Utah Historical Quarterly Volume 5, Number 1-4, 1932

Page 1

Utah State Historical Society BOARD O F C O N T R O L (Terms Expiring- April 1, 1933) J. CECIL A L T E R , Salt Lake City WM. R. PALMER, Cedar City ALBERT F. P H I L I P S , Salt Lake City

J O E L E. R I C K S , Logan P A R L E Y L. W I L L I A M S , Salt L i k e City

(Terras Expiring April 1, 1935) GEORGE E. F E L L O W S , Salt Lake City W I L L I A M J. SNOW, Provo HUGH RYAN, Salt Lake City L E V I E. YOUNG, Salt Lake City FRANK K. S E E G M I L L E R , Salt Lake City E X E C U T I V E O F F I C E R S 1931-1932 ALBERT F. P H I L I P S , President Emeritus WILLIAM J. SNOW, President J. C E C I L A L T E R , Secretary-Treasurer-Librarian HUGH RYAN, Vice President Editor in Chief Alt Members, Board of Control, Associate Editors

MEMBERSHIP Paid memberships at the required fee of $2 a year, will include current subscriptions to the Utah Historical Quarterly. Non-members and institutions may receive the Quarterly at $1 a year or 35 cents per copy; but it is preferred that residents of the State become active members, and thus participate in the deliberations and achievements of the Society. Checks should be made payable to the Utah State Historical Society and mailed to the Secretary-Treasurer, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah. CONTRIBUTIONS The Society was organized essentially to collect, disseminate and preserve important material pertaining to the history of the State. To effect this end, contributions of writings are solicited, such as old diaries, journals, letters and other writings of the pioneers; also original manuscripts by present day writers on any phase of early Utah history. Treasured papers or manuscripts may be printed in faithful detail in the Quarterly, without harm to them, and without permanently removing them from their possessors. Contributions and correspondence should be addressed to the Editor, Utah Historical Quarterly, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah.


LEWIS W. SHURTLIFF Born July 24, 1835, in Ohio, later residing with his parents successively in Kirtland, Ohio, Far West, Missouri, Nauvoo, Illinois, and Council Bluffs, Iowa; emigrated to Utah in 1851, arriving September 23; settled in the vicinity of Ogden, his subsequent home. Was lieutenant in the State militia during the Utah Indian wars; L. D. S. Bishop of Plain City ward for many years, until elevated to the presidency of Weber Stake of Zion in 1883. Was Weber County commissioner 1883-1886; in the state legislature 1887-1889, also 1897-1899; probate judge of Weber County 1886-1890; president of Ogden's first street railway company; assistant manager, Pioneer Electric Power & Light Company; postmaster at Ogden, 1909-1913. Died May 2, 1922, aged 87 years. *


Utah Historical Quarterly State Capitol, Salt Lake City Volume 5

January, 1932

Number 1

T H E SALMON RIVER MISSION Extract from the Journal of L. W. Shurtliff As Edited By W. W. Henderson*

THE SALMON RIVER MISSION: ORGANIZATION AND FOUNDING The Salmon River Mission was one of those established by the Latter-day Saints in 1855. In this year there were five such missions established. There was a three-fold purpose in organizing these missions. The first was to acquire new territory to provide homes and lands for the great number of saints who were coming into Salt Lake Valley. The second purpose was to civilize, preach the gospel to and convert the Indians. The third purpose was a part of, or grew out of the second—to establish unmistakable peace and good will between themselves and the natives. The men and women who went out into the unknown wilds to set up these missions were called to this duty by their leaders in the Church, and responded willingly to the undertaking. It was on May 19, 1855, that the first company was organized for colonizing the great North West. There were twentysix men in the company and no women or children. The officers elected for leading this company were: Thomas S. Smith, President of the mission, Farmington, Utah. Francillo Durfee, Captain of the company, Ogden, Utah. David Moore, Secretary, Ogden, Utah. B. F. Cummings, Captain of the guard, Ogden, Utah. •Furnished by Judge W. H. Reeder, Jr., Ogden, Utah.


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T h e m e m b e r s of the c o m p a n y besides t h o s e n a m e d , w e r e : Ezra J. Barnard, Farmington Isaac Shepherd, Farmington Baldwin H. Watts, South Weber George R. Grant, Kaysville Charles Dalton, Centerville Israel J. Clark, Centerville Wm. H. Bachelor, Salt Lake City Ira Ames, Salt Lake City William Bundridge, Salt Lake City Thomas Butterfield, West Jordan William Burgess, Provo Abraham Zundel, Willard Everett Lish, Willard Gilbert R. Belnap, Ogden Joseph Parry, Ogden Nathaniel Leavitt, Ogden Pleasant Green Taylor, Ogden Charles McCeary, Ogden John Gallager, Ogden, John W. Browning, Ogden David H. Stevens, Ogden George W. Hill, Ogden (All the towns following the above names are in Utah.) T h e c o m p a n y w a s organized on t h e w e s t side of Bear River, U t a h , a n d w a s provided w i t h t h i r t e e n w a g o n s , t w e n t y - s i x yoke of oxen, a few cows and some i m p l e m e n t s of i n d u s t r y , besides e n o u g h p r o v i s i o n s to last t h e m for n e a r l y a year. T h e y traveled n o r t h w a r d u p M a l a d Valley, crossed the Bannock M o u n t a i n s , c o n t i n u e d n o r t h w a r d d o w n Bannock Creek, crossed the P o r t n e u f River, R o s s ' F o r k a n d Blackfoot River, shortly after w h i c h t h e y reached S n a k e R i v e r w h i c h t h e y crossed a b o u t five miles n o r t h of F o r t H a l l , a n d n e a r R o s s ' B u t t e . From here t h e y traveled n o r t h e a s t w a r d on t h e w e s t side of t h e Snake River until t h e y reached a point t h r e e miles above " E a g l e Rock," n o w called I d a h o Falls. T h e y left S n a k e R i v e r at this place and traveled t o w a r d t h e r a n g e of m o u n t a i n s on t h e n o r t h w e s t . They passed b y M a r k e t L a k e and b y M u d d y L a k e from w h e n c e they crossed a desert t h i r t y miles in e x t e n t , a n d finally reached "Birch Creek." T h e y followed this s t r e a m to its source for sixty miles. T h i s b r o u g h t t h e m t o t h e t o p of the Salmon R i v e r range of m o u n t a i n s . G o i n g d o w n t h e o t h e r side t h e y followed t h e Limhi River to a point t w e n t y miles a b o v e w h e r e it empties into the Salmon River. T h e y arrived at this place on J u n e the fifteenth, 1855, a n d w e r e t h r e e h u n d r e d and t h i r t y - t h r e e miles from Ogden, according t o t h e o d o m e t e r c o n s t r u c t e d b y Colonel David Moore. H e r e t h e y built a fort of pallisade w h i c h t h e y n a m e d " F o r t L i m h i . " It w a s a b o u t t w e n t y r o d s s q u a r e . T h e pallisade w a s built of logs sixteen feet long s t a n d i n g on end a n d close together. It had one g a t e on t h e east side, and one on t h e w e s t . T h e colonizers built t h e i r houses of logs, on t h e inside of t h e fort. Bastions w e r e built at each corner. O n their arrival t h e y found a large n u m b e r of I n d i a n s roving a b o u t the c o u n t r y . T h e y w e r e t h e S h o s h o n e s , N e z Perces and B a n n o c k s , and w e r e on t h e i r a n n u a l fishing trip. T h e company


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had an interpreter, whose name was George W . Hill. He explained to the natives that the colonizers' purpose was to teach them how to till the soil and become civilized like white men. When the Indians found out that these travelers were their friends and intended to help them, the colonizers were given a hearty welcome. As soon as the fort was built and the men were in safety they began to break up land and plant crops. They put-in peas, potatoes, turnips and other vegetables. Some of the men brought an irrigation ditch from the creek coming from the east side of the valley to the crop which they had planted. Some of the men herded the cattle and kept guard. It was necessary to keep very close watch over themselves as well as their possessions because of -thieving Indians. The men were always heavily armed. This much of the Salmon River event was carried on before Lewis W. Shurtliff became identified with it. We shall now follow him in his first trip to Salmon River. "LEWIS SHURTLIFF GOES TO SALMON RIVER" In August, 1855, Lewis was hired by Nathaniel Leavitt to go to Salmon River with John Leavitt to take a load of salt and other supplies and mail. The cattle at Salmon River, finding no salt-beds in that country roamed about very uneasily. Not only were they difficult to herd on this account but were not properly nourished. Nathaniel Leavitt, Green Taylor and others were sent back for a load of salt. Mr. Leavitt was not ready to return immediately, and was given the privilege by President Thomas S,. Smith to send some one in his stead. This some one must be suitable, however, to Green Taylor, who recommended Lewis Shurtliff. This task pleased Lewis very much. He was very fond of travel and especially of exploring new country. He did not mind the dangers or exposure connected with the trip. These were all dissolved in the joy of the wilds. * The two young men were fitted out with a good wagon, containing about three thousand pounds of salt, and plenty of provisions. They also had the mail. They had three yoke of oxen and one good saddle horse. They themselves were well armed, each having two good revolvers, a slide gun and a rifle, which was the first made by Jonathan Browning, and plenty of ammunition. The oxen, though six in number, large and strong, and in good condition were young, rather fresh or "soft" and un-


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broken. Only one of them had ever been in the yoke before. The starting out was therefore attended by all the little troubles incident to breaking in so many young oxen in one team. Lewis was the driver or teamster, and John Leavitt was to be cook. But for the first day at least, it required the skill and patience of both to manage the oxen. Between the starting point at Ogden and the arrival at Box Elder, the oxen were simply "herded along the road." They passed by Box Elder, or Brigham City, and five miles farther north passed Call's Fort, the northern limit of civilization in Utah. They came to Bear River in the region of Collinston or at "Bear River Hill." Here they waded across the river first, to make sure of the best place to drive the oxen. Then they ventured. A lariat was thrown on the horns of one of the head oxen and a strong pull kept on it to aid in guiding the team. They got through the river all right, but the water came into the box of the wagon so that the salt got wet. Their next task was to get up the "Bear River Hill" on the other side. Thirty hundred pounds was indeed not a heavy load for so many strong oxen, if the oxen had been long broke and knew how to pull. But they knew very little about pulling, and besides this, their necks had become sore from their first experience in the yoke, a thing which generally happened to a fresh ox. The boys could not get the oxen to pull the load up that hill, so half of the load was taken off and the balance taken to the top. This was unloaded and left there while they went back and got that which they had left. When this was brought to the top the rest was loaded in and they went on their journey. They had to repeat this experience on all the long hills between the Bear River and Malad. On short hills they carried half the salt on their backs, one sack at a time. W e will not explain how these boys felt about the arduous task which every hill brought. Those who understand human instincts can estimate the thoughts and feelings and even the expressions of these two boys. When they got to Malad they stayed over night at the home of old father Barnard, who had established there a place for herding his stock through the summer, and whose son, Ezra, was at the time in Salmon River. Brother Barnard welcomed the boys heartily, and had them eat supper and breakfast with him. The boys were in for trading oxen. The cattle were not their's to be sure; they belonged to Nathaniel Leavitt. But he was in Ogden, the oxen were in charge of the boys and they did not feel like carrying that salt to Salmon River, so they proposed a trade to brother Barnard. The latter liked the looks of


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that wheel yoke very much. The oxen in this yoke were young, and they were large, strong and good lookers. In fact "he told the boys he had just the pair of cattle they needed to get that salt to Salmon River, and he would let them have the yoke for the wheel team. So the trade was made. Old father Barnard took Nathaniel Leavitfs beauiful pair of reds, and the boys got in reurn one low bodied, crouching, shabby, crumpled horned brindle, and one long-bodied, lanky, yellow, long-horned Texas steer. When the two were yoked together, one was so high and the other so low that the yoke was inclined at a rather sharp angle, yet the two oxen were about of the same weight. It was certainly a peculiar looking pair as compared with the reds. W e fear that even our description flatters them. But old father Barnard was right in his estimate of the oxen he traded off. They were well broke and strong. They took the load all right so there was no more trouble from this source, and the boys were therefore glad of the trade. Leaving Malad they traveled north on the Salmon River road, crossed Sublets' cut-off, went down Bannock creek and came to Fort Hall. Here they were welcomed by old Captain Grant, who bade them "come right in." They remained at Fort Hall one day. Captain Grant had been an agent many years for the Hudson Bay Company. This company had withdrawn and the Captain was at the fort trading on his own account. He had a squaw wife and had accumulated much property, so that he seemed to be comfortable and contented. He was a very large, gray-haired man, very skillful in dealing with the Indians and friendly to all travelers. Before Lewis Shurtliff and John Leavitt left Fort Hall they discovered that there were Indians following them, not for any warfare or trouble, but for the purpose of stealing something. They seemed to covet the horse especially. When the boys found out that they were being followed for such purposes they exercised greater care and did not meet with any trouble. The road from Fort Hall to Salmon River follows an Indian trail. This trail had been traveled by Indians and trappers until it was worn from several inches deep in certain places to as much as a foot deep in others. But the trail, while having a straight general direction, was very ^rooked in detail, turning this way and that around every little obstruction. It was impossible for the colonizers to follow anything but the general direction, all the little crooks being cut out. Lewis W . Shurtliff and Tohn Leavitt were the second company to travel over the revised road to Salmon River.


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They crossed Snake River just Northwest of Ross' Butte and traveled in a northeasterly direction up the west side of the river: When they came to Market Lake they found the water low and containing a great many fish. This lake was an overflow from Snake River. When the river was high, an old channel leading from the river to the lake carried the fresh water of spring time into the bed of the lake, completely filling it. When the water in the river went down the lake would almost dry up. It was in this condition when the boys first saw it. At Market Lake they left the river and traveled westward. The next place of any interest was Muddy Lake. This too was almost, dry. From Muddy Lake to Birch Creek was a long stretch of dreary uninviting country. It was as it is still, a broad alkali flat, supporting no vegetation except grease wood and a few other scrub dry land plants. The country continuous to Birch Creek was good. The soil, though mixed freely with gravel, was good. In fact a prosperous farming community is now supported by this country. When they got to Birch Creek a band of Indians came to them in a friendly way and wanted provisions and ammunition. The boys assured them that they had none to spare. This made them a little angry, but seeing the boys so well armed they did not attempt any violence. The travelers took the greatest of care not to be caught unawares by the wily savages. When they camped it was usually in a bend of the river which would aid in the protection of the oxen. Only one slept at a time, the other being on constant guard. During most of the journey the Indians caused them considerable annoyance, but never surrounded them with danger, or attacked them. They followed little Lost River to its source, which brought them to the top of the Salmon River Divide where they crossed the Lewis and Clark trail to the northwest. They started down the other side following Limhi Creek, and they certainly felt good, as they knew that they were "getting home," and wouldn't have to carry any more salt up hills, and that they had every chance of reaching their destination in safety. Early in September they arrived at Fort Limhi and were very kindly and gladly received. They had not sustained any loss or ill luck. They had the whole load of salt, all the provisions and other articles which had been sent by friends at home, and the mail which brought welcome letters and other news from dear ones in Utah.

"LIFE AT FORT LIMHI" During the fall, all busied themselves in making log houses for winter shelter. These were constructed in a row along the inner four sides of the fort. Immediately inside the wall, or palli-


THE SALMON RIVER MISSION

sades, they left a space which served as a yard little farther in was the row of houses, and in the fort a large square. They dug a well in the center and hoisted a tall flag-pole from the top of which stripes waved at all appropriate times.

for wood. A center of the of the square the stars and

One house in this fort was constructed with a large room in which the colonizers met regularly for church service and worship. These men who were on this Salmon River Mission were far removed from civilization and were without women or children, but they were devoted to their religious duties, and their conduct was never such that they need be ashamed of it before their wives or mothers, or even in the sight of God. It was clear that they did not have enough provisions to last more than three or four months, so the president of the mission, Thomas S. Smith, called for volunteers to return immediately to Utah so that they could come back as early in the spring as possible with supplies. The following seven men responded: George W. Hill, Joseph Parry, Abraham Zundel, William Burch, Isaac Shepherd, Thomas Butterfield and William Batchelor. They were fitted up with three wagons and six yoke of oxen. They left Fort Limhi on the fourth of December, 1855, and arrived in Ogden on the twenty-sixth of the same month. They were in good health, with the exception of some suffering from frost bites. They were compelled to leave one of their wagons by the way side. During the first winter at Salmon River the colonists had a real pleasant time. There was no contagious diseases to contend with and sickness was almost unknown. The men busied themselves and vied with each other in learning the Indian language. This being an unwritten language, to learn it meant a careful exercise of the ear and the sound producing organs. It would likely be an impossibility to reduce the Indian language to writing. Some one would at least have to invent a! new alphabet to fit the peculiar sounds of this native tongue. Our colonizers progressed nicely in learning the language. Lewis W . Shurtliff or "Slim" as he was familiarly called did extra well. In fact he gained a reputation for being an Indian interpreter. When Spring came in 1856 the men all went to work breaking up land and putting in crops. As the fort was a community fort, so the land was community land and the crop community crop. They all worked together, each doing all that he could, as all were to partake equally of the harvest. Their farm was' just below, or to the north of the Fort.


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When Lewis Shurtliff first went to Salmon River he was a hired man for Nathaniel Leavitt. He was not therefore looked upon as a member of the mission. But before the winter had passed the president of the mission, learning of the fine character, courageous spirit, and general ability of the young man, wrote in to Salt Lake and had him called. The call came, and by the Spring of 1856, he was a fully appointed missionary. When President Brigham Young and his party came out in 1857, Lewis was set apart by Orson Hyde, Lorenzo Snow and Franklin D. Richards, Lorenzo Snow being voice. He acted as 3 member of the mission however, and not as a hired man for more than a year before he was set apart. The following is the blessing sealed upon his head by the three persons named. "Brother Lewis Shurtliff, in the name of Jesus Christ we set vou apart to this mission, and dedicate you to this purpose. Be faithful and diligent and you shall accomplish that whereunto you are sent, establishing a strong position and benefiting the house of Israel. And you shall have the Holy Spirit resting upon you, and rejoice in seeing the fruits of your work. And you shall have influence over and among the Lamanites, that they may see you are a servant of the Lord our God. All this you shall inherit, and be able to follow the counsels of those who are set over you, and receive all the blessings of the faithful. Your life shall be preserved; and you shall have the light and comfort of the Holy Spirit; and you shall be satisfied in seeing what the Lord has accomplished bv you. These blessings we seal upon you in the name of Jesus Christ, Amen." May the fifteenth, 1856, the company which left Fort Limhi in December and went to Utah for supplies, returned to the fort. They brought a liberal supply of provisions, useful articles for persons at the Fort which had been sent from friends and relatives, and the mail, which contained newsy letters for everybody there. Besides those who went away in December, all of whom returned, the following were with the company: Alexander Hill Henry A. Cleveland John Preece Thomas Bingham Sylvanus Collet William Shaw Thomas Abbott John Murdock Wal Mclntire Paidon Webb William Perkins Thomas Carlos Thomas Day James Walker Clifton S. Browning R. B. Margetts Joseph Harker Henry Nebeker Jacob Miller William B. Lake George McBride Nathron C. Hadlock


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Not one of the above is now living. They were under the command of Joseph Parry. Another addition to the colony was made early in the same summer by the arrival of M. D. Hammond, H. V. Shurtliff, E. Robinson and Owen Dix, who brought the mail from Utah. In the spring of 1856 the company put in a large crop of peas, potatoes, garden vegetables generally, and a large field of wheat. It all came up and grew splendidly giving promise of an abundant harvest. But grasshoppers hatched out in countless millions all through the country and ate every vestige of the crops. It was certainly discouraging to witness the deyastation. Before the insects came, everything was beautiful and promising, but after, all was barren and desolate. So it was necessary to resort to Utah once more for supplies. In the same spring they made a small canal, taking the water out of Limhi Creek "above the road" and conducting it along past the east wall of the fort and to the land beyond and on the North. The summer before this the company had made a small ditch by plowing a furrow, but now they made a real canal with laterals branching out in the land. This was the first real irrigation system constructed in Idaho, Oregon or Washington. Lewis W . Shurtliff took a prominent part in the building of this canal.

"A PERILOUS JOURNEY TO UTAH" In the month of August, Lewis W . Shurtliff and Nathaniel Leavitt were selected to carry the mail to Utah. They set out, each with a saddle horse and two pack horses loaded with provisions, camping utensils and the mail. Lewis had a fairly good horse to ride, but Mr. Leavitt had a large clumsy mare mule. When they got over the Salmon River Divide and were going down Birch Creek, they discovered that there were Indians in the country. This was evident from the fact that beacon lights could be seen at night as signals of one band of Indians to another. The two horsemen were well armed and they kept a close and constant watch. When they got down to where they were about to leave Birch Creek, the Indians tried to stampede their horses, but the men kept the horses "lariated" or staked out in the grass with long ropes so they could not get away. The Indians were therefore unsuccessful in their attempted horse theft. The two men kept the regular trail for Utah until they got to the place opposite where the city of Blackfoot now stands. At this place some friendly Indians camd to them and told them that the Indians down the West side of the river were on the war path. These warring Indians had been engaged in some


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warfare with other tribes, and were now indulging in war dances. They were in a very dangerous mood, and the two men were advised by their Indian friends that it would surely mean torture and death to them to go down that side of the river. So they prepared to cross right there and go down the East side. They took off their outer clothing so as to be free in case they had to swim. The mail with the guns and ammunition was fixed in the most secure place on the packs, and their government overcoats, buckskin shirts and trousers were made as secure as possible. They had never crossed the river in that place, nor had they ever seen anybody cross it. The water was high and the current swift. They would have to get out on the Other side before the current could wash them down to a certain point, otherwise they would strike high banks where they never could get out. Just how much they could ford and how much they would have to swim neither of them knew. It looked dangerous, but they concluded that their best chance for life was in crossing the river. So they went up the stream as far as they thought necessary in order to, £Tarrl the other side in safety, and ventured in. They forded for some distance, but soon got into such deep water that the horses had to swim, and not being able to make it very well against the stream, the men, according to the instructions of Lewis Shurtliff, leaped into the water below their horses, and while swimming with one arm kept the other pounding at their horses necks to keep them from going too far down the stream. The experience was indeed perilous, but they finally reached the opposite bank in safety, and by a very narrow margin escaped the dangerous high banks. But they were very thankful to get across in safety. Everything they had was soaked up with water but the mail and ammunition—all their food, clothing and bedding, so they went upon the sunny dry land where the business center of Blackfoot now is, and in the hot August sun spent the rest of the day in "drying out." They did not make any fire because to do so would betray them to the Indians. When the two travelers got their things pretty well dried out, they 'packed up' and went down the river until they came nearly to Ross' Butte. Here they struck the trail again. It was getting late so they found an inconspicuous place and made a 'dark camp.' The hostile Indians were just across the river from them, and were indulging in their whoops and war dances. That night there was no sleep for them; they were on constant watch with their fire arms ready. Early the next day they got to Fort Hall, and rode up to the home of Old Captain Grant. The Captain was greatly surprised to see them and spent the first few minutes in the most awful


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kind of swearing. He was not expressing his anger, however, but merely giving the boys a friendly welcome. "Where in the name of did you come from? How in did you get here?" were the first intelligible words he spoke. He called a man and ordered him to take good care of the horses, took the two men in his house and ordered his squaw to get them something "good" to eat. These orders were carried out as precisely and carefully as if they had been given by a king. "Boys," he said, "it's dangerous times; the Indians are bad; you'll be lucky if you get through." They stayed all night at Fort Hall, and leaving early the next morning pursued their journey toward Utah. They went across the country to Bannock Creek and up on a little flat near where the creek empties into the Portneuf River, they stopped for noon. About two o'clock in the afternoon they discerned that five Indians were watching them from a point on the hill to the south. It was clear too, from the actions of the savages that they were after these travelers. As soon as the five Indians found out which way the men were going, and that their journey would be along the road up Bannock Creek, they hurried ahead to a place known as "Point of Rocks," where the cedars came down close to the road on the east side, and which made excellent lurking shelter for murderous Indians. In fact they had tried this place for entrapping white travelers before, and later killed Bailey Lake there. Two of these five Indians were on horses and the others afoot. They separated so that part of them lay in wait on each side of the road at "Point of Rocks" waiting for the two white men. The two men had seen enough of what was going on, and understood Indian warfare sufficiently to know the purposes of these five Indians, so they got ready for the worst. Brother Leavitt was very nervous over the situation but Brother Shurtliff advised that they keep calm and if they were forced to fight to do so with all the effect possible. They soon came near the point of rocks and saw that the Indians had out their beacon lights, evidently to signal more help in the capture of the two men. The perilous moment was upon them. They were at the gateway where the Indians lay in wait. They decided that they would go right past the point as if there were nothing at all wrong, keeping their firearms ready in case of necessity. The facts are that here at this point was a very favorite camping place. Travelers usually stopped here for the night. The Indians knew this, and expected that the two men they were watching would do the same thing, as night was approaching.


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The five Indians would simply lurk about until their beacon lights brought more help, then they would watch their chance to take advantage of the two men. But the two men passed by apparently as unconcerned as if they were not aware of a single enemy in all the world. This disappointed the lurking Indians and they decided to follow. As soon as they were well past the point, the men hurried on until darkness overtook them and thev came to a broad open plain or meadow. They turned aside into this meadow, left the road nearly half a mile and made a dark camp. It was not long before they heard the footsteps of horses going past them and up that road. They were then certain that the Indians were following them. But they were foiled and the men were safe. The next morning at day break they packed up, saddled their horses and went on. They saw nothing more of the Indians who were laying for them, and felt pretty good to think that they had passed the danger point. As they went on they discovered for a certainty that the Indians had been hunting them. They got to Sublett's cut-off that day, and expected to find a good many white people there, but they were disappointed. On account of Indian hostilities everybody had left the "Cut-off" but the blacksmith. H e was the sole representative of the place. He was surprised to see the boys and said they were very lucky to get through. Their next stop on the way home was at Malad. Here they found the first houses since they left Fort Limhi. They stayed all night at Laconius Barnard's. Everyone there wondered at their getting through that long stretch of countrv filled with hostile Indians. Mr. Barnard said that the success of the trip was due to the courage of Lewis Shurtliff, "as," said he, "the more dangerous it is, the better he likes it." From here it was simply a matter of two days until the boys were in Ogden. They had been ten days on the trip. Lewis found his folks at Bingham's Fort, and all well. Nearly everyone in the County was moving into Ogden. All the little forts around were vieing with each other in growth, each ambitious to become the central city. President Brigham Young, looking into the situation, advised all to move into Ogden. "Here," he said, "a large city will be built up, and railroads will make it a city of importance." This seemed then to be a very extravagant statement, but his wisdom and foresight have since been verified.


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"ANOTHER W I N T E R AT FORT LIMHI" It has been noted already that the Salmon River crops failed utterly in 1856 on account of grasshoppers. This made it necessary to resort to Utah again for provisions. The supplies did not last as long as the colonists thought they would, so they were really short before they expected. The Indians begged from them considerably, and they necessarily had to give some things away to keep peace. So, in the latter part of August, 1856, nearly a month after Lewis Shurtliff and John Leavitt left there, a large number of the company returned to Utah for provisions and to carry the mail. This company arrived in Ogden in September and made immediate preparations to return to the mission. It was with this company that Lewis W. Shurtliff returned to Salmon River. Some of the men took their families. Francillo Durfee took his wife and three children; David Moore, his wife and daughter; C. M. McGeary, his wife; I. J. Clark, his wife and three childrn. On the nineteenth of October, 1856, this company left Ogden for Salmon River. As we are dealing primarily with the life of Lewis W. Shurtliff, it is important to note the presence of a certain young lady in the company. This was Miss Louisa Moore, adopted daughter of Colonel David Moore. The day of the beginning of this journey the two young people saw each other for the first time. When Lewis first saw her, he made the declaration to some of his companions at Bingham's Fort, that she would some day be his wife. She perhaps did not go so far as to make a declaration, but her attention went out to him, and it seems that right here "Two hearts found each other." "Two hearts beat as one." W e shall find that the declaration was fulfilled, following a sweet romance which covered the next vear and a half. There were a few things which happened during this journey to mar its progress. The first was the loss of • some of their stock, which happened at Brigham City. This detained them a day or two. Next, Lewis got very sick. It was thought that the company would have to leave him at Malad, but due to the tender nursing and care of Mrs. Moore he recovered and went on the journey. A third piece of ill luck was the breaking down of David Moore's wagon, which happened in the tops of the Bannock Mountains. One of the wheels completely fell to pieces. Lewis and four others went five miles to get some good tough pine timber to fill the wheel. This took a couple of days time, but the job was finally finished and they traveled on. Although


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late in the Fall, there was really nothing disagreeable about the journey until they reached the Salmon River Divide. Here the snow was a foot deep and the weather bitter cold. At their first camp over the divide, the wolves attacked their stock and killed one cow. As they descended into the Salmon River valley, the snow all disappeared and the weather became delightful. Before leaving the higher mountains, Lewis first saw an Indian grave in a tree. An Indian had been deposited there as a burying place. It was a peculiar sight to him at first, but he afterwards saw many. They reached Fort Limhi on the nineteenth of November, 1856, welcomed in all gladness by the people at the fort. The Fall and Winter of 1856-1857 was spent in learning the language and teaching the Indians. They held religious services often and regularly, and many Indians attended. George W. Hill, the regular interpreter, was in Salt Lake City, and as Lewis Shurtliff and Amos Wright had acquired the use of the Indian language more than any others, President Thomas S. Smith called on these two almost entirely to talk to the Indians. They did very much of this during the Winter. Hundreds of Indians came to the church service and large numbers of them accepted the teachings of the Latter-day Saints, and were baptized and confirmed members of the church. The Indians lived in their wigwams in the brush along the creeks close by the colonizers and were indeed very friendly. The monotony of the long winters was broken occasionally by hunting trips into the mountains. These trips were sources of pleasure and profit. Lewis and others as well enjoyed the sport, and their hunts resulted in the provision of meat and valuable skins and furs for the people in the fort. But what about Miss Louisa Moore? And what of that declaration which Lewis made when he first saw her? Needless to say, they enjoyed each other's company on the trip to Salmon River in the fall and also at Fort Limhi after their arrival. It is too mild to say they enjoyed each other's company. The anticipation of meeting occasionally after the busy davs were over made life pass by happily. They sought each other's company. They strolled together. They sat beside each other in the beautiful autumn evenings. They told each other secrets, confided in and sympathized with each other, and preferred the company of each other to that of anyone else. He thought she was the most beautiful and accomplished of young women of her time and chance. She thought him to be the most courageous, stately and thoughtful of young men. They were really not extravagant


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in their estimates either. And what is the meaning of all this, if not that they had fallen desperately in love, each with the other? We have said that Miss Louisa Moore was an adopted daughter of Colonel and Mrs. David Moore. Her name was Smith before her adoption. Her parents both died during the hardships of the church at Nauvoo, and as the Moore's had no children they gladly adopted Miss Louisa. She was a beautiful girl—well developed and matured at sixteen, fair complexion, well proportioned features, dark eyes, and long heavy wavy brown hair. Her disposition was winning and her accomplishments, for such times, complete. She had been trained by Mrs. Moore, and this was a guarantee of her good training. Late in the same Fall that Miss Moore went to Salmon River, she returned to Utah to pursue her educational training; so the young pair was not long together. It was a matter of keenest regret to both of them, and especially to Lewis, that he said something to her before she left at which she took offense, though no offense was intended by him. There followed the lovers' quarrel and period of estrangement. It was a period of bitterness for the young lovers, but after another year when all misunderstandings were cleared away, this little bitterness tended only to make the romance sweeter. The Fall and Winter drifted on without bringing anything unusual to pass. Brother Shurtliff used his time in profitable study after the Winter became severe outside. The New Year of 1857 dawned upon them and found all well. Lewis was installed chief cook, a position which give him much experience and took much of his time. "BY PACK-HORSE TO UTAH" On the twenty-second day of January, 1857, Lewis Shurtliff, in company with President Thomas S. Smith, P. G. Taylor and Laconeus Barnard, started for Utah. Their object was to carry mail and arrange for more supplies. After being away from home and friends for a while, people became anxious to receive news from their dear ones, and the only way to get mail was to send to Utah and have some one bring it out. The four men had two horses each. Part of the horses were used as saddlehorses, and the others were packed with bedding and supplies. When they left Fort Limhi the weather was fine and there was very little snow. Had it not been for this they would perhaps


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never have started. When they reached the Salmon River divide the snow was so deep that it was almost impossible to get over the high mountains. To add to this difficulty a dense fog settled upon them. This threw them out of their chosen course, and some became discouraged and wanted, to return. But the journey was pursued. In making a winter journey of this kind i t was impossible of course to take along any feed for horses. So the travelers followed such territory as abounded in bare ridges from which snow had been blown. These ridges were usually covered with dried grass which served as food for the horses. In time the company reached Mud Lake which will always be remembered by those who were present and especially on this trip. Brother Shurtliff rode a wild horse which plunged and bucked furiously and threw him off. The excitement caused much merriment to the onlookers. The snow was very deep and headway was difficult. The whole company became somewhat discouraged, but decided to go on even if they had to live on horse flesh. They crossed Snake River on the ice, and continued their journey southward without interruption. The weather cleared up and their journey became easier and more pleasant. When they reached the divide over the Bannock Mountains their difficulties again increased. The snow was very deep and was so crusted that it would almost, but not quite, hold up the horses. The legs of the animals were so cut by the crusted snow that they left their tracks in blood all along the trail. They reached the Barnard Ranch in Malad Valley on the ninth of February, having been nineteen days on the road. They were now in safety and began to get news from home, one item of which contained an account of the death of Jedediah M. Grant. They got to Call's Fort on the tenth and though very tired, cold and hungry, were refused entertainment. Such an instance of inhospitality was almost unheard of, and none of them ever forgot it. That night they had to go four miles further, when they came to the home of John Gibbs, who had lived in Bingham's Fort as a neighbor to them. Brother Gibbs gave them a hearty welcome. Their horses were given the best that the barnyard afforded and the men were given a bouteous hot supper. This was the first good home-cooked meal the men had had since they left Fort Limhi twenty days before and being very hungry they ate heartily. ,; The next day they reached home. Lewis found his folks all well and glad to see him. It was a happy meeting for himself as well.


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Very naturally he was anxious to see Miss Moore. True, there was an estrangement between them. It had been months since they saw, or even heard from each other. She may be receiving attention from someone else fori aught he knew. There was uncertainty that she would even see him. It was certain, however, that he wanted to see her and was anxious to renew the ties which once existed between them. So he had not been home very long when he went to the home of Colonel Moore for the express purpose of seeing Miss Louisa. And he saw her. But their meeting was formal and void of any attempt to renew old acquaintance. He saw her several times while he was at home, and before his return to Salmon River, but she treated him very ordinarily and there was no tendency toward their becoming sweethearts again. "PRESIDENT YOUNG VISITS FORT LEMHI" On the twenty-fifth of April, 1857, Lewis Shurtliff started again for Salmon River, after having been home about six weeks. The company with which he traveled was honored with the presence of President Brigham Young and other authorities of the Church. This was known as the Brigham Young Company. Lewis rode a horse as rear guard. When the company reached the divide at the head of the Malad Valley President Young offered up one of the mightiest and most soul inspiring prayers ever heard. It seemed to cause the very earth to shake. In his characteristic way, he called everybody together round the campfire before retiring in the evening. After singing a familiar hymn and hearing a few words of counsel, the people all desired that President Young offer the prayer. In the midst of his humble followers, and borne up by their great loyalty and faith, he offered the mighty prayer which so deeply impressed all that it was never forgotten. Nothing interrupted their journey until they got to the crossing of Snake River near Ross's Butte. The water was high and they used a ferrv to cross. Some of the men got to daring and racing, and as a result nearly lost a woman in the river. President Young very promptly told them to tie up the boats until their heads got settled. The request was just as promptly complied with. After a little while the work of crossing was resumed and soon the whole company, with their belongings, was over the rushing mighty torrent. At this point President Thomas S. Smith suggested that Lewis Shurtliff and P G. Taylor ride ahead and take the news


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of President Young's coming to Fort Limhi, so that some preparation could be made at the Fort for receiving him, and so the road in the Narrows near Fort Limhi could be repaired. President Young gave his consent for the boys to go and sent them ahead after pronouncing a blessing upon their heads, and promising them that they would reach the Fort in safety. The two boys started out and rode almost night and day. They traveled two hundred miles in three davs. The news of President Young's coming was hailed with delight at the Fort, and nothing was spared in getting ready for the occasion. The road in the Narrows was repaired and everything about the Fort made pleasant and inviting. On the eighth of May, the company arrived. President Young and his party remained at Fort Limhi but five days. During that time the saints received many words of encouragement from the President and his party, and many hundreds of Indians came to see the "Big Chief." While President Young wished to encourage the colony at Fort Limhi as much as' he could and while he wished for their success, he gave it as his opinion that they had gone too far, and might better have stopped in the Snake River Valley. He and his party left for Salt Lake City on the thirteenth of May. "A PLEASANT SUMMER, A BOUNTEOUS HARVEST, AND A HAPPY MARRIAGE" The Summer of 1857 at Fort Limhi passed by in an ordinary way, without bringing to pass anything of interest. One exception to this may be noted. Lewis W. Shurtliff and a few others from the Fort formed an exploring party which traveled over five hundred miles into the mountains Northward. They explored the Bitter Root Valley, the Deer Lodge and other Montana Valleys, went over the territory where now stand the cities of Helena and Butte, traveled over the country which the Flat Head and Big Salmon Forest reserves now cover, and followed the Lewis and Clark trail for a considerable distance. While the exploration did not result in any particular profit it was a source of great pleasure to Lewis W . Shurtliff. To explore the wilds was one of his greatest delights. When this trip was made there were no white people in that whole country. The only human beings to be seen were the Indians and an occasional trapper or mountaineer. The Summer passed on and harvest time was ushered in. The company raised over two thousand bushels of wheat. Harvest-


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ing occupied much time since it all had to be done by hand. They used the cradle to cut the grain, which they bound in sheaves by hand. It was hauled, stacked and protected from storms as much as possible, and was thrashed out with horses and the flail and separated by a fanning mill. Remembering that their crops had twice failed before, the people at Fort Limhi were about as proud as any one could be when they realized such a bounteous harvest of the golden grain. They also raised a good supply of many kinds of vegetables. On the twenty-second of October, 1857, Thomas S. Smith and Milton Hammond came in from Salt Lake City. They brought news of a company coming in from Utah, which, according to the promise of President Young, was sent to strengthen the colony. Their names were: John S. Dalton James Wilcox Jane Hadlock Oliver Robinson James Miller Charles F. Middleton Henry Smith and wife Jesse Smith and Wife William Smith and wife Frederick A. Miller Reuben Cottle Fountain Welsch

Orson Ross Andrew Quigley William Perry and wife William Taylor Levi Taylor James Allred Martin H. Harris Jonathan Bowen and wife Joseph Bowen Stephen Green and wife Henry Harman and wife James McBride

This company arrived on the twenty-seventh of October 1857. There was one more whose name has not yet been mentioned. This name deserves special mention because it interests particularly the young man whose life is under consideration. When Thomas S. Smith and Milton Hammond were naming the persons who were expected to arrive within a few days, Lewis Shurtliff stood in a retired corner of the house listening with great anxiety. At length President Smith said "Where is Lewis? I have news for him. Miss Moore is coming in this company." That was happy news for Brother Shurtliff. About the day that the. company was to arrive, he saddled his horse and rode out to meet them. The meeting was a happy one to him and also to Miss Moore. After an estrangement of a year, their meeting in the place of their first acquaintance and courtship


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was all that was necessary to cause them to forget all the differences which had caused estrangement, and bringi back the love-ties of a year before. Within a month after her arrival at Fort Lemhi the two were engaged to wed and the consent of her parents secured. The next event of interest and importance in the life of Brother Shurtliff, and in the, history of the Salmon River Mission was the attempted journey to Utah of President Thomas S. Smith and Lewis W. Shurtliff. They left Fort Limhi on the twenty-seventh of November, 1857, and had a perilous journey as far as Snake River, but were compelled to return. When they left Fort Limhi there was very little snow on the ground,; but as they approached the divide the snow was deeper. There was so much snow in the Snake River Valley that headway was almost impossible. They went on even against their better judgment because they did not like the idea of giving up. They got as far as "Steamboat Rock" on the Snake River, and being very much discouraged with the outlook, they decided to cast lots to decide whether they would continue or return. The lots fell in favor of returning, so they turned backward. They nearly perished while they were at Snake River and their horses nearly starved. The men were so numb that they could not make a fire. Their return journey was attended by some difficulties also. When they reached Birch Creek the Indians planned an attack on them and tried to steal their horses. I t was only by the quick use of their fire-arms that they saved themselvs from probable murder. One morning their horses disappeared and the two men had to separate—a very dangerous thing to do when they knew that the Indians were watching for a chance to attack them. Thomas S. Smith stayed with the camp when Brother Shurtliff went about seven miles in pursuit of the horses which he found and brought back. On one occasion a band of Indians surrounded them and demanded their ammunition. They were told that they would not get any ammunition save through the ends of their rifles. The Indians circled them in their characteristic warlike fashion and made quite a demonstration but it did no good. The two travelers went on towards Fort Limhi, and after an extremely cold and dangerous journey reached the Fort in safety. On the fourth of January, 1858, Lewis W . Shurtliff was married to Miss Louisa Catherine Smith Moore, at Fort Limhi, Oregon"Territory, 7:00 o'clock P. M., President Smith officiating.


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"FORT LIMHI DESERTED" The Winter passed on with considerable pleasure and with some troubles. The Indians, that is some unfriendly ones, began to give the people at the Fort considerable trouble. Some of them stole an ox, killed it for beef and made away with it. Brother Shurtliff and a few others followed them. After a chase of over one hundred miles, through the roughest country they ever saw, they caught the Indians and took a horse from them to pay for the ox. On' the ninth of February, 1858, an unfriendly Indian stole President Smith's favorite horse. Lewis Shurtliff and a few others set out on the trail of the Indian, and soon found that the thief had tried to cover up his tracks by taking circuitous routes and crossing streams, but they followed him for several days, going far North and over very rough country. The weather was so severe that some of them got their ears and feet frozen and all had to go on short rations. They finally located the Indian and got the horse. The Indian said he would make trouble for them which afterward proved to be true. On their return with the horse, a band of Indians followed them but could not overtake them. When they reached Fort Limhi they were hungry, tired and cold, but they were soon made comfortable by kind hands. A few weeks passed by and the unfriendly Indians were gathering. By the twenty-third of February there were more than two hundred of them near the fort and no doubt ready for trouble. On this day Lewis Shurtliff and P. G. Taylor went into the timber after puncheons, and while they were gone the Indians made an attack on the herd of stock belonging to the people in the Fort. They killed two men, wounded five more and drove off the stock, leaving the Saints in a deplorable condition. Those killed were George McBride and James Miller. Those wounded were Thomas S. Smith, H. L. Shurtliff, Andrew Quigley, James Welch and Oliver Robinson. These men had all been out in defense of their herds. The Indians planned to decoy the people out of the fort. When the hostilities were well started a few came up and made a rush toward the fort. They hoped that the people would rush put to attack them or make their escape. This is perhaps what would have happened had it not been for the presence of mind and the stern command of Colonel Moore to "Shut that gate" to which he saw people making a rush. Except those dead and wounded all were now in the fort and they were apparently safe, even though there were five hundred or more hostile Indians outside. The men in the fort busied themselves in making the


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fort a safer place of refuge. They all kept watch at night, worked in the day time, building bastions and making other preparations to defend themselves. Lewis Shurtliff and fourteen others volunteered to go out in search of the dead and wounded. This was a great risk as they knew that the Indians intended killing them if they could. The fifteen men recovered all the dead and wounded but James Miller. They found George McBride dead and scalped. Next day Brother Shurtliff and eleven others were called to go down the river in search of James Miller. This was a dangerous task and was undertaken with great caution. The men were successful in finding the dead man who was brought back to the fort. The two heroes were buried in one grave. President Smith called a meeting of all the men to consider what should be d o n e It was decided to send two good men to Salt Lake City to inform President Brigham Young as to what had happened and ask for help. That night at nine, o'clock Ezra Barnard and Baldwin Watts set out on good horses and with the fervent prayers of the saints in their behalf. The Indians apparently did not see anything of them, but they made several attempts to take the people at the fort unawares. In this thev did not succeed. All were anxiously waiting for help from Utah. On the eleventh of March ten of the boys from Salt Lake came in, and on the twenty-third Captain Cunningham arrived with eighty men. This marked the end of a long and heavy suspense on the part of the people at the Fort. Everybody was getting ready for returning to Utah. All surplus wheat, nearly two thousand bushels were cached. President Young had sent enough relief to bring them all home. On the twenty-eighth of March, 1858, the whole company left Fort Lemhi. Ten men were sent ahead as a vanguard. The Indians followed them in a sulking, sneaking way for two hundred miles and succeeded in getting one victim. They killed, stripped and scalped Bailey Lake at that dangerous point" of rocks on Bannock Creek. Aside from this the people made their journey to Utah in safety. They arrived in Ogden on April 11, 1858, at three o'clock in the afternoon. Thus ended the first mission to colonize the great northwest, to establish new homes, to till the soil and introduce irrigation and endeavor to civilize and christianize the natives. They had spent three and one-half years in incessant labor, and thrilling adventurers, and had made many sacrifices. Three of the colonists were killed, five were wounded, and hundreds of thousands of dollars in time, expense, horses, cattle, and other property were lost. How shall it ever be repaid?


