.) But when they saw our dust for such a distance they thought it was an overwhelming- army, and so they left their fortifications, and fled some 200 miles from there, and so the prediction of President Young was fulfilled that if the boys would do right, not one of them would fall in battle. We soon came to a nice little town situated on the Mora stream about three rods wide and clear as crystal. The town was called Las Vegas. I visited the inhabitants who gave me some pancakes to eat. I bought eggs or waris, and cheese or Keso, also milk or litchie as they called them. They were very kind and I was all alone among them as I had no fears. Here I also bought 100 pounds of their ground wheat and my mess thought it was the best flour they ever eat. W e soon went on through great forests of cedar wood, scrubby, soon came to San Miguel where the



ladies were on top of the house, and when they saw that I had women in my wagon they hastened down and sent their old father to invite us in. This old gentleman lived opposite the Catholic Chapel and attends to services when the regular priest is absent. So when he came and invited us I gave him to understand I would. Then when my women got out of the wagon there was such a hugging as I had never seen before, as that is their manner of saluting. I left my cattle and went into the house and on entering there was a large picture of the Savior on the cross. As soon as I saw it I made the sign of the cross on my breast. Then the old Spaniard took me by the hand as if I had been his long lost brother. There was on a table under the picture a carved wooden crucifix of the Savior, also two others of carved wood, I suppose to represent the two thieves. But I found it would not do to remain as I discovered skulking around the corrals, a great number of men, and as my team was the last and I was alone, I must hasten on. It was well I did for I was told they were planning to steal my little girl, by a man named Antonio Balastho who afterwards ran the mail through Utah to California. We did not reach camp until midnight that night, and it was so dark I could not see the horns of my oxen while walking alongside them.* The houses need a few words to explain the kind; they were made of what is called adobe or sundried brick which answer very well for a dry country. They are one story high with flat roofs mostly covered with poles and earth to a great thickness, and they go up there to sleep. At a distance it looked to us like a great brick yard ready to be burned. However, after passing through some fine valleys and a heavily wooded country, at last arrived at the far famed town of Santa Fe, October 12, 1846, where our 250 brethren got the day before. The American flag was flying and all went merry as a marriage bell. The town is .about 4 miles long, situated in a beautiful valley with a fine stream of water running through it. Houses are one story high and flat roofed. Must here say a few words about our officers of Co. D. to which I belonged. Captain Nelson Higgins as I have said left us with a detachment of families for Bents Fort while on the Arkansas. Our next in command was George P. Dykes who also acted as Adjutant to the battalion which left the command upon 2nd Lieutenant Sylvester Flulett who acted very kind to those under his command. There was nothing of the tyrant about him.* Our next 3rd Lieutenant was Cyrus Canfield. He was a rough harum scarum man and dearly loved his glass and his lull (?). Our orderly sergeant was N. V. Jones, 2nd sergeant, David Wilkin, 3rd sergeant, Thomas S. Williams.



At this time our adjutant, G. P. Dykes, had made out his returns for a division of the company as Col. P. St. George Cooke was to lead the Mormon Battalion to California, and the sick men and women were to go to Bents Fort and join Captain Higgins and as all the men who had their wives along were able-bodied, I found there was likely to be a separation of the men and their wives. So I went to the adjutant and told him I wanted my name put down to go back. He said he could not do it but that Dr. Sanderson could. I went to the Dr. and told him I wanted him to put my name down to go back. He asked if I were sick. I said no, then he said he could not put my name down. I asked who could and he said the adjutant. I saw there was something wrong and so I went to all the men who had wives, and asked them to go along with me and see Col. Cooke, but I could not find a man who would go. At last I found John Hess who said he would go. So away we went and when we got opposite where they sold whiskey, John said, "lets go in and get a glass we can face the Colonel better." I said "you can go in and take one but I must be only sober." So he took his glass but I would not taste. W e went and found him in a long low cellar in company of about 30 officers. I asked which of the gentlemen there is Col. Cooke. Then there arose a man from the further side of the table, measuring about 6 ft. and 4 inches. I told him I had understood he had issued orders for all the sick men. and all the women to go back to Bents Fort. He said yes that was so. I told him I had my wife there and would like the privilege of either having my wife go on to California with me or going back to Bents Fort with her. He spoke very saucy and said he would like to have his wife along with him (but he never had a wife). I told him very likely his wife was in Washington or some other good seaport among her friends, while mine was in Santa Fe among her enemies, and to have her left there with only a guard of sick men, I would not stand it, and the more I talked the more angry I got until at last I could have thrashed the ground with him. Colonel Cooke, seeing that things were becoming serious, said he would go and see General Doniphan. I said I would also, and he walked as fast as his long legs could carry him, but I kept alongside of him and the faster he walked the faster I walked. It made him very angry because I wouldn't fall behind so I stopped outside when he got to General Doniphan's door. They had a small consultation, and in a few minutes Col. Cooke came out, looking altogether another man, and asked me very politely to call his orderly, who was Mr. Muir, a Scotchman. I did so and the Colonel told him to go tell the adjutant to stop making out the returns, and come down to him immediatelv. Then I knew I had gained my point. The



Colonel was very anxious that I should go with him into California. He thought the Mormons were an ugly set as he had taken a bout with Thomas S. Williams just the day before, and the impression made on him was that the Mormons were all fighters, and as we had been used to mob violence but a few months before it did not take much opposition to make us mad at Colonel or General. I then returned to John Hess and told him I would now take a drink with him, and so we came back to camp, and orders were issued that every man who had a wife there had the privilege to go to Bents Fort. Thus I fought the battle alone and gained the victory for twenty men and their wives who otherwise would have been separated, perhaps for years, perhaps for life. This order being issued, Captain James Brown of Company G was chosen to take command of this detachment of sick men, laundress women and their guards, in the neighborhood of 100 persons. Captain Brown selected me and sergeant David Wilkin (although I was only a private) to go and select cattle from the herd to draw our baggage wagons, and I being well acquainted with the stock, soon selected out 7 yoke for each wagon and seven yoke of beauties for the team I was to drive, as I was to take as many of the sisters as could be stowed in one wagon. There were several changes made here. Sergeant major James H. Glines was reduced, and Quarter-master Gully was also reduced, as Lieutenant Smith, who took command after the death of Col. Allen, wanted to be quarter-master as Col. Cooke had taken the other place he wanted. Many blamed Adjutant George P. Dykes for some of these things. Five days passed away, and on the sixth day we drew our pay, October 17th, 1846, and sent back eight or ten dollars to Heber C. Kimball to help him on his journey. On the morning of the 18th we commenced our journey for Bents Fort. W e had 87 men and 20 women and our destination was Pueblo on the Arkansas under captain James Brown, Lieut. Luddington, Sergeant Orson B. Adams, Sergeants Hanks, Wilkins, Williams and a full quota of non-commissioned men. We took our back track for several days over hills, valleys and very rocky roads. Soon camped on the Pecos River, where the Spaniards stole one yoke of my oxen. There is a small Spanish settlement there. Soon we came to San Miguel, another Spanish town, where John D. Lee, Howard Egan, Samuel Gully, and Roswell Stevens passed us bound for the Bluffs with all the money our boys could spare for the use of their families. We soon came to Las Vegas, thence to the Mora River where antelope begin to show themselves. Several were killed, and fresh meat tasted good to our camp as we have been on salt junk for a long time. Here we left the Mora road, and took



the Bents Fort road where we passed through many fine valleys, good grass, timber, and high mountains where herds might feed all winter as not much snow falls in this country. Several salt lakes in this region. October 28, Brother Milton Smith died, We dug his grave and I smoothed down his pillow, got the boys to gather grass and cane and covered him the best we could. Near a tributary of the Purgatory River on the right hand side of the road as we-go to Bents Fort there he lies deep in the ground. W e also covered his grave with large stones to keep the wolves from digging him up. Travelled over mountains and valleys where snow would lie long in the spring of the year. At last came to the Purgatory River, a fine stream. Here Abner Chase died about noon and was buried the same evening before we crossed the river. He lies near to the river on the right hand side of the road as we go to Fort Bent. He was buried in his robes and a bed of grass below and above him and large stones to keep the wolves from his body. Travelled on passing the hole in the rock where cedars grow ever plentiful. Camped by the willow Springs. Here we found 14 yoke of oxen belonging to Uncle Sam's fit out. The men came hunting them and the Captain told to take all that they knew to be theirs. So they took 7 yoke and left 7 yoke, and when we came to Pueblo, the Captain took 4 yoke of them and divided 3 yoke among his favorites. Just about this time we were very hard up for something to eat as we left Santa Fe with only one fourth of a pound of flour for each one per day, and we killed the poorest oxen and eat them. I had a poor old ox that laid in a mud hole all night and in the morning was not fit to travel, so I held him up while one of the boys shot him, and he was tough. I had the toothache all the way for a month. W e picked up many head of oxen and mules on this route. At last on Sunday, Nov. 8th, we came to the Arkansas River near Bents Fort traveling 321 miles in 20 days, averaging 15y> miles per day. W e were all hungry. My wife and myself divided our rations with our little daughter although it was only 4 ounces each per day. But now we got a new supply of all kinds for which we were very thankful. We drew a supply for sixty days. We pushed ahead up the river bottoms, found plenty of deer, and after travelling 68 miles came to Pueblo, our intended winter quarters. There are several good bottoms on this river where settlers might make good homes. We saw some old ruins of bygone days here. Arrived Tuesday, Nov. 17, 1846 and set about locating for the winter. Found plenty of cottonwoods, house logs. W e soon put 18 or 20 houses up, also a blacksmith shop, and a large corral. The Indians came in and we traded with them for horses,



and soon our infantry became cavalry, and by the 24th we were all in horses. Nothing of any consequence took place until Monday, December 21st, when another detachment arrived under Lieut. Wesley Willis who had traveled some 200 miles down the Rio Grande River, and Col. Cooke considered them unfit to cross the great western desert, and sent them to join our detachment at Pueblo. Our time was taken up by building and making our houses comfortable, and in drilling which was attended to every day, also guard mounting at 8 A. M. and regular roll call morning and evening. We also got a meeting house up, and sometimes we had good preaching, and sometimes we were scolded by the Captain.* December 24, Tom Wolsey and John Tippits came from the command on the Rio Grande and wanted two of Captain Brown's men to go with them as they had dispatches for the Bluffs, but Captain Brown would not allow a man to go. Whereupon Wm. Casto and Jackson Shoup concluded to go.* About Midnight they started to overtake Wolsey and Tippits, but being too anxious they forgot what I had said to them, and only went 8 miles and made a fire and cooked breakfast, then went on 20 and made fire again. Then rode on and made another fire where Captain Brown, Sergeants Adams and Hanks overtook them and brought them back, court-martialed them, fining each one of them to haul 5 loads of wood as punishment.* The house that was intended for a meeting house was to be used for a guard house, and when the boys found that out, there was only 3 or 4 turned out and so it never was built.* January 17th, 1847, there was 9 wagons came from Bents Fort with 60 days rations. Many of the boys were out hunting deer. Jan. 19th, John Perkins died and was buried on the 20th at the root of a large cottonwood.* Friday, February 5th, took two Spanish prisoners, who got away after three days. All the families are getting into safe quarters where they can be guarded. This day another of our boys died, one of Lieut. Willis's command by the name of Scott. W e followed him to his last resting place where Brother John Chase made some appropriate remarks, and then followed three volleys of musketry in honor of the departed. Captain Brown, Lieut's Luddington and Willis went to Bent's Fort and succeeded in getting four months rations.* February 25th, another of our company died this evening. He had been sick almost from the start. W e followed him to his last resting place, beside his comrades. Thomas Williams and James Shoup had each a child born to them, and Corporal John Chase married Captain Nelson Higgins' daughter.*



March 21st, this day 26 years ago, I was ushered into this world and since that time I have passed through many trials both by land and sea. March 28th. this day I am to record the death of another of our comrades, namely Arnold Stevens, a corporal. He was handling a wild mule when he was dragged over some logs and hurt internally. He lingered from the 21 to the 26 of March, when a blood vessel burst and suffocated him. He was dressed in his robes and neatly laid away in a coffin, made of what is called puncheons of cottonwood. These are slabs split off like staves. About this time Captain Higgins and Lieut. Luddington bought some barrels of whiskey for $2.50 a gallon, fixed it and sold it to the boys at $8.00 a gallon, then punished them for getting drunk. The two Captains wanted the boys to sign a paper of attorney for them to draw their pay in Santa Fe, charging 2.50 percent. There was $8000 coming, which they did.* The Captain and company have returned from Santa Fe and bring word we must start on the 24th of May, with two months and a half rations. So all things is bustle, getting ready horses to shoe, the suttler to settle up with and every thing to do all at once.* After bidding adieu to our long camp at Pueblo, we crossed the Arkansas River.* The first day we made 8 miles, the next 23 miles, and camped James Camp him that James's Peak was named for. Next day we made 30 miles over a most beautiful prairie, thence to point of rocks to Cherry Creek, 18 miles. This brings us to the 1st of June. Grass is abundant here.* Camped on the south fork of the Platte, eight days out from Winter Quarters we came on to Cache La Poudre, or where powder had been cached.* We are now 145 miles from Pueblo, and we are informed that sergeant Shelton has lost all his horses. W e passed four trading houses and found a six pound cannon there. June 5th, crossed over the Platte, came nine miles and camped on its banks. Sergeant picked up 10 head of cows and sold them, one to David Laughlin for $20.00, one to Captain Brown for $13.50. Soon camped on Sand Creek, then on Poll Creek where there is a good spring of water.* June 13th, this day Elder Lyman preached to us, and I assure you it was a God-send as nothing in the world would have held us together but the Gospel, and some were fast forgetting that. Howsoever, Amasa told the people to leave off card playing also profane swearing, and turn to God. He said we were not as he expected to find us. Came on and camped on Boxelder, thence to Cottonwood, and thence to Laramie fork, where 50 of us who had horses were called to °-o and retake some horses that was stolen. Crossed over and



soon returned with the horses. There is about 70 lodges of Sioux Indians here. The wagons came to the river which is very rapid, and a very rocky bottom. I took a lead rope ahead of the oxen, and in that way crossed over 13 wagons. They found my horse, although a strong one, was very much jaded, but as the wagon my wife and daughter was in was still behind, I ventured once more, which was almost too much for my horse, and got over safe.* We camped on the north fork which was 9 miles out, then came to the mile boards set up by Pres. Young's company. The distance from Pueblo to Laramie is 293 miles. Sunday, June 17th, we lay to, all day. Brother Lyman preached to us and gave very good instructions and the boys were well pleased. The Captain tried to justify his course. We made good time and soon reached the highlands, plenty of grass and good water, large valleys covered with grass.* On the 27th of June came to the crossing of the Platte, found there Brother Groves & Co. ferrying missionaries across the river on their way to Oregon and charging $1.50 for crossing. Fifteen of our command went ahead to overtake the pioneers. There are hundreds of emigrants here and find the Mormons a God-send to help them across the river. W e crossed over July 1st, 1847. Saw many of our brethren, Appleton M. Harmon, Phineas Young, Brother Walker and others. Our hunters came in loaded with meat. W e stopped and dried meat here, we came on by short stages, sandy roads, grass scarce.* We got word occasionally from Pres. Young. W e rested on Sunday and had a good preach from Brother Lyman. July 12th, crossed Sweetwater. We found an old Indian squaw about 120 years of age left by her tribe to die. I gathered her about 50 pounds of flour and left her feeling very thankful. July 13th, Came over the South Pass to Green Springs where waters run west. The road is down hill for twenty miles. Here SamUel Brannan left us to join the President's company. At Green River the road descends very fast toward the west. July 16th, we are now on Big Sandy, and at daylight there was a salute of small arms in honor of our enlistment and more especially of the finishing of our one years service to Uncle Sam, and to let every one of Uncle Sam's officers know we were our own men once more. We still kept up our organization, and respected the words of command as usual, and was rather better than some had been before. We soon came to Green River where we blocked up our wagons and forded the river. Sergeant Hanks rode on one side of the team and I rode on the other, and so steered several wagons across. Captain Brown invited me to go ahead with him to Fort Bridger. We found the old mountaineer and in conversation he told us we could not live in Salt Lake valley for



it froze every month in the year and would give us a thousand dollars for the first ear of corn raised there, but if we would give him $1000 he would take us to the G-d-d best valley ever was. I spoke to Captain Brown if it was a G-d-d valley we did not want to go there. We bought buckskins and horses and traded considerable with him. Tuesday, July 20th, Brother Wm. Casto came back from the camp of the pioneers. W e found Fort Bridger is 6665 feet above sea level. Came on to Tar Springs near Bear River. The river is pretty well up and the rocks very slippery. We soon got into Echo Canyon, found pine wood, maple, cottonwood and plenty of water. The mountains are very high, cedar, oak, hops and wild flowers. Brother Lyman said we had got clear of Gentiles now and we would be troubled with devils in our own midst.* On the 27th Elder Lyman left us to go into the valley. Came on top of the Big Mountain where we could see into the valley. We stopped and gathered service berries, brought them in and dried them, and came on into the valley on July 30th, 1847. The President and the Twelve came out to meet us, and one of the most uncommon rains fell that day imaginable. Thomas Richardson was crossing Red Butte creek and the flood came down as big as a wagon box and carried him several rods down the stream, horse and all. Captain Brown sent me ahead with 12 men to make good the crossings in Canyon Creek by cutting birch and tying them in bundles and laying them in the creek. I took sergeant Thomas S. Williams as one which was rather turning the tables. After we had fixed the crossings, we thought we would ride into the valley and look at it, but on going to a little mound at the mouth of the canyon, we saw what we thought was a bear, which proved to be four wolves. They all started for the animals. I took time to put a cartridge in my gun and all their guns were empty. I rode up and shot one wolf, and Wm. Bird got off and cut his tail off and stuck it in his cap, and wore it into camp. We find the distance from crossing the Platte is just 403 miles by our measurement. President Young and all of the Twelve came out and met our command on the bench and gave us a hearty welcome. Our men that looked natural enough when they left Council Bluffs, now look like mountaineers, sunburned and weather beaten, mostly dressed in buckskin with fringes and porcupine quills, moccasins, Spanish saddles and spurs, Spanish bridles and jinglers at them, and long beards, so that if I looked in the glass for the young man who left the Bluffs a year ago, I would not have known myself. Went away afoot, came home riding a fine horse and receiving a hearty welcome and a 'God bless you* from the Lord's ministers: was



worth all we suffered. We rode into the valley and made our camp where the pioneers first camped, as they had moved up into the mouth of the canyon. We stayed there two or three days to rest, then the President wanted to have the camp all together, so we moved up upon the ground where the Temple Block now is, and all hands began making preparations to live and make the place our permanent home. Sunday, August 1st, 1847 we all went to meeting. President Young stood on a wagon box turned bottom up, and was filled with the spirit of the Lord and prophesied great things and thanked the Lord that there was 1000 miles between us and our persecutors. W e then commenced to explore our new home, and to find timber for building purposes. W e went into what was called Red Butte and found dry fir poles that had been burned by the Indians over a year ago. The apostles went to work like the rest of us. Brother George A. Smith took his ax and began chopping at a dry pole, and after hitting a few licks, the top flew off and hit him on the head hard enough to knock him down. That put an end to his chopping timber for a living. His head was wrapped up for several days. I went out about two miles to Spring Creek east and put in some garden, buckwheat and turnips etc. August 9th, 1847, my wife was safely and speedily delivered of a fine little girl who was named Young Elizabeth Steele, in honor of President Young and for my sister Elizabeth. The child grew rapidly and both mother and child did well.* This was the first white child born in the valley.* Pres. Young paraded the companies and asked who could lay adobes. I told him I could, and so we commenced to make adobes. I got Burr Frost, blacksmith to make me a trowel out of an old saw blade. The old fort as it was called, meaning the public square in the sixth ward was designated as a fort, covering 10 acres, the adobes were 18 inches long by 9 inches wide. The fort wall was three feet thick and rooms of various size were inside all around the fort. The Presidency and Twelve took the east side and got out house logs and made log cabins. I built the first chimney that ever drew smoke, for Pres. Young. We now found ourselves in a new country with a limited amount of tools and the ingenuity of every man was taxed to the utmost. Here was one hundred and fifty who had come in with the detachment from New Mexico, who had no tools, but Bro. Burr Frost soon supplied us from his forge. I got him to make me a last knife, and I soon made lasts for those who could make men's shoes, and I made the first pair of gaiter shoes made in Salt Lake for John Dangus.* About the 29th, Captain Higgins re-



turned from Fort Bridger with word that there were 566 wagons now within 100 miles of here travelling in 9 companies. Have been planting buckwheat, irrigating crops, killing crickets, etc. From the old fort to where my garden farm is situated is about three miles.* Wednesday, Sept. 1st, 1847, this day we finished our adobe wall 9 adobes high or 7 feet, and all hands moved down into our fort. All hands turned out and built a public corral. The corn is now in tassel. Father Brazier was our herdsman as we kept up our guards round our stock, as the Utah and Shoshone Indians were at war and stealing stock. Wanship and his son Jim as we called him were the chiefs on the Ute side and were friendly.* Now busy making adobes and cutting hay and preparing for winter.* I wrote a petition to the high council asking them to do something for us, meaning the soldier boys, as follows, "Great Salt Lake City, Nov. 2nd 1847. Mr. President and brethren of the Council. W e do hereby present our petition before you because of the peculiar position in which we placed. W e left our Winter Quarters on the 24th of May and have been living on two thirds rations until all we had was consumed, and when 200 miles beyond Fort John, Elder Amasa Lyman met us with counsel from the President of the Church, saying to let nothing stop us but come immediately to him. So here was a noble command. Well, we are at last arrived here in the valley, went to work, put in our grain thinking by so doing we would be well provided for until another harvest. All done well until the first company came in who turned their cattle loose, and devoured our crop that would have been ready to harvest in a few days and of course devoured our means of subsistence. When the President left, he told us to stop here and go to work for the wealth of the church were coming on and we would get breadstuffs from them for our labor. W i t h this before us we sent back 70 head of oxen that we might have had to subsist upon this winter that we might not starve, also wagons and cattle of private individuals, two yoke and wagons from Brother Shelton and the same from Brother James Brown who are now without bread. Now sirs, to buy is altogether out of the question, and the little that could be bought for the price would stare the extortioner in the face with astonishment. I2y2 cents per pound for cornmeal, and the like ration for other commodities. There is yet two or perhaps three of Uncle Sam's oxen that may probably do to the wealth of the church gets_ their hearts opened. A thing that is as nothing compared with what we have done for them, for as Brother Brigham has said, none of you could have come here had our battalion not gone on



ahead, and said he, you stand as saviors to this people. Now sirs, as they are not willing to divide with those that the president says stand as their saviors, and if there be suffering all suffer together, they are not worthy of the name of saint or brother, and of course no confidence can exist. W e do not crave it as a charitable donation, we claim it as our just right to be sustained as brethren with you. Still we are willing to work and pay for anything we may get as soon as we receive our money from the government. But we do want the privilege of living here among the brethren, if possible. Now sirs, into your hands we commit ourselves, hoping you will do something for us if possible, and if nothing can be done we want to know it. N.B. We would also wish to remember our brethren who have lately come from California, who are in the same situation as ourselves. With feelings of respect we submit ourselves, Your brethren, the soldiers, signed, John Steele, S. Shelton, James Brown 2nd, D. B. Huntington etc. This petition occupied the attention of the council for some time and they began to make some kind of arrangement to sell off some wagons and purchase provisions, but on the 17th of November, Captain James Brown returned from California with our pay from the government which knocked all their calculations in the head for the present, and the matter of drawing our pay occupied our attention for several days. The Captain charges us ten per cent for getting our pay and $2.50 at Santa Fe, which reduced the soldiers' pay considerably, but made money to the Captain, and with what mules, oxen and other prerequisites, he became quite rich so much so that he was able to buy out Mr. Goodyear's farm in Ogden valley for $1800. cash down.* December 20th, this day I got from Brother Wm. Brown 37 lbs of corn for work which is the first breadstuffs I have had in my house for many weeks. I pray that neither him nor his children may ever want for bread. We have now come to the end of the year January 1st, 1848. If it were not that we know the Gospel true there would be such a scattering as never was seen. Those boys who stood as saviors would have left the wealth of the church to their fate.* Many of the soldiers were literally starving, one poor boy, Daniel Brown and some others killed an animal and eat it. The matter was found out and he was condemned to receive ten lashes with a raw-hide, a cutting whip. So, accordingly he was tied to the Liberty pole and John Nebeker administered the punishment when every blow brought the red. It is very strange to say, but true that our stomachs were drawn to that extent



that a piece of bread as large as my two fingers would satisfy me, and I can also say that I never suffered the severe pangs of hunger, and have ground all day for Solomon Chase on his double hand corn grinder for 8 pounds of corn meal per day. and I have bartered some of these that I could outwork them, out jump them, or throw them down, who were fat and full of face, but they would not take me up. It was found necessary at this time to make some laws to regulate prices, as they were becoming ridiculously high, and so the High Council met and the following laws were passed, namely that wheat should be sold at $5.00 per bushel, corn at $4.00 per bushel, meat 4ct a pound. This was very fair as many of the boys were working at $1.00 per day, but we did not find fault.* March 3rd, this day 45 of our brethren went to look after their stock towards Utah Lake when the Indians fired upon them . The Indians had stolen 17 head of cattle, and if the soldiers could not eat them they would, then there was a cry raised for help and of course the soldier boys were among the first to help retake the stock. The brethren came back without getting the stock. March 1st, I planted some Mexican Taos wheat, as I was one of three who brought the white Taos wheat into the valley in my knap-sack. Beef now began to be more plenty at 6 cts per pound and Bishop Hunter was Commissary, so I went to him and told him I wanted some meat. "Well," said he, "what are you going to pay for it " I told him I would pay money. "Well" said he, "that is good, you shall have some." So he weighed me 45 pounds of good meat and I felt as though I had received a prize. I came home thinking I had enough meat to last me a long time but as I neared my own door Brother Elijah Newman met me and said, "Well, Brother Steele, you have got some meat." I said, "Yes." "Well, me and my mess," said he "have not had any thing to eat for the last three days." His mess consisted of Elijah Newman, Levi Jackmon, and Tarleton Lewis, three of the pioneers. I told him to come in and I drew my butcher knife (a thing that we each one carried in our belt) and cut in two as near as I could and told him to take that into his mess, and they finished every bit of it before they stopped and from that time on I never knew what want was. God supplied me continually with something to eat. It is now the 16th of April, and green stuff is coming very fast, and our cow, which by the way is a very excellent one. We bought her at the crossing of the Platte for $10.00 and she has been a blessing to my family and to other families besides. She actually kept us from starving, and as green grass is now good, she gives us a great deal of milk and that is good. Several of our neighbors would come and get butter and milk and swap



us measure for measure and our butter brought us meat or flour, especially from Gen. Rich and family. He always stood by us in our trials and was kind under every circumstance and so was Brother Jedediah M. Grant and Uncle John Young and Father John Smith, but these men were not the wealthy of the church, and like ourselves were poor and as poverty sympathises with poverty, so those men sympathised with me, and one occasion Brother Jedediah preached and told the people that if they did not carry out President Young's counsel, and divide breadstuffs with the soldiers that the curse of Almighty God should rest upon them, and if grain was raised, many of them would never live to eat it. Our grain grew very fast, and when the people saw that grain would grow, which some doubted at first, they become more liberal and I could get a bushel of the sweepings of the millstones where corn was ground for $5.00 from Brother Christman who had his little corn cracker at the mouth of City Creek. And after I got it and made a cake we could not bite it for the grit, so we made mush and used it that way. Our wheat, corn, beans and peas are all up and looking grand and grass is 6 inches high. Sunday, June 4th, there is great excitement in camp. There has come a frost which took beans, corn and wheat and nearly every thing, and to help make the disaster complete, the crickets came by the thousands of tons, and the cry is now raised, "we can not live here, away to California, and the faith of many were shaken, but as the Lord always holds the balance of power, and by some small and despised means over-rules great events. Now came the time when the leaders had the wild rough harum scarum soldier boys to stand by them. They almost to a unit said God had sent us here, and here we were going to stay, come weal come woe. This seemed to turn the tide of affairs in our favor but times still looked very dark and hunger stared us in the face at every step until about the 15th of July when we began to get some new wheat which relieved us wonderfully, and we then thought of beginning to live once more.* I had 7 acres looking well but the late frost, crickets and loose cattle left me just a mess pan full of ears of corn and some stubbs of wheat, and that settled the matter of bread on my farm for the next year. I then went to work and built houses, done the carpenter work, plastered and finished them from cellar to roof. This brought me in means sufficient to make me comfortable. W e visited out among our soldier families, but time brought us into contact with other families, both American, Scotch, and English, but as the Scotch are considered clannish we used to go into what is called the South Fort to the houses of Thomas Orr, Wm. Park, Brother Corey, and as Wm. Park could play the fiddle



we would dance the Leard O'Cockpen, Jeoke Tar, and other Scotch dances.* I was appointed Ward clerk. I built a good house and had broke my Spanish mare to work and made me a two wheeled cart and could do all my hauling and plowing with one animal.* About this time, April 1849. I received a commission from Jedediah M. Grant to raise a company of soldiers for the Nauvoo Legion, so on Saturday, April 27th, we all paraded on the public square, and to our great disappointment Jed was elected a Brigadier General, as we expected he would have been our Captain, but we chose, our own officers, so I nominated James T. S. Allred for Captain and I was First Lieutenant of a cavalry Company. Tuesday, May 1st, fifteen minutes before ten A.M. 1849, I had a son born to me in a cellar on the next lot to mine, made by W m Casto one of my Mess mates in the old battalion, as I had moved in here until I would get my house more comfortably fixed.* Prosperity seemed at last to dawn permanently upon me. I was blessed in everything I put my hand to, so I gathered horses, cattle and much substance around me. I worked the day in and the day out, many times doing as much work as two men should do. In the same time and about the middle of September, I got my house finished and moved into it. W e had a very cold hard winter with much snow, and with wood very hard to be got. I went up into Millcreek canyon, and after wading in snow waist deep, and working so hard that my underclothes were wet with perspiration, and my outside clothes wet with snow, and on coming home I froze my feet so bad that I was laid up for six weeks. When I pulled the stockings off the skin came also, but spring with its benevolent rays came at last, and I got to work again, getting my garden fixed up for crops as I had one of the best gardens in the country which almost kept my family.* The scene must now change as I was preparing to enjoy myself this coming winter, and had hauled up my winter's wood, and thought I was just going to have a good time with my old and tried friends, but alas! for man's calculations, it does not always carry out. I was ordered out on a mission under command of Brother Geo. A.. Smith to Iron County, and to sell out and go right away. So I sold my house and lot and furniture and wood and traps that I could not take along to Brother Samuel I. Burgess for $372.00 for which I got one wagon and one yoke of oxen for $146.00, and that was all I ever got, but I had now a fitout of three yoke of oxen, two cows and a span of horses and harness. Got his due bill for $225.75 which never



was collected and dated Nov. 25th, 1850, payable on the 25th day of August, 1851. I then got my family fitted out and left Salt Lake City on the 5th day of December, 1850, went out into Mill Creek Ward and camped with Brother O. B. Adams who was also called for Iron County, left their house on the 10th, and came out twelve miles. My wife drove one wagon with one very large yoke of oxen on it, and the family and cooking tools in the wagon with stove in it. I drove the other wagon with one years fit out of flour, groceries and tools in it with three yoke of oxen and a yoke of cows on it. We made short drives and at last crossed the Provo River where President Smith organized us in to 100's, 50's, and 10's. Anson Call, Captain of first 50, Simon Baker, second 50, Joseph Horn was our pilot. We were also organized into a military force, one cavalry company, under Captain Almond Fullmer, Light Infantry Company under James A. Little, The Iron Invincibles under Captain Edson Whipple, the Artillery under Captain Jacob Hofheiner. I was appointed first Lieut, of the Light Infantry Company and pilot of the ten that I started with, and Journalist of the Company. This was a very snowy winter. Sometimes there was two feet of snow on our road and the pilots had to break the roads, but as I had a strong team I did not mind that. December 17th, camped on Spanish Fork, The Peteetneet the 19th, laid to all day and made further organizations by electing George A. Smith Major of the Iron Battalion. Came 20 miles next day, snow 6 inches deep. Saturday, 28th came through canyons and over hills, road very slippery on account of so much travel on the snow, and freezing'all the time. On Sunday 29th came to Cedar Springs, snow two feet deep, Monday 30th, came to Chalk Creek, where Fillmore now stands, Tuesday 31st, came on to Meadow Creek, where we lay to all the next day being the First of January 1851. We came on and over the mountain into Dog Valley when Captain Baker explored and found a pass which has since been called Baker Canyon. We came over the mountain to Cove Creek when we lay to all one Sunday the 5th where Brother G. A. preached to us, also Brother Wm. C. Mitchell, and known since as Michael's first preaching ground. Came over the mountain and into what is now known as Wild Cat Canyon, named by a young man known as Yankie, who accompanied Pres. P. P. Pratt on his exploring expedition to Irqn County in 1849. This young man seeing a wild cat pursuing a deer and likely to catch it shot the cat and so the deer escaped, and it was called Wild Cat Canyon from that circumstance. We came through 18 inches of snow down the canyon and over ridges until we came into Beaver Valley, and crossed over the



Beaver several miles below where the city of Beaver now stands, and climbed the mountain through a canyon west of the present road and came down to what is called buckhorn Springs.* On the 15th day of January, 1851, we camped on the Parowan ground near the mouth of the canyon, and as usual some could not see a place for a city there. Some said this was not the place, others said it was. After hearing what every one had to say, I went into my wagon. My bed was nicely made up and every thing nice and clean, the back end being open toward the lake, west. I threw myself on my face and looked out, and had an open vision of a city there. I jumped out of the wagon and commenced preaching to the disaffected, and in a short time, I had made many converts. Dr. W m Morse, John Sanderson, an astrologer and many others fell in with my views and as George A. Smith arid a company of horsemen had gone on to Coal Creek to look for the right place, we were left in charge of the place, and when G. A. came back, we were all converted that we were on the right spot. I was appointed to take a small company and explore for timber. So Tarleton Lewis and Elijah Newman volunteered to go also Richard Benson. W e proceeded up the canyon about 6 miles, where the snow was 3 ft. deep and found lots of the best kind of timber which afterwards cost us 600 days work to open a road to it. There was much misgiving about the soil, as it looked red, and our big farmers such as Anson Call, Aaron Cherry, Thomas Smith, David Brinton, Samuel Bringhurst, Robert Green, Aaron Farr and others thought this place not near as good as Salt Lake valley or north of there, and as soon as they could conveniently work up an excuse to get away they did it. After laying out a fence 7 miles on each side to the lake, and getting a field large enough to give every man 160 acres, they left, leaving only 25 men out of a company of 113 to carry on the large enterprise. This made us a great deal of trouble for those who remained, and as those who deserted were the most wealthy, the burden was now on the poorer portions of the camp. Brother W m H. Dame was appointed our surveyor and he set about laying out a city in fort fashion and parceling our land in ranges, blocks and lots. An organization soon took place which resulted in W m H. Dame for mayor, John Steele, marshall of the city. I filed bonds of $500 before James Lewis, clerk of the county court. Chapman Duncan, judge, dated June 2nd, 1851. I headed several expeditions against the Indians, always returning successful, and the Indians considered I held a charmed life, as they had several shots at me and could not hit me. W e had hard work to keep them quiet. They would steal and beg all we had if we would let them.



