Utah Historical Quarterly, Volume 4, Number 1-4, 1931

Page 1

N A T H A N I E L . V.



Utah Historical Quarterly State Capitol, Salt Lake City Volume 4

January, 1931

Number 1

EXTRACTS FROM THE LIFE SKETCH OF NATHANIEL V. JONES By his wife, Rebecca M. Jones Nathaniel Vary Jones, was born on the 13th of October, 1822, in the town of Brighton, Monroe County, New York. He was the son of Samuel and Lucinda Kingsley Jones. When he reached the age of seventeen years, he felt unaccountably drawn towards the western country, and although young and inexperienced, he made his way to Potosi, Wisconsin. He there became acquainted with Albert Carrington, in whose family he resided for many months. About this time a branch of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was organized, and he became a member. He was baptized by Elder William O. Clark, and on April 6, 1842, was ordained a teacher under the hand of Zera H. Gurly and Albert Carrington. In the spring of 1843, he went to Nauvoo, Illinois, where he was ordained an elder on June 11, 1843, and was sent on a mission to Ohio. He left Nauvoo on the 19th of June in company with elder Robert T. Burton with whom he labored in the ministry until about the 15th of June, 1844, bringing a number into the church. From there he was sent to labor in Rochester, Monroe County, New York, where he held several meetings; visited his relations and friends, and bore a faithful testimony to them of the truth of the great Latter-day work. He was about this time afflicted with inflammation of the eyes, which was so severe that for several weeks he was blind; but through the blessing of the Lord he was able to get home to Nauvoo on the 17th of September. When his eyes were better he went to Potosi and remained until the following spring. He returned to Nauvoo, and on the 14th day of March was married to Rebecca M. Burton. He remained there about one year assisting on the temple, and acting as a guard or minute-man, until May, 1846, when he left with the Saints for Council Bluffs.



About the time of his arrival there the call was made for the Mormon Battalion and he was counselled to enlist, which he did, not yielding to his own feelings in the matter but desiring to obey the counsel of those who were placed at the head to direct. He performed the journey and reached California with his brethren. Just before his term of enlistment expired, he, with nine of his comrades, was chosen as a guard for Col. John C. Fremont, who was called to Washington owing to some difficulty. They reached the Missouri River on the 22nd of August, after a very hard and perilous journey. After finding his family safe in Atchison, Missouri, in the fall of 1847, he went to Ohio to visit his aged mother and brothers. He remained there during the winter and succeeded in getting two of his brothers to come west with him; one of whom was believing in the truths of the Gospel. But they were all obliged to stop in St. Joseph, Missouri, until the spring of 1849, when on the 8th day of May they started for the Salt Lake valley. During the journey, one brother accidently shot himself as he was preparing his gun to go hunting. This occurred at North Platte Forge, on the 4th of July. He was carried into the river on a sheet and baptised at his earnest request and died on the 8th. The other brother went to California. On the 8th of August Nathaniel reached Salt Lake, and on the 20th of November, 1850, he was elected to the office of First Lieutenant of Cavalry, in the Battalion of Life Guards of the Nauvoo Legion, and of the Militia of the Territory of Utah. In April, 1851, he was elected Alderman of Salt Lake City. On the 14th of September, 1852, he was ordained into the High Priests' Quorum, and was also ordained to the Bishopric, acting as Bishop of the 15th Ward. At a special conference held August 28, 1852, he was appointed to go on a mission to Hindostan. H e started in company with a number of others October 19, and went southwest across the desert to San Bernardino, thence to San Pedro, and to San Francisco where they tarried until the 29th of January. They arrived at Calucutta on the 26th day of April, 1853. At a conference held there on the 29th of April, he was appointed president of that mission. He returned to Salt Lake via San Francisco on the morning of October 4, 1855, making his absence from home three years. In the spring of 1856, he was called to go to Las Vegas, New Mexico, for the purpose of manufacturing lead. He returned to this city in March, 1857, having accomplished all that he was desired to do. On the 9th day of April, 1857, he was elected



Councilor of Great Salt Lake City by unanimous vote of the people. On the 1st of June he was required and authorized to carry the mail from this city as far east as Deer Creek, on the way to Independence, Missouri. About this time, the word came that the President of the United States was sending an army to Utah, in consequence of which on the 11th day of August, 1857, President Young advised Mr. Jones to come home. As soon as he reached home he was sent to Echo, and was acting Colonel during the Utah war; and in connection with his brethren, suffered many hardships and privations which told very much on his constitution. In the spring of 1858, when the city was vacated, he was one who was told to remain as guard over the property. On July 2, all things being settled, and peaceable, the families and friends began to return home together. But a constant watch had to be kept up day and night so that his duties did not slacken in the least, but he, in turn with his brethren, stood guard during the summer. At the election held on the 4th of August, 1858, he was elected Selectman for three years, in and for Salt Lake County. In the fall of 1859, he was called to go on a mission to England, where he labored faithfully until he was released. Shortly after he returned home in the fall of 1861, the subject of making iron was discussed, and Mr. Jones being of the opinion that it could be done, was sent to Iron County. He reached Parowan about the 12th of November, 1861, when he immediately set to work putting up the machinery and getting out the ore. By a letter and specimen sent to President Young, which reached here January 22, 1862, it was seen that he succeeded. The iron was handed to James Lawson of this city for examination. Mr. Lawson tested its qualities and found its tensile strength to be ten per cent better than the best quality of States iron. Mr. Lawson says, "Good cast steel can be manufactured from it." The ore was obtained near Pinto Creek." He spent the winter and until late in the spring before he suited himself in point of location, but about the 1st of June, he became located at Rocky Ford, Beaver County; put up some buildings and prepared for the coming winter. President Young thought that if he could find the same class of ore nearer Salt Lake City he had better put up works as near as practicable; as here was the principal demand. Accordingly, Mr. Jones came back and found the ore in two different localities, and it was decided that he return to this city. By the time he had brought his family back it was late in November and in going to the



mountains for wood he was over taken in a very severe storm and came very near perishing. He took a heavy cold and never felt well afterward. On the morning of the 8th of February he was taken ill with inflammation of the lungs and brain, and on the morning of the 15th, 1863, he died at his home in the 15th Ward, Salt Lake City.

T H E JOURNAL OF NATHANIEL V. JONES, WITH T H E MORMON BATTALION (Extracted) Council Bluffs, Missouri River, July 16, 1846. This day I enlisted in the Mormon Battalion, which is to march to upper California by the way of Santa Fe, under the command of Lieut. Col. Allen, by order of the President of the United States. Our company was this day organized with Nelson Higgins, Captain. I was appointed third Sergeant of the Company. The Company was marched six miles from here to the river flat, to a trading house, where we drew our blankets, etc.; and on the nineteenth we received many rich instructions from Brigham Young and others of the Twelve, pertaining to this campaign, and the future designs of the Church. On Monday we left this place and moved down the river four miles. On the 22nd took up line of march for Fort Leavenworth. Arkansas River, September 17, 1846:—On the 16th we camped at this place. 17th still continued our march, leaving the road that goes to Ft. Benton to the right and taking the nearest road to Santa Fe. October 19; written at California, February 22, 1847:—Journal of the route from Santa Fe, Mexico to this place. We left Santa Fe October 19, 1846. The face of the country was very broken, mountainous and barren, until we came to Del Norte, or called by some the Rio Grande. Here was a very large Spanish Settlement, the inhabitants of the country are a mixture of Spanish and Indians, and are quite inferior in their habits and customs, and a little below the average -size. Their farms are very good for this country; they have no fences at all. Their land is all watered by ditches, and their cattle consists chiefly of herds of stock. There are some parts where grapes are abundant, out of which they make some wine and brandy.



We also went two hundred miles through the thick settlements and there were villages at intervals of from five to ten miles. They raise bitter herbs, also corn and beans and some wheat, although that is not very plenty. On the 13th of November we left the Rio Grande. November 17:—In a small mountain which layed to the west, there was a gold mine which had been worked a great many years ago. Stopped here on the 18th and on the 19th we passed twenty-six miles and camped on the Membres, a branch of the Rio Grande. November 20:—We started in a nearly westerly course. W e are now in the Territory of Chewawa (Chihuahua), Old Mexico. November 21:—From this place to Cow Springs. Here we stayed one day. Purchased some mules from a party of Spaniards, who had been on a trading expedition to the Apache Nation of Indians, who inhabited the mountains, and lived chiefly by plunder. At this place the track passed leading from Sonora to the copper mines. It was agreed upon by our officers that we would go to the State of Sonora. Accordingly in the morning we started a southerly course, when it should have been west, contrary to the feelings of the two-thirds of the Battalion. W e had not gone more than two or three miles before something stopped us. No person knew the cause of it, but some unforeseen power intercepted our course, and we turned to the west across the' plains not knowing whither we went and camped four miles from water. Here one of our men was tied to a wagon wheel six hours in the night for purchasing a piece of pork from a negro servant belonging to Lt. A. J. Smith. By order of Lt. Col. Cooke. Here was a hole that had about one barrel of water, and the Colonel and his clan let their mules drink that up from the men. We continued our march until ten o'clock that night before we found water. This place we called Dry Lake. December 2:—The Indians brought into camp a large quantity of Mescal to sell, it being the most part of their living, but our good Col. Cooke would not allow us to buy any of it. December 3:— Remained in camp all day. In the evening there was one of our men come into camp, that had been out hunting wild cattle which were quite plenty, that had got scattered from the old Spanish settlement when this country was in a flourishing condition thirteen years ago. They owned forty thousand head of cattle, and mules and horses in abundance. The man who came in from hunting had killed a wild bull about



thirteen miles from camp. I, with some others, started about dark for some of the beef. We arrived at the place sometime after midnight. We made some fires and immediately went to drawing it until we got as much as we could carry, and in the morning of the fourth we started for the camp, arriving there about the middle of the afternoon, after nearly killing ourselves with such heavy loads and behold, the camp had all gone. W e found their trail and followed on as fast as possible until about ten at night when came into the camp. Then our fears were that our meat would be taken from us, but we smuggled away most of it. On the morning of the fifth we found wild cattle plenty, but the Colonel would not let us kill them. After all was still in the night some of our men caught some of the mules and started after some beef which they had killed slyly during the day, which was some eight or ten miles back on the road. They arrived safe with the beef before morning. December 6:—The sixth we lay in camp all day. On the night of the sixth, a brother by the name of Smith, died. He did not belong to the Battalion, but was a servant for Capt. Davis of Company "E". He was an old man. His wife had gone back from Santa Fe under Capt. J. Brown, by the way of Pueblo. December 9:—We continued our march down the San Pedro stream and camped along near an old Spanish ranch that had been vacated for many years. Here I had a warm contest with Dykes about some of his meaness. December 10:—About noon we had a regular pitched battle with the wild cattle of this valley. Some men had been out hunting them and drove them in towards the command. Several of them were shot, which had a tendency to make the rest more furious. They charged upon us strongly, killed two mules and wounded one man, named Cox. He belonged in the same mess that I did. He was unable to walk for several weeks. December 12:—We waited all day for pilots to come back. Late in the evening one of them came bringing favorable news. Accordingly on the morning of the 13th we set off across a long sand plain. Just at night we camped near an Indian Still house— where they made a kind of liquor from Mescal. There were some soldiers there from the Garrison of Tuscon, a Spanish fort in the borders of Sonora, which we were obliged to pass through. December 13:—We started across the plain for the fort. After we had traveled about three miles the Colonel ordered two of the Spanish soldiers under arrest, Supposing they had one of our pilots confined in the Fort.



December 15:—During the night our guide had come back. They had put him in confinement and it was fortunate that we had confined the two Spanish soldiers the day before or they would not have let him go. About six miles before we came into the Garrison we met several men from there who tried to have us pass around the fort, but the Colonel pushed on with double speed, until we came to the town, when on our arrival the soldiers fled, and many of the inhabitants with them, taking all their public arms, cannons, etc. We marched through the town and camped on the west side of it. Here we were enabled to purchase, from the inhabitants that remained, a few beans and a little flour, by selling our clothing for it. There were about eighty soldiers and near twice that amount of inhabitants that fled with them. December 16:—On the 16th we laid in camp. In the afternoon Col. Cooke called for fifty volunteers to go with him six miles to a small town where the soldiers and the inhabitants had fled to, and take away their public arms and supplies. Fifty men turned out immediately to go with him. They set off and went about three miles, called a halt expressed some fears turned around and came back. That night we placed out a strong guard through all the town and in the public roads. About midnight there were two guns fired. The Battalion was formed in line of battle. A detachment was sent out to scour through the town but they found nobody there. Accordingly all was still once more. December 17:—About nine in the morning we started on our journey. December 18:—Started early, traveled until ten or eleven that night before we found water, and but very little then, not half enough for the men to drink. Our men had to do without entirely. December 19:—Today about noon we found some water and camped for the day. December 20:—Soon after we started we came in sight of the timber on the Gila River, where we were visited by a large number of Pima Indians, with beans and corn to trade. December 21:—Traveled down the river until about three in the afternoon and camped in their village. Their village extended some twenty-six miles down this river and was very thickly settled. They are almost entirely naked, both men and women, the most they have on is a piece of cloth of their own manufacture tied around their hips and sometimes not that. They appear to be



the most healthy people I ever saw and the most children I ever saw in any country. December 23:—In the same place we purchased some meal and beans and sold our clothes off from our back to do that, and then our generous Colonel issued an order that there should not be any carried and we must leave it—andDykes was the man to enforce it in our company. Through the assistance of Lt. Hulett and some others we succeeded in carrying it along and no thanks to Dykes or the Colonel. December 24:—We started across a stretch of forty miles without water or anything else except prickles. December 25:—We camped on the plains without wood or water. December 26:—Came to the river after dark. December 31:—Started in good season this morning, and at night camped on the bank of the river. Here in consequence of the mismanagment of Dykes we had our rations of beef lowered. January 2, 1847:—Stayed in camp all day; here we left one wagon, and made boats of two wagon beds and put about twelve oxen in each boat and started down the river. We met one American and two Spaniards with three women going to Tucson. They informed us that General Kearney had fought one battle, and was then on his way to the Pueblo De Angeles, fighting his way into the place. W e then pushed on in double quick. January 4, 1847:—Camped near the foot of the mountain close to the river. Here we had a contest with Dykes. January 5:—Camped half a mile from the river near the Salt Lake. We had a weighing frolic. I weighed 128; weight when I enlisted, 198. January 7:—Started early in the morning; traveled all day on a plain and camped three miles from the mouth of th€s. Gila River. January 8:—Traveled all day across the plains of the Colorado ; at night camped near the crossing. January 9:—Stayed in camp all day preparing to cross the river. The evening of the 9th commenced crossing and it was nine the next morning before they all got across, January 11:—Left one of our wagons. Our road was all the way through the sand. We camped on the plain without water.



January 12:—Early in the morning started out and found it still all sand. About twelve in the day we came to water—that is, to where we could get it by digging for i t ; it was salty. Here we left one of our wagons, it being the last., . ; January 14:—We continued our march through the almost impassible sands until about twelve in the day, when we came to another place where we found water that is nearly half enough for the men. This place is called Posohonda, At the Posohonda we met some of our guides that had gone ahead for the purpose of fetching some fresh animals, mules and beef cattle. They brought about forty mules and eight or nine cattle. January 15:—This , morning we started through a rough, mountainous country and continued on until the next day, when we came to water and some grass. The men were scattered for fifteen or twenty miles along the road. Some sick and some given out for the want of water, and others with their feet so sore they could not walk. There were mules scattered from the Colorado to this place that had died or given out, for we have had no grass from the San Pedro to this place, a distance of four-hundred miles, and no water for the last hundred miles, except the little that we got by digging for it and that poison. January 17:—Pursued our. march through the Elpaso; that is, a long narrow pass through the mountains. About twelve in the day we came to the springs called the Pometo. Here we saw the palm trees growing. Here for the first time we camped at a large spring and found plenty of grass. January 21:—Came to Warner's about two in the afternoon, the first settlement in California. Here we found one white man and about three hundred Indians. Warner was formerly from Burton. January 23:—Started on our journey. In the morning, before we started, it was concluded that we would go to the Pueblo De Los Angeles to meet General Kearney. W e camped in a small valley close in by the side of a small mountain. It commenced raining just at night and continued to rain all night. There was an Indian came to us that night who appeared very friendly and he would not leave us that night, but laid all night on the ground before our tent, and it rained and the wind blew a gale until morning, then we gave him some meat for which he appeared very thankful. The Indians, a few days before .we came to Warner's had taken eleven Spaniards and killed them in cold blood. The Spaniards had killed some forty of the Indians for it. They probably thought that we were their friends and would kill off the Spaniards.



January 25:—At night we passed through the valley of Indians. I call it this because the Indians turned out of their village to salute us and paraded themselves before us in single file across the valley. January 26:—In the evening of the day before there was an express came to us from San Diego, from General Kearney, for us to turn back that way. It came by a man by the name of Walker, a Dane, who had lived in this country three years. Accordingly in the morning we set off for San Diego. Traveled all day over a mountainous road and camped on San Louis River. January 27:—Traveled down the river in a beautiful valley about twelve in the day when we came to the San Louis Mission. We went about one mile below the mission and turned upon the bluffs. There for the first time my natural eyes looked upon the ocean. Plere we were about three miles from the great Pacific. January 28:—We traveled all day over a rough, broken country. Here I saw the wild oats of California, that I had heard so much talk about. The hills were covered with them and the flats with clover. No timber at all. February 1:—At about four in the afternoon we came to the San Diego Mission, about four miles from the town in the same valley. Camped in the space between the vineyards in front of the Mission. I think the country has been misrepresented by every account that I ever read. There is no land fit for cultivation, except that in the valleys, and they are small and scarce, considering the amount of surface, and is fit for nothing but the thing it is used for—mainly raising stock under the direction of capitalists. Today General Kearney started for Monterey. Captain J. Hunt sent him a letter informing him of our situation and he agreed to see us in the course of three or four weeks at the San Louis Mission. The Mission of the San Diego is beautifully situated on a gentle elevation of table land which is about three-fourths of a mile in length and half a mile in width and about half as high as the general bluffs along the streams. The building is about fourteen rods in front and is a little over one story high. The walls are of unburnt brick and white-washed outside and in. The building is covered with concave tile, which are laid on and lashed fast. The burying ground is on the east side, the church on the west. The church is nearly two stories high. The front



has a rude representation of a steeple. This building is constructed upon the same principle as the buildings of New Mexico, having a square in the center. The square here was nearly the west end in the rear of the church. The rooms are dark and damp with brick floors. There are two beautiful vineyards on the flat in front of the building. They are interspersed with olive trees in the front and in the front of the vineyard on the left are two beautiful palm trees—with a large wine press in the front corner. We have now been one hundred and three days from Santa Fe. We started with sixty pounds of flour to the man, thirty days rations of pork, two-thirds rations of sugar and coffee. It was all called sixty days rations, and we lost several hundred pounds of flour on the Gila. Thus we traveled under greater embarrassments than it is possible to realize except by passing through them. W e have opened roads' through impassable mountains and trackless deserts, without wood, water, or grass, and almost without provisions. W e now find ourselves without clothes and worn down with fatigue. For nearly thirty days we have had nothing but beef and not enough of that all the time. On the first of February we started for San Louis Mission accompanied by one company of the dragoons. February 2:—About two in the afternoon we arrived safe at San Louis Mission. February 5 to 20:—Nothing but drill and beef. February 13:—A detachment started to Robidoux' ranch, 70 miles north for flour. They returned on the 20th with 2,300 pounds of mashed wheat. Four days rations of that and the beans were issued to us in the evening. Two ounces of the coarse flour and two-thirds of a gill of beans for a day's rations. February 21:—-A detachment was sent to San Diego for provisions, and returned on the twenty-fifth, with flour, sugar, coffee, soap and candles. February 28:—This day we were mustered for the first time in California. March 17:—There was a great deal of dissatisfaction in consequence of the rations and I was misused on this occasion by Dykes. March 18:—He carried false reports to the Colonel and through his false reports broke me of my office, which he had purposed on doing from the first, and he bragged of it.



March 19:—We left San Louis; however, I will give a description of this place. The whole front is about ten thousand two hundred feet in length. There was a beautiful piazza which was separated by beautiful turned arches about ten feet in width and two and a half feet thick. The front was beautifully finished, and the rooms were finished inside in fine style and decorated with birds painted on the walls. Over the doors and windows the colors were red and black. The building covered nearly four acres of ground with a square in the center of something near one and three-fourth acres, with a fig tree, an orange tree, and two pepper trees in the center. There was a beautiful piazza all around the square with a high battlement made of burned brick. The piazzas are covered with cement and the roof is covered with tile. The church is on the east. Taking it all through it is the best building I have seen in California. There is a beautiful flat in front of the building covered with olive trees and several palm and fig trees and a beautiful spring all enclosed by a high adobie wall. On the west there is a large vineyard with some pepper and olive trees with a large reservoir for watering the whole. This also is enclosed by a high wall. This place is situated in a small valley on a rise of ground about four miles from the coast. It was built by the Indians about one hundred years ago, under the direction of the Catholics, with capital, from old Spain. Today, the 19th, we left for Pueblo De Los Angeles. We left the sick and some well ones to take care of the public animals. Camped after night at a ranch on the edge of the plains of Domingo. March 22:—At noon we came to the Pueblo De Los Angeles; camped at the east edge of the town. March 27:—Moved camp about a mile north of where we first camped and three-quarters of a mile from the Pueblo on the bank of the stream. March 29:—Commenced drill again. April 2:—This morning an Indian was sent to San Louis Rey to have that detachment come to this place. April 6 :•—Today there was a petition formed by brother Nerl, to be presented to our officers for our discharge. It was signed by a majority of the Battalion present, though the most part of our officers went strongly against it, perhaps for the reason that they had been holding out inducements to Captain Turner, the general aid-de-camp, that we were wanting to get the privi-



lege of building garrisons and forts under the pay and in the service of the United States, which was not in the minds of the men, and they did not feel free to contradict their former statements and went hard against it. A meeting was called and the men called "damned fools" and such like sayings. April 7:—This evening the officers met and counselled together about the matter, and the honorable body threw the bill under the table. April ,12:—Today Col. Mason of the regiment of first dragoons gave us the praise of being the best volunteers of any he had ever seen in the manual of arms. This afternoon that detachment came in from the Luis Rey. One of their number had died at San Luis and was burried in the garden between the building and the church as you go through the Tally Port in the northeast corner. His name was Smith. He belonged to Company "C." April 13:—Company " C " was ordered out east to guard the pass in the mountains about sixty miles from this place with nineteen days' rations. April 18:—Today there was a meeting called of all the Seventies, and president H . John was chosen to preside. He then stated the object of the meeting. They then organized themselves into a quorum and proceeded to business. The first was John Allen, and he was cut off without a dissenting voice. They went strongly against the business of shading public property, and went against all kind of wickedness. Gave us good advice and dismissed us. April 21:—A detachment was-ordered out to relieve Company "C" and let them come in and get their pay. An equal number was taken from each company. April 22:—Today they drew their money. April 23:—This morning they started with Lieut. Pace at their head. They had bought themselves some horses and Col. Cooke came out just at the time they were starting, and ordered them all back, took all their horses from them, sent them off on foot and ordered their horses sold to the highest bidder, which was done accordingly. April 24:—Today Company A was paid off. April 25:—Today there was considerable excitement about the Spaniards. It was said that they were coming to give us a charge in the night, but nothing of the kind happened.



April 26:—This morning the order came for us to go down to get our pay. W e drew for six months. Last night there was an express sent out to Company "C," Lieut. Pace's detachment, to come in. At twelve o'clock we had orders to move camp. We moved on the hill on the north side of town which has the command of the town; this day Company "A" went to work building a fort on the hill. They had moved the day before. The express came in from OC after having traveled one hundred twenty miles in sixteen hours. April 28:—Today there was twenty-eight men ordered out to work on the fort from this company. Today "C" Company came in and Lieut. Pace. April 29:—They got their pay. April 30:—We mustered and continued our work on the fort. There are now eighteen men detailed from each company. They work four days and are released. There was some ammunition fetched in from Santa Barbara by a detachment of Stevenson's regiment from New York City. May 2:—Hard at work on the fort. May 5:—News from San Diego. Captain J. D. Hunter's wife died on the thirteenth and left a small child about two weeks old. The particulars concerning her death I did not learn. Not a word from William and Melissa. I fear they must be sick or they would have sent me some word. It cannot be that they have forgotten me. May 7:—Today took an excursion out in the country in search of an outfit to go back to the States with, in consequence of the late revelation. Everything is very high and hard to get. This evening there was an order read from General Kearney appointing Col. Stephenson to the command of the southern post. Two companies of his regiment are orderd to this place. May 8:—Today news came that General Kearney had arrived at San Pedro. This morning there was a detachment of twenty ordered out to take some Indians in the mountains. I was detailed as one of the number. On the 9th, at the mouth of the canyon, we separated, eight of us went up on the mountain to cut off their escape in that way. We attacked them in the head of the canyon. We killed six of them. How many there were in the first place I do not know but there were some escaped certain. We then returned to camp just before night. There were two men wounded, one in the face and one in the thigh, though not dangerous. There was one Spaniard wounded in the



leg. The Spaniards used the Indians very brutally, scalped them and cut off their ears and nose before we knew what they were about or we would have prevented them. W e learned that General Kearney came into the Pueblo with Col. Stephenson. May 10:—This morning the Battalion was paraded for General Kearney and Stephenson to inspect. He made a great many remarks concerning us, and spoke of us in the highest terms, so much so that I thought it was flattery. He promised to represent our conduct to the President and in the halls of congress, and give us the justice that we merited. He promised us some clothing and advised us to re-enlist into the service for twelve months, and many other things. Today there was an order issued to have three men detailed from each company to go to the States as an escort for him. I was detailed as one of that number. May 13:—Left Los Angeles with a detachment of nine men; the other three are going round by water with the Gen. Lieut. Sherman. Three regiments of artillery has taken command of us. May 15:—We came thirty miles and camped at the Mission of San Clare. May 16:—We traveled all day on the coast. Barbara at night, a distance of thirty miles.

Came to Santa

May 18:—Camped in a valley near a ranch, just at night. About twelve in the day we passed the Mission of San Tenara. Yesterday we took a prisoner that had deserted from Monterey, and today we took another at the Mission of Tenara. May 21:—This morning we traveled through the mountains seven miles, and came to the Mission of San Margaretha. May 22:—Came down the same valley all day. About eleven in the day we came to the Mission of San Miguel. May 23:—Still down the same valley. The river is called Monterey River. Very little timber. The land is poor. Came forty miles and camped at the Mission of San Obispo. May 25:—Traveled about fifteen miles through the mountains an'd came to Monterey about twelve in the day. Quartered in the south part of the town in a building that had been occupied by some of Col. Stephenson's regiment. Today there was sixty ordered out to fight the Indians in the mountains. The General had not come as we expected. May 26 :•—I was herding mules all day.



May 27:—I went on board the Columbus, a seventy-four gun ship. Her length is two hundred fourteen feet, from the top sail to the stern hold, forty-five feet. She has three decks and mounts ninety-eight guns, and has on board seven-hundred sailors and mariners. In every way it is a splendid, well-finished craft. Today the Frigate of war "Congress" came in from Stockton. Just at evening the Sloop "Lexington" came in with General Kearney and Lieut Col. Cooke on board. May 29:—We drew seventy-five days' rations, and some mules. May 31:—Started. General Kearney.

Came fifteen miles and camped with

June 3:—Camped at night in the valley. valley of San Joaquin.

It is called the

June 9:—This morning we prepared for crossing the Stanislaus. W e had to swim the animals and carry our plunder across in skins. This morning I learned that there was a settlement of our people some six miles below on the river. We have been passing through the Indians for several days. They are very numerous and are called the "diggers." They live upon grass seed and roots, and go naked except a wisp of grass tied around them. June 11:—About one in the afternoon we came to the best valley that I have seen in California. Here we found some Americans. Here I saw the first field of corn in California. Today we learned that there had been an express through from the church and that brother Brannan has gone back to pilot them through the mountains. This evening there was a brother came to see us by the name of Rhodes. H e came here last October from Missouri. The brethren are settled in different places through this country. June 13:—We came sixteen miles over a very good country. Came down the American Fork about four miles and crossed the river one and one half miles from the Sacramento. Here we found another man that was a Mormon. This is settled by Americans. Sutter's Fort is on and one-half miles from the crossing; there are twenty-five soldiers stationed at this place. Crossed the river just at night. This is called St. Clare Fort. June 14:—Today we received one horse more to every maIL Dried some beef, baled some flour and pork. W e are thirty-five miles from the head of the bay. Corn does not do so well unless it is watered. Mechanics wages are very high, also all kinds of



common labor. Land can be bought for twenty-five cents per acre, wheat one dollar per bushel. June 15:—We were all day fitting out, baling our packs and effects. We started late, came fifteen miles. June 17:—Thursday, camped on Bear Creek at Johnson's ranch, the last house we expect this side of Fort Hall. It is called forty miles from this place to Sutter's. Foot of California. Bear Creek, Friday, 18th. Started early in the morning. Came thirty-five miles through the mountains. Wood all the way. W e passed a place where somebody had been buried. June 20:—Sunday, 20th. Came through some snow-banks. Banks of snow lying all over on the tops of the mountains. The vegetation has just started. Stopped about three hours in Bear Creek valley. A small valley of about one-hundred fifty acres. Here we found a cabin that some emigrants had built last fall. From this place there were five women started for the settlement through the snow on foot, and those who did not die were relieved by a party that came out for that purpose. They left a great many things in the cabin. They were from the state of Missouri. Monday, June 21:—Struck the head of Truckee River. Here is a small lake, one mile in width and three miles in length. We camped near the head of the lake. June 22:—We came down the lake to some cabins that had been built by some emigrants last fall. They were overtaken in the snow. There were eighty of them in number, and only thirty of them that lived. The rest of them starved to death. The General called a halt and detailed five men to bury the deserted bodies of the others. One man lived about four months on human flesh. He sawed their heads open, ate their brains and mangled up their bodies in a horrible manner. This place now goes by the name of Cannibal Camp. While we were stopped here the men came up with our pack mules. Col. Fremont passed us here, the first time we have seen him since we left Fort Sutter. After we had buried the bones of the dead, which were sawed and broken to pieces for the marrow, we set fire to the cabin. I started about two in the afternoon came seven miles and camped. One mile above here there was another cabin and more dead bodies but the General did not order them buried. June 23:—This morning Jigly shot himself through the arm.