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REMINISCENCES OF INDIAN HABITS AND CHARACTER* The Soshonees, or Root-diggers, appeared in great numbers at the common rendesvouz, where the deputations from all the tribes assembled every year, to exchange the products of their rude industry. They inhabit the southern part of the Oregon, in the vicinity of California. Their population, consisting of about ten thousand souls, is divided into several parties, scattered up and down in the most uncultivated quarter of the West. They are called Snakes, because in their indigence they are reduced, like such reptiles, to burrow in the earth and live upon roots. They would have no other food if some hunting parties did not occasionally pass beyond the mountains in pursuit of the buffalo, while a part of the tribe proceeds along the banks of the Salmon River, to make provision for the winter, at the season when the fish come up from the sea. Three hundred of their warriors wished, in honor of the whites, to go through a sort of military parade: they were hideously painted, armed with their clubs, and covered over with feathers, pearls, wolves' tails, the teeth and claws of animals and similar strange ornaments, with which each of them had decked himself, according to his caprice. Such as had received wounds in battle, or slain the enemies of their tribe, showed ostentatiously their scars, and had floating, in the form of a standard, the scalps which they won from the conquered. After having rushed in good order, and at full gallop, upon our camp, as if to take it by assault, they went several times round it, uttering at intervals cries of joy. They at length dismounted, and came and gave their hands to all the whites in token of union and friendship. Whilst I was at the rendezvous, the Snakes were preparing for an expedition against the Black-Feet. When a chief is about to wage war, he announces his intention to his young warriors in the following manner. On the evening before his departure, he makes his farewell dance before each cabin; and everywhere receives tobacco, or some other present. His friends wish him great success, scalps, horses, and a speedy return. If he brings back women as prisoners, he delivers them as a prey to the wives, mothers, and sisters of his soldiers, who kill them with the *Pages 34-40. Letters and Sketches: With a Narrative of a Year's Residence Among the Indian Tribes of the Rocky Mountains. By P. J. De Smet, S. J. Philadelphia, 1843. Letter dated February 7, 1841.


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hatchet or knife, after having vented against their unhappy captives the most outrageous insults: " W h y are we unable," howl these furies, "to devour the heart of thy children, and bathe in the blood of thy nation!" At the death of a chief, or other warrior, renowned for his bravery, his wives, children, and relatives cut off their hair; this is a great mourning with the savages. The loss of a parent would seem but little felt, if it only caused his family to shed tears; it must be deplored with blood; and the deeper the incisions, the more sincere is the affection for the deceased. "An overwhelming sorrow," they say, "cannot be vented unless through large wounds." I know not how to reconcile these sentiments respecting the dead with their conduct towards the living. Would you believe that these men, so inconsolable in their mourning, abandon, without pity, to the ferocious beasts of the desert, the old men, the sick, and all those whose existence would be a burden to them? The funeral of a Snake warrior is always performed by the destruction of whatever he possessed; nothing, it seems, should survive him but the recollection of his exploits. After piling up in his hut all the articles he made use of, they cut away the props of the cabin, and set the whole on fire. The Youts, who form a separate people, although they belong to the tribe of the Soshonees, throw the body of the deceased upon the funeral pile, together with a hecatomb of his best horses. The moment that the smoke rises in thick clouds, they think that the soul of the savage is flying towards the region of spirits, borne by the manes of his faithful coursers; and, in order to quicken their flight, they, all together, raise up frightful yells. But in general, instead of burning the body, they fasten it upon his favorite charger as on a day of battle; the animal is then led to the edge of a neighboring river the warriors are drawn up in a semi-circular form in order to prevent his escape; and then with a shower of arrows and a universal hurrah, they force him to plunge into the current which is to engulf him. They next, with redoubled shouts, recommend him to transport his master without delay to the land of spirits. The Sampieetches are the next neighbors of the Snakes. There is not, perhaps, in the whole world, a people in a deeper state of wretchedness and corruption; the French commonly designated them "the people deserving of pity," and this appellation is most appropriate. Their lands are uncultivated heaths; their habitations are holes in the rocks, or the natural crevices of the ground, and their only arms, arrows and sharp-pointed sticks. Two, three, or at most four of them may be seen in company,


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roving over their sterile plains in quest of ants and grasshoppers, on which they feed. When they find some insipid root, or a few nauseous seeds, they make, as they imagine, a delicious repast. They are so timid, that it is difficult to get near them; the appearance of a stranger alarms t h e m ; and conventional signs quickly spread the news amongst them. Every one, thereupon, hides himself in a hole; and in an instant this miserable people disappear and vanish like a shadow. Sometimes, however, they venture out of their hiding places, and offer their newly born infants to the whites in exchange for some trifling articles. I have had the consolation of baptizing some of these unfortunate beings, who have related to me the sad circumstances which I have just mentioned. It would be easy to find guides among these new converts, and be introduced by them to their fellow countrymen, to announce to them the Gospel, and thus to render their condition, if not happy, at least supportable through the hope of a better futurity. If God allows me to return to the Rocky Mountains, and my superiors approve of it, I shall feel happy to devote myself to the instruction of these pitiable people. The country of the Utaws is situated to the east and southeast of the Soshonees, at the sources of the Rio Colorado. The population consists of about 4,000 souls. Mildness, affability, simplicity of manners, hospitality toward strangers, constant union amongst themselves, form the happy traits in 'their character. They subsist by hunting and fishing, and on fruits and roots; the climate is warm, and the land very fit for cultivation. I shall join to this account a brief exposition of the belief of the savages. Their religious tenets are composed of a few primitive truths and of gross errors; they believe in the existence of a Supreme Being, the source of every good, and consequently that he alone is adorable; they believe that he created whatever exists, and that his providence over-rules the principal vents of life, and that the calamities which befall the human race are chastisements inflicted by his justice on our perversity. They suppose, that with this, their God, whom they call the Great Spirit, there exists an evil genius, who so far abuses his power as to oppress the innocent with calamities. They also believe in a future life, where every one shall be treated according to his works; that the happiness reserved for the virtuous will consist in the enjovment of such goods as they most anxiously desired upon earth; and that the wicked shall be punished by suffering, without consolation, the torments invented by the spirit of evil. According to their opinion, the soul, upon its entry into the other world, resumes the form which our bodies have had in the present life.


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DEATH OF CAPTAIN MAY (Communicated) Captain William May, a well known mountaineer and trapper, and chief guide to Colonel Steptoe's command, died in the military hospital of Salt Lake City, on the 28th of February. Captain May was originally from Nashville, Tennessee, but at an early age he sought the great west, and adopted the profession of a beaver trapper. For twenty-five years he roamed over the country bordering on the head waters of the Missouri and Yellowstone, among the Gros-ventres, Minneta-rees, Blackfeet, Crows and Sioux, and there is scarcely a stream that pours its waters into the Missouri from the Rocky Mountains, in which his traps have not been. On the decline of the fur trade, be located himself on the Platte, occasionally visiting the settlements in the Spanish country, or starting out to the mountains with his traps and a few pack mules, when his funds got low, only to return again, and, with the reckless disposition of the true mountaineer, spend his hard earnings in wild frolic among his friends. As a trapper, Captain May had no superior and but few equals, either in hunting beaver or in the preparation of the skins. He was the companion of Williams, and Walker, and Cimoneau, and Bridger, and Leroux, and Chatillon, and Carson, and a host of others, whose names, (perhaps not deservedly), are better known than his. The amount of information he possessed respecting the vast territory of Nebraska, the marvellous adventures of his romantic life, and the Indian tales and legends of which he was a perfect repository, made him a most amusing and agreeable companion, while his manly qualities, his honest principles, and his kind and generous impulses, drew around him a circle of warm and admiring friends. A few days before his death, Captain May was making preparations to start for the Navajo country on a trading expedition, but he was suddenly attacked with inflammation of the lungs, which rapidly brought to a close his varied adventurous career. Before he breathed his last, he expressed a regret that he was not permitted to die on the prairie, where his life had been mainly spent. His age was generally understood to be about sixty years. He has now gone to the spirit land, that, with Indian faith, he firmly believed in; and we may hope that in those happy hunting grounds, the old trapper is at last free from all the ills that flesh is heir to. —The Deseret News, March 14, 1855.


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NAMING SILVER REEF By Mark A. Pendleton When William Tecumseh Barbee, in the spring of 1876 announced to the public through the Salt Lake Tribune, that he had discovered rich silver ore in a sandstone reef that he called Tecumseh Hill, he caused a great rush to Southern Utah. Pioche, Nevada, now on the decline owing to litigation between rival mining companies, received the news with wild enthusiasm. Over the road through Diamond Valley, Utah, dashed carriages and buckboards drawn by fast horses, heavy wagons lumbered along drawn by mules; drawn by nondescript horses, ancient carts and carriages piled high with bedding and supplies, went their uncertain way wheels winding in and out; burros trudged along almost hidden by various supplies. Many men were afoot, some carrying rolls of bedding on their backs. Other treasure seekers came by way of Ash Creek Canyon. Busy days followed for the recorder of Harrisburg mining district, for the country for miles around was "staked out." Most of the claims, however, were worthless. Judge Barbee had erected some buildings on a flat east of his famous Tecumseh claim and had named the camp "Bonanza City, the metropolis to be of Southern Utah." But the name was fated to be supplanted by a name that was new and descriptive, and that appealed to the imagination. And the greater part of the camp was to be built not on Bonanza Flat, but on the ridge to the north. Hyman Jacobs of the firm of the Jacobs & Sultan was the first Pioche merchant to arrive on the scene of the new eldorado. It was his shrewd eye that saw that the boulder strewn ridge to the north was the central location for a townsite. Observing the geological formation of the country, Hyman Jacobs had a happy thought. To the south were the. Buckeye and Middle reef, to the right the White reef, to the left the East reef. All these sandstone reefs contained silver ores. Silver Reef proposed by Mr. Jacobs was chosen as the name of the West's newest mining camp, a name that added not a little romance to the world's most unique eldorado.


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Returning to Pioche, Hyman Jacobs had his merchandise boxed, his store building taken down in sections, and all freighted to the new camp. On the ridge (in derision called the rockpile by the backers of Bonanza Flat) a store, well stocked choice merchandise, appeared as if by magic. John H. Cassidy, in a shack near by opened a saloon, and another enterprising Piocher was serving "hash" at all hours. The building boom was on. The "camp" on the ridge and the "camp." on the flat grew toward each other and became one—Silver Reef. Hyman Jacobs negotiated the sale of the Leeds claim to Charles Hoffman. The price paid was $40,000. He also purchased for Hoffman the Maggie mill at Bullionville, Nevada. This mill, both machinery and building, was moved to Silver Reef and was the first mill to treat sandstone ores. The company organized by Nevada and California capitalists was called the Leeds Mining and Milling Company. Garry Williams, a mining engineer and metallurgist was employed as general superintendent. (From Silver Reef, Williams in the employ of Cecil Rhodes, went to South Africa where he made an enviable reputation in the diamond fields.) Charles Hoffman always wanted the best and was generous when it came to prices. He would say to his friend Hyman Jacobs: "Raise the price of powder and fuse; mark up the price of candles two dollars a box. You may need the money. The Leeds Company is producing big." When cord wood was offered at $5.00 per cord he said, "That is too cheap. I am willing to pay $8.00 but I want the best." A Salt Lake mining man who went to Silver Reef when the camp was young, recently said that there were men at Pioche, Nevada, who knew that there was silver in sandstone in Southern Utah before Judge Barbee announced that he had located the Tecumseh. How they obtained the information has been in doubt. The following interesting letter which contains valuable information about the part Nevadans and Californians played in the development of Silver Reef, seems to explain the mystery. M. A. P.


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San Francisco, California, 751 Market Street, August 21, 1931. My memory is rather hazy through the long lapse of years, yet my sub-conscious mind recalls many events that first put Silver Reef on the map, and I believe that none are entitled to more credit in this regard than my father, Hyman Jacobs, and his partner Louis Sultan. As if in a dream, when Pioche was the wildest and wooliest mining camp in the west, I recall that a Mr. Shepard, a large and florid man with snowy white whiskers that came almost to his waist, with a bearing of the patriarchs of old, brought some samples from Silver Reef and my father sent them to Chas. Hoffman who I think was at the time superintendent of the New Almaden quicksilver mines a few miles from San Jose, California. Hoffman accompanied by Prof. Janney came to Pioche and my father took them to Silver Reef; they brought back samples which were assayed by A. H. Emanuel (who later became Mayor of Tombstone, Arizona). I was working for Emanuel and pounded up the samples in a mortar that was formerly a silver bullion mould. The assays ran so high that Hoffman and Janney thought they had been salted, and they arranged with Emanuel to let them reassay the check samples. Emanuel walked out and they took posession of the assay office, and the first thing they did was to test all of the chemicals. They could hardly believe their eyes when their results practically checked with Emanuel's assays. They bought the property and shortly after sent a bunch of Mexicans headed by Pietro Vallejo, a son of the famous Gen. Vallejo, down there and built the mill, which I think was the first in Silver Reef. It took some hard thinking for Hoffman and Janney to overcome their skepticism, as it was claimed by all geologists that silver could not exist in a sandstone formation, and as far as I know this is the only locality in which it does so exist. In addition to this Silver Reef is unique in the fact that native silver was found in petrified trees many feet below the surface. My last sojourn at the Reef was in 1887 when it was already beginning to assume the aspect of a ghost town. Yours, Adolph Jacobs.


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CORRECTING HISTORICAL ERRORS Elder John Brown, residing at Kanab, Kane County, writes to the Deseret News, November, 1893, in regard to the name of the pioneer who had the honor of plowing the first furrow in Utah Territory, as follows: "I see in the index of Bancroft's History of Utah, the name of John Brown, who ascended the Twin Peaks in 1847, also of John Brown, pioneer of 1847, who was cut off the Church. I wish to say that the John Brown who ascended the mountain called Twin Peaks in 1847, and John Brown, pioneer of 1847, is the same individual, but up to this date he has not been cut off the Church; he it is who writes this article. It was stated in the obituary of the late Robert T. Thomas, who died in Provo a year ago, that he was the last of the advance party of pioneers who entered the valley on the 22nd of July, 1847, with Orson Pratt. That is a mistake. John S. Gleason, Henry Walker and myself, all now living in Pleasant Grove, were of that party. There is some dispute as to who plowed the first furrow in Utah. That I cannot decide, although I was there. I was the first man who mowed grass with a scyth to clear off a piece of ground for a turnip patch. This was on the 23rd of July, 1847. How easy it is for errors to get into history.

SILK WORMS AND OSAGE ORANGE LEAVES We were shown today, (July 28, 1869) a number of cocoons spun by silkworms fed exclusively on the leaves of the Osage Orange. The cocoons were sent to President Brigham Young by Bro. Samuel Cornaby, of Spanish Fork. In a letter accompanying them Bro. Cornaby says, " The eggs were brought from England by Bishop Thurber on his return from his mission in 1866. In 1867, the number of the worms being small, they were fed on mulberry leaves; but the two past seasons they have been fed exclusively on Osage orange leaves. The worms appear to be healthy. W e have about five thousand this present year, and have had none die up to the present time." The cocoons are of large size and good color, and, with the exception of the fibre being, perhaps, not quite so fine, seems fully equal to cocoons spun by worms fed on mulberry leaves. —Deseret News.


Utah State Historical Society BOARD O F

CONTROL

(Terms Expiring April 1, 1933) J. CECIL ALTER, Salt Lake City WM. R. PALMER, Cedar City ALBERT F. P H I L I P S , Salt Lake City

JOEL E. RICKS, Logan PARLEY L. WILLIAMS, Salt Lake City

(Terms Expiring April 1, 1935) GEORGE E. FELLOWS, Salt Lake City WILLIAM J. SNOW, Provo HUGH RYAN, Salt Lake City LEVI E. YOUNG, Salt Lake City FRANK K. SEEGMILLER, Salt Lake City EXECUTIVE OFFICERS 1931-1932 ALBERT F. PHILIPS, President Emeritus WILLIAM J. SNOW, President J. CECIL ALTER, Secretary-Treasurer-Librarian HUGH RYAN, Vice President Editor in Chief All Members, Board of Control, Associate Editors

MEMBERSHIP Paid memberships at the required fee of $2 a year, will include current subscriptions to the Utah Historical Quarterly. Non-members and institutions may receive the Quarterly at $1 a year or 35 cents per copy; but it is preferred that residents of the State become active members, and thus participate in the deliberations and achievements of the Society. Checks should be made payable to the Utah State Historical Society and mailed to the Secretary-Treasurer, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah. CONTRIBUTIONS The Society was organized essentially to collect, disseminate and preserve important material pertaining to the history of the State. To effect this end, contributions of writings are solicited, such as old diaries, journals, letters and other writings of the pioneers; also original manuscripts by present day writers on any phase of early Utah history. Treasured papers or manuscripts may be printed in faithful detail in the Quarterly, without harm to them, and without permanently removing them from their possessors. Contributions and correspondence should be addressed to the Editor, Utah Historical Quarterly, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah.


HENRY

W. BIGLER

The Deseret News

Born August 28,1815; Died November 24,1900.


Utah Historical Quarterly State Capitol, Salt Lake City Volume 5

April, 1932

Number 2

EXTRACTS FROM T H E JOURNAL OF HENRY W. BIGLER* My name is Henry William Bigler, Son of Jacob and Elizabeth Harvey Bigler, born August 28th, A. D. 1815, in Harrison County, Virginia, now West Virginia. * * * Council Bluffs, Iowa. We arrived here about the middle of June (1846) and on the 22nd my Brother Jacob and John D. Chase with 2 wagons and 4 yoke of oxen left camp to go down the country to purchase provisions for Brother George A. Smith. Here the camp will remain for a while. Tues. June 30th. Today Jesse B. Martin and I spent the most of the day hunting lost cattle when we met Captain Allen who enquired if we knew Brigham Young and if he was in camp. We replied that we knew Mr. Young, but could not say as to him being in camp or not just then. With the Captain were 5 men and a baggage wagon. He was riding on his horse a little in advance of his men, his sword hanging by his side. The next day at 10 a. m. a meeting was called at Elder Taylor's tent where Captain Allen addressed the Saints. He stated that he was instructed by Colonel Kearney who was also instructed by the President of the United States, James K. Polk, to invite the Mormon people to become volunteers in the Service of the United States for one year, to go and help take California. He wanted five hundred men who could be ready to march in ten days and join Colonel Kearney who was already on the march to Santa Fe. Those who volunteered would receive pay and rations and all other allowances the same as other soldiers and at the end of the year be discharged and have all the arms, tents, camp kettles, in fact all the camp accoutrements thrown into the bargain. •Furnished by the courtesy of his son, Mr. Adelbert Bigler, reporter, Fourth Judicial District Court, Provo, Utah. This is a transcript of the journal, as rewritten about 1898 by Mr. Henry W. Bigler, himself, correcting the spelling and improving some of the diction, after a wide experience as a public speaker and an extended reader. The original manuscript journal was afterward deposited by Mr. Bigler in the Bancroft Library, at Berkeley, California, as set forth, later in this journal.


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President Young said, "Captain Allen, you shall have your battalion if it has to be made up from our Elders," and arose from his seat, walking out saying, "Come brethren, let us volunteer." Soon the five hundred was mustered into service, I being among the enrolled. It was against my feelings, and against the feelings of my brethren although we were willing to obey counsel believing all things would work for the best in the end. Still it looked hard when we called to mind the mobbings and drivings, the killing of our leaders, the burning of our homes and forcing us to leave the States and Uncle Sam take no notice of it and then to call on us to help fight his battles. To me it was an insult, but there was one consolation and that was Brother Willard Richards, one of President Young's councilors said, "If we were faithful in keeping the Commandments of God, that not a man shall fall by an enemy, no not as much blood shed as there was at Carthage jail." On the 11th, July, brother Chase and my brother Jacob returned to Camp having several barrels of flour, 40 bushels of corn, some wheat and meat, a scythe and a gallon of alcohol. By the 16th of July the battalion was made up of companies A, B, C, D and E, I attached myself to Company B, Jesse D. Hunter, Captain. The same day we marched 8 miles to the Missouri River, where there was a French trading post, where Captain Allen issued to his men provisions, camp kettles, knives, forks, spoons and plates, also coffee, sugar and blankets. On the 21st of July at twelve o'clock Captain Allen took up the line of march for Fort Leavenworth, two hundred miles distant, the men keeping time to the tune of "The Girl I Left Behind Me." To me this was a solemn time as also to others, though to a casual observer we may not have shown it. Leaving families, friends, near and dear relatives, not knowing for how long and perhaps to see them no more in this life. I bid my folks farewell and did not see them again for nine years. The secret of this affair as afterwards learned was this. Thomas H. Benton, a United States Senator from the State of Missouri, argued in congress that the Mormons were a disloyal people and if they did not believe it, for Uncle Sam to call on them for 500 men to aid in the war with Mexico and they would find that the Mormons would buck against it and not volunteer and he got a promise from President Polk that if the Mormons refused, that he might have the privilege of raising volunteers in Missouri and from the adjoining States to go against the Mormons and use them up entirely. Ten days marching brought us to Fort Leavenworth where we received our tents, arms and all the accoutrements necessary


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37

for the campaign. On our arrival at the garrison a great many came out to meet Captain Allen and the Mormons. The Captain was now called Colonel Allen and he seemed to be proud of his men although we were rather a ragged and dusty set of men. The weather was hot and the roads very dusty and it was remarked by those who came out to see us that we were a noble looking lot of men. They were wonderfully taken up with our martial music and especially with our young drummer Jesse Earl, a youth scarcely 18. The weather was hot and a number sick. I shook with the ague and also three of my mess mates. August 5th the battalion drew their clothing money for the year, $42 each, most of which we sent back to our friends to help support them. W e also donated of our mite to Elders then on their way to England on missions. On the afternoon of August 13th the battalion started for Santa Fe, 700 miles distant, Colonel Allen remaining behind to complete his outfit, etc. The road was a foot deep with sand and dust, the weather very warm and water scarce and poor and it seemed our sick would die for want of water. Company B's baggage wagon broke down and did not get up to come until the next morning. This left us without our tents and supper. Sat. August 15th. It was decided not to move camp but to wait for the arrival of the hospital wagons to carry our sick, but owing to our beef cattle getting in and destroying patches of corn belonging to the Indians, we moved forward 4 miles to Coal Creek. By this time a storm of wind, rain and hail was on us, capsizing tents and upsetting wagons, rolling Sergeant Coray's carriage 15 or 20 rods into the brush. Hats flew in all directions and covers stripped from wagons. Near by was a company of cavalry in camp and when the hail began to fall their animals deserted and put for the timber several miles away leaving their masters to take the storm in an open prairie by themselves. This place we called Hurricane Point. Sun. 23rd. We laid by to dry our clothes. Our sick were all exposed to the, storm and we fear they will grow worse. A few of them were baptized for their health by Captain Hunter. In the afternoon we had a meeting and were addressed by Captain Hunter and others who reminded us of our duty to God, the mission we were on, and the sacrifice we had made to go at the call of our country and the goodness of God manifested towards us and the hand of the Lord was in this very move and to remember that we were the Elders of Israel, etc. Mon. 24th. The hospital wagons arrived, also Adjutant Dykes from the garrison who tells us that Colonel Allen is there very sick; this we are sorry to hear.


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On the 25th, while nooning, some Indians came to us. They laid down their guns and blankets in token of friendship; the officers gave them bread; they seemed thankful and left. On the 26th, our quartermaster arrived from the garrison and announced the sorrowful news that our Colonel James Allen was dead, that he departed this life Sunday morning the 23rd, instant. Reaching Council Grove we halted for several days and on the 29th we paid our respects due to Colonel Allen by falling into line and marching to a Shady Grove where a funeral sermon was delivered by Adjutant Dykes and followed by Captain Hunter. Hera a brother and a sister died by the name of Bosco; they were not of the battalion but were with them on their way westward and were buried in one grave. Sunday 30th, as orders were given to be on the march early the next morning, that night by the light of the moon, under the supervision of Brother Elisha Everett, a stone wall was built around and over the grave to shield them from the wolves and to mark their last resting place, etc. On the 3rd of September, Lieutenant A. J. Smith who had been accepted by our officers to act as Colonel pro tem, in the place) of Colonel Allen, began to show his love for the Mormons by ordering all the sick out of the wagons, swearing if they did not walk he would tie them to the wagons and drag them unless they took such medicine as Doctor Sanderson prescribed. This our sick did not like to do and had refused because the Doctor was known to be a Missouri mobber and had been heard to say he did not care a damn whether he killed or cured, but Smith was told plainly that before the men would take the doctor's medicines they would leave their bones to bleach on the prairies. This Smith was not one of our men but he was an officer belonging to the regular Army. The right of command belonged to Captain Hunter of Company A. The honor was conferred on Lieutenant Smith simply because he was a West Pointer and not altogether out of choice of our men. On the 5th of September we camped on Cow Creek. Here for the first time in my life I saw a buffalo. The next day we passed a knoll or mound; from the top we saw hundreds feeding in different droves. In the afternoon just as we made camp there came up a shower of rain and heavy claps of thunder and one of our beef cattle was killed by the lightning. Here we have no water, only the little we have in our canteens, neither wood; we used buffalo chips for fuel, made coffee and cooked buffalo meat when we had an excellent supper. By daylight the next morning we were on the march for water, making about 15 miles to Walnut Creek where we halted for the day. Here one


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of our men killed a young buffalo. While on the march today we could see at times more than five hundred buffaloes at one sight. On the 11th, about noon we reached the Arkansas River and campled. Here the river is four or five hundred yards wide and nearly dry. The banks are low and a rise of 4 feet of water would overflow the bottom land for miles. As I stood on the bank and looked across, I could scarcely see there was any water and the view to me was a beautiful bed of sand from bank to bank. I took off my shoes, rolled up my pants and crossed over to get wood for our cooks. There were 4 little channels of water clear as crystal and about one foot deep. From this point we marched up the river about one hundred miles, camping every night on its bank. In places the river was dry but by making a hole in the sand a foot deep we were enabled to get plenty of water, but where the river was not dry and the water running, the boys caught fish, such as cat, white bass and buffalo fish by spearing them with bayonets. Along here the teams began to grow weak and thin in flesh. The grass was eaten off by the buffalo and other wild animals) and for days we were not out of sight of the great herds of buffalo, elk, antelope, wolves and badgers and I wondered why they had not left for better living for I! thought a sheep could not find grass enough to keep it alive and yet the buffalo we killed were always in good order. Tues. 15th. Made 12 miles and crossed the Arkansas River and camped. Here we overtook Colonel Price with 500 horsemen in camp on his way to Santa Fe. Wed. 16th. We lay b y ; the day was spent in washing and drawing provisions. Thurs. 17th. Before taking up the line of march we had the painful duty of burying Brother Alva Phelps of Company E, and it was believed that Doctor Sanderson's medicine killed him; he gives| calomel and the sick are almost physicked to death. Last night the camp was aroused by the cry that a star in the east was moving when I heard Captain Davis of company E exclaim, "See, see, I declare it does move." At this I got up to see the moving star but could not see anything of the sort, while others said it did move up and down and sideways. It was about this time that a mob army went to Nauvoo, bombarded the City, killing and wounding several, battering down houses and driving the poor Saints who were not able to leave at the time their more fortunate brethren left, driving them across the Mississippi River where they would have perished for want of food, had not the Lord sent them great flocks


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of quail and so tame that they were caught with their hands by women and children and this way they lived until teams and wagons were sent to bring them to Council Bluffs where the main camp of the Saints was. To-day we broke camp and marched about 23 miles and camped without wood and water. W e saw hundreds of wild animals, buffalo, antelope and wolves. Two buffalo came running near our line when 30 or more muskets were fired at them, breaking the leg of one, the other escaped without a hole being made in his robe for aught I know. To-day men suffered for water and also the next day. Many gave out and had to be hauled to camp in wagons. We passed a small pond of water filled with the droppings of buffalo and all other wild animals. This we did not seem to mind. The weather for the season was warm but we drank freely this filthy water and felt refreshed but Oh gracious how sick it made us. Along here water was so scarce we had to dig for it and when we got it, it was so impregnated with some kind of mineral that neither man nor beast would hardly drink it. Here Colonel Smith reduced us to two-thirds rations. This brings to my mind what has since been told me by Lisbon Lamb of Company D that when the battalion overtook Colonel Sterling Price at the crossing of the Arkansas, Colonel Smith being short of provisions, sent his quartermaster to ask Price to share provisions with him. Price said he did not haul provisions for the Mormons. This intelligence raised Colonel Smith's ire and he sent word back to Price that if he did not let the provisions come that he would let loose! the Mormons and come down on him with his artillery, when this on the part of Colonel Smith, produced the desired effect. Here I will say that Colonel Price was in command of a company of mob militia at Far West and sanctioned the shootings of Joseph the Prophet and others on the public square in 1838 and this Colonel Smith may have known and thought that the "Mormons" had but little love for him, hence the threat to come down on him by letting loose the Mormons, etc. Friday, Sept. 25th. We reached what is called the Big Cold Spring, where, for the first time since leaving the Arkansas ten days ago, we saw timber. Our fuel has been dry "buffalo chips" (dung). Yesterday I counted the skull bones of 81 mules, said by our guide to have perished a year ago during an equinoctial storm. The guide said there were 160 mules perished and most of the men with them; they were fur traders I believe. On the 3rd of October we were met by an express from General Kearney, that if the battalion was not in Santa Fe by the tenth, it would be rejected. It was decided (though opposed


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by some of the officers) by the most of the officers, to take all the able bodied men and best teams and push forward in double quick time, leaving all the sick and weak teams with a few officers and able bodied men to bring up the rear as best they could. This separation was opposed by some not knowing what might befall the sick and the few as we were now in the enemy's country. Late in the afternoon of the 9th we arrived in Santa Fe, in the midst of a storm of rain and hail and on the 12th the rear division arrived. On the 13th, October, Lieutenant Colonel P. St. George Cooke, by order of General Kearney took command of the Mormon battalion. A detachment under Captain James Brown of Company C, with all the sick and infirm were sent from Santa Fe to winter at Pueblo on the Arkansas River, as it was so late in the season for them to continue then through to California. In that detachment I had a dear sister and brother-in-law, John W. Hess. Ij felt lonesome after they left for I liked their company very much, they left on the 18th. Monday, 19th October. At 12 o'clock, Colonel Cooke took up the line of march for St. Frances, California, as it was then called and understood to be our destination. Our course was now south following the Rio Del Norte River for three hundred miles thence west over the mountains and across prairies for twelve hundred miles to the Pacific Coast. In our marching down the Rio Del Norte we passed a great many Mexican towns and villages and our camps were more or less visited every day by the Mexicans to sell us wood, corn, beans, meal, apples, grapes, wine, goats milk, goats cheese, and onions, the finest I ever saw, also tobacco and molasses to barter for old shoes, old boots, pants, shirts, vests, brass buttons, pocket looking-glasses and horn combs, etc. They seemed to prefer such things to money and well they did for it gave us a chance to treat ourselves to some of its luxuries of the country and to increase our scanty supply of provisions, for soon after leaving Santa Fe we were reduced to three-quarters rations, then to half, and finally to quarter rations. The road down the Del Norte was sandy, grass scarce and the teams soon began to fall and give out and in passing over sand hills, twenty men or more took hold of each wagon, some with long ropes and others lifting at the wheels, the men carrying their guns and knap sacks and cartridge boxes in each of which were 36 rounds of ammunition. Pushing and pulling, living on short rations was well calculated to use up the men. I have ever since thought it was very unwise to have left Santa Fe with only 60 days rations instead of 120 as was advised by


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his guides. The excuse was that enough provisions could not be had, nor could teams be procured to haul it. Men grew weak, beef cattle became poor and it was the custom to kill work animals such as worn out oxen and issue the meat to the battalion. The best and fattest the Colonel gave orders not to kill, only such as became weak and unable to work and the strongest and best oxen reserved for duty. W e passed large flocks of sheep and goats herded by Mexicans dressed in leather with blankets around their shoulders. They carried bows and arrows in their hands and had dogs by their sides. Some had staffs on long sticks with sharp spear points in the ends. The sight was novel. At one place the Colonel purchased 300 sheep to be driven along for the use of the command for mutton. They were a scrubby looking lot of sheep and soon become soi poor that they could scarcely keep up with the command and whenever one gave out it was killed and eaten by the rear guard or by poor worn-out soldiers who had fallen behind, being unable to keep up with the main army. Before leaving the Rio Del Norte, it was discovered there were quite a number of men too sick and weak to carry their muskets and knapsacks and stand the journey through to California. Accordingly another detachment of 60 odd under Lieutenant Willis was sent toj Pueblo to winter. Colonel Cooke now gave orders to commanders of companies to leave the ox wagons and pack the baggage on mules and oxen. It was laughable to witness the antics of the frightened oxen after their packs were on them. Some of the boys said, "They kicked up before and reared up behind," bellowing, snorting, jumping up, wheeling around, pawing and goring the ground, but they soon became perfectly gentle. W e were now some ways out of the settlements but still on the Rio Del Norte River. Our boys caught some fish and one evening a| beaver was captured by one of the guides. One of our men killed a deer and another a turkey and said they saw signs of bears. In some places there was an immense amount of broken pottery ware on the ground for acres; had the appearance of stoneware and some glass. With us were some Spaniards or Mexicans on their way over the mountains to trade with Indians, they said they knew nothing about how it came there and that the Indians of the country have no such ware. Much of it was nicely glazed and flowered. On the evening of the 12th, November, several of the boys organized themselves into- a debating club to pass off the time of evenings. T took part in the debates and although living on soup made from the carcasses of poor given out oxen slightly thickened with our scanty supply of flour we felt well and had good times in


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our polemic schools and that very day an ox so extremely poor gave out by the way. He was killed and the meat dressed and brought to camp and dealt to the soldiers and we only regretted we did not have full rations even of that as poor as it was. Friday, 13th. Today we left the Rio Del Norte' River taking a southwest direction up a mountain for several miles and camped just over the summit by a< curious spring ten or 15 feet deep among rocks in shape like a basin. Sat. 14th. Made some 12 miles and camped by a beautiful little running stream. Here we find the relics and foundation of a house 36 feet square with 5 rooms. Sunday 15th, rainy day. Camp did not move. Some of the boys brought in an ox that gave out yesterday. He was killed and the meat issued as rations. The flesh was jelly-like. In the afternoon it cleared up and some of the boys went out to hunt antelope and when they came in they said that up the oreek about 5 miles they found a large vineyard' with good grapes of the same varieties as were found among the Mexicans, the boys brought in several clusters of grapes. Towards evening it cleared up. This creek we named White Ox Creek and the valley we called White Ox Valley. Mon. 16th. The morning is clear and cool. We marched about 15 miles and camped by a weak spring, grass plentiful, wood scarce except fine brush and soap-weed which we used for fuel. Here is a large flat rock with 30 holes cut in it from 12 to 14 inches deep and from 6 to 10 inches in diameter. These we suppose were used to catch water whenever it rained. Near this place are indications of gold and George Stoneman, one of Colonel Cooke's Staff' said the indications are it is rich. Some of our boys found a lot of antelope and deer skins nicely cured and stored away in some rocks near camp, they perhaps belong to Indians, they were not disturbed, they were left as we had found them. Tues. 17th. Early this morning before taking up the line of march] a soldier of Company B. espied our Captain taking pork from the commissary's wagon on the sly and laid it on the tongue of his own wagon and his wife and the Captain's wife cut off slices to fry for breakfast. The soldier' told his messmates what he had seen, they then laid a plan to steal it, which proved to be a success and they got it. They expected to hear something from the Captain when he should discover what had been done, but never a word was ever said. Wed. 18th. Marched about 20 miles and camped on a stream the guides call Membres, but it sinks in the sand a short dis-


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tance south of our camp. The surrounding country looks beautiful. I am nearly used up, being so weak and not very well. The days are warm and the nights cool. Our teams begin to look better although the grass is dry but we find on examination that the stalks are juicy and we think it does not rain much here and the grass cures on the stalks like hay and our mules and cattle are very fond of it. I see no timber and do not think there is much water in the country. As we were nearing camp one of my messmates slipped out of ranks and killed a fine antelope and brought to camp. The country seems to abound with that kind of game and it was a risky business for my messmate to do as he did, for the Colonel had given orders for not a man to leave ranks without his permission. My messmate now had a fine supper and the cooks lost) no time in preparing a sumptuous supper. Thurs. 19th. Camp did not move; the guides had been ahead and reported that there was no sign of water except at a place about 12 miles ahead and in their opinion there was none to be had short of the Gila River about one hundred miles distant. This was discouraging. At this the Colonel called a council with his officers and in the meantime ordered a smoke to be made on a hill near by to attract if possible an Indian from whom some information might be had in regard to a route or pass through the mountain to the Gila River, which indeed brought to camp some Mexican movers. They had seen the signal and came dashing up on their horses, frightening one of our men who happened to be a little ways from camp gathering wood. He dropped his wood and ran for dear life, to the merriment of all who witnessed it but the Mexicans seemed to know nothing about the route across the country to the Gila, and it was decided by the council to follow the copper mine road, which the guides said led in a southwesterly direction through Mexican settlements where food and fresh teams could be had. It was said we were now in the province of Chihuahua. On the evening of the 19th of November, Father Pettegrew and Levi W. Hancock visited every man in camp requesting all to ask the Lord to direct our course for the best, even to changing the mind of the Colonel not to go through the copper mine country. These men had been appointed by President Young to counsel, advise and to act as Fathers to the boys of the battalion. Of course the Colonel knew nothing about what was up. These men were of the opinion that to go through the country where the enemy was stationed without meeting with an engagement would be almost impossible.


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The guides said that they had never traveled this route before but had been across the country north and south of our trail and knew that if a pass could be found leading over the mountain to the Gila River it would save a good many days travel. Friday, 20th. This morning about 9 o'clock we took up the line of march, the Colonel at the head of his command on his white mule. W e had not proceeded far on the road leading south when he suddenly called a halt, then looking first in one direction and then in another, all at once he turned to the right and swore he was not going all around the world to get to California. Ordering his bugler to blow the right and the Colonel led the way westward, saying he was sent to go to California and that was his destination and he would go or die in the attempt, and thanks to God was in every soldiers heart, their prayers were answered. At night we camped without water. Sat. 21st. This morning we were busy watering the stock till nearly 11 o'clock, having to drive them 2 miles to water that had been found by the guides late last evening. Filling our canteens we marched about 18 miles and camped without water. I ate some fruit that grew on a weed, it tasted like dried apples. I soon became very thirsty and oh, how sorry I was to learn there was no water in camp and every canteen empty. The guides were on ahead in search of water and near the setting of the sun we saw a smoke in the distance, believed to be a signal that water was found. Others of the battalion who ate of the fruit that grew on the weed complained of being thirsty and having a sickly feeling. Sun. 22nd. Early this morning we were on the march and by one o'clock arrived where the smoke was. True there was a spring of water but so weak that the command was ordered to continue ten or twelve miles further. The ox teams were still behind and orders were given for them to camp here. Water was so scarce at this spring that I failed to get a drink and only a few did. I was told that there was a nice hole of water but the Colonel and his staff rode up and let their mules drink it and the little left was gathered up with spoons by the men to moisten their parched lips. It was 8 o'clock at night when the front rank reached the water on the west side of a dry lake. The day was a day of suffering, men and teams gave out and were all hours of the night coming into camp and then how provoking it was for while marching this afternoon it seemed we could see a lake of water only a short distance ahead but we could never gain on it as it kept about the same distance off. It was a mirage.


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Mon. 23rd. Camp laid by to await the ox teams. At this camp we met some Mexicans who had been over the mountains to trade with the Indians. The Colonel purchased of them a few mules and the messes bought dried meat but owing to it being so fat and oily it is believed to be horse flesh, but let that be as it may, I thought it the sweetest meat I ever ate. Tues. 24th. Marched 18 or 20 miles, much of the road we had to make and crossed as we believe the backbone of North America. At night we had plenty of wood, water and grass. Nearby one of the guides killed a grizzly bear up in the mountain, the meat was brought to camp and eaten for supper. Wed. 25th. To-day men began t o lag and slip out of ranks and lie down until the rear guard came up and brought them to camp. To-day I saw a nice flock of quails, different from those of the States, much handsomer and about the same size with pretty topknots. Thurs. 26th. Moved several miles. Friday, 27th. A short march. The country abounds with plenty of game, hardly ever out of sight of antelope and the black tailed deer. The Colonel has sent for an Indian to learn if there is a pass leading over the mountain. Late this evening the guides brought in a Chief of the Apache nation who says there is a pass which pack animals can go over. Sat. 28th. This morning the Colonel ordered the loads taken out of the wagons and placed on pack mules and sent over the mountain. I was detailed to lead one of them but feeling so poorly I hired one of my messmates to go in my place. At dusk the packers returned and said the road was bad and the distance about ten miles. Sun. 29th. By 9 o'clock the battalion was on the march with pack animals and empty wagons and in descending, wagons were let down by ropes over ledges and steep places by men holding onto long ropes attached to the wagons. By some mishap one wagon got loose, rolling down the mountain with such force as to completely ruin it. Mon. 30th. Made a short march of about 7 miles. Tues. Dec. 1st. Marching nine miles we came out into an open broken country and camped by the ruins of some old Mexican buildings. Here we were visited by Apache Indians to sell us baked roots they call "Mescal," it is sweet and nutritious and we are very fond of it, they seemed to have known we were short of provisions. The Colonel bought of them a mule.


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My health is so poor, I can hardly travel. Every muscle in my body is sore as if I had been beaten with a club. Having a little ginger with me that I brought from Fort Leavenworth, I made tea and drank it with my food, but as to my weakness was scarcely able to march. I attribute it to poor living, short rations and very poor at that. The guides say there are lots of wild cattle here. Wed. 2nd. Camp laid by and 4 men sent from each company to hunt wild cattle. Twelve head were killed, 7 by Company B. I thought this meat the sweetest beef I ever ate. Here we were overtaken by a soldier who had left camp a few days ago to hunt. He came in minus his gun and most of his clothes and nearly starved to death. He had been robbed by Indians, he had lost his way and it was not until he had wandered back 50 or 60 miles that he found the way by striking our trail, and finding Captain Hunter's dead horse, he feasted on the carcass so as to keep body and soul together. Thurs. 3rd. Orders were given to jerk our beef but orders were soon given to be ready to march by one o'clock, by which time our meat was not half cured and we have no salt to save it, this caused much dissatisfaction. This afternoon I was detailed to lead a packed mule and notwithstanding we only traveled about 8 miles. I was so weak and poorly, I could not keepi up with the command, I fell to the rear and was obliged to lie down several times before reaching camp. This evening the Colonel gave orders that to-morrow morning the guard must shoulder their knapsacks and blankets. He was told that some of the companies had their own private wagons to carry their knapsacks and blankets. He said he did not care a damn, you shall carry them. Friday, 4th. Marched about 12 miles and camped. It is supposed we saw four or five thousand head of wild cattle. They are of Mexican stock, having been brought here by Mexicans who were driven out by the Apache Indians and forced to leave their stock behind and which have increased and become wild and to-day 4 of them were killed and brought to camp; all were bulls. Captain Hunter's wife asked her husband what they were. He replied, saying they were heifers; his object was that she might relish the beef with a better appetite. The next day we had a storm of snow and rain, it was disagreeable traveling, made about 12 miles and camped on a creek in a nice ash grove of timber. Sunday, 6th. Camp laid by to await the return of the guides who had gone ahead to pioneer the way. Late in the evening


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they returned and reported there was no more water for 36 miles. Mon. 7th. This morning before taking up the line of march we buried Brother Elisha Smith. He had been sick several days. We burned a brush heap over his grave to hide him from the Indians and wild beasts. Wild cattle are killed every day and we have plenty of fat beef and beef soup. My health from this time on began to amend and improve. At night we camped without water and the next day about noon we reached the San Pedro River where we halted for refreshments after which we marched about 5 miles down the river and camped. Bands of wild horses are seen, also wild cattle and antelope, a few of the latter were killed. Wed. 9th. We camped near some old vacated adobe buildings on the bank of the San Pedro. Here we caught fine fish, plenty of them and we had good eating. Some of the boys said they were salmon trout. Thurs. 10th. While marching down the river, several wild cattle, mostly bulls, from some cause ran through our ranks, goring 2 mules to death, while some of the men were badly wounded by their horns. They were fired upon when ten of the rascals fell. One lead mule in a team was thrown by a bull over his mate and so gored that his entrails hung down a foot or more. Sat. 12th. At noon the Colonel halted to await the return of the guides, who as usual were ahead to look out the route. Soon they returned and reported that the next water was about 20 miles distant on a trail leading to a fortified garrison 50 or 60 miles distant. They had fallen in with a party from whom they learned there were two hundred regulars and 2 cannons at the garrison and they had been watching our movements for several days. At 3 p. m. the Colonel called out the battalion on parade, using up much of the afternoon in the Drill. Sunday, 13th. Marched to the first water and camped. Monday, 14th. Clear and nice, at 7 a. m. we took up the line of march for the garrison, as the guides say to go any other way would be more than a hundred miles out of our way and over mountains almost impassable. We passed a Mexican distillery where they were making whisky out of roots they call "Mescal"; the tubs or vessels were made of rawhides with the hair on. Some of the men tasted the whisky and say it is poor stuff. A little farther on the Colonel took two Mexicans and confined them under guard as) spies. W e were ordered to fill up our canteens as we would camp without water.