Our August election came on and George A. wanted me to go to the legislature, but I was not fully naturalized, and could not go, so the name of E. H. Groves and George Brimhall carried. On the 7th day of November, 1851, I took the oath of allegiance to the Government of the United States before James Lewis Clark of the Third Judicial District Court, Judge Z. Snow presiding, and on the first day of June, 1852, I received my final papers from Judge Zerubbabel Snow. Things began to look nourishing, houses being built, fences made, farms fenced and water ditches laid out, and not last or least we laid out a fort on a ten acre block in which we were.to have 2 rods by 4, in which we were required to build our houses, and if any man could not build his 2 rods up, he must put down substantial pickets so that it could be defended by our bastians. About the first work we did was to build a substantial log meeting house on the southwest corner of our square with a bastian running out so as to cover the east and south sides, also a good log bastian on the north west corner to rake the north and we had to shoulder our own burdens. The Indians were very troublesome, but owing to the faithful vigilance of Brother Geo. A. and his admirable counsel, we never were caught napping, and I have had to chastize the Indians many, times and they liked me all the better for it. It was now thought best to organize Iron County into a Stake. Accordingly in May, 1852 a stake was organized with John Calvin L. Smith President, John Steele and Henry Lunt, Counselors, ordained under the hands of President Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, and Orson Pratt. Henry Lunt was sent to preside in Cedar City, and for me to remain and help Calvin in Parowan. Prayer circles were organized and held twice a week, at which I had to preside as there were very few who knew how to manage them. I was also appointed mayor of the Iron Battalion, G. A. Smith having gone back to S. L. City and we had to shoulder our own burdens. I received my major's commission from under the hands of Gov. B. Young and Secretary A. W . Babbitt, to" take rank from January 3rd, 1854. Signed March 11, 1854. When the stake was organized in 1852, Brother Orson Pratt sealed my wife Catherine to me in Brother George A. Smith's house, and on the 6th day of April, 1853 following, my son John Alma Steele was born on Wednesday, at 9 o'clock in the morning. The latitude of Parowan is 37° 50' 4 1 " and the altitude above S. L. City is 1300 feet. After W m H. Dame served out his time as mayor, and I had served my time as marshall, I was duly selected mayor on



June 18th, 1853. Shortly after this Chapman Duncan, Judge of Iron County and James Lewis Clark and Hosea Stout were called on a mission to China, and I was appointed by Governor Young to fill the vacant judgeship. Until the legislature met I filed bonds accordingly. About this time I had my hands so full, I could not tell what to do first, Indian troubles, settling home matters which are generally plenty and as Calvin or the President were absent nearly all the time, the work devolved upon me. About this time Colonel John C. Fremont came in with about 25 or 30 men nearly starved. W e took them in and fed them. They rested some three weeks to recruit up, then went on their way exploring again towards California. When he left he took $20 worth of maps that I had loaned him, as I was at that time County Recorder. H e also determined the latitude. The year 1854 was a very busy year for me. I increased in property very fast, although I was constantly busy for the people both night and day and worked for nothing, for I can say that for all of my labors I never received one cent, neither from tithing donation or gift. I maintained my family by the work of my own hands through the blessings of the Lord and can say I am not obliged to any man for a pound of flour or its equivalent. I filed my bond as County Recorder April 18th, 1853 and at this time the consecration law came out, and I recorded President George A. Smith's deed amounting to $6000. I then recorded that of John C. L. Smith, President of the Stake. I then recorded my own deed of $2000, consecrated to Brigham Young, Trustee in Trust for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latterday Saints.* At this time I received a call at the 6th of April Conference, 1855 to take a mission to Las Vegas and help settle that place and make friends with the Indians and have a fort built to protect travellers to and from San Bernadino where many of our people had settled under Apostles Amasa M. Lyman and Charles C. Rich. Accordingly I left Parowan, Tuesday May 29th, 1855. W m Bringhurst of Springville was in charge of the company. Arrived at Las Vegas on the 14th of June, 1855. I had a compass and I laid out a fort 150 feet square, also a corral 8 rods by 150 feet, also 30 garden lots 3 rods by 2y2 rods. I also laid out fifteen five acre lots, being two and one half for each man, 30 in number. W e went to work with a will and built our fort and our homes. On the inside of the south wall I finished mine, and started up on the 8th of November for Parowan, arrived and found my family all well, but President John C. L. Smith sick. He was President of the Stake and I was his First



Counselor. He died Dec. 30, 1855. President Young wrote me to return to the Vegas, and do all the good I could among the Indians. I had also letters from George A Smith, so I left Parowan, March 25th and arrived at the Las Vegas on the 5th of April, 1856. President W m Bringhurst then left for Springville and I was left in charge of the Mission. During this time I found the lead mines by the help of a good Indian named Coonakibats. Sent some specimens to Pres. Young who informed me that Albert Carrington had assayed it and found it 90 per cent pure lead and 10 pr ct sulphur. I got up a petition to the Post-master General for a postoffice, and we got it and I acted postmaster as long as I remained there. President Bringhurst returned and Nathaniel V. Jones came to work the lead ore, and I was released to return home. Eventually the mission broke up so that nothing remained but the walls. I then went to Salt Lake City and visited President Young who told me I was at liberty to choose any settlement in the territory, and make my home as I was broke up at Parowan in consequence of grasshoppers and other causes. So I moved to Toquerville in Washington County, June 1861, and next spring I moved my family from Parowan. On Nov. 15th, I was called by Pres. Erastus Snow to take a mission to the Navajo Indians and Moqui Indians. So I started out Nov. 25 from St. George in company of Jacob Hamblin, Thales Haskell and twenty-two others. W e made a boat and corked her tight and crossed the Colorado River, visited the above named Indians, and returned home on Tuesday, Jan. 5th, 1863, an account of which I furnished the Historian's Office after my return. This has been the hardest trip I ever took. I soon had to take hold of the military of our part of the country, as Major in the 10th regiment of infantry under Col. McArthur and General Erastus Snow. I took quite an active part during our Indian wars. I was commissioned Justice of the Peace on the 29th day of January, 1869, by Governor Higgins of Utah. I was also elected County Surveyor of Kane County, August 4th, 1873. I was also elected County Assessor and Collector for Kane County, March 9th, 1874. I was also reappointed Assessor and Collector for the succeeding year. I was called to the April Conference, 1877, to take a mission to England. I left my home on the 8th of May, 1877.* I returned home October 20th, 1878 with 5 cents in my pocket, and that was all my wealth. I found on my return my fences down, and everything in a dilapidated condition, my former business all gone and poverty staring me in the face, and it took me 5 years to recuperate. I worked hard to recover my lost property and after many years I began to prosper once more.



AMERICAN POSTS (Continued) By EDGAR M. LEDYARD, President UTAH HISTORICAL LANDMARKS ASSOCIATION (Organized August 23,19291 Utah Historical Landmarks Association Museum 518 CHAMBER OF COMMERCE BUILDING, SALT LAKE CITY

St. John the Baptist Fort. On the Rio del Norte River. New Mexico. St. John the Baptist Fort. On the west bank of the Rio Bravo River. Texas. St. Joseph, Fort. Near head of Illinois River. Illinois. St. Joseph, Fort. At New Orleans. Louisiana. St. Joseph, Fort. According to a tablet on a building 19 to 21 First Street, St. Louis, Missouri, a Spanish Expedition left that point on January 2, 1781, to attack Fort St. Joseph. At that time Fort St. Joseph was the nearest point where a British flag stood over a fortification. The expedition of the Spaniards was successful and the fort was captured. On Lake Michigan at mouth of St. Joseph's River. Michigan. St. Joseph's Fort. On St. Joseph's Bay. Florida. St. Leon, Fort. Built in 1812. At the English Turn, right bank of the Mississippi, below New Orleans. At Gretna, Plaquemines County. Louisiana. St. Louis de Carloretto, Fort. On the Natchitoches River. Texas. St. Louis de la Mobile, Fort. In Mobile County on Mobile River. Alabama. St. Louis, Fort. On Illinois River just north of Fort Crevecoeur in central Illinois. In existence in 1684. Located at Starved Rock, near Ottawa and Rockford. Illinois. St. Louis, Fort. At New Orleans. Louisiana. St. Louis, Fort. At Bay of Biloxi. Mississippi. St. Louis, Fort. Near Matagorda Bay. Texas. St. Mark, Fort. At Pensacola. Same as San Marco. Florida. St. Mark's Fort. Left bank of St. Marys River in Mercer County. Now a town of that name. Built by General Anthony Wayne. Ohio. St. Mary de Apalachee, Fort. At mouth of Ocklockonnee River. Florida.



St. Mary, Fort. On east side of the Mississippi, six miles southeast of New Orleans. Louisiana. St. Mary's Fort. On St. Marys Strait. Michigan. St. Mary's Fort. At present site of town of that name. Ohio. St. Michael, Fort. The old trading post of St. Michael was founded by Tebenkof during the administration of Wrangell. When Whymper visited it, it was a central port for Indian trade and the collection of furs from distant interior posts, especially along the Yukon River. After it came into the possession of the United States, it was made a military post and two companies were stationed there for a time. Alaska. St. Michael, Fort. At Pensacola. Florida. St. Nicholas, Fort. Later called* Fort Kenai. Alaska. St. Nicholas, Fort. Built in 1688. Located at mouth of Wisconsin River. Wisconsin. St. Peter, Fort. On the Yazoo River. Mississippi. St. Philip, Fort. Right bank of the Mobile River, twenty miles above Mobile. Alabama. St. Philip, Fort. On left bank of the Mississippi, west side of Bayou Mardi Gras, at Plaquemine Bend, seventy-five miles below New Orleans and twenty-five miles above the mouth of the Mississippi; nearly opposite Fort Jackson. Louisiana. St. Philip, Fort. Right bank of Cape Fear River at Old Brunswick, eleven miles south of Wilmington. Later called Fort Anderson. North Carolina. St. Pierre, Fort. This fort was built by La Verendrye at the outlet of Rainy Lake in 1732. Fort Tekamaniouen was located on the same site or Fort St. Pierre was renamed a little later. This was followed by another fort built by the Hudson's Bay Company and called Fort Frances, in honor of the wife of Sir George Simpson, governor of the company from 1821 to 1860. Dr. John McLaughlin was one of the traders at this post which is commemorated by a town of the same name. William W. Warren indicates that he considered 1823 as the founding of an American Fur Company's post at the same site, at the outlet of Rainy Lake, but Major Stephen H . Long, who visited the post in 1823, does not indicate that it was a new post. There is some confusion in the literature regarding Rainy Lake post which seems to bear several names. It was an important post and a distribution point for trappers and traders. An American post was there, probably established soon after 1816. Minnesota. St. Simeons, Fort. Near Cape St. Elias. Alaska. St. Simon, Fort. Built in 1736. On south end of St. Simon's Island. Georgia. St. Stephens, Fort. On Tombigbee River, Washington County. Alabama.



St. Tommany, Fort. At mouth of St. Marys River. Georgia. St. Vincent, Fort. At Vincennes. Indiana. St. Vrain, Fort. This post was erected in 1838 at the confluence of the Cache de Poudre River with the Platte. St. Vrain was one of the owners of the Vigil and St. Vrain grant, a huge tract of land ceded to him by the Mexican government. Fort St. Vrain was on one of the well-worn trails of the fur companies and was one of the important fur trading posts erected in Colorado; the erection of such forts beginning with the building of Fort William by Bent in 1832. In 1843 Fremont visited the post and makes the following comments: "About noon, on the 4th of July, we arrived at the fort, where Mr. St. Vrain received us with his customary kindness, and invited us to join him in a feast which had been prepared in honor of the day. "Our animals were very much worn out, and our stock of provisions entirely exhausted when we arrived at the fort; but I was disappointed in my hope of obtaining relief, as I found it in a very impoverished condition; and we were able to procure only a little unbolted Mexican flour, and some salt, with a few pounds of powder and lead." Fort St. Vrain was the largest trading post on the South Platte and the third largest in the central west fur trading region; Fort Laramie and Fort Bent were the only two of greater size and importance. The Bent brothers owned this post jointly with St. Vrain. It stood on the old trail about half way between Fort Laramie and Fort Bent. Ten miles from Fort St. Vrain, Fremont reached what he called Fort Lancaster, now called Fort Lupton, built and occupied at that time, by Lieutenant Lancaster P. Lupton. There were well marked beginnings of argiculture at Fort Lancaster (Lupton) when Fremont passed through this country in 1843, but none at St. Vrain. Colorado. Saleesh House. This Northwest Fur Company post was built by David Thompson in October, 1809. Montana. Salonga, Fort. Now town of that name. Suffolk County. New York. Sam Houston, Fort. This post was established in 1865 as an official U. S. army post at San Antonio, Texas. It occupies a reservation of four hundred sixty-nine acres near the city of San Antonio and is an important strategic point on the southern frontier. In 1914 it was garrisoned by a regiment of cavalry and three batteries of field artillery. Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston, General Robert E. Lee, General George H. Thomas, General W. H. Carter, General Henry T. Allen and many noted soldiers have been stationed here. The Alamo, in reality a group of buildings surrounded by a strong wall within the limits of San Antonio, was formerly the Franciscan Mission, San Antonio



de Valera, erected about 1718. It was used as a fortification by the Texans during the struggle with Mexico. The Alamo was besieged from February 23 to March 6, 1836, and on the date last named, the Mexicans gained entrance. Lieutenant Colonel William B. Travis, James Bowie, David Crockett and James Butler Bonham lead a hand-to-hand encounter. These men and all but six Texans were killed, the last named were treacherously massacred the same day after they surrendered. In 1718, thirty soldiers were sent by the Spanish government to the San Antonio Mission to protect the Fathers who were working there. These men comprised the first military organization regularly stationed near Fort Sam Houston. Texas. Sampson, Fort. Near Petersburg. Virginia. Sanders, Fort One of the defenses of Knoxville, Tennessee, west of the city and north of the Holston River. Built during the Civil War. Tennessee. Sanders, Fort. This fort was established June 23, 1866, by Lieutenant Colonel H. M. Mizner of the 18th Infantry. A railroad station of the same name was later built six and one-half miles distant. Most of the post buildings were made of logs, several of stone and one of ordinary frame material. About two and one-half miles south of Laramie on highway to Denver. Marked with granite tablet; some of the old buildings are standing. This post was first called Fort John Buford. Wyoming. Sanderson, Fort. Temporary post near Garey's Ferry; established in Florida War. Florida. Sanford, Fort. On Des Moines River, sixty-five miles west of Fort Madison. Iowa. Sandhocken, Fort. Same as Fort Casimir. Delaware. Sandusky, Fort. Old French Fort. Site of present city of Sandusky, on left bank of the Sandusky River. Ohio. Sandy Hook, Fort. Northern end of Sandy Hook. New Jersey. Sandy Lake Post. Near Sandy Lake; built by Northwestern Fur Company in 1794. It continued as an important post until 1812. As late as 1833 it was occupied by traders as a rival post of the American Fur Company. Minnesota. San Jacinto, Fort. On the east end of Galveston Island, a subpost of Fort Crockett. Galveston. Texas. San Jose, Fort. On San Francisco Harbor. California. San Lorenzo, Fort. The King of Spain built a wooden castle at the mouth of Chagres River about 1619; this fortification was named Fort San Lorenzo. In 1670 Sir Henry Morgan attacked this fort, with a garrison of three hundred and fourteen men. The fort fell after all but thirty men were killed. Canal Zone. San Luis, Fort. An important post two miles east of the



present site of Tallahassee. This post was attacked in 1702 by English troops under Governor Moore of South Carolina; the Spanish commander, Don Juan Mexia, and about half of his men were killed. The fort was destroyed. Florida. San Marco, Fort. (St. Mark.) Same as Fort Marion at St. Augustine. In 1638 a war broke out between the Spanish at St. Augustine and the Apalache Indians of the interior. San Marco was an inferior post at that time with a small garrison,' but the Spaniards drove the Indians back into their own territory. The Spaniards then pursued a plan of retalliation, captured a large number of Indians and forced them and their descendants to work for sixty years on this post, which is almost as intact today as when it was built. The material used in its construction was coqiiina, obtained from Anastasia Island. The fort sustained two sieges and many attacks but was never taken. Florida. San Saba, Old Fort. On San Saba River in Menard County. Texas. Santa Clara, Fort. In 1853 Jacob Hamblin and other Mormon pioneers established Santa Clara on the Santa Clara River near St. George. The fort was built as a protection against Indians. Washington County. Utah. Sarasto, Fort. On Hudson River; also called Fort George. New York. Saratoga, Fort. One of the Civil W a r defenses of Washington, north of the Potomac. District of Columbia. Saratoga, Fort. At Saratoga. New York. Sarpy, Fort. From 1850 to 1855. Right bank, Yellowstone River, Yellowstone County. Montana. Saskatchewan, Fort. Alberta. Canada. Saulsbury, Fort. Six and one-half miles east of Milford. Delaware. Saunders, Fort. Four miles southeast of Clinton. Kansas. Saunders, Fort. At Louisville. Kentucky. Savannah, Fort. At Savannah. Georgia. Savannah, Fort. Also called Camp Union. West Virginia. Saybrook, Fort. On Tomb Hill, mouth of Connecticut River. Connecticut. Sayer's House. Northwest Fur Company. Minnesota. Scammel, Fort. House Island, Portland harbor, opposite Fort Preble. Maine. Scarborough, Fort. At Black Point. Maine. Schenectady, Fort. Near Schenectady. New York. Schloper, Fort. Near the falls of the Niagara. Canada. Schlosser, Fort. On waterway between Lakes Erie and Ontario near Fort Niagara, on right bank of the Niagara River, above the Falls; about one^half.mile west of the mouth of Gill



Creek; now obliterated. New York. Schofield Barracks. On the island of Oahu, about twenty-five miles from Honolulu. Hawaii. Schullsburg, Old Fort. Wisconsin. Schuyler, Fort. At Throg's Neck north side of junction of East River with Long Island Sound; three miles from Westchester. Work on this fort was begun in 1833 but the post was not established until 1856. The reservation comprises fifty-two acres. In 1914 the post was garrisoned with a detachment of coast artillery. New York. Schuyler, Old Fort. At Rome. New York. Schwartz, Fort. Near Milton. Pennsylvania. Scott, Camp. About three miles from Fort Bridger, in the Valley of Black's Fork of Green River. Winterquarters, Johnston's Army. Wyoming. Scott, Fort. Latitude 30° 45'; longitude 85°. Florida. Scott, Fort. Right bank of Flint River, four miles above the mouth of Spring River. At Faceville, Decatur County. Georgia. Scott, Fort. About three miles west of the Missouri State line on the right bank of the Marmiton (Marmaton) River, Bourbon County. Some of the old barracks still in existence in 1918. Now town of same name. Kansas. Scott, Fort. See Plattsburg Barracks. New York. Scott, Fort. Near mouth of Scioto River. Ohio. Scott, Fort. At Four Mile Creek. Virginia. Scott, J. J., Camp. Near the Rio Grande, twenty-eight miles northwest of Eagle Pass. Texas. Scott, Martin, Fort. North of Fredericksburg, on Baron's Creek of Perdinales River, tributary of the Colorado. Texas. Scott, Winfield, Fort. On San Francisco Bay; part of Presidio reservation, San Francisco. California. Scott, Winfield, Fort. Near Yorktown. Virginia. Screven, Fort. Eighteen miles southeast of Savannah, on Tybee Island. Georgia. Searle, Fort. Temporary post, six miles east of Picolata, on the St. John's River; established during Florida War. Florida. Sedgwick, Fort. This fort was established May 19, 1864. It was located in the northeast corner of Colorado Territory on the south side of the South Platte River (four miles distant), on the old emigrant and stage road to Colorado. It was named after Major General John Sedgwick. Colorado. Sedgwick, Fort. One of the works constructed before Petersburg during the siege; also called Fort Hell. Virginia. Selden, Fort. Louisiana. Selden, Fort. Left bank of the Rio Grande, eight miles from Dona Ana, Dona Ana County. New JMexico.



Selkirk, Fort. At the junction of the Louis River and the Pelly (now called Yukon) River. This post was also known as Mr. Campbell's Fort. Built by the Hudson's Bay Company and abandoned because it did not pay. Later burned by Indians. On site of present town of Selkirk, Yukon. Canada. Selkirk's Fort. In existence from 1812 to 1823; same as Daer's Fort. North Dakota. Seneca, Old Fort. Stockade built in 1812, left bank of Sandusky River, nine miles north of Tiffin. Seneca County. Ohio. Seraf, Fort. At Mobile Point. Alabama. Severn, Fort. At Annapolis, on the right bank of Severn River. Now United States Naval Academy. Maryland. Sewall, Fort. At Marblehead, west entrance to Marblehead Harbor (Old Fort Head). Massachusetts. Seward, Fort. On the Eel River, sixty-five miles southeast of Fort Humboldt. Site of old fort now occupied by a land company. One of the old buildings standing in 1924. Humboldt County. California. Seward, Fort. Near headwaters of James River; first named Fort Cross. Eldridge, Stutsman County. North Dakota. Seward, F o r t On Bay Point. South Carolina. Seward, W m . H., Fort. See William H. Seward Fort. Alaska. Seybert, Fort. Pendleton County, on Moorefield River; now town of that name. W e s t Virginia. Shackleford, Fort. Temporary post in Florida W a r ; outskirts of Big Cypress Swamp. Florida. Shatter, Fort. Kahuaiki, Kona District, about three miles from Honolulu on the Island of Oahu. Hawaii. Shallowbag Bay, Fort. On Roanoke Island. North Carolina. Shannon, Camp. Subpost of Camp Furlong. In the southwestern part of New Mexico, twenty-five miles west of Hermanas. New Mexico. Shannon, Fort. At Palatka. Florida. Shattucks, Fort. At Hinsdale. New Hampshire. Shaw, Fort. Built in the fifties; on Sun River, eighty-three miles north of Helena; first named Camp Reynolds. Cascade County. Montana. Shaw, Fort. At Wilmington. North Carolina. Shaw, Fort. Near Charleston on Morris Island. South Carolina. Shawnee, Fort. Near Plymouth. Built in 1776 and destroyed by flood in 1784. Pennsylvania. Shawnee, Fort. Mouth of Kanawha River. West Virginia. Shelby, Fort. On present site of Rock Island Arsenal. Illinois. Shelby, Fort. When Detroit was founded in 1701 by the



French adventurer, Antione de la Mothe Cadillac, he erected a fort called Fort Ponchartrain which was occupied by a small military garrison, a few fur traders and Jesuit missionaries. In 1763 Detroit passed into the hands of the British and the Indians under Pontiac attempted unsuccessfully to exterminate the garrison. In 1778 Fort Ponchartrain was removed and a new fort called Fort NeNoult was built which occupied the square bounded by the present Lafayette Avenue, Congress Street one line a little east of Shelby Street and another west of Wayne Street; heavy stockades extended to the river. In 1796 Detroit was turned over to the United States. On August 16, 1812, General William Hull surrendered the fort and city to General William Brock. In 1813 the city and fort was recovered by the United States and the name of the post was changed to Shelby; in 1827 the fort was abandoned by the government and the earth forming its embankments used to fill low places near the river. Michigan. Shelby, Fort. At Prairie du Chien. Wisconsin. Shepherd's Fort. At Wheeling. West Virginia. Sheppard, Fort. In British Columbia near Washington state line. Now a town same name. Canada. Sheridan, Camp. Name changed to Fort Yellowstone. Wyoming. Sheridan, Fort. North of Chicago about forty miles. The site of this post was given to the government by citizens of Chicago in 1886; post established in 1887. The reservation comprises 632 acres. It was named after Lieutenant General Philip H. Sheridan. It is an important army post, located along a beautiful drive, north of Chicago, near Highwood. Illinois. Sherman, Fort. This post was established by an order of the W a r Department November 24, 1911, order number 153. It was named in honor of General William T. Sherman and first occupied by General William E. Cole; on May 30, 1914. English buccaneers fought with the Spanish for possession of this country. Near the site of Fort Sherman is Old Fort San Lorenzo. Three miles from Cristobal. Canal Zone. Sherman, Fort. At Coeur d'Alene; first called Fort Coeur d'Alene. Some of the buildings standing. Idaho. Sherman, Fort. At Hiltonhead. South Carolina. Sherman, Fort. At Chattanooga. Tennessee. Sherman, Fort. On the Big Cypress, Titus County. Texas. Sherrard, Fort. Florida. Sherrills, Fort. On Little River, near Ogeechee. Georgia. Shield's Fort. Six miles from Flannastown. Pennsylvania. Ship Island, Fort. On the western end of Ship Island, on Mississippi Sound; twelve miles from Biloxi. Also called Fort



Massachusetts. Mississippi. Shippen, Fort. Near Hannastown. Pennsylvania. Shirley, Fort. At Dresden. Maine. Shirley, Fort. At Heath. Massachusetts. Shirley, Fort. In Huntingdon County; present site of Shirleysburg. Pennsylvania. Shullsburg, Old Fort. Built during the Black Hawk War, Lafayette County. Wisconsin. Shunk, Camp. Twenty-five miles southwest of Camp Floyd. Utah. Sidney, Fort. Near Sidney. Nebraska. Sidney, Fort. At Richmond. Virginia. Sidney Johnston, Fort. At Mobile. Alabama. Siguenza, Fort. On Santa Rosa Island. Florida. Sill, Fort. Built in 1870 to protect western trails in earlv days. Formally established in 1871. From 1871 to 1905 Fort Sill was a noted post on the southwest frontier, in a hostile Indian country. Geronimo operated around this post. Captain Marcy explored the surrounding section in 1852. In 1911 a school of fire for field artillery was established there. Usually five batteries for field artillery form the garrison and it is also the headquarters for field artillery. Six miles north of Lawton at junction of Medicine Bluff and Cache Creeks; first called Camp Wichita. Oklahoma. Simcoe, Fort. 1855-59. Simcoe Valley, midway between the Topinish and Simcoe, on Yakima Indian Reservation; now town of that name, Yakima County. Washington. Simmons, Fort. Temporary post on the left bank of the Caloosahatchie River about forty miles from Fort Dulaney; established in Florida War. Florida. Simmons, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C , north of Potomac, near Tennallytown. Maryland. Simon Drum, Fort. In Monroe County. Florida. Simon, Fort. See St. Simon. Georgia. Simpson, Fort. Built by Peter Skeen Ogden and Donald Manson under the direction of John McLoughlin at the mouth of the river Nass in 1831. Named for Lieutenant Simpson of the British Royal Navy. Canada. Sinclair, Fort. On right bank of Hudson, longitude 32.31 west; latitude 43.15 north. New York. Sinipee, Fort. On Mississippi River, southwest part of state. Wisconsin. Sinquefield, Fort. Between Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers, central part of Clarke County. Alabama. Sisseton* Fort. On Kettle Lake; first called Fort Wadsworth. North Dakota. Sisseton, Fort. Roslyn, Marshall County. South Dakota.