Thursday, June 24:—Left Col. Fremont at the crossing of the Truckee. Friday, June 25:—Came twelve miles down the river from where we camped last. Indians plenty. About two miles from here up the river there had been one wagon and load cached. It was dug up by the Indians. They wasted everything. Saturday, June 26:—We camped by an Indian Village (If it would be proper to call it such) for there were no signs of it except some brush which had been cut and stuck in the ground. There were about two-hundred Indians in number, some ran to the mountains and others laid in the brush. Some of them came out after we had been there a short time. Men and women go naked. Sunday, June 27:—Then we came to the hot spring. It was a curiosity. The water was thrown out by steam in a solid column four fee't high and sometimes higher. The steam could be seen three or four miles off. It would discharge one barrel in one minute. The ground all around there seemed to be hollow underneath, and it was hot for half a mile around. There was a mule broke through a half a mile or more from the spring. The stream came up very hot. The place where we camped is called Mary's River. It is a sunken river. It sinks in the sand where we struck it. No wood and but little grass. The water is salty and bitter. It seems as though the curse of God rested upon this country. It is all a barren unfruitful waste. Some of our mules and horses gave out today. Sunday, July 4:— One of our party by the name of Minek was left back very sick, did not come up till some time after we had camped, which was on the Mary's River. Thursday, July 8:—Last night the Indians stole four of our horses. W e followed them to the mountains. This tribe is very had; they are called the Snake Indians. Camped this afternoon at the head of Mary's River. Friday, July 9:—We are now in Oregon. One mile from camp there was a large hot spring, we came thirty miles, camped at the big springs—Yesterday we were two days' journey from the Salt Lake by the way of Hasting's cutoff—our day's journey fifty miles. Saturday, July 10:—Head waters of the Columbia river. Col. Fremont was just behind us.



Monday, July 12:—Col. Fremont travels with us. Tuesday, July 13:—Camped for noon at the forks of the road; here the old Oregon trail turns off to our left. W e came down the stream crossed over, struck across to the Columbia River, eight miles without water. The road is first rate. Wednesday, July 14:—Met some Oregon emigrants, in company forty-three wagons. In the afternoon met some more emigrants. Thursday, July 15:—Came fifteen miles to Fort Hall. Here we got some bacon. Started in the afternoon came sixteen miles. A great many emigrants. The road is full of them. Friday, July 16:—Today our enlistment is out. Camped in a branch of Bear Valley, on a small stream. Saturday, July 17:—Came to the Soda Pool (Soda Springs) and five miles to Bear River. One mile and a half up the river is another Soda Spring, stronger than the other. Monday, July 19:—Camped one mile from a trader by the name of Smith. There are about twenty Indian lodges here. They have a great many horses. I saw a man by the name of Smith, who came from California with Brother Brannan, and had been with our emigrants and gave us some valuable information concerning them. Tuesday, July 20:—Started very early in the morning, struck across the mountains without any road. Came twenty-five miles and struck the road again. Here were some more lodges. We got some more animals here. Wednesday, July 21:—A great many emigrants. Thursday, July 22:—I met Orlando Strickland, an old acquaintance. Stayed in camp until two in the afternoon. Eight miles to the river, it is called Green River. The road is rough. Left the river about five in the afternoon, traveled nearly all night. Came to the Big Sandy about ten the next morning. Saturday, July 24:—Came five miles on to the Little Sandy. Came through the pass and camped on the Sweetwater, making in all twenty-three miles. Sunday, July 25:—Came seventeen miles down the Sweetwater and camped for breakfast. Considerable game here. Buffalo and Antelope. Monday, July 26:—We came through the Rocky Buttes and



camped on the east side, making in all forty miles. This is called Rose Camp. Tuesday, July 27:—Camped at Independence Rock. Thursday, July 29:—Here we found some brethren, that were camped and waiting for their families which were behind, and expected every hour. This was the first news that I have had correct, since I left. They left there in March. Here we left one party that was unwell, by the name of John Bindley. Monday, August 2:—Camped on the Laramie Fork of the Platte, three miles up from the Fort. Tuesday, August 3:—Having heard from the people, I got permission from the General, to go with the others and meet thenij W e started this morning at sunrise and came twenty miles and stopped to grass our horses. Wednesday, August 4:—Started from Fort Laramie early this morning in company with two other men, to overtake the brethren. W e rode twenty miles and met them. W e found a great many of brethern, and we heard of our families, and a great deal of other good news. W e camped by them at night, when the General came up. This morning we found a great many that I was acquainted with. I received a letter from Rebecca (My wife) the first that I have had since I left Fort Leavenworth—It was written on the 6th of June. W e traveled down on the left hand side of the river on the trail that our people had made. The country on this side of the river is broken and rough. Distance today forty miles. Camped opposite Scotts Bluffs. Thursday, August 5:—Stopped about five miles above the Chimney Rock. Saturday, August 7:—Another rain last night. Came seventeen miles today. Col. Fremont's men killed two buffalo. Camped and cooked breakfast, then came twenty-three miles, making in all forty miles. Camped at Ash Hollow. There De Quigly was very sick and not able to ride. Matthew Caldwell, C. Webb, and W. W . Spencer, hospital steward. W e gave them their rations and one animal apiece and two packs. Sunday, August 8:—Left at sunrise. W e here struck across the plain leaving the North Platte, twenty miles and camped on the South Platte. Monday, August 9:—Left camp very early this morning. Buffalo very plentiful. Camped on an island and killed several buffalo.



Tuesday, August 10:—Started very early. The buffalo are in innumerable herds. It is marvellous how they subsist in such vast herds. Came twenty miles and camped for breakfast. Saturday, August 14:—Moved camp early this morning, left the Platte and made a cutoff today of several miles. Came thirty miles and camped on Little Blue Creek; it is fifty miles by the road to the Platte. Wednesday, August 18:—Struck for the Big Blue. Arrived there after noon. Thursday, August 19:—Made twenty miles and camped on (he Wolf River. This forenoon we overtook a brother by the name of Davenport. He was on his way from the North Platte and traveled with some Oregon emigrants, among them was a missionary by the name of Little-John. Then men from Oregon came in late at night. Friday, August 20:—I bought a horse of the Oregon men, for which I gave twenty dollars. Saturday, August 21:—Our rations are all gone. W e ate the last this morning for breakfast and did not have half enough at that. Started at noon and struck the road about three miles from the camp, and followed it to the Independence Creek, which we reached late in the night. Here we got some flour from Major Sewards, for supper. Sunday, August 22:—We drew our pay this forenoon and started for Weston. Arrived there just at night. Stayed at Brother Green's Hotel. Saw the wife of Sterling Davis and Mother Covey. Monday, August 23:—Moved early this morning, traveled eighteen miles and came to Fort Leavenworth. Turned over our public property this afternoon. Only received $8.60, eight dollars and sixty cents for our extra service. Tuesday, August 24:—Today we got some clothes for ourselves and started at noon. Came sixteen miles and put up at a house one mile this side of Bloomington. Started, came to St. Joe, traveled some there, started again at noon and met a man right from Waldon's Ferry. Camped with Brother Colton at Savannah. The End of the Journal



SERGEANT JONES' DISCHARGE I hereby certify that first Sergeant Nathaniel V. Jones of Captain Nelson Higgins' Company of the Mormon Battalion of Volunteers United States Army, born in the city of Rochester, State of New York, aged twenty four years, six feet one inch high, fair complexion, dark brown hair, grey eyes, and by profession a carpenter and joiner, was enlisted by Captain James Allen, first Dragoons, Council Bluffs, Missouri River on the sixteenth day of July one thousand eight hundred forty six to serve for one year, having served honestly and faithfully, to this present date, is now entitled to a discharge in consequence of the situation of his family needing his assistance and for the purpose of conveying information to the Mormon Community, the above named Nathaniel V. Jones was last paid by J. H. Cloud, paymaster, to include the thirty-first day of August, one thousand eight hundred and forty six, and has pay due from that time to the present date, and the amount due the sutler, one dollar. Given in duplicate San Luis Rey this 17th day of March, one thousand eight hundred and forty seven. LETTER FROM BRIGHAM YOUNG G. S. L. City, July 11, 1862 Elder N. V. Jones, Rocky Ford, Beaver County, U. T. Dear Brother; Yours of June 14 is to hand, and the scarcity of stock with us obliges me to state that we are at present unable to accommodate you in the matter of wheat as you request. We can, however, should you wish it, let you have a hundred bushels of tithing wheat at Beaver, or at Minersville if you prefer, and it is there, for a hundred bushels of your wheat here; and more than that on the same terms, if you have the wheat here and wish to exchange. As to the iron at Nephi, its situation is such that I do not feel like doing anything about purchasing it, and I also think it best for you to leave it where it is. I now propose starting for the southern settlements on or about the 1st of September, and presume I can take the castings with me, which will probably be as soon as you will want them. * * * Affairs here are progressing as usual, and many emigrants are now passing through in a very orderly manner. Your Brother in the Gospel, (Signed) BRIGHAM YOUNG.




^85" / f h ' / \ Br i # • •








A FIELD OF SMALL FOSSILS IN W E S T E R N UTAH A Spot That "Slept" By Frank Beckwith, Sr. In the early part of the decade of the 1870's, the Wheeler Survey was conducted through the west portion of the territory of Utah; in Millard County the surveyors erected a triangulation base on the Oak City hills, another on the summit of Notch Peak, and a third upon the tip of Swazey Peak. While working around Swazey Peak the chain men and staff of surveyors were struck to find wonderfully well preserved fossil trilobites. And imagine their surprise to run onto a tiny reef, sometimes not over six feet wide and never fully twenty, and of a total length of not over a hundred and ten feet, where the fossils were lying on the ground so thickly that handfuls might be taken up. They selected the best preserved of the specimens, and continued on their labors of surveying; but submitted these finds to scientists, who in honor to members of the survey party, named the species of trilobites after the surveyors, such as Asaphiscus Wheeleri Meek, Ollenellus Thompsoni, Paradoxides Gilberti, Ptychoparia kingi Meek, and even named the great ampitheatre of Cambrian formation "The Wheeler Ampitheatre," and the thin shales in which the fossilized creatures are found, "The Wheeler Shales."



Later, about a mile and a half from this first "find" the abundant deposit located on "Blue Knoll" was discovered, about fiveeights of a mile due east of Antelope Springs. Blue Knoll is composed of thousands of layers of the thin Wheeler shale, in a sort of reef; lying on the ground, fully weathered out, trilobites were so abundant, that the volume U T A H GEOLOGY, published by the University of Utah contains the sentence,. "At Antelope Springs Cambrian trilobites can be picked up by handfuls." Dr. J. E. Talmadge visited that spot; I took Dr. Fred J. Pack and Prof. A. L. Mathews to it, and even then, after'a lapse of thirty years the specimens were so abundant that Doctor Pack finally straightened up a long-bent back and said, "Gentlemen, I'm going to quit. It has been my life ambition to 'pick' a quart of trilobites, and I believe I have done it." But Blue Knoll was not the location the early surveyors discovered. The spot which they had stumbled across still "slept." The specimens found at Blue Knoll are mostly Ptychoparia kingi Meek, and Agnostus, of which three species are found; the range of size of the Ptychoparia is from the tiny baby of onesixteenth inch, up to the usual, frequent size of about an inch and a quarter, with some few specimens nearly two inches. But in almost all cases, the larger ones are broken. The smaller ones may be found absolutely perfect. Cleaned, freed from debris, and worked over with a sharp tool under a high magnifying power, the best specimens take excellent photographs. In the Wheeler shales near Blue Knoll, a few rare specimens of Asaphiscus wheeleri Meek may be found. Agnostus is usually found in size a trifle less than three eights of an inch long. Perfect specimens of it are not common; but broken parts, a full semicircle of pygidium or of cephalon, lying about are met with in profusion. I pried apart loose layers of the shale and in between, though very rare, I found seven specimens of Ptychoparia embedded in the shale, untouched by weather or hand of man. But even so protected, those specimens were not by far as nearly perfect as the ones lying upon the ground, fully weathered out by nature. One day Prof. R. A. Morris came into my office in Delta and introducing himself said, "Let's go out to Antelope and gather some trilobites." "I have never been there," I replied. "All the more reason why you should go." So arming ourselves with a map of the Wheeler Ampitheatre which I already had, and some typewritten notes I had drawn



off from the various reports of Dr. Charles D. Walcott to the Smithsonian Institution, which I had been studying in preparation for a trip out there; we drove out. We lost the location by one canyon. Instead of getting into the canyon in which Antelope Spring is located, we were one canyon this side. W e spent all forenoon tramping, searching, scouting, trying our best to find a trilobite, but without avail; we were tired, discouraged, and worn out. Spirits were at a low ebb. So in despair, we decided to leave the canyon and go west one remove to Antelope Spring, refresh ourselves, and after a rest, renew the search. Starting off briskly to leave the spot, we had given up. Walking along rapidly, in a few moments Morris said "This looks favorable," and simultaneously with the words, stooped down, and in a moment both of us were busily engaged in picking up fragments of trilobites. Our weariness left, discouragement gave place to high spirits, and our enthusiasm knew no bounds, when in a few moments our search led to the long lost pocket which had slept the half century unfound. In four hours I gathered a five pound lard pail chock full; Morris had gotten each pocket stuffed, two handkerchiefs filled, and had taken off his hat, which he nearly filled, and worked bareheaded. With that, and five later trips I gathered so many that after giving away to friends many scores, and sent hundreds to Universities, and exchanged with other amateurs, I still had left enough to send the Smithsonian Institution 3300 very good specimens, which they determined for me, and sent back samples labelled on cards, showing that I had found eleven different species; and following a few months later, they released the following news dispatch broadcast from Washington, D. C , which gave me an undeserved prominence: Fossil Deposit Found Again After Fifty Years Washington, D. C , Nov. 1, 1927. The hunt for a fossil deposit in the mountains of Utah, lost for fifty years, has come to an end at last with the receipt by the Smithsonian Institution of a collection of fossil trilobites from Mr. Frank Beckwith of Delta, Utah. One of the pioneer geological surveys which opened up the west a half century and more ago discovered in the House Range of Utah, a deposit of excellently preserved fossil trilobites. These old collections are all now in the Smithsonian Institution.



In later years Dr. Charles D. Walcott, late Secretary of the Smithsonian revisited the region and tried to find more material, but never succeeded in locating the exact spot. He had proved that life existed on the earth at a much earlier geological period than had been supposed, and the trilobites furnished his principal evidence. Those were shelled invertebrate animals, whose closest living relative is the brine shrimp now found in great abundance in the Great Salt Lake and in the Dead Sea. The trilobites themselves, however, though they were the dominant life of the sea several hundred millions of years ago, completely disappeared about the time the coal deposits of the eastern United States were laid down. Dr. Walcott returned repeatedly to the House Range in a search for the lost deposit. Though he made immense collections elsewhere in the west, he never found this deposit, nor had any one else up to the time of his death last February. Now, however, Mr. Beckwith, an amateur collector, has located it. He forwarded his finds to the Smithsonian where they are being studied by Dr. Charles Resser, who has already identified a new species of trilobites among them. It seemed to me that I had gotten considerable publicity out of Morris' discovery—for really it was his, and I gave it to science only by presentation of my collection gathered there, I visited that locality five times; it is all of the Middle Cambrian period, so much older than the period of the dinosaurs which are found at Jensen, that relatively speaking the dinosaur is as but of yesterday. For the trilobites are assigned an age in the earth's existence fully thirty millions years ago. And to think that life then was so highly specialized, with such adroit parts, organs for locomotion, well developed eyes, a heart, a circulartory and sensory system—in fact, that by then 60% to 90% of evolutionary forms had been brought into being, and further development was -specialization on the foundation already laid. It is wonderful! This field is fifty miles away from Delta—Oh, pardon me, my error— I should have said "it is Thirty Million Years away from Delta." There is another field, an Ordovician deposit, which is forty miles farther away but fifteen millions years closer—the discoveries in that field for a future article. The illustration shows, a very perfect form of Ptychoparia kingi Meek enlarged twice, beautifully marked, plain, sharp, and with eyes plainly showing. The eyes are compound, never less



than four, and sometimes as many as 14,000 pair on a side! Think of 14,000 separate and distinct and well defined headaches from each case of astigmatism in those lenses!—and you can then see that John Trilobite's life was not all roses. The second illustration shows an Agnostus, two segments only, a more primitive creature, without eyes, well defined facial sutures, and thought to be an older form of life than Ptychoparia. It is enlarged five times.

INDIAN RESERVATIONS IN UTAH By Eli F. Taylor, Register U. S. Land Office, Salt Lake City, Utah The Indians of Utah are being well cared for by Uncle Sam if the land area reserved for their use can be taken as the measure. The first of the six reservations now in existence'was created by Executive Order of President Abraham Lincoln, October 3, 1861. This was designated as the Uintah Valley reservation and included the entire drainage system of the Uintah River, extendon both sides to the crest of the first range of contiguous mountains on each side. When this area was surveyed it was found to contain a total of two million forty thousand acres. Congress by Act of May 5, 1864, authorized the sale of all Indian reservations theretofore made in Utah except the Uintah Valley reservation and directed that as many Indians as possible be collected and placed in Uintah Valley. All monies received from the sale of Indian lands was to be used in making improvements on reservations. At this time the Utes were claiming a considerable part of the south and central portions of the state as well as a large expanse of territory extending beyond the boundaries of the state on the east, south and west. This large area outside of the diminished portion located in the Uintah Valley was taken possession of without formal treaty or purchase, the treaty of June 8, 1865, negotiated with them for that purpose having failed of ratification. The provision of law providing for the sale of Indian lands was repealed by Congressional Act of June 18, 1878 and the lands were restored as public domain. The Uintah reservation remained unchanged until May 27, 1902 on which date Congress authorized an allotment of 80






acres of irrigable agricultural land to each head of a family and forty acres of such land to each other member of the Indian tribes then residing on the reservation. By joint resolution of June 19, 1902 and by acts of March 3, 1903 and March 3, 1905, Congress set aside about two hundred and fifty thousand acres as a grazing reservation. This reservation is still intact, and is situated in Duchesne and Uintah Counties. The remainder of the original reservation except the part placed in the Uintah National Forest was restored to the public domain subject to disposition under the public land laws. In a further effort to congregate all of the Indians of this district into one large territory, the Uncompahgre (Ute) Reservation was established in the year of 1882. This reservation joined the Uintah reservation on the east and covered the south three-fourths of what is now the Uintah County and also a small part of the Duchesne and Carbon Counties. This reservation has been entirely vacated. The Navajo Indian Reservation is the largest in the State and is located in the extreme southeast corner. The original order creating this reservation as an addition to the Navajo Indian Reservation in Arizona and New Mexico was signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 17, 1884 and embraced all the land south of the San Juan and Colorado rivers and extending to the southern boundaries of the state. That portion of this withdrawal which lies west of the 110th Meridian was restored to the public domain by Executive Order of November 19, 1892 and on May 15, 1905 all lands east of the San Juan river tp the Colorado State line were added to this reserve so that at this time that portion of Navajo Indian reservation which lies in Utah covers an area of approximately 900 square miles or more than a half million acres. The Skull Valley Indian reservation located in Skull Valley, Tooele County, about eight miles south of Iosepa, had its beginning January 17, 1912 when President Wm. H. Taft set aside eighty acres of land for school, agency, and other necessary uses of the Indians in that region. T o this there was added 17,920 acres September 7, 1917 and an additional 640 acres February 15, 1918 by Executive Order of President Woodrow Wilson, making a total of 18,640 acres. These lands were specifically reserved for the Skull Valley band of Indian who were then residing on these lands with the provision that any other Indians may be placed thereon.



The Goshute reservation was established March 23, 1914 for the Goshute and other Indians. This reserve comprising 34,500 acres is in the northwest corner of Juab County on the Nevada State line. The history of this reservation is much the same as that of Skull Valley. On May 29, 1912 there was reserved 240 acres for the Deep Creek Band of Indians for school, agency and other purposes. This later resulted in the creation of the reservation just described. At the request of the Commission of Indian Affairs dated September 28, 1891, the Secretary of the Interior withdrew certain lands in Washington County for the Shivwitz or Shebit Indians. This was not before settlers had begun to establish homes within the area. The rights of these settlers were purchased under provision of an Act of Congress, March 3, 1891, which appropriated $10,000 for the purchase of the lands and improvements of settlers to enable the Indians to take exclusive possession of lands within the area reserved. By Executive order of April 21, 1916 additional lands were added, so that this reservation now contains 26,880 acres and is known as the Shebit Indian Reservation. The newest reservation is located on the Mountain Home or Needle Range of mountains in the western part of Beaver County. The western boundary of the reservation cuts across the apex of Indian Peak. When first established August 2, 1915 by President Woodrow Wilson it embraced 7000 acres and was created for the permanent use and occupancy of two bands of Paiute Indians and such other Indians of that tribe as the Secretary of the Interior might place on the land. This reservation was known as the Paiute Indian Reservation. On May 3, 1921 by order of President Warren G. Harding there was temporarily added to this reservation about 3000 acres, the lands to become subject to disposal if no action was taken by Congress before March 5, 1923. Such legislation was, however, provided by the Act of May 3, 1924. This is now designated as the Indian Peak Reservation and has an area of. 10,240 acres. November 1, 1903 the United States purchased a tract of 136.52 acres in Garfield County for the Panguitch Indians. The tract was never designated as a reservation. The reservations above described do not constitute all the lands being held by Indians in Utah. Many individual Indians have been granted title to lands in various parts of the State. Within the last year several allotments have been made to Indians in San Juan County. And so the good work of continuing to provide homes for the Indian goes on.



UINTAH AND OURAY INDIAN AGENCY, FORT DUCHESNE, UTAH By H. M. Tidwell, Superintendent The Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation was created by Executive Order dated October 3, 1861. The exact area of the original reservation cannot be stated by this office but the order limits the reservation with the crests of jmountains surrounding the valley of the Uintah which also included the entire Duchesne River system. The Act of May 24, 1888, restored to public domain the land lying east of Range 2 East, S. L. M. to the eastern boundary of the reservation which was probably the Green River. The Act of June 4, 1898 provided for the cession of all lands comprised in the reservation to the United States except lands retained as Indian allotments. This Act also provided for the alloting of lands to the Uintah and Whiteriver Ute Indians and such of the Uncompagre band of Ute Indians who had not obtained allotments elsewhere. At present the reservation is comprised of 2,357,286 acres classed as follows: FOREST 1,010,000 TOWNSITES 2,100 O P E N E D TO HOMESTEAD 1,004,285 MINING CLAIMS 2,140 INDIAN ALLOTMENTS 99,406 UNDER RECLAMATION 60,160 GRAZING RESERVE, (INDIAN).... 179,194

acres acres acres acres acres acres acres

The Indian population of the reservation is about 1200 comprised of the Uintah, Uncompagre and Whiteriver Bands of Utes. Of this number, which does not materially increase or decrease from year to year, we have 75 farmers, about 300 school children and 75 engaged in the livestock industry. Our Indians, except in a few exceptional cases, have adopted the white man's methods and his industrial activities are carried on in the same manner as his white neighbor. He is also not unlike other Americans when seeking entertainment and does not hesitate to take an active part in all American games of skill, horse racing, dancing, etc. The Uintah Boarding School was established at Whiterocks prior to 1905 and has been in continuous operation since that time. At present the enrollment of Indian children will total about 135 who will attend during the nine months' term. This school is not unlike boarding schools operated for the benefit of white children who are instructed along academic and industrial lines.

Utah State Historical Society BOARD OF CONTROL (Terms Expiring April 1, 1933) J. CECIL A L T E R , Salt Lake City WM. R. P A L M E R , Cedar City ALBERT F. P H I L I P S , Salt Lake City

J O E L E. R I C K S , Logan P A R L E Y L. W I L L I A M S , Salt Lake City

(Terms Expiring April 1, 1931) GEORGE E. F E L L O W S , Salt Lake City W I L L I A M J. SNOW, Provo HUGH RYAN, Salt Lake City L E V I E. YOUNG, Salt Lake City FRANK K. S E E G M I L L E R , Salt Lake City EXECUTIVE OFFICERS 1929-1930 ALBERT F. P H I L I P S , President Librarian and Curator W I L L I A M J. SNOW, Vice President

J. C E C I L A L T E R , Secretary-Treasurer Editor in Chief

All Members, Board of Control, Associate Editors

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Idaho Utah


Utah Historical Quarterly State Capitol, Salt Lake City Volume 4

April, 1931

Number 2

T H E R O U T E O F J E D E D I A H S. S M I T H I N 1826 F R O M T H E GREAT SALT LAKE TO T H E COLORADO RIVER By A. M. Woodbury 1 , Park Naturalist, Zion National Park, Utah ÂŤ T h e r o u t e of t h e i n t r e p i d explorer, J e d e d i a h S. S m i t h from Salt L a k e t o t h e Colorado R i v e r in 1826 has been t h e subject of considerable c o n t r o v e r s y . T h e t h e o r y of his r o u t e last p r o p o s e d by Dr. C. H a r t M e r r i a m 2 (Calif. H i s t . Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . I I , No. 3, Oct., 1923, p. 228) w h i c h t a k e s h i m from t h e u p p e r Sevier River w e s t w a r d over a r a n g e of m o u n t a i n s , across the E s c a l a n t e Desert a n d d o w n t h e M e a d o w V a l l e y W a s h t o its j u n c t i o n w i t h the V i r g i n R i v e r , leaves several o p e n q u e s t i o n s u n a n s w e r e d and projects several c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h d o n o t fit those s t a t e d by Smith. T h e r e is h e r e p r o p o s e d a modification of t h e older t h e o r y t h a t his r o u t e lay a l o n g t h e V i r g i n R i v e r w h i c h a p p e a r s t o fulfill all of t h e c o n d i t i o n s s t a t e d b y S m i t h in his letter to General Clark. ^ h e writer, having been reared in the Dixie region along the Virgin River, having served for several years in the National Forest Service on the Dixie National Forest lying to the north of the Dixie country between it and the Escalante Desert, and having acted as Park Naturalist in Zion National Park for several seasons, has had unusual opportunity to study Smith's probable route through intimate personal knowledge of the entire region involved and by comparison of every alternative possibility. He first annuonced this theory in June, 1926, in his lectures in Zion National Park. 2 F. S. Dellenbaugh, in a private letter of Jan. 22, 1930, states, "I find that Dr. C. Hart Merriam has arrived at the same conclusion I reached and has stated his views in the Quarterly of the California Historical Society Oct., 1923, Vol. II, No. 3, p. 228. * * * I had arrived at my deduction even 'before 1923, but I did not publish it. * * * Smith did not get any nearer to Zion Park than Cedar City if that near."