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Tues. 15th. The two prisoners this morning were liberated and by sun-up we were o n ' t h e march with loaded muskets as it was said we would not be allowed to pass the garrison without resistance. About the middle of the afternoon we reached the garrison and passed through it a mile away and camped without any resistance. On our approach the soldiery and most of the inhabitants had fled taking pretty much all the public property except about two thousand bushels of wheat, of this the Colonel took what he needed for present use. This place is called Tucson and is nothing but a Mexican outpost against Indians. It looked good to see young green wheat patches and fruit trees and to see hogs and fowls running about and it was music to our ears to hear the crowing of the cocks. Here arq the finest quinces I ever saw. The few people that were left in the place were old men and infirm, with a few children, who were at our mercy and were badly frightened on our approach but as we showed no sign of fight they became friendly and very sociable, though close in their dealings. In the place are 2 little mills for grinding grain and run by jackass power, the upper millstone moved around as fast as Mr. Donkey pleased to walk. We lay by one day at Tucson, eating boiled wheat and at night I was placed on a horse guard half a mile away from camp, when about midnight I was startled at the sudden beating of drums. I expected every moment to hear the crack of arms, believing the Mexicans were on us. Soon everything was quiet. On going to camp next morning I learned that two of the picket guard had orders if they saw anything in the shape of danger to fire an alarm and run into camp and this they had done when the whole camp was called to arms and formed a line ready for action but as no enemy appeared, all soon returned to their tents and passed the night in sweet repose with the exception of those who had eaten too freely of boiled wheat and had the diarrhea. Thurs. 17th. At 9 o'clock a. m. we took up the line of march leaving Tucson, continuing our march down a creek in a northerly direction. After going a few miles, orders were given to water the teams and fill up our canteens, as the guides said the next water was 40 miles distant. W e then traveled until ten o'clock at night. Friday, 18th. Early this morning we were on the march. We could see a high peak in the distance, sticking up in shape like a cows horn, the guides called it, "The Great Horn," near the foot of the mountain we were told we could get water but not for


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the teams. At last we reached there but alas we were disappointed beyond measure, our canteens empty and the day hot as the month of June. It's time there was water but not a tithing for the men; orders were not to use a cup. W e lay down and drank from the puddle holes; this brought to my mind of Gideons Army lapping water like dogs. (Judges 7. Verse 5.) We traveled until late in the night and camped without water, men and mules gave out and were left all along the road, in little.squads and were all hours of the night getting up to camp. One of my messmates and I took our canteens and left camp to hunt water, as good luck had it we found a small hole of standing water from which we quenched our raging thirst, filled our canteens and returned to camp. W e met others in search of water1 and by the time we got back to camp it was nearly daylight. Sat. l9th. When we took up the line of march this morning it seemed almost impossible for the teams to pull the wagons and no wonder for they have not had a drop of water nor a spear of grass since leaving Tucson. W e had not marched far when we were met by the head guide, Mr. Weaver, with the glad news of water a short distance ahead, soon another guide met us saying he had found plenty of water and a little grass and to this latter place we marched and camped by a big pond of water. W e were now within 8 or 10 miles of the Gila River. Sunday, 20th. This morning I was detailed to be the Colonel's orderly for the day. On going to his marquee to report myself I found him feeding his mule some wheat he had brought from Tucson. There was another mule determined to share with the Colonel's . H e had driven it away several times but as soon as his back was turned the mule would march boldly up for another morsel of wheat until at last the Colonel turned around and said, "Orderly is your gun loaded"? I replied, "No sir", he then said, "Load your gun and I will shoot that G. d. mule", and walked into his tent. I knew it was not one of Uncle Sam's for it did not have the U. S. on it and therefore it must be a private mule belonging to some of our men. All of a sudden a thought came into my mind not to cause the mule to be killed and I took from my cartridge box a cartridge, clapped it in my mouth and with my teeth tore off the bullet end and put the ball in my pocket and emptied the powder into my musket and rammed the paper on top of it. Pretty soon out came the Colonel walking up to me, seized my gun and ran up within ten feet of the mule, standing broadside and fired. The moment he saw the mule was not hurt he dropped the musket and with an oath said, "You did not load that gun right." His bugler and others who saw


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the trick nearly split their sides with laughter, the Colonel walked into his tent and I have wondered how it was he did not punish me for disobeying his order. When we reached the Gila River we were met by Pima Indians who came out by hundreds, men, women and children. The Chief seemed pleased to see us. He said Mexicans had been to see him and wanted him and his men to join them and give us battle, promising him and his men all the spoil. But he told them, his men should not fight. They had never shed the blood oT a white man and for that reason he was not afraid of the coming army and did not believe we would hurt them and had no objections to our passing through their towns. The Colonel bought of the Chief one hundred bushels of corn to feed the teams. From the time we left Tucson until arriving at the Gila River' there was not grass enough scarcely to fill one hungry mule. The whole face of the country bare and much of the soil is composed of sand and clay packed together firmly having a hard smooth surface that reflected light like a mirror and there is no timber except a species of cactus that the boys called Joshuas, they grew 40, 50 and 60 feet high, perfectly straight without a limb and measured a foot and 18 inches in diameter; once in a while there would be one with two to six branches; the branches ran out horizontally for a short distance and then turning at right angles rose vertically parallel with the main body. Near the top of some of these trees or Joshuas we saw scores and perhaps a hundred Indian arrows sticking and for what purpose they were shot there is left to conjecture. At the Gila we struck General Kearney's trail. He had crossed the mountain above on pack mules and came down the river. Mon. 21st. W e camped in the village of the Pimas and I understand their settlements extend down the river for 25 miles number about five thousand souls. I think the Pimas are the finest looking Indians I have ever seen and the largest. Here the Chief turned over to Colonel Cooke some mules and merchandise that General Kearney had left in his charge for this purpose. The Chief said that the Mexicans had been to him representing themselves being part of the army and demanded the goods saying the Colonel had sent for them but he did not believe them and would not let the goods go. Now he was glad to see us and believed we were the right ones. The Indians brought to camp lots of corn, beans, meal and pumpkins to trade for clothes, buttons, beads, needles and thread, money they refused, saying it was no good and of no use to them and they seemed to live well.


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We saw a great many ponies, mules and donkeys, also poult r y ; they raise cotton and manufacture it into cloth for blankets and breech clouts. The Chief said they believed God put them on earth and gave them their lands and they worked for their living. They did not rob nor steal, nor kill and plunder like other Indians. I saw their squaws spinning and weaving, their spinning was simply done by twisting a stick, winding the thread around it. Their looms were 4 sticks about four feet long laid on the ground like this • four square. The spinning and weaving was a slow and tedious process. Our Colonel bought a beef of the Chief. Fri. 25th. To-day our mess got a fine watermelon of the Indians and feasted on it as it is Christmas day. Sun. 27th. To-day the Colonel dispatched two guides with a few men to California for fresh mules and beef cattle with instructions to return as soon as possible. Mon. 28th. W e now are out of the Pima settlements. To-day we passed a mass or rocks on our right, covered with pictures of birds, serpents and men. Thurs. Dec. 31st. To-day we met and camped near some Mexican families who were on their way to Chihuahua. They -say they met General Kearney 18 days ago near the Pueblo in California. Here the Colonel ordered two wagons to be unloaded, their boxes put into the Gila! River and loaded with corn, bacon, and flour and set down the river with men to man them, with instructions to haul in every afternoon and camp with the command. This move of the Colonel's we did not like and we had forebodings it would not be a success. January, 1847 Friday, Jan. 1st. In getting the mules we found four dead ones, believed to have died with thirst as the Colonel had given orders not to water the stock only when the bugle sounded for that purpose and he had forgotten to have) them watered. There was a pond of salt water in their range and they may have killed themselves by drinking from it. Sun. 3rd. To-day we made a few miles and camped and cut down some cottonwood trees for the mules to get the bark and for the cattle to browse on, there being no grass. Our boats have not come up since they left on the first and the Colonel has sent up the river to know what is the matter and this evening a report came in that the boats had run aground and it was doubtful about their coming any further. This morning we found 2 more dead mules.


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Wed. 6th. This evening the boats arrived minus the provisions. Part of it had been put ashore and part left on a sandbar in the middle of the river. A Corporal and some Privates with mules were sent up the river after the provisions left and if the Indians have gotten it and the Corporal fails to get it, it will leave this army in a starving condition. Thurs. 7th. To-day we had some bad road and camped at the end of a mountain the guides call "The Devil's Point". This evening the provisions on hand were weighed and found to be only nine days of half rations and poor at that and it is said it will take us at least twelve days yet to reach the first settlement in California. Fri. 8th. Camped near the mouth of the Gila River. No Corporal and provisions yet. Sat. 9th. Marched 12 miles through heavy sand and camped on the bank of the Colorado River. This morning we found one of the mules dead, the teams are weak and poor, having nothing to eat. This morning we left 2 wagons and harness. W e have nothing to eat but very poor beef and mutton and hardly any flour and the Doctor says the meat is unhealthy and that he had seen meat sold, that the seller had been fined five hundred dollars for selling much better meat. Our beef is so poor that it is jelly-like and' the hide full of grubs. Sun. 10th. This morning we commenced ferrying our baggage over the river on wagon boxes. Two mules were drowned while crossing. While the boats were running a number of soldiers were detailed to gather and sack up large quantities of mesquite to be taken along for mule feed. The soldiers ground some in coffee mills and mixed it half and half with flour and made bread of it but we soon had to leave off eating it as it produced constipation to an alarming extent. Mon. 11th. Completed the ferrying and marched 15 miles and camped by a well that General Kearney had dug, but it was dry. In it was a dead wolf; it was cleaned out and dug deeper and another well was dug, when we had plenty of water. This afternoon was hot and the road very sandy. Teams gave out and two wagons left and the baggage packed on mules. Tues. 12th. Two more wagons were left; the probability is they will be sent for from California. Marched 10 miles. Here Major Cloud cached a trunk of tools and some other articles. Made a short march. Wed. 13th. Marched 15 miles and camped by'another well that had been dug by General Kearney but it was dry and in it were four dead wolves, the well was soon cleaned out and dug deeper and another well dug and we now have plenty of water.


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Thrus. 14th. This morning twenty-four men were detailed to go ahead under Lieutenant Stoneman and Weaver, our chief guide, to go ahead 25 miles to a certain place an dig for water. We marched 15 miles and camped without water. Fri. 15th. Early this morning we saw a rainbow. Started at sunrise and marched 10 miles to where the 24 men were digging for water and when reached it proved to be poor and not plenty. Here we met the men that were sent to California by the Colonel for fresh mules and beef cattle. The Colonel ordered one of the beeves slaughtered and cooked so that we should be on the march again in one hour and a half. Our flour, sugar, salt and coffee being exhausted, one beef was not enough to feed a battalion of hungry men. The mules had never been broken and there was a lively time when they were harnessed in but they had to submit. Here was the first time that the soldiers had ever seen any lassoing done, it was fun to see the native Californians throw their lassoes and catch mules or a beef. We marched until dark and camped without water. Sat. 16th. At midnight we took up the line of march and at 3 o'clock in the afternoon reached a nice running stream of water. We have traveled now 50 or 60 miles without water and over a very sandy road and under a hot sun. Twenty of the mules gave out and were left to take care of themselves and it was a time of suffering among the men on account of hunger and thirst for we have not had a bite to eat for more than 24 hours. The first men who reached the water carried full canteens to their compainons who had lain down exhausted by the wayside, but at last all the men got up to camp. One mule was lost with his pack. The men that were sent up the Gila River after the lost provisions have not returned. Sun. 17th. Clear day, 10 miles and camped between 2 mountains, here we have plenty of water and some grass. To-day a very poor ox gave out and some of the men who were too weak to keep up with the command fell behind, killed the ox, roasted meat and prepared to stay by the carcass and eat until they were driven forward by the rear guard. Mon .18th. Clear and nice, frogs are singing. Camp did not move, the day was spent in cleaning our muskets, they were filled with dust and sand, also washing and mending our ragged clothes. One of the soldiers shot a crow, it proved to be a fat one, he picked it, dressed, cooked and ate it, he said it was good eating. Some of the boys went to the top of a mountain south of our camp and amused themselves by rolling large boulders down the mountain making a noise like peals of thunder, fairly shak-


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ing the earth like an earthquake, while others in camp sang songs, fiddled and danced; this got away with the ColOnel and he swore that he did not see how it was when the men could hardly keep up with the command but when they got into camp, by G. d. the fiddle was going and the men dancing. Late in the evening an Indian brought a letter to the Colonel, the particulars I could not learn but rumor in camp says it is from General Kearney who has had a battle and lost 15 or 20 of his men and himself wounded. Tues. 19th. A hard day's march, having to make a road up a mountain by moving large rocks out of the way and attaching ropes to the wagons and men to pulling and others putting their shoulders to the wheels and helping the teams, when at last we gained the top of the mountain. Before us lay a nice little valley; here were some old Indian lodges and here it was that I first saw the wild sage or sage brush. Crossing the valley we turned up a ravine to cross a mountain, the channel was so narrow and rocky that we had to take the wagons apart and carried them and their loads through the channel and by night we reached the top of the mountain and camped without water and no wood except fine brush. The night was cold and our clothes in rags and tatters and feet nearly bare. Wed. 20th. By daylight we were on the march, we soon came to a nice little stream of water where a few Indians are living. A halt was made for breakfast. Here I see young green grass making its appearance. After breakfast we marched a few miles and camped under oak trees that the guides call, "Live oak trees." Thurs. 21st. Marched 10 miles, when we reached Warner's ranch, the first home of a white man. Mr. Warner is a native of Maine and has 15 square leagues of land and 3000 head of cattle. Our Colonel got of Mr. Warner a few fat beef cattle and has ordered that every soldier shall have four pounds and a half daily, but it is flat eating without bread or salt. Friday, 22nd. Camp did not move. W e rested and spent the day eating our \y> pounds of fresh beef. We are encamped under a large live oak tree, the circuit of its shadow at noon is about one hundred yards. Half a mile away the boys say is a warm spring where they had a nice bath. Sat. 23rd. At eight this morning we took up the line of march, in the afternoon it began to rain and the weather turned cold and on the mountain each side of us we could see it snowing. The wind arose and blew almost a hurricane. The Colonel halted to camp and undertook to pitch our tents but the wind blew them down almost as fast as we put them up. Hats flew in all directions and it continued to storm all the night.


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Sun. 24th. This morning 4 mules were found dead and it was a pitiful sight to see the poor beasts that survived the storm, shivering and shaking with cold and the ground was so soft that we moved camp a short distance to where there is timber to shelter us from the storm. It soon cleared up and the ground began to settle and the road was good. Mon. 25th. Clear and nice. Marched about 15 miles and camped in one of the nicest valleys I ever saw. I was so unwell and felt so poorly, I lagged behind and did not get up to camp until nearly dusk. Here we were met by an express messenger from General Kearney with orders for us to march to San Diego where he is in quarters. This pleased us as the expressman, Mr. Walker, said that a ship-load of provisions was daily expected to arrive at that place from the Sandwich Islands. Tues. 26th. While fording a creek the water being high from the late rains and the current swift as a mill-tail and the fording bad, every officer got a complete ducking, except the Colonel. Their mules fell from under them and footmen waded, the whole battalion was completely wet. Soon the Colonel made camp, wood was plentiful, fires were made and in a little while all was made dry. Here herds of fine fat cattle are seen in all directions and a few were ordered to be killed for the use of the command. The Doctor advised the men to broil the meat instead of boiling it as we had no salt nor bread. Wed. 27th. Clear and nice. The country seems to be alive with cattle, horses, mules and jackasses. Passing the San Luis Rey mission we turned to the left and marched up a mountain, from the top we could see the ocean, we judged it to be about 5 miles away. This was the first time I ever saw the ocean and it was the case of many of my comrades, all felt to rejoice to know we were so near the end of our journey. At evening we camped in a little valley near the seashore. We could hear the roaring and dashing of the waves all night. The whole face of the country is alive with cattle, bands of horses, mules and donkeys. One of the guides said he knew one man who owns twelve thousand head of cattle. The earth is carpeted over with green grass and wild oats and any amount of wild mustard and white clover. I see some mustard stalks high as ten or twelve feet and six or eight inches thick. Friday, 29th. We reached the San Diego Mission where we are to go into quarters. The buildings are old and dilapidated and have not been used for a long time only by Indians. Here are three vineyards and some olive and almond trees. The Catholic Priest seems to have had plenty of wine and oil.


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Sat. 30th. All hands went to work to clean out the mission houses. They are built of adobies and the rooms are full of fleas. The mission is situated about 5 miles from the town of San Diego and is said to be the first Christian Mission established in California. It was founded by Catholics in 1769 for the purpose of converting the Indians. Sunday, 31st. Several of the boys visited San Diego and say there is a schooner, 2 men-of-war and a merchant vessel anchored in the harbor and that General Kearney the day before had sailed up the coast to San Francisco and that Captain Hunter had written to General Kearney that the men of the Mormon battalion are without clothes, shoes, salt and all kinds of provisions except fresh beef and that the General promised upon the honor of a gentleman to do all he could to furnish supplies and to fill Colonel Allen's promises to us, etc. Orders are now for us to move back to San Luis Rey Mission and there go into quarters. Monday, Feb. 1st. W e took up the line of march for the Mission. Wed. Feb. 3rd. Arrived at San Luis Rey about noon and commenced to clean out the rooms, we were nearly a week cleaning, they were filthy and full of fleas, but the buildings are large and in better condition than the San Diego Missions and much handsomer. The outside walls are white and nicely finished and will accommodate a thousand soldiers. Attached to the Mission is a large vineyard and an orchard of olive trees, peach and black pepper trees. Wed. 10th. W e were called out to drill. Each day to drill 2 hours. Sunday, 14th. To-day Lieutenant Oman of Company A, with ten men and mules were sent up the country near Los Angeles, to bring in some flour. To-day we had preaching by George P. Dykes and followed by Captain Hunter who reminded us of our duty to God and to each other. H e said the Colonel had given the privilege for us to hold meetings and for the benefit of strangers he would give out an appointment for next Sunday that some one of the Mormons would preach a gospel sermon. Thurs. 18th. This evening after tattoo, Brother Levi W . Hancock held a meeting in Brother Albert Smith's room, when all took turns washing each others feet. By permission of our Adjutant, I copy the following order: "Headquarters Mormon Battalion, Mission of Sam Diego, Jan. 30th, 1847. "Order No. 1.


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"The Lieutenant-Colonel commanding congratulates the bat talion on its safe arrival on the shore of the Pacific Ocean and the conclusion of its march of two thousand miles. History niav be searched in vain for an equal march of infantry. Half f ft has been through a wilderness where nothing but savages and wild beasts are found, or deserts where for want of water there is no living creature. There, with almost hopeless labor, we have dug deep wells, which the future traveler will enjoy. Without a guide 'who had traveled them, we ventured into trackless prairies where water w a s not found for several marches. With crowbar, pick and a x in hand, w e have worked our w a y over mountains which seemed to defy aught save the wild goat, and hewed a passage through a chain of living rocks more narrow than our wagons, to bring these first wagons to the Pacific Coast. W e have preserved the strength of our mules by herd足 ing them over l a r g e tracts, which you have laboriously guarded without loss. "The garrison of four presidios of Sonora, concentrated within the walls of Tucson, gave us no pause. W e drove them out with their artillery, but our intercourse with the citizens w a s un足 marked by a single act of injustice. Thus marching half naked and half fed and living upon wild animals w e have discovered and made a road of great value to our country. "Arrived at the first settlement, after a single day's rest, you cheerfully turned off from the route to this point of prom足 ised repose, to enter upon a campaign and meet as w e supposed the approach of the enemy, and this too without salt to season your sole subsistence of fresh meat. Lieutenants A. J . Smith and George Stoneman of the 1st. Dragoons, have shared and given valuable aid in all these labors. Thus, volunteers, you have exhibited some high and essential qualities of veterans. "But much remains undone. Soon you will turn your at足 tention to the drill, to system and to order, to forms also, which are all necessary to the Soldier. " B y order "Lieutenant Col. P. St. George Cooke. P. C. Merrill, Adjutant." 0

Friday, 19th. Lieutenant Oman returned with two thousand one hundred pounds of unbolted flour, California style, the best perhaps of its own make, and yesterday 30 bushels of beans were brought in. Mon. 22nd. Two Indians who have been herding horses and mules came in, one w a s badly wounded in the head. They said some Spaniards fell on them, killing one of their party. The wounded Indian w a s sent to the hospital.


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Tues. 23rd. Fine lot of horses w e r e brought in for the drawho are also quartered here. Fri. 26th. Several wagons laden w i t h flour, pork, sugar and ffee arrived from San Diego for us, so that w e m a y begin to Jive Hke white folks. g n . 28th. Lieutenant Thompson w a s sent out w i t h ten men and mules to bring in the wagons left this side of the Colorado River. To-day the Colonel called out the battalion for drill and inspection. T h i s is one of his d a y s for such business. Tues. March 2nd. An Indian child w a s bitten b y a rattlesnake nd died. The eight bells of the Mission w e r e rung for the funeral. Sun. 14th. A messenger arrived from General Kearney with orders that one company of the Mormon battalion be sent to San Diego to garrison that post. Mon. 15th. Company B started for San Diego, where w e arrived on the 17th. Two of our company had gone with Lieu足 tenant Thompson to bring in the w a g o n s overtook us last night. They had only brought in two w a g o n s , the rest w e r e burnt per足 haps by Indians. Thurs. 18th. To-day Sergeant W i l l i a m H y d e and eighteen others, including myself, were detailed by our Captain to take charge of the fort, one fourth of a mile on a hill from town. This fort had been built by the M a r i n e s . T h e y had dug a ditch and. set up a line of large wine casks filled w i t h dirt and gravel, and against them they had thrown up from the ditch a heavy embankment of earth, rocks and gravel. There w e r e seven can足 non placed so as to command the town and surrouding country. Inside this fortification stood a building in which w e quartered. On the top w a s a small swivel gun, so hung a s to be easily turned and brought to point in a n y direction. Thurs. 25th. Some of the boys went down to the sea and with hook and line caught a fine mess of fish. Fri. 26th. The war-ship S a v a n n a h left the harbor for New York, she fired a parting salute of 4 cannon which w e plainly heard although she w a s 5 miles a w a y . Sun. 28th. A vessel w i t h a cargo of merchandise entered the harbor. It is said she is from Denmark. Friday, April 2nd. The report is that General T a y l o r has defeated Santa Ana with 10,000 while he only had 4,000 men. Sun. 4th. Had meeting to-day. Sergeant H y d e preached from the 14th chapter and 16th and 17th verses. M a n y citizens, offi足 cers, and sailors of vessels in the harbor were present. Mon. 5th. Spent the day mending m y r a g g e d clothes, made a pair of trousers out of old sail duck or sail cloth. o n S

0

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Thurs. 8th. The ship Barnstable from San Francisco brought 40 barrels of flour for Company B, with instructions from Colonel Cooke to our Captain to give his men full rations of flour and a pound and a half of beef daily to each soldier. This talks like business. Wed. 14th. This evening William Garner one of my messmates, baptized a marine by the name of Beckworth; he belonged to the U. S. frigate Congress, commanded by Commodore Stockton. This no doubt is the first baptism in California ever performed by an Elder in Israel in this dispensation. By this time we had become very short of everything and no money to buy more and everything we had in the clothing line was in rags. W e were forced to cut up our tents to make shirts and pants and this too, contrary to the wishes of our Captain. Fri. 16th. A mail arrived from San Francisco with news that a regular mail to make the round trip in 14 days has been established between that place and this. The distance is about 500 miles and this is the first trip. Wed. 28th. To-day something in human form was seen on the streets of San Diego begging for food. He claims to have been one of Fremont's men and says he has been traveling in the Rocky mountains for several years. He is the worst looking person I ever saw. He is disabled in one of his shoulders and has a wound in his head. Brother Horace M. Alexander of our company knew him. The rascal acknowledged that he was one of the mob who massacred 18 or 20 of the Saints at Haun's -mill in Missouri, and begged to be forgiven for the part he took in the slaughter. Sun. May 2nd. The mail brings word that our men at Los Angeles are making cartridges to be prepared for an attack by Fremont, who is at the head of three or four hundred men, swearing they will kill every damned Mormon in the country. Mon. 3rd. Major McCloud our paymaster arrived and we drew our six months' pay, $42 each. Tues. 4th. The Haun's mill beggar was convicted to-day for stealing a pocket-knife and is made to work in the "doby" yard. Wed. 5th. To-day I went with two of our brethren to hunt for timber suitable to make pack-saddles to be used on our trip for home. Not finding any we went to the bay to hunt for clams to roast. Here we found the skeleton of a whale, said to have been a small whale; the ribs were 9 feet long and nearly a foot wide. The joints of the backbone we broke assunder or apart from each other and carried two of them to the fort to be used for seats, they were bleached nice and white and very light. Our Captain has given his men the privilege to take jobs and work from the citizens of San Diego.


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Mon. 10th. I went with several brethren, six miles out in the country to cut wood for burning bricks as some of our men are going to make brick and burn them. Sun. 16th. The mail brings word that General Kearney and Colonel Cooke start to-morrow morning for Washington, D. C. Sun. 23rd. To-day our fort was visited by a party of Spanish ladies and gentlemen; they were well dressed and our boys pronounced the ladies very handsome. The women dress in silks and satins. Wed. 26th. To-day we began to purchase wild horses and mules and to break them, to be used on our journey home. The prices for horses are from three to seven dollars and mules are from nine to fifteen dollars each. Sun. 30th. A letter from San Francisco says that Sam Brannan has gone to meet the immigrants coming overland and that our brethren who arrived in California by the ship Brooklyn have planted 145 acres in wheat, corn, and potatoes, etc. Mon. June 14th. News has reached us that General Taylor has subdued Santa Ana, whereon we gave the General a cheer of twenty rounds of cannon. Tues. 22nd. The ship Vandalia sailed for Boston, taking mail with her, on which I have mailed letters to friends in Virginia. William Garner and I worked at digging a well for Mr. Fitch of San Diego. Thurs. 24th. Lieutenant Robert Clift of Company B was appointed alcalde (justice of the peace) for San Diego. Tues. 29th. Several of our men commenced to make brick and to put up a kiln of several thousand brick to burn for a Spaniard in San Diego by the name of Don Juan Bandini. Sunday, July 4th. At daylight five pieces of artillery were fired from our fort to welcome in the birthday of American Independence, after which we marched in order down into town and gave our officers a hearty salute of musketry, also cheering the whole town. This seemed to take so well with the citizens that they brought out all the wine and brandy we wished to drink and a great deal more. Orders were now given for Company B to be ready to march in four days for Los Angeles, there to be discharged with the rest of the battalion om the 16th, this to us was good news. The citizens of San Diego now began to plead with us to reenlist, saying that they know as soon as we leave they will catch hell, not only that but say they would much rather have us than the dragoons and'marines, that we were peaceful and minded our own business, that we were quiet and industrious, and had greatly improved their town, etc. One of their men said that when he heard that the Mormons were coming to San Diego


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he was inclined to leave, and take his family with him for he had been told we were bad people and would steal everything we could lay our hands on and that their women would be in great danger when out alone, but to his surprise he had learned the contrary. Thurs. 8th. Our masons finished laying up a brick house to be used for a court-house and for schools. This is said to be the first brick made and the first building in California. Brothers Philander Colton, Henry Wilcox, Rufus Stoddard and William made and burnt a kiln of forty thousand bricks and besides the court-house we paved with bricks' some of their yards. W e dug wells and walled them up with bricks, they had no wells before. Brother Sidney Willis made log pumps and put into some of the wells and our carpenters did considerable fixing up and completing rooms in their houses and they did not want us to leave, saying, "Mormons much bueno" (good). Soon as the last brick was laid up on the court-house, the citizens of the town made a great feast or banquet, setting out a table, loading it with eatables of the best kind, and drinks of brandy and other drinks, etc. and seemed to be surprised that we did not drink more freely. Friday, 9th. W e left for Los Angeles, where we arrived on the 15th and the 16th the battalion was discharged from service. I felt thankful to God that I was free. From some cause we were not paid off until the 19th of July. All this time Uncle Sam's representatives were seeking volunteers, urging the men to reenlist. One company from our ranks entered the service for six months and was sent to San Diego under Captain Davis. On the evening of the 20th, all those who were going home (and where that was, no one in camp knew where that was) met together and appointed Elisha Everett and nine or ten others to act as pioneers by going ahead and selecting the way we should travel. The next morning, Wed. 21st., Captain Everett and company, myself, one of the number, set forward, leaving the main camp to complete their organization which was to be in companies of hundreds, fifties and tens. Our course was now up the Los Angeles River in a northerly direction. At noon we camped for the balance of the day and night. We felt like birds let out of a cage, it being just one year since we took up the line of march at Council Bluffs. The next day, Thurs. 22nd., we passed over twelve miles of very sandy plains. Reaching General Pico's ranch, we halted a short time and bought some fine pears and also took a little wine for our stomachs sake. W e went a few miles farther, we camped


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where we have excellent feed and good water. Mr. Pico visited our camp. He was affable, good natured as well as good looking. H e was a fine specimen of humanity, well dressed, wearing a red silk sash around his body. He bore in his hand a lance and showed us how it was used, maneuvering it as if in action with an enemy. Fri. 23rd. To-day we crossed a mountain by a steep and narrow trail, so narrow that if a pack animal should make a false step, he would tumble hundreds of feet and here I saw to my surprise that a Spanish cart had traveled this dangerous road. Crossing the mountain we made an early camp by a small stream of water in a nice grove of young cottonwood trees. I cut the first three letters of my name on one of the trees. An Indian family traveled with us to-day. Sat. 24th. Traveled a few miles and camped near a Spanish ranch. Here we concluded to stop and wait until the company behind overtakes us. Tues. 27th. To-day we were overtaken by the rear company, when it was agreed to purchase cattle to drive along to kill for beef, when accordingly we bought 45 head of fine, fat, three year olds at six dollars per head, amounting to 270 dollars. Wed. 28th. To-day we broke camp, driving our cattle before us. We found them to be very wild and hard to drive. They would charge at_ us and our horses, and in crossing a mountain densely covered with brush we lost fifteen head. Thurs. 29th. To-day we lost three of our cattle. Fri. 30th. This morning the company concluded to stop and kill what cattle are left and save our beef before we lost any more. Wood for fires was plentiful, crotches were cut and drove into the ground upon which scaffolds were made, the meat cut up in thin slices and laid on them and nicely jerked. Sat. 31st. The pioneers set forward leaving the camp to complete the drying business and then to follow on our trail. In the evening we camped in a canyon of the mountain. He we find cut on a tree near camp the name Peter Le Beck, killed by a bear, Oct. 17th, 1837. Near by was the skull and bleached bones of a grizzly bear. I felt sorry for the poor man and called to mind that temples would be built and the dead would be baptized for by their friends and hence I make a note of this. Since then a man told me that the bark had grown over the letters, leaving the print of the letters on the inside and that the bark had been taken off and put in the Los Angeles museum. Sunday, August 1st. W e broke camp at six in the morning and continued three miles down the canyon, when we entered a large open country called Tulare Valley. We saw herds of antelope and some elk.


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There is a river running through this valley which our Indian guide says we cannot cross with our animals, and here he left us because he was not acquainted with the road any further. Mon. 2nd. W e remained here until 2 p. m., when we were overtaken by the company behind, when all hands moved up the river six miles and camped for the night, but oh, gracious, how bad the gnats and the mosquitos were. Captain Everett has gone to an Indian village to seek a guide to pilot us on our way for a few days. He was gone all night. The next morning, August 4th, he returned to camp with several Indians, one of them promised to go with us as guide for a few days. The Indians told us that we would have to travel up the river about twenty miles before we could cross. We gave them a few presents and continued our journey for about twenty miles, then we crossed it. Some made a raft to carry over their things, others waded, carried things on their heads. Our animals swam the river, it is about fifty yards wide and abounds with fish. The second day after starting, the Indian who agreed to travel with us a few days as guide, refused to go any farther because we would not hire his entire company, eight in number. We were now without a guide. Leaving the great valley on our left, we traveled over hills and lofty mountains and camped where water Was so scarce that we were watering our animals all night. August 7th. Today we had a hard day's travel among hills. After] supper the camp was called together by the sound of Captain Everett's fife, when Father Pettegrew and Levi W. Hancock took charge of the meeting and exhorted the camp to be faithful in keeping the Commandments of God, and settled some misunderstandings that existed in the camp. Sun. 8th. This morning we sent to an Indian village to get a guide. Several came to camp, when two of them agreed to go with us a couple of days. They say it is a long way to the next water, but they do not seem to know much about the country ahead of us. Mon. 9th. Had a good road, made about 25 miles and camped on a beautiful river, where we are visited by Indians who say they believe we are good men and that they will not steal our horses. Tues. 10th. The next morning we crossed the river. W e had to make a raft to take our things over and our animals swam it. We passed through an Indian town where we saw large quantities of fish and roots hung up in the sun to dry. Passing a few miles on we camped in a grove of oak timber by a slough. (To be continued)


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AMERICAN POSTS (Continued) By EDGAR M. LEDYARD, President UTAH HISTORICAL LANDMARKS ASSOCIATION SUITE 508 CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, SALT LAKE CITY

Fort Laramie (Continued from Page 96, Volume 3, Number 3, Utah Historical Quarterly.) "Fort William was erected on the east (north) bank of the Laramie, about three-quarters of a mile from the junction with the Platte. Later (possibly in 1841), the company built another and larger fort on the same side of the river, about a mile upstream, and thereupon abandoned, leased or sold the first building. It was the new post that became the famous Fort Laramie, so named by the owners. Possibly its proper name for a time was Fort John, but the question cannot at present be settled. The comments of the diarists on these two forts, their names, appearance, construction, and even location, are amazingly contradictory. The presence nearby of two posts on the Platte— Fort Platte above, and Fort Bernard below, the mouth of the Laramie—adds to the confusion. Both Chittenden and Thwaites sought, with no great success, to unravel the tangle, and doubtless others have since essayed the task. Though Palmer, in a note probably written in the winter of 1846-7, says that Fort John had been demolished, the Mormon diarists of 1847 still use the name and in such a way as to leave in doubt which fort they mean. "The real Fort Laramie was bought by the Government on June 26, 1849, after having been occupied by a garrison a month or so earlier during the negotiations. It continued as a military post until 1890, when it was abandoned. No other fort west of the Mississippi has such a background of stirring and colorful history." Not to be confused with Fort Laramie station (near Old Fort Laramie) on the Burlington nor with the city of Laramie on the Union Pacific. Wyoming. La Rainee, Fort. Theodore Talbot, a native of Kentucky, was a member of John C. Fremont's expedition of 1843. On Sunday, July 15, 1843, while encamped near Fort Lupton, several parties visited the expedition, including Lupton, the proprietor of Fort Lupton, called by Fremont Fort Lancaster. Talbot makes the


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following entry in his journal under the same date: "Metcalf, a trader, brought news from the North Fork of the Platte. Stewart's party, and some of the emigrants, had already passed by Fort La Rainee." Fremont makes no reference to this post. It may be that Talbot confused the spelling with Laramie. La Reine, Fort (1738). Canada. Lamed, Fort. Right bank of Pawnee Fork, about nine miles from its mouth on the Arkansas River and fifty-five miles below Fort Dodge. Fort Larned was built in 1859. For a number of years it was a very important post but was later abandoned as a fort. In 1882 the reservation was opened for sale to settlers. Kansas. Larpenteur's Post (1860-61). North bank of Milk River. Same as Fort Peck (Military). Montana. Lashley, Fort. Now Talladega ,Talladega County, Alabama. Las Lumas, Post. About twenty-two miles south of Albuquerque. New Mexico. La Sulk's Fort (1642). Old French post on the east bank of Mississippi. Tennessee. Lauderdale, Fort. Temporary post on the east coast of Florida, six miles above New River* Inlet; established in Florida War. Broward County, Florida. Laurens, Fort. In 1778 General Lacklin Mcintosh was placed in command of the Western Military Department in which "west Virginia" was included. The same year with an army of 1,000 men recruited at Pittsburg and Wheeling, he descended the Ohio River and marched into the wilderness. He established Fort Laurens in what is now Tuscarawas County, Ohio. The post was named in honor of Henry Laurens of South Carolina, president of the First Continental Congress. He returned to Pittsburgh with most of his men, leaving a garrison of 150. On February 22, 1779, several hundred British Indians, with whom were Simon Girty and ten British soldiers, beseiged the fort and attacked it repeatedly until March 20 reducing the garrison to the verge of starvation. The Indians were likewise short of provisions and returned to their homes. Soon after the seige was raised, General Mcintosh arrived at the post with 700 men and provisions. Colonel John Gibson was succeeded by Major Frederick Vernon. Fort Laurens was abandoned in August, 1799. This was the first post established by the American government in any part of what is now the State of Ohio. Ohio. Lawn, Fort. Chester County. South Carolina. Lawrence, Fort. Nova Scotia. Canada. Lawrence, Fort. Temporary work on right bank of Flint River, eight miles above the mouth of Patsaliga Creek, opposite old Cherokee Agency. Georgia.


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Lawrence, Fort. (Old Revolutionary Post.) South end of Brooklyn. New York. Lawrence, Fort. Revolutionary work on right bank of Tuscarawas River, half mile below Bolivar, Tuscarawas County; effaced many years ago. Ohio. Lawson, Camp. Right bank of the Rio Frio, at the crossing of the Lower Presido Road .about seventy miles from San Antonio. Texas. Lawson, Fort. Temporary fort in Florida War, on the road midway between St. Marks and Tallahassee. Florida. Lawson, Fort. Temporary fort in Florida War, four miles from Pilatka on the road from there to Micanopy. Florida. Lawton, Fort Military (1899). Six miles north of Seattle at Interbay. In 1914 Fort Lawton was garrisoned by a battalion of infantry and was also the headquarters of a regiment. Washington. League Island Navy Yard. Philadelphia. Pennsylvania. Leaside, Camp. Ontario. Canada. Leaton, Fort (Fort Leighton). Left bank of the Rio Grande, five miles below Presidio del Norte at the mouth of the Rio Conchas. Texas. Leavenworth Arsenal. Fort Leavenworth. Kansas. Leavenworth, Fort. Right bank of the Missouri River, three miles above Leavenworth City or "four miles from Leavenworth, Kansas, on the Missouri River." This post was established in 1827 by Colonel Henry Leavenworth of the United States Army, to protect the Santa Fe Trail against Indians. The post is about five hundred miles above the junction of the Missouri with the Mississippi. A large garrison is generally stationed here, usually comprising cavalry, infantry and artillery, as well as engineers. Kansas. LeBoeuf, Fort (Old French Fort). At High and Water Streets, now town of LeBoeuf, Erie County. French work on right bank of LeBoeuf Creek tributary of French Creek, in the vicinity of Waterford, Erie County. Pennsylvania. Lee, Camp. Three miles east of Petersburg. Virginia. Lee, Fort. In the center of Salem Neck, commanding entrance to Salem and Beverley harbors. Massachusetts. Lee, Fort. Revolutionary work, on right bank of the Hudson, nearly opposite Fort Washington, New York City. Fort Lee was a Revolutionary post and one of the forts that defended the Hudson. General Greene, Cornwallis, Washington and many other noted officers operated in and around this post. At Fort Lee begin the Palisades of the Hudson River. Bergen County. New Jersey. Lee, Fort. Richmond, Henrico County. Virginia.


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Leighton, Fort. See Fort Leaton. Lemhi, Fort (1855-58) (Post and Mission). Located in southwestern Idaho. Established by Mormon missionaries, June 15, 1855. Site of old mission about two miles north of the present town of Tendoy. Named in honor of a Nephite King in the Book of Mormon. On February 25th the fort was attacked by a band of Bannock and Shoshoni Indians; the post was besieged for several days. The post was abandoned on March 28, 1858. Fort Lemhi was sixteen rods square with (adobe.) mud walls nine feet high and four feet thick at the base and about two feet at the top. Remnants of the fort may be seen (1930). Idaho. Leon, Fort. Left bank of the Mississippi River, five miles north of New Orleans. Louisiana. Leon Springs, Camp. San Antonio, Texas. Letterman General Hospital. Presidio of San Francisco. California. Levett, Fort. Subpost of Fort Wiliams three and one-half miles from Portland, Maine; on southerly side of Cushing Island, Portland Harbor. Maine. Lewis, Camp (1870). Montana. Lewis, Camp. One mile from American Lake, Washington and nineteen miles south of Tacoma. Washington. Lewis, Fort. Now branch agricultural school, State of Colorado. Near Hesperus, La Plata County. Colorado. Lewis, Fort (1844-46). Right bank of Missouri River. Montana. Lewis, Fort. Williamsville, Bath County. Virginia. Lexington Remount Purchasing Headquarters. Kentucky. Liberty Arsenal. Fifty-three miles east of Pittsburg. Pennsylvania. • Legonier, Fort. Near Fort Venango. Named in honor of Sir John Ligonier of England. This frontier post was first called Fort Loyalhannon which was established about three years after Braddock's defeat. The name Fort Ligonier was first applied on December 4, 1758. The history of Fort Ligonier is intimately associated with that of Fort Duquesne, Fort Machault or Fort Venango, Fort Pitt, Fort Cumberland and other noted frontier posts. Brigadier-General John Forbes, George Washington, Colonel Henry Boquet, Major James Grant, General Henry Hamilton, Arthur St. Clair, William Penn and other men prominent in colonial history were associated at various times with this post. Washington fought in an Indian engagement near Fort Ligonier in 1758 during which he was in grave danger on several occasions. The post suffered a severe seige in 1763. It was rebuilt in 1777 and used during the Revolutionary W a r and is notable as the last fort erected during the Revolution. Due to


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the protection afforded, Fort Ligonier was called Fort Preservation by local settlers. Fort Ligonier was also one of the early express routes. Some of the express riders were Indians who could approach the post only with green branches stuck in the ends of their guns, which signal was respected. In 1896 the site of Fort Ligonier was the property of Mr. R. M. Graham, editor and publisher of the Ligonier Echo. The site of the old post was on Loyal Hannon Creek in Westmoreland County at the present site of Ligonier. Pennsylvania. Limhi, Fort. (See Fort Lemhi.) Lincoln, Camp. About twenty-two miles due east of Wickenburg. Arizona. Lincoln, Camp. Near Crescent City. California. Lincoln, Camp. Springfield. Illinois. Lincoln, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, near the city limits, southwest from Bladenburg, Maryland. District of Columbia. Lincoln, Fort. Right bank of the Little Osage River, about eight miles west of the eastern boundary of the state, near present Fulton, Kansas. Fort Lincoln was built by General James H. Lane in 1861. The post stood about 12 miles northwest of present Fort Scott, Kansas and was erected for protection against the Confederates. General Lane was a pronounced anti-slavery man. The post was abandoned in 1864. Kansas. Lincoln, Fort. Left bank of Seco Creek, fifty miles west of San Antonio. Texas. Lincoln, Fort Abraham. Across Missouri River from Bismark, Burleigh County. General George A. Custer organized his forces at Fort Abraham Lincoln; it was his last army post. North Dakota. Lindsey, Fort. Warren, Tyler County. Texas. Lisa, Fort. Four miles below present site of Omaha, Nebraska. This was one of seven trading posts established by Manuel Lisa. Nebraska. Lisa, Fort. Same as Fort Vanderbergh (1822-23). North Dakota. Liscum, Fort. The garrison of this post usually consists of two companies. The fort is situated on the northeast shore of Prince William Sound, three miles from Valdez. Alaska. Little, Camp Stephan D. Nogales. Arizona. Little Rock Air Intermediate Depot. Four miles southeast of Little Rock. Arkansas. Little Rock Arsenal. Little Rock, Pulaski County. Arkansas. Littleton, Fort. Fulton County, Pennsylvania. (See Fort Lyttleton.)


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Livingston, Fort. West end of Grande Terre Island, entrance to Barataria Bay. Louisiana. Lloyd, Fort. Temporary fort during the Florida War, north of Lake Okeechobee, twenty-three miles west of Fort Basinger. Florida. Logan, Camp. Winthrop Harbor, Lake County. Illinois. Logan, Camp. Houston. Texas. Logan, Fort. Ten miles south of Denver, Colorado (old boundaries). A United States military post established in 1889. The reservation comprises 640 acres. In 1914 it was a recruit depot. Military, post at present, 1932. Colorado. Logan, Fort (Military). Meagher County. Montana. Logan's Fort. Located in South Central Kentucky on the Wilderness Road between Danville and Crabb Orchard. Kentucky. Long Island Air Reserve Depot. (U. S. Aeronautical Engine Plant) Long Island City. New York. Long Point Batteries. On Long Point, south entrance to Provincetown harbor, Cape Cod. Massachusetts. Lookout, Fort (1822-57). Right bank of Missouri River. (Site of Fort Kiawa 1822). Lyman County. South Dakota. Loramie, Fort. Right bank of Loramie's Creek at point where north boundary line of Darke County produced, intersects that creek. Loramie, Shelby County. Ohio. Lorenzo, Fort. Canal Zone. Loring Cantonment. Left bank of Snake River, three miles above old Fort Hall. Idaho. Loring, Fort. (See Cantonment Loring). This post, frequently referred to as a fort, was in reality a cantonment for a short time, later a trading post for a brief period. Fort Loring, or more properly Cantonment Loring, was named in honor of Colonel William W. Loring, who established a post three miles above old Fort Hall. While enroute from St. Joseph, Missouri, to Oregon, Colonel Loring's regiment, known as the Mounted Rifles, established Cantonment Loring and spent the winter of 1849 ad '50 there. The writer has visited Fort Hall bottoms on several occasions but has not been able to satisfy himself that he found the actual site of Fort Loring. Idaho. Loring, Fort. Ittabena, Leflore County. Mississippi. Los Pinos, Post. Lcjft bank of the Rio Grande, eighteen miles south of Albuquerque. New Mexico. Loudon, Fort. Franklin County. Pennsylvania. Loudon, Fort. On old fort on the left bank of the Little Tennessee River, a little above the mouth of Tellica River. Tennessee.