Sitka, Fort. The beginnings of Fort Sitka were laid on May 25, 1799, when Baranof landed on a point called Old Sitka about six miles north of the present town of Sitka. The Kolosh Indiana in that region were hostile. In 1800 a fortified blockhouse was built and named after the arcangel, Mikhail. Twenty-five Russians and fifty-five Aleutian hunters occupied the first fort which was soon enlarged by the addition of blockhouses and palisades. In June (about the 24th) 1802, the Kolosh rose against the garrison and massacred and killed all found in the fort. The loss of Fort Sv. Mikhail was a great loss to the Russians. Sitka was recaptured in the period 1803 to 1805. On Friday, October 18, 1867, Captain Alexei Pestchourof, Russian Commissioner and General L. H. Rousseau, United States Commissioner, landed at Sitka; the Russian flag was pulled down and the Stars and Stripes raised. In later years the fortification was called the Castle of Sitka. Alaska. Skagway, Fort. Near Dyea and near Haines. Alaska. Skedaddle, Fort. Facetious name for a post. On Munson's Hill. Virginia. Skenesborough, Fort. At Lake Champlain; present site of Whitehall. New York. Slaughter, Fort. Established in 1856 by the United States Regulars on Muckleshott Prairie near Puget Sound; one of several posts erected during the Indian Wars of 1856-58. Washington. Slemmer, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, north of the Potomac, one-half mile east of Soldiers' Home. District of Columbia. Slocum, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, north of the Potomac, three miles north of Washington City. District of Columbia. Slocum, Fort. On David's Island, two miles southwest of New Rochelle, located on Long Island Sound. The armament consists of mortars and rapid-fire guns. Also a recruit depot New York. Slongo, Fort. Near present site of Smithtown. New York. Slucher Fort. One mile above Niagara Falls. New York. Smallwood, Fort. At Rockpoint, eleven miles southeast of Baltimore. Maryland. Smith, Camp C. F. On White Horse Creek, near the Pueblo Mines, about eight miles southeast from Camp Alvord. Oregon. Smith, Fort. This post was one of four famous ones on the "frontier," others being Leavenworth, Scott, and Gibson. A military post was established at Belle Point in 1817. In 1818 the name was changed to Fort Smith. The original fort consisted of large blockhouses surrounded by a stockade as a protection



against Indians. When the boundary of the states was moved forty miles farther west Fort Smith was discontinued and Fort Gibson was erected on the frontier. In 1837 Congress directed the Secretary of W a r to erect a new fort on the site of the original Fort Smith. Three hundred acres were purchased from John Rogers, a new stone fort was erected and a national cemetery located. During its construction, Captain Belknap erected temporary works giving them the name of Fort Belknap. Troops occupied Fort Smith in 1842. Among the officers stationed there have been Jefferson Davis, Zachary Taylor, General Arbuckle, Winfield Scott Hancock, B. L. E. Bonneville, and others. Washington Irving wrote "Tour of the Prairies" and Henry M. Stanley taught school there. It was the scene of operations during the Civil War. Later the buildings were used for court purposes— Judge Isaac Parker's famous court was held for a time in one of the old buildings—some of the old buildings still in use (1923). Now a city of same name. Bonneville is buried at Fort Smith. On the right bank of the Arkansas, at the mouth of Poteau River, Sebastian County. Arkansas. Smith, Fort. Alberta. Canada. Smith, Fort. Near Fort Fisher. North Carolina. Smith, C. F., Fort. In existence from 1866 to 1868. This post was established in 1866 by Brevet Lieutenant Colonel N. C. Kinney, Captain 18th Infantry, who had with him two companies of that regiment. The fort was at the foot of the Big Horn Mountain, on the right bank of the Big Horn River, ninety miles from Fort Phil Kearny and three hundred eighty miles from Cheyenne and about eight miles above the mouth of Rotten Grass_ Creek. It was abandoned in July, 1868. This post was one of four forts established in the northern Powder River country for the protection of white men against the Indians. The Indians protested against the occupancy of this country and the Government made a treaty yielding up to the Indians the whole country north of the North Platte River, the Black Hills included, and abandoned the posts to the Indians. Afterwards gold was discovered and it was practically impossible to prevent parties from going to the Black Hills. Montana. Smith, C. F., Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C , south of Potomac, near the Aqueduct Bridge. Virginia. Smith, Huntington, Fort. At Knoxville. Tennessee. Smith, J. R., Fort. Florida. Snelling, Fort. Florida. Snelling, Fort. On right bank of the Mississippi, north side of the mouth of the St. Peter's, formerly Fort St. Anthony. Date of first work in vicinity, 1819. This post was established by Lieutenant Colonel Henry Leavenworth and was called "Can-



tonment New Hope." In 1820 camp materials were transported across the river, the new camp being called "Camp Coldwater." At this post construction work on the new fort was begun which was called "Fort Saint Anthony." A general order was issued on January 7, 1825, changing the name to St. Anthony or Snelling. This post protected early settlers in the northwest country. Named in honor of Colonel Josiah Snelling. The reservation comprised 1,531 acres. In 1914 Fort Snelling was garrisoned by a battery of field artillery but there were accommodations for a larger body of troops. Five and one-half miles southwest of St. Paul. Minnesota. Snyder, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, east of Giesboro Point. District of Columbia. Souris, Fort. Built by X. Y. Company. Canada. South Fort. There were t w a forts in Salt Lake City, one called North Fort and the other South Fort. North Fort, built upon the arrival of the pioneers, occupied the present site of Pioneer Square. A little later a fort was built immediately to the south separated by a wall and occupied by later arrivals; this was called South Fort. Utah. South Ottawa, Fort. Built during the Black Hawk War. Now town of same name, La Salle County. Illinois. Southworth, Fort. Near Louisville. Kentucky. Spanish, Fort. Left bank of Apalache River, near its mouth, at Mobile Bay, about seven miles due east from Mobile. Alabama. Spanish Fort. Same as Fort St. John. Louisiana. Sparks' Fort. Near Burn's Ford. Built prior to 1776; obliterated. Fayette County. Pennsylvania. Spinola, Fort. Near Newbern. North Carolina. Spokane, Fort". Also called Spokane House and "lower settlement." Built in 1810 by Finan McDonald and Jaques Raphael Finlay. This post was located at the mouth of the little Spokane River. According to Alexander Ross there were attractive buildings, one of which boasted a ballroom. There were also fair damsels, fine horses and a race track. John Work dismantled Spokane House in 1826 which was re-established as Fort Colville. Spokane House was the first distributing center for the upper Columbia region. Washington. Spring, Fort. Pisgah, Fayette County. Kentucky. Spring, Fort. Greenbrier County. West Virginia. Spring Rock, Fort. Chloride, Yavapai County. Arizona. Springs Green, Fort. De Soto County. Florida. Spunky, Fort. Southeast corner of Hood County. Texas. Stager, Fort. Also called Fort Kispyox. "On the left bank of Kispyox, or Collins River, near the mouth of Babine River."—



Bancroft. Canada. Stalnaker, Fort. One of a chain of "Forest Castles" erected by early settlers in the Old Southwest. Fort Stalnaker was built by Samuel Stalnaker on the Middle Fork of the Holston. Virginia. Standing Stone, Fort. Built in Huntingdon County in 1762 at the junction of Achsinnink (Standing Stone) Creek and the Juniata River, in a somewhat hostile Indian country, first traversed by Conrad Weiser in 1748. Huntingdon which occupies the site of Standing Stone Fort was called Stone Town for many years. Pennsylvania. Standish, Fort. At Saquish Head, northern entrance to Plymouth Harbor, a little west of Fort Andrew. Massachusetts. Standish, Fort. On Lovell's Island in Boston Harbor, seven miles from Boston; subpost of Fort Strong. Massachusetts. Standoff, Fort. Erected in 1870. Canada. Stanford, Fort. First called Fort Arivaypa; name later changed to Fort Breckenridge. Arizona. Stanley, Camp. Subpost of Fort Sam Houston, twenty-four miles northeast of San Antonio, near Leon Springs, on Guadalupe River. Texas. Stanley, Fort. Florida. Stanley, Fort. One of the defenses of Knoxville, south of the Holston River. Tennessee. Stansbury, Fort. Temporary post on the left bank of the Wakulla River, nine miles above St. Marks; established during Florida War. Florida. Stanton, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, east of the Eastern Branch, near Uniontown. District of Columbia. Stanton, Fort. Right bank of Rio Bonita River, twenty miles east of White Mountains, at Capitan, Lincoln County. New Mexico. Stanwix, Fort. French Fort, located on the Mohawk River, present site of Rome. On account of its position on the watershed it commanded the principal line of communication between New York and Upper Canada. Sir William Johnson negotiated a treaty here with the Indians (Six Nations) in the fall of 1768. It was rebuilt in 1776 and named after General Philip Schuyler. In 1777 it sustained a siege against combined forces under St. Leger. The fort was destroyed in 1781 and later rebuilt as Fort Stanwix. In 1784 Oliver Solcott, Richard Butler and Arthur Lee acted for the Continental Congress and negotiated an important treaty here with the Six Nations. Schuyler. New York. Star, Fort. Erected at Augusta in 1781. Georgia. Star, Fort. Same as Fort McHenry. Maryland. Stark, Fort. Three miles from Portsmouth, at Jerry's Point;



subpost of Fort Constitution. New Hampshire. Starke, Fort. Temporary work at the mouth of the Manatee River; built in Florida War. Florida. Starved Rock, Fort. This noted post stood on a remarkable natural curiosity near Utica, La Salle County, Illinois. It was built by Tonty who used the first coal discovered in the New World in his forge. Starved Rock was one of the sixty American posts built by the French on which they based their claims to New World possessions. Tonty's Fort was named Fort Louis du Rocher. During the Pontiac W a r it was the refuge of Indians who were besieged and exterminated through hunger; hence the name. Illinois. State Corner, Fort. At Cumberland Gap. Tennessee. Statler's Fort. A pioneer fort in the vicinity of Clarksburg, West Virginia. Built as a protection against Indians in the latter part of the 1800's. West Virginia. Steadman, Fort. Short distance east of Petersburg; built during the siege. Virginia. Stearman, Fort. A Civil W a r defense of Knoxville. Tennessee. Steel, Fort. Three miles east of Mercersburg. Pennsylvania. Steele, Fort. British Columbia. Canada. Steele, Fort Fred. This post was established June 30, 1868, on North Platte River, by four companies of the 30th Infantry under the command of Brevet Colonel R. I. Dodge, major of the 30th infantry. When the posts in the Powder River Country were abandoned a great portion of the military stores were hauled from these abandoned posts and stored in Fort Fred Steele. Fort Fred Steele was 5.8 miles west of Walcott and two miles east of Benton City. From Fort Fred Steele, Major T. T. Thornburg was sent out to quell the Ute Indian uprising at Meeker, Colorado, in 1877. His command was ambushed in the Colorado mountains and 13 men were killed and 43 wounded. Now town of that name, Carbon County. Wyoming. Steilacoam, Fort. This post was built in August, 1849, by a company of artillery under the direction of Governor Joseph Lane during the campaign against the Cayuse Indians following the murder of Marcus Whitman and his associates. Washington. Stenix, Fort. Same as Stanwix. New York. Stephens, Fort. Right bank of Alabama River, above Mobile. Alabama. Stephens, Fort. South side of the head of "South Pass Manchac" at Lake Maurepas. Louisiana. Stephens, Fort. At Bailey, Lauderdale County. Mississippi. Stephens, Fort. At Newbern. North Carolina. Stephens, Fort. At Drury's Bluff. Virginia.



Stephenson, Fort. At Newbern. North Carolina. Stephenson, Fort. Lower Sandusky, on left bank of Sandusky River; fifteen miles from its mouth; defended by Croghan in 1813. City of Fremont now stands on the site of Fort Stephenson. Ohio. Steuben, Fort. Right bank of Ohio River, at site of Steubenville. Now obliterated. Ohio; Steuben, Fort. Present site of Jeffersonville. Ohio. Stevens, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, near Tollgate of Seventh Street Road. See Fort Massachusetts. District of Columbia. Stevens, Fort. Established in 1853. Montana. Stevens, Fort. New Mexico. Stevens, Fort. At Hallet's Point, "Hell Gate," East River. New York. Stevens, Fort. Opposite Fort Canby, at mouth of Columbia River at Point Adams, commanding south entrance to the Columbia. Fort Stevens was established in 1864. The reservation comprises 1,250 acres. In 1914 the post was garrisoned by three companies of coast artillery. Oregon. Stevens, Fort. One of the defenses of Beaufort; erected during the Civil War. South Carolina. Stevenson, Fort. At Stevenson. Alabama. Stevenson, Fort. In existence from 1867 to 1882. Left bank of Missouri River, seventy miles above Bismarck; also near Coal Harbor ("Coleharbor"). McLean County. North Dakota. Stewart, Fort. Ontario. Canada. Stewart, Fort. Founded in 1854; on Missouri River at mouth of Big Muddy Creek. Same as Fort Kipp. Montana. Stikine, Fort. On Stikine River. Alaska. Stirling, Fort. At Brooklyn Heights. New York. Stockton, Fort. At Comanche Spring, on the Comanche Trail, eighty-four miles from Fort Lancaster, Pecos County. Texas. Stoddard, Fort. On Mobile River, Washington County. Mississippi. Stoddard, Fort. Right bank of Alabama River, four miles south of its junction with the Tombigbee River; northeast section, Mobile County. Alabama. Stokeley's, Fort. This blockhouse was built on Nehemiah Stokeley's farm during the Revolutionary W a r ; it was frequently a refuge for settlers. The walls were two-storied, the roof shingled and fastened with handmade nails. The blockhouse was located on Sewickley Creek abovit one-half mile from Waltz's Mill. Pennsylvania. Stone, Fort. This fort, also known as Prince of Wales Fort, stood on the left bank of and near the mouth of the Church



Hill River. Stone Fort and Fort Garry were important posts of the Hudson's Bay Company. Stone Fort had high irregular stone walls twenty-seven feet thick and mounted forty guns. It was built as a protection against rival white fur traders. It was demolished by the French in 1799 but was rebuilt a little later. Canada. Stone, Fort. Northwest Fur Company. Canada. Stonewall, Fort. At Choctaw Bluff. Alabama. Stony Point, Fort. On Hudson River. New York. Story, Fort. Eighteen miles northwest of Norfolk, at Cape Henry. Virginia. Stout's Fort. In St. Charles County. Missouri. Stradler's Fort. West Virginia. Strong, Fort. On an island in Boston Harbor, five miles from Boston, located on the east end of Long Island. The garrison usually consists of four companies of coast artillery. Connected with Fort Strong as a subpost. Massachusetts. Strong, Fort. Near Wilmington. North Carolina. Strong, Fort. On Morris Island. South Carolina. Strong, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C, north of Potomac and a mile west of Aqueduct Bridge; formerly Fort De Kaib. Virginia. Strother, Fort. Temporary post in Creek War, right bank of the Coosa River, at the mouth of Bridge Creek, below the "Ten Islands." Alabama. Sublette-Campbell Post. Erected in 1818 on right bank of Missouri River. Near Fort Teton. South Dakota. Sugar House, Fort. At Charleston. South Carolina. Sullivan, Fort. Temporary post established during Florida War ,left bank of a small stream, tributary of Hillsboro River, southeast of Fort Foster. Florida. Sullivan, Fort. Commanding south and east entrance to East port Harbor. Maine. Sullivan, Fort. On Trepethen Island. New Hampshire. Sullivan, Fort. At Elmira. New York. Sullivan, Fort. On Roanoke Island. North Carolina. Sullivan, Fort. At Athens, Bradford County. Pennsylvania. Sullivan, Fort. In Charleston Harbor. South Carolina. Sully, Fort. On Missouri River, five miles above mouth of Chcveniie River, and the new Fort Sully, twenty miles below mouth of Cheyenne River. South Dakota. Sully's Fort. On Yellowstone River. Montana. Sumner, Fort. At Portland. Maine. Sumner, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C, above Chain Bridge. Later called Fort Franklin. Maryland. Sumner, Fcrt. At Portsmouth. New Hampshire.



Sumner, Fort. Left bank of the Pecos River, at the Bosque Redondo. Latitude 34° 19' 4 5 " ; longitude 104° 9'. De Baca County. New Mexico. Sumter, Fort. On a made island in the entrance to Charleston Harbor, six miles from Charleston; subpost of Fort Moultrie. Work was begun on the fortification here about 1830. This work was discontinued and in 1860 the Fort was still unfinished. When hostilities broke out Major Robert Anderson secretly moved his small garrison from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter on the evening of December 26, 1860. Major Anderson and his garrison immediately applied themselves with energy to the strengthening of the fortifications. In January, 1861, an attempt was made to relieve the garrison. On April 11, General Beauregard demanded the evacuation of the fort which was refused. Major Anderson surrendered on the 13th. This attack really marked the beginning of the Civil W a r and put an end to peace plans and negotiations. The Confederates took possession of the fort and strengthened it. On April 7, 1863, it was attacked by nine ironclads under the Federals and reduced to ruins. Operations against the fort continued through 1863 and it was finally evacuated on February 17, 1865. South Carolina. Sunbury, Fort. About ten miles south of the mouth of the Ogeechee River. Georgia. Supply, Fort. Between Beaver and Wolf Creeks. Oklahoma. Supply, Fort. Twelve miles southwest of Fort Bridger, established by the Mormons in the winter of 1853-54. After Fort Bridger was abandoned by them, the purpose in building Fort Supply (as the name indicates) was to establish a base for immigrants. Obliterated. Fort Supply was on a ranch now owned by N. W. Clayton of Salt Lake City. Wyoming. Susquehanna, Fort. On Palmer Island, Susquehanna River. Maryland. Sutter's Fort. The site of this noted post is within the city limits of Sacramento, built in 1839 by a German Swiss, John A. Sutter; it occupied the highest part of the land on which Sacramento now stands. Sutter's Fort was the capital of a small empire. In 1847 there was a white population of 289, some 500 friendly Indians and a number of half-breeds and Hawaiians. A census the same year shows sixty houses in or near the fort, six mills and a tannery. Sutter at that time owned about 10,000 cattle, 2,000 horses and mules, some 12,000 sheep and 1,000 hogs. In 1847 he began the construction of a flour mill on the American River and a saw mill on the south fork of the same river. Gold was discovered in Coloma and Sutter's agricultural enterprise was ruined. Sutter acted as a generous host to Fremont and many others: From this fort rescue parties were sent



out to the relief of the Donners. The fort has been restored and stands as a monument to a great colonizer who was robbed by the avarice of gold seekers and neglected by the country of his adoption. California. Swan, Fort. This post was also known as "Fort Swan and Vanmeter." The fort was built by John Swan, Thomas Hughes and Jesse Vanmeter about 1774. The stockades stood near the present town of Carmihaels. Pennsylvania. Swartz, Fort. This post was built about 1770 in the vicinity of Milton and named in honor of Lieutenant Christian Godfried Swartz, of Weltner's German Battalion. It was often a refuge for colonists. Pennsylvania. Swatara, Fort. This post was built in 1756 by a company under the direction of Captain Frederick Smith of Chester County. A small stockade erected by settlers was built on the same site in the latter part of 1775 upon the recommendation of Colonel Conrad Weiser, as a protection against Indians; it commanded the roads to Harrisburg and Swatara Gap and the country below. Pennsylvania. Swearingens, Fort. Near Morris Crossroads, Fayette County. Pennsylvania. Swift, Fort. At Brooklyn, District and Moser Streets. New York. Syberts, Fort. On Potomac River. Virginia. Table Rock, Fort. On Rogue River, at mouth of Stewarts Creek, Jackson County. Oregon. Tako, Fort. Hudson's Bay post established in 1830 on the Tako River by James Douglas. It was abandoned in 1843. Canada. Tamhert, Fort. Connecticut. Tar, Fort. On Craney Island, near Norfolk. Virginia. Tatnall, Fort. Temporary post during Florida W a r in Okeefinokee Swamp. Georgia, Tavern, Fort. In east Florida. Florida. Taylor, Fort. Key West Harbor. At the southwestern extremity of the city of Key W e s t ; subpost of Key West Barracks. Florida. Taylor, Fort. Temporary post during Florida War, at extreme western end of Lake Winder. Florida. Taylor, Fort. In Hernando County. Florida. Taylor, Fort. Right bank of Red River, sixty miles below Alexandria, a little west of the mouth of Bayou de Lenoir. Louisiana. Taylor, Fort. At Charlemont, Franklin County. Massachusetts. Taylor, Fort. On the Rio Grande; present site of Fort Brown. Texas.



Taylor, Fort. Built in 1858. Left bank of Snake River, sixty miles above its mouth, Walla Walla County. Washington. Taylor's Fort. Frontier post near present Taylorstown. Pennsylvania. Teconnett, Fort. Kennebec River; afterwards Fort Halifax. Maine. Tecumseh, Fort. Founded in 1819. Right bank of Missouri River near Fort Sully. South Dakota. Teeters' Fort. Built in 1773 by Captain Samuel Teeters, a survivor of Braddock's defeat. This early frontier post stood on Cross Creek near Independence Town, Washington County. Pennsylvania. Tejon, Fort. Near Tejon Indian Reservation, and ninety miles north of Los Angeles. California. Tekananionen, Fort. (1717.) Same as Fraces, Fort (Fort Francis, 1820). In Ontario, near Minnesota line. Canada. Ten, Fort Number. Ten miles from Palatka. Florida. Terrett, Fort. On Llano River in Mason County and on left bank of North Fork of the Llano River. Latitude 30° 38'; longitude 100° 21'. Texas. Tenry, Fort. See Fort H . G. Wright. On Fisher's Island, Long Island Sound, thirteen miles from New London. The reservation comprises 150 acres. The post is garrisoned by six companies of coast artillery. New York. Ter-Waw, Fort. Klamath Reservation, near Crescent City. California. Teton, Fort. Erected in 1818. Near Sublette-Campbell Post and Fort Pierre. South Dakota. Thayer, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, north of Potomac, near the railroad to Bladensburg. District of Columbia. Thomas, Camp. Apache County; name changed to Fort Apache. Arizona. Thomas, Fort. Graham County. Arizona. Thomas, Fort. This post was named for General George A. Thomas. It was established by General Philip H. Sheridan. Located near Cincinnati, two miles from Newport. The reservation consists of 280 acres including a rifle range of 169 acres. In 1914 the garrison consisted of two battalions of infantry. Kentucky. Thomas, Fort. On Rappahannock River, five miles from Fredericksburg. Virginia. Thomas, George H., Fort. Name changed to Fort Pembina. North Dakota. Thompson, Fort. Founded in 1812. Canada. Thompson, Fort. Temporary post on left bank of the Caloosahatchie, near the mouth of Lake Flirt. Florida.



Thompson, Fort. Near new Madrid. Missouri. Thompson, Fort. Near Newbern. North Carolina. Thompson, Fort. Left bank of the Missouri, on Crow Creek Agency. South Dakota. Thompson, Fort. On Big Horn River or on a branch of same. Wyoming. Thorn, Fort. Right bank of the Rio Grande, north of "San Diego," Rincon, Dona Ana County. New Mexico. Thornburg, Fort. At junction of Duchesne and Green Rivers. Named in honor of Major T. T. Thornburg, commanding officer of the Fourth United States Infantry and in command at Fort Fred Steele when the Ute War broke out in 1879. He marched against the White River Utes and was ambushed in Red Canyon, afterwards known as Thornburg Pass, on September 29. Major Thornburg and twelve of his men were killed; 42 were wounded. Later called Fort Duchesne. Utah. Thoulouse, Fort. See Fort Jackson. Alabama. Thoulouse, Fort. At head of Tombigbee River. Mississippi. Three Forks Owyhee, Camp. On Owyhee River; first called Camp Winthrop. Idaho. Three, Fort Number. Near Fort King. Florida. Thuillier, Fort. See Fort L'Huillier. Minnesota. Thunderbolt, Fort. About four miles southeast of Savannah near present town of Thunderbolt. Georgia. Ticonderoga, Fort. Built by General Montcalm in 1757, on Lake Champlain; originally called Fort Carrilow. New York. Tilden, Fort. Three miles from Rockaway Park, Long Island. New York. Tillinghast, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C, before Arlington. Virginia. Tilton, Fort. Washington. Tiltons, Fort. Founded in 1818. Left bank of Missouri River. North Dakota. Titus, Fort. Two miles from Lecompton. Kansas. Tohopeka, Fort. On Tallapoosa River. Alabama. Toll Gate, Camp. Forty miles northwest of Prescott; name changed to Camp Hualpai. Arizona. Tollocks, Fort. (1832-35). Tollock's Fort. Same as Cass Fort. Montana. Tornany Hill, Fort. Newport Harbor. Rhode Island. Tombecbe, Fort. Built by De Beinville in 1735 near Jones' Bluff to protect French interests among the Chickasaw Indians. Alabama.

(To be Continued)

Utah State Historical Society BOARD OF CONTROL (Terms Expiring April 1, 1937) J. CECIL ALTER, Salt Lake City WM. R. PALMER, Cedar City ALBERT F. P H I L I P S , Salt Lake City


(Terms Expiring April 1, 1935) GEORGE E. FELLOWS, Salt Lake City WILLIAM J. SNOW, Proro HUGH RYAN, Salt Lake City LEVI E. YOUNG, Salt Lake City FRANK K. SEEGMILLER, Salt Lake City EXECUTIVE OFFICERS 1932-1933 ALBERT F. P H I L I P S , President Emeritus WILLIAM J. SNOW, President J. CECIL ALTER, Secretary-Treasurer-Librarian HUGH RYAN, Vice President Editor in Chief All Members, Board of Control, Associate Editors

MEMBERSHIP Paid memberships at the required fee of $2 a year, will include current subscriptions to the Utah Historical Quarterly. Non-members and institutions may receive the Quarterly at $1 a year or 35 cents per copy; but it is preferred that residents of the State become active members, and thus participate in the deliberations and achievements of the Society. Checks should be made payable to the Utah State Historical Society and mailed to the Secretary-Treasurer, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah.

CONTRIBUTIONS The Society was organized essentially to collect, disseminate and preserve important material pertaining to the history of the State. To effect this end, contributions of writings are solicited, such as old diaries, journals, letters and other writings of the pioneers; also original manuscripts by present day writers on any phase of early Utah history. Treasured papers or manuscripts may be printed in faithful detail in the Quarterly, without harm to them, and without permanently removing them from their possessors. Contributions and correspondence should be addressed to the Editor, Utah Historical Quarterly, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah.

74s -^>AU^^_J

Utah Historical Quarterly State Capitol, Salt Lake City Volume 6

April, 1933

Number 2

JOHN CROOK'S JOURNAL I was born in Township of Trenton, Lancashire, England, October eleventh, 1831. I attended Bertinshaw Sunday School, "Methodist," until between 10 and 11 years old. About 9 years old I was. sent to the Eagley Bridge Mills, winding spools for Father; he was tape weaving. My sister Alice and I made a full team, half the time each in factory, and the other attending school. Children were not allowed full time until 13 ys. past, though I was of large stature and passed examination about 12 ys. I was brought up strictly moral and was religiously inclined. My father heard of a new religion and went to Bolton to hear them preach, and in Sept. 1840 he and Robert Holden were baptised into the Church of Jesus Christ, L. D. S. About this time my father would have me and sister Alice go with him to Bolton, attending the meetings, 2y2 miles, walking by his side, each hold onto his hands. It was not until I was about 12 years old that I attended regularly. About that time a Sunday School started and ini course of time I became a teacher. In the summer of 1844 the L. D. S. held meeting in a Chapel on Bury St. beside a great factory. One Sunday after coming out of Sunday School and going into the meeting house I saw the stand was decorated with crepe; I inquired what that was for, and was told this was in honor of the martyrdom of the Prophet and Patriarch Joseph and Hyrum Smith. In the spring of 1847 1 was baptised by Uncle Peter Mayhs in the brook by Hallith Wood. While a little boy in petticoats, I was playing in the fire, my clothes caught fire, a neighbor Lady ducked me into a rain barrel. W e lived 7 years in that house, moved to another house, lived about 7 years there, and then moved to a new house called Haslems. Row on Darwin Road near Dunscar Village. Our village was called Toppings; we lived about half way between. After arriving at 12 years I was set to weaving tapes, attending 2 looms of 50 shuttles, under W m . Cooper, earning at first 6 shillings per week, increased to 8 shillings with overtime, some-



times earning only 5 shillings in 2 weeks. Pay day came around every two weeks. Jan 1st. 1851. We left old England to come to America in the ship Ellen. There were about 475 passengers, about 25 crew and captain, making in all about 500 souls. W e left river Mercy, Liverpool, about the 8th. of January. Cloudy disagreeable day raining and blowing in the evening very dark. About 12 o'clock at night a schooner crossed our track and we collided with her. She caught in our jibboom, broke it, swung around to the side of the vessel and broke the main yard arm and fore yard. We had to put in Cardigan Bay, North Wales for repairs. W e stayed till the 23rd. of Jan. (adverse winds the cause) and then set sail again. One week in the Irish channel, head wind all the time. The morning of the 31st. when we got up we had fair wind all sails reefed, waves running mountain high. Going about 9 miles an hour. Had very good weather then until we got to the West India islands, then we were becalmed two or three days. We sailed between Jamaica and San Domingo Islands. March 13th. came in sight of the Mississippi; could see the line of the river waters a long time. Sixteenth a tug boat took two more vessels besides ours up to New Orleans. March 18th. started up the river for St. Louis; we paid $2.50 per head, baggage free. 25th. landed in St. Louis. It was very cold. Snow on the ground while there, stayed until April 13th. Then started for Kanesville or Council Bluffs city. Fare 5 dollars per head. Twenty days on the road, on a sand bar three days, very cold weather, river very low. Had to back down many a time. Great amount of snags to be seen. Landed all safe May 2nd. The Saints were fitting to start for Salt Lake City or Utah. Peter Holden bought a farm from a man named Henderson, about 100 acres, 10 acres plowed, the rest wood land, three log cabins on the farm. We had a very hot, wet summer. Every night clouds would rise in the west. There would be rain, thunder and lightning, terrible to behold. In the Spring, Father worked six weeks fitting up wagons. They said all should go as wanted to go. But when the time came around for going we could not get a chance to go (no room they said). My brother-in-law, Edmund Kay, and I worked 2 or 3 weeks, chopping and splitting timber for wagons and we were engaged as teamsters to go with a train of machinery for working up the beet into sugar. In charge of John Taylor and Russel. But father said we must stay and go all together, if we could get a chance. Peter Holden sold his farm to a nfan named McPherson that same year for less than he gave for it and crossed the plains with Thomas Hichens.



All the talk through the winter and spring was to fit up and prepare to gather in a body to Utah coming summer. So everybody that could work turned in and were organized in companies, some working fitting up wagons, chains and yokes etc., others in timber splitting and preparing the timbers. About the first of May they commenced organizing companies and starting them out. Apostle Orson Hyde with Feramorz Little were in charge of this season's emigration. About 20 companies I think left for Utah. All that could possibly fit up did so, some yoking up cows and yearling steers. T saw several teams with yearlings yoked in. When Father was told that there was no show for him to get away ho felt very bad over it. After the authorities promising that all that turned in and worked, none should be left behind. In fact he never seemed to get over it. He seemed to have no life left for anything, and in the month of July he took the chills and fever. In about 2 weeks he was a corpse, died broken hearted. Me died on the 2nd. of August; on the 3rd. he was buried in the cemetery, one half mile north of Kanesville. Myself and brotherinlavv had to dig the grave, none coming around to give a helping hand. An old man named Greer living close by took compassion about the last moment and proffered to haul the corpse and did so to the cemetery, this, being all that was present outside of our own family, we filling the grave. This seemed very hard to bear being strangers also in the country. Peter Holden having sold his farm, we had to look out for another home. Hearing of some improvements to be sold, one mile south of Kanesville, in what was called George A. Smith's hollow, we went to examine said places and bought two claims opposite each other. One of four acres, under fence and log cabin on it, and one unfinished claim belonging to one Saunders. Paying him five dollars for the quit claim deed. And the other opposite owned by Edward Paz, three acres fenced with brush fence and log cabin, four dollars. So we moved right away and put in sonic crops. This hollow was a very sickly place facing the Missouri swamp bottoms and caused chills and fever very much. Therefore myself and sister Alice contracted the disease which stayed with us until next spring, shaking every day until cold weather set in. The chills were lighter and not so often, say about every 3 days so we concluded to move out of this sickly hollow. Aloii'T in the winter we rented a house on a claim about one half mile east of Kanesville belonging to a Widow of a Minister, who had bought many claims cheap the summer before



when the Saints left for the valleys, and who had now become very wealthy from the same. I was still suffering with the disease and had become very weak. I was becoming very low in circumstances. Being near the timber I took a contract of cord wood of this same lady and would go out in the middle of the day and cut wood. Took one about one week to earn 50 pounds of flour she furnishing said flour and sour at that, no money those days. We got down very poor and suffered a good deal for food, one morning we had nothing but some musty corn on the cob, so I ground it in the coffee mill. This was about the lowest ebb. Got some flour this day and we began to recruit up from this time on. About the 6th. of April 1853 I took a dose of salt and water which stopped the chills. Being tired of those claims and the sickly hollow, we sold the claims to Lawyers Cassidy and Test, for about ten dollars each. Having divided up the property after Father's death, brotherinlaw Edmund Kay sold one claim and I the other. He had bought a claim near to where we lived the first year in Hatch Hollow. The following spring, 1854, I hired out to Mr. Voorhees, merchant, to do his chores for $10.00 per month and board. -We moved into a house just north of Voorhees store. I worked day work until fall and then I engaged to a surveyor who was going north sectionizing Ida and Monona counties, and was gone about two months for $30.00 per month and board. I worked with Voorhees about one year and then hired to J. B. Stutsman, merchant, doing his chores and working his team on shares. I bought two city lots in Stutsman's addition for $65.00 and built a house on the same. My brotherinlaw and I made an ice house on same and put up ice to sell. In peddling ice I became acquainted with my wife, then Miss Giles who was acting as servant at B. R. Pegrams. The family of Mr. Giles were intending to move to Utah in the spring of 1856 so I concluded to sell out and move also. A Mr. Armstrong offered me $275.00 so I took him up. At this time I had a span of horses bought from Mr. Shackelton, sold it to Mr. Bryant my neighbor. So I bought a light wagon and two yoke of steers, costing me $250.00 in all. By the time I was ready to start on the journey I had about ten dollars left. It was understood that a company of saints would be organized about the first of June. An Elder Cunningham from Salt Lake City had charge of the Church affairs in the Bluffs. So the Giles's folks, some four wagons of them and myself gathered in a ravine south of the city called Hang Hollow, making up and preparing our necessary outfit.