Among the older theories of Smith's route via the Virgin River, there is a diversity of opinion regarding his course in reaching that river. Farish, in his History of Arizona (p. 98) says of Smith, "Captain Jedediah S. Smith was the first white man to enter Arizona from the north. In August, 1826, he started from Salt Lake, passed south by Utah Lake, and keeping down the west side of the Wasatch and the High Plateaus, reached the Virgin River in Arizona, near the southwestern corner of Utah. This, he called in honor of the President of the United States, 'Adams River.' Following it southwest through the Pai Ute country, in twelve days he came to its junction with the Colorado." Others have suggested that he went up the Sevier nearly to Panguitch, then crossed the mountain range on the west and followed its base around through the region where Parowan and Cedar City are located, reaching the Virgin by way of Ash Creek. It is evidently upon the basis of correcting inconsistencies in this theory that Merriam has traced him on across the Escalante Desert to the Meadow Valley Wash. Still others take Smith up the Sevier to its head and down the Virgin from there without attempting to show anything more than his general route. Hanna, in Touring Topics (Sept:, 1926) gives a map showing his course up one river and down the other, which agrees with my theory except as to details. Anyone acquainted with the course of the Virgin Rivex would readily recognize the impossibility of following the river itself all the way and the necessity of detouring in sever'al places.* Smith and his partners, Jackson and Sublette, had been in the fur business in the mountainous regions of the north with headquarters on Bear Lake on the present line between Utah and Idaho, but they knew practically nothing of the region to the south and west. Looking for opportunity to extend their traffic, Smith set out with a party of 15 men for the purpose (to use Smith's words) "of exploring the country S. W. which was en*[Mr. John C Neihardt, in The Splendid Wayfaring, which is the story of the exploits and adventures of Jedediah S. Smith and his comrades, publishes a map showing Smith's route up the Sevier to its headwaters and thence down the Rio Virgin along the stream course; but it is obvious the author was not familiar with the topography. "From, the headwaters of the Sevier," writes Neihardt, " t h e explorers crossed the divide southward and, near the end of September, reached the headwaters of t h e Rio Virgin, ("of a muddy cast and a little b r a c k i s h " ) , which Smith called "Adams' River in compliment to our President." With mountains to their left and a sandy waste, broken by occasional rocky hills, on their right, they descended the Virgin through a country where even jackrabbits were scarce." That lost sentence, paraphrased from Smith, approximately describes Ithe topography in the vicinity of Toquerville, as if Smith had descended Ash Creek. I.C.A.] , .



tirely unknown to me, and of which I could collect no satisfactory information from the Indians who inhabit this country on its N. E. borders." He states, "My general course on leaving the Salt Lake was South-W. & West—" evidently referring to his general direction of the trip and not to his immediate direction which was almost due south nor to the small sinuosities of the course. He goes on, "—passing the little Uta Lake, and ascending Ashleys River which" (he erroneously assumed) "empties into the little Uta Lake. * * * On Ashleys River, I found a Nation of Indians who called themselves Sampatch. They were friendly disposed toward us." Thus far everything appears to be definite. His Ashleys River is undoubtedly that portion of the Sevier River that runs northward and his Sa|mpatch Indians refer without question to those variously designated as San Pitch, Sanpeet, or Sanpete. He further states: "I passed oven a range of mountains running S. E. & N. W . and struck a river running S. W. which I called Adams' River in compliment to our president." Assuming that he meant what he said, "ascending Ashleys River," he would reach its head at the divide between the Sevier and the Virgin Rivers on the present road between Panguitch and Orderville, and his route would approximately coincide with that of the present road between those two points. This is the crucial point in the entire controversy. This route would approximately fulfill the conditions stated by Smith. The mountains here at the divide, although not running exactly S. E. and N. W., approach it about as closely as any of the cardinal directions. Furthermore, he immediately reached a river whose general course is southwest. I can find no evidence to indicate that Smith had the Pacific Coast as a definite objective when he started. In all probability, that followed his arrival on a river that flowed away from the Great Basin. At any rate, Smith's excuse for entering California given to the Mexican Governor at San Diego, that he had penetrated the desert so far that it was necessary for him to push on to California to get supplies, seems to have been convincing not only to the Governor but also some of his compatriots, ship captains and others who signed the affidavit in his favor. I can find nothing to indicate that this explanation was developed merely for the purpose of extricating himself from a bad situation. (See Dale, p. 212.) Dr. Merriam's theory seems to imply a definite objective toward the Pacific Coast. Just why he should forsake the objec-



fives of the expedition (fur traffic possibilities) and leave the broad open valley of the upper Sevieri, with its natural route and its good trapping opportunities and take out to the west over a rough mountain range and a vast expanse of desert beyond as though he had a definite objective in view is not just clear.* Furthermore, this mountain range runs east of north and west of south which is decidedly contrary to Smith's description of S. E. & N. W. On such a route, it would take Smith approximately 5 days of travel before he could reach the Meadow Valley Wash which Dr. Merriam identifies as the Adams' River. Smith would hardly say "Passing down this river some distance * * * here (about 10 days march down it) the river turns to the Southeast" if he had spent half that time in crossing a desert to reach that river and the other half in following the river. The course of the Meadow Valley Wash in general is almost due south although the sinuosities vary from southwest to southeast. This direction, of course, does not fit that given by Smith for the Adams' River which he described as southwest. The Virgin, in fact, is the only river in the region that does fit that description. Smith's statement that "the water is of a muddy cast, and is a little brackish" is of but little significance as the statement might apply equally well to he waters of either stream. Even the character of the stream itself is against Merriam's theory. The stream of the Meadow Valley Wash is much smaller than the Virgin. During a part of its course, it is merely a dry wash wending its way through a barren desert. It is hardly likely that Smith would have dignified it by the term river. A large part of the Merriam argument is based upon Smith's statement that the river (about 10 days' march down it) turns to the southeast. He identifies the southeast portion with the Muddy River, but Smith makes it clear that the portion below the junction of the Muddy and Virgin is the part to which he referred as running southeast. Evidently he was mistaken for this part of the river actually runs almost due south. He says, "I followed Adams' River 2 days further, to where it empties, into the Seeds Keeden, a southeast course," Seeds Keeden evidently referring to the Colorado River. This is corroborated by Gallatin's map to which Smith seems to have contributed. He shows the Adams' River in the approximate position of the Virgin and that part of the river from the bend to the Colorado as *The old Spanish Trail, possibly then in use, turned west at this point emerging at the present town of Paragonah—J. C. A.



actually bending t o the southeast. This is further corroborated by Smith's statement that the salt cave which he visited was on the southwest side of the river (which he errouneously assumed to run southeast).

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The Virgin River as thus outlined is somewhat longer than the Meadow Valley Wash and would as thus delimited take just about 10 days for Smith to march down it to the bend. I t also fulfills another condition given by Smith. He states that "the country is mountainous to the East—towards the West, there are Sandy Plains, and detached Rockey Hills." Leaving the headwaters and coming down the Virgin River west away from the mountains there are many sandy plains and detached rocky hills which fit the conditions equally as well as the Meadow Valley Wash. Smith states, "Passing down the river some distance, I fell in with a Nation of Indians, who call themselves Pa Ulches.



These Indians, as well as those last mentioned, wear rabbit skin robes—who raise some little Corn and Pumpkins." It is entirely possible that these Indians may have been located on the Meadow Valley Wash and the Muddy River as Merriam attempts to show. In view of the evidence for such location, let me point out that it would be entirely feasible for Smith to fall in with them in the lower end of the Muddy Valley, even'if he had come down the Virgin. It is entirely possible, however, as well as probable, that he may have referred to Indians in the Dixie country farther up stream. The wording of his statement indicates that Smith probably encountered them before reaching the bend of the river. Fifty years prior to this time Escalante found what he termed the Parussis Indians in the vicinity of Toquerville and La Verkin raising corn and calabashes (Bolton, Escalante in Dixie and the Arizona Strip, New Mex. Hist. Rev., Vol III, No. 1, Jan., 1928, p. 52, 53). Certain other auxiliary evidences should perhaps be mentioned, not because they are of themselves of primary importance, but because they tend to corroborate the Virgin River theory and help to eliminate contradictory items. Smith states, "the country is nearly destitute of game of any description except a few Hares," and further on, "There are here also, a number of shrubs & small trees with which I was not acquainted previous to my route there." Also, "I have found a kind of plant of the Prickly Pear kind, which I called the Cabbage Pear," evidently referring to the barrel cactus. In these passages, he is in all probability, referring to the region above the bend of the river where (about 10 days' march down it) he thought it turned to the southeast. In this region, he had entered for the first time on his trip the Lower Sonoran Life Zone (which he would also have encountered on the Meadow Valley Wash) where such plants as the Creosote Bush (Covillea tridentata), the Wash Willow (Chilopsis linearis), Joshua tree (Clistoyucca arboresoens), Mesquite Bush, and the Barrel Cactus (Ferrocactus lecontei) commonly occur and which he could scarcely help seeing. In all probability large game would have been scarce in that region at that time of year. However, the great changes in the faunal communities of the region since that time due to the introduction of domestic stock (sheep, cattle and horses) make it almost impossible to recast the original conditions. The fact that Smith did not mention the forks of the river where the Muddy joins it needs no explanation. His letter is a very brief resume of his trip and it is not surprising that he left out many details. He did not mention the forks of the Sevier



River which he must have seen, nor did he mention the other forks of the Virgin River. Unexpected circumstantial corroboration comes from another source. Wolfskill and Yount in the fall of 1830, apparently inspired by Smith's influence, attempted to follow Smith's route from the Sevier River to the Colorado. Yount was in the mountains with Smith for several months. Camp (Chronicles of George C. Yount, Calif. Hist. Soc. Quart., Vol. II, No. 1. Apr., 1923, p. 36) says, "Smith's stories inflamed in Yount the desire to visit the Coast." Barrows (in Camp, p. 37) states with reference to this trip, "entering the Great American Basin, striking the Sevier; thence southward to the Rio Virgin, which they followed down to the Colorado." Yount's reminiscent description of the trip according to the Clark manuscript (in Camp, p. 39) is not quite so definite but has some significant points of interest. The party "reached a strip of table land, upon a lofty range of mountains, where they encountered the most terrible snowstorm thev had ever experienced." They were evidently somewhere in the mountainous region of the upper Sevier. After a few days of terrible hardships, they made their way "down the steep declivities & into the vallies which lie beneath them. After a few days march, they were ushered into another of those enchanting vallies. There the earth was bare of snow & the evergreens waved in gentleness and calm serenity. * * * The soil is red sandstone & therefore the waters of the River are almost like blood.—Within twenty-five miles of its mouth some Indians brought them salt." The red sandstone description almost certainly limits the "enchanting vallie" to the Dixie region along the Virgin River. Thus, the Barrows and Clark manuscripts both agree in placing the route of Wolfskill and Yount along the Virgin, the course evidently having been originally determined by Smith's influence. There remains yet the problem of pointing out Smith's probable course along the Virgin River and showing its feasibility. Anyone who has traveled much in the mountains will understand the explorer's propensity and aptitude for seeking out and following the natural routes of the region. W e have good evidence to indicate that Smith was no exception to the rule. Coming up the Sevier River, Smith would have an open valley with a good easy grade leading up to the divide at its head. The opposite side of the divide leads directly down into the head of the East fork of the Virgin. This is a passable canyon which



opens out here and there into meadows and lower down widens out sufficiently for fields and small villages and towns (Glendale, Orderville and Mt. Carmel). In Smith's day these townsites were undoubtedly covered with meadows. So far, the route is natural and feasible. Below Mt. Carmel some fifteen or twenty miles, the canyon, gradually narrowing and deepening, enters the tremendous gorge known as Parunuweap Canyon which is clearly impassable. There is, however, just above the gorge, a natural route by which Smith could have climbed out of the canyon to the south and reached those sandy plains which lead around to the river some 20 to 30 miles further west. By following such a route, Smith would have missed that dissected region which Dr. Merriam evidently had in mind when he spoke of Smith not entering the "region of the formidable cliffs and canyons of the Markagunt Plateau," evidently referring to the Zion Canyon region. In all probability, Smith did not see the Zion Canyon. It would be hidden from view on the route outlined. It is at the point where he likely returned to the river, probably in the vicinity of Hurricane, that his description, "the country is mountainous to the East—towards the West there are detached Rockey Hills," applies with particular significance. To the eastward stand the gorgeous cliffs and canyons of the Zion region, while to the west the country drops off into detached low lying foothills and sandy plains. Proceeding down the river, Smith would have little difficulty in following it on through the Dixie country, but arriving at its lower end where the river enters another deep narrow canyon as it passes through the Virgin Mountains, he would undoubtedly have to detour to get over this low range, probably turning out to the north and returning 1 to the river in the vicinity of Littlefield, Arizona. The rest of his course is clear. Undoubtedly, he followed the river valley (or close to it) down to its junction with the Colorado, passing the salt cave on the way. Jedediah Smith's Letter to General Claris [Verbatim copy from original in Office of Indian Affairs, Washington, as published by C. Hart Merriam.]



Little Lake of Bear River. July 12th, 1827. Genl. Wm. Clark Supt. Indian Affairs Sir. My situation here, has enabled me to collect information respecting a Section of the country which, to the citizens of the U. States, has hitherto been veiled in obscurity;—I allude to the country S.W. of the Great Salt Lake, west of the Rocky Mountains. I started about the 22nd. of Augt. 1826 from the Great Salt Lake with a party of fifteen men for the purpose of exploring the Country S.W. which was entirely unknown to me, and of which I could collect no satisfactory information from the Indians who inhabit this country on its N.E. borders. My general course on leaving the Salt Lake, was South-W. & West—passing the Little Uta Lake, and ascending Ashleys River which empties into the little Uta Lake: from this, I found no more sign of Buffaloo—there are a few Antelop & Mountain Sheep and an abundance of Black-tailed Hares. On Ashleys river, I found a Nation of Indians who call themselves Sampatch. —they were friendly disposed towards us. I passed over a range of Mountains running S.E. & N.W. and struck a river running S.W. which I called Adams' River, in Compliment to our President. The water is of a muddy cast, & is a little brackish—the country is mountainous to the East—towards the West, there are Sandy Plains, and detached Rockey Hills. Passing down this river some distance, I fell in with a Nation of Indians, who call themselves Pa Ulches. these Indians, as well as those last mentioned, wear rabbit Skin robes.—who raise some little Corn. & Pumpkins, the Country is nearly destitute of Game of any description except a few Hares here (about 10 days march down it) the river turns to the South east. On the S. W. side of the river there is a Cave the entrance of which is about 10 or 15 feet high & 5 or 6 feet in width—after descending about 15 feet, the room opens out from 25 to 30 feet in length & 15 to 20 feet in width. The roof, sides, & floor are Solid Rock Salt—a sample of which, I send you, with some other articles which will be hereafter described. I have found a kind of plant of the Prickly Pear kind, which I called the Cabbage Pear.—the largest of which grow about 2*^ feet high & \y2 feet in diameter. Upon examination, I found it to be nearly of the substance of a Turnip, altho' by no means palatable.—its form was similar to that of an



Egg—being smaller at the ground & top, than in the middle.—it is covered with Pricks, similar to the Prickly Pear, with which you are acquainted. There are here also, a number of shrubs & small trees with which I was not acquainted previous to my route there, and which I cannot at present describe satisfactorily, as it would take more space, than I can here allot. The Pa Ulches have a number of marble pipes, one of which I obtained & Send you—altho' it has been broken since I have had it in my possession—they told me there was a quantity of the same material in their country.—I also obtained of them, a Knife of Flint which I send you, but it has likewise been broken by accident. I followed Adams' River 2 days further, to where it empties, into the Seeds Keeden, a southeast course.—I crossed the Seeds Keeden and went down it four days, a South Course. I here found the country remarkably barren, rocky & mountainous— there are a good many rapids in-the river. About at this place a Valley opens out, about 5 to 15 miles in width, which on the river" banks is Timbered and fertile. I here found a Nation of Indians who call themselves Am-muchabas.—they cultivate the Soil, and raise Corn, Beans, Pumpkins, Water & Muskmellons in abundance, and also a little Wheat & Cotton. I was now nearly destitute of horses, and had learned what it was to do without food. I therefore remained there fifteen days and recruited my men, and I was enabled also to exchange my horses & purchase a few more of a few runaway Indians who stole some horses of the Spaniards—I have got information of the Spanish country, (The Californias) and obtained two guides, recrossed the Seeds Keeden which I afterwards found emptied into the gulph of California, about 80 miles from this place by the name of the Collerado [words erased] the river Gila from the east.—I travelled a West course, fifteen days over a Country of complete Barrens.— generally travelling from morning until! night without water. I crossed a Salt Plane, about 20 miles long & 8 wide [now known as Soda Lake or the Sink of the Mohave], on the surface was a crust of beautiful fine white Salt, quite thin.—under the surface there is a Layer of salt from y2 to iy2 inches in depth, between this & the upper layer, there is about 4 inches of Yellowish sand. On my arrival in the Province of upper California, I was looked upon with surprise, & was compelled to appear in presence of the Governor of the Californias, residing at Sn. Diego,— where by the assistance of some American gentlemen, (especially Capt. B. H. Cunningham of the Ship Courier, from Boston, I



was enable to obtain permission to return with my men, the route I came, and purchase such supplies as I stood in need of.— The Governor would not allow me to travel up the Sea coats to Bodago. I returned to my party and purchased such articles as were necessary, & went eastward of the Spanish settlements, on the route I had come in. I then steered my course N.W.—keeping from 150 to 200 miles from the Sea coast—a very high range of mountains being on the east. After travelling 300 miles in that direction, through a country somewhat fertile, in which there was a great many Indians mostly naked, and destitute of arms, with the exception of Bows & Arrows, and what is very singular among Indians the cut their hair to the length of 3 inches—they proved to be friendly.—their manner of living is on fish, roots, acors & grass. On my arrival at a River [Kings River] which I called the Wimmel-che, (naimed after a Tribe of Indians who reside on it of that name) I found a few Beaver.—& Elk, Deer & antelope in abundance. I here made a small hunt, and attempted to take my party across the [mountain] which I before mentioned, & which I called Mount Joseph, to come on & join my Partners at the Great Salt Lake.—I found the Snow so deep on Mount Joseph, that I could not cross my horses,—five of which starved to death. I was compelled therefore to return to the Valley which I had left. And there leaving my party, I started with two men, seven horses & 2 mules, which I loaded with hay for the horses & provisions for ourselves, and Started on the 20th of May & succeeded in crossing it in 8 days—having lost only two horses & 1 mule. I found the snow on the top of this mountain from 4 to 8 feet deep but it was so consolidated by the heat of the sun, that my horses only sunk from y2 foot to one foot deep. After travelling 20 days from the East side of Mount Joseph, I struck the S.W. corner of the Great Salt Lake, travelling over a country completely barren, and destitute of Game. W e frequently travelled without water sometimes for two days, over sandy deserts, where there was no sign of vegetation. Where we found water in some of the Rocky hills, we most generally found some Indians, who appeared the most miserable of the human race,—having nothing to subsist on (nor any clothing) except grass seed, Grass-hoppers &c. When we arrived at the Salt Lake, we had but one horse & one mule remaining, which were so poor, that they could scarce carry the little camp-equipage which I had along.—the balance of my horses, I was compelled to eat as the gave out. The



Compy are now starting; therefore must close this Communication. Yours respectfully J E D E D I A H S M I T H , of the firm of Smith, Jackson & Sublette. [The spelling, capitalization and punctuation of the original have been faithfully followed. But it should be explained that at the end of the sentences and clauses there occurs a short stroke resembling an abbreviated dash, which is here rendered by a dash.]

BIBLIOGRAPHY Bancroft, H. H., Hist, of Utah, pp. 22-23. (1884-86.) Bolton, H., Escalante in Dixie and the Arizona Strip, New. Mex. Hist. Review, III, No. 1, Jan., 1928. Camp, C. L., Chronicles of Geo. C. Yount, Calif Hist. So. Quarterly II, No. 1, April, 1923. Cleland, R. G., Hist, of Calif.: The American Period. (N. Y., 1922.) Dale, H. C, The Ashley-Smith Explorations. (Cleveland, 1917.) Farish, T. E., Hist, or Ariz. (Phoenix, 1915). Gallatin, A., Synopsis of Indian Tribes, 1836. Map, p. 265. Hanna, P. T., California's Debt to Jedediah Strong Smith. Touring Topics, Sept., 1926. (Los Angeles.) Merriam, C. H., Earliest Crossing of the Deserts of Utah and Nevada to southern California: Route of Jedediah S. Smith in 1826. Calif. Hist. Soc, Quarterly, Oct., 1923, II, 228-237.



JOHN W. HESS, W I T H THE" MORMON BATTALION* I was born in Franklin county, Pennsylvania, August 24, 1824. In 1832 my father moved to Richland county, Ohio, and located on a piece of heavy timber land, cleared the ground, and opened a small farm, and the prospects for a better living were quite flattering, considering the many difficulties consequent to a new country. In Marfch 1834, my father, mother, three eldest sisters, and myself were baptized into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latterday Saints; previous to this we lived in peace with our neighbors, but soon after we were baptized our neighbors began to speak evil of, and persecute us in various ways. About May 1, 1836, my father and his family moved to the State of Missouri and settled in Ray County of that State, near Pomeroy's Ferry, of Richmond Landing, on the Missouri River, where we lived on a farm which we rented of John Arbuckle, until the expulsion of the Saints from Caldwell County, when with them we removed to the state of Illinois and settled in Hancock County of that State. Plere my father again settled on a piece of wild land, and in our extreme poverty we began to open a farm, and after much privation and toil we succeeded in getting a comfortable home. The many years of labor and hardships that my father had passed through caused his health to fail, and as I was the only boy in the family, the greater part of the labor devolved on me. In the meantime I had bought forty acres of land for myself, and had made some improvement during the fall of 1844, and during the spring and summer of 1845 I was putting up a hewed log house, while the mob were burning the Saints' possessions in Morley's Settlement, near Lima, in Hancock County; but I continued to labor with my might until the violence of the mob was so great that we did not feel safe in remaining on our farm longer; so we moved to the city of Nauvoo and occupied a part of the house belonging to Bishop Foutz, my mother's brother. We had left most of our supplies on the farm at Bear Creek, and before we had time to get them away, they were destroyed by the mob, and we were again left almost destitute. In November 1845 my father was stricken down with a shock of paralysis and lost the use of one side, which rendered him entirely helpless. (•Extracted from his journal by Miss Wanda Wood, Davis County High School, for the Utah Pioneer Trails and Landmarks Association, through the courtesy of her grandmother, Mrs. Eliza Hess Wood, Farmington, Utah.)



In the meantime I married Emeline Bigler, who was born in Harrison County, Virginia, August 20, 1824. At this time the word went forth among the people that the Church would leave Nauvoo in the spring. One may well imagine the situation we were in, to start on such a journey, when we had been robbed of nearly all of our substance, and my poor father lying helpless in bed, but it being the only alternative to get away from the fury of the mob, I began to gather up what I had and commenced to get together an outfit, and the best I could do was to.rig up two old wagons and two yoke of oxen, one of which was my own personal property. I had arranged one of these wagons with a bed cord for my father to lie upon, as he could not sit up. It took one entire wagon for his convenience, and then it was poor enough. This left one wagon to be drawn by one yoke of oxen to carry the outfit for the entire family—eight in number—while all the family had to walk every step of the way, rain or shine; but notwithstanding all these difficulties, we fixed up the best we could, and on the 3rd day of April, 1846, we started, crossed the Mississippi River and camped on the Iowa side the first night, in a drenching rain. April 4th we started on the wearisome journey, but with our heavy loads and the incessant rain that continued to fall, our progress was very slow,—the best we could do, we could only travel from five to eight miles per day. As my father occupied one of the wagons, the rest of the family had no shelter only what they could get by crawling under the wagons, and much of the time we were obliged to cut brush to lay on the ground to keep our beds out of the water. Women and children walked through the mud and water and wet grass and waded many of the streams so that their clothes were never dry on them for Weeks and months until we reached the place called Mount Pisgah, in the western part of Iowa; here the advance companies of the Pioneers had planted corn and vegetables for the benefit of those who should come afterwards. W e concluded to stop at this place for a time as our limited supplies were about exhausted and my father was so much worse that it was impossible to move him any further, so we constructed a temporary shelter of bark which we peeled off from the elm trees that grew in the vicinity; this was about the 15th of June. Word had gone out that President Young would fit out a company to go to the Rocky Mountains that season to locate a settlement and put in grain the next season for the benefit of themselves and those that would come the following season. Seeing that I could do nothing wherfe I was, I concluded to take my own team and what I had and go to Council Bluffs, one



hundred and thirty miles distant, where the Church Authorities were then stopping. So I made my father's family as comfortable as I could with the limited facilities I was in possession of, and taking my wife and my own team and little outfit, bade the rest of the family good-bye and started, traveling in Henry W. Miller's company. We were overtaken one evening about dark by Captain Allen, who was accompanied by a guard of five dragoons, of the regular United States Army, all of whom camped with us for the night. The object of their visit soon became apparent from questions asked them; viz., that they were sent to see if the "Mormon" people could and would respond to a call for five hundred men to help fight the battles of the United States against Mexico. This indeed, was unexpected news; while the people of the state of Illinois had driven Us out, and while we were scattered on the prairies of western Iowa with nothing, in many instances, but the canopy of heaven for a covering, to be called on under these circumstances for five hundred of the strength of the camps of Israel, seemed cruel and unjust indeed, but such was the case, notwithstanding. We arrived at Council Bluffs about the tenth day of July and found that four companies had already been enlisted and organized. I was advised by George A. Smith and others to enlist, and after considering the matter, I concluded to do so, and was enlisted in Company " E , " Captain Daniel C. Davis. My wife, Emeline, also enlisted, as the Government had provided for four women to each company of one hundred men to go as laundresses. I left my team and wagon and little outfit with my brotherin-law, D. A. Miller, to be brought on the next year, as the Government had provided two six-mule-teams to each company. I was solicited to drive one of them and for the comfort and convenience of my wife I consented so to do, and many times I was thankful that I had done so, as these teams had to haul the camp equipage which consisted of tents, tent-poles, camp-kettles, etc., which filled the wagons up to the bows, and the women would have to crawl in as best they could and lie in that position until we would stop to camp, and as I had the management of the loading I could make the situation and comfort of my wife much better; for this and other reasons that I will not mention, I was glad that I was a teamster. About the 20th of July we took up our line of March for Fort Leavenworth. About this time I heard of the death of my father, which took place the 22nd day of June, 1846, at the place I



had left him, and inasmuch as he could not recover, I was thankful to God that He had relieved him of his suffering, although it was a dark hour for my poor mother, to be left in such a desolate and sickly place without her natural protector, and with four small children and nothing to live on. In due time we arrived in Fort Leavenworth, where we received our outfit of clothing, provisions, arms and ammunition. We remained here about two weeks, after which we started on our march to Santa Fe, a distance of one thousand miles; a very tedious march, to be performed on foot, much of the distance with very little water or grass, with dry buffalo chips for fuel. W e passed over one desert eighty miles across; the only means of carrying water was in canteens holding two quarts each, one of which was carried by each man. A great many of the men gave out by the way and had to be helped in by others, the stronger carrying water back to their comrades. Finally we reached Santa Fe, but during this time General Kearney was fighting the Mexicans in Upper California, and was about to be overpowered by them, so he sent an express to Santa Fe to have the men of the battalion inspected by the doctor, and all the able-bodied men fitted out and put on a forced march to go to his relief, and all the sick and disabled and all the women to be sent back. Then came one of the grandest tests of my life, it happened in this wise: I had been a teamster all the way and had proved that I could take good care of a team and was a careful driver, and as Captain Davis had his family with him, and also his own private team, he wanted me to drive it for him, but the intention was to send my wife back with the detachment of sick men; this I could not consent to and retain my manhood. I remonstrated with Capt. Davis, but to no purpose. I could not make any impression on him. I told him I would gladly go and drive the team if he would let my wife go along, but he said there was no room in the wagon; then I told him that I would not go and leave my wife—I would die first! This was a bold assertion for a private to make to his Captain, but the emergency seemed to demand it. There were many others in the command who were in the same situation that I was, who had their wives with them and wanted to go back with them but had not the courage to make a fuss about it. By this time I had done all that I could with the officers of the Battalion, but they either could not or would not do anything for me, so I resolved to go and see General Doniphan, the Commander of the Post. I asked John Steel to go with me, he being



in the same situation as myself. W e went to the Colonel's quarters, found the Orderly at the door, asked permission to see the Colonel, and with our hats under our arms we entered the Colonel's quarters and called his attention to our business. He informed us in a very stern manner that it was reported to him that the men who had women there wanted to go on and let their women go back, and in accordance therewith, provisions had been drawn for the Battalion and for the Detachment, and the^re could be no change made. I told him that we had not been consulted in the matter; he told us to leave the quarters, gruffly remarking that he had left his wife. I thought I would venture one more remark, which was, "Colonel, I suppose you left your wife with her friends, while we are required to leave ours in an enemy's country in care of a lot of sick, demoralized men." This seemed to touch a sympathetic cord; he called very sharply, "Orderly! Orderly! go up to the command and bring Adjutant George P. Dykes here." I whispered to Steel, "The spell is broken; let's go." In a short time Adjutant Dykes returned to the Command and climbing upon the top of the hind wheel of a wagon, shouted at the top of his voice: " O h ! O h ! All you men who have wives here can go back with them. I have seen men going about crying enough to melt the heart of a crocodile, so I went to the Colonel and had it arranged. I said, "You hypocritical liar; you will take the credit that belongs to others." This remark he did not hear, but, however, the object was accomplished, and in a short time the Battalion was on the move west, and the Detachment on the move east by northeast. The Detachment was composed of all the men who had become disabled through the long ma^ch which they had performed on foot. Their outfit of teams was composed of given-out, broken-down oxen that had been used in freighting supplies of the Government across the plains and were not fit for any kind of efficient service, so they compared very well with the majority of the men. Our rations, of provisions, were very good in quality, but very short as to quantity, the Post of Santa Fe being very short of provisions at that time. After we had gotten on the move we found we had only three-fourth rations of flour, and everything else in proportion, such as beans, sugar, coffee, pork and rice, with the difficulties mentioned above, together with the fact that we were only allowed the time to reach Fort Bent that a lot of able-bodied men would be allowed to make the same journey in. Our slow traveling soon put us on half-rations, as eight miles per day was the best we could do. W e had a lot of beef cattle, but they compared favorably with the rest of the



outfit, so poor that many of them gave out by the way; great economy had to be used by killing the poorest first; the reader can imagine what the quality of the beef was. As usual, on the march I had charge of a team, but instead of a six-mule-team it was a team of four yoke of poor oxen,— quite a contrast; our progress being so slow that we were put on quarter-rations in order to make them hold out until we should reach Fort Bent. It seemed as if we had gone about as far as we could go, when one morning, after the guard had driven the oxen into camp, it was found that there were thirty head of stray oxen, in the herd, all of them in good condition. Captain Brown gave orders to distribute them in the teams of the Detachment, and with an addition of strength to our teams, we got along fine. About noon, however, there came into our camp two men on horseback inquiring for stray oxen. Capt. Brown told them that if they had any cattle in his company, they could take them out. They replied that each teamster only knew his own team. After examining our teams they claimed and took but four of the thirty stray oxen; this still left us with thirteen yoke of fresh cattle, which we considered a divine interposition of the kind hand of God in our behalf, as it seemed about the only chance for deliverance from starvation. In due time we reached Fort Bent and exchanged our dilapidated outfit for a new one, with a full supply of rations for the winter which seemed to put and end to all our' troubles. We moved up the Arkansas River seventy-five miles to a place then called Pueblo, where we put up houses for the winter. These houses were constructed of cottonwood logs split in halves and the pieces all joined together in the form of a stockade. Here we passed the winter in drilling and hunting and having a good time generally. It was then about seven months since we had received any pay, so Captain Brown concluded to go to Santa Fe with the pay roll of the Detachment and draw our wages. He took a guard of ten men, of which I was one, with him. W e started about the last day of February; had a high range of mountains to cross, called the Ratoon Range; we encountered a great deal of snow, at times we had to tramp the snow for miles so our pack animals could walk over it, but in due time we arrived at Santa Fe. The money was drawn, and we started on our return trip; got back to our quarters at Pueblo about the first of April, and found spring weather. We began at once to prepare for our march. About the 15th day of April we started due north.for Fort Laramie, three hundred miles distant, on the California road.