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Loudoun, Fort. Built by the British in 1756. Now Knoxville. Tennessee. Louis, Fort. Canada. Louisburg, Fort. Commands the entrance to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Louisburg was an important colonial seaport and fortress when the French were in control of the island of Cape Breton. While the fortress has maintained its importance, the town of Louisburg is now only a small fishing village. Fort Louisburg was captured by the combined forced of New England troops and a British squadron in 1745. Three years later it was restored to France. In 1758 General Wolfe captured the town and fort before he captured Quebec. On account of its historical associations and the magnificent harbor on which it lies, many tourists visit this historic post. Canada. Louis de la Mobile, Fort. Mobile. Alabama. Louthier, Fort. (Same as Fort Lowther.) Love Field. Dallas. Texas. Lovell, Camp. Military post located near Tucson. Supplies were shipped in from Fort Yuma. Tucson was at one time the headquarters of a military district. Arizona. Lowell, Fort. Wickenburg, Pima County. Arizona. Lowell, Fort. Park View, Rio Arriba County. New Mexico. Lower, Fort. A post on the Red River settlement, twentythree miles below Fort Garry. Nearby was an agricultural settlement under the charge of Reverend Mr. Smithurst of the Church Missionary Society. Sir George Simpson, governor-in-chief of the Hudson's Bay Company's territory in North America, who visited the post in June, 1841, makes the following- comments on conditions there: "So far as mosquitoes, sand-flies and bull frogs were concerned, this was our worst encampment in the whole route." Canada. Lowther, Fort. (Same as Fort Louthier). The first record of a garrison at Fort Lowther was May 27, 1753. The site of the post is now obliterated; it is in one of the most populous parts of Carlisle. The Delaware, Shawanese and Tuscarora Indians around the post were very troublesome and many settlers took refuge from marauding bands of Indians at the post in early days. Governor Morris was stationed at this post in June, 1755, for the purpose of being of assistance to Braddock's army with whom he was in constant communication. Three of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, George Ross, James Wilson and James Smith, made their homes in Carlisle near this old post. Bullets and cannon were manufactured there for the Revolutionary army. Washington assembled 13,000 soldiers at this post in 1794 while making preparations to march against the Whiskey Rebellion forces. In 1764 children rescued from Indian


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captivity were assembled here to be identified and returned to their parents. Pennsylvania. Lowther's Fort. This fort was established in the old state of Virginia between the years 1771 and 1774. In the year last named, it was the scene of activities in which Simon Kenton, Simon Gurdy, Peter Parchment, and other noted frontiersmen participated. West Virginia. Loyal, Fort (Casco) (1632). South of the mouth of Androseggin and Kennebec Rivers. Maine. Lozell's Post. (Same as Fort Aux Cedres 1803.) Right bank of the Missouri River. South Dakota. Ludlow, Fort. Puget Sound, near Fort Townsend. Washington. Luke Field (Aerial Coast Defense). Nine miles from Honolulu, on Ford's Island, Pearl Harbor, Honolulu. Hawaii. Lupton, Fort. One of a number of early fur trading posts along the Platte River. This fort was built by Lieut. Lancaster P. Lupton. The site and ruins of the old fort, which may be seen from the highway, is about seven miles north of the south line of Weld County. The post was built in 1836 and '37 and abandoned about ten years later. Colorado. Lyman, Fort. Fifty-six miles north of Albany, stands on the former site of Fort Lyman. Fort Edward, Washington County. New York. Lynn, Fort. Doddridge, Miller County. Arkansas. Lyon, Fort. Near Bent's Fort on the upper Arkansas River. Las Animas, Bent County. Colorado. Lyon, Fort. Subpost of Fort McKinley 4 miles from Portland, Maine, on Cow Island. Maine. Lyon, Fort. Windsor, Benton County. Missouri. Lyon, Fort. On road from Albuquerque to Fort Defiance. New Mexico. Lyon, Fort. One of the Civil War defenses of Washington, D. C , near Alexandria. Virginia. Lyttleton, Fort. This fort was established by Governor Morris in 1756 at Sugar Cabins in the east portion of what is now Fulton County. The post was built to protect the settlers who had fled from that section due to hostility of the Indians. The Indians continued their attacks throughout 1856-57 during which a number of white settlers were captured and killed. The fort stood on a rise of the ground and was defended with small arms but was so planned that with a little extra work cannon could be used on it. The site of Fort Lyttleton was owned in 1896 by Dr. Trout, McConnellsburg, Pennsylvania. The buildings at Fort Lyttleton are entirely obliterated. Pennsylvania.


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Mabry, Camp. Austin. Texas. Mac Arthur, Camp. Waco. Texas. Mc Arthur, Fort. Adjacent to city of Los Angeles at San Pedro. California. Mackay, Fort. Temporary fort during Florida War, in vicinity of left bank of the Ocklawaha, ten miles south of the mouth of Orange Lake Creek. Florida. Mackenzie, Fort. Three miles from Sheridan. Wyoming. Mackinac, Fort. South end of Mackinac Island in the Straits of Mackinac which connects Lakes Michigan and Huron. On this island is one of the oldest white settlements in the interior of North America, it having been a trading post in the latter part of the 17th century. Old Fort Mackinac, one of the oldest fortifications now standing in the United States, commands the strait. The later Fort Mackinac, on an elevation back of the city, which is situated in the southern shore, also commands the strait. Fort Mackinac was one of a number of posts included in the list to be destroyed when Pontiac declared general warfare on white people in the Old Northwest. Fort Mackinac was captured; the fort in Detroit, on which an attack was planned at about the same time, was saved through information furnished by an Indian girl. Mackinac County. Michigan. Mackinaw, Fort. (See Fort Mackinac.) MacOmb, Fort. Temporary fort on right bank of Suwanee River, about 3 miles below foot of the rapids. Established during Florida War. Florida. Macomb, Fort. Near right bank of St. Mark's River, 10 miles north of St. Marks. Florida. Macomb, Fort. Right bank of Chef Menteur Pass; one of the approaches to New Orleans, Orleans County. Louisiana. Macon, Fort. This post stood on the eastern extremity of Bogue Island and commanded the entrance to Beaufort Harbor. The post was seized from the Federals on the 15th of April, 1861, and garrisoned by Confederate volunteers. On April 25, Fort Macon was bombarded by Federal vessels, attacked by land forces; the fort surrendered after a fire and assault of ten hours. North Carolina. Macumpaghra, Fort. In 1869 in reply to an inquiry, W H. Gray, companion of Marcus Whitman, was asked for an account of Whitman's trip across the continent in 1842-'43. In this account Gray mentions "Fort Macumpaghra," also "Fort Wintee." A study of his account shows that the first named is undoubtedly Fort Uncompahgre; the second Fort Uintah. Madison, Fort. Clarke County. Alabama. Madison, Fort. Right bank of the Mississippi and site of the town of Fort Madison in Lee County. Fort Madison dates from


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1805; the fort was destroyed by fire in 1813. Fort Madison as a town was settled in 1832 and incorporated in 1836. Iowa. Madison, Fort. Left bank of Severn River, Annapolis Harbor. Maryland. Madison Barracks, East side of Sacketts' Harbor. About 10 miles from Lake Ontario, adjoining the town of Sacketts' Harbor. New York. Maginnis, Fort (1879). Near Old Fort Piegan. Fort Maginnis was a military post from 1880 to 1890. Fergus County. Montana. Magruder, Fort. Confederate work near Williamsburg, on the Peninsula, Civil War. Virginia. Mahon, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, on the Eastern Branch. District of Columbia. Mahone, Fort. Rebel earthwork in defense of Petersburg; captured by U. S. troops in 1865. Virginia. Maitland, Fort. Temporary fort during Florida War, 14 miles south of Fort Mellon, on Lake Monroe. Florida. Maiden, Fort. On north shore near west end of Lake Erie. Canada. Manchac, Fort. Old post captured by Governor Galvez from the English in 1799. Louisiana. Mandan, Fort (1804-05). On Missouri River. Winter post, Lewis and Clark, 1804-05. On Missouri River short distance east of junction with Yellowstone, North Dakota. Maneury, Fort. The site of Fort Maneury was on the Maneury Bend of the Missouri about 25 miles below the Little Missouri and about 150 miles below the Yellowstone, computing the distance by water. According to Elliott Coues, there is an error in the spelling of the name of the fort. Maneury's Bend and Fort Maneury were named for Charles Malanouri who settled at Maneury Bend and with Pierre Gareau and Jeff Smith established a settlement there. North Dakota. Mann, Fort. This post was erected about 1845; it stood about six miles west of present Dodge City. For a few months, this post bore the name of Fort Mackey in honor of Colonel A. Mackey, U. S. Q. M. D. The fort was later named Fort Atkinson. In freighting days, it was 359 miles from Fort Leavenworth and 423 miles from Santa Fe. The post was abandoned in 1854. Kansas. Mansfield, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C, north of the Potomac. Maryland. Mansfield, Fort. Subpost of Fort H. G. Wright, seven miles from Westerly. Rhode Island. Manuel, Fort (1807-11). Same site Fort Benton (1822-23). Montana.


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Manuel, Fort (1812). On Missouri River near border of North and South Dakota. South Dakota. Manuel's Fort. This post was established by Manuel Lisa in the spring or early summer of 1807 at the mouth of the Big Horn River. The post was variously known as Fort Lisa, Fort Manuel and Manuel's Fort. It was from this post that John Colter was sent out by Lisa to announce to the Indians that a trading post had been established. The Indians apparently did not take kindly to Lisa's advertising agent; Colter's adventures are well known. Montana. Many, Fort. Temporary fort sixteen miles southeast of Tallahassee and seventeen miles northeast of St. Marks; established during Florida War. Florida. Maragnon, Fort. On September 26, 1846, Father Pierre-Jean De Smet, S. J., wrote a letter from this post headed "Fort Lewis or Fort Maragnon." (See Fort Lewis, Montana.) March Field. Ten miles southeast of Riverside at Allesandro. California. Marco, Fort. Also known as Ft. St. Mark; Pensacola. Florida. Marcy, Fort. On August 18, 1846, General Stephen Watts Kearney and his American Command marched into Santa Fe. On the following morning he announced that the inhabitants were American subjects and proclaimed himself governor. On the same day that he issued his proclamation, he ordered a fort to be erected. Lieutenants Emory, Gilmer and Peck, engineers, selected a site 600 yards from the plaza and erected a flagpole on which was displayed a United States flag. In his official report Lieut. Emory writes as follows: "August 19, I received an order to make a reconnoissance of the town and select a site for a fort in cooperation with Lieut. Gilmer of the engineers. This occupied me diligently on the 19th and 20th, and on the 21st, the general was furnished with a map, a copy of which is sent to the adjutant general. The site selected and marked on the map is within 600 yards of the heart of the town and is from 60 to 100 feet above it. The contour of the ground is unfavorable for the trace of a regular work, but being the only point which commands the entire town and which is itself commanded by no other, we did not hesitate to recommend it. The recommendation was approved. On the 22nd we submitted a complete plan of the work, which was also approved. It is computed for a garrison of 280 men. On the 23rd the work was commenced with a small force; on the 27th, 100 laborers were set at work on it, detailed from the army, and on the 31st, 20 Mexican masons were added."


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The fort was finished during the closing days of September and named by Kearny in honor of W. L. Marcy, Secretary of War at that time. Lieut. J. W. Abert of the typographical corps had the following to say in his report: "October 2. In a little while we reached Agua Fria. Soon Fort Marcy came into view and our glorious flag with its graceful stripes playing in the wind. In the evening we visited Fort Marcy. It is situated on a prominent point on the bluff commanding the city. The distance of the center of this work, from the flagstaff to the plaza, is but 644 yards. The whole of the interior is defiladed from all the surrounding heights within range; ten guns may be brought to bear upon the city. The slopes are revetted with adobes. The block house and magazines are constructed of pine logs one foot square. The only approachable point is guarded by the blockhouse, which also assists to protect the entrance to the fort." Old Fort Marcy was maintained until the late '50's. After the Civil W a r the buildings were torn down or repaired. A new post was erected which was abandoned as a military establishment in 1894. Half of Col. Theodore Roosevelt's officers and men of the "Rough Riders" regiment were from New Mexico; he was very partial to Governor Otero and the people in New Mexico. During Otero's administration, President Roosevelt gave the old Fort Marcy reservation to the board of education of the City of Santa Fe. As many writers have stated, the view from the site of old Fort Marcy is very impressive looking down onto Santa Fe which the old post commanded. The site of old Fort Marcy has been preserved and is visited by many sightseers every year. Old Fort Marcy is of special significance to residents of the great territory acquired from Mexico after the close of the war with that country. New Mexico. Marcy, Fort. One of the defenses,of Washington, D. C, south of Potomac River. Virginia. Mare Island Navy Yard. Reached by ferry from North Vallejo Wharf, or by steamboat from San Francisco or Ferry Point. California. Marepas, Fort (1734). Canada. Marfa, Camp. At Marfa, Texas, on Central Texas Main Line, Southern Pacific. Texas. Marine Barracks. Quantico. Virginia. Marion, Fort. On the Matanzas River at the end of the seawall. At St. Augustine; called "Castle of St. Mark" by the Spaniards. Florida. Marshall Field. U. S. Airdrome, Fort Riley. Kansas. Marshal, Fort. North end of Sullivan's Island, Charleston Harbor, Confederate fort. South Carolina.


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Marshall, Fort. One of the defenses of Baltimore, on Potter's Hill, southeastern limits of the City. Maryland. Martiniere, Fort Upper. Quebec. Canada. Mason, Fort. Wickenburg, Yuma County. Arizona. Mason, Fort. (Formerly Camp McKee.) Near Tubac. Arizona. Mason, Fort. Within the city limits of San Francisco, at Black Point, opposite Alcatraz Island. California. Mason, Fort. Temporary fort during Florida W a r ; between the Ocklawha and the St. John's Rivers, fourteen miles southwest from Volusia. (Distance for Volusia not same on recent maps.) Eustis, Lake County. Florida. Mason, Fort. Right bank of Camanche Creek, tributary of Loano River, eight miles above its mouth and one hundred five miles by road northwest of San Antonio. Texas. Mason, Fort. Near present town of Mason, Mason County. Texas. Massac, Fort. This post was in Randolph County (now Massac County), 33 miles from the Mississippi on the right bank of the Ohio River and 38 miles above its mouth and 11 miles below Paducah. Fort Massac was built by the French in 1758 on their retreat from Fort Duquesne. The site of Fort Massac is now a public park in the outskirts of Metropolis. Illinois. Massachusetts, Fort. Located near northeast corner of Custer County, on the right bank of Utah Creek, 85 miles north of Taos, New Mexico. Colorado. Massachusetts, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, north of the Potomac; now Fort Stevens. District of Columbia. Massacre, Fort. A post was erected by the French in 1730 on the north bank of the Ohio in the present state of Illinois among the Shawnee Indians. The Indians surprised and massacred the garrison of this fort. The French then built a second post near the one above named which in commemoration of this event they called Fort Massacre. This post was occupied until 1750 when it was abandoned by the French. Firmin A. Rozier in his "History of the Early Settlement of the Mississippi Valley" states that a missionary station was established on the site of Fort Massacre in 1711. He also says that Fort Massacre was later called Fort Massac and stood 40 miles above the mouth of Ohio. Illinois. Massiac, Fort. (See Fort Massac and Fort Massacre). This post was built opposite the mouth of the Tennessee Riyer in 1757. The garrison of this post took part in one or two campaigns in the main war centers, otherwise the history of the post is uneventful. George Rogers Clark passed down the Ohio River to the site of Fort Massiac in 1778 disembarking at that point


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and proceeding overland to Kaskaskia which he reached on July 4 and captured. Illinois. Mather Field. Thirteen miles east of Sacramento. California. Maxwell Field. \y2 miles outside city of Montgomery. Alabama. McAllister, Fort. The post stood fifteen miles below Savannah, on the right bank of Ogeechee River, near Genesis Point. Fort McAllister was a' strong earthwork built by the Confederates during the Civil War. It was the scene of naval operations in which newly constructed monitors were used. Fort McAllister was assaulted and captured by General Hazen's division of General Sherman's Army on December 13, 1864. This was the last engagement in Sherman's "March to the Sea." McArthur, Fort. Stockade built in 1812 on right bank of Scioto River, Hardin County, on site of Kenton. Post obliterated. Ohio. McBarne's Fort. A small post of limited existence. Events around this early post were closely associated with those at Fort Walla Walla and Whitman's Mission, nearby. Washington. McClary, Fort. Three and a half miles northeast of Portsmouth; subpost of Fort Constitution. New Hampshire. McClellan, Camp. Five miles north of Anniston. Alabama. McClure, Fort. Temporary fort during Florida War, north of Dade's Battle Ground at Warm Spring, on the Withlacoochee River. Florida. McCook Field. Two miles from Dayton. Ohio. McCoy, Camp. Sparta. Wisconsin. McCoy, Fort. Marion County. Florida. McCrabb, Fort. Temporary fort near right bank of Suwanee River, four miles above Suwanee Old T o w n ; established in Florida War. Florida. McDermitt, Camp. About one hundred-twenty miles northwest of Star City. Nevada. McDonald, Camp. Wheeling, Cook County. Illinois. McDonald's House. (Same as Fort Assiniboine.) Built by the Northwest Fur Company. Canada. McDougall, Fort. Early in 1805 James McDougall made his way through the Peace River country to what was then called McLeod Lake. Fie built a fort at the north end of McLeod Lake, later called Trout Lake. Fort McLeod bore several names,— Trout Lake House, La Malice Fort and Fort McLeod. This post was the first one built by British-American fur hunters west of the Rocky Mountains and the first establishment of its kind in the Oregon country. Canada. McDowell, Fort. Phoenix, Maricopa County. Arizona.


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McDowell, Fort. Seven miles northeast from San Francisco, on Angel Island, San Francisco Bay. In 1914 Fort McDowell was a recruit depot. California. McGarry, Cajrnp. Near Summit Lake. Nevada. McGilvery, Fort. Defensive work before Petersburg, near the Appomatox River. Virginia. McHenry, Fort. On Patapsco River, west side of entrance to Baltimore harbor, and on Whetstone Point in the City of Baltimore ; reached by trolley. The site of Fort McHenry was first occupied for military purposes in 1775; in 1794 it was established as a permanent fortification. It was named after James McHenry, one of Washington's private secretaries during the Revolution and Secretary of W a r in 1798. In September 1814 it successfully withstood a bombardment of the British fleet under Admiral Cockburn. This attack suggested to Francis S. Key the "Star Spangled Banner." Fort McHenry was used during the Civil War as a, rendezvous and a military prison. In 1906 there was an artillery garrison of one company. When the coast artillery was reorganized it was abandoned as a military post. Maryland. Mcintosh, Fort. Left bank of Rio Grande, one mile from Laredo. In 1914 Fort Mcintosh was garrisoned by a squadron of cavalry. In addition a regiment of infantry is frequently stationed there or at Laredo. Texas. Mcintosh, Fort. This fort was built by General Lachlan Mcintosh, in the autumn of 1778, on the right bank of the Ohio River upon a high bluff where the town of Beaver now stands. Fort Mcintosh was the scene of many operations during the Colonial Wars and the Revolutionary War. Pennsylvania. McKavett, Fort. Right bank of the San Saba River, near its source. Menard County. Texas. McKavitt, Fort. Same as Fort McKavett. McKay, Fort. Fort McKay stood on the site of what is now known as Prairie du Chein. In 1814 this post was garrisoned by a force of 60 men; on July 14 it was besieged by a combined force of British and Indians under the command of Colonel William McKay. The post was attacked with a gun boat and by land troops. On the third day of the siege, the fort capitulated, the American flag was hauled down and the British flag raised. Soon after the fort surrendered, the British dismantled the post and withdrew to a point further down the Mississippi. Wisconsin. McKee, Camp. Name changed to Fort Mason. Arizona. McKenzie, Fort (1832-43). Same as Fort Brule; same as Fort La Barge (1862). On west bank of Missouri River. Montana. McKinley, Fort. Five miles from Portland, on Great Diamond Island. An important defense for Portland, Maine. In 1914 this post was garrisoned by seven companies of Coast Artillery. Maine.


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McKinley, Fort. Taylorsburg, Montgomery County. Ohio. McKinley, Fort William. This post is located six miles southeast of Manila. Fort William McKinley is connected with Manila by an electric railway and two good roads. This is one of the largest of the U. S. army posts. It was begun in 1902 and continuously occupied as a regular garrison since February 25, 1904. Near Guadalupe, Rizal Province. Phillippine Islands. McKinney, Fort. Buffalo, Johnson County. Old military post. Southwest of Fort Phil Kearney. Wyoming. McLain, Fort. In 1863 Mangus Colorado, known among the Indians as Red Arm, was treacherously killed at or near this post while negotiating a treaty. Colorado was chief of the Miembres Indians and considered to be a very able man. After the death of Colorado, Cochise, a near relative, succeeded to the command and for 9 years carried on a relentless warfare against the white race to avenge the death of Colorado. Cochise spread such a reign of terror through certain sections that it was unsafe outside of military garrisons or larger towns. Stage coaches and wagon trains were frequently attacked, men killed and animals ran off. General George Crook inaugurated a campaign which put an end to these outrages. Arizona. McLane, Fort. Temporary fort during Florida War, northwestern extremity of Okeefinokee swamp. Georgia. McLane, Fort. Near one of the Overland mail routes at the crossing of the Miembres River. New Mexico. McLeod, Fort. This fort is located in New Caledonia, later called British Columbia. It was named after John McLeod, a clerk and trader in the Northwest. A new establishment and old establishment both on Peace River are shown on Mackenzie's Track from Fort Chipewyan to the Pacific Ocean. Canada. McMurray, Fort. Near McMurray. Canada. McNeil, Fort. Temporary fort during Florida War, right bank of the Chickasawhatchie about four miles from its mouth on the St. John's River. Florida. McPherson, Fort. Three or four miles south of Atlanta. Fort McPherson is usually garrisoned with a regiment of infantry. Important U. S. Post. Named for Major General James B. McPherson. Georgia. McPherson, Fort. This was located on the south side of the Platte River, near Cottonwood Springs and at the mouth of Cottonwood Creek. The post was established February 20, 1866 by Major S. W. O'Brien of the 7th Iowa Cavalry. It was originally known as "Cottonwood Springs." Fort McPherson was named after Major General James B. McPherson. Ninety-seven miles west of Fort Kearny. Nebraska.


Utah State Historical Society BOARD O F CONTROL (Terms Expiring; April 1, 1933) J. CECIL ALTER, Salt Lake City WM. R. PALMER, Cedar City ALBERT F. P H I L I P S , Salt Lake City

JOEL E. RICKS, Logan PARLEY L. WILLIAMS, Salt Lake City

(Terms Expiring April 1, 1935) GEORGE E. FELLOWS, Salt Lake City WILLIAM J. SNOW, Provo HUGH RYAN, Salt Lake City LEVI E. YOUNG, Salt Lake City FRANK K. SEEGMILLER, Salt Lake City EXECUTIVE OFFICERS 1931-1932 ALBERT F. P H I L I P S , President Emeritus WILLIAM J. SNOW, President J. CECIL ALTER, Secretary-Treasurer-Librarian HUGH RYAN, Vice President Editor in Chief All Members, Board of Control, Associate Editors

MEMBERSHIP Paid memberships at the required fee of $2 a year, will include current subscriptions to the Utah Historical Quarterly. Non-members and institutions may receive the Quarterly at $1 a year or 35 cents per copy; but it is preferred that residents of the State become active members, and thus participate in the deliberations and achievements of the Society. Checks should be made payable to the Utah State Historical Society and mailed to the Secretary-Treasurer, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah.

CONTRIBUTIONS The Society was organized essentially to collect, disseminate and preserve important material pertaining to the history of the State. To effect this end, contributions of writings are solicited, such as old diaries, journals, letters and other writings of the pioneers; also original manuscripts by present day writers on any phase of early Utah history. Treasured papers or manuscripts may be printed in faithful detail in the Quarterly, without harm to them, and without permanently removing them from their possessors. Contributions and correspondence should be addressed to the Editor, Utah Historical Quarterly, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah.


mer's Oracle. The hand of Industry makes fit Desert to bud, blotm and bear fruit, and rears ihe proudest* trttcivres of Earth. agr—i No.

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S P R I N G L A K E V I L L A , U T A H C O U N T Y , U T A H , F R I D A Y , M A Y 2 2 , 1C63.

=s==a Vot. i-

C h i c o r jr. I There is a difference of -pinion in re- producing and quick growing, and if tin i gnrd to the healthfulness cf the chicory former be no object, the latter certain!} Chicory, succory, or wild endive, is a» a beverage. Many of Lbe old Knglisb ps." not indigenious to any part of the United physicians approved of its dietetic proStates, but was introduced .here from portico. It undoubtedly excites the H o w a P e a r T r e e w a s m a d e t o Fruit. England, about 1812. Ther/ H is found nerves, and its immoderate use, like that wild, as it also is in many portions o r 0 f p U r e eofcr, is without doubt injuA correspondent »f tfao Wool Grotctr the continent. Its culture in Kngland T ious.—[Prairie Farmer. «nya.—«'X w i l l tell you of an experiment was begun by Arthur Yotog in 1788, . -*•.—, though in Belgium and France it had V e r t i g o , o r G i d d i n e s s i n S h e e p 1 tried to make a pear tree bear. About 23 years ago I planted a small pear trea long been grown as aforagc plant. For the purpose of forage, it is sown the M. Rcynal considers vertigo a disease of the Virgalicu variety. It is now a *ery large and elrgant tre«. Every Biime an clover, and at the rate of from of the nervous system, oci-,:isioned by r< eight to thirteen pounds pnr acre. Mr. a worm—the canaries rei-bralis—loca- 'pring it would be covered with bios• iiiii.s, and just after the fruit began ta Young cousidorcd it very valuable, es- ted in the brain. Lambs, from the ag. pccially for those farmers keeping a of two months, or from j-?ur to twelv furm, the stems would all fall off and -uver (be ground. In the autumn of 180 L large slock of swine. He also recom- months, become the subjects of it; unc monded it for soiling, and for fattening but rarely ever after the age of eighteen I determined to try an experiment thai cattle. It is a porremiial plant, lasting months., The disease is apt to end in -hould either kill or cure. The ground from four to six years, and even longer, atrophy—wasting of the brain and spinn .vas dug away five or aix feet around the Indeed, it is stated that the plant is marrow. In the rank of principal CIIIIKP.- • runkj, and down to the roots. A small gruwing in W*.sterii Now York, where ho places, first, Horeditarincss; second, witgon load of clay was first put in and sown in 18U. By many it is objected Intercourse between the sexes too prenm- nii.de into mortar; on the top of this I to as a field crop, on account of the diffi- turely, especially the employment of n , uta barrel of iron filings, and then over cnlty with winch it is eradicated. mm for tupping, not move than six o; Ins a barrel of air-slacked lime, and tha Chicory closnly resembles tho dande- eight months old, as is ihe practice ii iirt was drawn back over the wholt. L«istyear, 1852, the tree blossomad as livn, and, nko that plant, contains a gome parts of the c o u n t r y milky jnieo. vTh'S'rl—nort-*-«-•'» v«:y ', o guard against Ebe'diSeasc, put ou' aauul, a few of the weskrH itemsfelloff^ pretty blue, hi curly spring it makes a of the breeding-fold both males and fe- ,utt enough remained to load down* tb* line salad, nnd.ft TOWH for that purpose males that have shown any signs of th. tree with abundance of luscious fruit." ' in thu vicinity of most of our Eastern disorder, and not breed from the PWUJ cities. Th.: roots of the plant have for under the age of thirty months, nor from P l a n t i n g m i d ti i a l i i u g G r a p e i * many yours been used to mix with coffee rams until they have attained to tbei. A correspondent of the Michigan Farmid HF'H substitute for it. The present second year. And if there be any bind sayn. " F o r the supply of the family hij,h price of coffee has culled attention ing conclusions from the influence of ••• nrr •;ily, "the recommendation would be to rhc culture of chicory, and it is being first foundation or necessary ones, we •umewhat There are but too sown to take its place in all parts of the ought to put away from the llock female* many amongvaried. who plant a tree or a North. The seed can generally be oh- who, though in apparent health them fine as they us a post; and, once tained at most seed stores. To grow it selves, have o,ir>. produced diseased planted, expectwould it to take care of itself. for this purpose, prepare a bed tho same stock.—[TpinsUuon from the French,bt Such person's should conSuo thcmselvei as for carrots; sow it about as thickly W. Percivall. to tnc Hartford Prolific, Concord and Isnnd thin out and cultivate the same. i «.-. abella; as these will best bear ouch Its preparation for a beverage is very j Sugar f r o m Box Elder* treatment." simple. (.lather the roots late in the fall' To graft upon the wild vine, the simand piace them in sand in tho cellar.; A correspondent of ike Prairie Farplest and surest process is to remove tha liemovc a few of them as wanted, wash' mer says:— jnrth from the vine down to tho roots; them, cut in Blicca and dry and roast. " J have heen trying W, and am hotter ihon cut the stem square off about two them in tho coffee-roaster till they be- Batji.'icd with the quality oE tho product h ches above theroot.and split the stump come brown: grind the same as coffee. l n i i n w j t n t n a t 0 f Sorgho, although ii with a pruning-knife or grafting chisel. Make it the same as a cup of coffee. A produces a much less' quantity. Al- Shape the cutting wedge-wiaa tofit,and WTiter in a late number of the Ohio Far- though, from a little sourness of sap bc- insert it as in ordm.ry wedge-grafting. mer gives the following as the method of fore boiling, it did not grain in the kct- J i p a strip of cotton cloth in some warm preparation in vogue among the Oormans , ] e j j t 1ms since grained nicely, and the grafting-wax and immediately wind it mhia vicinity:—"Roast it tho samo as c o l o r ftnu fl,lvor „ r o 8 a t i 3 f a u t o r y a n o iround the grafted parts. The earth coffee, and when nearly done, add a n o t dissimilar to the common Sugar or -hould thon bo filled in nnd proma small tca-cupfull of common molasses K o u k M'nplo. Tho sweetness of tho sap iround tho vine. Kccollect to match th« to n quart of tho browned root, and con- u a l s o ftl)0ut t h o 8 i u n e . T h o B o s E l d e r bark oE «uo with tho other, aa in toptinuo stirring it a whilo and it will soon i s a handsome and very fast growing grafting the apple or any other t r « . ho ready for use. M " with tins browned t r C 0 ) 0XCCCUcd only with me by the loEverybody should plant grapai. chicoiy and molasses onc-lifth as much amtf 00 ttonwood and white willow, ami roasted eoii'ee, thon go on wuhyour oof- i h, c Uno to think oqii.il to tho two forB ^ * If yoa would be tolerated, bfl toU« too-making as usual; and thoso who m » r of the throe, in most situations. 1 rant, you would hoar the truth, tell ft. have tha tact to mako a good enp oE oof- • w r n , i a (ulviso tree planters to plant for H youifwouU r.oi h* treubUd, doatbt l'^ will hr. i IP. t ; t « ini) yalmble ch-u\ic tern tic*, sngat

The first newspaper published in Utah, after The Deseret News. Courtesy, Historian's Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah. A recent acquisition.

office,


Utah Historical Quarterly State Capitol, Salt Lake City Volume 5

July, 1932

Number 3

EARLY PRINTING IN UTAH OUTSIDE OF SALT LAKE CITY By Douglas C. McMurtrie The activities of the printing press in the early days of Salt Lake City have received a certain amount of attention from general historians and from students of journalistic and typographic history. But our knowledge of pioneer printing in Utah communities outside of Salt Lake City is regrettably scant and unsatisfactory. The present resume of the record of the Utah country press in its beginnings is here set forth in the hope that its publication will elicit from authorities on local history some information that will add to the little we know about the pioneer printers. Except for the printing done at Fillmore when the official press of the Deseret News was driven to that point 1 during the military disturbances of 1858, the first appearance outside of Salt Lake City of a regularly established Utah printing plant was in 1863. In that year, Joseph E. Johnson, a Mormon who had come to Utah from Nebraska in 1861, established a semi-monthly agricultural periodical called the Farmer's Oracle. The only issue of this paper which I have been able to find is in the Bancroft Library of the University of California. It is Volume 1, No. 9, and its date line reads "Spring Lake Villa, Utah County, Utah, Tuesday, September 22, 1863." Spring Lake Villa was a small settlement between Payson and Santaquin, some fifty or sixty miles south of Salt Lake City. Its few inhabitants abandoned the place later in the sixties because of trouble with the Indians. The date of the ninth issue of the Oracle indicates a beginning in July, or perhaps June, 1863. The copy before us contains an apology for "having missed the date of one number" because of the fact that "circumstances over which we had no control have denied us paper, and even the lean supply at present is of m'Aecordine to one authority, the Deseret Hews plant was divided between Fillmore and Paroj an, and the paper a p p ^ d now in one'place a„d now in the other (Charles W. Penrose. "The De S ,e<News, the Pioneer Newspaper of the West," Utah Genealogical and Historical Magaz.ne. vol. 3. July, 1912, p. 1411. But the files <.f the AVu's for 1858 show no issues dated at Parowan.


84

T H E U T A H HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

THE

rARMERS'

ORACLE.

nnd transported at small expense; thcr Those who feci the importance of tbii again our little paper is an iunovatiou abject should enlighten his neighbor, upon our customs and habits, consequent- od awaken a thirst for intelligunce and ly many will jirgue that, as they have got knowledge in every branch of domestic along first-rato without such an institu- economy nnd industry, and whilst wo tion, they can profitably continuo with strive to assist you, let us not faint for out, and will scarce discover their mis- want of sustenance. Should Jife and take until the progrcds of improvement health be spared, we expect that the has left them far behind. Oracle will be. published one year, We earnestly believe that our vallicf whether well or-poorly sustained. Kid adjacent mountains contain the elePubluhed th* first and third Tuesday in ments for our necessities, and material TFiiat F r u i t s s h a l l w c g r o w 7 each month, nough to make comfortable and ever The above subject gives a broad field J. E. JOHNSON, EDITOR * PUBLISHER. W. D. JOHNSON, - - - pRoraiETo*. enrich its inhabitants; yet it takes sci- for comment, and in the present number ence, skill, industry, perseverance am. can only make a contracted prelude to a SUBSCRIPTION, r-er Ann. *2. ADVERTISEKENTS, 10 ai • j . r line. < pplication to bring out the hiddc:* subject of such importance, but in future tltm. A f a i r d i i ivealth, and develop the many comforts issues we purpose making this a promt' n;n*Dii>l and vlenhnril, HBHU, few countries ever offered a wider field neat feature in the Oracle. T a i n publiahod » for the industrious, the energetic or sciFruit, in proper or extended variety, entific in the various details of home in- may constitute much of the material cf dustry. The farmer, through hia own human existence, and taking all the Salutatory. • 111J the experience of others, finds room range of climate in our Territory, we niny W« ar« pleased once more to say to. for great improvement in the quantity i f produce all of the most important vaeur friends, old and new, one and ail liis crops with less than former labor rieties cultivated on this continent. how d'ye do? Fate, or some well-mean [lis stock may be improved and increase" Among the most staple of these are the ing power, places us again upon the tri when an interchange of experience i.- early berries, such as strawbcriies, curpod,and so we submit, with this our best adopted. The pomoIogiBt may learn rants, gooseberries, raspberries nnd mulhow and a grand flourish of our feather. where is to be obtained the best stock of berries; the cherry, apricot, peach, plum, As we hare eschewed politics, we come fruits, and teach and learn the bcBt grape, apttlc, and pear. Of these and now to the aid of a science more pleas- modes of cultivation, propagation, &o. many other varieties, experience lia.« ant, profitable and successful, and hope Th" mechanic falls into the advancing proven to be not only quite hardy, but •ur change will not worse our readers, column,and produces,withless hrboraud from the abundance of fruit and rich flaOur interests DOT- will bo to raise pota- expense, tho aecssaries of life, and soon, vor, we Erd the soil and atmosphere contoes instead of armies—to count cabbage by division of labor and union of mean: genial to their growth. Then we may instead of votes—to s-.ick our " p o l l " for ind strength, our artizans may stay im- nuswer the question Above in rather a beans, instead of members of Congress— portations by supplying all our mo- broad sense, and reply, grow every vaour "beets" will he of the scarlet sort— important wants. With a limited re- riety of fruit whose tree or Blirub may our "o'uVs" of the gourd species—our search, discoveries have already beci be protected from the frosts of winter. " • t u m p " meetings where our cabbage made of fine beds of stone coal, gypsum This question settled, our next in order seed grows, and our "great gathering^'' (plaster of Paris), salt, brimstone, salc- is the easiest, best and cheapest manner iMtus, copperas, alum, nitre, borax, iron, of producing the stocks, starting from the in autumn—from the garden. lead, and some otaer valuable metals, at oed, and covering the whole interim of Such ii life—all change— well as springs of coal oil, mineral or their growth. First the nursery, then "i.U, CM! wbnt I. thcr* In Earth'i Tirlom rango, chalyleate maters of rare medicinal vir- the suil most proper, time and modo ol Which tine and absence 11117 »»t anrsly ch&ugf." It is our desire to bo useful (as well as tues; limestone, chalk and colored earths removing to, and care of, the orchard. ornamental), and HO if you like to try ua may also be enumerated. Wc hope our prominent fruit-growers once more, come on, and wo will promNow with tho farmer and stock-grow- will communicate the result t>f their exise the best we have. Wo want to live er, producing a surplus of coreals, vege- perience in every Vranch of this subject, with yoirhire, and earn our way among table!!, fruits, wool and cotton, and the for wc shall be glad to present the snma yon, and this last we are determined to industry of the mechanic showing itself to our readers. We shall, from time to do. So hero's our hand ! in' rearing of better and more extended time, detail our limited obecrvatiocs and machinery; our chymist dissolving, pu- experiments. We have introduced into Our Paper.i-The Prospect. rifying, melting and bringing to perfec- this Territory quite a number of new vaWE wiah to eay to our patrons that tion our mincriis, wo only need the aid rieties, and our experience in growing wc hare commenced the publication of science and the blessinirs of Heaven to nnd propagating may be advantageous. of the Oracle under circumstances rather lead us on with gigantic strides to an Wc would say to nurserymen that now is discouraging to the dollar-and-cont in- elevated and envious position among the the time to order seeds of every sort of fruit, evergreens and ornamental trees terest of tho publisher; situated fa r sisterhood of States. away from markets where necessary Wo feel a Bort of inspiration to at- and shrubbery. "naterinl can only be obtained, and pur- tempt assistance in this great cause that Setting aside the comfort and convenichased at great expense, for cash only. underlies our prosperity, nnd is the ence of having an abundance of fruit in Then wo are sadly annoyed for want of foundation of all social enjoyment; variety, there is now no crop grown that Sm ejtfwngft that **t ' o -v-ielly handled wealth nnd power. jiaya a% well RB fruit; and in a country

Editorial page, first number of Utah's second oldest surface 8 ^ by l] 1 /^ inches.

newspaper,

consisting of 8 pages, type


EARLY P R I N T I N G IN U T A H

85

different quality." The quality of the paper was indeed "indifferent," and the printing on it muddy and inferior. The Oracle consisted of eight small pages to an issue, three columns to the page. J. E. Johnson was the editor, and W. D. Johnson was named as proprietor. In Nebraska, Editor Johnson had been concerned with several publishing enterprises. 2 In Utah he did not confine himself to his paper as a means of livelihood. Advertisements in the pages of the Oracle disclose the fact that he had for sale "A few choice pot-plants, including Verbenas, Geraniums, Ice-plants, Pansies, Antirrhinum, etc., also choice Carnations, Hadwigii, China grass and other Pink roots in autumn," as well as "Fruit and other Utah novelties," among them "Deseret current, Gilia longaflora (Scarlet), scarlet penstamon, Thousand-flowered Cone Cactus, a beautiful white variegated lily, and a few other desirable and beautiful sorts." The subscription price of the Oracle was two dollars a year and its advertising space sold for ten cents a line, but "Hymenial and Obituary Notices, and Reports of Agricultural, Manufacturing and Literary Societies, and Fairs" were published without charge. The Oracle lasted about two years; probably it ended with the abandonment of the settlement at Spring Lake Villa. Later, Johnson had moved to Saint George, in the extreme southwestern corner of Utah. On January 22, 1868, he there began the publication of a weekly which he called at first Our Dixie Times. 3 The following May, the name was changed to Rio Virgen Times. This paper is said to have continued for about one year. After the Farmer's Oracle at Spring Lake Villa, the next undertaking of the press in Utah outside of Salt Lake City was the Union Vedette, published at Camp Douglas, a military post immediately adjacent to Salt Lake City, "by officers and enlisted men, for the California & Nevada Territorial Volunteers." This began on November 20, 1863, as a four-page four-column weekly. On "January 5, 1864, the publishers, who remained anonymous, added the Daily Vedette, the first daily in Utah. The intention at first was to continue both the daily and the weekly editions, but as the subscribers showed a decided preference for the daily, with its telegraphic news, the weekly was discontinued with the issue of January 14, 1864. Beginning January 27th, the daily was enlarged to the size of the former weekly and took the name Daily Union Vedette. 2 In 1852, he had bought the Bugle, at Xanesville (now Council Bluffs), Iowa, and from that office issued the Omaha Arrow, printed in Iowa, but intended for circulation in the Nebraska settlement. In I860 he was publishing the Huntsman's Echo at Wood River Center, Nebraska.

'The Latter-Day Saints Library at Salt Lake City has vol. 1, no. 6, February 26, 1868.


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T H E U T A H HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

In July, 1865, Great Salt Lake City was substituted for Camp Douglas in the date line of the Vedette, and the page was again enlarged, to 14 by 20y inches, six columns. After it had become a Salt Lake City paper, the Vedette passed into civilian ownership with the issue of October 22, 1866, when P. L. Shoaff & Co. appeared as publishers. The recorded file ends in November, 1867.4 The establishment of a press at Saint George by Joseph E. Johnson in January, 1868, has already been mentioned. There is a record of a second paper started in that remote locality in the same year. It was the Cactus, published by Sangiovanni & Co. The only extant copy of this paper that I know of is Vol. 1, No. 2, September 19, 1868, in the library of the Masonic Grand Lodge at Salt Lake City. It is a little four-page affair, measuring barely 6 by 8 inches, and crudely printed. The next Utah point, other than the capital, to have a press was probably Ogden, to which place the Daily Telegraph was removed from Salt Lake City in May, 1869. But the paper could not survive the change and was taken back to the capital the following August. Ogden was not long, however, without a paper of its own. On January 1, 1870, Franklin D. Richards started there the Ogden Junction, a semi-weekly. Richards withdrew from the enterprise soon after its inception and was succeeded by Charles W. Penrose. The paper was later renamed the Ogden Herald.5 The present-day Standard-Examiner at Ogden traces its descent from the Junction of 1870. Provo seems to have received its first press with the establishment of the Provo Daily Times on August 1, 1873. This paper had many changes of name, appearing successively as the Provo Tri-Weekly Times, the Utah County Times, the Utah County Advertiser, and the Territorial Enquirer. Among its early editors were R. T. McEwen, R. G. Sleater, S. T. McEwen, and John C. Graham. 6 Early in 1874, the Beaver Enterprise, established by Joseph Field, brought the press to Beaver City for the first time. 7 This location thus became the fifth Utah printing point, outside of Salt Lake City, of which record has been found. Next was Silver Reef, a now extinct mining camp ten or fifteen miles northward from Saint George, where the Silver Reef Echo was established on February 24, 1877, by Joseph E. Johnson of whom we last had record at Saint George. This paper was probably purchased 'Information concerning the Vedette is derived from the file in the Salt Lake City Public Library. "From a manuscript account of Mormon journalism by Franklin D. Richards, in the Bancroft Library. It contain, a record of Mormon publications down to July, 1884. "Information from the Richards manuscript. 'Or. cit.


JOURNAL EXTRACTS OP HENRY W. BIGLER

87

by Crouch and Louder and renamed the Miner, which was successively edited by James N. Louder, Scipio A. Kenner, and Edward and John Pike. 8 With these few notes, the available record of the Utah country press in the early days may be said to end. The record as it stands is admittedly faulty, and corrections and additions are much to be desired. Particularly desired is information about the old-time printers and editors. Also welcome would be notes of copies of old Utah country newspapers of the seventies and earlier. It is suggested that these notes should contain not only the dates of the papers, but also their volume and serial numbers and mention of the names of the publishers.

EXTRACTS FROM T H E JOURNAL OF HENRY W. BIGLER* Wed. 11th. W e traveled about 28 miles, across a dry plain, suffering much with heat and thirst, to a river. I thought I would die for want of water before we reached the river. Many did give out by the way and were only refreshed by sending them full canteens of water. Thurs. 12th. Camp laid by while Captain Everett and a few pioneers went up the river to examine the route and to look for Walker's Pass, leading over the mountains. Fri. 13th. To-day we moved camp up the river ten miles, where we met Captain Everett and men who reported that they found nothing like a pass and that we could not cross the mountains with our pack animals. A meeting was immediately called at which it was decided that we take Fremont's route and go by way of Sutter's Fort, for we had no good map for the one we had brought from Los Angeles did not have the rivers marked in it, nor the names of streams, and to tell the truth we do not know where we are, only that we are somewhere in the mountains. Sat. 14th. The next morning we retraced our steps a few miles and crossed the river about 75 yards wide and made an early camp. Here we were visited by Indians. W e told them we were their friends and did not wish to hurt them. They told us we could lie down in peace and sleep. They sang and danced in their way, which to us was quite amusing. 'Mark A. Pendleton, "Memories of Silver Reef," Utah Historical Quarterly, vol. 3, no. 4, October, 1930, pp. 99-118, at p. 108. •Continued from the Quarterly for April, 1932.