About the first of June 1856, we left Plang Hollow for Florence, Nebraska. The gathering place was about six miles from Bluff City across the Missouri River. W e crossed our wagons on a ferry boat about the second day of June. The first company of saints to cross the plains was. organized about the fourth of June under the direction of Philo Merrill as captain who had crossed the plains nine times before. The company consisted of some fifty wagons, divided in companies of ten with a sub captain. The Giles and myself were in E. B. Tripp's company. Elder E. B. Tripp was. returning from a mission to the Eastern states, he had two wagons of his own. The first day's drive was about six miles and the next day to Elk Horn river ferry, a trying time to all who were green hands with cattle. In going down the hill, which was very steep to the ferry, my two wild yoke of cattle started to run, and ran the wagon into a deep gully washed out by rains in the road. Result a broken axle. A grove of hard wood close by supplied a new one and a few spare ones to take along. The end of one stick which was a little long I made into a maul, which I have to this day, 1893. This axle was put into Father Giles' wagon on big Sandy neer Green River. After completing all repairs and crossing the river we were thoroughly organized with camp and cattle guards. Being then in an Indian country it required a thorough system of watchfulness. All went along very peacefully until one night camping on Wood River, something was seen to crawl in among the cattle and the cattle stampeded, overturning some wagons in their pelmell rush. It was supposed the stampede was caused by some roughs, who followed us from Council Bluffs with that intention. Cattle when crossing the plains in Indian countries also are very easily stampeded. Here we had to stay three days gathering up cattle, some never being found, having got mixed with the buffalo. Father Giles lost two good cows in the buffalo herds. This season buffalo were very thick on the plains, herds of thousands were seen every day. W e sometimes had to stop the train while the herds went past to water. One day while nooning on Wood River, a big herd came charging on us from the hills. All hands were called out with guns and fired into them to turn them off. Another time while traveling buffalo charged our train and stampeded our whole train, causing some accidents, some ladies I believe got badly bruised, being thrown out of the wagons. Most of the emigrant trains traveled on the south side of the Platte River up to old Fort Laramie. But we traveled all the way on the North side. Captain Merrill said we would find



the best feed on the north side of the river. In going over the Black hills to Sweet Water creek we had to camp one night without water, a drive of about 35 miles between water. At Independence Rock the train was halted for one hour, giving the people a chance to gather saleratus. The country is a vast plain here with saleratus swamps and stretches of sage brush intervening. I gathered about one bushel in big chunks. This article was much sought after when arriving in the valleys. But I held onto mine which I found to my benefit in after years. This article in the crude state is pure if not so nice looking as the imported, which had to be hauled in wagons as other merchandise one thousand miles. After leaving the Platte river and traveling through the Black hill country. It was thought best to divide the train into three divisions as feed was in smaller patches and more scattered than on the great Platte meadows. Dr. Peter Clinton was appointed over one division and E. B. Tripp another one. Both these gentlemen were of Salt Lake City and well known. Captain Merrill kept the larger division. And thus we traveled about one half day's drive apart until we reached the Big Mountain. In going over this mountain we had the first view of the Salt Lake valley at a distance which made all rejoice, realizing that our journey's end was near. On the 14th. of August we nooned in a little valley between what is called Big and Little mountains. This valley is at the head of Parley's canyon. No road down there, travel went over Little Mountain and down Emigration canyon. While nooning here a small train of wagons under the charge of Mr. Parrish came along in a rush. They had left Florence about the same time as our train, and we had encountered them once or twice on the Platte bottoms. They had bragged of beating us into Salt Lake City by two weeks or more, as their company was small and would have the advantage of feed etc. Teams they said would be in better condition. But when they undertook to climb the hill the roads being slippery with the showers, their teams gave out and had to double and tripple in some cases. Well, we had quite a time also in getting over the mountains. So we had to camp in Emigration canyon that night. Early next morning we hitched up and about four miles down the canyon the road passed over what is termed a Hogs back, a road cut through a hill. And then you had a full view of Salt Lake City and valley. There was the blue water of the Salt Lake in the far west and the beautiful settlements in the foreground. Enchanting to the eye. There was the scene before us that we had long looked for, and read and sung about, the city of the Saints. Oh what a joy filled each bosom at the sight. About noon the 15th of August we rolled



into Salt Lake City and went into camp on Emigration square. We hitched teams, appointed guards and sent cattle to the range some three miles north and beyond Ensign Peak, there to be herded until such time as all parties had made arrangements to scatter throughout the territory wherever friends or connections resided. The Giles and myself, four teams of us started for Provo City on the 19th of August and camped on the Jordan River that night. Next day Mr. J. B. Milner of Provo met us. Being informed of our coming and being a friend of Mr. Giles he escorted us to Provo City that night. By the time we entered the main streets of Provo it had become very dark. A storm was brewing on the mountains and you could hardly see your team ahead if dark colored. W e went a few blocks south and then turned east toward the high mountain. It looked as though we were going to run against it. But we arrived all safe at Mr. Milners. Next morning in looking east we beheld snow on the mountains nearly one half way down. This was a beautiful sight to behold, never having seen such a sight before at this time of the year. W e camped in our wagons for some time in Mr. Milner's lot. W e went to work helping the farmers to harvest. One George Ekin had a piece of wheat lodged very much and he gave me the job of cutting it with a sickle. Not having done much of that kind of work it was slow business, and I nearly cut off my little finger on my left hand. But I kept at it until I got the patch down. Harvest being over in about one month, we went to cutting cane on the lake shore for feed which had grown very tall. This cane is a kind of a flag growing about ten feet high and very thick on the ground, making very good winter feed. On September 6th. 1856 I married Mary Giles in Provo City. Pop J. O. Duke performed the ceremony. I was still sleeping in the wagon, so our first night after marriage was in the wagon. And many more until sometime about November. Then Thomas Rasband, my brotherinlaw, suggested that we rent a house for the winter. So we rented a house of one room from Father Cluff, and we still slept in the wagon all winter. The house being small we could not very well all sleep in the house comfortably. I had the dysentery all winter which often attacks new comers in Utah and it brought me down very low. I had to use opium pills to ease pain so that I could sleep a little at nights. W e all worked together through the season and shared alike. W e bought ten acres of land joining on the east line of Provo City and got James E. Snow, county surveyor of Utah county, to divide it up into lots, giving us two lots each, six families of the Giles connections. Each sold off a yoke of cattle



to purchase bread stuffs also land for farming purposes. We made some adobes and built two small houses.for Father and Thomas Giles. Next year we built two more houses, one for me and wife and one for Thomas Rasband and family. This was the agreement to work together until we all had houses to live in. John and Fred Giles were not married, the other two having city lots in the piece of land bought for that purpose. One yoke of cattle was the purchase price I believe, valued at $100.00 from Jared Bullock. The winter of '56 and '57 was very severe, and snow deep. Mr. Rasband and I hauled willows from Provo river bottoms for firewood. Some times we would sink up to our armpits where snow had lodged on willow bushes . This made poor firewood. When we found that parties were going up on the mountains and sliding timber down on the snow we all started this game too. We got lots of wood then and got logs to make lumber for our buildings next summer. We hauled the logs to a saw mill a little north of the city owned by a gentleman named Mills. In the spring I began to feel better. I got three acres of land in the fort field so called, for my share of "the -divide. The spring time came around and time to put in crops. I told Father Giles I had never done any plowing but with his help I learned how and we raised a big crop. W e had about two acres in wheat and about one half acre in potatoes. The soil was full of alkali and patches of wheat burned out, making about one half acre loss in harvest. We had eighty bushels of wheat and 75 bushels of potatoes. One of my oxen died but we had grain and potatoes, plenty for bread and to buy another ox. By the way in the fall of 1856 bread stuffs were scarce, wheat $2.00 per bushel, flour $6.00 per 100 pounds. Farmers were just harvesting a crop after two years grasshopper war and before harvest of 1857 breadstuffs were scarce again, we all ran short of flour and had to eat barley flour and bran bread until wheat was hard enough to grind, near onto two months I think it was. On the 24th of July word came that U. S. was sending an army to exterminate the Mormons and a whole load of ropes to hang our leaders. Preparations were made to fortify all passes to Utah. A company of infantry was called from Provo to Echo Canyon. Thomas Rasband, Geo. Giles, Fred Giles and I were in the company. William E. Nuttal was captain when called out. First camped on the Provo river about the time of October conference. Time the morning star came up we were ordered to march on foot. Nooned at Lehi. Marched again. Boys were giving out all along, and baggage wagons picking them up. George Giles and I took a jog trot for a mile or so down point of hill. We got to big Cottonwood Creek a little before sun-down.



Brother Rasband came in soon after us and lay down. W e said we were going to have, supper first. W e arrived in Echo Canyon about tenth of October, formed camp four miles up from Weber river. A narrow pass with perpendicular rocks. Made a dam in creek, built fortifications on rocks. I was selected cook for our platoon, ten men, Martin Mills, Lieut.; Hyrum Pace, Col. for Utah county. They drilled us every morning, provisions were scarce, sometimes all flour and then again all meat. Heavy snows on the mountains caused delays in arrival of supply teams. Well, we camped there about eight weeks. U. S. troops settled at Bridger. W e got home about the 10th of December, 1857. Governor Brigham Young gave orders for a general move in spring all north of Utah county. Spring of 1858 was backward. I put in the Needhams land again. About that time the move began. Teams were recalled from Utah county to help move people from Salt Lake City. The road was lined with teams. I made three trips to Salt Lake City. I brought one family, man and two wives, mother and daughter. Daughter said she was only thirteen years old but had a baby also. The man professed to be an eye doctor. The U. S. troops stayed all winter, 1857-8, at Fort Bridger. Col. Kane of Philadelphia came around by California and counseled with Church authorities for a compromise. Governor Cummings and Major Powel came in and an agreement was made that the troops were not to settle within forty miles of Salt Lake City. All people had moved from Salt Lake City leaving guards with orders to burn up everything if necessary. The troops passed along and settled in Cedar valley. During the move many men being idle Brigham Young proposed to build a road through Provo canyon to Provo valley. While the road was being built, surveyor James C. Snow and a company of men surveyed North field one and a half mile square. In Sept. the road was completed and freight teams passed through to Camp Floyd. In October another company of men and surveyor came up and surveyed one and a half mile square west and south of Heber City. I was lead chain man. I received 25 acres of land and ten dollars in cash for surveying. Through the winter of 1858 and '59 several meetings were held in Provo City with regard to settling the Provo valley. With William Meeks as presiding Elder an organization Was effected. On the last day of April 1859 the following brethren started for the valley with three teams, plows, grain and provisions: Thomas Rasband, John Crook, C. N. Carrol, John and James Carlyle, John Jordan, Jesse Bond, William Giles, William Carpenter. Night came on in the canyon when we reached a snow slide at the Blue dugway one



mile below South Park and we made camp. Next morning we pulled wagons to pieces packed upon slide, hitched on cattle, moved on again and camped at the ranch of W m . N. Walls first day of May. Next morning moved on and came to Daniels ranch, creek washed deep, found a beaver dam, crossed teams on ice dam. Two miles farther came to Wm. Meeks ranch and camped there for breakfast, and then walked on foot to the proposed site of Heber City. Looking north we saw two black objects moving and supposed them to be animals. W e started for them and found two teams plowing, W m . Davis and son with two yoke of cattle and Robert Broadhead and James Davis with two yoke of cattle. They had been there three days and got about one acre plowed each. Mr. Davis was sowing wheat, the boy harrowing. They came from Nephi, Juab county. W e moved our camp to theirs, now called London Springs. W e built wickeups of willows and grass large enough to shelter 30 men when necessary and on the fifth of May we were plowing. Thomas Rasband and I doubled teams, James Carlyle with two yoke. A company was formed to bring the water from Provo River in a canal onto this bench. So early in the spring of 1859 many parties went to work on the canal. The spring was late and very cold in the month of April. Ice formed in chunks in the water, wind blew cold from the north. W e had to wear overcoats and mittens when working. I spent about three weeks on this canal and got discouraged at the outlook, for the water was being brought in a channel through a slide of loose rock which extended about one-fourth mile. The intention was to puddle that part of the canal, I gave up in despair, never receiving anything for my labor. Most of the parties interested left in despair also. After some years when railroad facilities brought in powder cheap, a company formed again and blasted the ledge of rock right in the very line of our canal, and there is quite a stream of water running there now. Along the summer of 1858 a wagon road was built through Provo Canyon to Provo Valley so called and a plat of land \y2 miles square was surveyed in said valley in the mouth of July by J. C. Snow. Water froze nearly solid in a pint cup in the night so parties said while camping on a creek close by the land, this was mostly meadow. The intention was to make ranches for cattle, too cold for grain so said. Along through the winter of 1858 and 59 several meetings were held and discussed the feasibility of settling in the valley the following summer. Some said they thought it was too cold for agricultural purposes. Others again said they thought small grain and potatoes might be raised. Quite a few had their minds set on having the valley as a large cattle range and so they argued against raising crops



of cereals. Along towards spring an organization was effected. Wm. Meeks was appointed to take charge of affairs. After the 20th. of April Thomas Rasband and myself left off working on the canal spoken of above and went home to fix up wagons and supplies to start as soon as possible to Provo valley. We could not hear anything definite about a company starting so a few of us got together and made a start on the 29th. of April. We harvested some 80 bushels of wheat in the fall. The summer was very warm and we raised some watermelons also. Along in June the west half of Heber was laid off in city lots by Jesse Fuller, eight blocks south and five and a half blocks west, myself and C. N. Carrol acting as chainmen. In July we moved camp to the city, and then commenced hauling logs and building a house. Before this in June while camping at Springs we built forty rods of fence on east string of north field, brother Rasband and myself working together. W e hauled two loads of poles a day, only about two miles to haul and I think we put the same into fence each day until our portion was complete. The first baby born in the valley was to Wm. Davidson and wife. They named it Timpanogos. The second baby born was our daughter Sarah on November 28, 1859. The winter 59 and 60 was very severe. In hauling wood from river on wagons even in December could hear wagons squeak on the snow a mile or two. W e built our houses in a fort style, forty rods square, 4 rods on fort line to each family as a protection against Indians. Seventeen families stayed all winter in fort line. W e hauled our grain to Provo 28 miles to grind into flour. After Christmas steady cold weather prevailed until the first Thursday in March. We held fast meeting in Thomas Rasband's house, and all hands prayed fervently to the Lord to temper the elements and cause the snow to melt, that we might be able to put in crops in the season thereof. And by noon the eaves on the north side of the house were dripping water from the snow melting, and by the middle of the month snow was about all gone. Many families moved from Provo this month. On about the 23rd. all hands turned out and went east of Heber to Springs and Lake creek. Plowing furrows and brought them all into one channel. Many families moved to Heber, 1860, until I believe the fort was about filled up, some 40 families. The season was very favorable, raising large crops. Built log meeting house in July and celebrated Pioneer day in the building. Were going to build a bowery but John M. Murdock suggested that we complete the house and we did so. On the 14th. day of July Wm. Fenn was found drowned in Provo river. The river was high



and in crossing on foot the current took him down. He had been in the stream about two weeks. Had to move him on a sheet, dug a hole on bank of river and buried him there. Father Wood acted as coroner. (To be continued) THE PAHUTE FIRE LEGEND* By Wm. R. Palmer Tobats is the great god. There is no god like Tobats. Tobats made the world. He made the Indians and put fish in the water. He made tu-ee, the deer, and cooch, the buffalo. He made quanants, the eagle. He made qui-ah-cant, the bear. He made all the animals. Shin-ob is the second great god. He is brother to Tobats and friend. They live together at Tobats kahn. Tobats is old, he was always old, but Shinob is young. Shinob dances the sun dance and he runs out to do Tobats' errands. Tobats made tu-weap, the ground, and timp-i-ah, the rocks, and kaib-a, the mountains, and pau, the water. Then he rested for he was weary. To Shinob he said, "Go now and see what I have done." Shinob looked over the world that Tobats had made and said, "It is good. It is strong. It is pretty. It is useless." Tobats answered, "It is not done. It is not finished. I will make mav, the trees. I will make flowers. I will make grass. I will make willows and brush. I will make everything." Tobats did as he said. He made them all of stone so they would endure forever. Then Tobats made Nung-wa, the Indians, and all the animals and returned to Tobats-kahn to rest. T o Shinob he spoke, "Go now and see how you like tu-weap, the earth." Shinob came and looked. Everything was beautiful as to shape and form and everything was very strong, but the living things were not happy. Shinob went to Tobats and said, "Tuweap is very beautiful but all the animals must die. They can drink only water. There is no food for them to eat. They are very poor. The Indians are very unhappy. The wind blows and the rain and snow falls and the living things are very cold. There is no fire. They cannot make houses to shelter them. The wil*"As a little memento of our work together I have prepared and am sending to you under separate cover a hand-made booklet which will carry to you one of the legends I have gotten from the Pahutes of this country. I hope you may enjoy it. There are also incorporated in the binding) a few typical southern Utah pictures. The bead work (artistic designs in many colors over the entire front cover, with a flint arrowhead attached as the central design) was done by a squaw named Virginia Wall; and the skin was tanned (thick, soft, and white) by Minnie Cal. I have tried to make the booklet 'Indian,' in character. Gasoline, alas, has destroyed the Indian odor."



lows break when they would make baskets. Your stone trees bear no fruit. The living things can only eat each other. It is not good." Then Tobats said to Shinob, "Go to tu-weap, the earth, and give the Indians fire. Put fire in everything. Put fire in tu-weap, the ground; put fire in timp-i-ah, the rocks; put fire in mav, the trees, so they will b u r n ; put fire in the grass and in the willows and in the brush and in the flowers. Put fire in everything. Put water also in the trees and in the brush and the willows and the grass so they will bend and not break. Then the animals can eat them. Give the Indians fire so they can roast their meat and keep warm when the snow falls." Shinob did as he was told. He came and called from far off to all the tribes of Indians to send men to him for fire—ten strong men from every tribe. It was done as Shinob requested, and as the Indians came the god handed to each group a stick with fire on one end to carry back to their tribe. They must not drop it. They must not lose it. They must carry it as quickly as possible to their home lands.. When the Indians started homeward, Un-nu-pit, the devil found them. His evil spirits fell upon them and tried to steal the fire or to kill it. The Indian who carried it fought the bad spirits and held to his fire. Very fiercely he fought un-nu-pit's devils. He ran as fast and as far as he could, and when he gave out another Indian took the torch. Thus they ran and fought all over the face of tu-weap, the earth. During this great struggle ashes and sparks were flying everywhere. Whatever was touched by them partook of Shinob's fire. Fire went into the trees, fire went into the rocks, fire went into the grass, the flowers, the willows, the brush. The trees and willows and grass arid brush caught most of the sparks. They now burn best. Tu-weap got the ashes and not much fire. Tim-iah, the rocks, locked the fire up. Flit them together quick and they let a little out and then shut it up tight again. For many days the Indians fought the bad spirits but Shinob helped them and they all got their fire home. Then the Indians were happy. The deer and the buffalo ate grass and grew fat. All the animals ate grass and they were all friends. The Indians cooked their food and were warm. Every man built him a wicke-up (house) for the limbs bent without breaking and they could be properly shaped. The women made willow baskets sealed with gum to carry water and food. When the grass and brush and trees were dry the Indians could strike the fire from the rocks into the fire in the grass and start a blaze, and when the dry trees were put on the bigger fire came out of them and made everything warm.



In the big fight that went on all over the face of tu-weap, the earth, a few trees here and there escaped the touch of flying sparks. You may find them yet in the old forests. Some are standing and some are fallen and broken but they still are stone, petrified. They are the very trees that Tobats made and Shinob's fire never touched. GLOSSARY OF I N D I A N W O R D S Tobats—The greatest god of the Pahute Indians. Shinob—The second greatest god. H e is Tobats' brother. Tu-ee—Deer. Cooch—Buffalo. Quan-ants—The eagle. Qui-ah-cant—The bear. Tobat-kahn—The home of Tobats. The word has almost the same meaning as the Jewish kahn. Tu-weap—The earth, or ground, also sand. Tim-i-ah—Timp is rock. Tim-i-ah is the plural. Kaib-a—Kaib is mountain. Kaib^a is the plural. Pah or Pa—Water. Mav—Trees. Nung-wa—Indian or Indians. Ning or Ningwa means the same. Un-nu-pit—The devil. H e can use many agencies or even divide himself into many beings. Wick-e-up—The Pahute name for their crude hut of brush or willow. Con—The Pahute word for fire.

AMERICAN POSTS (Concluded) By EDGAR M. LEDYARD, President UTAH HISTORICAL LANDMARKS ASSOCIATION (Organized August 23, 1929) Utah Historical Landmarks Association Museum 518 CHAMBER OF COMMERCE BUILDING, SALT LAKE CITY

Tombigbee, Fort. In Sumter County later called Fort Confederation. In 1801 Governor William C. C. Clayborne made i treaty with the Choctaw Indians at this post. Alabama. Tombigbee, Fort. See Fort Gaines. Entrance to Mobile Bay; on Dauphine Island. Virginia. Tom Campbell's House. Right bank of the Milk River. Montana. Tomlinson's Fort. On Grave Creek, Marshall County. West Virginia.



Tompkins, Fort. East of Okefinokee Swamp. Georgia. Tompkins, Fort. Temporary post during the Florida -War, between Trader's Hill and the St. Marys River, eight miles west of Colerain. Florida. Tompkins, Fort. At Plattsburg. New York. Tompkins, Fort. Old fort at Navy Point, Sackett's Harbor, Lake Ontario, now obliterated. New York. Tompkins, Fort. See Fort Porter, Buffalo. New York. Tompkins, Fort. Staten Island, at the "Narrows," on height above Fort Wadsworth. New York. Tongass, Fort. On Tongass Island at the mouth of the Portland Canal and close to the southern boundary of Alaska. Fort Tongass was the first military post established by the United States in Alaska after that territory was purchased from the Russian Government. Alaska. Tongue River Cantonment. Now Fort Keogh. Montana. Tonti, Fort. Built by D. Tonti in 1686 at the mouth of the Arkansas River. This was the first settlement in the present state of Arkansas; Arkansas Post now occupies the former site of Fort Tonti. Arkansas. Tonyn, Fort. On St. Marys River. Florida. Topsham, Fort. Near Brunswick. Maine. Tornay, Fort. Same as Fort M. J. Turnay. Montana. Totonnock, Fort. Kennebec River. Maine. Totten, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, north of Potomac. District of Columbia. Totten, Fort. Two miles from Whitestone, Long Island. This post is situated on the south bank of the East River, thirteen and one-half miles from Governors Island. It is directly opposite Fort Schuyler which stands on the north bank of the same river. The first purchase of land there was made in July, 1857. The post was named in honor of Brigadier General Joseph T. Totten. A post was established here in 1862 and originally called Willet's Point. The reservation comprises 136 acres. For many years it was the headquarters of a Battalion of Engineers. It is now the station of the School of Submarine Defense and is also a torpedo depot. In 1914 seven companies of artillery were stationed here. New York. Totten, Fort. Founded in 1867, southeast shore of Devil's Lake. Benson County. North Dakota. Totten, Fort. Near Newbern. North Carolina. Toulouse Fort. East bank of Coosa River, four miles above its junction with the Tallapoosa. Alabama. Townsend, Fort. Subpost of Fort Crockett, on Boliver Point in the city of Galveston. Texas. Townsend, Fort. Erected in 1856. Jefferson County, near



Port Townsend. Washington. Towson, Fort. Choctaw County. Map shows Fort Towson on Bull Creek about four miles from Red River. Near left bank of Red River, five miles west of Arkansas, in latitude 33° 5 1 ' ; longitude 95° 1'. Oklahoma. Tracy, Fort. See Fort Huger. Right bank of Blakely River, above its junction with Apalache, three-fourths of a mile from Fort Huger. Built by Confederates to Blakely. River. Alabama. Travis, Fort. At Bolivar Point, Galveston Bay. Galveston. Texas. Trenholm, Fort. Left bank of Stono River; Confederate defenses of Charleston during Civil War. South Carolina. Trail, Fort. On Smith's River. Virginia. Trinity, Fort. At Newcastle. Delaware. Trucker's Fort. Near Lehigh Gap. Pennsylvania. Trudeau's Home (1796-97). Later site of Pawnee House (1804). On left bank of Missouri River. South Dakota. Trumbull, Fort. At New London. Connecticut. Truson, Fort. Near Spanish Fort. Alabama. Tryon, Fort. In New York City, about three-fourths of a mile north of Fort Washington. New York. Tucson Post. Tucson. Arizona. Tularosa, Fort. In Soccorro County. New Mexico. Turan, Fort. In Angelina County. Texas. Turnay, M. J., Fort. Fort M. J. Turnay stood on Frenchman's river near the parallel of 49° north latitude in Philipps county. Visited by Elliott Coues in June, 1874. Montana. Turner's Fort. Clarke County. Alabama. Twiggs, Fort. On Ship Island. Mississippi. Two, Fort Number. Subsequently called Fort Vinton. Florida. Tyler, Fort. On Chattanoockee River in southwest corner of Chambers County. Alabama. Tyler, Fort. In Hernando County. Florida. Tyler, Fort. At West Point. Georgia. Tyler, Fort. See Fort H. G. Wright. Long Island. New York. Ugak, Fort. Established on the Bay of Ugak by Shelikof in 1786. Alaska. Uganak, Fort. Established by Shelikof in 1786. Alaska. Ulrick, Fort. Near Annville. Pennsylvania. Umpqua, Fort. At Umpqua City, Oregon. Unalaklik, Fort. Mouth of Unalaklik River. Alaska. Union, Fort. Near base of Gallinas or Turkey Mountains. Watrous, Mora County. New Mexico. Union, Fort. Mouth of Yellowstone. North Dakota. Union, Fort. Mormon pioneer fort, about two miles east of



Midvale. Now settlement of same name. Utah. Union, Fort. Near Suffolk. Virginia. Union, Fort. At Lewisburg. West Virginia. Union, Fort. Near Dodgeville. Built during Black Hawk War on site of Dodge's Smelting Works. Wisconsin. Uplandt, Fort. Delaware. Upper, Fort. At Fulton. New York. "Upton's," Fort. According to Elliott Coues, "Old Fort Upton," shown on the official map and referred to by writers, was a misprint for Fort Union. Montana. Urtnston, Fort. At Petersburg. Virginia. Ust-Yama Post. Russian fur trading post built about 1700. Alaska. Valley, Fort. Now a city in Houston County; twenty-nine miles south of Macon. Georgia. Van Buren, Fort. 1835-42. Right bank of Yellowstone River. Montana. Vance's Fort. On Cross Creek, Washington County. Pennsylvania. Van Courtland, Fort. Temporary post during the Florida War, near St. Johns River, in the forks of the roads at the head of Kingby's Pond. Florida. Vancouver, Fort. Hudson's Bay Company Post. Now Vancouver Barracks. This post is located eight miles north of Portland, Oregon, on right bank of Columbia River. It occupies the site of the old Hudson's Bay Post. In 1846, when the United States obtained possession of the Northwest Territory, a new post was established. Many noted army officers have been stationed here. The site of Fort Vancouver was reached by Lieutenant Broughton of the Vancouver Expedition in October, 1792; Lieutenant Broughton called this place "Point Vancouver." In 1824, Dr. John McLoughlin, accompanied by Governor George Simpson, arrived on the Columbia to take charge of the western department. They decided to abandon Fort George and establish headquarters at Point Vancouver. This was an ideal location for a trading center. The Willamette enters the Columbia a short distance below and has its source nearly 200 miles to the south, while the Cowlitz opened an avenue for trade toward Puget Sound. It was also close to the Columbia River itself. On a fine prairie, three-fourths of a mile from the river, McLoughlin built the first Fort Vancouver and occupied it in March, 1825. Four years later, another establishment was built on the low ground near the river bank. The new post was simply a stockade made of posts about twenty feet in length, enclosing a rectangular space thirty-seven rods long by eighteen rods in width, which contained all the principal buildings, in-


eluding Dr. McLoughlin's residence. The servants of the company, with their Indian families and friends lived just outside and in a course of time a considerable village grew up. Around this post clusters much of the romance as well as the more sober history of early Oregon. Near the old post may be seen an apple tree, planted in 1817 and still alive in 1922. Dr. McLoughlin was in charge of the establishment for twenty-two years, managing the company's business with very good success. He was noted for his firm control over the Indians, his kindness to American traders, missionaries, adventurers and colonists, and richly deserves the title—"Father of Oregon." To this post furs came from St. James, Langley, Camloops, Umpqua, Walla Walla, Colville, Spokane, Okonogan, and many other places. Hundreds of trappers followed different water courses through dangerous mountains and gloomy forests to Fort Vancouver. During the latter part of the administration .of Dr. McLoughlin, spies were sent out who made adverse reports to the London Board. They criticized Dr. McLoughlin for meeting immigrants with boat loads of supplies, nursing the sick in his hospital, and loaning seeds and farming implements to open farms on the Willamette. To these charges Dr. McLoughlin replied as follows: "Gentlemen, as a man of common humanity I could not do otherwise than give those naked and starving people something to eat and to wear out of our stores. I foresaw clearly that it aided in the American settlement of the country, but this I cannot help. It is not for me, but for God, to look after and take care of the consequences. The Bible tells me 'If thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he be naked, clothe him.' These settlers are not even enemies. If the directors find fault with me, they quarrel with Heaven. I have simply done what anyone truly worthy the name of a man could not hesitate to do. I ask you not to bear these debts; let them be my own. Let me retain the profits upon these supplies and advances made to settlers, and I will cheerfully assume all payments to the company. All that I can do honorably for my company shall be done. Beyond that, I have no pledges. Shall I leave these Americans to starve, or drive them from the country? Gentlemen, if such be your orders, I can serve you no longer." Dr. McLoughlin is buried under the Catholic Church in Oregon City. His old home is preserved as a historical museum. Fort Vancouver is now one of our outstanding military posts. In 1908 Vancouver Barracks housed 78 officers and 1,263 enlisted men. Washington. Vanderburgh, Fort. Founded in 1822-23. Same as Fort Lisa.