at which place we expected to find or hear of the Pioneer Company that was expected to fit out and go to find a location for the Saints, but on our way we were met by Amasa Lyman and others who had come from the Pioneers' Camp. This' was a happy meeting, and to get news of our loved ones greatly relieved our anxieties, as we then learned that the Camp was ahead of us, led by President Brigham Young, and he led by revelation; so we pushed on with fresh'courage and finally struck their trail about two weeks ahead of us. W e followed their trail, but did not overtake them as we expected to. The Pioneers reached Salt Lake Valley July 24th, and the Detachment on the 28th, and on the same day we were discharged from the service of the United States, and I became a free man once more. I feel that the year's service, noblest and grandest acts of my was on the altar of sacrifice, and of which I was a member, went and Israel was saved.

described above, is one of the life, for the reason that Israel that the "Mormon" Battalion, as the "Ram in the Thicket"

I was now in a country that was untried, and one thousand miles from where any supplies could be got, with only the outfit of a discharged soldier, which consisted of a small tent, a sheetiron camp-kettle, a mess pan, two tin plates, two spoons, two knives and forks, a pair of blankets badly worn, two old quilts, ten pounds of flour, and my dear, precious wife, Emeline, who had been with me through all of the trials and hardships and had endured them all without a murmur. God bless her memory; had it not been for her noble spirit to comfort me, I think many times I should have almost despaired because of the gloomy outlook. I concluded a faint heart would not buy a baby a frock, (although we were not blessed with one at that time) and began to get out house logs to put up a shelter for the winter. I went in partners with Jim Bevin, and put up a whip saw-pit, and began to turn out lumber, and as there was none except what was sawed by hand, I found ready sale for mine as fast as I could make it, which was slow, one hundred feet being all we could turn out in a day. In this way I managed to recruit our indigent circumstances and was able to get a little bread-stuff— corn meal at twelve and a half cents per pound and flour at twenty-five cents per pound. W e got along all right during the winter. In the spring we moved out on Mill-creek, and I began to put in what seed grain I had, which was very limited; this of course cut off the bread supply. Then began our want of food; through the winter we dug what we called "Thistle-roots," but by this time they



began to leaf out, which spoiled the root. W e then resorted to tops, gathering and cooking them in salt and water; this with some buttermilk (which I begged of Jim Brinkerhoof and carried one and a half miles), was all we had to eat for two months. During this time another very discouraging circumstance took place; the crickets made their appearance in countless numbers and attacked our grain crops. W e fought them until we found that we were about overpowered, when, very providentially, the sea gulls came and completely devoured the crickets, so the balance of our crops matured and our pending starvation was averted. On the 9th day of September, 1848, I started back to Council Bluffs after my mother and her children (whom I had left at Pisgah), as they had no means to come out with. I arrived at Council Bluffs on the 2nd day of November, rested a few days, and then continued my journey to Pisgah, one hundred and thirty miles distant, where I found my mother and her family all alive and well. It was a joyful meeting. I stopped with them a few days to arrange for the move in the spring, then went back to the "Bluffs" to try to get work for the winter, as I was very short of means to accomplish so great an undertaking. I engaged to work for Apostle Orson Hyde for twenty dollars a month. I worked one month, and then the weather got so severe that outdoor work stopped, and I was out of employment the rest of the winter. In the spring I took all the means I had and bought with it a wagon and a yoke of oxen, hitched them up and went down to Pisgah to bring mother's family as far as the "Bluffs," not knowing where the rest of the outfit would come from; but another interposition of kind Providence—When I got back I found the country swarming with emigrants on their way to the gold fields of California. On finding that I had come over the road, they hired me for guide, giving me two hundred dollars in cash in advance. This was truly a blessing from the Lord that I had not thought of. I was now enabled to get the rest of my outfit. About the 15th of April, 1849, we started, but a difficulty soon made its appearance in that my emigrant friends had not thought of,—they had horse teams with light loads, while I had an ox team with a heavy load, so that I could not travel as fast or as far in a day as they could. They would put me in the lead, and I would urge my team on and make as far as I could to try to give them satisfaction. I kept this up until they saw that my oxen began to fail and would soon give out, then they went on and left me. They served me a trick that the devil


never did, and I felt quite relieved, as I could then travel to suit myself, which I did, taking time to hunt the best feed, and my team soon began to recruit. On the 27th of July I again arrived in Salt Lake Valley, having accomplished one more magnanimous act by bringing my dear mother and her four children to the home of the Saints. I found my dear wife Emeline well, and with her first child in her arms, which had been born January 6, 1848, while I was away. This was indeed a happy meeting, I having been absent about eleven months. While I was away, the land I had the year before was given to other parties, so I went north to a place afterwards called Farmington, and located there. In the meantime, Daniel A. Miller, came out and brought my team and wagon with its contents, which I left two years before with him when I went into the Battalion. With this, and the outfit which I had brought with me, I felt quite well fixed to what I had been. As it was the council for the people to settle close together for mutual protection, I could only get twenty acres of land; bought more afterwards, as opportunity would afford. In March 1855, I was ordained a Bishop by President Brigham Young, and set apart to preside over the Farmington Ward, and presided over said ward twenty-seven successive years.

FOSSILS OF T H E ORDOVICIAN TIME PERIOD, AT IBEX, UTAH As told by the Fossils themselves to Frank Beckwith, Sr. In the January, 1931 number of this publication, I spoke of a field of Cambrian fossils in the House Range about forty-five miles from Delta, and distant from us in time in terms of tens of millions of years; the photo heading this article is of a group of fossils on a lime slab found in the southern tip of the Confusion Range, forty-five miles farther away, but 15,000,000 years nearer to us in time!




Enter t h e Cephalopod T h e trilobite w a s m a s t e r of M i d d l e C a m b r i a n seas m e r e l y because t h e r e w a s n o foe w o r t h y to c o n t e s t s u p r e m a c y w i t h him; he d o m i n a t e d for lack of a n y c r e a t u r e to oppose his sway, better fitted in t h e s t r u g g l e for life, or p r o v i d e d w i t h b e t t e r tools to kill t h a n w a s h e . But in t h e v e r y n e x t t i m e period, t h e O r d o v i c i a n , a c r e a t u r e is evolving w i t h g r e a t e r mobility, l o n g t e n t a c l e s to sieze and hold its prey, a n d m o u t h p a r t s fitted w i t h j a w s — w h i c h J o h n Trilobite h a d n o t . T h i s n e w c r e a t u r e w a s quicker to m o v e ; and he had a v o r a c i o u s a p p e t i t e — m a i n l y a t J o h n ' s expense. Such a competitor b e g a n to evolve o u t of life's g r e a t c h a n g i n g s t r e a m . At first, scarce h o l d i n g h i s o w n , slowly, surely he rose, displaced the former m o n a r c h of t h e deep, a n d b e c a m e its sovereign. T h i s adaptive c r e a t u r e s t a r t e d o u t in o r d i n a r y size, of w h i c h I find his fosilized form n o l a r g e r t h a n a fountain p e n ; b u t w i t h t h e passing of t i m e t h e species b e c o m e s several feet in l e n g t h , Strong, m a s t e r f u l , p r e d a c i o u s , and ruler b y r i g h t . This c r e a t u r e w a s t h e C e p h a l o p o d . H e b e g a n in Ordovician time, and before t h e close of t h a t period, w a s a c k n o w l e d g e d master, in t u r n later t o give s w a y to t h e even m o r e mobile fishes, who, surviving d o w n t o n o w , are v i r t u a l r u l e r s of t h e deep. T h e nearest living form of p r e s e n t t i m e to t h e Cephalopod of ancient Ordovician t i m e , w h e n t h e Pacific O c e a n i m m e r s e d U t a h , is the Chambered N a u t i l u s , w h i c h inspired Oliver W e n d e l l H o l m e s to write: Build thee more stately mansions, O my soul, As the swift seasons roll! > Leave thy low-vaulted past! Let each new temple, nobler than the last, Shut thee from heaven with a dome more vast, Till thou at length art free, Leaving thine outgrown shell by life's unresting sea! A t Ibex, in t h e s o u t h tip of t h e Confusion R a n g e , a n d at Crystal P e a k , t w e l v e miles f u r t h e r s o u t h in t h e W a h W a h Mountains, are fields of fossils of the O r d o v i c i a n period, r e p l e t e with the life of t h a t t i m e . W e find in either place w h a t goes b y t h e local appellation of "a Petrified E e l . " T h e p r o p e r technical w o r d is "a siphuncle of a C e p h a l o p o d . " T h e C e p h a l o p o d ( G r e e k w o r d s m e a n i n g h e a d footed, for it bears its feet or a r m s u p o n its h e a d ) had a n exterior s h e l l ; as it g r e w , it s i m p l y built itself a b i g g e r r o o m — " a m a n s i o n m o r e vast," a n d s t e p p e d into it to live, and left its " l o w - v a u l t e d p a s t "



trailing behind it as a partly empty shell; but, to keep that shell alive, and at times fill it with a buoyant gas so that its cumbrous weight would not too greatly handicap the animal, a whip-like cord extended from the body back to the innermost recess of that vacated shell, called a "siphuncle," because it had a flow system, something of the order of a siphon. This long, slender, black, whip-like "siphuncle" is the part that most often fossilizes, and this looks exactly like a section of a snake or eel, turned into stone, hence justifying the local appellation,—"a petrified eel." These fragments, excellently preserved, are found varying in diameter from an inch to two and half inches, and nearly three feet in length, down to those wee ones no larger than a fountain pen. The appearance is very closely that of a snake or eel done in stone. Species of Cephalopods are Endoceras and Orthoceras, besides other technical names. Let me add, at this time, that when first evolved, the Cephalopod had a straight shell, more or less clumsily sticking out behind ; but later, nature adroitly curled the shell, resulting in giving the creature more mobility, and within the range of its capabilities, mastery of the sea. It was beaten in the strife by the flashing fish—but that is not of this time. Associated Fauna Life was abundant at that time. The Ordovician period saw great masses of sea weeds, which fossilize exactly like a tumbled, jumbled mass of stiff macaroni stems, fallen in utmost confusion. And the ever-present Brachiopod, who began in earliest Cambrian time—he was there. So well protected is he in his shell, and so "balanced" that he has survived even to the present day, almost identical in form with that ancient period. I took Dr. Charles E. Resser, of the U. S. National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, and his guest Dr. R. Endo, a Japanese teacher of geology, then on a world tour and a guest of our government, to these two fields in July, 1930. Our party found Pliomera trilobites, Bathyuriscus trilobites, Bryozoa (branched and massive), Cephalopods in all sizes and many species, Fucoids (sea weed-like forms), Ostracods (like tiny little oysters), Pelecypods, tinier still, even to minuteness of size; sponges, of which the wonderful Receptaculite is a member; Graptolite colonies were found, too; even an under lip, an Hypostoma of the Pliomera trilobite, was found by Dr. Resser. All these forms of life were contemporaneous with the Celphalopod.



One other interesting fact of the Cephalopod is that it is thought to have had an inner sac of strong muscular tissue, capable of holding a quantity of water, which these strong muscles could suddenly eject, thus forcing the animal backward with a suddenness baffling to an enemy, much as the squid or cuttle fish is now provided by nature. "The Shrinking Violet" Trilobite It is too bad when any of our friends gets an obsession, an inferiority complex, impelling the victim to want to efface himself from the scenery, remove beyond the horizon, or bury himself out of sight. Such a disposition wins one the name of being "a shrinking violet." There was a trilobite in Ordovician time which was just that. He was so modest, so unassuming, so shrinking that he tried always to burrow out of sight—we simply see his hinder parts out of the mud. W e see five pairs (always five pairs, which distinguishes this species) of segments and an end much like a spider's, draped with what would pass at a glance as legs. That tail end, with its five pair of markers, is oftenest all we do see of this trilobite. Whether this creature was a "mud burrower,"—whether excess modesty affected it,—or whether its inferiority complex "got it down" in the mud, I really can't say; or whether it simply broke in two at that point; but I can most naturally think Of it as "the shrinking violet" trilobite. The name of this retiring creature is Pliomera. The head, or rather, the glabella of the head, is deeply serrated;—one distinguishing feature. So seldom is that head seen, when one is found it is highly prized. Dr. Endo found one on this trip. In four years of intensive collecting, I am still searching for a head. On the photograph accompanying this article several forms of the rear end of Pliomera trilobites will be readily distinguished. There are five farms of ancient fossilized life on that one slab, which was so highly prized that it is now on exhibit in the halls of the U. S. National Museum, with a card acknowledging me as the donor. "The Mushroom with the Engine-Turned Face" You all know what the term "engine-turned" means, when applied to a watch case—that beautiful, outwardly traveling spiral, starting from a central boss, and geometrically winding itself in a pretty spiral to the perimeter, regular, leaving little



elevations in geometry system—a perfect figure, and so tasteful as a decoration for a watch case that i t was very popular in the last generation among gentlemen of quality. A fossil of this period looks exactly like that. The same spiral, the same beauty—a most fascinating fossil form of life. This creature is called a Receptaculite, which by some authors is classed as a coral, and is even named in one text book, "the sunflower coral," because its face or top looks exactly like the seed pod of a sunflower gone to seed. It may have grown on a short peduncle, or, it may have been fast to the bottom directly, without the intervention of a stem or stalk. It was a colony form of life, and the Smithsonain Institution says it is a species of sponge. There is no ancient form of life of prettier pattern, more interesting in its baffling, enigmatical manner of life, or which leads one into such diverse fields of romance and speculation, as does the beautiful "Mushroom with the Engine-Turned Face." A Thusand Stories for a Thousand Occasions My trip with Dr. Resser and Dr. Endo, included a visit to Antelope Springs, in the House Range, directly west of Delta about fifty miles. Thence southward over a sheep road to Marjum Pass. In this field, all the fossils are Cambrian—very ancient, and practically the first form of differentiated life, to leave an abundant fossil record. From there we went southwest forty miles to Ibex, in the south tip of the Confusion Range, and onward still farther to Crystal Peak,—a volcanic mud-ash intrusion, as white as chalk, and standing out in its somber setting of dull cedars and dark lime like a sore thumb tied up in a white rag. Crystal Peak may be seen, in favorable atmospheric conditions, from the dugway mounting Cove Fort Pass—a distance of 117 miles in an air line. It may be seen at closer range from the flat a few miles south bf Black Rock on the auto road. It is named on Gilbert's map of old Lake Bonneville as the "White Cone." The History of the Place After the trio of us had emerged from the pass, which cleft the mountain in twain at Crystal Peak, each lugging a load of fossils, we lunched. Between mouthfuls I recited the history of the place to my companions:



"Doctor Resser, that road we were on a short time ago, is the very road on which Nicholas Paul met his death in 1901. He was going from Holden to Garrison, straight across as the old road did in those days. It is presumed he stopped for the noon hour, to rest and feed his horse, take a little siesta, and when refreshed, proceed. It is thought he tied his horse to the wheel, ensconced himself comfortably under the little top of the onehorse buggy, and in its meager shade ate his lunch, and then settled down for a nap. Flies, uneasiness—any cause in fact— made the horse throw his head, or rub his nose, and he was LOOSE! The animal started to walk away. The old man awoke with a start, and bareheaded, sped after the horse. As he approached, it quickened its pace, and left him behind in the heat of a blazing summer day, only to slow down a short distance off, and entice him to another hurried pursuit. "Bareheaded, in a pitiless July sun, on a dangerous desert— "They found his remains next January, when, with the snows for moisture sheepmen could stay in the region for weeks, grazing their herds. A sheepherder ran across his corpse. "His family were prepared for the surety of his death, for when the event occurred, a horse, harnessed lightly, was picked up on the range, identified as Paul's, and they knew. But heat, fierceness of sun, and danger, drove them out from more than a hurried search, unavailing. "And farther away from where we stand, more toward the Sand Pass of the Wah Wahs, in which he was prospecting, the bodies of Ezra W. Penney and his son George, were found eight years after one of the crudest, most wanton murders ever perpetrated in Millard County. The murder occurred in 1898; the bodies were not found until 1905. "Penney was a prospector. He had a little indication of antimony just over the range on the west side of the Wah Wahs. He had camped on his way thither from his home in Kanosh, at Wah Wah Springs. Two men and a woman camped just above him on the hillside, keeping him and son in surveilance; when Penney and son left there to go to their "prospect," this trio trailed them, slew them, took the wagon to pieces, and tucked the dismantled parts in crevices in the rocks; and then, taking a shawl found among the effects of the Penneys, they wrapped the two corpses in it, and lodged the evidence of the foul deed in the most obscure cleft they could find in that lonely spot. "Eight years later1, a sheep man found the parts of the hidden wagon; it brought.to mind the disappearance of the Penneys and



he made an intensive search, resulting in finding two skeletons, one of which had four upper teeth bridged over in gold, which identified it positively as that of the father, Ezra W. Penney. And Mrs. Penney further identified the pattern and texture of the shawl, portions of which had escaped disintegration. "We are standing, Dr. Resser, where a vulture poised above us, could volplane down to the scene of either death." As I finished Doctor Endo said: "Mr. Beckwith, I thank you for historical data, to enliven our uneventful business of gathering fossils; your recital keeps interest at a high pitch and adds an historical side tp an otherwise prosaic task. I, too, have dangers besetting my study of geol"What do you mean, Doctor? How is your work dangerous?" "I live in that area of Manchuria which is infested by Chinese bandits, who actually siezed my predecessor in office, held him for ransom, and eventually killed him. When in the field, I must not myself head a party, or in any manner indicate my own prominence, of I court capture. When I go upon a geologic trip, I dress as a coolie, disperse my retinue widely so as not to attract attention, and in no manner tempt the activities of a bandit group. I even put up no tents, trusting that my person, or possessions will not excite the cupidity of robber, kidnapper, or bandit."

UTAH FOOD SUPPLIES SOLD TO T H E PIONEER SETTLERS OF COLORADO LeRoy R. Hafen Historian and Custodian State Historical Society and Museum, Denver Within a decade after the beginning of settlement in Utah a surplus of agricultural crops was being produced. But California, Oregon, and New Mexico, the nearest settled areas, were separated from the Mormon settlements in Utah by hundreds of miles of deserts and mountains. Hence there was no opportunity for profitable exchange of commodities. When gold was discovered in the "Pike's Peak Region" in 1858-9 and the mad stampede across the plains brought thousands of eager argonauts



to the eastern gulches of the Rocky Mountains, neighbors were brought one step closer. But even now the crest of the continent and more than five hundred miles of precarious road separated the two regions of settlement. At first, food supplies jwere freighted westward from the Missouri River or northward from New Mexico to supply the miners and settlers of present Colorado. During 1859 flour sold at $10.00 to $20.00 per hundred pounds in Denver, potatoes and onions at twenty-five cents per pound, butter at one dollar, eggs at seventy-five cents per dozen, and other produce in proportion. As news came to Utah of the high prices being paid in the Colorado mining camps, enterprising Utahns determined to send supplies to this new market. In the late summer of 1860, several trains of supplies set out from Salt Lake City and Provo bound for the Colorado market. It was a long haul by way of Fort Bridger, South Pass, the Sweetwater, North Platte, etc., but in due time the little town of Denver was reached. The miners and business men of present Colorado (then known as "Jefferson Territory") were surprised but gratified to see supply trains from Utah pull in to the Denver market. The Rocky Mountain News of Denver on October 5, 1860, comments t h u s : "There arrived yesterday a vast quantity of fresh eggs, butter, a large quantity of onions, barley, oats, etc., only fifteen days from the city of the Saints . . . W e hear also of twelve thousand sacks of Utah flour now on the road; five thousand bushels of corn, a large quantity of barley, onions, etc., now enroute for this city in the trains of Miller, Russell and Company. This is a new unexpected branch of trade. Nobody here dreamed of any supply of provisions coming from the west. The fact that the army supplies for Camp Floyd are still transported from the Missouri River, even the corn and oats that is fed to stock, being hauled from western Missouri and Iowa, makes it seem strange that Utah is now able to ship thousands of sacks of flour eastward to this country. The Mormons must be prospering, and Uncle Sam must be very shortsighted, or some of his agents are- great rascals. W e are assured that this flour that is coming is equal in quality to the best superfine from the states." On October 10th the same Denver paper records the arrival of the train of Mr. Chrisman from Salt Lake City, with ten or twelve wagons loaded with flour, etc. The next day the two trains of Miller, Russel & Co. which had left Provo August 28th arrived in Denver. Each train included twenty-six wagons, the freight consisting largely of oats and flour. Before the arrival



of t h e s e U t a h supplies, flour h a d been selling at $15.00 per hundred, b u t t h e l a r g e U t a h s h i p m e n t s over-stocked t h e m a r k e t and flour d r o p p e d to $8.00. T h e following y e a r (1861) s a w a c o n t i n u e d exportation of food supplies from U t a h to Colorado a n d t h e supply w a s so great t h a t prices d r o p p e d t o n e w low levels. F l o u r sold in Denver for $5.00 a n d $6.00 per h u n d r e d p o u n d s in t h e s u m m e r of 1861, a price t h a t w a s scarcely m o r e t h a n t h e cost of freight from Salt L a k e City or from t h e M i s s o u r i R i v e r to Colorado. But the flour price recovered and supplies c o n t i n u e d t o be s e n t from Utah to Colorado. Lieut. Caspar Collins, w h o w a s stationed to guard the road a l o n g t h e u p p e r N o r t h P l a t t e from I n d i a n attacks, records t h e p a s s i n g of U t a h freight t r a i n s b o u n d for Coloradc c a m p s w i t h food supplies in 1862. 1 I r r i g a t i o n m e t h o d s and r e s u l t s in U t a h c a m e to be looked upon b y C o l o r a d o a n s as e x a m p l e s t o follow. T h e development of f a r m i n g in Colorado w a s slow, a n d only g r a d u a l l y did production a p p r o a c h the d e m a n d . I n fruit g r o w i n g especially was t h e U t a h success pointed t o as a w o r t h y p a t t e r n . F o r example, w h e n B r i g h a m Y o u n g s e n t some g r a p e s a n d peaches as a present to M a j . E d . W y n k o o p at D e n v e r t h e Commonwealth (Denver) e x c l a i m s : " T h e fruit w a s n i c e — w e h a v e n e v e r t a s t e d finer. And w h y s h o u l d n ' t w e h a v e it in C o l o r a d o as well as in Salt Lake! Yes, w h y ? " T h e suggestion, however, w a s n o t quickly responded to. In 1864 w h e n F a t h e r R a v e r d y c a m e on a mission from Colorado to U t a h he sent a b o x of fresh p e a c h e s b a c k to Bishop Machebeuf at D e n v e r . T h e e x p r e s s c h a r g e s b y stagecoach w e r e $60. " T o r e i m b u r s e himself for t h e cost of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , Father Machebeuf hit upon t h e idea of offering a n u m b e r of peaches for sale at t h e seemingly e x t r a o r d i n a r y price of one dollar each. B u t peaches w e r e an e x t r a o r d i n a r y fruit j u s t t h e n , and he had no difficulty in disposing of a sufficient n u m b e r a t t h a t price t o pay the cost of carriage a n d he had e n o u g h left for an a b u n d a n t treat for himself a n d the Sisters and pupils of St. M a r y ' s Academy." 2 ARRIVAL FROM PIKE'S PEAK—Mr. Crisman's train of eleven mule wagons, freighted with merchandize for some of the mercantile firms in this city, arrived from Pike's Peak (Denver) on Monday last, having been only about two months in making the trip from this city to the Peak and back. —The Deseret News, November 7, 1860. 1. Letter from Sweetwater Bridge, June 16, 1862, reproduced in Agnes W. Spring's Casper Collins, 118. 2.

W. J. Howlett, Life of the Right Reverend Joseph P . Machebeuf, 322.

Utah State Historical Society BOARD OF CONTROL (Terms Expiring April 1, 1933) J. CECIL ALTER, Salt Lake City WM. R. PALMER, Cedar City ALBERT F. P H I L I P S , Salt Lake City

J O E L E. R I C K S , Logan P A R L E Y L. W I L L I A M S , Salt Lake City

(Terms Expiring April 1, 1935) GEORGE E. F E L L O W S , Salt Lake City W I L L I A M J. SNOW, Provo HUGH RYAN, Salt Lake City L E V I E. YOUNG, Salt Lake City FRANK K. S E E G M I L L E R , Salt Lake City EXECUTIVE OFFICERS 1931-1932 ALBERT F. P H I L I P S , President Emeritus WILLIAM J. SNOW, President J. C E C I L A L T E R , Secretary-Treasurer-Librarian HUGH RYAN, Vice President Editor in Chief All Members, Board of Control, Associate Editors

MEMBERSHIP Paid memberships at the required fee of $2 a year, will include current subscriptions to the Utah Historical Quarterly. Non-members and institutions may receive the Quarterly at $1 a year or 35 cents per copy; but it is preferred that residents of the State become active members, and thus participate in the deliberations and achievements of the Society. Checks should be made payable to the Utah State Historical Society and mailed to the Secretary-Treasurer, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah. CONTRIBUTIONS The Society was organized essentially to collect, disseminate and preserve important material pertaining to the history of the State. To effect this end, contributions of writings are solicited, such as old diaries, journals, letters and other writings of the pioneers; also original manuscripts by present day writers on any phase of early Utah history. Treasured papers or manuscripts may be printed in faithful detail in the Quarterly, without harm to them, and without permanently removing them from their possessors. Contributions and correspondence should be addressed to the Editor, Utah Historical Quarterly, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah.




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Utah Historical Quarterly State Capitol, Salt Lake City Volume 4

July, 1931

Number 3

THE JOURNAL OF ROBERT S. BLISS, WITH T H E MORMON BATTALION Here is presented another valuable day-by-day journal written by a member of the Mormon Battalion, which, like those of Sergeant Nathaniel V. Jones and Private John W. Hess, published in the January and April, 1931, numbers of this Quarterly respectively, has heretofore been sequestered in family archives. But little is known concerning the previous or subsequent history of this journalist. Through the Latter-day Saints temple archives it is learned that Robert S. Bliss, in taking his endowments at Nauvoo on January 29, 1846, gave his birth date as August 1, 1805; and that he was a member of the Seventies organization of the Church. Mary Ann Bliss, presumably his wife, took her endowments on the same date and at the same place, giving her birth date as March 23, 1811. The original of this journal is now in the files of the Historical Society at San Diego, California, presented by Mrs. Mary J. Clawson, 124 Second Avenue, Salt Lake City, Utah, who also furnished for publication in this Quarterly, the journal of her father, Nathaniel V. Jones. Mrs. Clawson relates that the Bliss manuscript journal came to her in a rather mysterious manner, the sender still unidentified, while she was publishing a weekly story in the Deseret News several years ago of the week-by-week movements of the Battalion. At that time Mrs. Clawson had organized and was promoting the interests of the State Society, Daughters of the Mormon Battalion, (and of which she is still the Historian) which organization after ten years of labor, finally turned over to the State of Utah the project which resulted in the magnificent Mormon Battalion Monument on the Utah State Capitol grounds in Salt Lake City.