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Wed. 18th. We camped on a beautiful river. The country is rich and fertile, and abounds with game of various kinds. Wolves are so tame they would not run from us, but would suffer us to pass within a few yards of them while they would either stand and look at us or lie down in the grass as if to hide from our view. But they sometimes gave us trouble by cutting our animals loose at night when staked out with rawhide ropes. They are great thieves and would steal the meat out of our camp kettles at night or from under the pillows upon which we slept. I have had my bridle drawn away from under my head by a thieving coyote. Fri. 20th. Traveled past where Indians raised corn and melons. W e bought roasting ears and melons, and made an early camp on the Merced River. Several of our men bathed themselves. The Indians told us of some Americans living a few miles on the river below us. W e are of the opinion they are some of our people, and the next morning Brother Andrew Lytle and two brethren set out to visit them and see who they are. Sat. 21st. Short days travel. This evening a meeting of the camp was called to take in consideration what to do for the few in camp that had not an outfit to last them to where we may find the main body of the Church. It was decided to send four men to Sutter's Fort to see if provisions and animals could be purchased, and the price, etc. Sun. 22nd. Made twenty miles. At noon we came where Indians were living, of whom we got some melons and green corn. Mon. 23rd. Road very bad, made only a few miles. Tues. 24th. Made about 18 miles when we came to a settlement of whites, to me it looked good to see them, their cows, chickens and hogs, and they had raised a fine crop of wheat, it was already threshed out and in a big pile ready for the sack. The people here told us that the Twelve Apostles with a number of pioneers had reached Salt Lake Valley and that five hundred wagons were close behind. This to us was glorious news and the first we had heard definitely concerning the location of the Church. Here we were overtaken by Brother Lytle and his men, who told us that the people he went to see were our brethren. Wed. 25th. Made 20 miles to the American River where we camped about a mile and a half above Sutter's Fort. Captain Everett visited Sutter's Fort, found that unbolted flour could be had for 8 dollars per hundred, and our animals shod at the rate of one dollar per shoe, many of our animals


JOURNAL EXTRACTS OF HENRY W. BIGLER

89

were tender footed. It seems that Mr. Sutter is a man of business. He offers to pay from $25 to $40 a month and some of our men have concluded to remain and go to work for Sutter until next Spring. Thurs. 26th. Remained in camp, having several animals shod. Fri. 27th. Pioneers proceed, leaving the main body of the camp to follow. Sat. 28th. To-day is my birthday. I am 32 years old. I am grateful to an all wise Providence that my health is good, that I am on my way home and that everything is as well with me as it is. To-day we traveled till 2 p. m. and camped at Johnson's settlement on Bear Creek. Sun. 29th. Made an early camp and had a prayer meeting. Mon. 30th. Thunder and a little rain. Made 15 miles. Wed. Sept. 1st. To-day noon, Captain Everett went ahead to see what the road is like, while gone we found a patch of nice ripe berries, as I afterward learned were Thimble berries, they afforded us a good treat as there was an abundance of them. In a little while Captain Everett returned, said the road was rocky and bad, but there was a nice little valley only a short distance ahead where there was good camping and feed for our animals, to this point we made. Here we find pea vines high as a man's head with great roads through them made by bears. Near our camp are two wagons left by emigrants. W e were told at Sutter's Fort that a company of 90 emigrants were overtaken in a snow-storm last fall while crossing the mountains. The snow fell ten feet deep and fifty of them perished through starvation and otherwise. This valley is surrounded by high mountains, densely covered with pine timber. The trunks of many of the trees are ten feet in diameter and more than two hundred feet high. Thurs. Sept. 2nd. Remained in camp to let our animals rest and to feed on pea vines. I took my gun and went to hunt game but soon had to give it up on account of rocks and bad traveling, returned to camp barely escaping a shower of rain. Fri. 3rd. To-day we crossed a very high mountain and then through a little valley where one of the men shot at a deer. W e passed a broken-down wagon, in the box were tin pans and some clothing, this seemed to tell us there were no Indians around. 'In the evening we camped on a creek where we found a grave. One the headboard was the name of Smith, died Oct. 7th., 1846. Our camp was surrounded by high mountains covered with a heavy forest of pine, balsam and redwood timber so cerise and luxuriant as to cause the whole surroundings to have a dark


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and dismal appearance, and I though if there was any truth in the existence of hobgoblins, they surely lived in these mountains. I am told that Fremont estimates these mountains to be 9338 feet above the level of the sea. Sat. 4th. By 7 a. m. we broke camp, traveled up a lofty mountain and around high peaks. W e passed between 2 small lakes or ponds near each other, that have no outlet and some of the boys visited them and say they are full of fish. At noon we camped by one of the coldest springs of water I ever saw. Here we have plenty of green grass, while at no great distance on the side of the mountain are great banks of snow, while in the valleys may be found ripe fruit. Sunday, 5th. To-day we passed over some banks of snow more than two feet deep and reached the summit of the main chain of the Sierra Nevada mountains, where we found a windlass that emigrants had made to haul their wagons up over a very steep ascent from the east side. Passing down towards the Truckee River a few miles, we came to a shanty where we found the skeletons of human beings, skull bones, ribs and backbones hanging together. They seemed to have been burned, the shanty was partly burned. We found what we took to be a woman's hand, it was nearly whole, it had partly been burned, the little finger was not burnt but the flesh on it was completely dried. Some of our party believed Indians were the cause of this disaster, but the most of us do not think so, from the fact we had passed to-day several broken-down wagons containing boxes and trunks of clothing, though now spoiled, laying around on the ground, which we believe would not have been left if Indians had perpetrated this horrible deed. About the cabin and near by stood stumps of trees, ten and fifteen feet high, showing how deep the snow had been when the trees were cut down. No doubt they were cut down for fuel to keep the occupants of the shanty from freezing. Leaving this horrible place we proceeded a few miles and camped. Monday, 6th. At 7 a. m. we broke camp and had not proceeded far when we met Sam Brannan who had been up to Salt Lake. He told us that Captain Brown was just behind with his detachment on his way to Monterey, to get their discharge and that the Captain had a package of letters and an epistle from President Young and the Twelve Apostles to the boys of the battalion, as all were anxious to hear the news. As there was poor camping at hand we at once returned to the place we had just left, to await the arrival of those left at Sutter's Fort and by that time Captain Brown would be up, when


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all would be together to share the news from the Church and from friends. Brannan halted an hour to let his animals feed and to take a little refreshment himself. He and Captain Brown had left Salt Lake to go there, but this morning they had a falling out and words passed between them so sharply that Brannan left and proceeded alone on his journey homeward. He gave a fine account of the Salt Lake country but thought it no place to live, as by all accounts by mountaineers, nothing would grow there and he believed the Church would have to come to California. Tues. 7th. This afternoon the rear of our company got up and Captain Brown had already arrived when nearly every man received a letter from his family or from a friend and truly we had a time of rejoicing in the mountains although a few had news of sadness, they had either lost a dear wife or child or an affectionate parent. Captain Brown then read the epistle to the battalion which was for all who had no families and those who had, that unless they had plenty of provisions with them that it would be wisdom for all such to turn back to California and go to work, fit themselves out and come on to Salt Lake the next Spring, for at Salt Lake there was but little provisions and they had already sent out a hunting party to kill buffalo, and provisions were scarce at Fort Hall and very high. I received a letter from George A. Smith who says that my Sister Emaline and husband are there having arrived on the 29th of July in Captains detachment and that President Young with a company of 143 pioneers arrived in the great basin on July 24th. Since then they had been busy plowing and planting seeds and potatoes, and that a number of brethren were at work making adobies for building houses. The whole face of the country was covered with large black crickets, that Salt Lake Valley was surrounded by high mountains. Some of the peaks were capped with snow and that there were nice streams of water, so situated as to be easily made to irrigate the land. Provisions were scarce and the Saints were living on half rations. The valley would be organized into a Stake of Zion and that his father John Smith appointed to preside and that President Young and the Twelve would soon return to winter quarters. To-day while some of our boys were out hunting they report that they found a shanty and several dead human bodies, some of them were whole and completely dried, others cut up, men and women with their legs cut off, their ribs sawed from their bodies and their skulls sawed open and their brains taken out. From the best information we have, these were a company of


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Missourians emigrating to California and had disagreed among themselves and split up into different companies. The strongest moved forward, leaving the weak behind with but little provisions and a bed of snow fell so deep as to prevent travel, and when help from the settlements reached them, those who were alive had been living on the dead, children had eaten of their parents. I expect if the truth were known, that the parents let their children have the provisions while themselves perished with hunger. Wed. 8th. This morning about 30 of us gave our brethren the parting hand with blessings on each others heads. They to continue their journey up to Salt Lake and we to return to California. W e divided provisions, scarcely keeping enough to last to the settlements, 150 miles distant. It was hard parting, but we knew it was best to obey the Servants of God. It was stated that the Lord would be with us, and one dollar earned and brought to Salt Lake would be worth five times its value. On the 11th. we passed a little grave. It had been opened by wild beasts, the box torn open and the little bed and pillow of feathers strewn all around and to one side lay the skull of the child, it moved me with pity at the sight. Near the place was another grave and on the headboard the name, Ann West, aged 62 years. We passed Brother Henry Hoyt's grave. He was buried so shallow that the air could get to his remains. He was in the rear of our company and the pioneers being two days in advance had all the tools, and the men had nothing to dig his grave but a hatchet or two. He was buried high up on the side of a mountain, under a low spreading oak. He was a good man and it may be said he died as a martyr in the cause of his country. Sunday, 12th. W e reached Johnson's settlement, where we bought a little flour and a few peas. Tues. 14th. At 1 p. m. we reached our old camp-ground near Sutter's Fort. After eating dinner, three of the brethren called on Captain Sutter, to learn what the chances were for getting employment. When they returned in the evening they reported that they saw Mr. Sutter and had a talk with him and learned that Sutter wanted to build a mill, a race dug about 3 miles long and mill timbers gotten out. He was willing to hire all of us, either by the month or by the job, and that he would pay $25 per month or \2y2 cents per yard for digging the race, he would pay part in cash and part in trade. He would furnish tools, teams and provisions, and we to do our own cooking. W e talked the matter up around our camp-fire and concluded to take the offer.


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Wed. 15th. This morning we closed the bargain. He said our animals could run with his band of horses, free of charge and that they would be driven up by his vaquero (horse herder) every evening and corralled. This we take as being very kind in Mr. Sutter. In the afternoon we moved on to the ground where the work is to be done, six miles east of Sutter's Fort, where we have a very good adobie house to quarter in. Friday, 17th. This morning all hands went to work on the ditch, except our cooks, having plows, scrapers and oxen, some of them never having seen a white man, nothing but a greaser Indian. We also had picks, shovels and spades. At evening each man had earned $1.50, our hands being tender, they became very sore. Soon some of the men were taken with chills and fever, and some with scurvy. Mon. 27th. While at dinner to-day a man dressed in buckskins entered our quarters and said Captain Sutter wanted 4 men from our company to go up into the mountains about 30 miles to help build a sawmill on the South fork of the American River. He said he and Sutter were in copartnership in building the mill, and that he had been up there with a few hands and had done some work, but some of the men up there were expecting to leave soon, hence they wanted more help. In the afternoon myself and three others started with the man, whose name we learned is James W. Marshall, also a man by the name of Charles Bennett, late from Oregon. Marshall had an ox team and wagon loaded with provisions and a few tools. Wed. 29th. At dusk we arrived at the mill site, here we find several of our Mormon brethren who had stopped at Sutters at the time we passed there in August. To me the country looks wild and lonesome. We are surrounded by high mountains, more or less covered with a heavy growth of timber, pines, balsam, redwood, pinion pine and oak timber. The place is infested with wolves, grizzly bears and Indians. Marshall and his men had built a double log cabin about one fourth of a mile from where the mill is to be erected. In one part of the house lives a family by the name of Peter L. Weimer, whose wife is to do the cooking for the mill hands. Mon. October 4th. Last night all hands were aroused by the cry of our tame Indians, "Marlohinty, Marlohinty," meaning there were bad Indians around, all was bustle, men began to hunt up their guns, molding bullets and set out a guard, as before we had not thought of danger, but we could see nor hear anything.


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Tues. Oct. 5th. Last night we were awakened again by the same cry. This time some of our men saw one but the Indians kept themselves in the dark and behind trees. We called to them but they would not speak. There are only ten of us men and only 4 guns for we Mormon boys had left our muskets below. This was the last time we were disturbed, the enemy finding out perhaps that we had guns instead of bows and arrows to defend ourselves. Sat. Nov. 6th. Went to look for my horse, having a gun with me I shot a blacktailed deer. I have spent much of my time in hunting, for which Marshall pays the same wages as for working on the mill, for it sometimes happened that Sutter neglected to send up provisions to the mill when we would be on short rations. At such times Marshall detailed me to be hunter as deer was plentiful. He owned a good rifle and this I used, taking with me one of the tame Indians to help carry in the venison. This suited me full as well as using an ax or shovel about the mill for I was paid just the same. Sat. Dec. 25th. Christmas day. Several of us went to the top of a high mountain across the creek opposite from the mill and diverted ourselves in rolling large stones down the mountain, it was fun to see them run and the distance they jumped. We surprised a number of deer who made off in double quick time. January, 1848 Sat. Jan. 1st. We worked on the dam, building it with brush, with the butts down stream. Sun. 23rd. This day myself and 4 others of the boys moved into a shanty near the mill, we had built last week, to do our own cooking, having the privilege from Marshall to do so as Mrs. Weimer was so partial in her cooking, always keeping back all the best parts of the victuals for favorites who eat at the second table. Not only that but on the morning of Christmas, she took offense because it happened that all the boys failed to come at her first call to breakfast and threatened not to give us any breakfast, and even swore about it so I made the following rhymes. On Christmas morn in bed she swore That she would cook for us no more, Unless we'd come at the first call, For I am mistress of you all. And we have revolted from under her government, and this Mr.


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Marshall did not blame us for he had discovered the same thing himself. Monday, 24th. This day some kind of metal that looks like gold was found in the tail race. Sunday, 30th. Our metal has been tried and proves to be gold. It is thought to be rich. We have picked up more than a hundred dollars worth last week. Sun. Feb. 6th. I and one of the men, a Mr. Barger, went over the creek opposite the sawmill to look for gold where we found a few dollars worth. W e found it in the seams and cracks of the granite rock, cropping out of the bank near the creek. Sat. 12th. This afternoon I did not work. I borrowed Brown's gun saying I would go hunting down the creek for ducks, but in reality to prospect for gold, for it was my belief it could be found in other places besides in the tail race. Half a mile below the sawmill I noticed some bare rocks on the other side of the creek, of the same kind as in the tail race, that seemed to say gold was there. I took off my shirt and pants, waded over and sure enough it was there. I picked up one dollar and 50 cents worth lieing on the bare rocks and in the seams. I said nothing about the find to anybody. Sunday, 13th. To-day is rainy so that no work was done about the mill. I spent all forenoon mending my pants. In the afternoon I went to my gold mine and picked up seven dollars worth. Sunday, 20th. Went to my gold mine and picked up about seventeen dollars worth. Monday, 21st. Cloudy and cool. To-day Mr. Marshall sowed about three acres of peas and I harrowed them in with his oxen. Wild flowers in abundance. Tues. 22nd. Last night it snowed and this morning the ground is white. It was intended to have rasied the upper frame of the sawmill to-day, but Marshall said it would be so slippery and dangerous that we would not work. I said to Mr. Brown, if he would loan me his gun, I would go hunting, his reply was, "there she is, take her," all thinking I had started to hunt deer. Soon as I was out of sight I made a bee line to my gold mine and as usual took off my clothes and waded over, the creek had raised and the water cold, deep and swift as a milltail, rough and rocky, and it was all I could do to keep my feet. When I got over I found my feet extremely cold, I tried to catch fire from my gun but in wading she had got wet, I then tried to strike fire but my hands were so benumbed with


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cold, I could not hold my flint and steel. I was obliged to jump and run and dance over the rocks and while doing so I saw every now and then a yellow piece staring me in the face, but was too Cold to stop and pick them up. At last I got warmed up and went to work, having nothing to work with but my pocket-knife. The weather had moderated and a mist of rain had set in and the snow had disappeared. I searched closely and at last I picked up out of the sand near the creek a nugget round like a bullet, this so excited me that I felt as though I was finding a fortune. It proved to be worth about six dollars. I sat all bent over for hours, picking up the little valuable particles when all at once I could not see and as I arose to my feet I yelled with pain. I reeled and staggered and it seemed to me my back was broken, but after a few severe groans and grunts I was at ease. Night had set in and I made my way up the creek, over rocks and through brush until arriving at our mill dam when I called for Brown who came and set me over on the raft, 3 dry pine logs pinned together, and on reaching the shanty the boys began to question me, wanting to know what luck, where my game was and why out so late, and why I did not cross at the dam that morning, etc. They had at last suspected something. I called for the scales and at the same time pulling out one corner of my shirttail in which I had tied up my gold, all were staring with fixed eyes in silence and the scales produced and weighed by Stevens, who pronounced my yellow game to be worth $22 and 50 cents. The secret now being out I told them all about my discovery. We had already made a light pair of wooden scales, using a silver dollar for an ounce weight worth 16 dollars and half dollar equal in value to eight dollars, and a quarter dollar in weight was worth four in gold. All hands came very near leaving off work to turn our attention to hunting gold, but on thinking it over we thought it a pity to do so before the mill was completed and another thing we thought of was the uncertainty of doing any better than we were doing, for we were getting fair wages and we believed our pay was sure while if we left off work we might lose more in the long run than we would make. Sunday, 27th. I took the boys to my gold mine, but the water had raised so high that the spot where I had found it so plentiful on the 22nd., was all under water, however we five found $33. This evening three of the boys from below arrived at our shanty, they having heard through a letter I had written to my messmates while in the battalion, that we had found gold here at the sawmill; this letter had been written in a confidential way and to say nothing about it, these men had been told of the dis-


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covery in a secret way and had come up to see for themselves and it happened that Mr. Marshall was in and sat till a late hour talking, being in fine humor, as he most always was, and very entertaining. When about to leave for his own quarters on the hill a quarter of a mile away, one of the men, Mr. Hudson asked the privilege of prospecting in the tail race which was readily granted, and the next moring the 3 men, Sidney Willis, Wilford Hudson and Levi Fifield went into the race, when in a little while Hudson with his butcher knife picked out a nugget worth about six dollars. They tarried with us a day or two and as they returned they prospected all along the creek and at one place they found a few particles at a place afterwards called Mormon Island, which eventually did prove to be one of the richest finds in California. Sat. March 11th. This afternoon we started to saw, but it cuts slow, there being so much back water in the race, and the race has got to be dug deeper to give more fall. The starting of the saw is to the Indians a great curiosity to them and the Indian who told Brown he lied, when told we were making a thing that would saw by its self, laid down on his belly for two hours, watching the same cutting boards, when at last he got up and said, "it was bueno," meaning it was good and wanted to learn to be a sawyer, as before he could.not conceive how a saw could run without a man at one end of it. Sunday, March 12th. The saw ran all day and all the Indians in the country are here to see the great curiosity and for all I know this is the first sawmill built in California. Sunday, 19th. All hands hunted for gold. I was the luckiest one, I found $31. All last week we were busy in digging the tail race deeper and the sawing is much better. Sunday, 26th. All hands hunted for gold. I found six dollars worth. All last week I was set to teaching some Indians how to use an ax to cut down trees for some logs. They were anxious to learn but very awkward and every now and then cut themselves with the ax, a foot or leg, some awful gashes, and look at me in a wistful way as if I could prevent it. I felt sorry for them. Sunday, April 2nd., 1848. I prospected and found a new place where I got nearly two ounces of the pure stuff, an ounce of gold dust is reckoned to be worth sixteen dollars in Silver. Saying so much about gold, I will here tell how it was found. The names of the men at work at the sawmill were Alexander Stevens, James S. Brown, James Barger, William Johnston, Azariah Smith and myself, all of the Mormon battalion and besides us were James W. Marshall, Peter L. Weimer, Charles


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Bennett and William Scott. Some Indians under the superintendence of Mr. Weimer, worked in the race, and every afternoon Marshall went to see how they were getting along. They made slow progress because they had struck the bed rock, it was of granite and on Monday, in the afternoon of the 24th of January when he went down to see how they were making it, his eye caught the glitter of something that lay on the bed rock a few inches under water. He sent a young Indian to Brown who was at work in the mill yard whip-sawing, to send him a plate. Brown was the top sawyer. He jumped down from the sawpit, remarking I wonder what Marshall wants with a plate and walked to our shanty, gave the redskin a tin plate and about the time we were leaving off work for the day, Marshall came up from the race and said he believed he had found a gold mine. Some of the boys remarked that they feared there was no such good luck. Nothing more was said and Marshall went on to his own quarters, but just before we went to bed, Marshall came in and said he believed he had found a gold mine near the lower end of the race, and said he had tried to melt some of the particles but could not. Before leaving us he said, "Brown, I want you and Bigler, in the morning, to shut down the head gate, throw in some sawdust, rotten leaves and dirt, make all tight and to-morrow I'll see what there is there," and accordingly the next morning, we did as directed. We, while doing so, saw Marshall pass through the mill yard and so on down the tail race. Brown and I went into breakfast, after which we went to work in the mill yard. I was busy preparing to put a blast of powder into a boulder that lay in the tail race near where the flutter-wheel was, when Mr. Marshall came up bareheaded with a broad smile, carrying in his arms his old slouch white hat and said, "Boys, I believe I have found a gold mine," at the same time putting his hat on the work bench that stood in the mill yard. In an instant all hands gathered around and sure enough in the top of his hat crown, the crown knocked in a little, lay the pure stuff. How much, I know not, perhaps an ounce. The particles were from the size of small grains, up to the size of grains of wheat, the most however was in thin scales, the coarse was in all shapes. Azariah Smith took from his pocket a five dollar gold coin and we compared the two metals. We could plainly see the difference which we considered was due to the alloy in the coin. All were satisfied that it was the pure virgin gold, although none of us had ever seen gold in its natural state before. All hands were invited by Marshall to accompany him to the spot


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where he had found it, where we found a few more particles in the seams and cracks of the base rock. Marshall told us to keep the find as a secret until we found how extensive it was. Three or four days afterward we began to be in want of provisions, for Sutter had neglected to send up supplies. Marshall said he would go down to the fort and see what was the matter, and take the gold and have it tested. If I remember right, he was gone four days and when he returned, and was asked what it was, he said, "Oh boys, it is the pure stuff," saying, "I and the old Cap (meaning Sutter) locked ourselves up in a room and was half a day trying it, and the regulars down there wondered what in hell was up and surmised I had found a quicksilver mine, for you see there is a quicksilver mine found by a woman down towards Monterey. But we let them sweat. W e found that the gold agreed with the encyclopedia, we then applied "aqua fortis and it had nothing to do with it. We then weighed it in water by balancing the dust against silver on a pair of scales held in the air. We let the scales down and when it came in contact with the water, by G—d the gold went down and the silver up, motioned it out with his hands, and that told the story that it was the pure stuff." He said Sutter would be up in a few days to see for himself, and how the work on the mill was progressing, etc. A few evenings after this Marshall came into our shanty and said Sutter had arrived and that he was up at the other house. "Now boys," said he, "we have all got a little gold, I motion we give Henry some gold and in the morning when you shut off the water, let him go down and sprinkle it all over the base rock, not letting on to the old gentleman, and it will so excite him that he will set out his bottle and treat, for he always carries his bottle with him." This caused a hearty laugh. So early the next morning I took down the gold dust and sprinkled it over the base rock, and then went into breakfast. Just as we were finishing breakfast we saw the old gentleman coming, hobbling along with his cane, a well dressed old gentleman, Mr. Marshall on one side and Mr. Weimer on the other. As they neared our shanty we went out and met them. After shaking hands and passing the common salutations, all were invited to go along and have a general time prospecting, but at this juncture one of Weimer's little boys ran past us, crawling into the tail race, where he picked up nearly every particle and came running back, almost out of breath, to meet us, reaching out his hands, exclaiming, "See here what I have got," having in his hand, for aught I know, fifty dollars or more. We dared not say a word, lest the joke be turned and we lose our


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expected treat and as soon as Sutter saw what the boy had, he thrust his cane into the ground, saying, "By Joe, it is rich." All hands went into the race and spent an hour prospecting, and the Captain had the pleasure of picking up a few particles the boy had overlooked. I advised Marshall to marry the woman who had found the quicksilver mine if she was like himself, not married, saying to him, "if this is what the tail turns out, I wonder what the head will do?" The next move of Sutter and Marshall was to call in the Indians, the owners of the land, leased a large scope of land, ten or twelve miles square, for three years, for which they paid some shirts and handkerchiefs, a few knives, some meat, unbolted flour and peas, and promising to pay the Indians so much every year until the lease expired. Afterwards they sent Charles Bennett to Monterey to see Governor Mason, to have the land secured to them as mill privileges, pasturage and mineral privileges, as it bore strong indications of silver and lead, saying nothing about gold. But His Excellency told Mr. Bennett, that as California affairs were still unsettled between Mexico and our Government, he could do nothing for them. Friday, April 7th. Stevens, Brown and myself saddled our horses and started to See Captain Sutter, to have a settlement, get our pay and prepare for going home, up to Salt Lake. W e got a late start in the afternoon, went about 12 miles and camped in the mountains. Sat. 8th. In the afternoon we arrived where our brethren were at work on Sutter's flour mill. Here we were told that Willis and Hudson and a few of the boys had gone up the river to hunt gold, at the place Hudson and Willis had found a few particles at the time they were returning from the sawmill.

Monday, Sept. 25th. We reached Ogden City. Here lives Captain James Brown and a few Saints, who bid us welcome, and let us have all the melons and young corn we wanted, which to us was a treat. Tues. 26th. W e lay by to repair wagons that broke down yesterday. Everybody in camp busy washing, shaving, cutting hair, changing clothes, etc. Some of the camp will remain here as they have friends and relatives living here, while the rest of us will proceed to Salt Lake City.


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We arrived in Salt Lake City on Thursday the 28th, early in the afternoon and were received with open arms by friends and dear relatives, and the Saints in general. Here I find my Sister and babe, her husband has gone to the frontiers after his Mother and family. I find in Great Salt Lake City a city lot reserved for me by the kindness of Brother George A. Smith, situated in the 17th ward, not far west of the Temple lot, a goodly laid out portion of the city is a Buckwheat patch and the Saints living in forts. 1 purchased dobies and built a house on my lot, 15 by 17 feet, one room in which I took my Sister and babe and moved into it, and kept them until her husband returned in July, 1849. I arrived in Salt Lake City with the following outfit: 1 yoke of oxen, share in 2 wagons, 2 cows with calves, 1 horse, 1 mare and colt, 1 bolt of brown cotton, 2 bolts of bleached cotton, 18 yards of janes, 1 hat, coat and vest, 2 yards and a quarter of cassimere, 1 yard of velvet, 4 pairs shoes, 9 pairs socks, 1 silk red sash, \2y2 yards of Irish linen, 3 yards and a half of striped cloth, 1 water pail, several handkerchiefs, 1 pair of suspenders, 2 bottles of saleratus, 1 ax, 1 shovel, 1 gross of buttons, besides thread and needles, 2 bars of soap, a hair comb, 300 pounds of flour, 32 pounds of coffee, 1 pound of tea, 32 pounds sugar, 2 dozen fish-hooks, 1 yard and a half of broadcloth, 3 yards of sacking, 2 dollars worth of shirt buttons and a little gold dust. I will state that soon after the gold was found in California everything went up to high prices and the articles I got were just before the rise. Great Salt Lake City is laid out in square blocks of ten acres, each block containing 8 city lots of one acre and a quarter to each city lot, and the streets 8 rods wide, running at right angles. During this year there were 1400 Saints emigrated to Utah. Great Salt Lake City, Utah Territory, 1849 Sun. Oct. 7th. This evening Father John Smith sent for me. I went and he told me that Brother Brigham had counseled him, that as he had been kicked and cuffed about and finally drove out of the United States because he worshipped God according to the dictates of his own conscience and has become poor, to fit out some person and send to the gold mines to seek for some of the treasures of the earth and to make himself comfortable in his'declining years. He has seen fit to call on me to go and to go with Charles C. Rich and others who are on the eve of leaving for California.


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Mon. 8th. Making preparations to leave. It fills me with sorrow to think of leaving, it was with considerable struggle with my feelings that I consented to go for Father Smith, for I am attached to this place and to these people, for they are my brethren and my friends. Tues. 9th. To-day I settled up all my accounts, paid my debts, sold my wheat and a few boards to Brother Staves. Wed. 10th. This morning I took some washing to be done, to Sister Partridge, after which I went down to the threshing floor, to get a little wheat, I had been thrashing on shares. Also went to get some cooking utensils, my frying pan was missing, this rather aggravated me. Thurs. 11th. Last evening Father Smith sent for me. I went and he told me that he wanted to bless me, he did so, and also Brother James Keeler, who is going to the gold mines for Thomas Callister, Father Smith's son-in-law. W e both go in one wagon and about p. m. we were ready to start. I told Brother Keeler to call by my house with the wagon where I would join him. I wrote a note and stuck it on the inside of my door for my brother-in-law to take charge of some clothing I had left in a sack. At this moment I experienced what I shall not attempt to describe. I walked back and forth across my floor and my feelings were spent in a complete shower of tears, everything I looked upon seemed to sympathize with me and say, go in peace, only be faithful and all will be right. I heard a rattling and looked up and saw the wagon coming. I hastened to the curtains of my window and wiped away every tear and went out to the wagon, when Brother Keeler requested me to get in. I refused, and said I wanted to call at the tinshop to buy a canteen for which I paid six bits and two bits for a quart cup. Thousands from the States have passed through this city the present season, on their way to California to seek their fortunes. It seems that the news of the discovery of gold has reached every nook and corner of the United States and has set the world, as it were, all in motion and on the move for gold. I got in the wagon and we drove to Brother Hakes, ten miles on Cottonwood. We called at Brother Chipmans and purchased some butter and two fresh loaves of nice .wheat bread, also a little tin bucket to carry our butter in. Fri. 12th. This morning we were detained a little in getting something made at the blacksmith shop. This morning one of Father Smith's horses is sick, supposed to have the belly-ache, and to carry out Father Smith's blessings' we bought a mare of


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Brother Hakes, paid $20 down and gave our note for $100 with interest on our return. At 10 a. m. was on the move, went about 13 miles and camped near the banks of the Jordan. Sat. 13th. Rained like sam hill in the night and the tops of the mountains are white with snow that fell in the night, but it soon cleared up. In the afternoon we arrived at the Utah settlement, here we expect to stay a day or so for company. Sun. 14th. Last night Brother Whittle arrived and to-day a lot of packers. This evening the company held a meeting and appointed Flake to be our Captain until we overtake Brother Rich. Mon. 15th. Clear. At 9 a. m. all hands were on the march, went a half a mile when one of the Captain's mules became frightened at some Indians, he ran and threw off his pack, this detained us a short time. Made to-day about 22 miles, grass and water plenty. The intention is to go the south route, following the old Spanish trail and so on through the Cajon Pass in the Sierra Nevada mountains. Tues. 16th. Last night I dreamed that I was not going to California for gold but was going to the Islands on a mission to preach the gospel. Came about 20 miles and camped. Wed. 17th. Made about 25 miles. Thur. 18th. Clear. Made about 25 miles and encamped by a spring. There is a beautiful looking valley lying west about half a mile from our camp. To-night I stand guard. Fri. 19th. Made an early camp. Sat. 20th. This morning I found part of a note left by Brother Rich, dated the 16th. instant, saying all was well, the particulars were gone, supposed to have been destroyed by some emigrants or mean gentiles in advance. Made about 20 miles and camped. Here we overtook a gentile by the name of Smith who was Captain of 20 men on packs, bound for the California gold mines. Here Brother Henry Rollins was taken violently sick, Captain Flake, Brother Joseph Cain and myself laid hands on him, he soon was easy. Sun. 21st. Clear and pretty. By 9 a. m. all hands were on the march, making about 25 or 30 miles. Mon. 22nd. Reached Beaver creek. Here we find where Brother Rich and company had camped night before last, we also found a note from Brother Rich directing us to keep down the creek as the road forked at this place, leaving the Spanish


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trail. We also learn from the note that the rodeometer makes the distance from Salt Lake to this place 208 miles, Tue. 23rd. A little after sunrise we were again on the march and soon met Brother Rich and a company of gold diggers, they had been ahead and found no water. All hands turned back to the creek and went into camp, in a few minutes Brother Rich, James Brown and Ponroy rode up to our camp, we were glad to see them. Here is a train of 113 wagons of gold diggers, besides about 50 on packs, all bound for the gold mines, but as no water was found ahead of us, the conclusion is to turn back up the Beaver creek and continue on the Spanish trail. This train of 113 wagons had hired Captain Hunt to pilot them through to California, but they had a company of doctors and lawyers, and when they reached Beaver creek, they called a council to have Captain Hunt make a cut-off from the fact that he had told them a cut-off could be made, but at the same time he had never traveled it, but they got it in their heads that Hunt could find the route and take them through. He told them they must go on their own responsibility for he had never traveled it. He had been ahead of this company 40 miles and found no water. Thur. 25th. It is thought best for Brother Keeler and me to leave our wagon and go on packs, so we spent the day making pack-saddles. Fri. 26th. Several articles were cached. Sat. 27th. Made to-day by the rodeometer 23 miles. Sun. 28th. This morning Brother Rich and Captain Flake told me to take a mare they had gotten from an emigrant, that rightly belonged to. Brother Alexander Williams of Utah settlement. They valued the nag to be worth 50 dollars and as the ones I had were small, young and thin in flesh to stand such a trip as was before them to California. They advised me to take the animal and pay Brother Williams when I returned, I accordingly took the mare. W e then went ten miles and made an early camp. Here several of us went up in a canyon and prospected for gold, but found none. Mon. 29th. Made about 25 miles and camped by a spring, plenty of grass and plenty of dry cedar for camp fires. W e have now left the train of wagons. Tue. 30th. This morning we were visited by several Indians. Made about 28 miles and camped on Lost Creek but it soon sinks.


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This evening after supper, Brother Rich requested the camp to come together (Captain Smith and company are in camp near by). Brother Rich said we should have some order and understanding. He wanted Brother Flake to continue to be Captain if the company was willing. A vote was taken that Brother Flake be our Captain and Brother Rich his councilor. Brother Rich wanted us to be one and observe our prayers. He wanted a journal of the camp kept. It was then voted that Henry Rollins and Joseph Cain keep the journal. Wed. 31st. Last night it was agreed by all to make a cutroff and to be in the gold mines in about 20 days, by traveling in a more direct course. This conclusion came about from the fact that Captain Smith said that he was told of the cut-off by a mountaineer, whose name was Barney Ward, who said he had traveled it three times and it was known as Walker's Cut-off. The argument in favor of going over this cut-off was that we should be in the gold mines before the rainy season set in, while to keep the Spanish trail we should only reach Lower California by that time and then we should have to travel up the country hundreds of miles to reach the diggings. To the company this seemed plausible and all decided to make the cut-off. Thur. November 1st. Rained like sam hill all last night, all our bedding got wet. I sat up all night around a little fire, turning first one side to the fire and then the other, it was a disagreeable time, but this morning it is partly clear. Here we are to leave the Spanish trail and travel a more direct course without a guide or trail. By ten o'clock all hands were on the new route. In the afternoon it commenced to rain and in a little while every thread was wet. The rain was cold and disagreeable, and in a short time the ground became so miry that our animals could hardly travel, at length Captain Flake called a halt by some rocks that afforded shelter from the storm. This we called, "Rocks of Refuge." Dry wood was plentiful, fires made and a general drying off ensued, while the cooks were busy preparing to get supper. Fri. 2nd. Clear, tops of the mountains white with snow. By 9 a. m. we were on the march, passing over the rim of the Great Basin into a canyon running southwest, making about 25 miles. Sat. 3rd. Laid by until nearly noon for our animals to fill up on grass as there is a spot of grass of about 50 acres. Near camp are some soft rocks on which I cut the three first letters of my name and the date. About 11 a. m. camp continued down the canyon, the road bad, made about 12 miles, no grass for our animals.


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As we came along I noticed some signs of gold. When we left camp this morning we expected to soon come to a valley. The mountains on each side of us are high and almost perpendicular at that, and to think of climbing them with our animals is out of the question. In traveling down the canyon we passed over a place where if a horse made one false step he would have plunged hundreds of feet without any possibility of saving himself. To-night I stand guard and it is raining heavy. We planted young willows endways in the ground and lashing the tops together, making a sort of wigwam and spreading blankets over the tops, this sheltered us first-rate from the rain. Sun. 4th. At 10 a. m. broke camp and continued down the canyon, raining and snowing like sixty but we soon found ourselves completely blocked up. Brother Rich and others went to the top of the mountain to see if an outlet could be discovered, they reported that no outlet could be seen for as far as eye could see. Mountain raised one after another and could not see any valley. Some of the men descended the canyon to see if there was not a chance to make a road for our animals, in a little while they returned saying the road was extremely bad but thought by rolling a few rocks out of the way we could get along. W e had two tight and steep places to ascend and at dark camped. Here is no grass for our animals. Made to-day about 5 miles. It is surprising to see where horses can go, and in ascending a very steep place, some of them fell and rolled over with their packs on, some we helped climb the barrier by putting ropes around their necks and 8 or 10 men at the end to pull them up. Mon. 5th. Cleared up in the night. W e found a dead horse belonging to Brother Cannon, it had fallen into the creek and drowned; the same animal fell and rolled over and over yesterday with its pack on, which I think hurt him. Here is no feed and our animals look bad. By ten o'clock we were on the march, expecting at every turn of the canyon to see a valley. The traveling grew better, and I lost a good spur. The canyon widens and we came to where Indians had raised corn, beans, sunflowers and squashes, also wheat as there was lots of straw lying about on the ground. The corn fodder was standing minus the ears and judging by the stalks they had raised a good crop of corn. There were ditches or sects for irrigating. Passing on we soon came to another Indian farm and camped. The standing fodder afforded good food for our animals.


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Tue. 6th. Clear and nice. To-day we passed a large wickiup, The Indians had fled on our approach, leaving to all appearances everything behind. There were fresh rawhides that no doubt belonged to some emigrant's ox. Judging from the course we have been traveling we have not made as yet much of a cut-off as our travel of late has been to the southwest. At evening we camped in a cottonwood grove, the leaves on the trees almost perfectly green, showing there had been no frost and now it seemed more like midsummer than November, near the bank of the creek. Wed. 7th. This morning Captain Flake and some others went ahead on foot to see what the country is like, for the water in the creek is growing less, and when they returned they said they had been 6 or 8 miles and that the country became more level but broken, and could see no signs of water, that this creek sinks in the sand a few miles below the camp. They said that there was another Indian corn field, below camp about a mile. We packed up and to the corn field we went, intending to lay by and let our animals rest and eat fodder that was green and good but the ears of corn was all plucked off and gone. We made an early camp and spent the balance of the day in shaving beards, mending shoes and boats, cleaning guns, etc. This morning Brother Keeler received a wound in his foot from the effects of Peck's spur, it set Brother Keeler almost crazy for a few minutes. This creek we gave the name, Farm creek. Thur. 8th. This morning while at breakfast 6 packers came in camp and said the whole train of wagons have left the Spanish trail to follow us. I think they will soon have to abandon the idea to follow us and take some other route. At 9 o'clock we broke camp. We soon turned and took a due west course and about 10 o'clock at night made camp, having made about 30 or 32 miles. Our camp is in the dry bed of a river. An emigrant of Captain Smith's company came into our camp and said he would pay any price for a drink of water, there was none for sale. The day had been hot and my canteen was dry having drank and divided it with others. I said to this man that I was so dry myself that if I had a drink, I would not take fifty dollars for it. Brother Rich who was sitting by, said to me, "have you no water"? I replied, no sir, in a few minutes afterwards he called to tire, it was away from the fire in the dark. I went, he handed


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me his canteen and said, "Drink, drink, you are welcome.'' The canteen seemed to be two-thirds full. I said, no Brother Rich, but he urged me to drink, saying, he had not been very thirsty himself that day and I was welcome to a drink. I said to myself, God bless the man. Fri. 9th. This morning our animals were scattered in all directions. Brothers Rich and Rollins went to the top of a mountain, they say they could see no signs of water. We traveled up the bed of the river when one of my animals gave out. I left her and put the pack on the one I had been riding. Brother Keeler, who had the wound in the foot, I told him to go ahead with the company and if they found water, to send and meet me with a canteen of water. I was soon left alone. I frequently scratched holes in the sand for water and chewed bullets to create moisture in my mouth and to some extend it did. When about the middle of the afternoon I saw a man coming towards me, he raised his hand, shaking a tin cup, it was Brother Joseph Cain. I understood the signal and when we met, he handed me a full canteen of the best water I ever drank, I dreaned every drop. My mouth had become so bitter and I began to feel like vomiting. It was not far to camp, and when I arrived in camp supper was ready. I ate and drank until I was satisfied. This creek we gave the name, Providence Creek. Made to-day about 10 miles. Some of Captain Smith's men are still behind. Men filled canteens and went to meet their companions and even dividing water with their given out animals. Some of their companions they did not find and fears are, they were killed by Indians, for several were seen following us at no great distance. Sat. 10th. Camp laid by while twelve men with guns, canteens of water, and spades went to hunt the 4 missing men and if found dead, to give them as decent a burial as we could. They had not gone far when they met them. The missing men had left the main camp and had gone in another direction for water, and had found some in a cave. When the men were met and no one dead, our men fired their guns in token that all was well. Hearing the firing at camp a number gathered their rifles and struck out in haste, believing that the Indians had made an attack. I herded and watched our horses. Sun. 11th. About 9 a. m. camp broke. Returned on our back track about a mile, then traveled west up and down hills all day, and in the afternoon 2 of my animals gave out. Here I could have wept, I pittied the poor dum brutes and to leave them


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on the desert to perish, as feed is poor and no water for miles that I knew of, and let them fall into the hands of the Indians who may kill and eat them. I was now behind, I left the animals and proceeded on to camp on foot, where I arrived a little after dark. The camp the men believe is on the same creek we left this morning, and have not made but a few miles, but Captain Flake thinks otherwise. Brother Rich said this kind of traveling would never do and that his counsel had not been taken, if it had we would not be here, and that he was not going to travel this way any longer, if we did we would all perish in the mountains and if he could not have his way he would turn back for the Spanish trail, for it was plain to be seen that Captain Flake had taken Captain Smith's opinion instead of the counsel of the General (Rich). This reminds me of a dream Brother Rich had. He dreamed he was traveling and came up to an old lady sitting in the road, he spoke to her and asked if she would not get out of the way and let him pass. She muttered something and leaned a little to one side and he passed around her and took the shoot. Mon. 12th. Last night I stood guard. This morning while making preparations to start, I changed my shirt and garment and as they were in rags, I tore them up and buried them in the sand. Camp broke about 9 o'clock with the intention to travel south. I went to look for my two animals but could see nothing of them. We continued our journey until near evening when we came to a spot of grass, here we unpacked and let our animals eat for an hour, then packed up and traveled until ten at night. Captain Flake and Smith are ahead looking for water. We camped without water, having made about 30 miles. Tue. 13th. All hands set off at an early hour and about ten a. m. it commenced to rain. Soon it came down in torrents, pools of water were formed on the ground. We halted and went into camp, and had plenty of water for man and beast. Before night it cleared up. Captain Smith said it was plain to him that the finger of the Lord was in the rain. As for my part I feel that the Lord in His mercy sent the rain. We dug in a bank and got dry ground to make down our beds. There was no fuel to make fires, nothing but a large weed that grows on the desert and notwithstanding it was raining, I never saw anything burn so well. Wed. 14th. Nice Day. Camped moved a short distance where a weak spring was found. As the pools of water had all dis->


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appeared it was agreed to stop at the spring, dig it deeper and clean it out, when we now have plenty of water. Thur. 15th. Camp laid by while General Rich and 3 of our men went to the top of a high mountain, west of camp, to get a view of the country ahead of us as the General has his scruples about continuing our journey in that direction. Late in the night they got back to camp. Fri. 16th. This morning Captain Smith came to our camp and asked Brother Rich what discoveries he had made and what he intended to do. The General gave it as his opinion that there was no water, nor could he see any sign of water as far as he could see, and in his opinion there was no pass, for mountains rose one after another as far as the eye could see, for aught he knew for 150 miles, and that it was his intention to make for the Spanish trail, by turning and traveling in a southeast direction, and all that were mind to follow him, he would lead out for the Spanish trail. Captain Smith said he would continue his course across the mountains if he perished in the attempt. "And if," said he, "you do not hear from me, you may know that I died with my face westward, and not before I have eaten some mule meat." At this the two companies parted. Two of Smith's men joined us. The spring we named, Division Spring. General Rich and party had not proceeded far when we came to good grass and water. W e halted and dined, after which we continued a few miles and camped for the night, where we had plenty of water and grass. Made about 15 miles. Indians were living here and on our approach they had run, leaving their bows and arrows, baskets, knives and paints. Sat. 17th. Followed the creek through a narrow canyon of solid rocks on each side, rising abruptly for aught I know five hundred feet. The bursting of a percussion-cap was like the crack of a rifle. Made to-day about 15 miles. Sun. 18th. Continued our journey for about 5 miles when we saw a smoke, in a few minutes we saw cattle feeding on the other side of the river and some men with them. They told us that Captain Hunt was encamped just below with his train of wagons, and when we made up, who did we find but Captain Hunt sure enough, with a large train of wagons on the Spanish trail, on the muddy, just at the edge of the 50 mile drive to the next water and with him was Brother Addison Pratt, James Brown and Blackwell with the rodeometer. I dreamed last night of seeing Brothers Pratt and Brown. Captain Hunt told us that


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a train of 100 wagons had started to follow us or perish in the attempt. I will state here what I have since heard what became of Captain Smith and company. From Division Spring they traveled on their way westward a day or so without finding water and were forced to return to Division Spring, but before reaching the spring they had become so exhausted that they killed one of their animals and ate and drank its blood. From Division Spring they took the back track until they reached the old Suanish trail where they fell in with a company on their way to California. The company took them in, furnished them provisions, and took them to California. When Captain Smith and company were returning to Division Spring there were eleven of his men that determined to go through to California at all hazards and so left Smith and again turned their faces westward, trusting to chance about finding water, but somewhere near Owens Lake in sight of the great Sierra Nevada, they split as to the best way to go, nine went one way and two another. The two got through but I never heard what became of the mine. I met one of the two in the Mariposa mines in the spring of 1850 and heard him tell the story. He said had it not been for some acorns they found laid away by Indians, they would surely have perished. Now I will return to Captain Hunt's train. A Dutchman who left Captain Smith's train overtook us, he had been robbed by Indians of nearly everything he had. Tue. 20th. At noon the whole train broke camp for the next water fifty miles, at a place called the Abages, where we arrived on the 21st. Here is plenty of water and good grass, here we halted to let our animals feed and rest until the 23rd, when we moved about 12 miles and camped. The feed here is all eaten off by emigrant animals ahead of us. Sat. 24th. Went 4 miles and camped on a good patch of grass, found by Captain Hunt last evening, also water. I spent most of the day hunting hares. Sun. 25th. Nice day, made 8 and % miles by the rodeometer, and camped by a spring in a mountain, wood plenty, the most of it is cedar and dry. Here we found a note dated November 18th. for Captain Dallas to come ahead soon as possible for their train was starving, that the writer had seen things that made his blood run cold and had sent some of their men to the settlements in California for provisions. Captain Hunt says it is 220 miles yet to the first settlement.