Right bank of Missouri River. North Dakota. Van Metre's Fort On Short Creek, Brooke County. West Virginia. Van Rensselaer, Fort. At Canajoharie. New York. Van Rensselaer, Fort. At Ogdensburg. New York. Van Swearingem, Fort. Temporary post in Florida War, northeast of Lake Okeechobee and about eleven miles southeast of Fort Floyd. Florida. Vasquez, Fort. Established at mouth of Clear Creek by Louis Vasquez in 1832; a fur trading post. Ruins in existence in 1930. Colorado. Vass's Fort. Virginia. Vaux's Fort. On Roanoke Island. North Carolina. Velasco, Fort. Mouth of Brazos River. Texas. Venango, Fort. Fort Machault may be called the predecessor of Fort Venango, although it did not stand on the same identical site. Fort Venango was built in 1760. In 1763 a large body of Seneca Indians gained entrance to the fort under pretense of friendship, closed the gates and immediately butchered the entire garrison, with the exception of Lieutenant Gordon, who was forced to write, at their dictation, a statement of their grievances, after which he was tortured to death. The Seneca's then burned the post. Pennsylvania. Vengeance, Fort. See Fort Mott. Vermont. Verde, Camp. In the forks formed by the Val Verde and Turtle Creeks of the Guadalupe River, fifty-five miles northwest of San Antonio. Kerr County. Texas. Verde, Fort. Former site of Camp Verde, on Verde Creek, thirty miles from Prescott; originally called Camp Lincoln. Yavapai County. Arizona. Vermillion, Fort. Alberta. Canada. Vermillion Post. Founded in 1818. Left bank of Missouri River. South Dakota. Victoria, Fort. The Hudson's Bay Company built a fur trading post on the south end of Vancouver Island, which was named Fort Camosun. It occupied part of the present site of Victoria. In 1845 Fort Camosun was renamed Fort Albert. On October 26, 1845, Fort Albert was renamed Fort Victoria, in honor of the Queen of England. Fort Victoria grew in importance rapidly and soon became the most important depot of the Hudson's Bay Company on the Pacific Coast. The town of Victoria was laid out in 1852. Canada. Vincennes, Fort. A French trading post was established on the site of Vincennes about 1702. Some twenty-nine years later a fortification was erected and named Fort Vincennes. On February 25, 1779, the fort was captured by George Rogers Clark.



Vincennes was the capitol of Indiana Territory from 1800-13. William Henry Harrison, first governor of the territory, lived in Vincennes; the city is also noted for its association with the classic, "Alice of Old Vincennes." See Fort Knox. Indiana. Vinton, Fort. Temporary post seventeen miles northwest from Fort Capron on Indiana River; established in Florida War. Florida. Virginia, Fort. Old fort on site of Sacket's Harbor. New York. Volunteer, Fort. At Sacket's Harbor. New York. Voskressenski, Fort. Near Kenayaw Bay. Alaska. Vrain's Fort. Same as Fort St. Vrain. Colorado. Vulcan, Fort. On Jones Island, Savannah River. Georgia. Wabash, Fort. Mouth of Wabash River. Indiana. Wacahoota, Fort. Nine miles southwest of Micanopy. Florida. Wacissa, Fort. At mouth of Wacissa River. Florida. Waddy, Fort. Near Charleston. South Carolina. Wade, Fort. Florida. Wadsworth, Fort. See Fort Richmond. West side of the Narrows entrance to New York Harbor, on the northeastern coast of Staten Island. A post on this site named Fort Richard was established in 1827. Fort Wadsworth was named after General J. S. Wadsworth who was killed in the battle of the Wilderness in 1864. The reservation comprises 221 acres; in 1914 the post was garrisoned by two companies of coast artillery. New York. Wadsworth, Fort. Name changed to Fort Sisseton. North Dakota. Wadsworth, Fort. Lounsberry's "Early History of North Dakota" makes several definite references to Fort Wadsworth, the first date being 1864. He states that Fort Wadsworth was located on Kettle Lake, afterwards known as Sisseton, North Dakota. The present town of Sisseton is in Roberts County, South Dakota. Rand McNally Atlas, 1905, gives Frank as the mail town for Fort Sisseton, the successor of Fort Wadsworth. South Dakota. Wadsworth, Fort. One of the works constructed before Petersburg, during the Civil War. Virginia. Wagner, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, east of Uniontown on Good Hope Hill; first named Fort Good Hope. District of Columbia. Wagner, Fort. Confederate work on north end of Morris' Island, near Charleston. South Carolina. Wakarusa, Fort. Fort Wakarusa was located on the Wakarusa River, about five miles from Lawrence. Fort Wakarusa was a free-state fortification and came into existence during the



Wakarusa War. Kansas. Wakasassa, Fort. Temporary post near the left bank of Wakasassa River, about twenty-four miles from its mouth; established in Florida War. Florida. Walcott, Fort. On Goat Island, Narragansett Bay. Rhode Island. Walker, Fort. Temporary post during Florida War, in the vicinity of Alachua Prairie, about twelve miles southeast from Newnansville. Florida. Walker, Fort. Temporary post built during Florida War, located in Okefenokee Swamp. Georgia. Walker, Fort. See Fort Beauregard, South Carolina. A Confederate fort on the southern shore of the harbor of Port Royal, at Hilton Plead, name changed to Fort Wells. On the northern shore of the harbor was Fort Beauregard. Both forts were captured by the troops of General Sherman in 1861. South Carolina. Walker's Fort. On Brazos River. Texas. Wallace, Fort. South fork of Smoky Hill River, opposite mouth of Rose Creek, Wallace County. Kansas. Wallace, Fort. Near Blairsville. Pennsylvania. Walla Walla, Fort- Donald McKenzie established Fort Walla Walla in 1818 to strengthen the control of the interior. This post, along with others, was enlarged when the Hudson's Bay Company and the Northwest Fur Company were united in 1831. On October 4, 1841, a number of Canadian settlers, who were retired servants of the Hudson's Bay Company, arrived at Fort Walla Walla. The next day, October 5, they helped save the property at Fort Walla Walla when it burned. Colonel Wright and Lieutenant-Colonel Steptoe rebuilt Fort Walla Walla in 1857, completing it on November 20. In 1908, there were 31 officers and 327 men at Fort Walla Walla. Washington. Wallen, Camp. Military post located near Tucson. Supplies were shipped in from Fort Yuma. Tucson was the headquarters of the Military District. On the left bank of the Rio Pedro, near the mouth of Badocomari Creek, east of Rubac and near the present site or on site of Fort Huachuca. Arizona. Wallenpaupack, Fort. In Pike County. Pennsylvania. Walpack, Fort. On Delaware River. Pennsylvania. Walsh, Fort Canada. Walthour's Fort. Eight miles west of Greensburg. Pennsylvania. Warburton, Fort. Now Fort Washington. Maryland. Ward, Fort. Temporary post during Florida War, left bank of the Olustee Creek, above its mouth on Santa Fe River. Florida. Ward, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C , south of the Potomac, and three miles northwest of Alexandria.



Virginia. Ward, Fort Nine miles west of Seattle. Washington. Wardon's Fort. On Lost River. West Virginia. Wardwell, Camp. Name changed to Fort Morgan. Colorado. Warren, Fort. Or Governors Island. Subsequent site of Fort Winthrop. Massachusetts. Warren, Fort. Near the outer entrance to Boston Harbor. Fort Warren was established as a military post in 1837. The reservation on Georges Island comprises 28 acres. The post was first occupied in 1861 during the Civil W a r at which time it was used as a military prison for Confederate soldiers. This post is headquarters for the coast artillery district of Boston. In 1914 the company consisted of one garrison of coast artillery. Massachusetts. Warren, Fort. At Plymouth. North Carolina. Warren, Fort. At Castleton. Vermont. . Warren, Francis E., Fort. Same as Fort D. A. Russell. Wyoming. Washakie, Fort. See Camp Augur. This was a subpost of Fort Bridger, established on the present site of Lander, Wyoming. It was named for Brigadier-General C. C. Augur, United States Army, at that time commanding the Department of the Platte. The post was established at the earnest request of Chief Washakie in compliance with the terms of a treaty with the Shoshone and Bannock Indians. Subsequently it was a separate post, named for Captain Frederick H. Brown, Eighteenth Infantry, who was killed at the Fort Phil Kearny massacre, December 21, 1866. Fort Brown post was located June 26, 1871, on the south bank of the south fork of the Little Wind River, near the junction with the north fork. The new post was first built of adobes and later of hard rock taken from a quarry near the post. In December, 1878, the name of the post was changed to Fort Washakie in honor of the illustrious chief of the Shoshones. Later the military post was turned over to the Interior Department and used as an agency for the Shoshone and Arapahoe Indians. Fremont County. Wyoming. Washington, Fort. Prince Georges County. Nearly opposite Mount Vernon. Twelve miles south of Washington, on left bank of Potomac River. The post was established in 1815. The reservation comprises 334 acres. The garrison usually consists of three companies of coast artillery. Maryland. Washington, Fort. At Portsmouth. New Hampshire. Washington, Fort. Left bank of the Hudson, between 181st and 186th streets, New York City. Fort Washington was a very important military post during the American Revolution. It occupied the highest part of the northern end of Manhattan Island.



After the battle of White Plains, Washington left a considerable force in Fort Washington under Colonel Magaw. General Howe attacked the fort and Colonel Magawi made a stubborn resistance. The American loss was 130 men and the British 450 in taking the fort. 2700 Colonial troops surrendered to General William Howe on November 16, 1776. The loss of Fort Washington was considered one of the great American disasters of the Revolutionary War. New York. Washington, Fort. At Washington. North Carolina. Washington!, Fort. Obliterated fort on the present site of Cincinnati. It was from Fort Washington that General Harmar set out against the Indians in 1790, and after his crushing defeat, General St. Clair set out from the same fort in Sept. 1791. General St. Clair built Fort Flamilton twenty miles north of Fort Washington on the Miami River and Fort Jefferson forty miles farther north. Ohio. Washington, Fort. On Nootka Sound. Oregon. Washington, Fort. Eight miles east of Norristown Montgomery County. Pennsylvania. Washington, Fort. Opposite Harrisburg. Pennsylvania. Washington, Fort. See Fort George. Rhode Island. Washington, Fort. At Pass Cavallo. Texas. Washita, Fort. Marcy in Prairie Traveler, Route 111 writes as follows: "Boggy Depot to Blue River 1 2 ^ miles; Blue River to Fort Washita &y2 miles." This would place Fort Washita below Boggy Depot as shown on maps today. Left bank of the Washita River, twenty-two miles above its mouth in old Indian Territory. Oklahoma. Watauga, Fort. This fort, near Sycamore Shoals, was in existence as early as 1776. It sustained a siege by Indians in that year, lead by Old Abraham. Robertson, Sevier and some forty men defended the fort. A few people were killed including one boy who was carried off and burned at the stake. According to frontier tradition, a young lass was pursued by fleet-footed savages. A young officer shot the foremost of her pursuers and lifted her over the stockade. The officer, John Sevier, and the young lady, Bonnie Kate Sherrill, later married. Tennessee. Watson, Fort. A British Stockade on Wright's Bluff, on the left bank of Scott's Lake of the Santee River, captured by Marion in 1781. Clarendon County. South Carolina. Wayne, Fort. Near Brunswick. Georgia. Wayne, Fort. In Allen County, on site of city of Fort Wayne which is also built on the site of the principal village of the Miami Indians and near the site of the old French Fort Miami. In October, 1790, General Harmer burned the Indian village. In 1794 General Anthony Wayne built a fort here which was be-



sieged by Indians in September, 1812. Indiana. Wayne, Fort. On Illinois River. Near Western boundary of Missouri, in northeast corner of old Indian Territory. Oklahoma. Wayne, Fort. Right bank of Detroit Straits or River, three miles below Detroit. Buildings fair state of preservation and partly occupied by U. S. troops in 1925; streetcar line to post. Fort Wayne was established as a United States military post in 1842. The reservation contained 62 acres lying along the Detroit River. There are quarters here for a battalion of infantry. Michigan. Weaver, Fort. In Pearl Harbor. Hawaiian Islands. Webb, Fort. Near West Point. New York. Webstjer, Fort. At the copper mines in southwest New Mexico. Name changed to Fort McLane. New Mexico. Weed, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C , southwest of Alexandria. Virginia. Wekiwa, Fort. Temporary post during Florida War, on left bank of Spring Creek, about one mile above its mouth. Florida. Weller, Fort. On head waters of Russian River, fifty miles from Cloverdale in Mendocino County. California. Wellington, Fort. A British post in eastern Ontario, garrisoned by British and Canadian Troops in the '60's, and perhaps before that time. Windmill Point, one and one-half miles below the fort, was the scene of an attack by the "Patriots" in 1838. The "Patriots" were taken prisoners, some were executed at Kingston and others transported to Van Dieman's Land. Canada. Wells, Fort. Formerly Fort Walker, north of Hilton Head, captured in 1861. South Carolina. Wells' Fort. In Washington County. Pennsylvania. Wentwofth, Fort. On the Connecticut River, longitude 71.31 west; latitude 44.32 north. New Hampshire. Wessells, Fort. One of the defenses of Plymouth; built during the Civil War. North Carolina. West Bureau, Fort. Built during the Black Hawk War. Illinois. Westcott, Fort. Temporary post during Florida War, on southern extremity of the State in the Everglades. Florida. Western, Fort. At Augusta. Maine. Westfall's Fort. West Virginia. West, Fort. Near headwaters of the Gila River. New Mexico. West, Fort William. Ontario. Canada. West's Fort. In Lewis County. West Virginia. Wetherill, Fort. Subpost of Fort Adams, two miles from Newport. On Conanicut Island. Narragansett Bay. Rhode Island. Wheadmans, Fort. Florida. Wheeler, Fort. In Columbia County. Pennsylvania.



Wheelock, Fort. Temporary post established during the Florida War, on southwest end of Orange Lake. Florida. Whipple, Fort. One mile.from Prescott. Arizona. Whipple, Fort. See Fort Myer. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C., at Arlington Heights. Virginia. White, Fort. Vicinity of Macon in Clarke County, between the Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers. Alabama. White, Fort. Temporary post established during Florida War, left bank of the Santa Fe River, about seven miles from its mouth. The present Fort White is now shown as a railroad station, not on a river. Columbia County. Florida. White's Fort At Knoxville. Tennessee. White's Fort. Built by Mormon pioneers on Bingham Creek as a protection against the Indians in Salt Lake County, southwest of Salt Lake City. Utah. White Oak Spring, Fort. Near Wisconsin-Illinois border. Built during Black Hawk War. Wisconsin. White River Post. Built in 1832. South Dakota. Whit|man, Fort. A subpost of Fort Worden. District of Columbia. Whittlesey, Fort. One of the defensive works of Covington, near Newport. Kentucky. Whitworth, Fort. At Petersburg; also called Fort Alexander. Virginia. Whoop Up, Fort. Built in 1871. Near Fort Kipp. Canada. Whyte, Fort. In northeast section of Morris Provincial Election District. Manitoba. Canada. Wichita, Camp. Name changed to Fort Sill. Indian Territory. Oklahoma. "Wicked," Fort. A stage station and ranch hut built for defense half way between Julesburg and Denver. The above facetious name was given to the post by some passerby. Colorado. Wilburn, Fort. Built in Black Hawk War on Illinois River, nearly opposite present city of Peru. Illinois. Wilkins, Fort. Oconee River. Georgia. Wilkins, Fort. At Copper Mine Harbor, Lake Superior, \y2 miles east of the town of Copper Harbor. Michigan. Wilkinson, Fort. Right bank of Oconee River, north side of the mouth of Camp Creek, below Milledgeville. Georgia. Williard, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C , southwest of Alexandria. Virginia. Willet's Point, Fort. Same as Fort Totten. Long Island, at junction of East River and Long Island Sound, opposite Fort Schuyler. New York. William Augustus, Fort Near Ogdensburg. New York. William Castle, Fort. Old post on Castle Island, Boston Har-



bor; now obliterated. Massachusetts. William, Castle, Fort. Governor's Island came into prominence in the 1790's during the difficulties with France. In 1796 Fort Castle William had earthworks., two batteries, a large powder magazine and barracks for the garrison. Considerable money was spent on the post, after which it was named Fort Jay. In 1806 Fort Jay was pronounced "rubbish" by Thomas Jefferson and torn down; Fort Columbus on the same site was erected during his administration. A "circular castle," known in official papers as Castle William, was begun in 1811. This interesting landmark is still standing. New York. William and Mary, Fort. Near Boston. Massachusetts. William and Mary, Fort. On Goat Island near Portsmouth. New Hampshire. William, Fort. Built by the Bents in 1828, about twelve miles northeast of the present own of Las Animas. Named after Colonel William Bent who was the leader of the family. Colorado. William, Fort. Ontario. Founded as a Hudson's Bay Company post in 1801. Canada. William, Fort. Quebec. Canada. WilUam, Fort. 1802. Same as Fort Kaministiquia. 1679-1717. Canada. William, Fort. South end of Cumberland Island. Georgia. William, Fort. Near Boston. Massachusetts. William, Fort. Minnesota. William, Fort. On Grand Island mouth of Piscataqua. New Hampshire. William, Fort. Near Plymouth. North Carolina. William, Fort. (1833-34). Same as Fort Mortimer 1845-46. North Dakota. William, Fort. Established in 1834-35. Near Fort Vancouver, on left bank of Columbia River. Oregon. William, Fort. A frontier post built in or a little before 1856. The post stood six miles north of Port Clinton and one and one-half miles east. Fort William, more frequently called Fort Lebanon, was an important post for many years after it was built. It is now obliterated. Pennsylvania. William, Fort. See Fort Laramie. Wyoming. William Hendrick, Fort. At Bowling Green, New York City. New York. William Henry, Fort. At Pemaquid. Maine. William Henry, Fort. This fort was erected in 1755 by Sir William Johnson on the site of the present site of Caldwell, New York, which is at the head of Lake George. During the early part of the French and Indian W a r it was a strategic point and the starting point for many minor expeditions against the French



and Indians. It was attacked in 1757 by Rigaud and later, in the same year, by Montcalm. Montcalm's attack was successful and he agreed that the garrison should march out with the honors of war. On August 10, 1757, they began their march to Fort Edward, accompanied by a detachment of French regulars. Part of the prisoners were massacred and the remainder carried into captivity. Cooper, uses this incident in his "Last of the Mohicans." New York. William Henry, Fort. The location of this fort has been referred to as, "At the foot of the Blue Mountains, twenty-four miles northwest of Reading." According to this description there is probably some confusion between the name of this fort and Fort William. Pennsylvania. William H. Seward, Fort. Fort William H. Seward is a garrisoned post on Lynn Canal, fifteen miles from Skagway. The post is a regimental headquarters and a battalion infantry is stationed there. It is the largest post in Alaska. Alaska. William McKinley, Fort. This post is located six miles southeast of Manila and is connected with Manila by means of an electric railway and two good highways. It is one of the largest army posts. It was begun in 1902 and occupied as a regular garrison February 25, 1907. Philippine Islands. Williams, Fort. Left bank of the Coosa River, at the north side of the mouth of Cedar Creek. Alabama. Williams, Fort 1802. Same as Kaministiquia Fort (16791717). Canada. Williams, Fort. On Arkansas River. Colorado. Williams, Fort. Florida. Williams, Fort. Four miles from Portland; a United States military post. The garrison usually consists of five companies of coast artillery. Maine. Williams, Fort. Near Corinth. Mississippi. Williams, Fort. On Mohawk River. Now Rome, Oneida County. Built during the French and Indian War. New York. Williams, Fort. One of the defenses of Plymouth; built during the Civil War. North Carolina. Williams, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C , on Traitor's Hill, near Alexandria. Virginia. Williamsburg, Fort. Also called Fort Blount; Smith County. Tennessee. Williamson's Station. Built by Colonel David Williamson during the Revolutionary War, on Buffalo Creek, twelve miles from the Ohio River. Pennsylvania. Willopa, Fort. At Willopa, Pacific County. Washington. Wilson, Fort. Michigan. Wilson's Fort. West Virginia.



Winchester, Fort. Near site of Fort Defiance, at junction of the Auglaize with the Maumee. Ohio. Wind Gap, Fort near. Near Miller's Station, on the Bangor and Portland Railroad; built as early as 1756 or before that date. This frontier post had various names' such as "Teet's House," "Deedt's Blockhouse," and "Tead's Blockhouse." According1 to "Frontier Forts of Pennsylvania," there was a blockhouse near Wind Gap, also standing. Pennsylvania. Winfield Scott, Fort. The original site of Fort Winfield Scott was fortified by the Spaniards in 1794. Four years after the admission of California, a brick fort was built here and named in honor of General Winfield Scott. Fort Point was condemned in 1906; on June 20, 1912, the present post was occupied. In 1914 the garrison consisted of ten companies of coast artillery. San Francisco. California. Wingate,: Fort. Right bank of the Rio de Galto, twenty-one miles southwest of Mount Taylor, McKinley County. According to local accounts this post was the first one at which General John J. Pershing was stationed; the house in which he was presumed to be quartered is pointed out to visitors. Many of the buildings standing in 1928. Near Gallup. On site of old Fort Lyon. New Mexico. Wingawn, Fort. According to legends an ancient earthwork, in what was formerly Bedford County, bore this name. Pennsylvania. Winnebago, Fort. Right bank of the Upper Fox River, near the east end of the canal connecting that river with the Wisconsin River. Wisconsin. Winslow, Fort. Hudson River, above Mohawk. New York. Wintermoot's Fort. In Wyoming Valley, near Sturmerville. Pennsylvania. Winthrop, Camp. Name changed to Camp Three Forks Owyhee. Idaho. Winthrop, Fort. Governors Island, Boston Harbor, on site of old Fort Warren. Massachusetts. Winyaw, Fort. At Blythe's Point, near Georgetown. South Carolina. Wiscasset, Fort. At Sheepscot Bay. Maine. Wise, Fort. See Fort Lyon. Situated on Arkansas River a short distance up the river from the mouth of the Purgatoire River. In 1861 the name was changed to Fort Lyon. Colorado. Wolcott, Fort. Goat Island, Newport Harbor. Rhode Island. Woodbury, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C, south of Potomac. Virginia. Wood, Fort. Subpost of Fort Jay, situated on Bedloe's Island, New York about two miles southwest from the Battery at New



York City. Situated on Bedloe's Island in New York Harbor. The star-shaped fort was constructed in 1841 at a cost of $21,300. The statue of Liberty is located on the same island. New York. Wood, Fort. Near Chattanooga. Tennessee. Wood, G. W. F. Camp. Fifty miles northwest of Fort Inge. Texas. Woodruff, Fort. Near Portsmouth. Virginia. Wool, Fort. Mouth of Trinity River. California. Wool, Fort. Temporary post during Florida War, right bank of the Suwanee River, ten miles from its mouth. Florida. _'. " Wool, Fort. See Fort Monroe, Norfolk. At the Rip-Raps in Hampton Roads. Formerly Fort Calhoun. Virginia. Wooster, Fort. On height between New Haven and East Haven, one mile northeast from Fort Hale. Connecticut. Worden, Fort. Fifty-one miles from Seattle. This post was established in 1898 when Batteries Randol Quarrels and Brannen were built. President Johnson set aside lands along the Pacific Coast for military purposes in 1866. 640 acres were reserved at Fort Worden. Fort Worden is usually garrisoned by six companies of coast artillery. It is one of the defenses of Puget Sound, at Point Wilson, near Port Townsend. Washington. Worth, Fort. Right bank of the Clear Fork of the Trinity River near Dallas, founded as a military post by Ripley D. Arnold in 1849. The city of Fort Worth became a county seat in 1860 and was incorporated in 1873. Tarrant County. Texas. Worth,, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C , south of Potomac, near Alexandria. Virginia. Worthington, Fort. Near Baltimore. Maryland. Wrangell, Fort On Wrangell Island. Alaska. Wright, Fort. In Round Valley, Mendocino County. California. Wright, Fort. Rebel work left bank of the Mississippi River, twelve tniles above the mouth of the Big Hatchee River, six miles above Fort Pillow. Tennessee. Wright, Fort. Four miles west of Spokane. Washington. Wright, H. G., Fort. Eight miles across sound from New London, located on Fishers Island at the eastern end of Long Island Sound. The island is noted for having been the locality in which Captain Kidd operated. The post was named after Brigadier General Horatio Gouvernor Wright. Other units in the vicinity were Forts Terry, Michie, Trumbull, Mansfield, and Tyler. Trumbull, Mansfield and Tyler have been abandoned. This post dates from 1898. New York. Wyllys, Fort. On Hudson River, near West Point. New



York. Wyoming, Fort. Near Wilkesbarre. Pennsylvania. Yamhill, Fort—Military. South fork of Yamhill River, on northeastern part of Indian Coast Reservation, thirty-five miles southwest of Portland. Oregon. Yates, Fort. Right bank of Missouri River. In Sioux County. North Dakota. Yellowstone, Fort. Yellowstone National Park was formerly called Fort Yellowstone National Park. Fort Yellowstone was established as a military post in 1886. It occupies the former site of Camp Sheridan (1874). The reservation lies on Beaver Creek, five miles from Gardiner on the Northern Pacific Railroad. In 1914 the garrison had charge of Yellowstone National Park, including the protection of visitors. At that time a squadron of cavalry were located there. Yellowstone National Park. Wyoming. York, Fort. On York River. Virginia. Young, Fort. West Virginia. Yukon, Fort. Fort Yukon is an old and well-known trading post located on the great bend of the Yukon River, just within the Arctic circle. A government school for natives is located at this point, the attendance being about two hundred. Alaska. Yuma, Fort. This post was located on the top of a round butte. The post was just above the railroad bridge on the right bank of the Colorado River, opposite the mouth of the Gila River and at head of navigation of the Colorado River. On November 27, 1850, Major Heintzelman of the U. S. Army, established a post at the junction of the Gila and Colorado rivers, which at first was called Camp Independence. In March, 1851, this post and the garrison were transferred to the site of the old Spanish Mission upon the rising ground on the California side of the Colorado River and it was soon after called Fort Yuma. Fort Yuma seems to have been abandoned from December, 1851, to February, 1852. Major Heintzelman returned in February, 1852, to rebuild the fort and to permanently reestablish the garrison. This post has been the center of many military, civic, and scientific activities. California. Zabrisky, Fort. Near Zabrisky River. Virginia. Zimmerman, Fort. At St. Johnsville. New York. Zollicoffer, Fort. Five miles below Nashville. Tennessee. Zumwalls, Fort. In St. Charles County. Missouri. (The End)

Utah State Historical Society BOARD OF CONTROL (Terms Expiring April 1, 1937) J. C E C I L A L T E R , Salt Lake City WM. R. P A L M E R , Cedar City A L B E R T F. P H I L I P S , Salt Lake City

J O E L E. R I C K S , Logan P A R L E Y L. W I L L I A M S , Salt Lake City

(Terms Expiring April 1, 1935) GEORGE E. F E L L O W S , Salt Lake City W I L L I A M J. S N O W , Provo H U G H RYAN, Salt Lake City L E V I E. Y O U N G , Salt Lake City F R A N K K. S E E G M I L L E R , Salt Lake City E X E C U T I V E O F F I C E R S 1932-1933 A L B E R T F. P H I L I P S , President Emeritus W I L L I A M J. S N O W , President J. C E C I L A L T E R , Secretary-Treasurer-Librarian H U G H RYAN, Vice President Editor in Chief All Members, Board of Control, Associate Editors

MEMBERSHIP Paid memberships at the required fee of $2 a year, will include current subscriptions to the Utah Historical Quarterly. Non-members and institutions may receive the Quarterly at $1 a year or 35 cents per copy; but it is preferred that residents of the State become active members, and thus participate in the deliberations and achievements of the Society. Checks should be made payable to the Utah State Historical Society and mailed to the Secretary-Treasurer, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah.

CONTRIBUTIONS The Society was organized essentially to collect, disseminate and preserve important material pertaining to the history of the State. To effect this end, contributions of writings are solicited, such as old diaries, journals, letters and other writings of the pioneers; also original manuscripts by present day writers on any phase of early Utah history. Treasured papers or manuscripts may be printed in faithful detail in the Quarterly, without harm to them, and without permanently removing them from their possessors. Contributions and correspondence should be addressed to the Editor. Utah Historical Quarterly, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah.




on c _o

3 c o c o

Utah Historical Quarterly State Capitol, Salt Lake City Volume 6

July, 1933

Number 3

T H E MYSTERIOUS "D. JULIEN" By Charles Kelly "After about seven miles the trend of the canyon became more easterly, and we saw the mouth of the Grand, the junction (of the Green with the Grand) that hidden mystery which, unless we count D. Julien, only nine white men, the Major's first party, had ever seen before us." Thus wrote Frederick S. Dellenbaugh, historian of Major J. W. Powell's expeditions down the canyon of the Colorado river in 1869 and 1872. The intrepid Major Powell believed that his party of 1869 was the first to penetrate the labyrinths of the mightiest river of the West. Certainly he was the first to leave any written record. Neither Powell nor Dellenbaugh, on either of their expeditions, found traces of any previous penetration by white men. But between 1872, the date of Dellenbaugh's journey with Powell, and the publication of his invaluable record of that expedition, the canyon had been penetrated by other parties of explorers, notably the ill-fated Stanton expedition. This party of surveyors made a more detailed examination of the walls of the canyon as they passed downstream, and were thus fortunate enough to discover, carved on the rock in five different places, the name " D . Julien," with the date of 1836, thirty-three years previous to the first Powell expedition. These inscriptions proved definitely that some white man had explored at least a part of the great river system in the year 1836. But who was "D. Julien" and where was the record of his achievement? In trying to solve the mystery, Mr. Dellenbaugh did a great amount of research among the journals of early day explorers and trappers, but nowhere could be found even the name of the man who had left his signature on the red sandstone walls of the canyon. Since the Spanish fathers had penetrated to nearly every



corner of the Southwest in early times, and since their inscriptions had previously been found in various isolated places on the desert, Mr. Dellenbaugh finally came to the conclusion that "D. Julien" must have been one of those early Spanish priests. On this theory he wrote to the Vatican in Rome and had the records searched for any reference to a missionary of that name. This research was also fruitless. No such person appeared on the records. "D. Julien" was a mystery which, it seemed, could never be solved. That is why the author of "A Canyon Voyage" used the expression quoted above: "unless we count D. Julien.". However, through a peculiar set of circumstances, "the mysterious D. Julien" was finally tracked down, and something of his history learned. Two years ago the writer and a party visited Nine Mile Canyon, a tributary of Green river, to photograph some of the many wonderful petroglyphs found there. Having heard that there was a Sun Dance in progress on the Uintah reservation, we decided to return by way of White Rocks and attend the annual dance of the Indians. Dr. Julian H. Steward, of the University of Utah, with several assistants, had arrived at White Rocks some days previously for the purpose of recording the ceremonies. On account of several postponements Dr. Steward had some time on his hands and used the opportunity to do some excavating in the vicinity of the Uintah river among the ancient Indian mounds. One of these mounds proved to be a stone house built against a bluff near the river. And on this bluff Dr. Steward found many old names carved, among them that of "Denis Julien, 1831." When our party arrived at the dance we were told of the find, which apparently had had no significance to the hundreds who had visited that locality previously. Immediately upon hearing the name the above quoted passage—"unless we count D. Julien"—came to mind, and there seemed no doubt that "Denis Julien" and "D. Julien" were the same person. But the date, 1831, was five years previous to that carved on the walls of the canyon. Fortunately, a biography of the Robidoux brothers, early trappers from St. Louis, had just appeared. In this record it was shown that Antoine Robidoux had entered the Uintah Basin in 1831 and had established a trading post there, which he maintained for several years. This information seemed to agree with the date of 1831 carved by Denis Julien on the Uintah river not far from the location of Robidoux's old post, and it therefore seemed logical that Julien might have been one of Robidoux's men, or at least guide for the expedition; in which case, if the deduction was correct, some record of him should be found in St. Louis, headquarters for all the early French-Canadian trappers. An inquiry addressed to Miss Stella Drumm, librarian of



the Missouri Historical Library, confirmed this suspicion, and her research among the old records has furnished considerable information concerning the "mysterious D. Julien." The earliest record which can be found mentioning the name Denis Julien, is the record of births and Baptisms of St. Louis Cathedral. It shows the following entries: "Julien, Marie Jos., born May 5. 1793, daughter of Denis Julien and Cath. (Indian), baptized April 15. 1798. "Julien, Pierre Paschal, 18 mos. old, same parents, baptized Oct. 25, 1801. "Julien, Etienne, 5 years old, same parents, baptized Oct, 21, 1804. "Julien, Paschal, 9 years old, son of Denis Julien and Cath. (Indian), buried Feb. 3, 1809. Denis Julien, therefore, seems to have been one of the many French-Canadians who were the early settlers of St. Louis, and who made a business of trapping and trading with the Indians. This is borne out by the next mention of his name, which occurs in the "List of Licenses issued to trade with the Indians in the Superintendency of Louisiana." On Sept. 1, 1807, he was granted a license to trade with the "Sieux and Iowas," and on Oct. 14, 1810, he received another license to trade with the "Ioways & Sieux for one year," with Pierre Choteau as surety. 1 There were many such small independent traders at that time, and although we have quite a complete record of trapping and exploring expeditions out of St. Louis during the early period of the West, it is quite likely that Julien made no written record, kept much to himself, and therefore does not appear in any of the journals of those times. In 1809 Denis Julien and his brother, Etienne, volunteered "for service in Louisiana," in an artillery company organized by Gov. W m . Clark and captained by Benjamin O'Fallon. 2 There is no record of Julien's activities with this organization; the entry is interesting, however, for the mention of Etienne Julien, who no doubt is the Stephen Julien who rendered such good service as guide to Long's expedition to Santa Fe in 1820. In his trading activities, one of the most valuable commodities was bar lead, used for molding bullets for the old Kentucky rifles and the fusees used by the Indians and trappers. It is not strange then, that we find among the old papers on file in the St. Louis library 2 an order for "358 barrels of lead" belonging to Denis Julien, which is being shipped by Antoine Busebois to W m . ''Life and Papers of Frederick Bates (Marshall). 2 E. G. Voorhees Collection of Wm. Clark's Papers.