The Bliss journal, as it came to Mrs. Clawson, having been carried throughout the Battalion's long march to California, back again to the Missouri river, and thence again to Utah, was of course pretty badly dilapidated, dirty and dog-eared, though still perfectly legible, and complete as originally written down each day. The journal begins abruptly as shown herewith, on Angust 18, 1846, as if the storekeeper's leather-bound, rough-paper daybook had not been obtained until the Battalion had been qn the march four weeks, and had just crossed the Kaw or Kansas river and reached Spring Creek, where the first journal entry indicates some of the Bliss laundering was done. Possibly the previous diary was on other paper, lost long ago. 1 Some of the original entries were made in blue ink, though most of them were in black ink, indicating variable sources of writing materials. One section of the journal, consisting of several pages, was written in a mysterious red ink, being a portion in the midst of the work, at a time when and a place where ordinary inks were doubtless unobtainable. Mrs. Clawson mentioned the Bliss journal in a general way to Mrs. Oliver G. Workman, on one occasion, and Mrs. Workman replied with some enthusiasm: " W h y that is the journal that was written in blood. The writer ran out of ink, and pricked his arm with a pin to obtain his writing fluid." Questioned as to the origin of the information, Mrs. Workman explained that her husband, a mess mate in Company B with Mr. Bliss, had seen the ink so produced and used, and had often spoken of the circumstances to Mrs. Workman. (J. C. A.)

T H E JOURNAL Tuesday 18th August (1846) done our wash. Last night drew catridges for time of need as 30 or 40 head of our beef cattle were missing & found by the Indians in order to get a bounty for finding them; we intend to put a stop to such things. Last night was severe on our Guard on account of Rain through the night. Wed. 19th took up the line of march passed a beautiful country of Prairie, Timber & Mounds, some of the latter were at an elevation of 50 or 100 ft. above the Prairie elevation, with beautiful lime stone Rock on the top were roads that '"While here, Robert S. Bliss found a bee-tree containing twenty or more pounds of nice honey, which made him and his immediate friends an excellent repast." Daniel Tyler, History of the Mormon Battalion, p. 139.



lead t o O r a g o n & S a n t a . E n c a m p e d 4 miles from the place we left last on t h e b r o w of a hill w h e r e j u s t as a s t o r m w a s about r e a c h i n g w e had h a r d l y t i m e t o pitch our t e n t s before the s t o r m c a m e d o w n u p o n u s it t o r e our t e n t s from t h e i r fastenings o v e r t u r n e d o u r light W a g g o n s & p r o s t r a t e d men to the g r o u n d . T h e vived l i g h t n i n g & t h e r o a r of t h e T h u n d e r & H a i l caused H o r s e s & M u l e s to b r a k e from t h e i r fastenings & flee in every direction on t h e w i d e P r a i r i e ; the. t e n d e r F e male w a s alike exposed t o t h e r u d e e l e m e n t s as the m e n L i e u t e n a n t L u d i n g t o n c a r i a g e w a s o v e r t u r n e d w i t h his W i f e & M o t h e r in it & o u r O r d e r l y ' s C a r r i a g e w a s sent before the s t o r m 15 or 20 R o d s & h e in p u r s u i t of his W i f e in it he succeeded in e x t r i c a t i n g h e r from t h e C a r r i a g e to be exposed to t h e R a i n & H a i l . Still a m i d s t all of our e x p o s u r e n o n e w e r e seriously injured. T h u r . 20th. lay in c a m p t o r e p a i r W a g g o n s & g a t h e r u p the F r a g m e n t s t h a t w e r e s c a t t e r e d b y t h e late s t o r m . T h i s afternoon w e r e called t o g e t h e r for P r e a c h i n g 5 of our B r o t h e r i n g Spoke u p o n our p r e s e n t salvation t h e P r i n c i p a l s t h a t should guide u s on this expedition the Spirit of God w a s manifest attended t h e w o r d in P o w e r . Friday 21st 1846. A s c e n d e d one of t h e h i g h e s t m o u n d s on t h e r i g h t of o u r c a m p & seated myself on a R o c k t o view the scenery b e l o w for 20 miles to t h e N o r t h w e s t I viewed t h e course of t h e K a n s a s R i v e r on t h e s o u t h lay an extensive Prairie w i t h h i g h Bluffs & m o u n d s in t h e distance on t h e w e s t r a n a n o t h e r s t r e a m of w a t e r skirted w i t h t i m b e r & Prairie w i t h a chain of h i g h bluffs t o w e s t & S o u t h some 50 ft. below s a w a beautiful m o u n d in form of a P i r a m i d w i t h a pile of s t o n e s on t o p ; a little f a r t h e r lay our Battalion encamped farther still lay e n c a m p e d a c o m p a n y of h o r s e m e n . W h i l e a d m i r i n g t h e s c e n e r y a r o u n d m e I h e a r d t h e h u m of Bees & soon found t h e m . I t h e n r e t u r n e d to C a m p a n d invited some p a r t i c u l a r friends & w e h a d a R i c h r e p a s t on so high an Elevation. 2 S a t u r d a y 23d r e s u m e d o u r m a r c h t h r o u g h a beautiful P r a i r i e intersected w i t h small r a v i n e s & cuts w i t h occasinly high bluffs covered w i t h l i m e s t o n e R o c k s one place in p a r t i c u l a r w a s only w i d e e n o u g h for a R o a d this day our Pilot is v e r y sick t h e r e is c o n s i d e r a b l y sickness n o w a m o n g u s b u t as w e rise 2 "R. S. Bliss, the nimrod of the Battalion, here found another bee-tree, and provided another treat for himself and friends." Daniel Tyler, History of the Mormon Battalion, p. 140. On this date also the Documentary History of the L. D. S. Church shows that a collection was taken, and Robert S. Bliss sent $5.00 to the poor presumably in Winter Quarters."



above the Missourie it is more healthy although water is bad & very scarce for the last few days encamped at Elm Grove. Sun. 23d started early & traveled over Prairie with scarsley any timber in sight. Halted after traveling ten or twelve miles to let our mules graze. While seated on the ground with my gun and equipage laying by my side a little retired from the bustle of the camp my thoughts go with speed to the Land I have left to my Family & kindred the Authorities of the Church by whose comand I came on this expedition & I feel to Bless them in my heart & ask my Heavenly Father to Bless them in the Name of Jesus Christ. Traveled 25 miles & encamped on 110 mile creek. Monday 24th resumed our march over beautiful Prairie & encamped at Beaver Creek this eve News came into camp that a soldier was shot by the Indians a short distance ahead of our Battalion & 3 Indians were shot by the Guard while in the act of stealing their horses an occurrance I am told is common in this country, this night stood Guard for the first time with my Gun loaded; on our march. Tues. 25th. Started early over Prairie & encamped on a stream of water. 26th Marched about 14 miles. Thur. 27th marched to Councel Grove & encamped; this evening an old lady Died in Capt. Hunt's Family we buried her near the encampment. Friday in camp. Sat. 29th At the sound of the Drums muffled we were called to pay our respects to Lieut. Col. Allen our late commander who died at Fort Leavenworth after our march from that place; our Battalion formed in a Grove near by & listened to a Pathetic Discourse from Agt. George P. Dikes from Rom 5c 18v also an affectionate exotasion from Capt. Hunt of Comp. A. Sunday 30th 1846 W e burried the Husband of the Lady that died on the 27th John & Jane Boscough they were buryed side by side on the west bank of the creek near our encampment we carryed Rock from the Bluff built a wall 7 by 10 ft. around their Graves and covered the graves over with stone level with the wall & left them to sleep till the Resurrection. Monday 31st took up the line of march in company with Col. Prices command; encamped 15 miles at Diamond Springs. Mustered at 5 O'clock for Inspection; there is about 20 sick



or unable to do duty in our company. W e are aboutt one mile higher here than at Fort Leavenworth which will make us more healthy. Timber has been scarce since we left Kansas River & we expect to see but little timber for a thousand miles ahead our Fuel is small brush & Buffalo Dung. Econemy has taught the Soldiers to dig a trench & build a fire in the trench for to cook their food. Tuesday September 1st 1846 traveled 15 miles over one continued Prairie & encamped at a spring & general watering place this evening used the customary fuel of this country for cooking (viz) Buffalo Dung, I observed many bones about the spring which has been a great resort for wild animals. Wednesday 2d traveled as usual 20 miles & encamped at Cotton Wood fork near a Buffalo Lick. Thur. 3d marched 22 miles & encamped on the Prairie at a watering place. Friday 4th 1846 Again took up the line of march after a Rainy uncomfortable night over Prairie as usual I observed today many strange herbs & plants & this afternoon for the first time saw the Prickly Pear growing on the Prairie & some vines resembling our domestic Squash. For the past few days our water has been bad & many sick among u s ; we encamped at a watering place 24 miles from our last camp little arcansas. Sat. 5th Marched 18 m. & encamped on a beautiful stream of water. W e have now fairly entered the Buffalo Country saw 4 dead buffalo the soldiers had killed & are told ahead they are so thick that it is dangerous traveling for they when frightened will rush & brake through even the ranks of soldiers. Sun. 6 Last night a strong Guard was detailed as a large body of Indians were near u s ; traveled about 14 miles on the Desert so called as there is no wood or water for a long distance, the Prairie has been fed so long by the herds of Buffalo that there is little grass growing; passed a number of Buffalo which had been killed by soldiers & left after taking some of the choicest meat; we can see herds of Buffalo feeding at a distance; we passed a singular mound today and encamped on the Dese,rt where there is Buffalo Dung sufficient fori any army to cook by. Mon. 7th At the Beat of the Drum we struck our tents & marched forward at day light; on our way Lieut. Merrill shot a buffalo calf which was fine meat. Encamped this day on Walnut Creek a large Buffalo came among our cattle &



was shot just outside of our Guards I counted 14 rinkles on his horns he was judged to weigh 16 or 18 hundred a noble fellow he was. It is astonishing to see the ground stamped, worn, hoofed & trod up by these old fellows. Tues. 8th Marched 26 miles passed a very curious pile of Rocks which has many names on the same put my name on the same. Passed many village Dogs. I stood guard today. Rainy night, heard them bark at us as we passed our men killed a number of Buffalo today one was drove almost on the Rear Guard which was' soon killed. Wed. 9th. Marched 5 miles & encamped while on our march I picked up a paper enclosed in two rappers reading thus "look out for Indians for one of our men was killed supposed by a Camanche" signed by an officer & dated May 18th 1846. Killed 1 Buffalo today. Thur. 10th Marched 16 miles & encamped. Friday 11th Marched 10 miles to the Arcansas River & encamped the River is about as wide as the Missourie & Utterly filled with sand. A little pure water runs on the top but the sand is so hard that Buffalo cross on the sand where they please we see their paths, in all directions & while I write there is a herd coming towards the camp. Saturday 12th 1846 Started early & marched up the River about 20 miles & encamped oposite an Island. Sun. 13th Marched up the River 22 m. & encamped. Sun 14th Continued our march 20 m. & encamped still on the Arcansas River. Monday 15th Marched 17 m. & crossed the River & encamped on the oposite shore; here we overtook 5 companys of Col. Prices Regiment here the road forks one to fort Bent & the other to Santa Fee. Tues 16th Lay in camp to cook provisions as we have 40 miles to go without wood or water; today the Familys who have been in our company so far left us for Fort Bent a Guard of ten men were detailed to accompany them parolled 30 days to join us at Santa Fee. Wed. 17th Started over the most dreary desert I ever beheld. I had forgot to mention the death of a man in the 5th company who was buryed this morning on the banks of the Arcansas about noon found a little muddy water for our mules this day saw a human skull with a ball hole in the forehead saw hundred of buffalo & Antelope today.



Thur. 18th Traveled all day without water & little food encamped at dark at a pool of Brackish sulfer water. Friday 19th Started at daylight & traveled till past noon & reached plenty of Good water. Saturday 20th Continued our journey over the Desert & encamped at the next Watering place saw another human skull today; we are 60 or 70 miles from the Arcansas River. From the 20th until Wed. 23d but little took place worthy of note only a continued barren Desert our water much of it is so salt it is difficult to use it last night we were visited by a storm of most vived Lightning. I would mention that I have been sick since we crossed the Arcansas River but am now better so as to be able to keep my journal again. On the 22 we passed the Battle Ground of Indians our Pilot was passing at the time he says he had encamped & in the morning 4 or 5000 Camanches & Pawnees came down in the valley & had a Great Battle. Thur. 24th Traveled as usual & encamped on a stream made within a few days we passed 90 head of mules that froze to death 1 year ago this month. Frid. 25th. Continued our journey as usual. Sat. 26th Passed many Rocky Peaks today & encamped so as to obtain some cedar &c. for cooking. Sun. 27th Marched 12m & encamped our teams are failing all the time for there is no grass for them to live on or so little they are left one by one on the Desert as we go. Mon. 28th Marched 12 or 14 miles passed Cotton Wood Spring a pool of tolerable good water & encamped at a pool of water; my health is improving fast for which I thank my Heavenly Father. Tues. 29th Traveled about 10 m. and encamped on Rabbit Ear Creek in sight of two peaks called Rabbit Ears, last night Bro. Freeman brought in one Antelope & 1 Turkey which he killed yesterday. Wed. 30th Marched 20 miles took supper & continued our march 7 miles further making 27 miles today. Thursday Oct. 1st. Continued our march before sunrise went 3 miles & halted 5 hours to refresh & give our teams a chance to graze. Continued our journey about 20 miles and encamped. Fri. Oct. 2 Started before breakfast halted at a spring at the side of a high Rocky Peak for Refreshment. Continued our March



20 miles & encamped on a stream of water called the Red River. Sat. Oct. 3d Marched 6 miles & encamped here 50 of our strongest men were Detailed to go on by a forced march to St. Fee & we are rn-nmised by that means to go on over the Mountains this fall if they get to Santafee by the 10th of Oct. So the sick & half of our men are left to come on by easy marches as we can to Santafee to meet our brothering there but I fear treachery. Oct. 4th Sunday Marched 18 miles to Waggon top mountain & encamped in the Gap of a ridge of mountains here we found the best grass for our teams we have seen for 300 m. Mon. Oct. 5th. Stayed he-re untill 12 o clock & again took up the line of march for Santa Fee traveled 25 miles and encamped on a stream of water near the 1st settlement of Mexicans about 90 or 100 miles from St. Fee. Tues. 6th Lay in camp. Wed. 7th Marched 20 miles & camped near a Spanish village here we saw 3000 sheep & 200 Goats & numerous herds of Cattle they are herdsmen they have fine gardens. Thur. 8th passed through the town of Bagus this with their Farms are watered by ditches cut to carry it in every direction for 300 miles past it has been one vast Desert but this is a beautiful country of mountains & valleys of Water fine pine & Spruce trees &c Traveled 21 miles over mountains, through vallies passed two towns today. Frid. 9th Continued our march about 8 miles & encamped near a Town. Sat. 10th Marched about 10 or 12 miles and encamped, we are now traveling among Mountains covered with Rocks pine and evergreens. Sun. 11th Started on our march at 4 o clock traveled 6 miles & halted for Breakfast near an ancient City in ruins, the Temple was a great curiosity no one knows when it Was built it was in ruins 200 years ago & it has every appearance of an Old Nephite City the Rooms doors carvings painting & Hireoglifics were a great curiosity the bones of their Dead also. Camped 15 miles from Santa Fee. Oct. Mon. 12th Started early and halted at a spring 9 miles from St. Fee I am now sitting by an ancient wall built in a circle what it was for I know not. Continued our march and arrived in Santa Fee a little after sunset. Santa Fee Numbers



4 or 5000 Spanish Inhabitants the city is built of Dried Bricks one story high flat Roofs &c. There is 4 or 5 churches one I counted 5 Bells in its mud steple, it Resembles thousands of Brick kilns unburnt, all of the towns we have passed is like this in appearance, the Fort now being built will make it a strong places the Gold mines is 35 miles from here, the American Flag waves gracefully here it is silk probably 30 by 15 feet. Mon. 19th took up the line of march for California. Marched 6 miles & encamped, this day I am one of the Rear Guard the first time I have been on Duty since I left the Arcansas River on account of sickness. Tues. 20th March 14 miles. Wed. 21th Marched 22 miles & encamped on the Rio Del Nort. Thur. 22d Marched 14 miles in the valley of the River Spanish towns are plenty this is a beautiful River—& Wild Geese are plenty. Frid. 23d. Start early bought Grapes of the inhabitants of the Raisin kind sweet & delicious; passed Towns dayly. Marched 12 miles & encamped near a Town. Saturday 24th Crossed the Rio Del Norte by wading the valley spreads wider & the mountains are disappearing. Made ten or twelve miles today. Sun. 25th Traveled about 10 miles passed a number of Towns & encamped near a town, the Inhabitants are very friendly and sell us corn flour Apples Grapes Eggs &c &c. Monday 26th Saw pumise stones dayly in this valley. Marched about 12 miles in the Advance Guard & encamped near another T o w n ; this valley is thickly settled by the Spanish & Indians the Indians are the most inteligent of the two & the most noble in appearance. We are now about 100 miles from Santa Fee down the Rio Del N. Tues. 27th Marched 10 or 12 m. through almost a continued Town of Spanish & Indians saw many beautiful farms and vineyards with Peach & Apple orchards. Wed. 28th 1846. Last night the rain was severe in the valley but on the mountain snow this day made 12 miles, Thursday 29th A beautiful day warm as summer in the valley but the mountains on each side are white with snow came 10 or 12 miles & encamped near the last town but one (San lorenzo) untill we arrive at the copper mines.



Sat. 31st. passed a large Town & encamped beyond it on the River bottom after supper mustered for Inspection this is a beautiful valley we can see the snow capped mountains near a Town in ruins on our right encampment. Sun. 1st Nov. 1846. The Spanish are subject to depredations of the Indians who sally forth from the mountains & drive of flocks & destroy towns &c. This day came 15 miles. Mond. 2d. Came about TO miles this day came to a rude Guide board to direct us on Gen. Kearneys Rout which only said Mormon Trail. Tues. 3rd Nov. 46 Marched about 15 miles & encamped, (this day on Guard) this morning was Inspected to see if every man was prepared to go in to Action if called upon as it is rumored a Mexican army intends to stop u s ; this is a fine valley but cannot be settled at present here on account of Indian Depredations. Wed. 4th Last night after we camped a man by the name of James Hampton Died suddenly he was buried on the Bank of the River where we camped; and the camp moved on this morning as usual about 18 mi. encamped near a singular Pyramid of earth & gravel standing on a bluff here an Express came to us that an Army of Mexicans was intending to cut us off. Thur. 5th replenished our catridges & lay by all day this Eve were ordered if we heard the alarm of two Guns fired all hands were to be ready for the enemy at a moment but no alarm was given therefore we returned thanks to our protector &c &c. Frid. 6th Commenced our march again over one of the most hilly roads I ever traveled and arived at the place where Gen. Kearney left his waggons to cross the mountains with Pack Mules; here we encamped; our Spies are out & there is signals agreed upon for our protection against our Enemies; this country is barren of timber except cottonwood on the River bottom; last Sunday we passed a pool of water I think as salt as any Pickle for meats; we can see large Bear tracks & plenty of Beaver signs; Bro Freeman brought to camp wood cut by the Beavers 6 in. through & this was not half so large as they construct their Dams with we are now on half rations & only 60 days Rations from Santa Fee & we expect it will take us at least 120 days to go to the Pacific Ocean or Bay of San Francisco our teams are tiring out & we expect a hard time if we are not intercepted by an Enemy; we are cheerful & happy notwithstanding we have to carry our Guns accoutre-



ments Napsacks Canteen haversacks & Push our Waggons all day over hills which are not few nor far between & we expect still greater difficulties when we leave this River to cross the Mountains. Sat. 7th Nov. 1846. Started again on our Journey where no waggons ever before made a track made 8 or 10 miles. Sun. 8th Nov. we continued our journey as usual over an untraveled road before. Tues. 10th Nov. here our ox waggons & sick such as are not able to endure the fatigues of the Journey were sent back to Santa Fee among the rest 3 of my mess went back to Furbelo (viz) Elijah N. Freeman, Thos. Bingham & Francis T. Whitney May a blessing attend them. Beavers on a waterfall. :

Wed. 11th Marched as usual about 15 miles & encamped on the River bottom. Our Colonel got frightened here. Thur. 12th Marched 16 miles & encamped nothing unusual took place more than usually our Journey on this river Generally the same routeen. Frid. 13th This day we left the River and turned a North West direction to pass the mountains for our long wished for California went 18 miles to a curious Pool of water in a Rock where we encamped we are now encompassed by mountains & hills. Sat. 14th Nov. 1846. Marched about 15 miles and encamped by the remains of an ancient building near an excellent spring & stream of water the antiquities of this country are numerous. Sun. 15th Day in camp on account of Rain this day the boys went to the mountains & brought some excelent Grapes to camp which were delicious. Mon. 16th this day 4 months of our time has past and we commence our march again to our destined home in California we are now in one of the most beautiful vallies I ever saw probably 40 or 50 miles in width & how far in length no white man knows, for we are now traveling a rout our Pilots never went in; & if we succeed in crossing the mountains on this rout it will save 400 miles travel for us so far we have been blessed beyond our expectations as to water & good roads marched 16 miles & found a spring where we encamped. Wind is cool from the mountains. Tues. 17 crossed a ridge of the mount, into another valley & encamped near a Rock where the Indians pound their corn. There were 29 holes in the Rock where they pound their food also a spring for water.



Wed. 18th 1846 Started early & marched 20 miles to a river called by the Pilots Memebre this day was one of the Advance Guard. Thur. 19th crossed the River & continued our road over a beautiful valley surrounded, by mountains 25 m. & encamped by a spring close by the road leading from the copper mines to Sonora, this Country is wholly destitute of Timber & water scarce, the climate now warm & pleasant in the day & very cool Nights. Water freezes. Frid. 20th Raised a smoke on a mount, near by to call some Indian Pilot to obtain Water. Soon a company of Spaniards were seen in the distance approaching; they directed our course. Lay in camp to make repairs &c. Sat. 21st Marched 12 m. & encamped at the base of a mountain Sunday 22d. This day I am at liberty & sit on the top of some high Rock for observation I have just filled my canteen from a hole in the Rocks; the Grasshoppers & the Butterflies are sporting in the Sum Beams the mountains are spread around us & seem to hem us in while the valley is as mild as summer. Marched 20 miles & encamped without wood or water. Mond. 23d. came 25 miles & no water after dark came to a dry Lake traveled in the bed of the same about 3 miles & found excelent water the Lake appears to be hollow or Water a short distance below the surface as some of our cattle fell through and it was with difficulty we got them out. Tues. 24th Lay by for our ox teams to come up & rest. Wed. 25th Crossed one of the highest ranges of the Rocky Mountains (was the Colonel's Orderly today). One of our Pilots killed a Grisly bear. Marched 20 miles & encamped in a valley where we found siccamore Timber to burn & good water. Thur. 26th came 15 miles & encamped near some Rock Oack Timber; there is plenty of Antelope here a number killed today. Frid. 27th Continued our march up a valley southwest. Our boys killed a number of Antelope & Black tail Deer today, the most beautiful valleys I ever saw, with here & there Groves of beautiful Oack Timber Ever Green; we are now in the country of Sonora bordering on California. Sat. 28th Marched 7 or 8 miles & encamped; our Pilot did not come in as we expected last night, so we had no Guide; I ascended one of the mountains this afternoon & saw we were hemmed in by Mts. to the West, North & South to,wall ap-



pearances. Just this minute one of our Pilots has come into Camp & brought an Indian with him. Sun. 29th & Mon. 30th. have had the most laborrous work in packing our Provisions & drawing our empty wagons 12 miles over the worst mountains I ever saw called the American Back Bone. Tues. Dec. 1st 1846. Commenced our march down the valley 9 miles & encamped, today is the 1 day of Winter but here it appears like Summer I have seen no day yet so cold to keep insects from stirring although we generally have some frost nights; from one to 200 miles from Santafe. When the wind blew from the mountains the nights were very cold. Cool nights & warm days is prevelent in this country. We are now descending towards the Western Ocean; the waters we are now on run into the Gulf of California. W e broke a number of waggons yesterday in descending the mts. had to leave 2. Wed. 2d Dec. Took up the line of march down the Ravine for a few hours & then struck over the hills for a delightful valley at an old town destroyed by the Indians here we encamped; was Orderly for the Colonel today. Saw two of the Principal Chiefs introduced to the Colonel & heard the councel the Chief said they were at war with the Mexicans as well as we and they never could lift the hatchet against us till the sun & moon should fall; the Col. gave them Presents &c &c came 12 m. Thur. 3d Dec. lay in camp in order for the Indians to bring in mules for us & for our men to hunt wild cattle which are plenty here they are as plenty as Buffalo East of the Mouts the Indians are Opachee Tribe, they are a W a r like & Noble looking fellows the squaws are short & thick set. Strange is the Tale of this Town, the Opachees killed 700 Spaniards & took their wives prisoners & their squaws became jealous & killed all the Spanish women in town they took 7000 head of cattle from the Spaniards also. I have just been to see the ruins. Our company killed 6 bulls today & many more were killed by the Battalion; their meat is fat & tender the best beef I ever eat we -have plenty of meat now but we have been so hungry for weeks back I have seen the boys roast the raw hide of the beef & even the entrails of our cattle that has been driven from the States & become poor. Frid. 4th Lay in camp untill 1 O'clock & then marched 7 miles & encamped between two mountains. Sat. 5th continued our march 15 miles & encamped at a spring where the best judges think 10,000 head of cattle come for water we kill all we want & more than we need.



Sun 6th marched 16 miles & encajnped near a watering place among mountains. Water & wood plenty. We are near a Garrison of Mexicans & and a Spaniard deserted from us Sat. night, but we hope the Lord will deliver us from all enemys & we dont wish to shed blood. Mon. 7th Dec. Lay in camp waiting for our Pilots to come in. Killed 5 or 6 bulls today. Tues. 8th this morning at Revellee a man in Capt. Davis company Died suddenly by the name of Elisha Smith. Continued our march at the usual hour about 15 m. & encamped nCar a Mt. on our left covered with snow, cool night. Wed. 9th started at sunrise & reached the San Pedro River about noon, a small clear stream which runs into the Gulf of California crossed and went about ten miles down it making about 18 miles today. Saw wild horses cattle & antelope plenty some killed &c. Thur. 10th Detailed as the Colonel's Orderly today came 15 miles & encamped near a town in Ruins we catch plenty of trout in this River. Frid. 11th Marched today 16 miles this was an unlucky day for us we marched into a herd of Wild bulls which were shot & wounded all around us which made them furious two of the men run over one man a bull tossed over his head in the air he was hurt badly one of the Staff shot his thumb nearly off in the affray & two of our mules were killed by the bulls the meat of 8 or 10 were brought into camp tonight one of our mess brought 6 fine Trout that he caught today to camp. Sat. 12th Marched 15m today North still down the River; fine beautiful weather. Sun. 13th Started early for a Spanish town fort one of our pilots came in last night & reported they had to flee to save their lives it is expected we shall have to take the place. Marched 10 miles & encamped for Drill and Inspection drew catridges 20 for each man. 3 pilots came in tonight one we fear is detained at the fort. Mon. 14th left the River San Pedro & struck a west course for Town of Tubson marched 25 miles today was detailed one of fifty as advance guard to make a show before Sonora Officer. Tues. 15th Dec. Continued our march on towards the Garrison. Saw a curious still today. Marched 20 miles. Wed. 16th Took up the line of march for to march into the Town before us when we came to Town the Soldiers had fled & forced the most of the People with them passed through the



place about one mile & encamped came 20 miles today, the public property fell into our hands all that was left. Thur. 17th Lay in camp today, our Col. called for fifty volunteers to go & surprise a Town 6 or 7 miles from here; he was met by an express from the Town & returned to camp, the people here are the most friendly and inteligent I have seen of all the Spaniards was on guard tonight, about 12 O clock an alarm was given the camp was paraded & we expected to meet an enemy but they returned after being fired upon by our Piquet Guard. Frid. 18th Again took up the line of march for the Pemaw village 90 miles distant on the River Hela through a beautiful valley once settled to appearances by an ancient people; traveled 25 miles and at 9 O clock camped without water only what we brought with us we are threatened to be attacked by our Enemies ; but we trust in Him who has protected us thus far. Sat. 19th Started at sunrise & pursued our journey untill about 11 O clock at night and found a little muddy water we camped with no water for Supper or Breakfast. Sun. 20th Started at sunrise & traveled untill afternoon before we found water; some of our mules died last night in consequence of going without feed or water there has been no grass since we left Tubson; our men have suffered much for water but our way continues to open as we go, for which we are thankful to our Father who led us untill now. Mon. 21st. Started at sunrise & traveled about 15 miles & reached the Hela about 2 O clock & camped; the Indians met the command some distance from the River; these are the Pemaw Tribe; they are settled for a number 25 miles of miles down this River it is called Pemaw Tribe here we struck Gen. Kearney's trail, saw his cannon tracks plain these Indians are a large Noble looking people their hair is of a jet black & hangs down their backs midway of their body in a large braid or coiled around their heads like a turban. Tues. 22d traveled 8 or 9 miles down the River & came to the village where the Indians met us by hundreds to see our waggons & camped here the Indians filled a ditch with water from the River for our use they raise some cotton & weave a very pretty blanket which is their principal clothing many are naked here our Col. bought corn, beans, meal &c for our use. Wed 23d passed quite a number of villages &c there are a number of thousand Indians for 25 miles on this River; saw their plows fish nets &c today; wild geese swans &c are plenty here; traveled 12 miles & encamped the Indians follow us by hundreds to trade.