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Mon. 26th. Clear and fine. Last night I stood my turn of guard. Made 30 miles, road good. Tue. 27th. Clear and frosty. Made 20 miles and camped at a spring, road not very good. At this spring it is said that some Spaniards were killed by Indians. Here the camp-fires of the emigrants had not gone out. Along the road we passed dead oxen, yokes, kegs and chains left by the way, and I noticed one poor old live ox standing alone, no others about that I could see and he perhaps five miles away from water. Wed. 28th. Laid by, rained in the night. One of the men belonging to the train of Captain Hunt, killed a beef and as our mess was short of provisions to last us to the settlements, we bought 43 pounds at 8 cents per pound. Thur. 29th. At noon we left the train of wagons and went about seven or eight miles and camped for the night. Fri. 30th. Last night 2 footmen belonging to Captain Hunt's train left him and came in to our camp carrying their provisions on their backs, on their way to the settlements. W e made a few miles and made an early camp. In passing through a notch of a low mountain I noticed signs of gold. We got something to eat and filled up our canteens as we have a drive of 45 miles to the next water, and at 4 p. m. we were on the march. The road was good and smooth, the moon shone nice and bright. W e traveled until midnight, passed a wagon that had been left by emigrants, a box and several dead oxen. We camped without water and grass for our animals. Made about 25 miles since four o'clock. Brother Rich let me ride in turns with him, he having a good mule or I should have given out, as Brother Keeler and I have but two animals between us and they are so poor and thin in flesh that we favor them all we can. Sat., December 1st., 1849. By sunrise we were on the march, in a few miles we came in sight of some wagons in camp off to our left a mile or more. We made up to them, they had found by accident water standing in holes. We unpacked and our cooks were busy preparing something to eat, while our animals were filling up on grass. Resting three hours we packed up, made ten miles further, and camped near the Bitter Spring. Sun. Dec. 2nd. We traveled until nine o'clock in the night •when we reached the Mojave River. Here we overtook some emigrants in camp, men, women and children, bound for California. They told us they had been here a month, living on nothing but beef. We let them have all the flour we could spare. It was a pitiable sight to see them in their condition. The poor little children, my heart was filled for them. (To be continued)


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AMERICAN POSTS (Continued) By EDGAR M. LEDYARD, President UTAH HISTORICAL LANDMARKS ASSOCIATION (Organized August 23,1929) Utah Historical Landmarks Association Museum 518 CHAMBER OF COMMERCE BUILDING, SALT LAKE CITY

McPherson, Fort. One of the Civil War defenses of Washington, D. C , south of the Potomac, near Arlington Heights. Virginia. McRae Fort. At entrance to Pensacola Bay, ten miles from Pensacola. Subpost of Fort Barrancas. Also located as on Foster's Bank, opposite Fort Pickens at the entrance to Pensacola Harbor. Florida. McRae, Fort. Temporary work east side of Okeechobee Lake and about due east from Fort Center. Built in Florida War. Florida. McRae, Fort. At Ojo-del-Muerto, thirty-five miles south of Fort Craig near San Marcial, Socorro County. New Mexico. McRae, Fort. Near Poplar Grove Church. Virginia. Meade, Camp. Eighteen miles southwest of Baltimore, at Admiral. Maryland. Meade, Fort. Temporary work on the right bank of Pease Creek, about three miles north of the mouth of Bowlegs Creek; established in Florida War. Polk County. Florida. Meade, Fort. First called Camp Ruhlen. Two miles from Sturgis. This fort was established in 1878 to protect settlers against Indian attacks. It was improved and made modern in 1902. The reservation comprises 7,842 acres. In 1914 it was garrisoned by a regiment of cavalry. South Dakota. Mechanic, Fort. At Charleston. South Carolina. Medicine Butte, Camp. Near Evanston. Wyoming. Meigs, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, on the southeastern boundary of the district. District of Columbia. Meigs, Fort. Just below the rapids on right bank of the Maumee River about twenty-seven miles from Lake Erie and seventy miles south of Detroit, midway between the two islands below the rapids, near Perrysburg. Built and besieged in 1813. This post is noted for operations under General Harrison, General Proctor, General Clay, noted Indian chiefs, and others. Ohio.


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Meikle, Fort. At Petersburg. Virginia. Mellon, Fort. Temporary fort south of Lake Monroe, three miles from its "mouth"; established in Florida War. Florida. Menlendael, Fort. Near Philadelphia. Pennsylvania. Menninger, Fort. Near mouth of Warrior Run. Pennsylvania. Mercer, Fort. At Red Bank. Ten miles south of Camden on left bank of Delaware River, opposite Fort Mifflin, Pennsylvania. During the Revolutionary W a r it formed one of the defenses of the city of Philadelphia. Fort Mercer and Fort Mifflin were noted for operations of General Howe, General Greene, the Hessians and others during the Revolutionary War. New Jersey. Merrill, Fort. Right bank of the Nueces River, fifty-two miles northwest of Corpus Christi. Texas. Miami, Fort. Old French Fort on Maumee River at the foot of Maumee Rapids. Later a British military post. Present site of Fort Wayne. Indiana. Miami, Fort. At mouth of Josephs River. Michigan. Miami, Fort. On Missouri River, a little below Fort Osage. Missouri. Miamie, Fort. On Maumee River. Ohio. Micanopy, Fort. At Micanopy. Temporary fort established in Alachu County in Florida War, five miles west of the head of Orange Lake. Florida. Michault, Fort. On French Creek. Pennsylvania. Michie, Fort. On Long Island. Subpost of Fort Terry, eleven miles from New London, Connecticut. See Fort H. G. Wright, New York. Michilimackinac, Fort. Also called Fort Holmes, Mackinac Island. Michigan. Middleton, Fort. On Kaskaskia River. Illinois. Mifflin, Fort. On Mud Island, Delaware River, below the mouth of the Schuykill. One of the defenses of the City of Philadelphia. Noted in American history for its siege and capture by the British during the Revolutionary War. Pennsylvania. Miley, Fort. Subpost of Fort Winfield Scott in the City of San Francisco, near Golden Gate Cemetery. California. Mill, Fort. York County. South Carolina. Millar, Fcrt A. S. Temporary fort in Florida W a r ; northwestern extremity of Okeefinokee Swamp. Georgia. Miller, Fort. On left bank of San Joaquin River in foothills of Sierra Nevada Mountains at Millerton. California. Miller, Fort. At Nangus Head, at the southeast entrance to Salem Harbor. Massachusetts. Miller, Fort. Washington County. New York. Milliken, Fort. In Washington County. Pennsylvania.


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Millrock, Fort. In the middle of East, River, at the mouth of Harlem River. New York. Mills, Fort. Ten miles from Newnansville. Florida. Mimms, Fort. Old post on Lake Tensas. Florida. Mims, Fort. Stockade, one and one-half miles from the left bank of the Alabama River, and one mile south of Fort Montgomery; captured by Indians in 1813. This post is noted as being the scene of an Indian massacre on August 30, 1813 during the Creek War. About five hundred men, women and children had assembled here for protection. When the fort was captured all were killed with the exception of a few negroes and halfbreeds who were taken prisoners, and fifteen persons who escaped. Alabama. Minnisink, Fort. In Orange County. New York. Minter's Fort. Near Pennsville. Pennsylvania. Miro, Fort. On Washita River, about 100 miles above its mouth. Louisiana. Mississippi, Fort. At Poverty Point, 38 miles below New Orleans. Louisiana. Missoula, Fort. This post is located about three miles southwest of the city of Missoula. The history of the fort began in '76 or '77 when it was decided to remove Indians from the Bitter Root Valley to the Flat Head Reservation. The post was established by Major C. A. H. McCauley. Montana. Mitchell, Camp. At Junction of Spoon Hill Creek and North Fork of Platte River. Nebraska. Mitchell, Fort. Now a town of that name; right bank of the Chattahoochee, ten miles below Columbus. Russel County. Alabama. Mitchell, Fort. Temporary fort on left bank of south branch of Tenahallama River, where it is crossed by the old road to Tallahassee from Fort Barker; established during the Florida War. Florida. Mitchell, Fort. Formerly Camp Mitchell. Erlanger, Kenton County. One of the defenses of Covington, Kentucky and Cincinnati, Ohio. Kentucky. Mitchell, Fort. (1833-37). On Missouri River, near Ponca Post (1852-'53). South Dakota. Mitchell, Fort. Lunenburg County; now town of that name. Virginia. M. J, Turnay, Fort. According to Elliott Coues, editor of "Forty Years a Fur Trader" by Charles Larpenteur, Coues visited this post in the latter part of June, 1874. According to Coues, it stood on "Frenchman's River" near the parallel of 49 degrees north. On the Canadian side of the boundary stood Woody Mountain Post. Montana.


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Moffart, Fort. North bank of the Milk River. Montana. Mogollon, Fort. Later called Fort Apache. Arizona. Mohican, Fort. Near Manhattan. New York. Mojave, Fort. Left bank of the Colorado at Bent's Crossing, head of Mojave Valley. Near Mohave City, Mohave County. Arizona. Moniac, Fort. Temporary fort, right bank of St. Mary's River at Hogan's Ferry; established in Florida War. Florida. Monroe, Fort. (See Fortress Monroe.) Monroe, Fortress. One of the defenses of Hampton Roads, at Old Point Comfort. Named in honor of President James Monroe. Point Comfort was so called because the English Colonists found solace when they landed at this place in 1607. Appropriation made for post March 1, 1821; the first garrison was stationed here in 1823. Commanding the entrance to Hampton Roads. Virginia. Monsonis, Fort. Monsonis- was one of a number of posts established by the English on Hudson Bay. In 1685, DTberville with a party of French-Canadian regulars successively captured Fort Monsonis, Fort Rupert and Fort St. Anne. Fort Monsonis was a four-bastioned type and carried fourteen guns. The English not only lost these posts but the French carried away furs and stores amounting to a quarter of a million dollars. Canada. Montagne a la Basse, Fort. Built by Northwest Fur Company. Canada. Monterey, Fort. At Monterey. California. Montgomery, Fort. Three miles from left bank of the Alabama, in Baldwin County, opposite the "Cut-off" between the Tombigbee and the Alabama Rivers. Alabama. Montgomery, Fort. Near San Francisco. California. Montgomery, Fort. Latitude 30° 31', longitude 87° 15'. Florida. Montgomery, Fort. Rouse's Point, commanding outlet of Lake Champlain. Clinton County. New York. Montgomery, Fort. Six miles below West Point on the west bank of the Hudson River. Built in 1777 by the Americans to close the river against the British. From Fort Montgomery the Americans stretched a chain and boom across the Hudson to Anthony's Nose, to prevent vessels from passing up the stream. These barriers were broken by the British. New York. Montgomery, Fort. In Cherokee County. North Carolina. Monuments, Fort. Left bank of Smoky Hill River, west side of the mouth of Monument Creek, 92 miles west from Fort Hays. Kansas.


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Moore, Fort. Established about 1716 at Allatoona Pass. Located near present site of Augusta; also known as Savannah Town in early days. Georgia. Moore, Fort. On Savannah River, 120 miles from Charleston. South Carolina. Moosa, Fort. Built about 1740. Located two miles north of St. Augustine on west bank of River Diego. Florida. Moose, Fort. South end of St. James Bay in Hudson Bay at the mouth of the Moose River. Canada. Moreau, Fort. See Plattsburg Barracks. Principal work of the defenses of Plattsburg in 1814. Fort Moreau and Fort Scott near it are accurately located by markers. Fort Brown in the vicinity may be "made out" through remaining earthworks. New York. Morgan, Fort. A strong post on Mobile Point, entrance to Mobile Bay, site of old Fort Bowyer; 33 miles from Mobile. The guns of Fort Morgan were mounted in three tiers; in 1863 it had a garrison of 640 men. In 1914 the garrison consisted of two companies of Coast Artillery. The reservation comprised 322 acres. Alabama. Morgan, Fort. Right bank of South fork of the Platte, 100 miles southwest of Julesburg in Morgan County. Now a city of the same name. There is a monument on the site of the old fort which at one time marked the Denver and Pikes Peak Cut-off from the Overland Trail. Colorado. Morgan, Fort. At Davis Mills. Mississippi. Morgan, Fort. At the south side of Ocracoke Inlet. Confederate work captured by Federals. North Carolina. Morgan, Fort. One of the "fort cards" in the Chicago Public Library reads as follows: "This fort (Fort Morgan) was established in 1865; was abandoned in May, 1868. Its garrison was transferred to Fort Laramie. It was located about sixty miles north of Laramie Station on the North Platte River at the west base of what is known as Scott's Bluff, Wyoming." Camp Robinson, afterwards called Fort Robinson, is approximately sixty miles north of Scott's Bluff in Dawes County, formerly a part of Sioux County. Fort Morgan, well-known Colorado post, is on the South Platte, 125 miles south of Scott's Bluff. No fort nor any site of a post has been found on the west slope of Scott's Bluff nor 60 miles north of either of the "Laramie stage stations" in Wyoming. Morris, Fort. A Revolutionary W a r fort commanded by Colonel John Mcintosh. At Sunbury. Georgia. Morris, Fort. Built as a defense against the Indians after the defeat of General Braddock. Begun in 1755 and finished 1757 by citizens of Shippensburg, Cumberland County, working


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under the direction of Colonel Burd. There were two forts in Shippensburg—Fort Morris and Fort Franklin. It is not clear, however, whether Fort Franklin was a separate post or the predecessor of Fort Morris. Fort Morris was named after Governor Morris of Pennsylvania. The post was built on a rocky hill in the west part of town. Its walls, about two feet thick, were of stone with openings in them several feet from the ground. The roof was constructed of timber. The post was frequently garrisoned by Provincial troops and used as a depository for arms, ammunition and provisions for armies on the frontier or when marching west. Pennsylvania. Morris, Fort. Near Richmond. Virginia. Morris, Fort. East of Uniontown. West Virginia. Morrisons Fort. At Colerain, Franklin County. Massachusetts. Mortimer, Fort. (1843-46) Same as Fort William 1833-34. Junction of the Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers. North Dakota. Morton, Fort. On Kotzebue Sound. Alaska. Morton, Fort. At Nashville. Tennessee. Morton, Fort. Earthwork constructed before Petersburg during the siege of that place. Virginia. Morton, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C. south of the Potomac. Virginia. Moschelosburg, Fort. See Elfsborg and Elsinburg. New Jersey. Mose, Fort. See Fort Moosa. Florida. Mott, Fort. Six miles northwest of Salem, on Salem Branch of Pennsylvania Railroad, at head of Delaware Bay. New Jersey. Mott, Fort. At Pittsford. Also called Fort Vengeance. Vermont. Motte, Fort. British work, right bank of Congaree River, at Devil's Elbow, 4 miles due east of the Wateree. Present town of same name in Calhoun County not on The Congaree River. Calhoun County. South Carolina. Moultrie, Fort. Near St. Augustine. Florida. Moultrie, Fort. West end of Sullivan's Island, north of main entrance to Charleston Harbor and six miles from Charleston. Fort Moultrie was the scene of operations in the summer of 1776 when the British attempted to take Charleston to make that place a base of operations against the Southern Colonies. The British attack was unsuccessful but on May 7, 1780, the fort surrendered to the British. In 1860 a United States garrison was assigned to this post. A little later Major Robert Anderson moved the garrison from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumpter. South Carolina.


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Mound, Fort. At the Blue Mound. Wisconsin. Mountain, Fort. Chatsworth, Murray County. Georgia. Mount Defiance, Fort. Near Ticonderoga. New York. Mount Malady, Fort. At Flenrico. Virginia. Mud, Fort. An old fort at the town of Sackett's Harbor New York. Mud, Fort. At Springfield. Ohio. Mud, Fort. Near mouth of Red River. Texas. Mudge, Fort. Temporary fort during Florida War, near Okeefinokee Swamp, nine miles southeast of Fort Floyd. Georgia. Mudge, Fort. At Racepond, Pierce County. Georgia. Mumford, Fort. Established by the Hudson's Bay Company in 1835. Fort Mumford was about 60 miles from the mouth of the Stikeen River. Another post, Fort Glenora, was established the same year, 20 miles above Fort Mumford. Fort Mumford and Fort Glenora were fur trading posts. When the gold seekers over-ran the country and frightened the game away, these posts were abandoned. Canada. Muncy, Fort. This post was built by Colonel Thomas Hartley in 1778 at the urgent request of Mr. Samuel Wallis. The old fort stood a few hundred years in front of a famous stone mansion built in 1769, known as Hall's House. Fort Muncy was destroyed by the Indians in 1779 and rebuilt in 1782. The site of the old fort is one-half mile above Hall's Station and four miles from Muncy, Lycoming County. The Philadelphia-Reading Railroad was built through the old fort. Pennsylvania. Murray, Camp. Near Peoa, 40 miles from Salt Lake City. Utah. Musa or Muse Fort. See Fort Moosa. Florida. Musselshell, Fort. Leedy, Fergus County. Montana. Myakka, Fort. Temporary fort on Myakka Creek, about eleven miles due east from Fort Hartsuff, on right bank of Pease Creek; established in Florida War. Florida. Myer, Fort. Fort Myer is located on historical ground. Actual building was begun in 1872 but it was "founded" in 1863. At that time the post there was known as Fort Whipple. This was formerly the estate of the Lees. The property was confiscated in 1861. The post is four miles southwest of Washington, on the Potomac River. The post was named after General A. J. Myer, the founder of the signal service of the United States Army. A squadron of cavalry and battalion of field artillery are usually located there. Virginia. Myers, Fort. See Fort Harvie. Temporary fort, left bank of the Bayou Caloosahatchie (Caloosahatchee) about fifteen miles


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north of Fort Dulany; established during Florida War. Lee County. Florida. Mystic, Fort. On Mystic River. Connecticut. Nacogdoches, Fort. At town of same name. Texas. Nahucke, Fort. In Greene County. North Carolina. Nansemond, Fort. Near Suffolk. Virginia. Narragansett, Fort. Near site of Kingston. Rhode Island. Nash, Fort. An old fort at the source of Norton's Creek, northeast from Shelbyville. Tennessee. Nashborough, Fort. Now Nashville. Tennessee. Nassau, Fort. In 1623, Mey, a Dutch explorer, built Fort Nassau, just above the Schuylkill, near the present sit of Philadelphia. New Jersey. Nassau, Fort. Built about 1614. Rensselaer County. New York. Nassau, Fort. On Castle Island, Hudson River. New York. Natchez, Fort. Near Natchez. Mississippi. Natchez, Fort. On the Washita and Little Rivers. Mississippi. Necessity, Fort. Franklin County; now town of that name, twenty miles south of Winnsboro. Louisiana. Necessity, Fort. Near the Scioto River, thirteen miles north of Fort McArthur on the road to Fort Finley in Hardin County. Ohio. Necessity, Fort. Old French Fort in southwestern Pennsylvania on Monongahela River, now Great Meadows. Pennsylvania. Neches, Fort. On River Neches. Texas. Neck, Fort. On Long Island. New York. Negas, Fort. On Penobscot River. Maine. Negley, Fort. At Chattanooga. Tennessee. Negley, Fort. At Nashville. Tennessee. Negro, Fort. South of Fort Scott on Apalachicola River. Built by Captains Percy and Nichols. Used as headquarters for arming Indians and runaway negroes to make war on frontier settlements. Commanded by a negro by the name of Garcia. This post was captured by Colonel Clinch. Garcia and a Choctow chief were put to death; $200,000.00 worth of propertv was found in the fort. Florida. Negro, Fort. In southeast part of state. New York. Neilson, Fort. Near Bemis Heights. New York. Nelson, Fort. At Louisville. Kentucky. Nelson, Fort. West side of Norfolk Harbor, opposite Fort Norfolk. Virginia. Nesqually, Fort. See Fort Nisqually. Washington.


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New Amstel, Fort. At Newcastle. See Niewar Amstel. Delaware. New Bedford, Fort. Clark's Point, New Bedford Harbor. Massachusetts. Newberry's blockhouse. Below Belpre. Ohio. New Brighton Blockhouse. At New Brighton. Pennsylvania. New Casco, Fort. On Presumpscot River. Maine. New Gottenburg, Fort. On Timicum Island. Delaware. New Madrid, Fort. Near New Madrid. Missouri. Newport, Fort. Near Mohawk River. New York. Newton, Fort. On Staten Island, at Fort Wadsworth. New York. Nez Perces, Fort. In 1818 Donald McKenzie received orders from the east to build a fort among the Nez Perce Indians as a central depot for the interior; Alexander Ross was appointed to take charge of it. On July 11, 1818, McKenzie, Ross and ninety-five other men camped near the mouth of Walla Walla River and selected a site for the fort. The name was a misnomer since the Indians living in the vicinity were Walla Wallas and Cayuses. The fort was built on the same site where Lewis and Clark held a peace celebration, another anomaly since it was considered a very dangerous point. The building of this fort was one of the activities which marked the opening of the Snake country. This post was succeeded by Fort Walla Walla. Washington. Niagara, Fort. Lake Ontario, mouth of Niagara River, seven miles from Lewiston, New York. This is one of the most noted fortifications now in use. It was founded by La Salle as Fort Conti in 1679 and has been occupied with troops and a commanding officer since 1679. Fort DeMonville (predecessor) was erected in 1687. This post is located on a wooded peninsula between the Niagara River and Lake Ontario. The castle here is of historical importance. An expedition was planned against this fort in August 1755. The expedition was assembled at Fort Oswego. Niagara was a French stronghold at that time. Fort Niagara was the scene of operations during the Revolutionary War when it was the starting point of many expeditions sent out to ravage the western frontier. For a time it was the headquarters of John Butler and Joseph Brant. During the war of 1812 it was bombarded from Fort George, captured by the British and later surrendered to the United States. In May, 1826, the United States garrison was withdrawn from this post. New York. Nicholas, Fort. On Cook River. Alaska. Nicholas, Fort. Founded by the French at Prairie du Chien. When John Marsh, New Englander and Harvard graduate, vis-


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ited Prairie du Chien in the '20's, the fort was known as Fort Crawford. Wisconsin. Nichols, Fort. At Salisbury Point, opposite Newburyport. Massachusetts. Nicholson, Fort. On Hudson River, near Lake George, supposed to be same as Fort Edward. New York. Niewar Amstel, Fort. At Newcastle. See New Amstel. Delaware. Ninety-Six, Fort. British post at Cambridge, Abbeyville County. Besieged by Green, 1781. According to recent maps Cambridge is in Greenwood County. Greenwood County and Abbeyville County adjoin. South Carolina. Niobrara, Fort. Cherry County, on Niobrara River, opposite mouth of Minnichudza River. Nebraska. Nisqually, Fort. The post was called Fort Nesqually in early days. Nisqually is a post office in Thurston County, Washington. Fort Nesqually was established on Puget Sound in 1833 by the Hudson's Bay Company. It was not only a fortified situation but sheep and cattle were ranged near the post. Nearby the Cowlitz valley had much fine farming land. Plomondeau began operations there under the advice of McLaughlin in 1837. In 1839 Douglas, Work and Ross measured up some 4,000 acres and farming was begun for the Puget Sound Agricultural Com7 pany, which marked the permanency of agriculture and the decline of the fur trade. Washington. Noel, Fort. Temporary fort during Florida War, six miles northwest from Fort Pleasant on the road to Tallahassee. Florida. Nogales, Fort. In Southern Arizona on Southern Pacific Railroad near border. Arizona. Nogales, Fort. On Mississippi River at Walnut Hills. Mississippi. Nome Lackee Post. About twenty-five miles west of Tehama, Tehama County. California. Nominac, Fort. On west bank of Delaware River. Pennsylvania. Nonsense, Fort. Near New London; also called Fort Folly. Connecticut. Nonsense, Fort. Near Morristown. New Jersey. Norembega, Fort. On Penobscot River. Maine. Norfolk, Fort. East side of Norfolk Harbor, right bank of Elizabeth River, about one and one-half miles north of Norfolk. Virginia. Normandy Blockhouse. On Chattanooga and Nashville Railroad. Tennessee.


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Norris, Fort. On Lehigh River, near Stroudsburg. Pennsylvania. North, Fort. There were two early forts in Salt Lake City, one called the North Fort and the other South Fort. North Fort, built in 1847-48, occupied the present site of Pioneer Square. A little later a fort was built just to the south and separated by a wall which was called South Fort and occupied by later arrivals. Salt Lake City. Utah. North, Fort. Ogden, Weber County. Utah. North Hero Blockhouse. At Dutchman's Point. Vermont. Northkill, Fort. Two miles from Strausstown, Berks County. Maine. Northwest Fur Company Post. Established in 1792. Near Fond du Lac, mouth of St. Louis River. Minnesota. Nortoni, Fort. Temporary fort during Florida War, twentytwo miles southeast from Fort Floyd. Georgia. Norway House. This was rebuilt in 1827-28 by John McLeod. Rebuilding was necessary on account of a fire having destroyed the original post. Canada. Nugen, Fort. On Whidbys Island. Washington. Nulato, Fort. On Yukon River; west central part of territory. Alaska. Nutter's Fort. In Harrison County. West Virginia. Oakland, Fort. Five miles from Fort Deane. Florida. Oak Point, Fort. At Wilmington. North Carolina. Ocilla, Fort. Temporary post about two miles southeast of Fort Gamble; established in Florida War. Florida. Ocklawaha, Fort. Near Apalachicola. Florida. Ogden, Fort. De Soto County. Now town of that name. Near Pease River on Southern Railway. Florida. Ogden Arsenal. Seven miles south of Ogden on the Bamberger Electric Railroad. Utah. Ogeechee, Fort. Near the Ogeechee River. Georgia. Oglethorpe, Fort. Frederica, Glen County. Georgia. Oglethorpe, Fort. At Savannah. Georgia. Oglethorpe, Fort. Rossville, Walker County. Georgia. Oglethorpe, Fort. Eight miles south of Chattanooga, within Government Reservation of Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Park. Tennessee. Okanogan, Fort. Built in 1811 by the Pacific Fur Company. Left bank of Columbia River at its junction with the Okanogan. Washington. Omaha, Fort. Established in 1868. Douglas County. Nebraska. One, Number, Fort. Eleven miles from Indian River. Florida. One, Number, Fort. Near Savannah. Georgia.


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One, Number, Fort. On Charles River. Massachusetts. Ontario, Fort. Site of old Fort Pepperell. One of our most historic posts. Construction was begun by the British and Colonial troops in 1755. The old fort stood on the site commanding the mouth of the Oswego River and looking out on Lake Ontario. Fort George, situated on an emminence west of Fort Oswego, was completed in 1856 the same year that Fort Ontario was completed. Old Fort Oswego was erected on an estuary, in 1727. Site of old Fort Oswego, on right bank of Oswego River at its mouth. Junction of Oswego with Lake Ontario, within the city of Oswego. New York. Opelika, Fort. At Opelika. Alabama. Opilandt, Fort. Near Lewiston. New Jersey. Orange, Fort. The Dutch made a settlement in 1615, on a small island below Albany, where a post was erected called Fort Orange. Later in May, 1624, a party of Dutch emigrants settled on the present site of Albany, which they named Fort Orange. When New Amsterdam fell into the hands of the English in 1664, Fort Orange became Albany to commemorate the Duke of York's Scottish title; the rest of New Amsterdam became New York. New York. Orange, Fort. Castleton, Rensselaer County. At Bowling Green. New York. Orford, Fort. Trinchnor Bay, ten miles south of Cape Blanco at Park Orford. Oregon. Orleans, Fort. Near mouth of the Osage. Missouri. O'Rourke, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C, south of Potomac. Virginia. Osage, Fort. Right bank of the Missouri, at mouth of Osage River in Jackson County, near present site of Sibley. Missouri. Osao, Fort. At Auburn. New York. Osborne, Camp. At Osburn. Idaho. Osceola, Fort. At Plum Point, Mississippi River. Arkansas. Osoyoos, Camp. On Lake Osoyoos, Okinakane Valley. Washington. Oswegatchie, Fort. In upper Canada on the south side of the River St. Lawrence, 60 miles northeast of Lake Ontario, near Ogdensburg. New York. Oswego, Fort. Originally Fort Pepperell. Old French fort at mouth of Oswego River on the southern shore of Lake Ontario. It was known to the Indians as Chouegan. Obliterated work on site, now occupied by Fort Ontario. New York. Ouatanon, Fort. Also called Onachtanon, Ouiatenon or Owatanon. Old French fort located on Wabash River, west central Indiana, near Lafayette. Indiana.


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Owen, Fort. 1850. On Bitter Root or St. Mary's River. Stevensville was known until 1864 as Major Owen's Trading Post. In 1850 it was found necessary to abandon the mission of St. Mary's on account of the hostility of the Blackfeet. The buildings were sold to Major Owen who built a fort at the site of the mission and traded with the Indians. Stevensville, Ravalli County. Montana. Owen, Fort. At Petersburg. Virginia. Owyhee River Camp. Opposite Fort Boise. Idaho. Ox, Fort. Near source of Allegheny. New York. Pagosa Springs, Fort. Established 1878. Pagosa Springs, Archuleta County. Colorado. Paige Camp. In Sanpete Valley. Utah. Palachocolas, Fort. On Savannah River. South Carolina. Palmer, Fort. New Florence, Westmoreland County. Pennsylvania. Palmetto, Fort. At Stono Inlet. South Carolina. Pambian, Fort. In existence from 1797-1801. Northwest Fur Company post. North Dakota. Panmure, Fort. "In the Natchez Country taken by the Spaniards in 1879." Mississippi. Papin Cerre, Fort. In existence from 1828 to 1829. Junction of Bad and Missouri Rivers. South Dakota. Paris, Fort. At Stone Arabia, Mohawk Valley. New York. Parish's Fort. Built during the Black Hawk War. Now Wingville. Wisconsin. Parke, Fort. On Roanoke Island. North Carolina. Parker, Fort. At Cooks Hammock. Florida. Patapsco, Fort. Below Baltimore, on Patapsco River. Maryland. Patience, Fort. At Henrico. Virginia. Patrick Henry, Fort. On Holston River. Tennessee. Patterson's Fort. Opposite Mexico, in Tuscarora Valley. Pennsylvania. Patterson's Fort. In Snyder County. Pennsylvania. Paulus Hook, Fort. At Jersey City. New Jersey. Pavlovski, Fort. Near Kenayan Bay. Alaska. Pawnee House (1804). Site of Trudeau's House (1796-97). East bank of the Missouri River. South Dakota. Payne, Fort. Ninety-two miles northeast of Birmingham on the Alabama Great Southern Railroad. Now town of that name in De Kaib County. Alabama. Payne, Camp. Near Fort Laramie. Wyoming. Pearse's Fort. Four miles from Uniontown. Pennsylvania. Pease, Fort. Military post on left bank of Yellowstone River. Montana.


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Pease, Fort Military. Established in 1875. Same name as above (Fort Pease), but farther down the river. Montana. Peck, Fort. Military post, some as Larpenteurs Post, 1860-61. Left bank of Milk River, near mouth of Poplar River. Medicine Lake, Valley County. Montana. Peck, Old Fort. Left bank of the Missouri River. Montana. Pelly, Fort. Northwest Fur Company. Saskatchewan. Canada. Pemaquid, Fort. Established in 1626. First permanent settlement in Maine. Maine. Pemberton, Fort. Near Greenwood. Mississippi. Pemberton, Fort. Left bank of Stono River; Confederate defense of Charleston. South Carolina. Pembina, Fort. On Red River of the North. First called Fort George H. Thomas. North Dakota. Pendleton, Fort. In Garrett County. Maryland. Pendleton, Fort. Near Romney. Virginia. Penn, Fort. At Stroudsburg. Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, north of Potomac, later.called Fort Reno. District of Columbia. Pentagoet, Fort. At Castine. Maine. Penton, Fort. Nineteen miles from Indian River. Florida. Peoria, Old Fort. Creve Coeur was the first fort in Illinois —may have reference to this fort. Peoria, Illinois. Pepperell, Fort. Present site of Fort Ontario. New York. Pequod, Fort. At head waters of Mumford's Cove, two miles west of Portersville on Mystic River. Connecticut. Peralta Post. Left bank of the Rio Grande del Norte, eighteen miles south of Albuquerque. New Mexico. Perrot, Fort. Also called Fort Bon Secours. Minnesota. Perry, Fort. In Marion' County. Georgia. Petite Coquille Post. On island in Rigolet's Pass. See Fort Pike. Louisiana. Peyton, Fort. Temporary post, right bank of Moultrie Creek on the road from St. Augustine to Smyra, established in Florida War. Florida. Peyton, Fort. On Anastasia Island, near St. Augustine. Florida. Phantom Hill, Fort. On Clear Fork of Brazos River. Texas. Phelps, Fort. Near Missionary Ridge. Tennessee. Phil Kearney, Fort. On Powder River. See Kearney, Fort Phil. Wyoming. Philip, Fort. On Mississippi River. In Plaquemine County. See Fort St. Philip. Louisiana. Phillips, Fort. At Plum Island. Massachusetts. Phillips, Fort. Near Williamsburg. Pennsylvania. Philpot, Fort. At Louisville. Kentucky.


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Phoenix, Fort. At Fort Point, on left bank of entrance to New Bedford Harbor, near Fairhaven. Massachusetts. Phoenix, Camp. Subsequently Fort Towson. Indian Territory. Oklahoma. Pickawillany Blockhouses. On Great Miami. In Shelby County. Ohio. Pickens, Fort. West end of Santa Rosa Island, at entrance to Pensacola Harbor. Subpost of Fort Barrancas, Florida and on Santa Rosa Island, one mile from Fort Barrancas and nine miles from Pensacola. Early in 1861 Lieutenant Adam J. Slemmer transferred a small garrison from Fort Barrancas to Fort Pickens directly opposite. The United States forces under Lieutenant Slemmer numbered only eighty-one men but they withstood a siege for some time against the Confederates under General Braxton Bragg. In April Colonel Harvey Brown arrived with reinforcements and the fort was held by the Federals throughout the war. Florida. Pickering, Fort. Temporary work at Colerain, on the St. Mary's River. Georgia. Pickering, Fort. On southeastern end of Winter Island, north side of the entrance to Salem Harbor. Massachusetts. Pickering, Fort. On the left bank of the Mississippi River in Tennessee at the Chickasaw Bluff, Memphis. Tennessee. Piegan, Fort. In existence from 1831-32. Fort Piegan was built by James Kipp in the fall of 1831 at the mouth of the Marias. At that time Kipp had with him about seventy-five men. The first season's trapping was very successful and Kipp returned to Fort Union in the spring taking with him furs and all of the men but three. This fort was built as near the river as possible so goods could be easily moved from the boat. Due to changes in the Missouri River, the site of Fort Piegan has been washed away. Montana. Piegan, Fort. This later fort stood west of the one (Fort Piegan) mentioned above. Montana. Pierce, Fort. On Alabama River. Two miles south of Fort Mimms. Alabama. Pierce, Fort. Temporary work, five miles below Indian River Inlet, west side of St. Lucie Sound. Now town of that name, St. Lucie County. Florida. Pierce Spring, Fort. Fredonia. Mohave County, Arizona. Pierre, Old Fort. (1830-57) Right bank of Missouri River. Same as Fort Randall (1857-84). Maps show another Fort Randall farther down Missouri River. South Dakota.


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Pierre, Fort. Stanley County. Now town of that name. On Missouri River, opposite Pierre. South Dakota. Piggot's Fort. Near Columbia. Illinois. Pike, Fort. At the head and west side of Rigolet's Pass connecting Lakes Borgne and Pontchartrain. At South Point. Orleans County. Louisiana. Pike, Fort. On Des Moines River, ten miles above its mouth. Missouri. Pike, Fort. Built in 1812. Near Sackett's Harbor, Lake Ontario, one and one-half miles below the mouth of Mill Creek. New York. Pike's Stockade. At the falls of Painted Rock, Upper Mississippi River. Minnesota. Pillow, Fort. Rebel works, left bank of the Mississippi, in the bend at Fulton, a little above the mouth of the Big Hatchie River. Fort Pillow was constructed by the Confederates under the direction of General Pillow in the Spring of 1862. It was abandoned and dismantled by them on May 25, 1862 and occupied on June 5 by a small Federal force. On April 12, 1864, it was attacked by strong Confederate forces under the direction of General Nathan B. Forrest. After the fort surrendered a large part of the garrison was annihilated. A heated controversy arose over the incident and a congressional investigation followed. President Lincoln was of the opinion that Forrest neither ordered nor suggested the massacre. Fulton, Lauderdale County. Tennessee. Pilot Butte, Camp. At Rock Springs. Wyoming. Pinckney Castle. Shute's Folly Island, Charleston Harbor, at mouth of Cooper River. South Carolina. Pine, Fort. Same as Epinette Fort (1788-94). Canada. Piney, Fort. On Piney Creek, in Uinta County. Wyoming. Pinney, Fort. Near Helena. Arkansas. Pio Pico, Fort. On southwest extremity of the island of San Diego. California. Pinto, Fort. Near Mobile. Alabama. Piper's Fort. In Yellow Creek Valley, Bedford County. Pennsylvania. Piquia, Fort. French post on right bank of the Miami, about one mile below the mouth of Loramie's Creek, on present site of Piqua, Miami County. Ohio.Pitt, Fort. Saskatchewan. Canada. Pitt, Fort. New York City. New York. (To be Continued)


Utah State Historical Society BOARD OF CONTROL (Terms Expiring April 1, 1933) J. CECIL ALTER, Salt Lake City WM. R. PALMER, Cedar City ALBERT F. PHILIPS, Salt Lake City

JOEL E. RICKS, Logan PARLEY L. WILLIAMS, Salt Lake City

(Terms Expiring April 1, 1935) GEORGE E. FELLOWS, Salt Lake City WILLIAM J. SNOW, Provo HUGH RYAN, Salt Lake City LEVI E. YOUNG, Salt Lake City FRANK K. SEEGMILLER, Salt Lake City EXECUTIVE OFFICERS 1931-1932 ALBERT F. PHILIPS, President Emeritus WILLIAM J. SNOW, President J. CECIL ALTER, Secretary-Treasurer-Librarian HUGH RYAN, Vice President Editor in Chief All Members, Board of Control, Associate Editors

MEMBERSHIP Paid memberships at the required fee of $2 a year, will include current subscriptions to the Utah Historical Quarterly. Non-members and institutions may receive the Quarterly at $1 a year or 35 cents per copy; but it is preferred that residents of the State become active members, and thus participate in the deliberations and achievements of the Society. Checks should be made payable to the Utah State Historical Society and mailed to the Secretary-Treasurer, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah. CONTRIBUTIONS The Society was organized essentially to collect, disseminate and preserve important material pertaining to the history of the State. To effect this end, contributions of writings are solicited, such as old diaries, journals, letters and other writings of the pioneers; also original manuscripts by present day writers on any phase of early Utah history. Treasured papers or manuscripts may be printed in faithful detail in the Quarterly, without harm to them, and without permanently removing them from their possessors. Contributions and correspondence should be addressed to the Editor, Utah Historical Quarterly, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah.


David H. Cannon of the L. D. S. Church baptising Shivwits Indians near Santa Clara, Utah. These Indians were converted by James Pearce, a blind missionary, d.uring several years' residence with them in the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River. Courtesy Colonel J. H. McClintock


Utah Historical Quarterly State Capitol, Salt Lake City Volume 5

October, 1932

Number 4

EARLY DAYS IN "UTAH'S DIXIE" By Jacob Hamblin On the 1st D e c , 1854, I, Thales Haskell, and A. P. Hardy, started for the Santa Clara; we encamped that night on the Rio Virgin, when we met some of the Pahutes out on a hunting expedition, among whom was their chief, Tatsorgorits. They were much pleased to see us, and more so when we told them we had come to live among them, and teach them to build houses and raise grain. They returned with us.to their lodges on the second day, and the chief desired us to camp near his lodge; we did so. On the third day they were much alarmed, having heard that some Utah Indians were on their way to steal their children that night. The chief asked if we would help them to fight: I counselled with my two brethren, and replied that we would if they attempted to steal their children, or if it were necessary. I then let them have ten rounds of ammunition for each gun they had. Spies were sent out, and everything made ready for the reception of these anticipated thieves. The old chief went aside, and began to preach to the Utahs, as if they were within hearing; he said, they must not come now to steal their->children; their white brothers—the Mormons—had come here, and would fight for them. He then came and told me I might lie down, but I must not sleep too hard; and he would wake me before the Utahs came. The night passed, and no Utahs came. The next day we went down the river Santa Clara eight miles, to where we purposed building houses for them and ourselves. On the 14th December, President R. C. Allen and H. Burgess arrived from Fort Harmony, and on the following day we commenced cutting house logs. W e chopped them, and the Indians carried them to the site of building. There is an abundance of cottonwood here, from 6 inches to 3 feet in diameter. W e soon had one comfortable cabin for ourselves, and two for the Indians. Arrival of the Utahs! On the 17th December, "Sanpitch," a Utah chief, brother to Walker, and some others, arrived. Their business was to trade for children. He rather abruptly asked


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what we wanted to do there? We told him. "He said that Walker, the big chief, wanted we should keep away from there, that the Snakes had been killing the Utahs at Provo, and that the Mormons were glad." W e told him that our chief had sent us, and we should stay until he told us to leave; and as for the Mormons at Provo/ they had been kind and good to the Utahs, and the Utahs in return had been mean, threatening to shoot, etc.; and if some of the Utahs were killed, it would teach the others to do better. W e asked Tatsagorits, the Pahute chief, whether they wished us to stay, or leave. He said that the water and land are ours, and we wish you to stay. Sanpitch then said, "I was blind at first, go ahead; it's all right. I wanted to know if you were braves!" I had some good talk with Sanpitch on the work among the Lamanites in the last days, and of the Son of God. He said "that he (Savior) was not wise enough, when he was here before, to do what his Father wanted him to do; he took him" home with him, and he would become very wise, and would come again and destroy everything that was not good on the face of the whole earth, the mosquitoes, snakes, wolves, etc." He stayed eight or ten days, bought three girls, giving one horse and two guns for them, and many beads. The father and mother of one of them cried much on seeing their daughter go, but they had nothing to give her to eat, and the gun, her price, would help them to get food. From the oldest girl, aged about 12, as she was carried off, I beheld the tears falling fast and silently, and my heart was pained to think that she might become a slave to the Mexicans. December 24, we started for Harmony, and with Ira Hatch I again returned to the Tonaquint Station on the 11th January, 1855. After visiting the different encampments, on the 17th January we were invited to "an Indian wedding," but the bride, having dreaded the ceremony had made her escape; and until the 24th, we were not permitted to behold this novel spectacle, even for the first time, and then by other parties than those named above. This squaw, with her present husband, had come to visit her family and friends; but the Indian she now lived with had stolen her from another a year before. Her former husband came, and claimed her. The chief said that they must fight for her. About fifty Indians arranged themselves on the sides of the combatants, the contending suitors, according to their feelings, and were about equally divided. They stripped themselves, except about the loins, and tied their hair back. The husbands commenced the fight, bruising each others faces, and causing the blood to flow, like the more civilized (?) duellists and prize fighters. At length one of them fell, when one of his friends took his place. Thus they continued till all had a share in the


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melee, and most had their faces badly bruised. Only at times did they appear angry during this brutal ceremony. They occasionally stopped and wiped their faces, and rubbed and pulled their fingers. Before this the squaw had eaten a good meal, and sat down among the other squaws to witness, and await their feats of bravery. At this stage of the wedding her part became more prominent. Some one more daring than the others takes her by the arm, and leads her through the crowd until another opponent dares to offer fight again. This is a signal for another fight, and thus they continued till an hour after sundown, having commenced shortly after noon. At one time they tried to haul her over the river, she escaped from them, and running towards me put out her hand that I might help her up the bank, and because I stretched forth my hand to her aid I was counted in the ceremony, and fight was offered, but I escaped in consequence of not knowing their rules. Eventually they dragged her through the water to where were five or six lodges. The two claimants again fought there, and one of them seized the other by the hair. This, being considered foul play, was the signal for a scene such as I cannot describe. They all commenced fighting like so many dogs, children and women shouting and hallooing. The bride was trampled under their feet, and fire was thrown into the dense crowd by the women. At length, having beat one another till tired, they quit. The squaw had fainted, blood issued from her mouth, and she seemed lifeless. Two of them hauled her back of one of the lodges, where they again quarrelled some time; they then tore off her buckskin shirt, fought over this till, they were tired, and one of the claimants having got the remainder of it bravely slept on it. This marriage, or the successful wooer, was not decided that night. The next morning I counted 100 Indians, who had collected for the fight on a convenient place near their lodges, where were two fires. They again took sides, and after they had teased and talked sometime they made a general rush at each other, beating one another till their faces were again bruised and covered with blood. After a while they again rubbed their faces and fingers, pulling the latter, and commenced pulling the same squaw about, and fighting as before, which they kept up till 3 P. M. of this day. The day following there was to be another fight for another squaw, eight miles farther down. I was asked to go with them, and went. At 9 A. M., they began as before beating each other; at noon began dragging the squaw; at 3 P. M. they dragged her to the lodges, and I could see no signs of life in her.