Clark, on Mr. Wilson's barge. The lead mines near St. Louis were worked in very early times by Indians and trappers, and furnished bullets for all the hunting and trapping between the Mississippi and the Pacific coast. On the walls of a canyon near Fruita, Colorado, on the old Ute trail, is carved the following inscription: "Antoine Robidoux passe ic L. J4 E. 13 Novembre, 1837 (?), pur etabilre maison traitte a la vert ou Whyte." While this is probably not an accurate reading of the inscription, it is translated by Mr. Dellenbaugh as follows: "Antoine Robidoux passed this way November 13, 1837(?) to establish a trading'house on the Green or White river." Since it is known that Robidoux entered the Uintah Basin in 1831, and since Denis Julien clearly carved the date 1831 on the Uintah river, it is evident that the date of the Robidoux inscription should read 1831, the figure " 1 " having been mistaken for a So we find that Denis Julien either acted as guide for Robidoux or accompanied his trading expedition to the Uintah Basin in 1831. As near as can be ascertained his inscription must have been carved there sometime in December of that year. The many branches and tributaries of the Uintah made ideal beaver country, and the taking in beaver pelts must have been rich in those days, as it was virgin territory. The rock on which Julien's name is found overlooks one of the best beaver sections in the basin, and he undoubtedly camped there while trapping, carving his name in an idle moment. The carving in neatly done and cut deep enough so that it is still perfectly legible. The same name also appears in another place on the rock, but is badly weathered. Nothing further is known of the activities of Denis Julien, with the exception of the five inscriptions found in different places on the Green and Colorado rivers by the Stanton expedition and others.These all bear the date of 1836. It is not known whether the inscriptions were made by Julien as he traveled overland, coming down to the river at various points, or whether he traveled the river itself. The last inscription, near the end of Cataract Canyon, is dated May 3, 1836, and is in such a position that it could scarcely be reached except from a boat during fairly high water. On this rock, with the name, is also a crude picture of a boat, which could scarcely have been put there by any but a white man. All the other inscriptions are at places which could have been reached by a pack train over the old



Indian trails, and all but one are on the east side of the river. Of these inscriptions in the canyon of Green river, Mr. Dellenbaugh says: "There are five places where Julien cut his name, according to my present information. R. B. Stanton discovered the first one, near the lower end of Cataract Canyon. The one illustrated on page 352 of my Romance of the Colorado, is in Labyrinth Canyon, about half way around Bowknot Bend. As I understand it, all the inscriptions are in the same style—'D. Julien 1836'—except that in at least two instances the day dates are given. "The one near the lower end of Cataract is the most puzzling, because it could have only been made in a boat, Stanton says. It is at such a height and in such a position under an overhanging cliff where the water fills the whole gorge from wall to wall, that it could only have been done from some kind of float, at quite a high stage of water. There is no day date on this, just 'D. Julien 1836' cut, Stanton says, with a tool resembling a dull center punch. It is on a smooth stretch above some heavy rapids. The Hell Roarin' inscription has a day date of '3 Mai' while the one twenty miles further up has '16 Mai.' The question arises: was he going up stream, or was he just trapping the country and going in and out? "Another is on the right hand wall of the Stillwater Canyon, four or five miles above the mouth of the Green—on the west wall. Two more were found by prospectors dated 1836, one above Bowknot Bend in Labyrinth Canyon. This is the one dated '16 Mai.' It was on the east side. Another is in the upper end of Cataract Canyon." Thus ends the meager record of "the mysterious D. Julien." His first child was born in 1793. If we estimate that he was twenty-one years old at that time, he was at least sixty-four years old when he made the inscriptions on Green River, and could easily have been seventy. No other inscriptions have as yet been found which would give any clue as to his travels. Yet even these six make him the champion inscription cutter of all the old traders and trappers. Others may be found at some future time which will throw more light on his history. It is idle to speculate as to his end. But if he actually tried to navigate the dangerous rapids of Cataract Canyon, as he might well have done, then it seems quite reasonable to suppose that he lost his life in those swirling waters as many others have done. In July, 1932, the writer and a party of four navigated the Colorado from below Cataract Canyon to Lee's Ferry. In that section the water is comparatively quiet and there are many



beautiful camp sites. If Denis Julien survived the cataracts above he would most certainly have left a record on the smooth walls of Glen Canyon. A careful watch was kept for 183 miles, with field glasses, but no inscription was found below the cataracts. The sketch of a boat near his name in one place lends strength to the theory that he did navigate the river, and since no record can be found that he survived the year 1836, it seems logical that he may have been the first white victim of the treacherous rapids of Cataract Canyon.

PAHUTE INDIAN HOMELANDS By William R. Palmer Cedar City, Utah (Copyrighted 1933) Did the old timers know the Indians? Once I thought so and went out to get first-hand information from pioneers who had been among the red men since childhood. The first man answered, "Do I know Indians? I'll say I do. The dirty black beggars killed a calf of mine once and I made them give me three sacks of pine nuts for it." "What tribes have you known?" "Dog-goned if I know . That don't make any difference anyway. An Indian is an Indian and they are all alike." From the next man: "Yes, I have known every Indian that's been in this country in the last sixty years. I ought to know Indians for I grew up with 'em." What was the name of the tribe that lived at Cedar City? "We always called them Cedar Indians." What land did they own? "The lazy devils didn't have a foot of land but they claimed everything. One fall they turned their horses in our fields and we would have killed the whole tribe if Bishop Lunt had let us go." Thus the conversations turned wherever I went. Did the old timers know the Indians? What would we do if a stronger people should come in upon us, look over our country, select the fertile valleys in which we have had our headquarters, settle down there and tell us to move on? Suppose that people, in justification, told us that we had no



right to the country,ibecamse we were not-making the best use of itj that we were not developing it and;that we were obstructing progress. Suppose further that they explained that they were taking neither property nor rights from us for they Were buying the ground from some unheard of being called "Government." Would the explanation satisfy, or would it sound to us like the fable of the wolf upstream who accused and killed the lamb below for befouling his drinking water? W e took the land from the Indians—that much, I presume, is admitted—but from which particular Indians did we take our particular townsite, or fields, or ranch? That may be a strange question for not many white men have ever thought of it in just that way. W e are like the old settler, "Indians are just Indians and they are all alike." We have supposed that they ran wild like the jackrabbits. Brigham Young had an Indian policy. It was soothing syrup. It was intended to be humane, and, as compared with the treatment accorded the Indians almost everywhere else, it was humane. But the basis of it was Safety First for the Mormons. His policy was, "Feed the Indians, for it is C H E A P E R to feed them than to fight them." As a policy it was good, but as a declaration of rights it had serious shortcomings. There was in it no recognition of Indian rights. The great pioneer sent colonies out to possess the lands peacefully if they could, or by force if they must. It mattered not what became of the Indians who were thus forced to vacate their home lands. That contingency perhaps never entered the thoughts of the pioneers. The country was large and they thought there were plenty of places which the whites did not want, where Indians could live and they could go there. If the red men preferred to hang around the Mormon settlements, "Keep them at a safe distance and if they will behave themselves, give them five acres of ground and teach them to till the soil." (Geo. A. Smith at Parowan.) The tragic fact was that there were no other places except the middle of the deserts or the tops of the mountains where dispossessed bands of Indians could go without becoming trespassers themselves; and the deserts and mountains, even according to Indian standards of living, were scarcely habitable except for short periods of the years. Utah was as definitely divided on property lines among the Indians as it is today, and property rights were quite as much respected by the Indians as we now respect land titles. The only difference was that with us the individual holds the land while with them the clan held all rights in common.



It may be seen that when we uprooted a band of Indians we created serious inter-tribal problems for each clan had its own land and when one was driven out they became unwelcome trespassers on the domain of some other clan. There was much exchange of friendly visits between tribes but one never settled down permanently upon another. Moreover, the locations that we found desirable were the fertile valleys that were for the same reasons most desirable to the Indians. These were the watered areas in which the vegetation used for food by the natives was most abundant. Naturally, too, the game, because of the improved forage conditions, was most plentiful there. If one made a map of the Indian tribal home lands one would find in most cases that their locations were almost identical with the places selected by the Mormon pioneers for settlement. The only reason that our encroachments did no precipitate intertribal strife was that we came so rapidly that the problem overwhelmed the natives. Then, too, their loss was somewhat offset in the privilege granted in some of the settlements to glean the Mormon fields. The Pahute country proper may be defined as that area west of the Wasatch Range from the great bend of the Sevier River (a little north of Scipio, Utah) south to the Virgin River and extending westward almost across Nevada. It also embraced that wedge of country between the Virgin and Colorado Rivers from the Kaibab Mountains (inclusive) to the junction of the two streams and then continued westward to embrace all of Southern Nevada and even into California. There were a few exceptions to this general boundary rule. Occasionally a colony of Pahutes, like a branch that overruns the wall, settled outside the generally recognized Pahute country. One such was the Puaguampe tribe which went north and established themselves on the northwest shores of Great Salt Lake. Of those who remained on the tribal soil the appended list of colonies (usually though erroneously called tribes) with the location of their homelands have been identified. At the outset it should be said that this study is not exhausive. The task has been undertaken too late, perhaps, to ever make it so. There are very few Indians living today who can remember with clearness the days when the tribes were living on their own home lands and it has taken a great deal of probing to bring out the information that is given herein. 1 The places designated as headquarters may be accepted as 'In his letter of transmittal Mr. Palmer adds: "A researcher came through here last summer and paid them a dollar an hour to give her information, and it has spoiled them."



correct. I have taken great pains to be accurate as to this, but the boundaries of the clan lands might be, in some instances, subject to revision. To fix these with reasonable certainty would necessitate a visit to each location and a study of the lay of the country. Then, too, there may have been, and probably were, some forgotten colonies who should be cut in on the alotted grounds or given location on the uncharted sections. The desert wastes, with the Indians as with us, were unclaimed and but little used. The Markagunt and Kaibab Mountains, i. e. the high table lands, were reserved as common hunting and fishing grounds for all the Pahute clans. Pine Valley Mountains and Mountain Meadows country were also common hunting grounds. Running from north to south the Pahute colonies thus far identified are as follows: (Where a tribe is known by more than one name, I shall try to give all names applied to them.) Tu-win-ipe, Tu-vin-ipe. The northern-most colony of Indians within the Pahute country was the Tu-win-ipe. They were located in the great bend of the Sevier River with their headquarters in Round Valley where Scipio, Utah, now stands. Their south line ran almost where the south line of Fish Lake National Forest is at present. It ran westward along the ridge between Scipio and Holden to a point about ten miles north of Delta. They were north of the Pahvant valley and the Tu-win-ipe were not Pahvantits Indians. Nu-quin-intz, Nu-kwints, Pah-vants. The Nu-quin-intz band joined the Tu-win-ipe on the south. Fillmore City, or the creek a little to the east was their headquarters. Their south line ran west from Meadow Creek to the north end of Sevier Lake. Aropeen was their chief when the Mormons settled Fillmore in Oct., 1851. Pah-vant-its, Pa-vant-s, Pah-vant-ies. These joined the Nu-kwint-s on the south. Kanosh was their chief and his headquarters were at the place which now bears his name. Kanosh and Aropeen were brothers and their two bands comprised the Pah-vant tribes. They claimed and occupied the whole of the Pahvant Valley from the mountains on the east to the Sevier River and Sevier Lake on the west. They came as far south as Cove Fort. While these two brothers had the valley divided between them, Kanosh was the great chief over both colonies. He soon became friendly to the Mormon settlers and was instrumental in preventing serious uprisings of Indians against the whites on more than one occasion. It is thought by some authorities that the Pahvants are of a different tribe from the Pahutes and that they should not be classed as Pahutes. There are some good reasons to support such a position. They are of a different type physically. They




are larger, portlier people and nearly all their men grew heavy beards. The Pahutes on the contrary, were as a rule, beardless. Escalante found these people and as he approached he thought he had come upon a group of Spaniards. The Pahvants did little visiting with other colonies though others came frequently to them, and it is said that their women seldom married outside the Pahvant clans. Whether or not they were originally of different stock, they came through contact if not by blood to be so essentially Pahute in language and custom that I prefer to class them as such. Here also is where they class themselves. Tu-roon-kwints, Tu-rune-quints. The Pahvants were joined on the south by two bands, the Tu-roon-quints and the Toy-ebes. The Tu-roon-quints claimed Pine and Indian Creeks south of Cove Fort, and the country that is now called Wild Cat. Their headquarters were 'on Pine Creek. Toy-ebe-s, Toy-ebe-its, Toy-weap-its. The Toy-ebe country ran north and south along the Beaver River from Milford to Black Rock. Their headquarters were sometimes at Milford and sometimes at Black Rock. Toyebe means tall grass. The country was once covered with a variety of grass that grew as high as a man's head and its seed was harvested for food. Water tules (cat tails) are also called toyebe and these abound in the swamp lands of the Beaver River bottoms. The range called Mineral Mountains was the dividing line between the Toyebes and the Tu-roon-quints. These were also the dividing line between the Toy-ebes and the Qui-umputs. Qui-ump-uts, Qui-ump^its, Qui-ump-us. South of the Tu-roon-quints and east of the Toy-ebes were the Qui-ump-uts. They claimed the upper valleys of the Beaver River from Adamsville to Puffers Lake. They came south over the Beaver Ridge which is now the dividing line between Beaver and Iron Counties. (Utah.) Their country, then as now, was famous for its great herds of deer and antelope, and the Beaver River was alive with fish. This clan had the best hunting and fishing grounds of all the Pahute tribes but they were not so well supplied with vegetable foods. With their neighbors on the west, the Toy-ebes, the situation was reversed. They had a superabundance of seeds and other vegetable diet and there were frequent exchanges of visits between the two that they might exchange foods. When the Mormons founded Beaver in 1856 Pe-be-ats was chief of the Qui-ump-uts. The Indian pronunciation of his name gave the whites the impression that they were trying to say



"Beaver-ats," so the old chief came to be called "Beaverats" and he will be remembered best by that Mormonized title. Headquarters of this tribe were on the Beaver River about where Fort Cameron was afterwards located, just east of Beaver City. Indian Peak. Out in western Beaver County, detached from the other clans, a Pahute colony was located at the present site of the Indian Peak Reservation. I have been unable to get their name though their country was called "Mo-go-ab Quich-u-ant" which means spirit hills or spirit land. This country has always been famous for its abundance of large fine flavored pine nuts. Every fall Indians from all over the Pahute country went there to gather nuts to store for winter food. They still keep up the custom, and many tons of delicious pine nuts are harvested there every year. Pa-moki-abs, Pah-mo-qui-abs. South and west of the Qui-ump-uts were the Pah-moki-abs. Their headquarters were at the present site of Minersville, Utah. They ran north almost to Milford, and south to Minersville Ridge which is now on the dividing line between Beaver and Iron Counties. Pah-ra-goons, Pa-ra-guns, Pa-gu-its, Pa-rup-its. Nqrthern Iron County was claimed by the Pah-ra-goons. Their headquarters were at the meadows a little below the present town of Paragoonah. They owned the valley of the Little Salt Lake. Aw-an-ap was their chief when the Mormons founded Parowan in January, 1851. Just over the mountain eastward in the Sevier Valley there lived a small band of Utes called Pa-gu-its (fishermen). During the summer months the Pah-ra-goons and the Pa-gu-its .lived together on the mountains in the vicinity of, Panguitch Lake. In time they became so inter-mixed that tfie Pah-ra-goons virtually absorbed the Pa-gu-its and they became as one clan. Still they claimed land on both sides of the mountain and every fall some of them went east to winter at the old Pa-gu-it headquarters where the town of Hatch now stands, while the others returned to the valley of the Little Salt Lake. Pa-rup-its. Awanap, chief of the Pah-ra-goons, had a brother named Quan-ar. This man divided the Pah-ra-goons and he and his followers went west through Parowan Gap and settled at Rush Lake which they called Pa-ru-pa and Pa-har-ur. Quan-ar's band were called Pa-rup-its. Their country ran north from Rush Lake to Minersville Ridge where they joined the Pa-moki-abs. As-sich-oots.



On Summit Creek there lived a small band called As-sich-oots. It was virtually one man's family but they had a section of Country allotted to them. They lived at the springs that is now the source of supply for the Summit water system. They claimed Summit and Winn's canyons and the valley west to Enoch, Utah. Huas-car-is, Piedes, Como-its, Kumo-its, Wahn-kwints. Father Escalante, the Catholic Priest, entered Cedar Valley from the west through Iron Springs Pass in October, 1776. He found Indians here whom he called the Huiscaris though why the name no one has ever determined. It is not an Indian word. Among the Indians, the tribe was known by two names, "Kumoits," and "Wahn-kwints." Both names have gone into the official records. The Cedar Indians are often called "Piedes" though never by the Indians. They disclaim the word and say it has no meaning to them. No one seems to know its origin. The names "Kumo-its" and "W r ahn-kwints" are legitimate and can be explained. It was the custom of a Pahute colony to take the name of the country in which it lived. W e do the same. We call ourselves "Cedarites" or "Ogdenites" as the case may be. The Cedar Indians claimed Coal Creek Canyon and all the valley into which Coal Creek flowed. The valley was named "Kumo-uav" or 'Como-uav," meaning Rabbit valley. Coal Creek was named "Wah-pah-no-quint" (the terminal is sometimes spelled "kwint"). When this tribe was called by the name of the valley in which they lived, they were "Kumo-its" (Kumo-ites, as we would say). When the}- were called by the name of the stream on which they lived, they were "Wah-pah-no-quints," or shortened, as is the Indian custom, "Wah-no-quints" or "Wahn-kwints" as the word has found its way into print. The Kumo-uav was the capitol of the Pahute tribe, and its chief "Cal-o-e-chipe" (when the Mormons came) was the great chief of the Pahute clans. He is said to have been a brother of the great Ute war chief Walker. The tribal lands joined the As-sich-oots and extended southward to the "Rim of the Basin" where Kanarra now stands. Their headquarters were on Coal Creek where Cedar City is located. Tave-at-sooks. Just over the "Rim of the Basin"' and on the headwaters of Ash Creek, a tribe known as "Tave-at-sooks" was located. Their country lay between the "Rim" and the Black Ridge. The towns of Kanarra and New Harmony are situated on these lands. Their headquarters when the Mormons came in 1852 was at some springs now enclosed in the Kanarra fields. Their chief's name



was Kanarra, who, because of his friendliness, had the town named in his honor by the Mormons. Toquer-ats, Toker-intz, Psock-o-ats. From the Black Ridge which was the southern boundary of the Tave-at-sooks, Ash Creek runs south through Toquervilfe and empties into the Virgin River just west of the town of La-Verkin. Escalante in 1776 found near the mouth of Ash Creek a tribe whom he called Parrusis. They were farming, and by irrigation were growing corn, beans and calabashes. These Indians were not classed by the Indians as Pa-roos-its but rather as Toquer-ats, or Toker-intz. The Toquer-ats-claimed Ash Creek Valley from the Black Ridge to the Virgin River. The part of their country where Pintura is now located was called Psock-oak, so named from a bush that flourished there. In some seasons of the year their encampment was where Escalante found them and at other seasons they lived up a tributary of Ash Creek that comes to Pintura from the west. There are some ancient and very beautiful hieroglyphics on the black rocks near their old camp. Pa-roos-its, Parrus-is, Parushapats, U-an-nu-ince, U-ano-intz. The Indian name for the Virgin River was Pa-roos and the Indians who lived on it were Pa-roos-its. The name, however seems to have been limited to three clans. One was located at Berry Springs a little below Flurricane, another was within the present Washington fields and the third was in the St. George valley. Their country lay on both sides of the Virgin River from Hurricane down to St. George. The word "u-an-o" means farmers. The Indians who lived at Washington, St. George and Santa Clara were farmers and they knew something of the practice of irrigation. They cultivated corn, beans and sunflowers for their seed, and other plants used for food and for fibre. For this reason the comparatively small area of Utah's Dixie in which farming was done was called "Uan-o," and the farmers were "U-an-nu-ince" or "U-ano-its." The name has no clan or tribal significance but rather vocational. To-no-quints, Tonoquint-its, To-no-kwint-s, Naug-wunts. Joining the Pa-roos-its on the west but running northward up the Santa Clara Creek were the Tonoquints. Their headquarters were near the present town of Santa Clara. Gunlock was their northern boundary and they ran east and west from Pine Valley Mounains to the Beaver Dam Creek. They owned all of the present She-bits (Shiv-wits) Reservation, and this, by the way, never was Shebits country until the Government placed them there. A mountain there is named Naug-wunt and for this reason the tribe was sometimes called Naug-wunts. Ma-toosh-ats.







North of the Tonoquints were the Matooshats. They were up in what is called locally The Magotsa. The towns of Veyo and Central are in what was Ma-toosh-ats country. The headquarters of the clan was at the hot springs near Veyo. They ran west to Beaver Dam Creek. Pa-weap-its, Pa-wip-its. The Beaver Dam Creek was called by the Indians Pah-weap. There was a colony of Pahutes whose headquarters were near the town of Littlefield, Arizona, who were called Pah-weap-its. They claimed a strip of country up the west side of Beaver Dam Creek and reaching almost as far west as Mesquite, Nevada. Mo-ap-ats, Moapariats, Mo-reitz. These three names refer to Moapa Valley Pahutes. They came as far east as Bunkerville, Nevada, and down the Moapa Valley to St. Thomas. Tan-tib-oo-ats. Joining the Moaparats on the South were the Tan-tib-oo-ats. They were in the west elbow formed by the Virgin and Colorado Rivers. Their counry embraced the Muddy Mountains, called To-oats Kaib by them. The word Tan-tib-oo-ats is used as a general term by the nothern Pahutes to include all Southern Nevada Indians. Mov-wes, Mov-we-ap-ats, Mov-we-ats. The Mov-we-ats were located in Nevada along the Colorado River from Boulder Dam south to The Needles. Their country was called Mov-we-ab which means long tailed lizards. This was the southern-most Pahute clan. Pa-rump-ats. Pa-rump is a country fifty or sixty miles west of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Indians who lived there were Pa-rump-ats. Kwien-go-mats. Joining the Pa-rump-ats on the north was a tribe of Pahutes called Kwien-go-mats. Their headquarters is known as Indian Springs, Nevada. Pa-ran-a-guts, Sau-won-du-its. The valley between Alamo and Hiko, Nevada, was owned by Indians called Sau-won-du-its. The name of the valley is Paranagat and the Indians have come to be called Paranaguts though the other is the proper name. Ma-tisLab, Ma-tis-ab-its. The Matis-ab-its lived in Meadow Valley, Nevada. Their headquarters were at the present site of the town of Panaca. They claimed the valley as far south as Caliente. At the town of



Panaca there are several peculiar blue hills. These are called "Sau-wow Coo-vi-ab-oots." I-oo-gune-intz. Returning now to Utah, Zion Canyon was named by the Indians 'I-oo-gune." This canyon from the narrows in Zion National Park down to Rockville was claimed by a colony called I-oo-gune-intz. They, too, were farmers and grew corn and squash in Zion about where the tourist camp is now situated. Their headquarters for most of the year were around Rockville and Springdale. Pa-spika-vats, Uunka-Kanig-its, Paria-rue-e-i-ats. The Indians who owned Pipe Springs and the present Moccasin Reservation were known as Pa-spika-vats. Moccasin Springs were called Pa-it-spik-ine which means bubbling springs. The red cliffs around Pipe Springs were called Unka-kanig and when the Indians who claimed them were named from these cliffs they were Unka-kanig-its. These Indians and the Pa-epas and Kaibabits frequented the country north of Kanab as far as Orderville and Glendale. There were through here a row of peaks shaped like great elk hearts. These are called Paria-ru-e-i-at (Elk hearts) and the Indians who went there w'ere sometimes called the same. Pa-epa-s. A small band called Pa-epa-s claimed Johnson Creek east of Kanab, Utah. Their headquarters were at the present town of Johnson. Kaibab-its, Chu-ar-am-pats. The eastern-most Pahutes were the tribe called Kaibabits who claimed the northern slopes of the Kaibab Mountains. Their Summer headquarters were at Jacobs Lake, and in Houserock Valley. They usually spent the winters in visiting around with the Pa-epas and the clans at Moccasin. Their chief in early days was Chu-ar-am-peak and for this reason they were sometimes called Chu-ar-am-pats. Timpe-sha-wa-gots-its. On the western foothills of the Kaibab there are some blue knolls called Timpe-sha-wa-git. A Kaibabits clan lived there and took that name. Their headquarters were situated about where the Ryan smelters were located. Timpe-ab-ich-its, Timpe-pa-caba, Timpe-ab-its. On the northern benches of Mt. Trumbull (Arizona strip) and running east into Toroweap Valley were located the Timpe-abits Pahutes. Their country was the most parched and barren of all. Their only water supply was the natural rock cisterns or tanks that were replenished only from rainfalls. Escalante visited



them in 1776. He records the name as Ytimpabichis. They were sometimes called Timpe-pa-caba which means water in the rocks. Uink-ar-its, Uint-karits. There were two clans living on Trumbull Mountains who were called Uint-kar-its and Uint-kar-ar. Jointly they claimed the country from Trumbull south to the Colorado River. They were visited both by Escalante and by Major Powell. The latter called them U-ink-arets and the former gives the name. Yubuincariris. Pau-gaum-pats-its, Pa-gaump-ats. West of the Uintkarets and on the lower side of the Hurricane Fault a tribe called Pagaumpats were located. The name means cane springs Indians. These also were visited by Escalante who gave them the name "Pagambachis." Shinava. South and west from the present Wolf Hole, Arizona, postoffice, a tribe once lived who were called Shin-ava. At one time they were at war with some of the northern clans. It is said that Pe-be-ats, chief of the Qui-ump-uts, (from Beaver) led a surprise attack against them .and the Shinava - were practically wiped out. The remnant that was left went over to the Shebits. She-bits, Shiv-wits, Shiv-vits, Shib-bits. The Indian usage among these names is She-bits though the whites seem to prefer Shiv-wits and Shiv-vits. The Shebits Indians proper were a people of small stature the men measuring from four and a half to five and a half feet in height. They were a timid, retiring people who lived for the most part down among the broken and rocky points along the Virgin and Colorado rivers. When strangers appeared they had a way of scuttling off like squirrels to their hideouts in the rocks. There were several colonies of Shebits. Their country skirted the Virgin and Colorado rivers fronts from Littlefield, Arizona south and east to the Hurricane Fault. They were as a tribe comparatively numerous but they were very shy and hard to contact. They spoke the Pahute language and were classed as Pahutes. Over their extended country there must have been from five to ten colonies but I have been unable to segregate them.

CONCLUSION This treatise enumerates and places in their homelands thirtyfive colonies of the Pahute tribe. There were probably a few more. As I have listed them and visualized them I have felt



constrained to think that we have heretofore underestimated their numbers. Some of the colonies, like the Kumo-its in Cedar valley, numbered three to four hundred when the Mormons settled here. The Pahute tribe has been estimated at two thousand to twenty-five hundred souls but I have come to believe that double that number would be more nearly correct. Then, too, as I have mapped their locations I have been amazed to see the extent to which our civilization has stepped in their very tracks. Almost without exception the Indian tribal headquarters marks the site of some present day Mormon town. We drove them from their homes and completely pauperized them but we have given them practically nothing in return. According to Indian methods of gathering a living they were as densely populated as we are today, and it required about all the land allotted to a clan to yield them the foods necessary for safe habitation. No effort has been made to compensate them or to incorporate them intelligently into our scheme for economic independence. W e made treaties guaranteeing to them their native foods "as long as water runs and grass grows," then our fields took the places where they gathered foods, our sheep and cattle destroyed the seeds they depended on for winter use,' and our game laws robbed them of the meat they fed to their hungry offspring. The Government, too, on the specious excuse that they were "roving bands," even though they have never left their tribal homelands, has steadfastly refused to extend the help necessary to give the dejected and miserable remnants of these once independent colonies a fighting chance for a tolerable existence. There is little to be proud of in all our Indian relations. You ask the meaning of the names of the three great plateaus. Here is the information I have on them. Paunsagunt. It means beaver country (not mountain). It should be Pauince-agunt. The beaver, the fur bearing animal, is called pau-ince, or pawince. Pauince agunt means a country where beaver abounds. Such a place is not necessarily a mountain. Kaiparowits. This name reveals the difficulty in bringing over correctly into written English an Indian word. The " p " in this name should be changed to "b," then you are Pahute enough to know that it says something about a mountain. Yet you make practically no change in the sound of the word whether you spell it with a p or with a b. If you heard an Indian pronounce it you would know which letter to use. Kaib is mountain. Kaib-arow'-its means a mountain family, or, a family of mountains—two big ones, par-



ents, and a group of smaller ones, boys. Markagunt. This is one of the most baffling words I have ever tried to translate. Either it has not been rendered correctly or it is now obsolete among the Indians for none of them are certain about it. I have been asking about it for years and have had many guesses. I have sifted these down to two, either one of which might be right. "Agunt" is a terminal which means that something abides in, or is common to a given place. Example— pauince-agunt is a place where beaver live; pa-gu-agunt, a stream or lake where fish abound, etc. The "mark" in this name seems to be a corruption. The Indians say it is "Mormonnie." They complain that we have Mormonized many of their words when we tried to write them down. They explain that paper can't talk Indian, and that is good sense too. One intelligent Indian thinks that Markagunt was intended to mean "a mountain with many points." It is a logical guess. They call such a mountain today "Muk-qui-agunt." "Ma-tungagunt" also means the same. Mountain of many points is a good description for the Markagunt Plateau for it stretches out like a giant hand with fingers running out around three sides. Here is an analysis I like better and I am inclined to accept it as correct. "Mak" or "mak-ant" means painted on, or marked on, as the designs painted on the ancient Indian pottery. They say that this pottery together with the mound dwellings found throughout Utah, and the masonry work done in many of the cave dwellings was the work of the Moque Indians who occupied this country before the Pahutes came in. All such ancient artifacts found here now, they call "Moquich," or "Moque." The painted pottery they call "Moque mak-ant." A country where much of this painted pottery is strewn around is "Moque-makantagunt." Over some parts of the Markagunt Plateau broken pottery could literally be shoveled up. Wagon loads of it is strewn around, "Mak-agunt" or "Mak-ant-agunt" would be a likely name for such a place and that comes very close to the word we use "mark-agunt." Further confirming this translation, a large block of the Markagunt Plateau—the southeast part known locally as Lower Herd Ground—is called by the Indians "Moque Uav" which means Moque Valley, so they have the country definitely tied up with the Moque handiwork.