Thur. 24th Lay in camp today to rest & trade. Frid. 25th Christmas today, quite unwell, the weather as warm as summer. Started across the mountains 50 miles without water it is 100 miles to follow the course of the River, therefore we have decided to go across. Sat. 26th Started before sunrise over a kind of desert such as we have traveled for a long time. Saw some red flowers today reached the Hela after dark & encamped. Sun. 27th 1846 took up the line of march down the Hela about 12 miles & camped. Mon. 28th came about 10 miles today we have seen no timber worth mentioning except the Cotton Wood for a long distance. Tues. 29th saw a species of quail today similar to ours; passed a pile of Rocks marked by the Indians & carved with animals & curious figures; also passed through several miles of sand difficult for our poor teams. Wed. 30th came 17 miles today. Thur. 31st. This is the last day of 46, the Nights are cool but the days are warm our time runs slowly away & we are drawing near our long looked for California and a few days more we shall be to the Colorado River; 3 weeks more if we are favoured will fetch us to the great Western Ocean made 12 m. today. Jan. 1st 1847 Begins a new year we traveled about 12 miles today & launched some waggon beds for boats to carry our heavyest loadings; there is no grass for our mules we have seen but little grass for 2 or 300 miles back. Sat. 2d Jan. much of the ground is covered with Bittumen & no green substance can grow here except such that its as salt as the earth which it grew out of. Passed a Family moving from California; (living on mule flesh) came 10 miles. Sun. 3d Jan. March 13 miles today & encamped the scenery is the same from day to day. Mon. 4th Marched about 6 or 8 miles and encamped at the base of a high mountain. Tues. 5th Marched about 15 miles today; our teams fail as well as our provisions & they are of the poorest kind. (9 oz. flour). Wed. 6th Jan. came 12 or 15 miles today. Thur. 7th Marched about 12 miles & encamped at a place called the Devils Point.



Fri. 8th We are now reduced very low for provisions & those of the poorest kind; we drew 9 oz. of meal last night for a day we left waggons, harness, chains &c &c &c because of the. failure of our mules we leave something of value daily that we cannot carry & it is as much as some of the men can do to get into camp at night although we are favoured remarkable with health in the Army we have been preserved in that way that all must acknowledge the hand of God in it. Came about 15 miles today & encamped at or near the mouth of the Hela one mile from the Colorado; good traveling today; saw a number of curious shape mountains today. Sat 9th Jan. Marched about 12 miles today down the Colorado to the crossing and encamped; this is a very rich bottom and the river bed is as wide as the Missourie gathered muskeet for the mules tonight. Sun. 10th Lay in camp to rest & wait for our boat & Pioneers to fix the road ahead to cross tomorrow; feel much better my health is improving & I feel encouraged for God has been our sheald and trust for many a weary day & month. Mon. 11th Jan. 1847. Crossed the river & continued our march we are now in California; the Tide Water comes up this river to within 40 miles of here traveled 4 or 5 miles from the river untill we came to a bluff of sand hills; then turned West and continued alongside of the bluffs to camp; about 15 miles left a number of waggons today our teams are nearly starved to death & if we get through to settlements on y, Rations we will be thankful. Saw signs of an ancient settlement today, to the right of us is a sandy desert I suppose like the Deserts of Africa or Arabia; there is nothing that looks like living in this country. Left more waggons. Tues. 12th Continue our journey half of the day and then rose the Sandy Bluff & struck across to the West towards a mountain & encamped about 10 miles from our last camp without wood or water only what we brought with us found here a little grass for our mules; left some mules today; our cattle and sheep are nearly gone and they spring poor. Wed. 13th Started at sunrise & marched' about 14 miles to some wells of brackish water & encamped one of our beef cattle tired out today. Thur. 14th Continued our march over the plain or desert after leaving our Blanket waggon & one Publick waggon & burning other property, our Provisions are nearly out & we have more than a 100 miles to go before we can get relief unless Gen. Kearney sends us some by our Express which we .'look



for dayley, encamped about 9 o clock at night after traveling about 20 miles. Frid. 15th Started at Sun Rise & continued our slow march over the plains with poor prospects for we have not had any word from our Express yet; our men have not half enough to eat & what we do eat is poor but we are kept from starving so far we look to Him who is able to help us in this time of W a n t ; traveled 10 miles to Wells of poor water but what was our joy to meet here our Express with 12 beef cattle & 40 mules for our relief; thus again we are preserved by Him who watches over us all the time by night & by day. As soon as we could get a little refreshed we started on our road again 12 miles & halted 3 hours then traveled 28 miles to water a beautiful spring where the frogs were piping; here we encamped being Saturday 16th 1847. Sun. 17th took up the line of march in close order for fear of being ambushed by an enemy as Gen. Kearney was; who had 23 men killed; we some expect an enemy may meet us in the pass of the mountains we are now in; traveled untill about noon & come to a grove of Palmetta or Cabbage Tree & a spring left here & marched untill after dark making about 23 miles & camped in the mts. where the water runs towards the gulf our last Pork & Flour is now dealt out to us & which makes 6 oz. of. Pork & about 4 oz. of Flour per man & we have to wait till a beef can be killed for our breakfast. Mon. 18th Jan. Lay by to rest a little as here is some grass for our mules. Tues. 19th Passed some bad passes in the Mts. & encamped without water. Weds. 20th went over another pass today & traveled without anything to eat till nearly noon then halted at a spring killed 2 poor cattle, refreshed ourselves then traveled untill dark & encamped, by a spring, came 15 miles, for the last week we have been among Mts. but we have come today where grass is growing two or 3 inches in some places high the country looks better as we approach the sea. Thur. 21st Marched 12 miles today & encamped near the first farm called Warners Ranch here we got a supply of beef again & bought some breadstuff of the Indians beans &c &c. This is a beautiful valley & a fine wheat country. Frid. 22d Lay in camp today to rest and wash &c. Visited town to see a curious spring; I could not bear my hands in the water without burning; the Indians are about 1000 strong &



are governed by Mr. Warner an Eastern man who owns about 40 miles square & lives apparently an easy life. Sat. 23d Started again for the Coast or Pacific Ocean traveled about 20 miles & encamped in a heavy rain; everything wet and disagreeable. Sun. 24th Traveled 3 or 4 miles in rain & encamped. Mon. 25th Continued our march still among mountains about 18 miles & encamped in a beautiful valley where we met encamped 2 or 300 Indians who have assisted us in the War here also an Express met us from Gen. Kearney ordering us to San Diego as the W a r was probably to an end in this country; for which God be Praised for his protection over us according to the Word of his Servant the Prophet. Tues. 26th Jan. 1847 Left the valley came 15 m and crossed over a ridge of mountains into a beautiful valley where the clover & grass is fine & where I picked mustard from 5 to 10 inches high for our supper & where the spring birds are from the Goose to the Hummingbird the most delightful country I ever was in. Wed. 27th Continued our march delighted by the singing of the Spring Birds untill about one O clock came to a Desert Town by the name of St. Ana one of the most splendid Churches I ever beheld among the Spanish nation & evidently a Nunery for many years 30 porches in front &c. Soon after in rising a hill saw for the first time the Pacific Ocean & saw also the foam of the breakers on the shores; came today where there plenty of Oats 4 or 5 inches high. Thur. 28th Last night was kept awake by the roaring of the sea; but this morning put forward on our journey again over hills and through valleys beautiful indeed. Saw hundred of sheep and cattle the Spaniards had left to roam at pleasure all the farms are desolate in consequence of War. Frid. 29th Continued our march and arrived to our quarters 5 miles from San Diago to an old mission station with a large chappel & other buildings with vineyards & gardens set with fruit trees such as Peaches, Pears, Olives, Dates &c this mission has been deserted for 20 years & is now in ruins; saw a number of Men of W a r lying at anker in the bay of San Diago today. Sat. 30th Returned to duty today from the Doctor Sist & trust I shall gain my health,by rest & Propper food which we hope to receive as soon as a vessel comes from the Sandwich Islands which we look for dayly. We have endured one of the greatest



journeys ever made by man at least in America & it is by the faith and prayers of the Saints that we have done it. All cf our Company that left Fort Leavenworth have arrived here safe. Sun. 31st Lay in quarters which is a great relief to us for we are worn down with hard traveling over the Mountains; went out a little ways from camp & gathered some of the best mustard I ever saw for greens; but we have nothing but fresh beef to cook them with; we have no flour, no meal, no beans, no Pork no vinegar no Coffee no sugar no Nothing but Beef & Salt & Greens. Mon. Feb. 1st 1847 Took up the line of march for St.' Louis in company with Gen. Kearney's Draggoons there to Quarter for the present, came about 16 miles & encamped; came a new road saw this part of the country was better than the other-road. Tues. 2d Feb. Marched about 18 miles & passed the hill where Gen. Kearneys troops were hemed in by Spaniards for 6 days & lived on mules. Wed. 3d Arrived at St. Louis Mission this afternoon & took up our quarters for a short time or untill Gen. Kearney comes back from Montera where he is gone on business for the Army. Thur. 4th Feb. Had a General Clean up here. Frid. 5th Nothing worthy of note takes place except the regular camp dutys that devolve on us from day to day. Much expense has been laid out here in building; the Church is large & very expensive; there is 31 Porches in front & on the inside is a square with 21 Porches on 2 sides & 23 on 2 other sides with a Sun Dial in the center of the square with orange trees &c with many out buildings &c. Sat. 6th Sun. 7th, Mon. 8th, Tues. 9th Wed. 10th Thur. 11th & Frid. 12th passes away as usual my health is improving & I take more pleasure in viewing the Scenery of this country. It is the most delightful climate I ever saw the Grass Wheat & Oats that are Natural makes the finest pasture for our mules & beef cattle; here are many kinds of trees I never saw before, the Date, Cocanut Olive Pepper &c &c I observe the Peach in full bloom & English beans Pease cabbage Plants &c &c 3 or 4 inches high that have come up themselves since the desertion of the town; here are the most beautiful vinyards I ever saw the stems of last year will hold a pint of Grapes & probably more they are of the Raison kind; hogsheads of wine could be made here every year. Nothing very interesting takes place from day to day only camp duties & those are



first Revillee a little after daylight when we have to parade & answer to our names then sweeping our rooms & breakfast next our parade ground all about our quarters is cleaned and drained of the ground at 10 O clock one hour's drill then Dinner Call at 3 O clock 1 hour drill at 5 O clock Parade & Inspection of arms then supper at 8 O clock Tattoo or roll call then we have a chance to sleep till daylight. Sat. 13th Sun. 14th Mon. 15th Passed away as usual lonesome to me because I am absent from my Family whom I want to see more than ever I hope & pray we may go to Francisco & there be discharged so that we may do something for our Families; more than we are now doing. Yesterday G. P. Dykes Preached before the Colonel's Quarters; Bro. Hancock is doing something to regulate the 70s which will be beneficial to the Battalion; if we could draw something to eat besides beef the time would pass away better; how long we shall have to wait for the Ships to bring us Provisions I know not but hope we soon shall be relieved from our present ration to a full supply of Sugar Coffee Flour &c. My thoughts go to my family continuly how they fare are they well and contented are they looking for the time to meet me in the fall with as much anxiety I do them often Dream of home & its Pleasant fireside but wake only to hear the Bugle • sound or Drums beat for Duty. But after all I am glad I come for the Spirit whispers I am doing work great & good which will appear in after days & my absence from my family will be made up when I meet them again to enjoy their society perhaps to part with them no more in time. Tues. 16th Feb. this ends 7 months of my service in the army & I hope before our time expires we receive a discharge that we may sooner go to our Famileys & the Church of which I am a member. From 16th to 19th nothing worthy of note took place. Sat. 20th Feb. today received some Beans & Flour unbolted which was a great releaf to u s ; we drew 1 gill of beans & 10 oz. Flour per man. Sun. 21st Last night an express came in from San Diago stating our Vessel had arrived there from the Sandwich Islands with provisions for us. This morning sent teams for to supply the troops, in consequence all are cheerful in hopes of having full rasions again; after living on beef for more than one month; only what we have obtained by selling our shirts & clothing for to the Spaniards & Indians; our clothes are worn out & many are barefoot.



Mon. 22d Feb. Last night attended to some of the ordinances of the church which was attended with a blessing; as well as the Preaching yesterday. Tues. 23d today I drew 1 oz. more Flour per man; hope it will not be long before we draw full rasions; my health is improving as holsome food is increased; the weather is most beautiful : I saw oats the other day almost headed out. ''Wed. 24th Our Rasions are increased of Flour twelve oz. which is better still for us my health continues to improve & I feel more cheerful. Thur. 25th Passed as usual; our flour is bolted would not yeald more than 6 oz. of good. Frid. 26th Feb. Received today some Flour Sugar & Coffee for Rasions which is a great relief to us after doing without so long & suffering almost every hardship. Sat. 27th Passed as usual. Sun. 28th being the last day of Feb. & Winter our time passes towards our liberation from the Service of the Army; today we mustered for Inspection for the 4th time since enlistment & we hope shall draw pay soon. March 1st passed with the usual duties that devolve on a Soldier in the Army. Tues. March 2d Yesterday stood Guard for the last time on this post as we hope to go to Montera soon where we can get rasions for we have no more than two meals a day which keeps us hungry all the time. Wed. 3d An Indian child got bit by a rattlesnake today & lived but a few hours & was buried here according to Catholic order which gave us a chance to view the inside of the Church which was beautiful. Thur. 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th I have spent in the usual way of Drilling & Viewing the & building of this place San Louis Rey the Owls have taken possession of the inside while the Crows & Ravens occupy the Tower. We have some frost nights while the rests on the Mountains East in sight the Indians are pruning the vinyards. Oats are heading out. March Frid 12th, Sat. 13th Sun 14th passed as usual. Mon. 15th this day our Co. B. took up the line of march for San Diago to relieve the Dragoons now stationed there, it is a great relief to once more get out of our quarters & we hope to get full rasions when we get there & it is a sea port so we



will get oysters &c occasionally camped 14 miles from San Louis Rey where our quarter Master Ordered an Extra Beef Killed for us so we once more have enough to eat of Meat though we have but little bread &c Tues 16th to day makes 8 Months of our time in the service of U Sams we look to the time of our discharge with all th<* patience possible Encamped 6 miles from San Deiago Wed 17th marched into town & took up our quarters Thur 18th to day the Marines and Sailors went on board of the Man-Of-War, the Congress now lying in this Harbour the Marines are the finest troops I ever saw; we now have all we want to Eat for the first time since we left Santa fee & spend our time more happy amidts the various scenes here Frid 19th Sat 20th & Sun 21st passed awa)' as usual Except Sun I visited the Shiping in the harbour the Congress Man of War carrying over 60 Guns now lies in port She is a fine vessil a Spanish Bark which came from the Sandwich Island with our provisions also is in port & we expect another ship in dayly; I am now in the fort on the hill above town & can see two ships a long distance out at Sea; we hope they will come into port & take us to Montira; there is only one company in town to Guard the fort town & the Bastion so we are divided intp 3 parts which keeps busy here Mon March 22d Three Ships are in the Harbour & one Ankered out of the Harbour; we have heard no news from them yet Tues 23d the boys caught plenty of fish &c to day; we are well situated here & our drill is light on us & we have plenty to Eat so our time passes away more pleasant than it did under Col. Cook Capt Hunter is the highest Officer here Weds March 24th 1847 To day spent in walking down by the coast saw Whales Seals & many kinds of Fish Thurs 25th Pear trees are in full bloom & Fig trees are verry forward in putting out. Frid 26th Stood Guard to day the Savannah put to sea to day with a Salute of a broad Side from the Congress; She is homeward bound to New-York many sent letters by her Sat 27th a Spanish family moved into town to day among the things he brought a load of Pumpkins in eccelence preservation Sun 28th went down to the coast to day & caught a fine mess of fish; Last Sun went down to the shiping & saw many Whales Spout Water &c Saw them rise 30 or 40 ft out of the water & Spout they were a curiosity to me



Mon March 29th to day visited the Shiping & got a fine mess of fish & Oysters saw a Brig sail into the Harbour Tues 30th & Wed 31t passed as usual April l t 1847 Thur Commences a new Month on our probation we Still are in San Dieago Frid 2d April Yesterday Mr Walker our Express came in from Montera making 1000 miles in 10 days the Spaniards frequently ride 120 miles in a day; no news in particular he brought the Montera papers; the news are of a pacific nature Gen. Kearney has Entered on his Dutys as Governor Sat 3d passed away as usual; as our time passes away I think of home the More & wish for the time to come when I can once more live with my Family & friends far away Sun 4th April I think my Family with the first Camp is on their way by this time for California I pray the Eternal Father to Bless them & give then a safe & pleasant Journey Mon 5th Tues 6th Wed 7th & Thur 8 passed away as usual with the Exception I was taken with the Chills & Fever last night Frid 9th Again I am better & hope I shall escape the Hospital; last night an Indian Express came in from Purbelo & brought a number of letters from our Colonel; He states to our Capt. he is well pleased with our procedings here that we shall draw our money the last of this month & that 40 Barrels of Flour is on the way for u s ; yesterday afternoon the signal from the Fort said that a ship was comeing into the Harbour & while I write the boys are gone to put our Flour in the Store-house that came on board of the vessil from our Col. we Flatter ourselves some of geting our discharge when we draw our money but if we do not we soon shall see the end of the year we enlisted for at all events we shall draw full rasions now; we are getting acquainted with the Spaniards here they are verry friendly & intiligent many of them they live,like gentlemen the Indians are their Servants their Sports are to Ride on horseback heave the Lasso Gamble & go to the Fandango Figs are now full size on the trees & Pears & Peaches are as large as the end of my finger Sat April 10th 1847. Nothing worthy of Note to day Sun 11th Fine weather for the season San Dieago is a small town built after the Spanish fashion with a public square & house of worship 3 or 4 Stores & as many Groceries Our Flag waves in center of the town & another one on the Fort above the town; the Shiping lies 5 miles South of town & the Breakers of the Sea are in Sight West 4 miles & the roar



of the same would not let us sleep were we not used to the noise of a still night there is a toluble Harbour & perfectly secure for vessils from a Storm; between us & the coast west is another bay but not Sufficient water at the Bar for vessils to pass in; here are Seals Walrus Whales &c on this coast Mon 12th Yesterday 40 or 50 Indians came here to visit the Indians of this town & have a frolick; they spent the day in Gambling Singing drinking & fighting it was quite amuseing to See them to day a number of Sailors were put under Guard for fighting; Tues 13th to day one Sailor was put in the Stocks for being drunk & insubordination; another we marched to the Ship under Guard (Capt Hunter had a son born to day) Wed 14th Peacible times to day Thurs 15th 1847. Nothing worthy of note to day Frid 16th Sat 17th & Sun 18th passed as usual; one Indian in the Stocks & one Spaniard in Irons we Guard Mon April 19th To day am on Guard 2 Indians in the Stocks & one White Man in Irons we have to Guard a Ship is in sight this morning coming towards this port with a fair wind to enter the Harbour there is 3 now laying in port Tues 20th this morning another ship came into the Harbour Wed 21t passed as usual Thur 22d Guarded Mules to day Frid 23d passed with nothing worthy of Note Sat 24th 5 Prisoners Sun 25th Went to the Harbour to day bathed & Swam in the Salt Water Eat Oysters &c 6 Indians in the Stocks & one Sailor Mon 26th moved my Quarters to the Fort to day; Tues 27th Last night Our Capt was bereaved of his Wife who left a Babe to his care born last Tues 1 Week ago; She was buried in the foreign buring Ground near the Shiping or Harbour Wed 28th April; While I sit writing on the Cariage of a Brass ten pounder the prospect is delightful the Town is below me still farther South lies the Ships in the Harbour & farther still lies the Ocean; North & West lay another Bay & still farther W e s t the Pacific with its Breakers is in Sight for many leagues at Sea Yesterday the Congress Sailed on a



short Cruise She will be back in a few days; East 2 leagues is the Mission we quartered when we first Came to the Coast in Sight of the Fort; I also can see far to the South a number of Islands where I am told Walrus & Seals abound; It is rumored that a body of 1500 Mexicans are coming here to take the country from us if they do they will have to fight hard for our Guns are loaded ready to apply the match any moment Thur 29th 1847 This morning arose Early & saw a ship standing in for the Harbour she soon cast anker as the Wind was unfavorable. We expect our paymaster is on board & we shall be payd some money for our Services for the first time since leaving Santafee Frid 30th To makes the we have to hope to go

day is our muster day according to Law which fifth muster from the time entered the Service; muster once more to conclude the year & then we Speedily to our Familys & the Church

Sat May l t commences another month of our service; I am in the Fort comfortable situated Hearty & well weighing 1471b 4 more than I ever weighed in my life before; for which I truly feel thankful to my Heavenly Father after so many hardships as we have suffered in coming here Sun May 2d 1847. To day am on Guard it is rumored the Mexicans are comeing to retake this Country & Com'e Stockton has gone to reconoiter for a Spanish ship loaded with Arms &c this afternoon Maj Cloud arrived our paymaster so we shall draw some money to Mon 3d passed as usual Tues 4th Drew our money for 6 months Wed 5th When I arose this morning saw the Signal of a Ship hoisted on the Fort; I looked as far as the Eye could discern and saw the white sails of a vessil approaching our Harbour; in a few hours She entered our Port Thur 6th 1847 Yesterday we heard that a Messenger had arrived from the Church to the Pueblo with letters &c we hope it is true; as our anxiety is great to hear from our Familys & friends Frid 7th is our Drill day Saw a vessil to the Windard approaching the Coast; she passed in the night Sat 8th Stood Guard to day; this morning a ship ankered outside of the Harbour & fired a Salute She is bound for the East Indies



Sun 9th May 1847. passed as usual. Mon 10th the Congress came in to day Tues 11 Last night one of our company Died of Inflamation on the brain (Albert Dunham) he was buried in the American burying ground at the Harbour Wed 12th Last night an express came in from Purbelo wjth the news of some of our officers being called home & that our boys had a Battle with the Indians 6 Indians were killed & 3 of our boys wounded Thur 13th 1847 This morning an express left for the Pueblo; The sea breize is quite cool making the atmosphere all ways the same there is no verry hot weather or verry cool; we have had a few showers of late; but verry little rain has fell since we came on the coast Frid 14th To day am on guard; I take but little interest in any thing going on here except in hearing some News occasionally & looking forward to the time when we shall be discharged Sat 15th Last night a double Guard was detailed as a threatened insurrection was expected on account of a Spanish Prisoner; he was strongly Ironed Sun 16th 1847. To day went down to the coast & when I returned I found a letter from my Companion; which had came over the mountains to me by the Express; It gave me great joy to hear from them once more; it being the first time I have heard from them for 10 months; Mon 17th passed as usual Tues 18th Today there was a Spanish Weding in Town they celebrated it with the firing of Guns we gave them a gun from the Fort while our officer was gone to T o w n ; the Weding ended with a Fandango at night it probably cost Mr. Barker $500 considering all the expenses (one cannon burst) Wed 19th To day a Scout of Some 15 of our boys went out to Warner's Ranch to hold in check the Indians Thur 20th Am on Guard to day Frid 21th passed as usual Sat 22d This morning a Ship was Seen Standing in for our Harbour She will probably make the Harbour this afternoon; The Winds are almost constantly from the North West which makes it cool & healthy much cooler here than in Illinois at this time of Year



Sun 23d Our boys are buying horses & mules for our Journey to the East to meet our families; we hear news occasionaly but nothing to be depended on; Yesterday a Sailor told us That Mr. Brannan had Sent 14 loads of provision to our brethren & last week we heard there were no famileys comeing over the mountains this summer we hope we shall get certing intiligence from the Church before we are discharged; if not we shall go till we find our families Mon 24th to day 40 or 50 Indians came to Town as our Allies the Capt ordered a beef killed for their Supper Tues 25th our Ind. departed this morning to their homes among the Mts.; Last night we were ordered to load our guns & be ready for an attact from Spaniards or Indians but we were not disturbed at all there is so little confidence in the Spaniards we are on the look out for them Wed 26th To day is my Guard tour I have sent to the Rancheros for 1 mule & 1 mare for my Journey home; I look forward to my discharge with much anxiety Thur 27 passed as usual Friday 28th & Sat 29th passed as usual Sun 30th The mail came in to day by which we learnt that Mr. Brannan had gone to the Mts. to meet the Emigration; we are in hopes by the next mail to hear from our Families Mon 31th Ends an other months of our probation am on Guard again to day every Tour makes one less for U Sam Tues June l t 1847 ushers in another Summer 1 month & l/2 more) and we bid good by to Unkle Sam having it to say You are the Most Exact Unkle we ever had Wed 2d Last night a Bark came into Port from the Windard; 2 vessils now in Port are loading with Hides for the U States; they Sail in company in about 3 weeks; Cattle &c fatten on the Oats which are now ripe growing Spontaneous as large as we raise in the States with all of our labour I could select fields of Oats as fine as I ever Saw in the States by cultivation ; the only lack in this is timber & rains in Season for crop Thur 3d Yesterday bought a young horse for my Journey home Frid 4th A large drove of wild horses come to Town to day to Sell to our boys they are worth on an average $5.00 apiece there are Thouthands of Old horses & mares here that are as wild as colts there were never broke or tamed Sat 5th to day I rode out in the country about ten miles Saw Indians harvesting wild Oats for bread; I thought of young



people Sowing wild Oats in the States but here we have them without sowing; I cut a few Sheaves with my Knife & brought to the Fort on my horse for his use; they are like our oats white & Black only a little more of furze on them Sun 6th Rode to the coast to examine a bed of coal Saw a variety of Sea animals & objects Interesting to me Mond 7th Rode out & cut Oats for my horse Tues 8th passed as usual in Quarters Wed .9th June 1847 Started for San Isabel between 50 & 60 miles from here among the mountains to buy horses & mules for our Journey we rode over difficult Mountains about 40 miles & encamped for the first day saw a number of droves wild horses & mules passed a Rancheros Called Cahoe the next morning passed San Mary & arived to San Isabel the second day 10th Stayed all night drank plentiful of the Juice of the vineyard visited the Church bought our mules & on Frid 11th Started for home traveled to Santa Marie & Stayed all night continued our Journey assisted by Indians Sat 12th over a verry rough mountain on which one of our mules fell among the Rocks & Killed himself; after which we arrived to our quarters at San Dieago Sun 13th passed as usual Mon 14th was a day of rejoycing to us at the News ot Gen. Taylors Victory over 18,000 Spaniards with thunder of our Cannon from the Fort & Town below was Grand; we fired 15 Guns from the Fort & 5 from the T o w n ; the Catholic Church had a few less Glass than usual when we ceased firing; the Ceremony was concluded at Sun down by firing the Guns & lowering the Flags; with 3 Cheers Tues 15th June passed as usual Wed 16th on Guard to day I sit on the lookout at the top of the Fort there is at this moment a Ship taking her place in the harbour alongside of other vessils to cast anker; One Month more & we hope to be on our way to our beloved Famileys & the Church Thur 17th & Fri 18th busied myself in preparations for my Journey to my Family Sat 19th June yesterday I saw a Sail to the Windard; hoisted the Ship signal to give notice to the Town and Harbour that a Sail was in Sight; I arose this morning and saw She had cast Anker outside of the Harbour waiting for a favorable wind to enter our port; we expect our Col and Sutler is aboard of her



Sun 20th The ship came in to Port yesterday about noon & this morning after Dress Parade Some 7 of us borrowed Capt Ficths Sail Boat & viseted the Shiping; went on board of the Loo-Choo a merchant vessil bought a variety of articles took dinner & Sailed back to San Diego on the whole it was a pleasant Sail though the Bay was rough; on our return to quarters found Bros Everett & St John from the Purbelo to visit us Mon 21th visited the Ships again to day went on board of the Merchant Ship Barnstable bought articles for my Journey home; Tues 22d again on Ship Board to buy Sugar & coffee for home; while absent from the Fort Our Col. came to Town; who is left in charge of the Military operations of California Wed 23d To day at the Beat of Tattoo our New Col. addressed us Gave us the praise of being the best company in the Southern Division of California; the most Inteligent & correct Soldiers Said we were universally esteemed & respected by the Inhabitants & in Short we had done more for California than any other people & gave us an invitasion to List again for 6 months Thur 24th 1847 June To day about 20 of the boys enlisted again for 6 months to be stasioned here in San Diego Frid 25th This morning Col. Stephenson Started with his Guard for the Purbelo accompanied by some of our Officers; also an Indian was whiped 50 Lashes tied to a Gun; poor fellows they are the greatest Slaves I ever Saw here and in the most abject Poverty Occasioned by Catholic Religion & I have no doubt God who is Just will bring the Spanish nation to an account for their abuse to the Lamanites from the days of Montezuma untill the present time; when he Weighs the Nations in the balance then we who have Suffered so much will bring in our Acct. Sat 26th passed as usual Sun 27th on Guard to day; From Sunday untill the 30th Wed 30th June we Mustered for the Last time in the U. S. Service July lt 1847 has one more come 16 days more & we will be free (Continued)

Utah State Historical Society BOARD OF CONTROL (Terms Expiring April 1, 1933) J. CECIL ALTER, Salt Lake City WM. R. PALMER, Cedar City ALBERT F. P H I L I P S , Salt Lake City


(Terms Expiring April 1, 1935) GEORGE E. FELLOWS, Salt Lake City WILLIAM J. SNOW, Provo HUGH RYAN* Salt Lake City LEVI E. YOUNG, Salt Lake City FRANK K. SEEGMILLER, Salt Lake City EXECUTIVE OFFICERS 1931-1932 ALBERT F. PHILIPS, President Emeritus WILLIAM J. SNOW, President J. CECIL ALTER, Secretary-Treasurer-Librarian HUGH RYAN, Vice President Editor in Chief All Members, Board of Control, Associate Editors

MEMBERSHIP Paid memberships at the required fee of $2 a year, will include current subscriptions to the Utah Historical Quarterly. Non-members and institutions may receive the Quarterly at $1 a year or 35 cents per copy; but it is preferred that residents of the State become active members, and thus participate in the deliberations and achievements of the Society. Checks should be made payable to the Utah State Historical Society and mailed to the Secretary-Treasurer, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah. CONTRIBUTIONS The Society was organized essentially to collect, disseminate and preserve important material pertaining to the history of the State. To effect this end, contributions of writings are solicited, such as old diaries, journals, letters and other writings of the pioneers; also original manuscripts by present day writers on any phase of early Utah history. Treasured papers or manuscripts may be printed in faithful detail in the Quarterly, without harm to them, and without permanently removing them from their possessors. Contributions and correspondence should be addressed to the Editor, Utah Historical Quarterly, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Utah Historical Quarterly State Capitol, Salt Lake City Volume 4

October, 1931

Number 4

BLACK HAWK'S LAST RAID—1866 By Josiah F. Gibbs Utah histories carry few details of Black Hawk's frequent raids on the settlers of Sanpete and Sevier valleys prior to, and including his spectacular invasion of Round Valley (Scipio), in 1866—the last of his capital crimes. The rugged country in the south part of Emery County, extending east to the Colorado River was uninhabited, save by Black Hawk and his tribe. From that Chinese puzzle of box canyons Black Hawk emerged into Sevier and Sanpete counties by way of Salina Canyon, and ravaged the settlements north and south of his exclusive line of retreat. From the mouth of Salina Canyon it is 20 miles to the northeast base of the Pahvant Range; thence northerly 13 miles over the low divide to Round Valley, then a hamlet of perhaps 20 families. A pass leads southwesterly over the range to Holden, then a Village of a half dozen families, 14 miles from Round Valley; thence south 10 miles to Fillmore with a population of probably 400. The localities and distances are indicated because of the important bearing on the desperate courage of Chief Black Hawk and his band in their dash of close to 35 miles and return through an open country, and, as Black Hawk well knew, in defiance of several hundred Utah cavalrymen presumably alert to their every movement. By repeated forays the chief had driven the residents of the smaller settlements of Sevier Valley from their homes to Richfield, 20 miles southwesterly from Salina, whose inhabitants had fled to Gunnison and to other sizeable towns in Sanpete Valley. Such were conditions that by early June, 1866, there was not a white family within 15 or 20 miles of the dimly marked Indian trail from Salina Canyon to Round Valley.