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The following day they commenced again to fight for the one so long contended for at first, because she did not want to live with the one that had gained her. He won her again, and she still refused. They tore her clothes off in dragging her through the brush, and started to drag her down the bank of the river. Then I ran between them and it, telling them, as well as I could, how unwise, how unkind! I was happily disappointed at the result, for they stopped, and carried her almost lifeless to the camp, but were somewhat mad because she would. not live with the man who had won her. I then went to the chief, and told him that I would not stop with his people if they persisted in such conduct. He replied, "that was the way they got their women." I told him there was a better way* that if an Indian wanted a wife, and could find one that would live with him, that he should marry them, and they should love their women. You want I should write good to the Mormon chief? "Yes." I write truth to him, and it would be bad to write all I have seen done here, unless you try to stop it now. He and his chief men counselled that night, and in the morning he came to me and said, "he did not want me to say anything about what had been done, for they were ashamed of it. Throw away all you have seen, and we shall stop such fights." That night, Jan. 28, I preached to them from the house top. Bros. Knights and Thornton having arrived from Cedar City with a donation of picks, spades, axes, &c, we commenced building a stone dam across the Santa Clara for emigrating purposes, 80 feet long, 14 feet high, and 3 feet thick, the Indians helping. We had suffered some little for want of flour, &c, but a donation from the Parowan Saints came in good season. The Deseret News, April 4, 1855.

EXTRACTS FROM T H E JOURNAL OF HENRY W. BIGLER Mon. 3rd. I went to look after the horses, came across a patch of grapes, they were as sweet as raisins. I ate so many until I found myself sick. At 1 p. m. broke camp, went up the river for 12 miles and camped for the night. Tue. 4th. Cloudy with some rain, traveled up the river 20 miles. Brother Keeler and I have but one animal to carry us through. Our provisions are nearly exhausted and that of the company's.


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Wed. 5th. Laid by, a s it is snowing. Brother Cannon is sick. One of the men shot an owl, it was picked, dressed and cooked, broth was made, some of which Brother Cannon drank and the rest of us ate the owl, it was a little tough, otherwise it went very welL As game seems to be plentiful- here it is thought best to lay by to-morrow and hunt. The mess of Brother Cain's and the mess I was in all united at evening prayers in asking the Lord to bless the hunters on the morrow in hunting game or the black tailed deer. Thur. 6th. It has quit snowing. Brother Rich and several hunters went out to hunt deer and they killed and brought to camp three fine deer, which greatly increased our stock of provisions. The Lord has answered our prayers and I felt to rejoice and thank the Lord when I saw the hunters coming in with their game. Fri. 7th. Continued our journey. One of our men killed a deer. W e left Captain Hunt and wagons several days ago. Made about ten miles and camped. This evening Brother Rich called the camp together and laid "before them the propriety of dividing the camp, as there seems to be no sign of Indians being around, and he thought the settlements could be reached in 2 days travel by the stronger animals, that those who went ahead could leave more provisions for the hinder company and in so doing we might get all our animals through by giving the weaker animals more time; whereon it was voted that Brother Rich and a few- with the stronger animals go ahead. Sat. 8th. Early this morning Brother Rich and company left. Last night was severely cold. The hinder company and myself followed, we went about six miles and camped for the night. Sun. 9th. Made an early start to reach a spring across the mountain about 18 miles. W e reached the summit about noon, this is called the Cajon Pass. Here we halted a few minutes where the snow was all off the ground and the sun shone nice and warm, and while sitting on the ground I fell into a doze of sleep and thought I was eating brown bread. At this place the only and last animal that Brother Keeler and I Have, gave out, we unpacked and put the pack on a loose mule belonging to the company. On reaching the spring we found a man with a wagon load of provisions and a fat beef sent out by a Mr. Williams to sell to hungry emigrants. The sight of fresh beef just butchered, the fat quarters hanging up seemed to invite all to take a slice. Then the abundance of flour, California style, unbolted, all no doubt for the best for hungry men who had it been otherwise, may


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have eaten so much as to hurt them. Some of the boys who had first reached the spring, were baking bread just as I had seen it in my dream, no sooner than we saw it, we helped ourselves to it without much coaxing and our cooks were not long preparing a good supper. W e learn that it is 25 miles to the first ranch or settlement. Mon. 10th. Clear and nice. Made about 12 miles to the mouth of the canyon on the edge of a valley. Here the feed is green-. Tues. 11th. Clear. Went 15 miles to the Cocomongo ranch. I reckon there was a glad set of men when we found we were through. Wed. 12th. Laid by, hunting for Brother Fife's horse. The company bought a bushel of wheat, gave $3, and ground it on a hand mill. Gave 50 cents for a little wine. Thurs. 13th. Found all the horses and moyed to Williams Ranch where we found Brother Rich and company quartered and room for us to go into, and plenty of provisions provided, when we will now begin to live like white folks. Fri. 14th. Commenced raining last night and all day, and rains hard. W e get flour of Mr. Williams, at the rate of twelve dollars per hundred, which he calls "Fanager," beef cattle from five to fifteen dollars per head, coffee and sugar 37y2 cents per pound. Sat. 15th. Clear and nice. Colonel Williams gave us the liberty to take 2 yoke of his oxen to haul us some wood and let our animals rest, which we take as being very kind of Mr. Williams. Myself and three others got up the team and brought in a load of wood, while others got up a beef, killed and dressed it and at night we had a fine supper. Sun. 16th. Some men just from the mines say that flour is one dollar and 25 cents per pound, beef 75 cents per pound and lumber five hundred dollars per thousand feet, and a passage on a vessel from Pueblo up the coast to San Francisco is two hundred and fifty dollars. Mr. Williams proffers to sell his ranch for two hundred thousand dollars, stock and all. He says there are cattle enough belonging to it to pay for the ranch in six months at present prices in the mines, that he has forty thousand head of cattle and one thousand horses and mules. He wanted to go to the States to live and was bound to sell or lease his property in some shape, and told General Rich that he and his men could pay for the ranch and all that was on it in less than a year. We are at work for Mr. Williams who will pay us in provisions, he owns a mill, we get wheat of him and he will grind it.


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The ground is green with wild oats and grass as the month of May at home. Sat. 22nd. Captain Hunt arrived with his train and the rodeo-meter wagon and the distance from Salt Lake City to the Cajon Pass is 701 miles and from the Pass to Williams ranch is 21 miles, total, 722 miles. Mon. 24th. Still at work for Mr. Williams. Elder Pratt went hunting, brought in some ducks. The men killed a beef and dressed it, and cooks are appointed to get up a Christmas dinner. Tues. 25th. Christmas. Clear and warm. The cooks got us up a splendid dinner considering the materials they had, plenty of roast beef and potatoes, baked ducks and plum pudding. I have a severe pain in my left eye. I went to the doctor, he examined it and said nothing was in it. It seems that there is •something sticking in it near the sight and pains me so much that I can't bear the light to my well eye and I have to be blindfolded. This evening after prayers, I got Brother Rich and some of the,brethren to lay hands on me, and when they placed their hands on my head they felt hot to my head, after which I felt easy and rested well all night. Wed. 26th. Very foggy from the ocean. My eye does not pain me for which I feel thankful to the Lord. To-night Brother Pratt amused the company by singing several comic songs. Thurs. 27th. I find the light is not good for my eye, yet it does not pain .me, but weakens .it. Mon. 31st. Nothing of importance since the 27th. Captain Hunt and Pomeroy have gone to buy some oxen for our company to go from here to the mines in wagons. To-day Brother Pratt asked me if I would go with him to the Islands should Brother Rich and Amasa Lyman call on me to go. I told him if that was their counsel, I would. January, 1850 Sun. Jan. 6th. Still at Williams. This evening Captain Howard Egan arrived from Salt Lake City. Brother Rich has a letter from George A. Smith and E. T. Benson, saying that the cholera is killing some of Uncle Sam's fat ones and that the President of the "United States has made a proclamation and set apart a day of fasting to Almighty God to take away the scourge, but if he is like themselves he can do nothing for them.


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Brother Smith and Benson want the brethren now on their way to the gold mines to raise them five thousand dollars in gold. Thurs. 10th. This afternoon all hands made a move with our wagons and oxen for the mines. Sat. 12th. W e hear that San Francisco is burnt down and in consequence groceries and provisions are high at Los Angeles, where we want to lay in our supplies of sugar and coffee, etc. To-day one of the brethren shot a seal. W e fried cakes in the oil and ate some of the meat, but tove did not like it. It smells bad and unpleasant. Slapjack Bar, Middle fork of the American River, California September, 1850 Mon. Sept. 23rd. I have not journalized for several months. A few days ago we buried Brother Edgar Gipson and we had the painful duty to inter Brother Flake who was thrown from his mule last May and killed, and about the 17th of last Feb. we buried Brother Bills. Tues. 24th. Brother Rich came to our camp on the middle fork of the American River to make his last visit as he expects to leave for home in a few days, we were glad to see him for he seems to us like a father among his sons, advising us what to do for the best. Wed. 25th. This morning Brother Rich called all the brethren together at our tent and stated that he wanted some of us to go on a mission to the Sandwich Islands, to preach the gospel, that it was his opinion it would cost us no more to spend the winter there than it would here, that we could make nothing here in the winter. In consequence of so much water in the streams, and another thing, provisions would be higher in the mines and it would cost us more to stay here and make nothing, than it would if we went to the Islands and preach, in his opinion it would be the best thing we could do and the best counsel he could give, that it would be like killing two birds with one stone for we would live there as cheap and perform a mission at the same time. He then called on the following brethren, namely, Thomas Whittle, Thomas Morris, John Dixon, myself, George Cannon, William Farrer, James Keeler, James Hawkins and laid his hands on our heads and set us apart for the above mission and blessed us in the name of the Lord, and told us to act as the Spirit directed after we got there, and in a few minutes he left. Hyrum Clark is to go and preside over the mission, he is not here, but he knows of his appointment, also Hyrum Blackwell.


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We continued mining until the 17th. of October, then washed up our clothes and prepared to leave. * * * * * * * * * * (Aug. 1854). In San Francisco we met with Amasa Lyman, just up from San Bernardino, who told us that horses and mules were very high there and that there was no prospect of a company going up to Salt Lake this fall, and he and Brother Pratt advised us not to attempt going home this fall. Meeting with Moses A. Meder and a brother in the Church and who lives in Santa Cruz. Brother Meder came to California in the Ship Brooklyn with the Sam Brannan company, he gave me encouragement to go to Santa Cruz to get work and to make his house my house while I remained there. I did so and worked for a man in the lime burning business and shipping it to San Francisco. He hired me to cut hoop-poles and paid me fifty dollars a month and board. The man that hired me was a Mr. Jordan near Brother Meder's, at whose house was my home when not at work. After working a few months Mr. Jordan quit the lime burning business and a son-in-law of Brother Meders by the name of Thomas Heart hired me to work for him, he was a farmer, my work was plowing and putting in grain, he paid me at the rate of $35 per month and board. I got 2 horses and Brother Meder gave a set of harness for which he has my many thanks and a few days after this he took me to a store and bought the following articles and gave them to me, namely, 1 pair of pantaloons, 2 white shirts, 1 pair blankets and two handkerchiefs, amounting to fourteen dollars. Monday, April 2nd. (1855). I gave Brother and Sister Meder the parting hand and as we shook hands Sister Meder gave me five dollars in gold coin, saying it was for me to buy a new hat for myself. Friday, April 6th. I reached San Francisco in time to meet in conference presided over by Elder Pratt and adjourned on the 7th. inst. At this conference it was decided that a company of Saints leave for Great Salt Lake City on or about the 20th. instant by way of San Bernardino. ^ Brother Ruben Gates and I were to join teams, he having a wagon and a span of'mules, which I was to take charge of and drive while he drives his own carriage, and Elder McBride to be the Captain of the company. On Monday the 23rd. the company was partly organized by Brother Pratt in Santa Clara, in front of Brother Whipple's house, when at 10 a. m. the word was given, forward march. We had not proceeded far when one of Brother Gate's mules


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fell dead in the harness; it was believed by some of our company that it had been poisoned on the sly. Tues. 24th. W e reached San Juan Mission where there is a small branch of the Church. Here we expect to stop for a few days to await the arrival of some brethren with families, and to have our company fully organized as Brother Parley is still with us and while waiting I paid Brother and Sister Meder a visit who seemed pleased to see me. Thurs. 26th. Leaving Brother Meder's to return to camp, he came with me a few miles to the village of Santa Cruz. Here he said let us go into the store where he bought 2 woolen shirts, a hat and a pair of shoes and gave me, and besides this he gave me ten. dollars in gold and ten to give to Brother Pratt. Sunday, 29th. Preaching by Brother Pratt and administered the sacrament. Mon. 30th. To-day the company was fully organized, making a total of 37 souls. Brother Duston is to be the Chaplain, myself to be the Clerk and keep a history of the Camp and its travels, etc. At ten o'clock a. m. Captain McBride lead out in front, in his wagon sat Sister Jane Whipple holding a Banner, on it these words, "Latter-day Saints." Here Brother Pratt left us to return to San Francisco while we proceeded on our way to San Bernardino, where we arrived on Monday 21st. of May where we halted a few days to let our animals rest, etc. Monday, June 1st. At 12 o'clock m. we left San Bernardino for Utah. Tues. June 2nd. While traveling up the Cajon Pass Brother Wilkin's goat fell out of the wagon and killed itself. All felt sorry for Brother and Sister Wilkin's poor sick babe whose only food was the goats milk for which it was brought along. On the 16th. of June it died and was buried at Resting Spring. Tues. 23rd. of June. W e reached Las Vegas, here we find 30 brethren from Salt Lake making a settlement and have in a number of acres of grain of one kind and another. Here we halted a few days to rest teams and repair some wagons. Sat. July 20th. W e arrived in Salt Lake City. Here I met my Father, he had come to meet me. He looked very natural, did not look so old as I expected, but his voice had changed. He said the folks were all well and very anxious to see me, said they lived in Farmington, 16 miles north of the City. We stayed all night in the City with Brother George A. Smith, whose wife is my cousin, and the next day attended meeting held under a large Bowery where President Young called on the Elders to speak, all done so and he seemed to be pleased


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with our report and labors on the Sandwich Islands. When the afternoon meeting closed I went home with Father where we arrived about sundown and made welcome by all who appeared, glad to see me as I was pleased to see them, not having seen my Father and family for over nine years, and from Utah I have been absent five years, nine months and eleven days. Farmington is the county seat of Davis County, Utah Territory and lies north of Great Salt Lake City about 15 miles. Thursday, August 2nd. I attended fast meeting in the Farmington Ward. Several children were blessed and two of the Sisters spoke in tongues and we had a good time. My Brotherin-law John W. Hess is the Bishop and presides over the Ward. . Sat. Feb. 28th. 1857. As I wag going to Salt Lake City I met President Young in his carriage. He halted and told me to prepare for another mission to the Sandwich Islands and to leave at his office the names of all the Elders whom I 'knew had the language, and leave them with his clerks, etc. Farmington, Davis Co., Utah Territory, 1857 Thursday, May 14th., this morning I left home to fill my mission to the Sandwich Islands. * * * * * * I am to go with a herd of cattle and to assist in driving them to Carson Valley where they are to be disposed of in the land of gold by William R. Smith, the Bishop of Centerville, the cattle I believe belong to Brother Hooper of Salt Lake City and is called "The Church herd", 625 head oi cattle besides ten tons of flour hauled in 8 wagons. * * * * * * * * * * Fri. 4th. This morning when I arose I found the Islands were in sight and at 3 p. m. dropped anchor at Honolulu. * * * * * * * * * * Tues. April 20th. 1858. The Yankee arrived bringing the mail and we have the following from Pres. Young. Great Salt Lake City, Feb. 4th, 1858. Elders Henry W . Bigler and John S. Woodbury. Dear Brethren: Your letter of Dec. 3rd. arrived by the Calfornia mail of the 3rd. instant and your report of the condition of the S. I. Mission was no more unpromising than was warranted by previous advices. I was pleased to learn that so many of the Elders had already sailed and were about to sail for home and that your indebtedness was so small. You are all, without


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regard as to when you were sent, counseled to start for home as speedily as you can wind up your affairs and obtain passage money, not even leaving in that Mission one Elder who has been sent there, unless you should deem it wisdom so to do. Try to inform Brother Alvaras Hanks and the Elders in Australia and those regions, that they are all recalled. Our enemies have gone into winter quarters at the ruins of Fort Bridger and Supply, which were vacated and burnt by us last fall, and we are taking active measures to be in readiness for any movements they may choose to make when spring opens. In this matter the people are very spirited and unanimous, thoroughly u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t the present administration has at length openly come out and is following the lead of Missouri and Illinois, determined to crush out Mormonism by killing every man, woman and child that will not renounce it. We are blessed with a good degree of health and enjoy an unusual portion of peace and that union which proceedeth from efforts to do good upon the earth, and realize that if God be for us, who can prevail against us? Praying for the blessings of Heaven to attend you and prosper you in returning to your homes. I remain as ever your Brother in the Gospel. (Signed)-

Brigham Young.

"P. S: Mr. Postmaster, or his deputy, or clerk, or anybody else: When you have read this letter, please forward it to its destination, for keeping it can do you no good." This was at the bottom of the letter. * * * * * * * * Saturday, May 1st. 1858. At noon all went aboard on a vessel bound for San Francisco. * * * * * * Wed. 19th. About noon we arrived in San Francisco. * * * * * * * * * * (Mr. Bigler left San Francisco Tues. Sept. 7th at 3 p. m. [1858].) Sunday, Sept. 19th. W e reached Genoa on the old Mormon Station where we found Elder Mitchell with a small company of Saints. H e said that Brother Evleth had written to him to act as Captain and choose his own officers and lead the company up to Salt Lake and that he had organized the company and had chosen Elder David M. Stewart to be his first counselor and myself to be his second counselor. Silas G. Higgins, Chaplain, Lorenzo F. Harman, Sergeant of the Guard, and Thomas A. Dowell, Camp historian. The number of men in camp 21, women 2, animals 25, wagons 6, two cars and one sulky. On Tuesday 26th October we reached Ogden City where we were disbanded as a company. Bishop Chancy West invited all to take supper with him at his house. * * * * *


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October 30th. 1876. Endowments ceased in the Endowment House. President Young said, "If the people wish to receive their endowments and sealings they must go to Saint George and receive them in a Temple." Oct. 31st. To-day President Young told me he would like me to go to St. George and work in the St. George Temple. I asked him how soon he would like me to be there? He said, that if the Lord was willing that he purposed to leave for St. George the next Tuesday. Brother Wells was present and said he would see John Sharp and get me a free pass on the cars to York and a paper for the Bishops to see that I was forwarded on my way to St. George. I'then left and went to Farmington to see my children and to make preparations to fill my mission. Monday, November 6th. I bid my children good-by, praying in my heart for God to bless them and all who may befriend them. * * * * * * * * * * Friday, Aug. 30th. 1878. I went to Farmington, found all my children well and glad to see me. I sold what little property I had in Farmington to Brother Ezra Clark at very low figures as Brother Woodruff had told me that President Young had told him to keep me to work in the Endowments and for me to make calculations to make my home there and he had proved there was more money in obeying counsel than in anything else. * * * * * * * * * * About this time I received the following: 1216 Hyde Street, San Francisco. October 8th., 1890. Mr. H. W. Bigler. Dear Sir: Please have "a photograph taken of that page of your diary containing the entry of January 24th, 1848, the photograph to be of the size of this leaf, and send me two copies of the photograph mounted, with the photographers bill. The Editor of the Century Magazine wants to make a facsimile to illustrate my articles which will appear within a few months, time not precisely fixed as yet. Yours truly, (Signed) John S. Hittell." As our photographer was away, I sent the pages containing the gold discovery and told Mr. Hittell to get them taken in San Francisco and return the pages to me.


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November 6th. I received the following: 1216 Hyde Street, San Francisco. Oct. 29th. 1890. My Dear Mr. Bigler: Your letter with the sheet from your diary containing the entry of January 24,. 1848 is herewith returned to you with my thanks. The photograph has been made and it will add much to the public interest in the discovery. Notwithstanding all the faults of your spelling and grammar, your diary will take a place among the valuable documents of Californian history; and taken as a whole, you have no need to feel ashamed of your literary work. I think the best place for the preservation of this sheet of your diary would be in a frame under glass, in the hall of the Pioneer Society where it would be examined as one of the most important documents of our State. Would it not serve your purpose as well to make a copy of these four pages to be inscribed in your diary so that you could return these original 4 pages to me for the Pioneer Society I enclose to you a photograph of Marshall taken about 1870. As a slight return for favors you have done me, I ask the privilege of making a present to you of a record book of 550 pages, foolscap size, well bound in calf with a spring back, lettered with your name, made of good material in good style, it will be mailed to you as soon as received from the manufacturers. Yours truly, (Signed) John S. Hittell. And on Sunday 9th. of Sept. I returned to Mr. Hittell my old pages to be kept in Pioneer Hall etc. It was like parting with old friends and I said, God bless you my old friends, may you be preserved and yet prove to me on my posterity a blessing. Mr. Hittell had been writing to me about the gold discovery and wanted me to write all the particulars from my journal, from the time I entered California until I left it to be published in a magazine, called, The Overland Monthly, and as he has discovered my old Journal leaves were loose and liable to be misplaced, he has generously offered me a new record book in which I can rewrite my history. In a subsequent letter he wrote to me and said it was expressed to me and the express bill was paid which book has come to hand all right and in good order for which I am very thankful and he has sent me several numbers of the Overland monthly in which I find my articles.


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Sat. April 25th. 1891. I received a gbld pen from Mr. Hittell, it is a present to me. Many thanks Mr. Hittell. I did not ask for it, but had written for the price of Pens, etc. * * * * * * * * * * January, 1898 Friday, 7th of January, 1898. Dear Mr. Bigler: To-day I sent a telegram announcing that fifty dollars would be given to-day to the Express to pay your expenses in making a comfortable trip from St. George to Ogden and also to pay your sleeping berth in a Pullman car and your meals from Ogden to San Francisco. A letter mailed to you to-day contains a railroad pass from Ogden to San Francisco and return. I have a promise that the railroad agent at Ogden will do his best to provide you with a lower berth in the train which leaves Ogden the night of Thursday the 20th. I expect to meet you on the boat from Oakland about 9 a. m. on the 22nd. I will wear a Pioneer badge and a bit of red ribbon in the button hole on the left lapel of my coat. Mr. Simeon Stivers writes to me that he wants to meet the Battalion boys and I will arrange a time for him to come. Yours Sincerely, (Signed) John S. Hittell. The above letter was received several days after it was written, but the same day I got the following telegram from Mr. Hittell. "San Francisco, Jan. 7th. To Henry W. Bigler, St. George. We express fifty dollars to you. Come in comfort." (Signed) John S. Hittell. And in less than two hours afterwards I received the following letter. San Francisco, California. Jan. 7th. 1898. Henry W. Bigler, Esq., St. George, Utah. Dear Sir: The Society of California Pioneers invites you to attend the Golden Jubilee celebration of our State and to accept the hospitality of the Society in San Francisco, from the 22nd till the 31st of January, 1898.


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Enclosed find a pass from the S. P. R. R. Co, for your passage from Ogden to San Francisco and return. W e enclose herewith Wells, Fargo and Company's money order, payable at Milford for fifty dollars in coin to pay for your sleeping berth and meals on the way. W e have engaged a lower berth for you on the Pullman car which leaves Ogden on the night of Thursday, the 20th. inst. The reception committee will meet you on the Oakland boat on the morning of Saturday, the 22nd., and will wear the badge of the Society. Should you miss seeing them you will go to the Russ House where we have engaged rooms and board for you. Should you not be able to come, please return the enclosed Railroad pass, and notify the Ticket Agent at Ogden that you will not use the sleeping berth. Yours truly, (Signed) J. I. Spear, Secretary. I will here state that there are only 4 living now who were with Marshall at the time he discovered the gold in California, namely, Azariah Smith at Manti, James S. Brown, Salt Lake City, William Johnston of Mexico and myself of St. George, and as I have heard since all were written to, to be at the great Golden Jubilee, at the committee's expense. Mon. Jan. 10th. This evening when I went home from the Temple my daughter Maude read to me the following telegram: 3:43-p.m. Jan. 10th, 1898. Salt Lake, Utah. To Henry W . Bigler, St. George. We have appropriated enough to furnish you a suit of clothes, and give you ten or fifteen dollars pocket money besides." (Signed) George Q. Cannon. This dispatch grew out of a letter I had written to the First Presidency before and I feel it is very kind in them to help me to some means outside of their help. I mean the Jubilee committee, as I am short of money and may need a little something that I could not get for want of money, outside of the Committee's help. On Thursday, 13th. I left home for the Jubilee by private conveyance, the weather was cold and snow on the ground. I was 4 days reaching Milford where I took the cars. A t Salt Lake City I met with. President Cannon who paid me over the money to buy me a suit of" clothes and the pocket money he spoke about in the telegram. I then went to Farmington to see my sister, stayed all night with her and visited friends,, etc.


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At Farmington I met the other three brethren, they were in the cars on their way to Ogden where we all took the cars for San Francisco, we reached there on the morning of the 22nd. Sat. 22nd. W e were met on the Oakland boat by the committee and conducted to the Russ house or hotel, where rooms were furnished us, each having a separate room. As soon as we reached Oakland and hardly got out of the cars, a lady whom I never had seen, came up to me and said, "Mr. Bigler, I am pleased to meet you, I know your history, I have read your Journal and I want to pin this badge, on your coat collar." Her name as I afterwards learned was, Mary. M. Greer, a relative of Mr. HittelPs, neither of whom I had ever seen. At the Russ house we were met by reporters and others until late at night. I had taken a severe cold and coughed a good deal, and Mr. Hittell went out and got some licorice and hoarhound candy and gave me. Sunday, 23rd. Cough is better. Visited all day by parties who wanted to see us. Monday, 24th. The day was cold and disagreeable, but for all of that it is estimated there were two hundred thousand people present who joined the procession and crowded the streets to get a sight of the men who were with Marshall at the time he found the gold. Many wanted to know which was Mr. Bigler, for it was just fifty years ago since the precious stuff was found and I being the one that gave the true date of the discovery, all wanted to see me. Carriages were furnished us and we were in the procession until at last I was taken back to the Russ House by Mr. Hittell, he seeing it was cold and disagreeable for me to be out. Here I was visited by many, among them was my brotherin-law O. Whipple and wife whom I had not seen for years, also his sister Rosetta. They live in Oakland, also a Mr. Stivers and wife. All took dinner at the Hotel with me. When all had gone, no one present but ourselves, I got the Elders to lay hands on me. Tues. 25th. Feel first rate. Visited by strangers, all wanted to see us and especially me. Wed. 26th. W e were visited by many. Thurs. 27th. W e had some rest, not so many visited us. Friday, 28th. W e were taken in a fine carriage to the Golden Gate Park. Here we saw animals, birds of most all sorts and kinds, also the Buffalo, Elk, Moose, Antelope and Deer of various kinds. Among the animals was a grizzly bear 8 years old, we were told that it weighed over 2,000 pounds. This Park is kept by a man by the name of John McLaren, who gave us each a book showing the twenty-sixth annual report


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of the Board of the park commissioners of San Francisco, for the year ending June 30th, 1897. W e were taken to the museum where we saw almost everything. We were conducted to all these places by Captain McKinzie. Sat. 29th. Captain McKinzie took us to see the Union Iron Works where there are over 2,900 men at work, ship-building, etc. In the afternoon we were taken to Pioneer Hall where our likenesses were taken in a group. At night we were taken to the Miners Pavilion where there was a very large audience. Speeches were made and we were introduced to the crowd and people came to shake hands with us. Partook of an excellent supper at the pavilion, it was midnight by the time we got back to the Russ House. Sunday 30th. In the City is a Branch of the Church. We met with the Saints and were called upon to speak, we did so, and then returned to the Russ House where we were met by Hittell and a Mr. Pinkham who gave us means to pay our way back home, as our time will be up by to-morrow morning. We were then invited into the Ladies Parlor where short speeches were made by a number of persons present, and<$50 in gold was given each of us by a gentleman by the name of T. J. Parsons of San Francisco. This to us was a surprise and not looked for. Mon. 31st. At an early hour Smith and I left for home. Johnston had lost his ticket and could not go. Brown concluded to stay a few days and if the way opened, he would lecture and preach. I afterwards learned that Johnstons' ticket was found on the street and he got it all right. * * * * * * * * * *

T

H E MISSING P O R T I O N O F H E N R Y W. BIGLER'S J O U R N A L , B E T W E E N A P R I L 8 AND S E P T E M B E R 26, 1848, B E L O N G I N G A T T H E PLACE I N D I C A T E D BY STARS ON P A G E 100 O F T H I S Q U A R T E R L Y FOR J U L Y , 1932, H A S J U S T COME T O LIGHT. I T IS A T R U E COPY O F T H E ORIGINAL J O U R N A L . W H I L E I T IS R E G R E T T E D I T COULD N O T H A V E A P P E A R E D IN C H R O N O LOGICAL ORDER, I T IS NO L I T T L E SATISFACTION T O H A V E T H I S VALUABLE MATERIAL, AS A COURTESY O F T H E B A N C R O F T LIBRARY.

April, 1848 The next day Sunday the 9th (April, 1848) prity much all the boys come together to talk over matters and things in regard to


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makeing arrangements for going up to the Great Salt Lake anu come to some understanding when we should make the start &c and the decision was that all be ready by the first of June except 8 ,who was ready and expected to start with an express the next Saturday through I believe to the States. It was further decided that we send out a few men as pioneers before that time to pioneer out a route across the Sierra Nevada and if possible find a much nearer way than to go the truckey route and shun Crossing the Truckey River 27 times as we were informed by Mr. Brannan we would have to do if we went that route and very deep and rapid. The meeting also decided that Capt. Sutter be informed of our intentions and time of starting for home so as to give him time to arrange his business accordingly—it was also motioned and carried that Mr. Browett be the man to inform him of our intended move and also of what we wished as to number of Cattle and horses and oxen, Cows, Brood mares and mules &c. We would also take 2 small brace peaces (Cannons) which we understood he offers for sale. W e wished to get seeds of various kinds as als (sic) the vine. Monday 10th, Stephens, Brown and myself called on the capt. we found him very buisy and learning his books were not posted and a settlement with him was omited for the present. Tues. 11th. W e mounted our horses and set out at rather a late hour for the Saw mill where we intend to turn our intention wholy for a Short time to gold hunting, this was our calculations when we left to return haveing an understanding with Mr. Marshall to dig on shears he furnishing all the grub & tools so long as we worked on his claims or land. W e encampted that night about 15 miles from the flouring mill on a creek. • Wed. 12th. This morning while our horses were filling up on the grass we concluded to prospect a little in the creek and we soon found it and spent half the day haveing nothing but our knives and 2 small basons we had to sip our coffee out of we got a bout ten dollars for supper & breakfast we baked our bread on flat stones W e straddled our horses and struck out to hunt the boys who were not far from this place diging gold, we '.struck in close to the river and following up its banks we soon found them. We found 7 of the boys at work they had taken out that day two hundred & 50 dols. This was the spot where the few particles was found by the Messrs. Willis & Hjitson on the 2 of March while returning from the saw mill and thought it not much account and this is the place that afterwards went by the name of "Mormon island." Here for the first time I saw an improvement for washing out gold, that was with indian baskets and they would wash out from 25 cts. to


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two dollars at a basket full of dirt. I suppose they were about the size of 8 or ten quart bason tin pans in those days were scarce, The names of the men who were here at work was, Sidney Willis, Ira Willis, Wilford Hutson, Jesse B. Martin and Ephraim Green the other 2 I disremember but think they were Israel Evans and James Sly. It was a bout this time that one or boath of the Willises had bisness that called them from their mineing to the Fort and it strikes me they went to the Yerba Buena, at all events they met wth Sam Brannan and let him in to the secret. Mr. Brannan told them that he could secure the mine as church property and advised for all the battalion boys to go to work in the mine and pay one tenth to him and he would turn it over to the Church as their tithing with the understanding at the same time that he was to come in with the Willises & Hutson haveing a shear with them in their claim. This they done. Mr. Brannan at that time was publishing a paper at the "Yerba Buena" Called the California Star", he then published forth with in his paper that gold was found by the Mormon boys in rich abundance on the South fork of the American river and hence it went that the first discovery of gold was made by the "Mormons" and I suppose there are thousands to this day believe they were the first who found the gold in Cal. in 1848. in this was all Cal. and I may say all the world was on the move in a very short time for the land of gold.— I will now return. Thurs. 13th. W e arrivd at the Coloma saw mill and the next day commenced and continued to work in the mines" until about the middle of June when we left Coloma to prepare and start for our homes in the valley of the mountains. While workeing in the mines we must have worked under great disadvantages I wanted badly to get an indian basket but some way or other failed and if I remember rite we had but one tin pan and that was a small one I used a wooden tray that we used to knead our dough in Elie Stephen dug out a wooden dish that he used to wash in and we carried our dirt in sacks on our backs from some small dry gulches for 5 or 600 yards to the River and washed it o u t — theese little gulches must have been exceedingly rich as I can now fancy for where we got one dollar then could now be got by the hundreds Theese digings was about one mile below the saw mill on the north side of the river among some flats of land. In less than 3 weeks after our return to Coloma the Californians began to come in thick and fast haveing learned of the discovery through the California Star", and our little gulches was soon lined from end to end by gold digers and already began to dispute Marshall's claims to land and commenced mineing wherever they pleased among the number come in was an old Sonorian he used a


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cotton sheet he spread it down near a hole of water (a little slanting) put his pay dirt on it then straddle the whole and with his shovel throw water on it and then wash away the dirt leaveing the gold sticking to the cloth. Brown and myself saw that was quite an improvement by the side of our wooden dishes and we adopted that plan for awhile. The snow seemed to lie on the mountains a little longer than we expected as well as the mines becomeing more attractive that our pioneers did not go out so soon to hunt a pass across the mountains as at first expected, but when the time came and while leaveing Coloma and on our way down to Sutter's fort there to make preparations for our intended move we met several parties makeing their way into the mines and it seemed to me that all California was on the hunt of gold I saw a School teacher I think his name was a Mr. Maston he said he had a school of 40 people in San Francisco (perhaps the first school ever started there) he said the excitement was so great that everybody had left and there was no children to come to school he thought he would leave too and go and seek his fortune with the rest. A Mr. Benjamine Hawkins told me only a few days ago that he was in San Francisco at the time Samuel Brannan made the announcement of the discovery of the gold he said Brannan took his hat off and swung it Shouting aloud in the streets that gold was found &c the inhabitants of the place seemed to be panic struck and so excited and in such a hurry to be off that some of the mechanics left their work not takeing time even to take off their aprons and he himself (Hawkins) struck out and bought up all the indian baskets he could (15) some of the boys laughed at him for it but he found them to be no drug as he sold them afterwards for fifteen dollars each a large croud went a head of him but as he and those who were with him when they arrived at the american fork a few miles below mormon island they found a boat being among some drift wood they took it out and lashed it on a couple of horses and packed it a short distance up> the River and crost over to the north side where they found a place that suited them and there commenced work unobserved by anyone for everybody was still farther up the river and at this time he said, Rockers began to be made and one had been made above somewhere and had escaped and floated down the River and they saved it arid in one day washed out between three and four thousand dollars He told me there were five of them, namely himself, old man Haskel and "Fayette" Layfaatte (sic) Shepherd the other 2 I disremember their names. Sat., June 17th. This morning myself and 2 others set out a horse back from where Brighton now stands takeing our blankets a little grub and our axes


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to go into the mountains or rather into the foothills to find a suitable place to Rally to from which point all who were intending to go up to the Great Salt Lake would start from and the next day the 18th we found a spot we thought would do a distance as we thought about 45 miles from the flouring mill the place we left the day before and I should conclude from what I have heard that this place was not far from Placerville— we gave the name of our little valley "pleasant valley". Here we fell pine timber and built a large Correl, on the 21st some of the boys arrived with our band of loose horses and the 22nd Wagons began to roal in mostly drawn by oxen followed by our cows and calves the gethering continued until the 2 of July and on the morning of the 3d a general move was made except myself and a few others who were detained in finding our oxen when on the 4th about 11 a. m. we roaled out after the camp takeing the divide between the american river and the Mocozamy we made about 10 miles and just as we began to prepare for camping we heard the cannon from the front camp and was reminded that this was the birthday of American independence. the 5th, made an early start still keeping the divide and by 9 a. m. we roaled up to the front camp Here they had concluded to stop a few days as they had found a nice little valley (though about 2 miles on the south to the waters of the Mocozamy) for oyr stock and to send out some men to examine the route and look for three of our company viz. Browett, Allen & Cox who had left our camp on the 25th of June to look out a pass while the company was gathering as yet we had not heard anything from them and the camp began to feel uneasy about them, accordeingly we sent out ten men to look for them while the rest of us took the stock down into the little valley which we called Slys Park after one of our men who found it and there built a couple Corrals and awaited the return of the ten men who returned on the 14 of July and reported they seen nothing of the 3 men neither any signs after passing a sertain point they discovered a pass but it would have to be worked July 15th, This morning myself and 3 others went ahead with axes to cut brush and roal rocks out of the way for our wagons & packs for my journal Supposes a wagon never had been here before sence theese mountains were made and for aught I know not even a white man — Our Camp made about 8 miles and encamped on the top of the divide about 1 mile from water. - 16th Cutting our way as yesterday the road very bad broke a coupling pole to one of the wagons made about 8 m. and encampt / on the waters of the Mocozamy this we called Camp creek. 17th to day we had bad road and a great deal of brush to cut


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broke an axil tree — made 8 or 10 miles and campt at leek Spring a fine spring with plenty .of grass and leeks about it Tues 18th Camp laid by to hunt some stock that was lost out of the herd yesterday While myself and 4 others went to work the road which we did for about ten miles and as we were returning to Camp we found where we supposed our pioneers had-campt by a large spring runing from the mountain into the Mocozamy and near where they had their fire was the appearance of a fresh grave some of us thought it mite be an indian grave as near it was an old wicky up, but the more we looked at it the more we felt here lay the 3 men. When we got back to camp all the lost stock was found and we made a report of the road and the grave &c that evening the camp was called together and organized more perfectly by appointing captains of tens and also appointed Lieut. Thompson Capt. over the whole camp in case there should be any fighting to do — that night for the first we put out camp guard. Our numbers were as follows, 45 men and one woman (Sergent Wm. Corys wife) 2 small brass pieces bought of Sutter and I believe every man had a musket, 17 wagons, 150 horses and about the same of cattle. We. 19th. Roaled out from leek spring had hard heavy pulling the road very rocky in places, broke our new axil tree and in passing over a snow bank Mr. J. Home's wagon broke down makeing only 5 or 6 miles and encampt at a spring near the fresh grave determing to satisfy ourselves it was soon opened, we were shocked at the sight there lay the three murdered men robbed of every stitch of clothing being promiscuously in one hole about 2 feet deep, two of them were being on their faces Allen was being on his back and had the appearance that an ax had been sunk into his face and shot in they eye the blood seemed fresh still oozeing from their wounds when we came to examine around about we found arrows being plentifully on the ground meny of them bloody and broken exa m i n i n g still closer the Rocks were stained with blood and Mr. Aliens purse of gold dust being about a rod from the grave the gold was still in the sack it was known by several of the boys who had seen him make it he had attached a buckskin string of sufficient length so as to put it over his head and around his neck and letting the purse hang in his bosome inside of his clothes Some thought their guns and saddles mite be in their grave with them for they had set out leaveing the camp haveing each a wrideing animal and a pack mule At the time they left camp they were advised not to go but wait until all the camp was ready for a start but they seemed restless and anxious to be on the move towards home and left saying they would travel slowly and hunt out the best way a cross the Sierra


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Nevada and would meet us somewhere in the mountains Thurs 20th last night just before being down and before the guard was posted something or other gave our horses & cattle a dreadful affright supposed to be either Grizelys or indians the thundering of the runing stock fairly shook the ground"and was like an earth quake Lieut. Thompson ordered to "limber up a Cannon and let her speak once", The guard was soon put o u t but nothing more occured all was quiet til morning when we found more than one third of the stock missing we lay here all day sent men in all directions hunting up lost stock in the afternoon we enclosed the grave with granite rocks to prevent wild beasts from tareing them out and to stand as a monument to all who may chance to pass that 'way We judged they were killed the second night out which would make it the 27th of June. W e cut the following inscription on a Balsome fir' that stood near the grave. "To the memory of Daniel Browett and Ezrah H. Allen, Henderson Cox who was supposed to have been murdered and buried by indians on the night of the 27th of June, A. D. 1848 W e called this place tragedy spring Friday 21st. haveing found all our stock except 1 or 2 mules we hooked on and moved a bout 4 miles and campt on what we called Rock Creek and built a Correl by falling timber & piling brush — the mountains well over laid with-large masses of Rocks, in the little vallies plenty of leeks young grass and clover with here & there a large bank of snow. Sat. 22nd. Camp laid by while myself and 15 others worked a road to the top of the mountain some 6 miles from the top we saw several small lakes some of which I was told abounded with trout I past over snow more than 2 feet deep and saw banks ten and perhaps 50 ft. deep, this day I gathered flowers with one hand and snow with the other There were plenty of Chickings in the timber resembling the prairie chickings at evening we returned to camp tired and hungry although we carried lunch with us. Sunday 23d In camp all day. Mo. 24th. Moved bout 6 mi, and campt just over the Sumit. 2 wagons broke down and 2 upset two indians came in to stay all night Tues. 25th Laid by while some went to reparing wagons others watching Stock while others again worked a road down the mountain some 2 miles Wed. 26th Moved to the foot of the mountain and campt near a lake, this we call lake valley — as usual we broke down again an axil tree snapt in to this afternoon we sent out ten men to explore and hunt a pass across the mountain Thurs 27th made some Road, 20 indians came into camp all armed with Bows & arrows but laid them by while in camp, late in the afternoon our ten men returned but made no new discovery. Fr. 28th, Moved 3 m. and made an early


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encampment at the head of the American fork near or at the Summit of the great Sierra Nevada Here we soon built a Correl sufficiently large to hold all our Stock Several indians was seen some peaking out from behind & over rocks, 2 however came jn Camp.— Some of our party caught a young fawn they marked the youngster and let him go This afternoon we worked and made a road across the mountain Sat. 29th moved across about one mile & half and campt at the head of what we calld hope valley (as we began to have hope) in crossing over we broke one wagon. Sunday 30th Worked & made a road for about 2 miles and moved camp about 8 and encamped on what we calld pass Creek at the head of a Kanyon. Here we expect to lay by for several days in order to work a road through the Cannon about 4 miles and very bad Mo. 31st. a general turn out to work on the road makeing fordeing places to cross the Creek Considerable diging to do and roaling rocks out of the way. Tues. Aug. 1st. Clear & frosty this morning 15 turned out and worked on the road, some went afishing and caught a lot of trout. Here grows the first wild flax I ever seen some of it is in blow and some in the bowl Wed. 2nd Working as yesterday in the Cannon except myself who went afishing Caught" 12 nice trout. Thurs 3d Road workeing in the afternoon fell a little rain & Snow W e were overtaken to day by 13 of our boys with pack animals they had left the mines 5 days ago. W e finished our Road. Fr. 4th Moved through the Kanyon all safe 4 indians came into Camp. Sat. 5th of Aug. at about 7 oclock we was on the march good road made about 12 miles and campt on Carson River though at that time we had no name for it only the one we gave it that was "Pilot River" One of our men killed a fine Antelope Several of the natives visited our camp the mountains seems to be all on fire and the valley full of smoke Sun. 6th Continued down Carson River past a hot spring campt in the bend of the River here Mr. Pratt killed a Rattlesnake which gave the name rattlesnake camp — at night we could see as it were a hundred fires in the Cal. mountains made no doubt by indians some think it is a signel to other indians of distress others say it is for peace and others say it is for war Mr Weaver one of Col. Cooks guides said a smoke raised on the mountains was a signal for peace and a token for help and a smoke raised in a valley was a sign for war I Remember when the Col. wanted to raise an Indian near the Copper mines in Sonora he ordered , a-smoke to be raised on the top of a mountain close by and he got him Mo. 7th. This morning 4 horses and 1 ox were missing supposed to been stolen by indians made about 15 m. and campt on the River Road rather bad indians were seen following us all