CHIPETA, QUEEN OF T H E UTES, A N D HER EQUALLY ILLUSTRIOUS HUSBAND, NOTED CHIEF OURAY By Albert B. Reagan, in charge of the Ouray Indian Day School at Ouray, Utah, and Wallace Stark, agricultural agent of the Indian service at Ouray, retired. This is the Indian woman of whom Gene Field penned these lines: "But give her a page in the history, too, Though she is rotting in the humble shroud, And write on the whitest of God's white clouds Chipeta's name in blue. It is of her and incidently of her equally illustrious husband, Chief Ouray, that these lines are written. She was born June 10, 1843, was of the Tabegauche band of the Ute tribe and spent her childhood days near the present Conejos, Colorado. She was a beautiful maiden. She became the wife of Ouray in 1859 and his fortunes with the Utes were hers until his death. Before proceeding further with the history of Chipeta a short sketch of Ouray's will not be out of place here. Ouray (said by Powell to be the Ute attempt to pronounce the name "Willie," given him by the white family to which he was attached as a boy; other authorities give the meaning "Arrow."), a chief of the Uncompahgre Ute, born at Taos, New Mexico, in 1833. He was engaged in a fierce struggle with the Sioux in his early manhood, and his only son was captured by the Kiowas, never to be restored. His relations with the United States government, so far as recorded, began with the treaty made by the Tabegauche band at Conejos, Colorado, October /, 1863, to which his name is signed "U-ray, or Arrow." He also signed the treaty of Washington, March 2, 1868, by the name " U - r e " ; though to the amendment, August 15, 1868, it is written "Ou-ray." He is noted chiefly for his unwavering friendship for the whites, with whom he always kept faith and whose interests he protected as far as possible, even on trying occasions. It was in all probability his firm stand and the restraint he im-



posed upon his people that prevented the spread of the outbreak of the Utes in September, 1879, when agent N. C. Meeker and others were killed and the women of the agency made captives. As soon as Ouray heard of this outbreak he commanded the cessation of hostilities. Ouray at this time signed himself as "head chief" of the Utes. For his efforts to maintain peace a? this time he was granted an annuity of $1,000 as long as he remained chief of the Utes. Ouray had a fair education, speaking both English and Spanish. His death occurred at 11 a. m., August 24, 1880, at which time he was residing in a comfortable, wellfurnished house on a farm which he owned and cultivated. "Although one of the savages of America, Ouray would have taught the czar and kings of the east much to their interest and to the happiness of their subjects. He was a model in habits for he never chewed tobacco, abhorred whiskey, took a sup of wine in company when it was offered him and then only as a matter of courtesy. He never swore nor used obscene or vulgar language. He was a firm believer in the Christian faith and two years before his death united with the Methodist church. Thus passed a real Indian, who richly deserved the grateful consideration of the people of the west." It might be added that since Ouray's death the Utes here have had three chiefs. Shavenaux succeeded Ouray. Later he was killed by a Ute Sechecheagove's father (now called "Old Man") in front of the store at Ouray, Utah. The Indian killed him, it is alleged, because he claimed the chief had used bad medicine on his son (had bewitched him) so that he died. The Indians took the murderer, tied a rope around his neck and dragged him by the saddle horn to Green River, it is further alleged. They then pushed the horse off into the river, after which it was shot. Charley Shaveneaux (Chavanaux, or Chavanah) Shaveneaux's sonin-law, superseded him and also took his name. Since his death Dick Wash has been acting chief. Many of the Utes were jealous of Ouray. Once Sapinero, Chipeta's brother, and five other Indians set out to assassinate him, but at the last moment the five turned tail and ran, leaving Sapinero to fight his wily opponent single handed. He was no match for Ouray whose incensed indignation knew no bounds. He reached for his knife with which to cut out the heart of this treacherous one. Whereupon Chipeta grasped it out of its sheath before he could lay his hand upon it and thereby saved her brother's life. Indeed, had it not been for her Ouray would have showed no mercy. As it was peace in the tribe was restored, and likely the spilling of much blood in an internecine conflict prevented.



Then came the Meeker Massacre. In July, 1879, about 100 men of the White River agency, Colorado, roamed from the reservation into south Wyoming to hunt. During this time some forests were fired by railway tiemen, resulting in great loss of timber, and calling forth complaint against the Indians, who were ordered to remain henceforth on their reservation. This, together with the encroachment of gold seeking miners and prospectors in the San Miguel mountains, the summer play grounds and hunting grounds of the Utes, was in a measure the cause of the trouble. In September the agent, Meeker, was assaulted after a quarrel with a petty chief, and requested military aid, which was granted. Orders were later issued for the arrest of the Indians charged with the recent forest fires and Maj. Thornburgh was sent with a force of 190 men. Suspecting the outcome, the Indians procured ammunition from the neighboring traders and informed the agent that the appearance of troops would be regarded as an act of war. On September 20, Thornburgh's detachment was ambushed, and their leader and thirteen men were killed. The command then fell back. On October 2 a company of cavalry arrived, and three days later Col. Merritt with 600 troops reached the scene. At or near the agency the bodies of Meeker and seven employees were found; and all but one of the agency buildings had been rifled and burned. When Ouray heard of the outbreak of his people he was amazed and sent word to his chiefs Jack and Douglas to cease flighting. The conflict was then soon ended through his peaceful attitude and influence. And here Chipeta flew into action and showed her mettle and made herself a name that the ages will hand down. Once before upon learning of a raid to be made upon her white neighbors, she mounted her pony, swam the Gunnison, a treacherous, swift, whirling river, then large, at flood time, an'd delivered her message in time to save the settlers' lives. At this time she rode four days and nights to rescue the white women and children held as hostages by the hostile Utes. An old squaw silently led her to the tent in which the Meeker family was kept. She then accompanied them on their long journey to Ouray's home. Let Miss Meeker tell the rest: "Chief Ouray and his wife did everything to make us comfqrtable. We were given the whole house and found carpets on the floor, lamps on the tables and a stove with fire brightly burning. Mrs. Ouray (our Chipeta) shed tears over us." In 1880 Chipeta accompanied Ouray to Washington on that memorable trip which settled the Ute troubles. But let Carl Schurz, then secretary of the Interior, tell of this trip, as can



now be found in his private memoirs: "Ouray and Chipeta often visited me at my home and always conducted themselves with perfect propriety. They observed the various belongings of the drawing room with keen but decorous interest and were especially attracted by a large crystal chandelier which was suspended from the ceiling. They wished to know where such a chandelier could be bought and what it would cost; it would be such an ornament for their house. "In official conversation his talk was quite different from that of the ordinary Indian chief. He spoke like a man of high order of intelligence and of larger views who had risen above the prejudices and aversions of his race and expressed his thoughts in language clear and precise, entirely unburdened by the figures of speech and superfluities commonly current in Indian talk. Ouray was by far the brightest Indian I have ever met. (President McKinley also said of him, 'He was the most intelligent Indian I ever conversed with.') "After the conclusion of our peace negotiations which resulted in the restoration of peace and in eventually removing the Utes to Utah, Ouray returned to his western home. Soon after he fell ill and died." It should be added here that besides the annuity conferred on her husband by the government, the people showered gifts on Chipeta on the trip, it being estimated that over a thousand dollars worth of silverware was given her at this time, all of which gradually drifted away in her old age and when she died it was all scattered. After Ouray's death, Chipeta made Secretary Schurz a present of the suit that her husband had worn when on the Washington trip; and would accept nothing in return for it, saying that if the Secretary made a present in return it would be considered by herself and her people as signifying that he did not value their friendship much and simply wished to get rid of an obligation and be quits with them and this would make them sad. On the other hand, if he accepted the present as a friendship offering, she asked that he keep it while he lived and for his children after him. It would then be regarded by her and her people as proof of true friendship on his part and they would esteem his friendship very highly. Upon the removal of the Uncompahgre Utes to the vicinity of Ouray, Utah, in 1881, it was promised Chipeta that a house would be built for her arid would be all fixed up, as her home in Colorado had been ; but the government immensely fell short in this. She was given a two-roomed house on White river that was never furnished—was lathed but never plastered. Further-



,more, it was in a location where no water could be obtained for irrigating purposes. Otherwise, when issuing rations, and so on, in the years that came and went, she was always favored wherever possible; and if anything was said about it, it was just mentioned, "It was for Chipeta," whereupon the complainer usually hung his head and walked away. It should be further added that she was never demanding, but, instead, was appreciative of anything the government officials ever did for her. Chipeta was well thought of by her own people and was always allowed and often especially invited to take part in the council meetings—no other Ute woman here was ever so allowed. When the book "Hand Clasp of the East and West," by Mr. Ripley—finished by his wife after his death, both said to be of Montrose, Colorado, a copy, with marked paragraphs that referred to the Utes, was sent to the senior writer of this article for him to get Chipeta's remarks or approval on same. He showed her the book and explained the marked paragraphs to her through an interpreter, and she said they were all right as written. He then gave her a copy. Her later years were spent in the neighborhood of her brother McCook's allotment on Bitter Creek, about twenty-five miles from Dragon, and about sixty-five miles south of east of Ouray, Utah. There in her tepee she died August 17, 1924, of chronic gastritis, at the age of 81, having been a member of the Episcopal faith for twenty-seven years. Her relatives then buried her in a little sand wash where in only a few years the body would have been carried away. Information given the senior writer by Seuque states that Chipeta herself never had any children, but that she raised three children whose names were Sawah-ra-tonce (a girl), and Atchu and Antonio (the latter two being boys) and a Ute by the name of Pootquas stated that Ouray had a boy by another wife whose name was Queashegut and that when this latter boy was about ten years of age he was stolen by the Arapahoes in a fight with the Utes and that he was never heard of again. This latter does not quite agree with the other accounts we have. One of these accounts states that a bright little boy was born to Chipeta and Ouray. The account further states; "A hunting party under the command of Ouray was at one time located near the present site of Fort Lupton, twenty-five miles from Denver. The camp was surprised by a band of Kiowas, who capured the boy, then about six years old (the account previously quoted says that he was engaged in a fierce struggle with the Sioux when his son was captured by the Kiowas). This was a source of deep sorrow ever after to the great chief and his wife, for they never recovered



him. Her brother McCook is still living on his ranch at Bitter Creek. After Chipeta had been buried some time the senior writer went to Bitter Creek on government business, and while there he searched for her grave. On finding it in such an exposed place, he went to her brother McCook and told him that his heart was very sad that Chipeta was buried in such a place and that she should be reinterred in a better location. The talk covered many hours. As a result of this talk McCook there and then consented to have her remains removed to their old home near Montrose. Colorado. He then took the matter up with the Indian agent, F. A. Gross, who made the final arrangements with the D. A. R. and other interested organizations for the transfer of the body and the erecting of the tepee and monument in her honor at her and "Ouray's home, it being both the government's and the Indians' wish that her remains be thus transferred. Accompanied by Hugh Owens, agricultural agent of the Indian service at Fort Duchesne, Rev. M. J. Hersey, rector who here represented the agent and who had received Chipeta into the Episcopal church more than a quarter of a century before, her brother McCook and another Ute by the name of Yagah, the body arrived at Montrose, March 15, 1925, and was taken to the White mortuary. At 2:30 it was taken to the Ouray Memorial park where a suitable mausoleum had been constructed, and in terred amid elaborate ceremonies, 5,000 people attending the funeral. The pall bearers were Jesse Bell, F. D. Catlin, Jr., Harry Monell, Fred Duckett, E. E. Frasier, Alva Callaway, S. J. Philips, and Al. Wood. Among those who took part in the last rites, under the supervision of C. A. Adams who had charge of the program, were Rev. Mark T. Warner, McCook, Yagah, Mr. Owens, Rev. Hersey, and Hon. John C. Bell, a former member of congress. McCook and Yagah gave their addresses in the Ute tongue, as they placed tokens on the casket, which consi=ted of pieces of bead-work and some buckskin, after the fashion of their funeral rites. The Rev. Mr. Hersey then read the impressive Episcopal burial service. Maurice Rhoades, a bugler of Company D, sounded "taps." The two Indians then gave their "goodbye" service which consisted of walking around the tomb. McCook then through an interpreter expressed his thanks and appreciation for the honors bestowed upon his sister, saying not only he, but the three tribes of Utes, joined in the expression. Thus was the "Home Coming of Chipeta." Thus was she returned to the place where she and her illustrious husband had lived happily and peaceably—two Indians whom the world did not wait until they died to call them good Indians.



Additional Notes Concerning Chipeta and the Ute Troubles. A file letter in the Indian office here (Ouray, Utah,) of the date of August 21, 1923, states that in 1895 Chipeta, famous wife of Ouray, had the following wards with her: Lunpeta (Junada Lunpe), a girl, age 17, and three boys, John Peta, age 14, Francisco, age 15, and Jose La Cross, age 17. The last three were carried on the rolls with Chipeta in 1908. It should be added that Chipeta was blind in her old age. This further note should be added concerning the Ute outbreak. Colorado (also written Colorow and Coloru), a White River Ute chief, was the leader in the outbreak of 1879. The Ute agent, N. C. Meeker, an enthusiast who believed that he could readily inure the Indians to labor, interested himself in the internal quarrels of the tribe and thus incurred the resentment of Colorado's faction. He removed the agency to their favorite pasture lands, but when he attempted to make a beginning of agricultural operations they stopped the plowing by force. They were hunters and did not care to learn farming. Troops under Major T. T. Thornburgh were dispatched at the request of Meeker, but after a parley the Indians understood that they would not enter the reservation. Whether Meeker made a secret request for troops is unknown. At any rate the troops proceeded and Meeker got word by mail of their movements. Now the Meekers had in their house a domestic by the name of Jane Pawvetts, a Ute girl who had been raised by a white family, it being alleged by her in later years that her people got hard up and traded her to the white family for grub. This Jane Pawvitts overheard Meeker read the dispatch to his wife that the soldiers were coming and mentioned it to her people, not expecting any trouble by so doing. Incidently, she later married and was alloted between Captain Stephen A. Abbott's place and Randlett near here. (Ouray.) So when the troops advanced, Colorado, being thus advised of the move, led one of the parties that ambushed the command and killed Thornburgh and many of his men on September 20, 1879. Others then massacred the employees of the agency and made captives of some of the women and children, as we have previously seen. A further added note by Mr. Stark: Some years before Chipeta's death, Captain C. G. Hall of the U. S. Army, acting Indian agent, and myself had occasion to visit Chipeta's camp. W e drove to her camp late in the day and camped for the night. We had our own provisions with us. However, Chipeta prepared our meals for us herself and would not permit any other Indian woman in camp to assist her, using her own campfire and cooking utensils. When the meal was prepared she invited us into



her cabin where she had a little table set against the wall. Over the table she spread a clean cloth, set the table, using her own dishes. Then she brought up some boxes for chairs for us to sit on and announced that our meal was ready for us. She stood by in readiness for anything more she could do for us, not permitting anyone else in camp to turn a hand, showing her gratitude and loyalty to the whites. She seemed to think it quite an honor to be able to show us the kindness and friendship she had for us. She was quite old then. Above I spoke of a book written by Mrs. Ripley. One paragraph in the book tells of the early settlement of western Colorado. "One day Ouray and Chipeta were riding the hills. They came to a swollen stream and found some emigrants preparing to cross over. Ouray and Chipeta told them they could not cross and took them to another ford where they crossed in safety. A few days after this occasion another emigrant wagon came along and the family tried to cross the stream and all were lost. Ouray and Chipeta were not there to warn them of the danger." I read the above paragraph to Chipeta from the book and asked her if it were true and she said it was. 1 'Besides the writers' knowing the Utes personally, the senior writer having been with them as a government official together with the time since his retirement, a total of some forty-three years, they have used as references the agency files both at Ouray and Fort Duchesne, Utah, the War Department records, and the various references to these Indians in "Handbook of American Indians," Bull. 30, parts 1 and 2, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, October 12, 1912.

JOHN CROOK'S JOURNAL (Concluded) We commenced cutting logs this year to build houses on city lots, (in Heber.) Last week in August we harvested barley, Sept. 3rd began on the wheat. In 1861 we hauled 800 poles on sleds, also some for Jonathen Clegg and some for C. N. Carroll. About the first of April, 1861, we commenced plowing. Henry Luke and I joined teams and broke up land on 20 acres in section 31 of my homestead. May 17th plowing ditch for city lot. C. N. Carroll and I made ditch about five blocks east and tapped Spring creek where George Blakely's corral is now. Put in some garden and fenced it, also fenced city pasture lots and made water with Hy Luke and Patrick Carroll the balance of the month, since his retirement, a total of some forty-three years, they have used as ditches on Center creek meadow land. June, two days on road on Lake creek, working on house on city lot, and exchanged work



July, to Center creek hauling logs to saw mill for lumber for our house. 24th to 30th took some tithing to Salt Lake City, and got our endowments. August, this month we commenced harvesting barley on the 17th and wheat on Sept. 1st. Threshing extended until near Christmas. W e threshed at Bishop J. L. Murdocks on the 13th, he having moved over from Midway early in the summer. Nov. 9th we moved into the house on the city lot, double log house. Oct. 27th militia organized by Bishop J. O. Duke, Col. and by Pace from Provo. And we had to haul our grain to Provo to grist mill, made two or three trips. About Christmas the canyon road washed out and there was no travel then. A John Vanwagoner was building a grist mill at Snake creek. I remember helping John Jordan get the buhr stones off the hills north of Heber City. And W m . Reynold erected a small chopping mill turned by horse power of threshing machine. This was the show for bread after road washed away, and many had to boil wheat for food, could not grind fast enough to supply all the families. This chopper was running all winter until Vanwagoner got his grist mill running in June, 1862, at Midway. Broadhead and John Lee had a house warming on the hill Christmas day, old settlers there, coming on the running gears of wagons, two feet of snow. 1861, Christmas week, snow and rain, all gone by Jan. 1st, 1862. Road washed out in Provo canyon. W m . A. Giles and Strong here with buggy on a visit, had to go back riding horses. Jan. 1st. 1862, field all bare of snow and cattle all out in the field. But the month was stormy, snow and rain. I had to haul willows from river for wood, been a fire and burned the willows, made good wood, snow very deep. March. County Court organized, J. W . Witt, Judge, Charles Shelton, Clerk. March 2nd people voting for County officers of Wasatch county. April 2nd started on foot to Conference at Salt Lake City and was gone one week. I went down Provo canyon and back the same way. Brought home some apple seed from Tuckers and planted them. The next winter we organized a dramatic company, Elisha Averett read. May 7th, 1862, commenced plowing and I cut my foot and Joseph Taylor took my farm on shares this year. June, put in oats with Hy Luke up to 21st. 22nd commenced quarrying rock for a Theatre House, quarrying and hauling until the last of July, finished the building ready for roof. We found the need of a drainage outlet, the river being very high. In some places it was one-half mile wide so we went to work and built a bridge about five miles north across the Provo River. J. Vanwagoner got his grist mill running about the time of high water and could not cross with wagons. So a boat was built and we took grain over



on that. Harvest was late this year, 17th of Sept. was the first cutting. Oats were standing up to the middle of October, threshing lasted nearly all winter, having to shovel snow for threshing floor the biggest part of the time. August 8th and 9th, 1863, two days conference, Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball and others here. Held meetings in the bowery by log meeting house. October 22nd to Nov. 10th to Green River with oats for the overland stage line with two yoke of cattle. July one week and one week in Sept. hauling logs from Snake creek to saw mill to make lumber intended for Theatre building. Sept., peeling bark, C. N. Carroll and I. Each hauled a load of bark to the tannery at Provo City. Feb. dug the first well in Heber in the corner of my lot. Brigham Young said it was the best water he had ever tasted. 1863, this spring was late, being about the first of May before plowing began, though we raised splendid grain this year. June, grass-hoppers made their appearance in great numbers and we took chickens to the field.* * * * March, 1864, this month we commenced a canal on the side hills, east and north of Heber, to supply Heber and bench land south of the city. I worked to the amount of over $50.00 and had charge of one division of said canal. * * * I had a man named Herbert Horsley to help on the farm this summer. W e spent several days digging and plowing out pot rock. * * * August 20 to 22nd Brigham Young and others here holding meetings again. * * * July we commenced to build rock schoolhouse westward. 1 was hauling rock most of this month and one of the trustees also. Oct. hauled some sandstone for graves to Jones, Salt Lake City. * * * Sept. 9th snow fell 4 inches deep and laid our grain flat, making a slow harvest. George Carlyle went with teams to Missouri for emigrants. (The journal subsequently consists of brief mention of daily occupational tasks of little general or historical value. Ed.)

Utah State Historical Society BOARD O F C O N T R O L (Terms Expiring April 1, 1937) J. C E C I L A L T E R , Salt Lake City WM. R. P A L M E R , Cedar City A L B E R T F. P H I L I P S , Salt Lake City

J O E L E. R I C K S , Logan P A R L E Y L. W I L L I A M S , Salt Lake City

(Terms Expiring April 1, 1935) GEORGE E. F E L L O W S , Salt Lake City W I L L I A M J. S N O W , Provo H U G H RYAN, Salt Lake City L E V I E. Y O U N G , Salt Lake City F R A N K K. S E E G M I L L E R , Salt Lake City E X E C U T I V E O F F I C E R S 1932-1933 A L B E R T F . P H I L I P S , President Emeritus W I L L I A M J. S N O W , President J. C E C I L A L T E R , Secretary-Treasurer-Librarian H U G H RYAN, Vice President Editor in Chief All Members, Board of Control, Associate Editors

MEMBERSHIP Paid memberships at the required fee of $2 a year, will include current subscriptions to the Utah Historical Quarterly. Non-members and institutions may receive the Quarterly at $1 a year or 35 cents per copy; but it is preferred that residents of the State become active members, and thus participate in the deliberations and achievements of the Society. Checks should be made payable to the Utah State Historical Society and mailed to the Secretary-Treasurer, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah.

CONTRIBUTIONS The Society was organized essentially to collect, disseminate and preserve important material pertaining to the history of the State. To effect this end, contributions of writings are solicited, such as old diaries, journals, letters and other writings of the pioneers; also original manuscripts by present day writers on any phase of early Utah history. Treasured papers or manuscripts may be printed in faithful detail in the Quarterly, without harm to them, and without permanently removing them from their possessors. Contributions and correspondence should be addressed to the Editor. Utah Historical Quarterly, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah.

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Utah Historical Quarterly State Capitol, Salt Lake City Volume 6

October, 1933

Number 4

SUSPENSION NOTICE In order to keep its expenditures within a greatly reduced appropriation the Utah State Historical Society is obliged to curtail many of its activities, and to suspend the publication of this periodical. It is expected, however, that from the sale of publications and memberships, sufficient funds will be available to issue an Annual Contribution.

ANTOINE ROBIDOUX By Charles Kelly An article on "The Mysterious D. Julien" in the last issue of this Quarterly quoted (p. 86) a reported inscription on the rocks near Fruita, Colorado, made by Antoine Robidoux in 1837, and stated that the date was probably incorrectly copied, having been intended for 1831. Since the publication of that article the writer has located and photographed the original inscription, which was incorrectly quoted in the volume to which reference was made. Its correct transcription, as shown by the accompanying photograph is as follows: ANTOINE ROBIDOUX PASSE ICI LE 13 NOVEMBRE 1837 POUR ETABLIRE WAISON TRAITTE A LA Rv. VERT OU WIYTE

Translated into English it reads: "Antoine Robidoux passed here November 13, 1837, to establish a trading house on the river Green or White."



This inscription, the finest yet found in the state of Utah, is cut on the smooth face of a sandstone cliff near the mouth of what is locally known as Westwater canyon in the Book Cliffs, twelve miles west of the Colorado line, on the upper or old Larsen ranch, in section 5, township 18 south, range 24 east, Grand County, Utah, 15 miles due northwest of Westwater, Utah, a station on the D. & R. G. W. railroad. The nearest town is Mack, Colorado. Robidoux was camped in a cave or rock shelter near the mouth of the canyon on that date, and cut the inscription just south of the cave opening. The date is unmistakably 1837, and for that reason it is a little difficult to understand Robidoux's message. Fort Uintah had been established by him in the Uintah Basin as early as 1831. Apparently, on his journey of 1837, he intended to locate a new post somewhere on the Green or White river and abandon the old Fort Uintah. This intention was never carried out, since Gen. Fremont and others visited Fort Uintah in the old location as late as 1844. In the fall of that year it was burned and the defenders massacred while Robidoux himself was on a trading expedition in the neighborhood of Fort Bridger. Robidoux's intention to locate on the Green or White River, as indicated by this inscription, may have been prompted by the explorations of Denis Julien along the Green in the previous year, as evidenced by his five inscriptions on that stream, all dated in 1836. The location of this Robidoux inscription gives a clue as to the route of the Old Spanish Trail from the Grand river crossing to the Uintah Basin. From Robidoux's camp of Nov. 13, 1837, the route would be up the canyon of Westwater Creek, across the mesa and down a tributary, to White river. Although there is no letter " W " in the French alphabet, Robidoux inscribed the name " W I Y T E , " indicating as near as he could the pronunciation of the English "White." The word is not "Winte," the old spelling of "Uintah," which would have been illogical, since he already had a post there. Robidoux's headquarters were in Santa Fe from which place he branched out to establish a post on the Umcompahgre and later on the Uintah. He arrived in Santa Fe in 1822. Fort Uintah was established in 1831. Fort Uncompahgre was built somewhat earlier, but the exact date is unknown. Both were destroyed in 1844. Antoine Robidoux was born in St. Louis on Sept. 24, 1794. Married Carmel Benavides in Santa Fe. He died in St. Louis Aug. 29, 1860.



REMINISCENCES OF T H E EARLY DAYS OF MANTI* Chapter 2 A Year of Privations The encampment of the Sampitch Indians was near the settlement. They were a weak and humble band attiring themselves in blankets made of rabbit skins twisted, twined, and tied together with fine sinew. But in February and early March the Utes, who had wintered farther south, began to arrive in squads. The Sampitches were the veriest slaves to this more powerful tribe of Utes who treated them very cruelly; but could a Sampitch, by fair means or foul, become the happy possessor of a horse, gun, and blanket, he was admitted as a member of the Ute tribe. About the first of July, Walker (pronounced by the Sampitches Yawkeraw), the head warchief of all the Utes and Sampitches, came to the valley with his entire tribe. The braves had just returned from a successful raid against the Shoshones, and were laden with plunder, prisoners and scalps. Walker himself was a tall fine looking man, and one of seven brothers, all, with one exception, remarkable for athletic proportions and all influential men in the tribe: Arrapeen, Groceepeen, Sampitch, Ammon, Tabbinaw, Yankawalkits. Undoubtedly, it was owing to the influence of Ammon, and Tabbinaw, that the party which wintered in the canyon escaped the vengeance of Big Elks exasperated warriors. The Indians' encampment covered that portion of the present site of Manti, from Temple hill on the north, to the hills on the east and to City creek south and west, this vast area being thickly dotted with "wickiups" (Indian tents), thus forming a huge semicircle around the whites. For two weeks they held their feasts and war-dances, in honor of their victory; the prisoners all having their heads closelv shaven were easily designated by the settlers who frequently went out to observe and admire the savage pageantry, which was exhibited with a barbarous refinement of cruelty — only equalled in the nineteenth century by the federal judges of Utah, who compel little children to give evidence in court that would make them orphans in very deed, placing their fathers behind •The Home Sentinel, Manti, Utah, Aug. 15, 1889. Our Prize Articles, No. 1. (Written by A. B. C's.)



prison bars and making their mothers dishonored widows—these savages compelled the poor captive sguaws to sing, dance, and bear aloft, a pole from which depended the painted scalps of perhaps, their nearest male relative; and oft-times, when in excess of grief, the monotony of their song and dance were broken with tears and sobs, as they bent beneath their ghastly burden, shouts of derision and mirth met these human weaknesses ; differently expressed, but emananting from the same hellish impulses as meets the tears of helpless women and children, when their defender and protector is dragged from their embrace to answer to a sentence obtained under an ex-post-facto law. The human tendencies are the same to-day as when the Lord deemed it necessary to command; "Thou shalt not seethe the kid in its mother's milk." The number of these warriors has been variously estimated as from five to seven hundred; and the little settlement of whites besides this vast encampment, reminded one vividly, of a mouse in a lion's paw. Walker in his moody moments was in the habit of reminding the settlers in forcible language of what he was capable of doing, and judging from subsequent events, the temptation was doubtless frequently very strong upon him, to make a "breakfast spell," of the white population. The general health of the people was good, but in July, Jerome Bradley was stricken with a malignant fever of which on the sixteenth, he died. The estimable young man was betrothed to Miss Mary Shumway. They were united-in Marriage, but death, stern relentless unyielding death, closed his eyes, and they were disunited to await a happier union in a future existence. This was the first deathbed marriage in the valley. Dr. Richards (whose name was inadvertently omitted in our list) was our first disciple of Esculapius—performing every service without money and without price—something after the manner of Apostle Lyman's extracting teeth during his sojourn at the "Pen" last winter, the sign over his door reading, Teeth Extracted with Pleasure! Without Pain, and Without Price! He explained that the pleasure was his, the pain belonged to the patient, and he performed the operation "Free! On August fifth, 1850 Pres't Young visited Sampitch for the first time, and gave our valley the more euphonious name of Sanpete (not San Pete as now erronously written by many) and the settlement itself was christened Manti. His arrival was the occasion for loading and firing our one piece of ordnance, which by the way was a loan from Salt Lake City. The magnetism of his presence always produced like enthusiasm wherever he visited, and meetings and banquets were the order



of the day; and if vaulting ambition overleaped itself so far as to overload the cannon in a manner to break the windows in the vicinity of the firing—who cares now? or who in their excess of joy cared then? or who can wonder that after so lengthy,a period of isolation, this diminutive but vigorous, nucleus of civilization should demonstrate its enthusiasm in divers ways and places. The cannon was shouldered by our young giant, Geo. P. Billings, of whose Herculean strength we loved to boast, and carried up, on the summit of the hill, just east of where the Temple now stands, and chained to a large cedar tree, when the firing was successfully continued without further damage to either life or property. The season advanced, the grain ripened, the stock fattened, and haystacks of mammoth proportions graced the great public stackyards; and the flight of autumn found the colonists better prepared in many respects, to meet the rigors of such a winter as they had already experienced. School was opened in a log house erected for that purpose, and also for Sabbath Services—with surveyor Jesse W . Fox as teacher during the winter months of 1850-51, Mary Whiting being his immediate successor who occupied that position for some years. C H A P T E R 3, A U G U S T 22, 1889 The Indians — Goodyear's Story The Indians still had their encampment near, and the settlers were obliged to witness many heartrending cruelties practiced upon their prisoners and objectionable members of their own tribe. The squaws of the chiefs all wore a round black ring printed in the center of their foreheads to designate them from the common squaws. One poor little boy, not more than five years old, an emaciated, motherless, little captive, with scarcely one thin dirty rag between his tender flesh and the chilling frosts of early spring, came night after night, close to our homes and built his lonely little campfire, of the chips hewn from the logs, which the settlers had been using. When the earth beneath the fire became sufficiently warmed, he would carefully remove the coals, and with the patient stoicism of his own race, lie down to sleep. It was apparent to all that he was slowly dying of hunger, cold, and neglect. The children of the whites occasionally divided their scanty morsel with him. But one morning, by the lifeless embers of his little campfire, he lay dead.