Sanpete herds had become so depleted by previous raids that the red marauder had but three alternatives—take chances on the Round Valley expedition, remain in his stronghold and subsist on rapidly diminishing game, with side diets of crickets and grasshoppers, or bow his proud neck to the rule of the white invaders—return to the settlements and ask "forgiveness," of his enemies, and by the grace of Uncle Sam beg for his living. In brief, that is the Indians' side of the question. June 11, 1866, was an usually warm, quiet Sabbath at Fillmore. At about 12 m., anyone looking north toward Holden would have observed a cloud of dust appearing and disappearing within the low, rolling ridges, and except for the desperate speed, not unusual—"probably coming for Grandma Carlin"—a not infrequent call for Millard County's grand old angel of mercy in every emergency from child births to toothache. Swiftly the cloud approached until from its murky folds emerged the foamflecked forms of horse and rider. Leaning sharply forward the rider guided his mount to the residence of Bishop-Colonel Thomas Callister, facing on the public square. Halting a minute at Holden for change of horses, Alfred Plair's nerve-wrecking race with time had occupied little more than 90 minutes. Following is the message received by Bishop Callister: Apprehending no danger from marauding redmen, Round Valley's few inhabitants were sleeping. Rudely awakened by distant war-cries, they sprang to doors and windows and looked up the valley. Nearly 200 painted warriors were racing down the road directly toward the village. When hardly within reach of the short-range rifles of those days, the wildly riding, shrieking mob swept around toward the east foothills, and in the dim light of the early morning a part of the renegades paused to murder a 12-year-old sheep herder who thus early was driving his flock to pasture, and continued their rush toward the sink of Lake Creek, around which several hundred cattle and horses were grazing. Among the latter were several Kentucky thoroughbred mares and a stallion, famous for his speed. A few of the marauders wheeled to the west along the north side of the joint field, a mile or so from the village. An aged settler, seemingly unaware until the moment of the presence of the red invaders, was taking his early morning turn at irrigation. Again the assassins halted to commit murder. Hurriedly rounding up the available animals—300 to 500, the Indians returned over the route they had come into the valley. While passing within safe distance of the hamlet, with mocking shouts and gestures of contempt, the raiders bade fare-



well to Round Valley, and, incidently, farewell to their tribal career as the most persistent aggregation of Indian outlaws that ever looted frontier settlements. The villagers were aware of conditions in Sanpete Valley— that the military might or might not be informed of Black Hawk's movements; also that time was the supreme factor in the problem of recovering their livestock. Yet the settlers, apprehensive of an ambush, would not permit a messenger to depart for Fillmore before about 10:30 p. m. after the raid. An aftermath of the raid should here be recorded. Parashonts, an unusually large and kindly old Pahvant Indian, who had overheard Plair's account of the Round Valley invasion while changing mounts at Holden, hurried to Round Valley. His visit would be that of condolence, and to assure his white friends that the Pahvants were blameless. As usual his reception by the larger part of the villagers was friendly, but some there were who, in the stern faces of the relatives of the slain farmer, sensed danger to their Indian visitor, and advised him to leave by a roundabout way. Parashonts had gone a distance of a half mile or so when a son of the murdered man overtook him—justifiable (?) revenge on the part of a white man! Mounted messengers quickly informed other residents of Fillmore of the raid. Frontier men of those years required little training and no discipline other than their stern environment. Within thirty minutes 40 or 50 young and middle-aged men, mounted and afoot, reported to Captain James C. Owen on the public square. Large bodied, big-hearted Captain Owen was more of a father than an officer to his men. Instructions were brief and to the point: "You, who for any reason, and especially that of physical inability to share in the toughest experience of your lives, please stand apart. How many are prepared to go at once to the Meadow range and drive in every available saddle horse? You who are not going to the range, return to your homes and have your families prepare bread and dried beef for a campaign of two weeks—there will be no use for trypans and coffee pots, one blanket or quilt for each man—there will be no pack animals. Meet at Bartholomew's barn at five o'clock. Now, boys, quickstep." Notwithstanding when the last band expert hands aided whose experience in haps weeks.

the feverish haste, it was nearly five o'clock of horses arrived. A score of willing and in roping and subduing the range horses, captivity had been from a few days to per-



The forenoon had been excessively warm, and during the afternoon a downpour of rain also served to delay the hurried preparations. It was, however, the advance herald of that which awaited the hustling band of "cow-punchers" and farmers. The last man had arrived. Little attention had been given to the swiftly gathering mid-June deluge. "Form ranks." "Forward, March!" issued from the almost midnight darkness. The men were ascending the dugway from the barn to the street when the storm burst in tempestuous fury. The half-wild horses recoiled, reared at the disciplining thrust of spurs and backed down the grade. Again through the storm-lashed night the command to form ranks and march was successfully executed. Such was the beginning of the last, and only earnest, attempt to intercept Black Hawk and retrieve his plunder. With lessened violence the storm continued until the drenched troopers reached the foot of the grade into Round Valley, where a halt was made. To conserve time and horseflesh, Captain Owen dispatched a couple of men to inform the villagers that his command had arrived, and would await at the lake, ten miles distant, the arrival of the Round Valley contingent. Turning sharply to the right, the men followed the base of the range about eight miles, and turned east toward the trail over which the cattle and horses had been driven. The unusual downpour had filled to overflowing the lake, utilized by the settlers for a reservoir. The dirt dam had washed out, and the usually dry wash was running bank-full of soil and water. It was a question of a detour of several miles or swimming—the latter alternative was adopted, which requires no detailed description—additional soaking was of little consequence compared with the loss of time. It was only an hour or two before daylight when the men reached the lake, unsaddled and secured the nearly exhausted horses, spread their blankets on the wet meadow, and soon were oblivious to chafed legs, aching bodies and marauding Indians. It was scarcely daylight when the Round Valley contingent arrived. A hurried breakfast on water-soaked bread and dried beef, and the even more strenuous effort to overtake Black Hawk was resumed. Dead cows and fighting steers were frequent, shot by the Indians because of their stubborness, and slashed with knives as a hint to those who might be in pursuit. Also, there were vivid evidences of the desperate struggle of the Indians to reach safety before white men would arrive.



From the Round Valley-Sevier divide there are two routes by which the river may be reached. Black Hawk selected the less obstructed and open bench trail. Because of its affording shelter from observation, Captain Owen selected a deep V-shaped ravine, lined with cedar trees that extended well down toward the river, and continued as a wash. "Single file, and don't crowd," and Captain Owen spurred his mount into the difficult defile. If memory is not at fault, it was about seven a. m. when the captain halted his men and clambered up the side of the then shallow ravine. With unaided eyes the captain swept the open country to the east. Hastily adjusting his field glasses, he surveyed the almost unbelieveable scene. "Come, boys, we are needed," shouted the captain. Over several miles the men had ridden at top speed. When on level ground, the jaded horses were given a brief rest, while the men viewed the ludicrous "Battle of Gravely Ford" from a distance of three miles. Excepting a brief respite while the cattle were bunched during the worst part of the storm, the Indians had been in their saddles or bare-back, during a known period of not less than thirty hours, and during the larger part of the time were riding like demons in their efforts to keep the leg-weary animals on their feet and from scattering while urged to greater speed by their whipping, yelling tormentors. A hurried glance at the "field of battle" disclosed the incredible fact that Indian persistence and endurance had scarcely diminished. A part of the livestock had disappeared behind the hills that guard the mouth of Salina Canyon, and the others were being forced to even greater speed in the final effort to reach safety within the sheltering walls of the gorge. A half-mile or so to the north of the left flank of the hustling redmen a company of white cavalrymen, fully fifty strong, under command of Colonel Byron Pace, as was subsequently learned, were "engaging" a solitary Indian. Mounted on James Ivy's imported stallion, Black H a w k also subsequently learned, was entertaining his white antagonists while securing more time for his warriors. Scattering puffs of smoke proved the activity of the whitemen. Riding in an oblong circle, and firing) as he reached the point nearest the enemy, Black Hawk reloaded his rifle while on the home stretch and returning was ready for another shot. A well authenticated report is that one of the defenders of home and country received an Indian's bullet in his heel.



Evidently, Colonel Pace wanted to kill the Indian, and save the stallion. Discouraged at the result of his effort, the colonel ordered his men to fire in volley at the unoffending horse, and the gallant racer fell. From behind the dead animal Black Hawk continued reloading and firing until a spent bullet struck the intrepid chief at the upper part of his abdomen, and, glancing downward, inflicted a serious but not immediately fatal wound. Pressing his hands to his abdomen, the chief made a hurried retreat, and amid a shower of bullets reached safety among his companions, who, after first aid, bore him to safety in the wilds of Emery County. During the brief interval of rest, Captain Owen was formulating a plan by which the cattle might be recovered. By effecting a junction with Pace's command, they would be able to gain the mouth of the canyon in advance of the slow-moving cattle. This maneuver would compel the Indians to abandon the animals, and to seek safety through an opening to the south. With that object in view the final race for victory began. It was a disorderly stampede against time and distance. Perhaps live minutes elapsed when Captain Owen abruptly pulled his mount to a standstill-—"What the hell" was his astonished comment. Colonel Pace's command was in full and speedy retreat toward Manti—the hap-hazard riders from Millard County were mistaken for a reinforcement of Indians, charging directly down upon the near-sighted residents of Utah County! With slackened pace, Captain Owen led his men across the river and to the deserted battle field, where lay the only victim. Even in death the stallion was a noble animal. Caught in midair, one could see by the furrows ploughed by his front hoofs that momentum had carried him forward several yards to his final rest. It was a deeply chagrined and resentful company that went into camp in the desolate town of Salina. It was about 10 a. m, when Captain Owen dispatched two men in search of military headquarters. In substance his message contained the following: That his company was in camp at Salina; that he was unaware of the plans and whereabouts of his superiors; that unless otherwise instructed by two o'clock next morning, it would be assumed that troops were making an effort to intercept the Indians ; that his command of nearly fifty men would proceed up Salina Canyon and make an effort to effect a junction with the main body of cavalry. Meanwhile, at four o'clock p. m., a reconnaissance in force would be undertaken to determine the progress and position of the Indians. (It was fully 20 miles to where



the Indians would be safe from interception, and even without pausing for rest and feed, the exhausted ponies and cattle could not cover the uphill grade, among trees, undergrowth, rocks and creek crossings short of 20 to 24 hours. A night-march of fresh cavalry from headquarters could easily have intercepted them.) At four p. m. the men were enroute to the canyon. At the entrance scouts were advanced and instructed to keep sharp lookout for lurking redmen. The company had penetrated the canyon a distance of perhaps a quarter mile when the scouts returned and reported horsemen coming down the trail. Retreat to the knolls and cedars at the mouth of the canyon was hurriedly effected, and preparations made for defense. Captain Owen's message had been delivered, and hurried arrangements were made to intercept the reconnaissance party, rather than the Indians. The stranger horsemen delivered a message instructing Captain Owen to report at headquarters, at Grass Valley, a few miles southeast of Manti. Consideration for the weary mounts, induced Captain Owen to defer the nearly 20-mile ride until next morning—evidently there was no rush. The Fillmore men reached headquarters early in the forenoon. Colonel Byron Pace's company were mounted, evidently awaiting orders for another scouting expedition. From their saddles the Fillmore "Indian chasers" had a close-up of the Utah County troopers. They were typical frontiersmen—theirs' was not the responsibility for the long-range "engagement," nor for the precipitate retreat. Instructions were to return to Fillmore and await further orders. A week or so after the return of the Fillmore cavalry, were received to again take the field; that they were to companied by a guard of infantry, baggage wagons and days' rations for an expedition of "chastisement" of Black and warriors, and to report at Salina.

orders be acthirty Hawk

By way of Round Valley; thence to Sevier Bridge; thence up the river to Gunnison and north to Salina was nearly 100 miles, and' over a typical frontier road. On arrival at Salina, Captain Owen again dispatched messengers to headquarters; that the Millard County troops were encamped at Salina and were awaiting instructions. Orders were to return to their homes —that peace had been negotiated—that the Black Hawk W a r was over.



T h e t w o expeditions, i n c l u d i n g t h e t i m e t h e m e n w e r e under a r m s a w a i t i n g o r d e r s , h a d c o n s u m e d m o r e t h a n t h i r t y days. A b o u t forty y e a r s after t h e expeditions, s u r v i v o r s a m o n g the Millard C o u n t y m e n applied t o t h e P e n s i o n B u r e a u for t h e usual recognition for service in I n d i a n w a r s , as did o t h e r m e m b e r s of the U t a h militia enrolled for service a g a i n s t Black H a w k . Imagine t h e i r profound s u r p r i s e a n d deep d i s g u s t a t receiving copies of t h e following d o c u m e n t in r e p l y to t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s : "This company was mustered into service at Fillmore, Millard County, June 10 (11), 1866, by Colonel Thomas Callister, and started in pursuit of the Indians that made the raid on Round Valley; they followed them into Sevier County, came up about three hours after the battle at Gravelly Ford; they were then attached to General Pace's command, and followed up Salina Canyon. They were in active service ten days, and mustered out June 20, 1866. "I hereby certify that the above account is correct, (Signed) H. B. Clawson, Adjutant General Nauvoo Legion.': N O T E — G e n e r a l Clawson w a s not in the field, and is not held responsible for t h e w o r k of a reckless s u b a l t e r n , w h o merged the t w o expeditions into one, added t h e n a m e s of t h e infantrymen t o t h o s e of t h e c a v a l r y m e n , called it " t e n d a y s , " a n d "let 'er g o at t h a t " ; t h i s , in addition t o falsehood c o n c e r n i n g a t t a c h m e n t to Pace's command. F o l l o w i n g are t h e n a m e s of t h o s e on t h e m u s t e r roll to which General C l a w s o n r e f e r r e d : (Read from head of first column down. Only those whose names are marked with an asterix (*) are now known to be living.) Captain J a m e s C. O w e n , Lieutenant W i l l i a m K i n g , Peter Huntsman, Marcellus W e b b , Volney King, Henry Crump, Josiah F . Gibbs,* Platte D. Lyman, Jesse H u n t s m a n , G e o r g e Croft, Amasa Lyman (Jr.),* H e n r y J. M c C u l l o u g h , D o r u s B. W a r n e r John N. McBride Henry E. Hatton,* Orson Holbrook, William Hatton, Joseph H . Holbrook,

John Felshaw, A l m o n Robison, A l b e r t Robison, Joseph Payne F r a n k l i n Carlin, James Knights, H e n r y Teeples, Culbert King, Nelson B a r t h o l o m e w , James Dougherty, Dennis Dougherty, Brigham F. Young,* Ephraim Tomkins, E d w a r d Skinner, Joseph Prisbey, Mortimer Warner J a m e s Ivy, F r a n k Ivy,


Edward M. Webb, John King, Sims L. Mathens, William A. Ray,


Henry McArthur, Richard Ivy, Ferguson, Shindy Ivy. Names of Infantrymen

Captain Joseph Pugmire, Wesley S. Trescott, Christian P. Beauregard, John Dutson, William Bishop, Edward Partridge, Christian Hansen, Wesley Dame Robert Henry, James Lambert,

John Pilling, William Press, William Holt, Robert Barrow, Horace Russell, Lewis Brunson, Allen Russell, Abraham Carlin, John Avery, Minor Prisbey,

It was during the latter part of April, 1870, that a stranger Indian introduced himself to Bishop Thomas Callister at Fillmore, and became his honored if not welcome guest. Slowly dying of tuberculosis, induced by a gunshot wound, received on June 12, 1866, Black Hawk had returned with the dual purpose of making peace with the Great Spirit and of effecting reconciliation with his Mormon foes. The presence of the Pah-ute chief caused a mild furore, and many there were who desired merely a glimpse of the Round Valley raider, but in his splendid humanity and forethought, Bishop Callister requested that his guest be not disturbed; that tomorrow—Sunday—Black Hawk would meet and talk to his white "friends." The especial incentive for the redman's visit was that in the later '50s, Bishop Josiah Call of Fillmore, and Samuel Brown, son-in-law of "Uncle" Reuben McBride, while returning from Salt Lake City with several hundred dollars, received for beef steers, were murdered and robbed by Indians a couple of miles south of present Juab station on the S. L. & L. A. Ry. At two o'clock the next afternoon the meeting house was jammed with an eagerly expectant audience, not the least expectant of whom were the men who, nearly four years previously, had been "hot" on the crimson trail of Bishop Callister's guest. With head erect and dignified steps, as unperturbed as a white geneiral, Black Hawk, preceded by the bishop, marched to the platform, and was seated at the right hand of Bishop Callister, and next to "Uncle" Reuben McBride. With arms folded the outlawed chief calmly surveyed his auditors. After preliminary



exercises, Bishop Callister briefly introduced his guest, and stated the object of his presence. Personified dignity in every movement and gesture, Black Hawk deliberately arose. Ignoring the pulpit, he stood at the east side, directly in front of "Uncle Reuben," whose son, Reuben A., acted as interpreter. Speaking exclusively in Pah-Ute, the slowly dying chieftain rapidly rehearsed the story of his early grievances. How the white invaders had taken possession of the hunting and fishing grounds of his ancestors; of the insolence of some of the white men; of the whipping and occasional killing of his warriors. Evidently, the speaker had little regret for his raids in Sanpete and Sevier, merely referring to them in defence of his retaliations. He denied complicity in the murder of Call and Brown; expressed sorrow over the killing of the young sheepherder and aged farmer during the Round Valley raid— that it was against his orders except when necessary; that none of his warriors had any grievance against the settlers; that had he been so inclined, every man, woman and child could have been massacred; that the raid was forced by starvation of his people. Black Hawk concluded his speech with a not deeply repentant plea for forgiveness. Bishop Callister moved a vote of forgiveness of their late enemy, who was preparing to meet the Great Spirit, and requested that the audience express their views. The suspense was broken by "Uncle" Reuben McBride, who briefly spoke against the motion; then suddenly turning on the redman: "You black murderer, you killed Bishop Call, one of the best friends the Indians ever had, and you murdered Sam Brown for his money; you black devil. I will N O T forgive you." In the language of the street, Black Hawk "never batted an eye." One grim "NO," and the one-time dreaded chieftain was absolved from mortal responsibility for his heritage of the ancient law of "an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth." Note.—Frank E. King, a native of Massachusetts, and a Utah pioneer of 1857, a man of exceptional courage, honor and veracity, who recently died at Marysvale, of which he was also a pioneer, told the author of this narrative, that he and his wife during the Indian trouble in Sanpete County, occupied a farm a mile or two west of Manti; that during hostilities, and at various times, scores of Indians, including Black Hawk, were his guests; that strictly observing President Brigham Young's admonition that it "is cheaper to feed than to fight the Indians," they were invariably fed, and treated with like courtesy accorded to whitemen; that not once during their visits did the redmen refer to their difficulties with the whitemen.



T H E W A L L A R O U N D FARMINGTON Dictated to Junior Hess, Davis County High School By John W. Steed In the early fifties after many families had settled in Farmington, the people met together and decided to build a wall around the town to serve as a protection against the Indians. Of course, at this early date the Indians were not at all friendly, so the pioneers sought every means of protection for themselves and their families. The leaders first secured the help of every able bodied man in Farmington. Then they set to work, using two sets of forms. The dirt was mixed with water in much the same manner that we mix cement today. Then it was shoveled into the first set of forms. After the forms were nearly full of the mixture, the men were obliged to get into the form and tramp the substance into place with their feet. The first application was allowed to set until it became hard; then the forms were moved and rebuilt on top of the first height and the same procedure was followed again. The wall, when completed, was from five to six feet thick at the bottom and tapered up to about three feet on top. Its height was approximately twelve feet. In some places it reached the height of fourteen feet. It took several months to complete the wall because the pioneers had many other things to do along with the building of the wall. The wall had seven entrances or gates. There were two gates on the south, one where the Bamberger railroad enters Farmington, and the other just east where the state highway runs. The east entrance stood in the center of the east boundary of the town. There were two west entrances, the first where the road leads to Lagoon Park and the second just a little farther to the south. The other two entrances or gates were along the north wall. Each gate was twelve feet in width at the top and somewhat more narrow at the bottom. These so called gates or entrances had no swinging gates such as one would imagine, but they were guarded every night, especially when there were warlike Indians about. The wall covered about 150 acres of land and some parts of it are still remaining. It was a splendid example of workmanship, when we stop to think that the Pioneers built it of dirt and were otherwise handicapped by not having the proper tools and materials. Although the pioneers of Farmington had no war with the Indians, the wall served as a barrier and it is said that many warlike groups passed them by because of the wall.



T H E JOURNAL OF ROBERT S. BLISS, WITH THE MORMON BATTALION (Concluded) Frid 2d July Spent in making preparations to go home; Laot Evening saw a sail to the windard this morning She entered port She proves to be a small Schooner Sat 3d July 1847 Last night Rode to the Drove 12 miles & this morning came in to Sandiego before breakfast got my horse Shod for our Journey Sun 4th 1847 To day was a Scene of Joy in celebrating our Independence; the firing of Cannon & Small arms with Suitable Toasts the day was spent, the Inhabitants partisepated with us most cordially & on the whole it ended with no accident but with the best of feeling both with Soldiers & people We now have received orders to march forthwith to the City of Angels on the Purbelo to be there on the 16th to receive our discharge 1

A few days more & we shall go To see our Wives & Children too And friends so dear we've left below To save the Church from Overthrow 2 Our absence from them has been long But Oh the time will soon be gone When we shall meet once more on Earth And praise the God that gave us Birth Mon 5th & Tues 6th Spent in making preparations to March Wed 7th & Thur 8th July also Spent in preparations for a march to Pueblo San Delos Angelos or the City of Angels to be discharged Fri 9th July 1847 Again took up the line of March traveled about 12 miles & encamped where our boys herded our mules &c Sat 10th Started Early; on our way near the Sea Serjt Rainey & myself Saw Something verry white our curiosity was such we let our Animals Graze & went to see what it was; when we came to it there was laying before us I suppose 100 Acres of Salt about y2 an Inch deep over the Surface many places \y2 Inches we could Gathered barrels of it I took about a pint for my use as beautiful as I ever saw traveled about 30 m & to San Luis Rey