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day Tues. 8th Still continued our course down the river makeing about 15 m. Wed 9th after makeing about 15 m. we campt again on the River in a short bend this we called ox bow encampment Thurs. 10th At 2 this morning the camp was aroused by the guard saying the horses were crossing the River leaveing the Correl which we had made by forming our Wagons across the narrow neck or bend of the river, on examineing there was no horses missing but when daylight come we found that 2 horses and a mule was gone there seemed to be no doubts but indians had got them some way in spite of the guard notwithstanding our guard affirmed that they was and had been faithful while on duty and when we come to look after the cattle we found a Cow and calf was missing ten men was sent out after the animals when they overtook some indians and recovered one horse and mule One of the men Mr. Dimond was shot in the breast by an arrow from an indian but did not prove fatal. After breakfast the calf belongin to the lost cow came up with an arrow sticking into its guts and some of the camp had to knock it in the head. Friday 11th. Traveld 12 m. and campt. A little dog belonging to one of the company came up being shot with an arrow it had remained behind in the morning eating on the remains of the calf Sat. 12th Left Carson River traveled rather a N. W. course 25 miles when we struck the old trucky road on the east side of the Truckey River Here our packers left us and went ahead Sunday 13th Laid by Mo. 14th after travling about 8 miles over a sandy road we then had smooth road and encampted at the boiling springs makeing about 25 m. Here we made our tea and Coffee without fire to heat the water. A little dog walked up so near to one of theese springs as to loose his balance and fell in and was instantly scalled to death and boilt to peaces Here was no water for our stock Tues. 15th At 11 last night we rolled out for water the moon shone bright and a good road and at 6 this morning we arived at the sink of the Humbolt and campt the water here was not very good Cattle did not like it towards evening 18 emigrant wagons rolled in and campt by us they had met our packers about 40 miles ahead of us and had traveled about 100 miles without water theese emigrants had come by way of fort hall there was one family in the croud that had wintered at the Salt Lake and had moved in march to fort hall by the name of Hazen Kimball he said he did not like the Salt lake country and had left but the people there had been sowing wheat all last fall and winter and had put in 8 thousand acres of grain — at this camp we lost a Cow she mired and in strugles broke a blood vessel Wed. 16th made 20 miles, road good at this camp that waiter is a little better and runs a little the stock


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looks bad not haveing much grass and water sence leaveing trucky. To day we met 25 wagons, emegrants for Cal. Thurs. 17th W e were followed all day by indians — at night had plenty of good runing water, late in the evening when we drove up our stock we found that one of the horses was shot with a poison arrow, three indians had just come into camp with their bows and arrows we shewed the wounded horse to them and took their bows from them and gave them to understand that they could not leave camp, they set up a dreadful tuss one of them shed a- heavy shower of tears indeed I began to pity him they paw-waud" over the animal when the one in tears put his mouth over the wound and sucked out all the poison and the wound healed up and the next morning we gave them their bows & arrows and let them go. Fri. 18th. Some of the cattle began to get lame and we had to throw them and take the gravil from their feet Sat. 19th This morning we had to leave a cow she had become so tender footed that she could not travel, as we were makeing camp a lot of indians men wimen and children as soon as they saw us roll in sight took to their heels for life and before we had been in camp 2 hours we see 2 of our horses walking around with arrows sticking in them — a long here there was no grass for the stock except a long on the river in the willows which offered the redskins- an excellent chance to skulk and shoot our animals when they went in among the willows to feed. Our boys rolled out some of them got sight of.an indian or two and fired at them but with what effect we never new perhaps might have scared them a little Sunday 20th Laid by Mo. 21st. made about 28 miles, to day 2 horses and a colt was shot with poison arrows the willows along the River in places affording so good a chance that our stock are shot in broad day light as we drive along the road and it appears to me that indians prefer horse beef to any other meat and it seems that it is their calculations that when a horse is shot with a poison arrow that the animal will become so sick that it will be left and of course willl fall into their hands Tues 22nd made an early encampment after makeing about ten miles. We had to leave one of our wounded horses. Wed. 23d. left another horse for beef made about 18 or 20 miles. Thurs 24th. made a short drive. Fr. 25th. This morning a horse was missing either estrayed off or stolen in the night by indians made about 8 m. and campted after we had struck camp 7 indians came in camp and appeared very friendy and promised they would not Shoot our horses Sat. 26th. W e met ten wagons of emegrants. Sunday 27th. Laid by at 3 p. m. the camp came together at Addison Pratts tent and held prayer meeting, just as meeting was over Captain S. Hensly and Company of ten on


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packs came up we were informed by Capt. H. that it was not more than 380 miles to Salt Lake by takeing a certain route that he had found and had just come he gave us a way bill saying the route was a good one and easy to be found saveing at least 8 or ten days travel as it was our intention to go by way of fort hall. Mr. Hensly had got defeated in attempting to take Haistings Cutoff and had turned back by so doing discovered this new route and found it to be much nearer than Hasting's and on the 30th we met Captain Childs and Company of 48 wagons, emegrants he gave us a way bill (sic) purporting to give a still nearer route than that of Hensly's. W e bought of Capt. Child's Co. some Baken and Buffalo meat. Friday Sept. 1st. made 16 m. when in the after noon it became cold and the wind blew briskly from. the N. W . about sundown it rained. Sat. 2. Rained & snowed and became very disagreeable made a few m. and campt. Sund. 3d. Cleared up in the night & this morning it was very cold, the tops of the mountains were capted with the late snow while here in the valley is a heavy frost and everything froze hard and as our camp ground was not very good we concluded to roll out until we found a more suitable place and lay over a day and we went a bout 20 m. before we found it here several of the natives came in camp to trade drest buckskin for knives, Clothing, some of them had rifles and wanted to trade for powder Mo. 4th. Lay'd by and killed a beef while some went a fishing and caught a fine lot of what some of the boys called Sammon trout. Tues. 5th. Cool & frosty a bout 8 we rolled out went a bout 2 miles and found that 1 horse and a mule was missing, it was then concluded to camp here and hunt up the animals and at the same time send 4 pioneers a head and find where we were to leave the road and take Capt. Childs's Cutoff and meet us the day after to morrow — In the evening the boys that went to hunt for the horse & mule returned with them the mule however was shot through the thigh by indians.— Lieut. Thompson lost a horse by eating or drinking something that gave him the scours. Wed. 6th. made a bout 20 m. when we found a note left by our 4 men to camp here — To day several Sage hens was killed. Tuesday Sept. 7th, After makeing a bout ten miles we met our 4 pioneers at the head of the Flumbolt here we campt and had a report from them which was that according to Mr. Childs's map or way bill this must be the place to turn off but they had been ten miles or more had found no trace where Capt. Childs had been neither had they found water and 2 of them got sick and of course they turned back to meet the camp that evening the camp came to gether to talk the thing over and consider whether it was best to Continue this new route or go Henslys it was


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decided not to give up Childe's rout but on the morrow send out 5 men with plenty water to explore and make a thorough hunt for Capt. Child's trail while our was to follow after until they gained the summit at the head of, the humbolt some 5 or 6 miles where there was several springs and there a wait until they heard from the 5 men or for a smoke that would be raised as a signal for the Camp to Come a head, next morning early they set out accompanied by one hunter and the camp hooked on and rolled after them to the top of the mountain to await developments and at sundown 4 of the men returned they had found nothing at 11 in the night the other pioneer & hunter got in they had been farther south but found no trail where wagons had been or anything else in the shape of white men neither had they found water if they had our camp would of stuck on that Cutoff at all hazards a meeting was called immediately to get the mind of the camp whether to continue on this Cutoff or go the fort hall road until we come to Henslys route and take that? it was soon voted to try the latter if we could find it which from the chart could easily be done the next morning we rolled back to our camp ground we had left the morning previous and camp and here within a few rods where the humbolt river comes out of the ground we caught lots of trout the surrounding country'looks beautiful with low mountains all a round with plenty of grass. Sat. 10th, made a bout 24 m. and campt in hot Spring valley, 6 miles back the runing water was hot — a few indians came in to trade. 11th, made 15 m. Sept. 12th. Past over some rough road made 16 m. and campt on Goose Creek Sept. 13th, Traded down Goose Creek 15 m. & campt. here I caught a fine mess of trout. Sept. 14th. While at breakfast this morning an indian came in with a mule to swap for a horse, no doubt but the mule was a stolen one from some emegrant. Mr. Brown gave the indian a trade made 12 m. & campt in the mountain At dusk our pilots that had went a head in the morning returned and reported they had found Capt. Henslys Cutoff a bout 8 m. head. Sept. 15th. Set off this morning in good spirits everyone seemed to feel fine and after makeing a bout 8 m. we came into a chain of low mountains and near by on our left was 2 towering rocks near each other which Mr. A. Pratt named the Twin Sisters", since known by travlers as the City of Rocks", as there are several masses piled up all around in the same neighborhood here we left the fort hall road on our left takeing a course directly east through sage brush and over rocks and holders and campted on Cashier Creek makeing to day about 13 miles. Sat. 16th. Continued down this stream ten miles and Campt. We were met by 11 indians of the Snake nation on horse back. Sept.


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17th. Last night one of the guard lost a silver case from off a valuable Silver watch belonging to Mr. E. Green, how that Was done the guard could not tell and remains to this day a mystery! At this camp we left the Cashier it turning and runing north while our course was east over and through sage brush for ten or 12 m. and campt on the side of a mountain where there was plenty of Cedar timber. Mon. Sept. 18th. This morning we could see as we supposed Salt Lake off to the South east of our camp some 20 or 30 miles — To day we made some 20 miles east and campt on Deep Creek. Here a lot of the natives came in on horse back to trade and will camp with us. Tues. 19th. made a bout 18 or 20 m. Wed. 20th. Lost a Cow last night what became of her we could not tell — made a bout 12 m. and campt by a spring of brackish water and poor feed Thurs 21st. Rained in the night made to day a bout 18 m. and campt on the "Melad" here the boys Ketchd fish all most as fast as they threw their hooks in W e are now in Sight of Beare River and the whole camp is all life talking and Singing and to morrow night the camp has the promise of a new Song to be composed for the occasion by Mr. Daniel Denit Fr. Sept. 22 This morning in crossing the Melad we broke down a wagon the crossing was very bad the stream was narrow and not very deep but the bottom very soft and mudy in comeing out on the opposite side passing on for 6 or 7 miles we came to Bear River the fording of which was good in consequence of breaking down we made but a short drive and campt on the east side of bear river — just as we went into Camp a shower of rain was upon us but it soon held up when almost every man brought in an armful of wood to have' one common fire around which we were to have some singing, after Supper and prayrs the Camp just enjoyed themselves Singing Songs, telling yarns", Cracking jokes on each other &c &c. Sat. 23d. made only a few miles owing to many of our Calves being so tender footed. (Concluded)


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AMERICAN POSTS (Continued) By EDGAR M. LEDYARD, President UTAH HISTORICAL LANDMARKS ASSOCIATION (Organized August 23,1929) Utah Historical Landmarks Association Museum 518 CHAMBER OF COMMERCE BUILDINC, SALT LAKE CITY

Pitt, Fort. French work at Pittsburg. Fort Pitt was built during the years 1759 to 1761. The blockhouse of Fort Pitt which remains at the present time was built in 1764. A number of important historical events center around Fort Pitt. In 1753 the French started to build a series of forts to enforce their boundaries. In 1754 Fort Duschene was completed and during the same year Washington attacked de Jumonville at Great Meadows. In 1755 Braddock suffered defeat near Fort Pitt. In 1758 Fort Bedford and Fort Ligonier were built and Fort Duschene destroyed. The next year the work on Fort Pitt was begun by General John Stanwix. In 1763, during the conspiracy of Pontiac, Fort Pitt was besieged by Indians. In 1772 it was abandoned by the British and in 1774 occupied by the Virginia Militia under Dr. James Connelly who changed the name to Fort Dunmore. In 1791 Major Isaac Craig reported Fort Pitt to be in a ruinous condition and built Fort Lafayette. Fort Pitt was visited by George Washington in 1753, 1758 and 1770. The redoubt which remains was built by Colonel Henry Bouquet in 1764. The blockhouse and grounds are now owned by the Daughters of the American Revolution. Pennsylvania. Pitt's Fort. At Cumberland Gap. Tennessee. Pittston, Fort. At Pittston. Pennsylvania. Plain, Fort. Montgomery County. On Mohawk River near mouth of Oquago Creek. Now town of that name on the NewYork Central Railroad. New York. Plank, Fort. On Mohawk River, about ten miles northwest of Fort Plain. New York. Plaquemine, Fort. Left bank of the Mississippi, west side of mouth of Bayou Mardi Gras, later Fort St. Philip. Louisiana. Platte, Fort. "At junction of Laramie and Platte rivers." Quotation from card index of forts, Chicago Public Library. Wyoming. Platteville, Fort. Site of present town of same name, in Grant County. Wisconsin.


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Plattsburg Barracks. An important reservation on west shore of Lake Champlain, at Plattsburg. Three forts formerly occupied this site, these being For,t Brown, Fort Scott and Fort Moreau. The "Old Post" was erected in 1839, according to tradition. The "New Post" dates from 1893. Th.e Barracks were located on the west shore of Lake Champlain, at the town of Plattsburg. The battle of Plattsburg was fought on this site in 1814. New York. Pleasant, Fort. Temporaty post on the right bank of the Econfinee, about twenty-two miles from its mouth; established in Florida War. Florida. Pleasant, Fort. On south branch of the Potomac. West Virginia. Plum River, Fort. Built during Black Hawk War. Illinois. Pocahontas, Fort. On James River a t ' Wilson's Landing. Virginia. Poinsett, Fort. Temporary post at Cape Sable; established in Florida War. Florida. Point, Fort. Left bank of the Golden Gate at the entrance to San Francisco harbor; now Fort Winfield Scott. California. Point, Fort. At Fitch's Point, near Norwalk. Connecticut. Point, Fort. At Castine. Maine. Point, Fort. At Annapolis. Maryland. Point, Fort. Present site of Fort Phoenix, Boston. Massachusetts. Point, Fort. Name later changed to Fort San Jacinto: Texas. Point Lobos, Fort. Later called Fort Miley. California. Pointe de Bois, Fort. Established in 1737. North Dakota. Polk, Fort. At Point Isabel, opposite Brazos Santiago. Texas. Ponca, Fort. Built in 1852-53. On right bank of the Missouri River near Fort Mitchell. South Dakota. Pond, Fort. In St. Charles County. Near Wentzville. Missouri. Pontchartrain, Fort. Detroit was known to the French as Fort Pontchartrain. Tablet in business district of Detroit marks site of this old post. Michigan. Pontoosack, Fort. On Housatonic River. Massachusetts. Pool's Fort. On Kings River, Fresno County. California. Poqplopens Kill, Fort. In the Highlands. New York. Popham, Fort. At the mouth of and on the west bank of the Kennebec River, in the town of Phippsburg, on Hunnewell's Point. Maine. Poplar, Old Fort. Site of Fort Aux Trembles (1781). Canada. Portage, Fort. In upper Canada pn the River Utawas, one hundred twenty miles west of Montreal. Canada. Portage, Fort. Right bank of Portage River, Wood County ; eighteen miles southwest of Fort Meigs. Ohio. Porter, Fort. At Castine. Maine.


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Porter, Fort. Established in 1867 on right bank of Niagara River at Black Rock; a defensive work at Black Rock was established on the same site in 1844. This post was located within the present city limits of Buffalo and has an uneventful history. The fort was named by General Marcy in honor of General Peter B. Porter. Fort Tompkins was located on the same site as that of "Buffalo Barracks." In 1914 a battalion of infantry was stationed at Fort Porter. New York. Porter, Camp. In Sanpete Valley. Utah. Potter's Fort. In Center County. Pennsylvania. Powell, Fort. Confederate work on Heron Island, west entrance to Mobile Bay, north of Fort Gaines. Fort Powell was one of the defenses of Mobile during the Civil W a r and commanded the principal pass to Mississippi Sound. It had one teninch and one eight-inch Columbiad and four rifled guns. The other defenses of Mobile were Forts Sames and Morgan. Alabama. Powell, Fort. Near Corinth. Mississippi. Powhatan, Fort (or Powhattan). Confederate work on right bank of James River, near Brandon, Prince George County. Virginia. Pownall, Fort. At Castine. Maine. Prairie du Chien, Fort. Established in 1710. An old French Fort located at junction of Mississippi and Wisconsin Rivers, later called Fort Crawford. Wisconsin. Preble, Fort. A United States military post established in 1809 at Spring Point, Cape Elizabeth. It occupied a reservation of twenty-four acres. Erected for defense of Portland Harbor and subpost of Fort Williams, two miles from Portland. The garrison in 1914 was a detachment of Coast Artillery. Maine. Prentiss, Fort. At Cairo. Illinois. Prescott, Fort. One of the Confederate defenses of Petersburg. Virginia. Presentation, Fort. At Ogdensburg. New York. "Presidio, California. Three miles west of San Francisco on the southern margin of the harbor, northwest suburbs of that city: The Officers' Club at this post was built by Spaniards in 1776. Garrisoned by the Mexicans from 1822 until 1846 when-the United States took forcible possession. After the discovery of gold this post became an important one. California. Presque Isle, Fort. Established in 1735. Near the present site of Erie, Pennsylvania, on the south shore of Lake Erie near Fort Le Boeuf. Pennsylvania. Preston, Fort. Temporary post in the Florida War, left bank of the Appalachicola River, thirteen miles south of Aspalago. Florida.


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Price's Post. Established in 1875v Right bank of the Milk River. Montana. Pricket's Fort. On Monongahela River, twelve miles above Morgantown. West Virginia. Primeau's House, Fort. Left bank of Missouri River. South Dakota. Prince, Fort. Near King's Bridge at extreme northern limits of New York City. New York. Prince George, Fort. Established in 1760. Near west border of- South Carolina. On the upper waters of the Savanah River, near its source. South Carolina. Prince Maurice, Fort. On Hudson River. New York. Prince William, Fort. At Pemaquid. Maine. Prudhornme, Fort. 180 miles above the mouth of the Illinois River. Illinois. Prudhornme, Fort. Old French post in present Shelby County, in existence as late as 1682. Tennessee. Pueblo, Fort. This post was also called "The Pueblo." Most writers give the year 1842 as the one in which the post was founded, although other/ references indicate that it might have been built previous to that date. George Simpson and James P. Beckworth were associated with the post and were probably interested in its establishment. Under the leadership of William Crosby, forty Mormon emigrants, who were traveling with nineteen wagons, founded -a settlement about one-half mile from Fort Pueblo in 1846. At the time of their arrival on the seventh ,of August, the Mormons found a number of trappers living there at the fort with Indian and Mexican wives. The Mormons selected a site for their log cabins on the south side of the Arkansas, perhaps one-half mile below the post. This settlement was short-lived and was used by the Mormons only as a recruiting post. During the winter, several of the Mormon pioneers died. The site of the Mormon settlement has been entirely obliterated and the graves cannot be discerned at present. Colorado. Pulaski, Fort. Cockspur Island, at mouth of Savannah River. Erected for the defenses of the Savannah River. The confederates occupied this post at the beginning of the Civil War. It was captured by the Federals April 11, 1862. Georgia. Putnam, Fort. Near present site of Brooklyn, Long Island, different than fort of same name near West Point. New, York. Putnam, Fort. Right bank of the Hudson River, on heights near West Point. New York. Putnam, Fort. At Cummings Point, Charleston Harbor. South Carolina.


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Putney, Fort. On the Connecticut River in Windham County. Vermont. Qu' Appelle, Fort. Built by Northwest Fur Company. Saskatchewan. Canada. Quarantine, Fort. On Cape Fear River, near Fort Fisher. North Carolina. Quebec, Fort. After Forts Niagara, Crown Point and Ticonderoga were captured by the British in 1759, General James Wolfe planned to attack Quebec which was occupied by the French under the command of General Louis Joseph Montcalm. After skillful maneuvering Wolfe led his men up1, a narrow path to the Plains of Abraham where he was attacked by Montcalm on September 13, 1759. The British were successful and the city and post surrendered five days later. Wolfe and Montcalm were both fatally wounded. During the Revolutionary War, General Benedict Arnold made an attack on this fort. Montgomery, one of Arnold's officers, was killed. Arnold and his half-famished soldiers blockaded the city until the spring of 1776. Upon the approach of British re-inforcements, Arnold gave up the siege and left Canada in the hands of the English. Canada. Queen Anne's Fort. On Goat Island, subsite of Fort Walcott. Rhode Island. Quitman, Fort. Left bank of the Rio Grande, eighty miles below Franklin and seventy miles from El Paso. Texas. Racoon, Fort. Afterwards Fort Des Moines. Iowa. Radiminske or Radziminski, Camp. Left bank of Otter Creek, about four miles from its mouth. Otter Creek is in Tillman and Kiowa Counties, Oklahoma and flows into the North Fork of the Red River. When built the post was in Indian Territory. Oklahoma. ^ Rains, Camp. At Spotted Tail Agency? South Dakota. Rains, Fort, Colonel. At Cumberland Gap. Kentucky. Ralston, Fort. In Northampton County; also called Brown's Fort. Pennsylvania. Rampart, Camp. At Rampart City.. Alaska. Ramsay, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C , south of the Potomac. Virginia. Rancho de Jurupa Post. On Santa Anna River. California. Rancho del Chino Post. Thirty miles southeast from Los Angeles. California. Randall, Fort. In Gregory County. Right bank of the Missouri River about thirty-four miles above the mouth of the Niobrara River, on road out of Gross, Nebraska. South Dakota. Randall, Fort. In existence from 1857 to 1884. Established by General William S. Harney as a protection against the Sioux. Right bank of the Missouri River. Same site as old Fort Pierre


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1830-57, in Stanley County at the mouth of the Bad River. This post was near Fort Sully, Fort Tecumseh, Fort Teton and a number of other posts. The post was a considerable distance above noted Fort Randall of Gregory County, South Dakota. South Dakota. Randolph Camp. On Three-Mile Creek, near Fort Dalles. Oregon. Randolph, Fort. This post was named after Major General Wallace F. Randolph. One of the newer army posts, is located close to Cristobal and Colon on Margarita Island, five miles from Cristobal. Canal Zone. Randolph, Fort. Confederate work, left bank of the Missisr sippi, six miles below Fort Pillow. Tennessee. Randolph, Fort. Mouth of Great Kanawha River. West Virginia. Rankin, Camp. South Fork of the Platte, opposite the mouth of Lodge Pole Creek. At Julesburg; name later changed to Fort Sedgwick. Colorado. Rankin's Fort. Near Mobile River. Alabama. Ransom, Fort. According to Hebard and Brininstool, "The Bozeman Trail," "The fort which was to take the place of Fort Connor (which was to be dismantled and abandoned) was to be forty miles westward toward the Yellowstone, along the Bozeman Road, the new fort to be called Reno. North of this was to be Fort Ransom on the Big Horn River (subsequently changed to Fort C. F. Smith) and the third fort was to be at the junction of the Big Horn and Yellowstone Rivers." Heitman's "Historical Register" states that Fort C. F. Smith was "On Big Horn River, eight miles above the mouth of Rotten Grass Creek." Montana. Ransom, Fort. Left bank of the Sheyenne River, Ransom County, now town of that name. North Dakota. Raritan Arsenal. On Raritan River three and one-half miles northeast of New Brunswick. New Jersey. Rat River Post. Built-in 1789 by Northwest Fur Company. Canada. Rawlins, Camp. In Williamson's Valley. Twenty-seven miles northwest of Prescott. Arizona. Rawlins, Fort. At Vicksburg on Mississippi. Mississippi. Rawlins, Fort. Near Provo City. Utah. Raymond, Fort. The report of Lewis and Clark indicated an abundance of beaver on the upper Missouri. Manuel Lisa and George Druillard (half-breed companion of Colter) formed a partnership to gather furs on the upper Missouri and its branches. Lisa's party proceeded up the Yellowstone River and at the mouth of Big Horn started a trading post soon after their


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arrival there November 21, 1807. Winter quarters and a trading post was built at once; the blockhouse was built the following year. This post was named in honor of Manuel's son, Raymond, but is generally referred to as Manuel's Fort. Fort Raymond was the site and center of many of Colter's adventures. Montana. Raystown, Fort. On Raystown Branch. Pennsylvania. Reading, Fort. The site of the old fort is about seven miles east of Redding in a direct line toward Mt. Lassen, on the Hawes Ranch. Major P. B. Reading established his residence on the Sacramento River and to protect settlers against the Indians it was necessary to establish Fort Reading. The most suitable location was elevated ground between Stillwater and Cow Creek, which was also on the old emigrant trail. Major Reading was a Virginian ; he lived at Eureka for a time and engaged in mining near the Trinity River before he came over Trinity Mountain into Sacramento Valley. He received a grant of about twentyeight thousand acres from the Mexican Government. There are only a few remnants of the old foundations of the fort left. Major Reading's entrance into Sacramento Valley antedates American occupation; Reading was Fremont's pay-master. Fremont gathered together a number of Americans living in Sacramento Valley, these forming a part of his volunteers. California. Reading, Fort. On west bank of Delaware River. Pennsylvania. Recovery, Fort. On a branch of the Wabash, twenty-three miles north of Greenville. Indiana. Recovery, Fort. Northwest corner of Drake County near the western boundary of Ohio on the site of St. Clair's defeat. Mercer County. Ohio. Recovery, Fort. In existence from 1822 to 1823. Left bank of Missouri River. Same as Cedar Fort. South Dakota. Red, Fort. Near Old Spanish Fort. Alabama. Redan, Fort. Above Island number 10. Tennessee. Redstone, Old Fort. On the Ohio River at Brownsville, south of Pittsburgh. First occupied by Captain Trent of the Ohio Company who built it and occupied it in February, 1754. In 1759 Colonel James Burd erected a new post on the site of Redstone which was named in his honor. In January, 1778, Lieutenant Colonel George Rogers Clark recruited at this post in preparation for a secret expedition against the English in the Illinois country. Pennsylvania. Reed, Fort. Near Lake Monroe in Orange County; now town of that name. Florida. Reed, Fort. In Schoharie County. New York. Reid, Fort. At Lockhaven. Mr. William Reid stockaded his dwelling house in the spring of 1777. The Continental Army


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drew largely on the young men in this section hence the necessity for protection against the Indians. Traces of the fort could be seen as late as 1820 after which public spirited citizens recorded the site. Pennslyvania. Reine, Fort de la. Built about 1734 by La Verendrye at the lower end of Manitoba Lake. This post was one of a series constructed in taking formal possession of western territory. Canada. Reiter, Fort. Near Helena. Arkansas. Reliance, Fort. On the Yukon River. Alaska. Reme Snyder's Blockhouse. Northeast of Little Falls. New York. Reno, Cajmp. In Tonto Valley. Arizona. Reno Cantonment. Name changed to Fort McKinney. Wyoming. Reno, Fort. Northeast of Tennallytown; first called Fort Pennsylvania. D. C. Reno, Fort. On Roanoke Island. North Carolina. Reno, Fort. A Quartermaster Intermediate Depot. On the north fork of the Canadian River, two miles from Darlington. Oklahoma. Reno, Fort. Near Portsmouth. Virginia. Reno, Fort Military. In existence from 1866 to 1867. Right bank of Powder River, one- hundred eighty miles northwest of Fort Laramie, Dakota. General Patrick E. Connor was in charge of the Powder River Indian Expedition in 1865. On August 14, the same year, he began the erection of buildings on the present site of Fort Reno; this post was called Fort Connor. On July 28, 1866, Colonel Henry B. Carington arrived at Fort Connor for the purpose of selecting a site for a permanent post. After some surveying, he decided that the best location for the new post was in the vicinity of Fort Connor and began the construction of the post named Fort Reno. Fort Reno was not attacked as often as some other of the Wyoming posts. Wyoming. Rensselaer, Fort. At Canajoharie, in Mohawk Valley. New York. Republic Fort. On south fork of the Shenandoah. Virginia. Resurrection, Fort. On southern coast. Alaska. Reverie, Fort. Subpost of Fort Andrews, at Nantasket Head in the town of Hull. Massachusetts. . Reviers, Fort. Between Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers. Alabama. Reynolds, Camp. On Angel Island; later called Fort McDowell. California. Reynolds, Camp. South bank of the Sun River, name changed to Fort Shaw. Montana.


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Reynolds, Fort. On the Arkansas; two miles from Boonesville. Colorado. Reynolds Fort. At Cross Creek village in Washington County. More properly called Reynolds' Blockhouse. This blockhouse was attacked by Indians in 1779; Mrs. Reynolds and a child were carried off and murdered/Pennsylvania. Reynolds, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C , south of Potomac; three miles northwest of Alexandria. Formerly Fort Blenker. Virginia. Rhode Island, Fort. Rhode Island. Rice; Fort. Military post built in 1864 in Morton County on right bank of the Missouri, ten miles above mouth of Cannonball River. North Dakota. Rice, Fort. Near Petersburg. Virginia. Rice's Fort. At Charleroi. Massachusetts. Rice's Fort. Located on Buffalo Creek about twelve miles above its junction with the Ohio River. Attacked by combined force of British rangers, renegade whites and Indians in 1782; the attacking force was repulsed. Pennsylvania. Richard's Fort. On the Monongahela. West Virginia. Richardson, Fort. Near Corinth. Mississippi. Richardson, Fort. On Lost Creek, near Jacksboro. Texas. Richardson, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C , south of the Potomac, about three miles from Washington, D. C. Virginia. Richmond, Fort. On west bank of the Kennebec, opposite Swan Island. Maine. Richmond, Fort. Oh east end of Staten Island, later called Fort Wadsworth. New- York. Richmond, Fort. On battle ground of Fair Oaks. Virginia. Ricketts, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, east of Eastern Branch. District of Columbia. Riddle's Fort.. On Lost River. West Virginia. Ridgely, Fort. A military post built in 1853 on the left bank of the Minnesota or St. Peter's River at mouth of Rock River; at Fairfax in Nicollet County. Minnesota. Riffle, Fort. Located in Nicholson township, Fayette County. Built by Nicholas Riffle about 1779-80. Pennsylvania. Rigolets, Fort. Near Lake Pontchartrain; sometimes known as Fort Pike. Louisiana. Riley, Fort. East side of the mouth of Pawnee River on the Kansas River, one hundred twenty miles from Fort Leavenworth. Attention was attracted to this section of the country through Fremont's explorations in '43 and travel over the Santa Fe Trail from 1852 on. The post was begun in 1853 and named in honor of Major General Bennett C. Riley of Buffalo, New


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York. The first year or two troops there were under the command of Colonel W. R. Montgomery; his order for occupancy was dated June 14, 1854. Custer, Sheridan, Forsythe and many other noted army men have been stationed there. It was established to protect caravans westward bound over the. Santa Fe Trail. Fort Riley Reservation comprises 19,447 acres along the Kansas River. This post was first known as Camp Centre, being near the geographical center of the United States. In 1914 the garrison consisted of a regiment of horse artillery and a regiment of cavalry. The Mounted Service School is also located there. During the World W a r Fort Riley and Camp Funston nearby were scenes of great activity. Kansas. Riley, Fort. Near Nashville. Tennessee. Riley, Fort. On Las Moras Creek; now Fort Clark. Texas. Ringgold, Fort. Located in Starr County, Texas, midway between Brownsville and Laredo. This section was settled in the early forties by H. Clay Davis. Captain J. H. Lamont camped on David Landing, the site, October 26, 1848. A lease for the property was made in 1853. The post was named in honor of Major David Ringgold, who was killed May 8, 1846. The present plan of the post was made in 1873. General Robert E. Lee and other noted officers have lived here. An impoftant Indian defense outpost in early days. At San Fordyce. Texas. Ripley, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C , north of Potomac and two miles above Chain Bridge. Later called Redoubt Cross. Maryland. Ripley, Fort. Military post built in 1851 on right bank of the Mississippi, nearly opposite the mouth of No Kay River; in Crow Wing County; formerly called Fort Gaines. Minnesota. Ripley, Fort. Confederate work in Charleston harbor, on the "Middle Ground." South Carolina. Ritnar, Fort. Lawrence County, now town of that name. Indiana. Roach, Fort. Southern border of Neosho County. Kansas. Roanoke Island, Forts on. There were fourteen posts on the island making it one of the most strongly fortified places in the world. The posts were as follows: Forts Barton, Blanchard, Burnside, Defiance, Ellis, Forrest, Foster, Huger, Lane, Monteil, Parke, Reno, Russell and Sullivan. North Carolina. Roberdeau, Fort. This post was located about seven miles west of Union Valley on the Pennsylvania Railroad in Sinking Valley. The post built in 1778 was unique in that it was erected to furnish protection for lead miners on account of which it is sometimes called the Lead Mine Fort. It was named in honor of a distinguished Pennsylvanian, General Daniel Roberdeau. Some lead was shipped from the mines nearby but the hostility


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of the Indians, difficulties in mining and transporting material soon put an end to the operations. Pennsylvania. Robertson, Fort. Sadlersville. Tennessee. Robeson's Fort. One of the early posts in Dauphin County. The fort stood in Mountain Gap on Manada Creek. Built about 1756. Pennsylvania. Robidou (Robideau) Fort. This post is sometimes referred to and shown on the maps as Robidou's Fort Uintah. Fremont visited this post in 1844 and makes the following references to it: "Continuing our route across a broken country, of which the higher parts were rocky and timbered with cedar, and the lower parts were covered with good grass, we reached on the afternoon of the 3d, the Uintah fort, a trading post belonging to Mr. A. Roubideau, on the principal fork of the Uintah river. W e found the stream nearly as rapid and difficult as the Lake fork, divided into several channels, which were too broad to be bridged. With the aid of guides from the fort, we succeeded, with very great difficulty, in fowling it; and encamped near the fort, which is situated a short distance above the junction of two branches which make the river. "By an immerson of the 1st satellite, (agreeing well with the result of the occultation observed at the Duchesne fork) the longitude of the post, is 109° 56' 42", the latitude 40° 27' 45". "It has a motley garrison of Canadian and Spanish engages and hunters, with the usual number of Indian women. W e obtained a small supply of sugar and coffee, with some dried meat and a cow, which was a very acceptable change from the "pinoli" on which we had subsisted for some weeks past. I strengthened my party at this place by the addition of Auguste Archambeau, an excellent voyageur and hunter, belonging to the class of Carson and Godey. "On the morning of the 5th we left the fort and the Uintah river, and continued our road over a broken country, which afforded, however, a rich addition to our botanical collection; and, after a march of 25 miles, were again checked by another stream, called Ashley's fork, where we were detained until noon of the next day." According to a foot note appended to the above: "This fort was attacked and taken by a band of the Utah Indians since we passed it; and the men of the garrison killed, the women carried off. Mr. Roubideau, a trader of St. Louis, was absent, and so escaped the fate of the rest." The Robidou brothers were trappers and traders, enthused with the possibilities of the West. I t was due to the inspiration of one of the brothers that a party was formed which was the first to cross Utah with wagons. When John Bidwell was teach-


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ing school in Weston, Missouri, in 1839, one of the brothers interested him in the western regions through descriptions of their fertility and charms. An emigration society was formed and on May 9, 1841, the first emigrant train, whose destination was the Pacific Coast, left Sapling Grove, Missouri. John Bartleson was elected captain; DeSmet traveled with the party as far as Soda Springs. Bidwell's party turned to the south near Alexander, Idaho, and traversed northern Utah on their way to the Coast. Utah. Robinson, Fort. San Diego, San Diego County. California. Robinson, Fort. Quartermaster Intermediate Depot. On White River three miles from Crawford, at the Red Cloud Agency. Fort Robinson was established in 1874 and occupies a reservation of twenty square miles. The post has quarters for five hundred twenty men and cavalry stables for five hundred thirty horses. In 1914 it was garrisoned with two troops of cavalry. Nebraska. Robinson, Fort. The name of this post was variously spelled Robison, Robeson and as above. A blockhouse built in 1755 and in the first years following many settlers and travelers sought its protection. Several whites were killed near the fort, mostly pioneer farmers. Pennsylvania. Rock Fort. At Hackberry, Mohave County. Arizona. Rock Fort. Now Fort Hale. Connecticut. Rock Fort. In Lake County. Oregon. Rookfort, Fort. On Illinois River, in Lasalle County. Illinois. Rockport, Fort. A pioneer Mormon fort and village of same name on Beaver Creek, three miles above Wanship. This fort was built as a protection against Indians who were very hostile in this section in early days. Remnants of the pioneer fort may still be seen. There were some other fortified posts and forts in the same vicinity. Utah. Rodman, Fort. Four miles from New Bedford, at Clark's Point. Massachusetts. Rodman, Fort. Near Portsmouth. Virginia. Roller's Fort. In Sinking Valley, Blair County. Built about 1778 by Jacob Roller. Jacob Roller, Jr., was killed by Indians at this post; there were many other Indian outrages in the vicinity. Pennsylvania. Roney's Fort. In Finley Township, Washington County. A large strong blockhouse built by Hercules Roney about 1780. The entire Mcintosh family, with the exception of one daughter, eight in number, was killed near this post about 1789. Pennsylvania. Roots, Fort Logan H. Argenta. Arkansas.


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Rosa, Fort. Heitman's "Historical Register" gives the location of this post as Latitude 20° 19' and Longitude 87° 14', which is probably an error as it would stand in the Gulf of Mexico. 30° 19' would place it in Santa Rosa County. Florida. Rosalie, Fort. A French fort on the Mississippi at Natchez. Mississippi. Rosecrans, Fort. West side of entrance to San Diego Harbor, six miles from San Diego. California. Rosecrans, Fort. At Murfreesboro; built during the Civil War. Tennessee. Rosedew, Fort. On Vernon River. Georgia. Ross, Fort. In 1809 the Russian Fur Company determined to carry their trading and trapping activities into what is now California. After some preliminary investigations around Bodega Bay and San Francisco Bay, Baranof received instructions from St. Petersburg to found a settlement at once on the California coast. In the spring of 1812 he dispatched an expedition consisting of 95 Russians and 80 Aleuts to a point about eighteen miles above Bodega Bay. The Russian force, which comprised some twenty-four mechanics, prepared timber for several months and, with the assistance of the Aleuts, erected a fortified village and fort; ten canon were mounted. On September 10, 1812, the post was formally occupied and dedicated and named Ross. The name Ross is said to have been derived from the root of the name Russia of great antiquity. The Russians exercised caution and did not invade the territory of Spanish trappers to the south. In the later '30's the Russians announced to the Mexican government their intentions of abandoning Fort Ross and Vallejo made them a proposition to buy it in 1841. In the meantime the Russian agent at the post entered into secret negotiations with John A. Sutter to purchase the property which were consummated on December 13 of the same year. Sutter acquired all the Russian property at Ross and Bodega with the exception of the land and agreed to pay for it in four yearly installments; $5,000 the first and second year and $10,000 the third and fourth. The first three payments were to be made in wheat and the fourth in money. Alvarado and Vallejo criticised Sutter in later years for allegedly acting dishonorably toward them. In addition to the historical interest associated with this post, an international controversy regarding the rights of Russians to occupy this territory centered around it for years. California. Ross, Fort. On Tennessee River. Tennessee. Rouge, Foft. Founded in 1738. Manitoba. Canada. Rouille, Fort. Old French fort on site of Toronto, Ontario. Canada. Roxbury, Fort. Near Boston. Massachusetts.


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Royal, Fort. At Portland. See Fort Loyal. Maine. Royal, Fort. On Pamunkey River. Virginia. Royalhannon, Fort. See Loyal Hanna and Ligonier. Pennsylvania. Roy's House. Built by Northwest Fur Company. North Dakota. Ruby, Fort. This post was established as a protection against Indians on the western side of Ruby Valley, near the Overland Mail Station. Nevada. Ruckman, Fort. In Boston Harbor. Massachusetts. Ruddle's Fort. On Licking River. Kentucky. Ruger, Fort. Diamond Head, Oahu, six miles from Honolulu. Hawaii. Rugh's Fort. This post was built by Michael Rugh about 1782. It was a pioneer refuge for many years; torn down in 1842. The fort was in Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County. Pennsylvania. Run, Fort. Fuller, Jefferson County. Pennsylvania. Runyon, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington near south head of Long Bridge. Virginia. Rupert, Fort. In 1835 the officers of the Hudson's Bay Company learned of the existence of coal in considerable quantities on the north end of Vancouver Island at Beaver and McNeail Harbor, Queen Charlotte Sound. Peter Skene Ogden and James Douglas were instrumental in bringing this discovery into prominence. William McNeill, captain of the steamer "Beaver," was ordered to establish a post where coal had been found and in the summer of 1849 worked vigorously with his crew of whites, halfbreeds and Kanakas in establishing a square stockade on which was placed four 9-pound guns. Quarters were also provided for officers and laborers. The post was named in honor of the first president of Hudson's Bay Company. Muir, a Scotchman,-sank a shaft to a depth of 120 feet in search of coal but found the seam too narrow and the coal too poor quality to make it a commercial success. In addition labor troubles arose and the mines were abandoned. Fort Rupert then continued as a trading post. This post had ceased to exist as a Hudson's Bay station in 1836 since it is not numbered among the thirteen listed when the Imperial Government repurchased the Hudson's Bay Company rights in the Island of Vancouver. Canada. Russell, Fort. Temporary post in Florida W a r ; right bank of Orange Lake Creek, six miles west of Fort Brooke. Florida. Russell, Fort. A few miles northwest of present Edwardsville. Illinois. Russell, Fort. At Loudon. Tennessee.


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Russell, Fort D. A. This post was named in honor of Brigadier General David A. Russell. Temporary log huts were built in September, 1867; officers' quarters were established in 1868. This post has greatly assisted in the settlement of the West through the protection of railroad settlers. Two miles from Cheyenne; now called Fort Warren. Camp Carlin near the site of Fort D. A. Russell preceded the permanent post. Wyoming. Ryerson's Fort. A rallying point for settlers; built about 1790 at the junction of the north and south forks of the Dunkard Creek. Greene County. Pennsylvania. Sabine,, Fort. Temporary post, west side of Sabine Pass, three miles from the Gulf of Mexico and three miles below Sabine City. Louisiana. Sabine, Fort. In Sabine Pass, Jefferson County. Texas. Sacandaga Blockhouse. Schoharie County. New York. Sacket Harbor, Post at. Known as Madison Barracks. New York. Sackville, Fort. At Vincennes. Indiana. Saco Fort. On Saco River, near the falls. Maine. St. Andrew, Fort. On north end of Cumberland Island. Georgia. St. Anne Fort. On Lake Champlain. Also called Fort La Motte. New York. St. Anthony, Fort. Junction of St. Peter's River and the Mississippi; later called Fort Snelling. Minnesota. St. Antoine, Fort. Built in 1868. At mouth of Chippewa River. Wisconsin. St. Asaphs, Fort. Also called Logan's Fort. Built in 1755. Kentucky. St. Bernard, Fort. One of several forts at Pensacola. Florida. St. Carlos, Fort. One of several posts at Pensacola. Later called Fort Barrancas. Florida. St. Charles, Fort. New Orleans. Now obliterated. Louisiana. St. Charles, Fort. At Pemaquid. Maine. St. Charles, Fort. "Fort St. Charles was built by La Verendrye in 1732 on the northernmost point of what is now Minnesota. It remained in existence till the eve of the conquest of New France, and it is probably the most widely known of the French forts in the Minnesota region. From it La Verendrye went out on some of his earlier explorations of the Northwest. As a result of investigations begun by the Jesuits of St. Boniface. Manitoba, in 1902, the ruins of the fort were discovered in 1908." Minnesota Historical Society, "Minnesota History," Vol. 11, No. 4. Minnesota. St. Charles, Fort. In Saint Louis. Missouri.


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St. Clair, Fort. In the vicinity of Eaton, Preble County, on right bank of St. Clair River. Attacked by Indians, 1792. Ohio, St. Clair Morton, Fort. At Louisville. Kentucky. St. Croix Island, Fort. On Schoodic River. Maine. St. Diego, Fort. Built prior to 1740. About nine miles from St. Augustine. Florida. St. Ferdinand, Fort. At New Orleans. Louisiana. St. Fernando, Fort. Spanish fort, built 1783, at mouth of Wolf River near Memphis. Tennessee. St. Francis de Pupa Fort. On St, John's River. Florida. St. Francis, Fort. Erected in 1739 by Bienville at mouth of St. Francis River. Arkansas. St. Frederic, Fort. On Lake Champlain, near Crown Point. New York. St. George, Fort. On Amelia Island. Florida. St. George, Fort. At Phippsburg. Maine. St. George, Fort. At Thomaston. Maine. St. George, Fort. On- Long Island, at Smith's Point, near Mastic. New York. St. George Island, Fort. After the massacre of the Russians at Sitka by the Kolosh, Baranof received secret instructions from the Russian-American company to establish other forts and settlements with a view toward obtaining a boundary settlement from the English. In 1802 Fort St. George, St. Paul and St. Nicholas were built on Kenai Bay. These posts were armed with three-pounder pivot guns and additional measures were taken to protect the garrison against hostile natives. Alaska. St. Ignace, Fort. Ontario. Canada. St. Inigoes, Fort. Near St. Mary's. Maryland. St. James, Fort. Fort St. James was the headquarters for a number of Hudson's Bay Company trading posts in British Columbia. This post was built about 1839 and stood at the southeastern end of Stuart Lake. Chief Factor Ogden was in charge at one time and James Douglas, who afterwards became famous, was a Factor there as a young man. For many years supplies for Fort St. James were obtained from Fort Vancouver, these being conveyed by boats, horses and men. It was quite an undertaking to transport boat loads of supplies and drive bands of two or three hundred horses for hundreds of miles. Fort St. James was the center of what was known, at the time of Ogden, as New Caledonia. Canada. St. John, Fort. One and one-half miles from the mouth of Bayou St. John's at the south side of Lake Pontchartrain and six miles northwest from New Orleans. Louisiana. (To be Continued)