Poor little motherless forsaken one, be this thy epitaph. Walker, once in solemn conclave with the conflicting passions of his own turbulent soul, decided that his mother, a withered, wrinkled scrap of a women, who looked as if the first mountain breeze might annihilate her, had cumbered this earth long enough, attempted to end her life; but she was a quick, wiry, plucky little creature, and though well advanced in years, after receiving several very severe cuts and bruises at his hands, any one of which would have ended a common mortal's career, made good her escape, and remained hidden among the bulrushes of Sampitch swamps, for a week or more with no known means of sustenance, until she concluded his wrath had somewhat subsided, she came crawling back to the wickiups, and was permitted to drag out a sort of attenuated existence a few years longer. One more incident of barbarity, I can-not forbear mentioning. Miles Goodyear, the wealthy ranchero, who owned a large part of Utah, under a grant from the Mexican government, and of whom Capt. Brown purchased the northern portion of the Territory for the sum of $3,000, had married a young, handsome Ute squaw, whose native grace, beauty and amiabibty won the admiration of all who knew her. By this woman Miles had two children. After Goodyear's death, which occurred soon after the purchase, his widow married Sampitch, one of Walker's stalwart brothers, and came to Sanpete with the tribe. Billy Goodyear was a fine manly specimen of a half breed, but poor Bill and his little sister were treated with such brutality by their step father, Sampitch, that Pres't Young, with his customary magnanimity sent for the children and treated them as members of his own family, sending them to school, and extending to them that kindness and generosity, for which he was so noted. One day Sampitch in a fit of jealous rage, and with a consuming desire to exterminate something or somebody, vented his unbridled malignity upon his defenseless wife. My mother, as she frequently did, as they were old neighbors at Sessions (now Bountiful) Salt Lake Co., happened to pay her a visit next day; she found her lying helpless upon her couch of robes and skins. My mother returned home for bandages, linament etc., went back and washed and dressed her wounds. She had but partially recovered before the band left; but her life was brief; we never saw here again, but occasionally heard from the children. Andrew Goodyear, their uncle, took Bill with him, back to



the old homestead in Massachusetts, where the boy received a collegiate course. While we lived at Sessions settlement, this same Andrew Goodyear, when on the eve of moving his camp to pastures new, made my mother a present of a bucket of flour (our diet consisted of hominy and corn dodger straight), and I have many times and quite recently, heard my mother say, her heart was filled with more unalloyed happiness, intense gratitude and sublime joy, at being the recipient of that gift, than she could possibly be, at the same bucket heaped and piled with shining coins of gold at the present time. Then and Now; and behold the ingratitude among this people toward God, in the verv midst and presence of all his munificent gifts and blessings. O h ! the selfishness of the human heart! Listen at the grumblings, the murmurs, at the quarrelings, over every stream of sparkling water, flowing freely down the canyons of our magnificent mountains to fertilize and beautify these valleys the glorious chambers of Zion; the earlier settlers (not earliest) refusing to share this free gift of God with the more recent arrivals of "His elect" I sometimes wonder if these sticklers for human and pre-existing rights will not soon endeavor to monopolize even the life giving air we breathe. I blush sometimes at the thoughts and disgrace of being "an old Settler." Let the old settlers rejoice that they "obeyed counsel" for the wisdom of that "counsel" will yet become apparent. Meanwhile possess your souls in patience. Stand still and see the salvation of God, make use of the old motto, "Share and share alike." C H A P T E R V. AUG. 29, 1889 Waljker—the Crafty Indian Chief The question has repeatedly been asked, "What started the Walker w a r ? " The question will in all probability never be satisfactorily answered. Those best acquainted with the prominent traits of the nomadic races of North America, know how small a spark it takes to explode the dynamite of their ferocious natures. Pitiless and blood thirsty, the smallest injury is avenged in deeds of blackest barbarity. Incapable of consecutive reasoning; with violent, but transient feelings, it is difficult to tell what slight cause precipitated the bloody war referred to. But this is certain, when the Indians were most peaceable, the settlers were never free from apprehension, as the following incident will serve to illustrate.



The tribe acknowledged allegiance to two chiefs, Walker and Sowiatt. Walker was the "War Chief," and the aged Sowiatt, the civil,. political, or diplomatic chieftain, a very eloquent speaker, wielding quite as much influence and power as Walker himself, though seldom interfering with war matters. On one occasion when the male portion of the inhabitants of Manti were mostly away, some working at Hamiltons sawmill on Pleasant creek, others gone to "the city" on business etc. leaving only 10 to 15 men, including aged men and very young boys, Walker, who happened to be in one of his "moods," literally spoiling for a "row" and knowning too well the weakness of the town, put on his war paint, and sent a peremptory demand for the whites to deliver up to him for death, Shumway and Chase, the two most influential, men left in-the settlement. Of course the demand was not complied with, the settlers determining to sell their lives as dearly as possible; the fate of the town hung on a mere thread. Sowiatt disapproved of this high handed proceeding, and called a council (of course the doomed inhabitants supposed the council was to decide the time and the manner of their death) Walker, who was no "slouch" in an argument, appealed to the basest passions of his braves, till it seemed universal slaughter was imminent. Then, old Sowiatt arose and with manly fervor pleaded the cause of the whites, beseeching his followers to forego the hope of plunder, and the gratification of conquest, presenting to them with the eloquence of a Demosthenes, the coward braves, attacking "squaws and papooses;" and though passion, tradition, and savage nature, were all against him, the magnanimous old fellow, so wrought up the feelings of the warriors that when he drew a line and said "those who will live in friendship with the Mormons, let them follow me." He drew after him such a formidable array of braves, as to leave the discomfited Walker, with a force too small to dare the attack and he accordingly stowed himself away somewhere to sulk in morose and moody silence, until his war paint had lost some of its vivid hues, when he came in and told the whole story on himself. And this is how our Mormon stttlements were planted, and under God's divine protection throve. Our men labored hard all day, standing guard by turns all night, bearing with fortitude and patience, the various disappointments and disasters incident to frontier life. Walker—the Crafty Indian An incident in the career of Walker, unconnected with the



Mormon settlements, but illustrative of the craftiness of his character, his extensive resources, the subtle fertility of his intellect, the immense distances and domains traversed by him in his raids, may not be uninteresting. With quite a following of his dauntless braves, he went away off across the Colorado, through Arizona, perhaps even to the borders of Old Mexico, to obtain a fresh supply of horses. They were very successful in bunching several hundred of the Spaniard's "Cayuses," and in getting off without an encounter. But the Mexicans were in hot pursuit. Walker and his braves kept ahead of them with their booty well in hand, until the Colorado was reached. Once across this formidable stream they would be in comparative safety; but it was a raw day, and the horses were not warm enough to "take the water." In spite of their utmost endeavors, the animals could nof be forced to cross the river. The Indians were in a dilemma and it appeared as though they must either abandon their prize, or risk a pitched battle on an open plain. Walker was disposed to do neither, and was equal to the emergency. The-daring chieftain being personally.unknown to the Spaniards, selected a dozen of his trusty braves, took a few head of the stolen horses, and with crest-fallen and dejected countenances, turned back and met their pursuers. He delivered to the Spaniards the few horses taken for the purpose; representing to their owners, that this small party of warriors were mutineers; that they had quarrelled, and in consequence, had a fight with Walker, had lost three of their men, and had succeeded in capturing this many of the horses, told them that Walker was now far across the Colorado, beyond the possibility of pursuit and capture, and that this leader and his mutineers deserved a great reward, not only for their dead warriors, but for their honesty. They comported themselves in a manner to bear out this daring fraud, and convincing the Spaniards of the utter uselessness of following Walker. The two parties camped together for some time, smoked the pipe of peace, and the Mexicans after paying them a liberal "bonus" for their supposed dead braves bade them a friendly farewell, taking with them the few head of horses returned, and for which they had paid almost the full value, departed for their respective ranches. By this time the weather had settled, and Walker on again reaching the banks of the Colorado, was enabled to cross, and without firing a shot, risking an encounter, or losing a man, brought his still numerous band of horses in triumph to Utah. Such was the man in whose tender mercy, the infant settlements of Sanpete were cradled.



DANIEL H. WELLS' NARRATIVE* I finally left there (Nauvoo, Illinois) in the Spring of 1848 and arrived in Salt Lake City Sept. 20, 1848. The people (of Salt Lake City) were then living in the Fort. They had gone through the "Cricket W a r " and had got a little crop. The ground which had been cultivated around here that year in wheat had been eaten two or three times by the crickets, but finally some of it got to be about six inches high. I bought corn for $1.50 a bushel, and scarce at that. In the Fall of 1849 we had a Harvest Feast in S. L. City as crops were abundant that year. I was appointed Superintendent of Public Works in the Fall of 1848. The first house that was built was a little adobe place that was used for the Church office. Robert Campbell engraved the stamp for the coin that was made here. President Young conceived the idea of coining the gold as currency was very scarce then. Gold dust from California was about the first currency we had. The gold was coined up into 2y2> 5, 10, and 20 dollar pieces. The dies and everything connected with the coining were made here. The coin was made of pure gold without alloy, which made it deficient in weight, therefore it was discounted and sold as bullion. We laid out the Temple and the Council House sites, and commenced to build the latter right away. The little office that was the first place built was one storey, about 18 x 12 feet, slanting roof which was covered with boards and dirt. This remained the Church office for about two years and a great amount of business was done in it. In the Spring of 1849 we went out on the lots and commenced building. The foundation of the Council House was laid in the Spring of 1849, and then the first storey was put up. A great many temporary buildings went up in 1849. The first Indian trouble was a little scrimmage between some sheepherders and some Indians in the county adjoining here, but •This is an unchanged portion of a statement made in 1884 for the use of historians working- on Bancroft's History of Utah, published in 1889. This statement was not published, but was used as a basis for many disconnected statements appearing in that history. Of the statement, Bancroft says (p. 331): "The Narrative of General Daniel H. Wells, Ms., gives an account of the disturbances in Hancock County, the troubles at Nauvoo before the exodus, the journey to Winter Quarters, the organization of the Nauvoo Legion, and of the State of Deseret; but perhaps the most valuable portion is a condensed narrative of all the Indian outbreaks between 1849 and 1864, a task for_ whic*. General Wells, who during this period had charge of the Nauvoo Legion and aided in suppressing some of the disturbances, is specially qualified." The manuscript is in the Bancroft Library, Berkeley, California, whose Librarian has kindly permitted its reproduction here.



was not a regular hostile movement. The place where it occurred was Battle Creek, now called Pleasant Grove. People then began to settle in Provo building right on the south side of the river. Our people fraternized with the Indians a good deal and got quite familiar with them; but they commenced their depredations, killing cattle, &c. They would also go to the houses and demand food and the women got frightened. They were permitted in the Fort just the same as anybody else, and they got quite saucy and unbearable to the people who could no longer stand it. During the winter of 1849 and 50 the Provisional State government of Deseret was organized and President Young elected Governor. W e had a legislature, and I was elected General of the militia of the state, or the Nauvoo Legion, as it was called. We also had a company of what was called Life Guards. Military districts were organized, one in each county. At first in most of the districts there was only sufficient for a company or battalion with a captain at their head. When a district had enough we would form a brigade and elect a Brigadier General, and when sufficiently increased in numbers a division was formed with a Major General at the head. Each district made returns direct to the Adjutant General's Office. During that season this Indian trouble grew into hostilities and the people called on us for help, and Governor Young directed that I should send out assistance. I sent George D. Grant with about 50 men as quick as we could raise them, and John Scott staid to raise other 50, but when the time came he declined to go. The Indians were camped on Provo Bottoms which was then covered with timber and brush, forming quite a hiding place for them; and they would shoot from under their cover. One man was killed and four or five others wounded. The people did not seem to be successful against the Indians, and they requested me to go down, which I did and took charge of the expedition. Colonel Stansbury was here at the time. Lieutenant Hawland of the U. S. Army went out, but he got disgusted and came back about the time I went out. The Indians had guns as well as bows and arrows. Before I went down they had improvised a battery and put in on truck wheels which could be shoved along before them to protect them from the Indians' fire, because the Indians would pick them off from under their cover. This battery did good service and had a good effect in frightening the Indians. The night that I got to Provo there was a great snowstorm. I had never been in Utah Valley be ; fore, and we got there about three o'clock in the morning. After



having a little rest I organized the troops and declared martial law. Took all the men and brought them into service. As I was ordered not to leave the valley until every Indian was out, I seized everything there in the shape of provisions &c to keep the men on. We went out to search for these Indians and found that a portion of them had left this cover and gone into what is called Rock Canyon, and the others had gone south. Snow, was then about two feet deep which made it very difficult to travel. With the majority of the troops I went out to Spanish Fork on the Indian trail and left a guard at the mouth of Rock Canyon to keep those Indians there, but some of them made their escape over the mountains. W e encountered the Indians near the north end, on the west side of the mountain, east of the south end of Utah Lake, and completely defeated them. During the whole expedition 27 warriors were killed. Their squaws, with their papooses and children, as is usual with them, threw themselves upon the victorious party for protection and support; we brought them to the ctiy, fed and took care of them until spring when they ran back to their Indian camps. Many of them died, not being able to stand our way of living. We cleaned all hostile Indians out of Utah Valley, but some escaped. There were settlements being formed in Sanpete, and I sent a detachment to notify the people in Manti that the Indians were ho.-,tile, and for them to be on their guard. We had peace for some time after that. Our policy was to conciliate the Indians all the time.—No trouble between 1850 and 52. In 1852 there was trouble in Tooele where settlements had been formed, between the settlers and the Indians, and a company went out there; but I think the Indians got the best of it, and got away with the stock. We always consider it cheaper to feed and clothe the Indians than to fight them, and so long as we can get access to them to feed them &c. we have no trouble with them; but when they get out of the settlements into the mountains there is danger of depredations &c. by them. In 1848 some Indians came in here with two Indian children offering them for sale. It appears that the tribes of Goshup and Wanship were at variance resulting in a fight between them in which Wanship was killed, and among other prisoners these two children were taken; and as they kill their prisoners unless they can sell them, these children were offered for sale. Charles Decker bought one of the prisoners which was a girl and President Young afterwards brought her up. She afterwards married an Indian chief named Kanosh.



Walker was the chief of the Ute Indians. They were committing depredations in Sanpete County, and other places, and Walker professed to know nothing about it. Walker, as I understand 4t, did not inherit the Chiefship; he became chief through his success in making raids on California herds. When an Indian possesses horses and cattle enough to mount and feed others, he is at once recognized as a big man among them. That's the way I think Walker got his prestige. Uinta was the great chief of this nation, and Ora, now dead, was the head chief of the Ute nation. Walker got his name,I think, from a mountainier of Southern California by that name. I cannot tell whether they made any demonstrations in Sanpete before or after they shot the guard in 1853. Capt. Gunnison was topographical engineer for the government. He and his party came in by way of the Spanish Fork trail; they landed (stopped) in Gunnison (sic) where they obtained an interpreter. They were warned about the hostile state of the Indians. Capt. Gunnison knew we were friendly with the Indians, and he himself knew how to get along with them, and he thought he could get along without any difficulty. He went from there to Fillmore where he got supplies. Before they got to Fillmore they divided; he took, I think, 8 soldiers from Beckwith, and Beckwithcamped on the Creek near Fillmore with the remainder of the men, while he detoured Sevier Lake in Millard County. It was perhaps 40 miles west of the settlement from where Beckwith remained. Anson Call, now of Bountiful, Davis Co., had charge of Fillmore. Previous to Gunnison's going there some emigrants passed through, they went by the southern route thinking to escape hostile Indians. These Indians were exercised, but they had not committed much depredations up to that time. They had, however, shot two or three men and driven off some stock in Sanpete. Pavantee, the chief, acknowledged Kanosh as their chief. They were decidedly friendly, and they used their influence with Walker and others to quit their depredations. The Indians declared they would shoot the first Indian that came to their camp. It was customary with the Indians to come to our camps while crossing the plains. We often hired them to herd our stock and to make them feel friendly. W e have found, if you trust an Indian when he comes to your camp, he will riot betray the trust; but if you act as if you were afraid to trust him and don't do so, he is very likely to steal, that is, if he can. In trusting Indians and treating them as human beings, we have never known them to fail to bring up our stock. If they see stock about not herded they feel as though they had a right to take it,, as they would take any wild game. I don't think



Indians should be killed for stealing stock; they don't consider stealing a crime as we do. These emigrants declared at Fillmore to our people that they would shoot Indians at sight, if they came around their camp. Mr. Call told them these Indians were friendly, and they would be sure to come to their camp as was their custom hoping to get something to eat or some little present. Bro. Call warned them against shooting the Indians, telling them if they did so the Indians would surely seek revenge. This warning, however, was not heeded; they felt quite prepared to defend themselves, and didn't care. When Indians are hostile they will withdraw to the hills; they won't come around your camp. But these Pahvant Indians came around the emigrants' camp as was their custom around ours. The result was, they killed one Indian and wounded one or two others. The Indians retaliated, shooting one of their number, I think his name was Hart. They returned to Fillmore. Bro. Call told them they had done wrong. They wanted Call to furnish them an escort. He told them he could not spare any men as they themselves were not strong enough. They started on again. Call told them the Indians would follow them in all probability; and sure enough they did. Call said he heard from them; they went as far as Cedar Valley followed by the Indians; somewhere in this region they gave up the chase, and started to return. They reached Sevier Lake at the time that Gunnison and party were there. The Gunnison party consisted of himself, two engineers named Creutzfeldt and Kern, 8 soldiers, a cook, and Potter, who was the guide and interpreter. They camped within a hundred yards of the brush. In order to be safe they, should have kept farther out. I don't know whether they had finished making their observations, but they calculated to move that day—the day they were killed. The Indians fired on the party out from the brush, while the party were at breakfast, sitting at table, killing Gunnison, Creutzfeldt and Kern, also the cook. Potter and the soldiers were after the horses. Potter and four soldiers were killed, and four soldiers escaped. We were accused of killing the Gunnison party, as we were accused of the Mountain Meadow Massacre. We regarded Capt. Gunnison as one of our best friends. H e had been here with Capt. Stansbury and party, and was well liked. Before Gunnison fell, he raised up his hands to the Indians, thinking he could get them to stop shooting. They were too mad, though, and Gunnison's was the first party of white men they met after the affair, and they avenged themselves, as is their wont to do. Gunnison had been warned about it, and our own people felt unsafe, at Fillmore, because of the hostile feeling of the Indians. Walker at the time was away; he and



others had made a raid and left. The emigrant company was said to be from Missouri; that is all we knew about them.' They passed through Salt Lake, but there was no particular attention paid to them, as they were merely an ordinary train. This was in September, 1853, I think. An accusation was gotten up against the "Mormons" for the killing of Capt. Gunnison and party. His brother, among others, believed the report. He appeared, at first, scared. He went to see Call at Bountiful, and declined Call's hospitality to stay over night, and Call thought, from his manner, that he was afraid. They made an appointment to meet in this City (Salt Lake) and did meet. Call produced his diary from which he read particulars of the affair, as recorded by him at the time. After a full and free investigation he expressed himself fully satisfied that the Mormons had nothing whatever to do in the matter. This, of course, was a long time after the occurrence, and I naturally suppose that he had been laboring all that time under the impression that his brother met his death through "Mormon treachery." Of one thing I am sure, no one regretted the affair more than we did. W e considered his death a great loss as he was one of our best non-Mormon friends. Beckwith and party remained here two winters, I think. In 1854 these hostilities continued. W e sent out troops more to help to defend the people and guard their stock, than to fight. That year Governor Young was travelling through our southern settlements, and we met Walker and his Indians at Chicken Creek. Made a truce of peace with him, and gave them presents. When we approached them Walker was in his "Wickeup"; he had fastened it down to within about 4 feet of the ground and had to crawl to get in and out. I remember our having a good laugh at him because of this. H e sat in this "arrangement" like a prince and never rose at all. He remarked, through our interpreter, that Brigham was a big Chief, and Walker was a big Chief, suiting the action to the word he put up his two thumbs to indicate that he was as big a chief as Brigham, and Brigham as big as he. In the treaty the Indians agreed to give up the stolen horses—at least all they had of them then in their possession. Walker wouldn't talk, he had a child sick. If his child died, some one else, he thought might die, and it was a long time before we got him to talk. He asked us to administer to the child (through prayer and laying on of hands) which we did. Prest. Young asked him what he wanted in the way of presents. He said, "I don't know—you talk." I think he was afraid he would say something less than Prest. Young would give him. After this treaty Walker became very friendly. He travelled with us that day (on the way) to Cedar City and



camped with u> that night. He did this for our protection, fearing that some of his Indians, who did not know of the treaty, might make a raid on us. We enjoyed good peace after that for several vears. Don't remember any Indian outbreak until 1864. Walker's headquarters was the Sevier, generally. He used to pay a visit to Sanpete once a year. His brothers were Arapeen, Sanpitch and Tabby. Tabby is now the acknowledged chief of the Uintah Indians. Arapeen, I think, succeeded Walker, and Sanpitch succeeded Arapeen. On visiting Sanpete they found the people were guarding their cattle expecting a raid. The Indians were in the habit of making requisitions on the people, and their demands were sometimes exceedingly large, so great indeed that the people were not able to meet them. If the people undertook to drive them off, they would perhaps shoot. At one town they were given food and appeared friendly. On their way out Arapeen shot a man while guarding stock. They stole some stock and killed one or two others. This was the commencement of hostilities of 1853, as near as my memory now serves me. From that time on, the people would defend themselves. 150 men went from Provo under Col. Conover. The people were counselled to send their loose stock to other settlements and to build forts. They have never attacked a town or settlement, but would make raids on poorer people. Arapeen was more of a public speaker than Walker, and afterwards proved himself the orator of the tribe. He would get mad if the people would not listen to him. He once undertook to dig open an Indian's ears because he refused to hear him. They were in the habit of stealing children from the Piutes and selling them to Mexicans from New Mexico, who came up to trade. You could scarcely tell the difference between them and the Indians, excepting the Mexicans wore hats. Slavery existed in Mexico at that time. Arapeen once had a stolen child that was sick; he could not sell it which made him cross and savage, and he took it by the heels, swung it around and dashed its brains out. Nothing but a fear of the consequences of an Indian war prevented our people from shooting him on the spot. It is customary among Indians when one tribe defeats another, for the women to throw themselves upon the victorious party to be cared for. This custom existed when we came here. The women of the Indians we killed (Timpminagoos[?]) threw themselves on our hands. We gave them out to families. Our people were all willing to take them and civilize them. Our fobd didn't agree with them as well as their own, and a good many died. When spring came and the Indians came around



they left us with the Indians. The women did not manifest any sorrow that we could perceive. I suppose they took it as the chance of war. Indians have dared our people in some places to fight. In this, however, we have paid no attention to them. We have found it necessary at times to chastise them, to let them know who was the stronger party, and that they could not impose on you with impunity. W e did this in 1850 and '53. The immediate action on the part of the Indians, that brought us out in 1853 was their insults upon the people when making requisitions for food and other things; also the shooting of the guard by Arapeen, and depredations that they continued to make from time to time. Gov. Young then issued orders on Provo and 150 men under Col. Conover went to assist the Sanpete people. About this time a company started west to fight Indians for stealing horses. Bills of expense amounted to $70,000. They were cut down to $40,000 and paid. This was for services rendered only (didn't include losses) about ten years afterwards, after sending out special agents to investigate. It was the only thing paid to the Territory by the Government, for suppressing Indian hostilities. In that campaign no regular battles were fought. You can scarcely ever get a regular battle with the Indians; they way-lay people, make raids; here today and somewhere else tomorrow. In order to get them in force you must attack their village or camp where their women are, as Custer did. After Gen. Connor came here the Indians were hostile up north; their camp was near Franklin. Connor fought and quelled them; they were better afterwards. I cannot bring to mind any hostilities until 1864, when they made an attack on Thistle Creek. In 1862 the Indians about the South Pass, along the mail routes, disturbed the carrying of the mails, and Prest. Lincoln sent a requisition on Gov. Young to furnish 100 men to protect the mails on the Eastern line. The men were raised in three days for 90 days. Our Lot Smith was captain of the company. They followed the Indians along the upper branches of Snake River, but never saw an Indian. They got the start of our men, and they were driving stolen horses which gave them the advantage of being able to change saddle horses, while our boys could not. It was a common thing for our boys to reach their camp at night and find their fires burning. The wall around Salt Lake was for our people to protect themselves a fort—-a place the people could get Our wall was a kind of concrete. In

built in 1853. It was usual by building what we called into in the event of a raid. Mount Pleasant their walls



were built of cobble rock, parts of which are now standing. At that place they put a grist mill inside, so the Indians couldn't cut them off. At Nephi the Indians did cut them off from their grist mill. I don't remember the immediate cause that led to the attack on Thistle Creek in '64. Generally, however, we have found the cause of hostilities have arisen from some imprudent or unwise act on the part of white men. It sometimes, however, would require the patience of Job to keep clear of trouble. About that time they stole some potatoes at Manti, and they whipped an Indian whom they caught. They came in considerable forces and demanded pay, and the man who "went for" the Indian had to give up his cow to satisfy them for it. Such things were very trying on our men's feelings, especially when it was about all they could do to live and support their own families. The cause of the Thistle Creek affair was this: The Indians attacked a family or two who were ranching—making butter, and killed some women and drove off stock, went to the mountains and would make raids. After that they killed some men on the road and took their cattle from their wagons. Our people were not strong enough to withstand them at Salina, and they (the Indians) knew it, and they would come out on the mound and dare the people to fight. Hostilities continued through 1865-6. The raid on Salina was made in 1866, and another was made on Scipio; at the latter place they got away with the cattle. Then I went out and was gone two months. They had killed a good many of our people. (For the Gravelford expedition, at this time, Gen. Wells referred to the report in the Adjutant General's Office. This report was ordered printed by the House of Rep., and referred to a committee on Militia.)



INDEX Vol. 4, 1 9 3 1 ; Vol. 5, 1932; Vol. 6, 1933 American Posts, by Edgar M. Ledyard, Fort Laramie to Fort McPherson, Vol. 5, No. 2, p. 65. Fort McPherson to Fort Pitt, Vol. 5, No. 3, p. 113. Fort St. John the Baptist to Fort Tombecb'e, Vol. 6, No. 1, p. 29. Fort Tombigbee to Fort Zumwalls, Vol. 6, No. 2, p. 64. Beckwith, Frank, Sr., A Field of Small Fossils in Western Utah, Vol. 4, No. 1, p. 25. Fossils of the Ordovician Time Period, Vol. 4, No. 2, p. 55. Bigler, Henry W., Extracts from the Journal of, Vol. 5, No. 2, p. 35; Vol. 5, No. 3, p. 87; Vol. 5, No. 4, p. 134. Black Hawk's Last Raid, 1866, Josiah F. Gibbs, Vol. 4, No. 4, p. 99. Bliss, Robert S., The Journal of, With the Mormon Battalion, Vol. 4, No. 3 p. 67; Vol. 4, No. 4, p. HO. Brown, John, Correcting Historical Errors, Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 32. Chipeta, Queen of the Utes, and Her Equally Illustrious Husband Noted Chief Ouray, Vol. 6, No. 3, p. 103. Colorado Settlers, Utah Food Supplies Sold to LeRoy R. Hafen, Vol. 4, No. 2, p. 62. Crook, John, Journal of, Vol. 6, No. 2, p. 51; Vol. 6, No. 3, p. 110. Dixie, Utah's, Early Days in, Jacob Hamblin, Vol. 5, No. 4, p. 131. De Smet, P. J., Reminiscences of Indian Habits and Character, Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 25. Farmer's Oracle, Replica of the First Newspaper Printed in Utah After The Deseret News, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 82 and 84. Farmington, The Wall Around, John Steed, Vol. 4, No. 4, p. 109. i

Fossils, Small Field of in Western Utah, Frank Beckwith, Sr., Vol. 4, No. 1, p. 25. Fossils of the Ordovician Time Period, at Ibex, Utah, Frank Beckwith, Sr., Vol. 4, No. 2, p. 55.

Gibbs, Josiah F., Black Hawk's Last Raid, Vol. 4, No. 1, p. 99.



Goodyear, Miles, Vol. 6, No. 4, p. 119-121. Hafen, LeRoy R., Utah Food Supplies Sold to the Pioneer Settlers of Colorado, Vol. 4 No. 2, p. 62. Hess, John W., with the Mormon Battalion, Vol. 4, No. 2, p. 47. Indian Agency, Uintah and Ouray, Fort Duchesne, Utah, H. M. Tidwell, Vol. 4, No. 1, p. 32. Indian Homelands The Pahute, and map, Wm. R. Palmer, Vol. 6, No. 3, p. 96. Indian Habits ahd Character, Reminiscences of, P. J. De Smet, Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 25. Indian Words, Wm. R. Palmer, Vol. 6, No. 2, p. 64. Jones, Nathaniel V., Extracts from the Life Sketch of, Vol. 4, No. 1, p. 3. Jones, Sergeant N. V. Jones Discharge, Vol. 4, No. 1, p. 24. Jones, Nathaniel V., The Journal of, with the Mormon Battalion, Vol. 4, No. 1, p. 6. "D. Julien," The Mysterious, Charles Kelly, Vol. 6, No. 3, p. 83. Kelly, Charles, The Mysterious "D. Julien," Vol. 6, No. 3, p. 83. Antoine Rubidoux, Vol. 6, No. 4, p. 115. Ledyard, Edgar M., American Posts, q.v. Manti, Reminiscences of Early Days of, Vol. 6, No. 4, p. 117. May, Captain, Death of, Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 28. McMurtrie, Douglas C, Early Printing in Utah Outside of Salt Lake City, Vol. 5, No. 3, p. 83 Mormon Battalion, Vol. 4, No. 1, p. 6; Vol. 4, No. 2, p. 47; Vol. 4, No. 3, p. 67; Vol. 4, No. 4, p. 110. Nez Perces, Fort, Vol. 5, No. 3, p. 121. Pahute Fire Legend, The, Wm. R. Palmer, Vol. 6, No. 2, p. 62. Indian Reservations in Utah, Eli F. Taylor, Vol. 4, No. 1, p. 29.



Palmer, Wm. R.. Pahute Indian Homelands, Vol. 6, No. 3, p. 88. Map of Pahute Indian Homelands, Vol. 6 No. 3, p. 96. The Pahute Fire Legend, Vol. 6, No. 2, p. 62. Indian Words, Vol. 6, No. 2, p. 64. Pendleton, Mark A., Naming Silver Reef, Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 29, Printing, Early in Utah Outside of Salt Lake City, Douglas C. McMurtrie, Vol. 5, No. 3, p. 82. Pueblo, Fort, Vol. 5, No. 4, p. 164. Posts, American, Edgar M. Ledyard, Vol. 5, No. 2, p. 65; Vol. 5, No. 3, p. 113; Vol. 5, No. 4, p. 161; Vol. 6, No. 1, p. 29; Vol. 6, No. 2, p. 64. Reagan, Albert B. and Wallace Stark, Chipeta, Queen of the Utes, and Her Equally Illustrious Husband, Noted Chief Ouray, Vol. 6, No. 3, p. 103. Robido, Fort (Robideau), Vol. 5, No. 4, p. 171. Robidoux, Antoine, Charles Kelly, Vol. 6, No. 4. p. 115. Salmon River Mission, The, Extracts from the Journal of L. W. Shurtliff, Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 3. Shurtliff, L. W., The Salmon River Mission, Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 3. Silk Worms and Osage Orange Leaves, Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 32. Silver Reef, Naming, Mark A. Pendleton, Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 29. Smith, Jedediah S., The Route of, in 1826, from the Great Salt Lake to the Colorado River, Dr. A. M. Woodbury, Vol. 4, No. 2, p. 38. , Steele, John, Extracts from the Journal of, Vol. 6, No. 1, p. 3. Steed, John W., The Wall Around Farmington, Vol. 4, No. 4, p. 109. Stark, Wallace, and Albert B. Reagan, Chipeta, Queen of the Utes, and Her Equally Illustrious Husband, Noted Chief Ouray, Vol. 6, No. 3, p. 103. Taylor, Eli F., Indian Reservations in Utah, Vol. 4, No. 1, p. 29. Tidwell, H. M., Ouray and Uintah Indian Agency, Fort Duchesne, Utah, Vol. 4, No. 1, p. 32. Utah Food Supplies Sold to the Pioneer Settlers of Colorado, LeRoy R. Hafen, Vol. 4, No. 2, p. 62.



Walker, Indian Chief, Vol. 6, No. 4, p. 117, 123, 127. 129, 130. Wells, Daniel H., Narrative of, Vol. 6, No. 4, p. 124. Woodbury, Dr. A. M., The Route of Jedediah S. Smith in 1826 from the Great Salt Lake to the Colorado River, Vol. 4, No. 2, p. 35. Young, Brigham, A Letter to N. V. Jones, Vol. 4, No. 1, p. 24.

Profile for Utah State History

Utah Historical Society, Volume 6, Number1-4, 1933