Sun 11th this morning while waiting for the Command to come up Visited the Church and Vineyards Marched about 11 miles & camped at San Bernardo De Los Floris near the Sea coast visited the Church & Indian Village Mon 12th marched 16 miles side of the Ocean & of it when every few waves would wet our horses feet I Selected a few Shells for a memorial of the Great Pacific Camped at St Johns Mission the Church here is built of hewn-stone but now in ruins as is all the Missions I have seen Tues 13th 1847 Marched 20 miles & encamped near Santa Annas Ranch this day traveled over a plain near where we encamped & Saw within 4 miles square 15 or 20,000 Cattle & horses Grazing at one view; one Man living within one or two miles of here owns 12,000 head of Cattle; the hills & mountains is speckled with Cattle horses sheep & Goats Wed 14th July traveled over one continuous plain about 20 miles encamped at Riota Ranch near an excelent Spring of water this evening a Spanish Gent & Lady came to camp had the privilege of smoking the the cigar of friendship with them Thur 15th is the last day of our service in the U. S. Service; took up the line of march Early this morning & traveled about 9 miles & crossed the San Gabriel River where Gen Kearney had his Battle continued our march 9 miles farther & arrived at the City of Angels about 4 Oclock this is the most Beautiful place I ever saw as to some things the Orchards & Vineyards are as fine as heart can wish here I drinked of the Juice of the Vine to my Satisfaction & eat most delicious Pears &c Frid 16th Were Mustered & discharged for which I felt to thank my Heavenly Father that I! had been preserved to accomplish the work I was sent to do thus far; from the 16 to the 211 we were detained to receive our pay & prepare for our Journey to our beloved families Wed 21th 1847 Just 12 months ago to day we left C. Bluffs for this country & to day the camp commenced to move on for our destined home was appointed one1 of the Pioneers to go ahead of the main body conciquently we marched about 8 or 10 miles to day & encamped on the Purbelo River near a Rancheros or farm; Some beautiful & Picturesque mountains on either side of us Thur 22d July Started Earley passed up the valley about 14 miles to San Fernando & encamped at the foot of the mountains Gen Peco visited the camp this afternoon he commanded the Spaniards at the Battle of San Pasquall south



of this he is an Intiligent man above the common Spaniards. San Fernando is his Establishment we learn by some of our boys who came to camp to night that the main camp will move tomorrow here we bought our canteens full of wine as we expect to get no more till we arive at Bear Valley Frid 23d July 1847 Commenced our March early up the Mts we passed on the ridge of one mountain where there was only a mule path & on either side of us was an awful gulff my head grew dizy & I dare not look into the Chasms below; we passed in safety down the other side of the Mts to a Spring & encamped 8 or 10 miles from our last encampment Sat 24th Continued our march 10 miles to San Francisco the last Ranch we expect to find on our Journey here we encamped to buy Beef Cattle & some more Provisions for our use we are in a delightful Valley surrounded by the Everlasting hills of California; we are now about 180 miles North of San Dieago still the sun at noon is almost verticle or over head but we have the trade winds from the Ocean which makes the atmosphere delightful Sun 25 Mon 26 & Tues 27th lay in Camp to Regulate for our Journey bought 42 Beef cattle & Wed 28th Started for home we assended one of the most difficult mountains I ever passed we lost above half of our Cattle in crossing the mt & heated some others so they probably die & be of no use to u s ; we came to the top of the mountain & encamped in a small valley where we got water in the holes of the Rocks for our animals (12 m) Thur 29th July 1847 Started earley & passed up the mountain through the most dificult Pass I ever beheld in all my travels about 15 miles & encamped by a spring where there was plenty of Grass for our animals Frid 30th this morning killed all of our Beef Cattle & Jerked it thirough the day & packed it the next morning ready for a start Sat 31t Started earley continued up the mountain & reached the divide about 2 O.Clock P M then decended 4 or 5 miles & encamped by a beautiful Stream of Water after Staking out my horses I assended the mt to some Spruce trees near the top & took a view of the Mountain Cenery it was Grand in the extreme; saw many signs of Bear Antilope & Deer; this is a General watering place for those animals; found the head of a Bear which I brought to camp; our Indian pilot said it was the bear that killed a man in this place while writing one of our boys said there was a Grave within a few rods of our



camp I left writing & visited the Grave I read on a tree at the head of the Grave Peter Lebeck killed by a bear Oct 17th 1837 with a Cross over the writing and the letters I—S Sun Augst l t 1847 This day I am 42 Years old 12 month ago to day we marched into Fort Leavenworth on our way to this country Many are the hardships & privations I have seen the past Year God grant I may not see so many the year to come took up the line of march down the mt about 4 or five miles & come to a large valley Saw a lake about 10 miles in the center of the valley traveled to it and encamped verry little Grass for our animals & poor water; dug about 4 ft for water & found it but it was as salt as brine so we were content with the other came about 15 m to day; Saw many Antelope Bear Elk & to day Mon 2d lay by till about two O Clock P.M. waiting for Pilots before us is a Slough miles in width & in places 8 or 10 ft in depth & in the center a River so we will have to go around it traveled about y2 miles & encamped waiting for the' main camp to come up bought of the Indians Green Corn Millons &c came 5 miles & encamped with the main body; Tues 3d Came about 8 or 10 miles to day on a large River called the Twolarry River which abounds with fish I saw some 2 ft in lenght caught a few &c to night had a talk with the Indians of the Tule tribe the Chief told us we were the best men that had traveled among them while Tears almost come in his eyes they are settled on the! border of this valley whis is 40 or 50 miles in breadth Saw many Elk to day Wed 4th Aug passed up the River 6 or 8 miles to the place of Crossing here we swam our animals & passed our baggage over on the heads of our men & on a rude Raft; Camped on the west Bank of the River; a herd of Antelope Ran through our lines to day Thur 5th Augst traveled over Mts about 30 miles & encamped by a pool of Brackish water Frid 6th Started early & came about 10 miles & encamped Still in the mountains by plenty of Water for ourselves & animals; this afternoon Assended a mountain to look out our Road on our Right Stretches out the California Mts on our left lies the Tule Lakes the largest is nearly as large as Lake Erie in the U-States; plenty of Deer Bear Antelope &c here; we are now coming into the Country of Wild Indians; the Spaniards call them munche marlow (viz) verry bad Indians Sat 7th traveled about 15 miles among Mts to day & encamped in a fine valley this country is full of Indian Trails & Indians habitations



Sun Augst Sth 1847, Traveled 8 or 10 miles to a fine River where we encamped to obtain a Guide to pass the Chain of Mts on our Right & to Rest & make Repairs for some Rugged M t s ; we have meetings occasionally & the Spirit of God is with us & we do & will Rejoice & praise our God for his Goodness & Mercy to! us in all of our Journey thus far Mon 9th Augst Came 25 miles to day among mountains & valleys ; Saw a human Skull lying by the Road Side as we came along to day; camped by a beautiful River & a large valley Interspersed with timber; in this valley we passed many Mounds like those on the Mississippi River Tues 10th Augst Swam our horses &c over the River & came Down the River 6 or 8 miles & camped to wait for the whole camp to come up passed an Indian Buryal Ground to day here are many Indians who are trading with us dayly Wed 11th Passed over a plain 25 or 30 m & encamped on a stream of Water we Suffered much for water & in conciquence of the Extreme heat; the hot air would nearly burn our faces as we came over the Plain & many were sick even to vomit; our Animals also suffered much Thur 12th Last night about 20 Indians warriors came into Camp they were so agitated they could hardly speak but we assured Them we were their friends ; they then distributed Grass-nuts & sweet water to us to drink & concluded with a friendly dance & then retired to their lodgings this morning were saluted with the well known sound of the domestic fowl crowing as naturally it seemed as if we were in a Settlement of Civilized men. a part of our men started out this morning with an Indian as Guide to look for a pass across the mountains East of u s ; lay in camp to day; were visited by the Indians & treated to another Dance to day; two of our men returned to Camp to night & reported our Rout was favorable as far as they went; but the mountains ahead looked munche marlow (viz) Verry Bad & Rocky the River up the mountain holds its with & Deph; this is a Great River & one of the finest streams for mills in the world; the water is pure & clear & full of Fish they are the principle food for the Indians; to day some of our boys went to the Indian Town with Guns & they were so frightened that they fled with all of their Effects they could carry with them; we sent word to pacify them; the name of this River we suppose is King River & we expect this is the tribe that Walker had a fight with & killed some 30 of them at all events they are much afraid of fire arms



Frid 13th Augst Commenced our March through the Canion or pass up the mountains nearly an East course for about 10 miles & encamped on a branch of the Main River; thus far we have found the Mts less Steep & Rocky than we expected & we hope we shall have no difficulty in the Assent or Decent of this Range of Mountains; Saw many Deer & Antelope to day; W e have been troubled by wasps & Scorpions of late last night I was stung by a scorpion & I was not alone for at least a half doz of our men was Stung also; they creep into our Blankets nights which makes them verry unpleasant Bedfellows there is a number of kinds' of Snakes in this country But they are Generally harmless; I have seen on the Rout a kind of Rattle Snake 5 or 6 foot in length a dark mud colour as well as the large yellow Rattle Snake; Hares Rabbits & a kind of Ground Squirrel & plenty here; the Rackoon Badger &c are in abundance; different kinds of wolves are so plenty that I have seen but few days in California without Seeing more or less of them; they used to Steal our meat while in quarters at San Diego & their howls are as common to us as the Barking of dogs used to be our boys have just returned from the mountains & report unfavorable; they have been 15 miles ahead where the atmosphere was cool & they could see snow on Mts ahead & so verry Rocky that our animals could not possibly pass the Indians also threatened them; much therefore our only alternity is to go back & take the Rout for Suters fort north of this 150 or 200 miles before we can possibly cross the Mts & we expect we shall suffer much before we can get to the north pass; there is one satisfaction we have we shall have a good chance to explore the Great Tule Vally its Rivers & Lakes &c Sat 14th Augst 1847, commenced our march down the River for about 4 miles & forded the River on some Rapids & then continued down the River untill we came nearly oposite where we encamped night before last; we were met by the1 Indians; who after we had encamped treated us with a Religious Dance they acted out many a farce Such as killing the Osd or Big Bear & fighting with the neighboring tribes of Indians one of the dancers fained to be Shot he Groaned and made many Jestures & finally fell the Chief actor took a pipe Smoked in his Ears face & hands felt of his pult & he soon came to life & shortly Danced as well as ever; they presented Grass nuts & had presents Given them in return they are at war with the tribe that chased our boys Yesterday Sun 15th Augst 1847 took up the line of march a northwest course & traveled about ten miles where we found water by



diging let our Animals feed for about 2 hours & then Continued our Journey for 10 miles farther & came to a noble River larger than any we have crossed yet here we encamped; saw many antelope today Mon 16th Spent about 2 hours looking for a suitable place to cross the River crossed on some Rapids & continued our Journey for about 15 miles the same course we did Yesterday & encamped on a dry River bed where we obtained plenty of Water by diging in the Sand; Saw plenty of Antelope & the most signs of Elk to day I ever saw; this valley is fine the only lack is timber & Rains seasonable for crops; we have seen no Rain for 3 months past & not as much as a Good Shower for 5 or 6 month & I have not heard it thunder or seen lightning since we left the Buffalo Country on the Arkansas River Tues 17th continued our march about 20 or 25 miles & encamped found plenty of water standing in pool our boys had fine Sport to day after an Elk; he finally distanced them and escaped the smartest horse; he was a fine fellow his horns were probably 4 or 5 feet in length; and he Gently turned his horns over on his back Galloped away from his pursuers with ail ease; came Northwest to day; had a fine chance to view the Country to day on account of being with Cap Everet to assist him in viewing the Rout & directing the company forward Wed 18th Augst 1847 Started at the usual hour a little after sun rise & traveled over the most Gravely Road we have yet seen on this Rout came about 25 miles to a beautiful River & encamped; here 2 Indians came into camp who could talk Spanish they informed us we were with 2 or 3 days Ride to Suters fort & close by Capt Freemonts trail; so we will have a Road soon to travel in; last night after we camped some of the boys killed an antelope which was fine Eating here we bought Water & Muskmellons and Corn Ripe of this Years growth this Evening another Antelope was brought into Camp Thur 19th Came about 20 miles & camped on another River about the same size that we left this morning; here we found Indians with a Recomend from American Travelers; all of the Rivers we have past are fine as I ever saw in any country; we have passed more timber to day than usual; our boys take much Satisfaction in Swiming in the pure waters that are Gently flowing towards the Great western Ocean Frid 20th Came down the River & on 10 miles & then struck across to another River & camped for the night making about



20 miles to day here we found many Indians who told us there was Americans Living on this River 3 Leagues below Some of our men will go down in the morning to See them & try to Get some Inteligence of our families of the Church here we bought Melons Corn & excelent Salmon of the Indians ; this River is like all the rest I have noted beautiful indeed & the Land Timber & Soil look better as we progress North Sat 21t Struck across North about 10 miles to a Pond Laying in the bed of a Stream that is now dry or does not r u n ; this Pond is full of Fish; we had some for supper Sun 22d 1847 Last night called a meeting to do some business & received some Good instruction from Prest L. H. Hancock & others marched about 12 miles & came to an Indian Settlement; they brought us a blanket full of Mellons & Green Corn for which we gave them some Trinkets & continued our march to a River & encamped; making some 25 miles to day This is a fine stream but not as large as some others we have passed; we have passed more timber to day than usual & more of a mountain Scenery our Camp is near a couple of Norway Pine Trees verry beautiful & we can see much pine above us on the Mts Mond 23d Rode with Capt Averet to day to assist him in his hard Labour to find out Suitable passes in the Mountains we are now passing among; we assended a Mt to day & Saw one of the most beautiful views of the Scenery I Ever beheld the California Mts were on our Right & the course of the Sacremento River far to the north & west of us & the many Rivers we have crossed united in one; all Making their course to the great Pacifick with the extensive Timber Skirting the Rivers Extended plains &c was one of the Grandest views I ever saw in any country; after a few hours travel we came to an Indian Settlement as soon as the Children saw us they fled to their Mothers for protection one little fillow squat down by the back of his mother as close as he could get for fear we should harm him; Came about 15 miles to & encamped Tues 24th Came about 4 miles & Struck a waggon Road which gave us great Joy after traveling so long without a Pilot among a thouthand Indian trails; our Pioneers Gave a Shout & it was Echoed along the whole line traveled on the Road some 11 miles to a River; making about 15 miles here we found an American living in a new house who informed us we were 20 miles from Sutters Fort & have come the best & most direct Rout we could therefore we acknowledge the hand



of our God in all of our travels for his Spirit & Peace has been with us all the while our Boys have Just arived in company with a brother Living in this country they have seen two men who went out with Bro Brannan to relieve the church they tell us that they have arived at bear valley & some 500 waggons are on their trail & will arrive soon at the same place; this News caused Universal Joy among u s ; to think we should in a few weeks see our Families & Friendj we have been so long absent, from was truly good News; Wed 25th our Pioneers went ahead about 20 Miles & Camped near Fort Sutters here we met some of our boys that took the Rout to Montera &c Our Camp is some 4 miles from the Fort on the American Fork about 200 miles from the Ocean but notwithstanding the tide water sets back above our Camp; this is a fine country and the people are making money fast but they complain of sickness here like all new countrys I have been in; in time this will be one of the Greatest places for Comersial advantages in the world where this River puts into the sea is one of the finest harbours in the world I am informed some 500 Whale Ships winter in Francisco Bay Annually Thus 26th Augst Lay in Camp to wait for the main camp to come up & to make some repairs &c Last night the Brothring called a meeting at the main camp & as some were not prepared to go over the Mts it was agreed that they Stop here if they wished untill spring with the Blessing of the Presidency & Camp; Wages are from 30 to $60 per month; it was also thought best as some traveled faster than others & as we were out of danger & now to enter on a regular Road that we would travel in small companys Especially through the pass of the California mountains. Frid 27th Continued our Journey 18 miles over a Plain towards the Mts N.E. & encamped on a dry water course where we obtained water by diging in the Sand Sat 28th Augst 1847 Continued our march 22 miles over a plain to a settlement & encamped on a Stream called Bear Creek near a Mr. Johnsons here are abundance of Fish as in all of the Streams this Side of the Mts Sun 29th Started East, directly for the Mts traveled about 18 miles & camped at a Spring among the Mts Mon 30th Last Saturday night we had a Shower with some lightning at a distance & yesterday I heard Thunder among the Mts East of us for the first time in California to day traveled 16 or 18 miles & encamped in the Mts passed much good Timber to day such as Yellow & White Pine White



Cedar &c and our Camp is under some lofty Norway Pine trees Tues 31st Augst Continued our march over difficult Mts some 15 miles & encamped by a cold Spring as cold as if it run of from Ice Passed a Grave to day & read on the head board Ann West Died October 16th 1846 Aged 60 Years Saw where Emigrants had chained trees to the hind end of their1 Waggons to keep them from running on to their Oxen; the Pines Cedars & fir trees are as large as I ever saw in any country I saw some Pines 6 & 8 ft through at the butt Wed Sep l t 1847 marched 11 miles to Bear Valley here is a General Camping place & some emigrants were hemed in by Snow Last winter 10 ft Deep they left 2 waggons here Some trees the stumps are 10 or 12 feet high where they cut their wood for fuel this Valley is hemed in by Mts Bear Creek runs through it & it is probably 1 mile in length & % mile in Breadth, we are now 60 miles from the settlement on the Sacremento River Sept 2d Thur Lay by to rest our animals & prepare for assending the main Chain of mountains which are before u s ; I have Just returned to camp from the Mountains we will assend in the morning I Saw where the Emigrants let down their waggons with ropes from pine trees it is a bad mountain to pass but not half so bad as we came over in Sonora Called the Back Bone in my travels to day I found plenty of Huckle Berrys different from any I ever saw before large & delicious last night our horses Snuffed Some at wild animals I also Saw a Curious Spring a Short distance from the upper end of the valley Frid 3d Sept 1847 Assended one of the highest mountains wc have yet passed & traveled over Rocks & difficult places for about 15 miles & encamped near a board nailed to a tree which read James A Smith Died Oct 7th 1846 aged 26 years we passed one waggon which had been left by emigrants & a number of Lakes or Ponds in the M t s ; our Camp is on the head waters of a River that runs a westerly course Sat Sep 4th Continued our Journey up the Mts passed a number of Lakes & Camped at a Spring which is made by the Snow melting on the mountain above it; this water is as cold as Ice water for it! is ice water the Snow lies on the Mts North & South of u s ; some of our boys brought Snow to Camp Last night there was some frost at our camp; we are now about 9338 ft above the west Sea or will pass trie highest peak of these mountains tomorrow; went out a Hunting this afternoon Killed nothing but saw plenty of Bear &



Deer tracks thought I had done pretty well not to meet the Bear that made such Big tracks Came 12 miles Sun Sept 5th 1847 Continued on march up the Mts for about 5 miles & came to the height of the Mts or the Region of perpetual Snow; here I Stood on Snow some 4 ft Deep & viewed the Mts crowned with Snow all around me I thought no wonder we have frosty nights & cannot Sleep on account of cold in our blankets we soon decended one of the steepest Mts I ever saw; how emigrants ever got their waggons up the Mt I know not Some 4 miles down the Mt we passed some cabins where some of the last Emigrants Died or killed each other; I am told out of 90 only about 30 lived to go through to the Sacramento River to see the Bodys of our fillow beings Laying without Burial & their Bones Bleaching in the Sun Beams is truly Shocking to my feelings; we came 18 or 20 miles & encamped on a fine Stream of water & plenty of Grass Mon 6th Sept Started early & traveled 3 or 4 miles & met Elder Brannan who was returning from Salt Lake he informed us that Capt Brown had got instructions for us from the 12th & letters &s we therefore! returned to our camp to wait for him to arive & also to wait for the whole camp to come up Tues 7th Sept to day Capt Brown & company came into camp I received a letter from my Wife dated in Augst 1846 I was Glad to hear from my family but my Joy was filled with Sorrow when I was informed verbally of the Death of my old Mess Mate Bro E. N. Freeman whom I left on the Rio Del Nort he was buried on the Banks of that River he was one of the best men I ever knew & Faithful in all that he did; I had anticipated great Joy to meet him again but his work is finished on Earth & he is gone to do a Greater work than he could do here May God Bless his Dear Companion & Relatives with his Spirit to bear up under the Severe trial it must be to them; I have Just heard of the Death of Henry Hoyt one of our Brothring who was behind us he Died a few minutes after riding up one of the worst Mts on this Journey; he was buryed as decently as the circumstances would admit of; my heart is Grieved for the affliction of this people how much we have to endure God only knows but we will Yet triumph over all & if faithful receive a full reward for all of our Sufferings & privations Wed 8th parted with many good Brothring here hoping to meet next Summer at Salt Lake & continued our Journey some 18 miles & encamped in a small valley surrounded by Mts covered with pine Thur 9th Sept 1847 Came over a Mt tq the Trucky River con-



tinued down the Same about 25 miles & encamped where the river puts through a Mt Frid 10th continued our march down this River 30 miles & encamped to day met the Emigration for California some 35 waggons &c the road up this River crosses it 28 times we wet our Provisions to day some in fording so much Sat 11th Sept 1847 This morning the most of our company left in order to reach the Bluffs this fall we lay by till 4 O Clock to rest our animals for we have 40 miles to go without Grass or water; at 4 0,C we started & left the Trucky River across the Desert about dark met Emigrants for California & reached the hot Springs about mid night we onpacked our animals to rest them as there was no Grass having come 20 miles in the morning boiled our Coffee in the Spring & continued our Journey 25 miles farther being Sun the 12th Sept & encamped at a Slough on the Desert; the hot Springs we passed are a Great Curiosity they Boil in one place so as to throw the water some 3 or 4 ft high & steam & smoke over a large place; there are holes where hot air bursts out over probably an acre of Ground with a continual noise making it dangerous to travel among them Mon the 13th Sept traveled up the Sink of Marys River 20 miles & camped Tues 14th traveled 30 miles to day & struck the Marys River where it is a Running Stream here we encamped poor Grass for our Animals in conciquence of the Emigration this fall Wed 15th Sep 1847 again took up our Journey Came 15 miles & found a letter left for us by our boys they are one day ahead of us here we encamped tolerable Grass for our Animals Thur 16th Sept 1847. To day came 30 m & passed a company of Emigrants bound for Origon we passed the Origon Road about noon & Camped on the River Frid 17th Sept came 25 miles to day & encamped on the River Good Grass &c our Animals are verry much worn out Sat 18th Sept in conciquence of Bro Gardner being Sick Bro Mc,Cord & myself were left with him either to come on alone or wait untill the Last Company comes Up which will be some 4 or 5 days yet Bro Gardner is verry sick to day with the Chills & Fever Sun 19th Sep Moved our Camp up the River a Short distance on account of Grass Bro Gardner is sick with chills again to day if he gets no better I know not how he will travil we look for the other company to come up tomorrow; I shot



a Duck Yesterday which made us a fine supper; it is thought unsafe to travel alone on account of the Indians; the last company of emigrants we met had 7 cattle Shot by the Indians on this River above this place; we See no Signs of Indians at this place & lay down last night in peace after prayer feeling that no evil would befall us Mon 20th Sept 1847, Lay in camp Still hoping Bro Gardner would be better so as to travel as soon as the last camp Should come u p ; he has the Chills every day & this is the 3d day we have lay by & our Brothring do not come up Yet; if we felt safe in traveling alone "we should go on a few miles every day before Bro Gardner is sick but it probably will be wisdom for us to wait for our Brothring to come up before we go on; we are lonesome but employ our time as well as we can; we are a long distance from Salt Lake Yet & have been on the Road about two months since our discharge without tents or anything to Shield us from the Storms but our Blankets; but traveling has become a kind of Second Nature to us so we do not complain Tues 21t Sep To day about 11 O,Clock our Brothring Came up & we were glad after Staying near 4 days alone they Camped with us the remainder of the day; there is now over 20 of us & some 3 or 4 sick therefore we will have to travel slow Wed 22d Sept Started Early once more on our Journey came about 20 miles & camped on account of the Sick; our Camp is near some hot Springs Thur 23d Sept traveled about 18 miles to day & encamped there is some 4 or 5 sick which makes it hard for them to travel & Slow & tedious for u s ; our anxiety being great to See our Families and friends Frid 24th Sep 1847 Came about 15 miles & encamped at the crossing of the River Bro Gardner & others have chills every day when we Shall arive in Salt Lake I do not know we cannot leave the Sick & must be Patient Sat 25th came about 15 miles & encamped on our way to day found the fragments of a letter left by Prest Hancock & others for u s ; could find out but little by it as the date &c was gone suppose the Indians found it & tore it in Pieces they follow our camps for Plunder &c they are a wreched set of Lamanites wild as the deer on the Mts Since we arrived in camp some Brothring came in who told us some 8 or 10 horses are gone from our company; they followed on their tracks & found 8 horses stolen Sun 26th Sept Came about 18 miles & camped last night the



Indians stole 1 more horse from us making 9 in 2 nights; After we camped to day I went to the River to wash & saw a Trout; I imediately returned to camp & took my hook & line & caught 4 fine fish the 4 would weigh about 5 lbs they are a little different from the Trout in the States having fine Scales but in other respects like them Mon 27th Sept traveled still up the River about 15 miles and encamped; Caught a fine Trout for supper they are as fine fish as I have seen in all my travels; our anxiety is great to see our Families but we have to move Slow on account of the Sick among us Sept 28th (Tues) 1847 this morning left the Marys River & passed some mountains 17 miles over & struck the River again traveled up the River about 3 miles & encamped making 20 miles to day here a lone Indian came to us & extended the hand of friendship to us we had but little feelings of friendship for him after having 11 horses & mules Stolen by the Rascals he left us after catching 2 Trout for his supper Wed 29th Sept passed up through a canion of the mountain into another Valley here we were met by some 20 Indians in friendship their object appeared to be to beg tobacco fishhooks &c came 23 miles to day Thur 30th Sept continued our Journey up the valley & about 9 0 Clock came to the hot Springs; they are several Rods across & Boil & Smoke even a number of feet after they run into the river which is' close b y ; came about 20 miles to day Saw several Indians who came to beg as is their custom Frid lt Oct, Continued our Slow Journey up this valley (called the Hot Springs Valley) about 20 miles & encamped opposite a burning M t ; it Smokes like a Coal pit on the Side next to us we have seen the smoke for 25 miles back Some Indians came to us to day; I asked them as well as I could what it was pointing to the Smoke one of them told me it was a hot place by putting his hand down & drawing it back quick & blowing & biting his fingers as if they were badly burned I was much amused with them to see how injenius they were to convey by Signs what they wanted us to understand; If they wanted tobacco they would put a stick in, their mouths & puff like Smokers & if fish-hooks they would bent their fingers in the shape of a hook point to the River & Jerk as if in the act of fishing; I could understand them quite well by their signs indeed they have a nack to make you comprehend Sat 2d Oct 1847 Left the Marys River & passed up a valley with some water in it, over a hill where the water ran an Easterly course; here are some Pits full of pure water & verry deep



one of our horses fell in one & we had to pull him out by main Strength; we dare not camp here but continued our course about 8 miles further making some 25 miles to day The Volcano we camped in sight of last night Shone beautiful all night Sun 3d Oct 1847 came about 23 m & encamped in a large valley by good spring water; there is plenty of Antelope here but they are shy of us Mon 4th Oct This morning 6 or 7 Indians came into Camp all horse Back & armed with British Fowling Pieces; we traded some with them which detained us untill about noon, then traveled passed a hot Spring from which Boiling water came forth in a rapid current Sufficient to carry a good mill Several rods below I put my hand into the current & could not bear it in a moment; came 10 miles & encamped by some pitts full 'of good water how deep I know not the valleys in this country have many such springs in them which are verry dangerous for Animals to go near them we had 2 horses fall in them & saw places where others had been hauled out Tues 5th Oct Came 20 miles to day and encamped by more of the Pitts Situated in the (Sides of the North) Soon after we encamped an Indian rode up to the camp traded some & put back the way he came upon a gallop we expect he will bring others to night or in the morning Wed 6th Oct our Indian came this morning with another with him and traded with us some more; came 25 miles to Goose Creek & encamped some 5 miles below where we struck the Creek Thur 7th traveled down Goose Creek about 18 miles & encamped our boys have fine sport catching Trout to night; the streams are full of Fish in this country Frid 8th Oct 1847 left Goose Creek & traveled over Mts about 25 miles & encamped in a small valley surrounded by tremendious rocks with a small spring brook running in it Sat 9th Oct Continued our Journey about 20 miles to a branch of Raft River & encamped; some Pine & Fir on the Mountain as well as Cidar but verry Stunted in its growth Sun 10th Oct traveled down the river about 25 miles & encamped passed an Indian Settlement to day the valley here is large & we cannot be far from Fort Hall how far I cannot tell Mon 11th Oct Came down the River some 20 miles & encamped near a Road we suppose leads to Origon we cannot be far from the Fort from Every appearance Saw 3 Graves of Emigrants to day



Tues 12th Left Raft River & struck an East course some 7 miles & came to a Noble River running West we crossed 2 fine Streams of water & camped on the River (we suppose is called Snake River) having come 22 miles to dav Wed 13th Oct 1847 Continued our Journey up the River about 25 miles & encamped on the River passed a number of beautiful falls on the River to day Thur 14th Oct Continued our March for about 20 m & arrived at Fort Hall visited Capt Grant of the Establishment bought some Necessarys for our Journey &c Capt Grant read his remarks on our people who had passed him this fall, as recorded in his Journal; He says they were gentlemen payed for all they got of him & he heard no Oath or vulgar expression from any of them but he could not say so in regard to Other people who passed him this season; He is a Gentleman of Inteligence & Observation Frid 15th Oct 1847 left Fort Hall & struck a direct South Course for the Salt Lake traveled 20 miles in a verry cold Wind & encamped on the Banock River Sat 16th Oct Continued our Journey up the River some 18 miles & encamped the Mts on our Right are covered with what I suppose to be firr Timber Sun 17th Oct Left Banock River & passed over a chain of Mts about 20 miles & encamped on a stream of water Mon 18th Oct Missed our trail & traveled among the Mts all day & made but 3 miles; however we found our Rout again the same day Tues 19th traveled about 20 miles today on Sick Creek so called in conciquence of the trappers all being sick who eat of the Bevers they caught on this Stream Wed 20th Oct continued down Sick Creek 20 miles & encamped; saw many Buffalo Bones since we left the Fort Thur 21t Oct traveled about 25 miles & encamped on Bear River; this is a fine stream of Water & runs here through a fine valley bordered by Mts with timber probably suitable for building saw some Antelope to day; Geese & Ducks are plenty on this Stream; we find the best kind of Grass in this country Frid 22d Oct 1847 Continued our Journey by crossing Bear River & going down the valley; passed a cluster of Hot Salt Springs also passed a lake where we saw the most Geese & Ducks I ever saw in any country at one view; camped on a beautiful Stream coming down from the mountains East of us here I would like to Settle & make me a farm it is the most



delightful place I have Seen since leaving the Pacifick coast Sat 23 Oct Continued down the valley & passed some Salt Hot Springs in Sight of a part of Salt Lake about 25 miles & arived at Settlement of the Utaw Indians where we found a white man with his flocks about him of horses Cattle Sheep & Goats he informed us we were in forty miles of the Church; he told us 566 waggons had arrived besides the Pioneers and Soldiers; God Grant we may find our Families after 15 months Drill in the U. S. Army & our constant fatigue in traveling 9 months of the time some 3 or 4000 miles Sun 24th Oct made 20 miles to day & camped at a Ranch where our people were herding Animals the first man I saw was T. Bingham my old Mess Mater who was left on the Rio Dell Nort sick to return to Purblo to winter with the Detachment that left us at Santa Fee; from him I learned my Family were not here which was one of the Greatest trials of my Life; to think that I had left them with the Expectation to meet them here & had suffered almost every thing but Death & traveled some 1500 miles since the 21st of July with Joyful hope of Meeting them here and thought of the Happiness of their society again to be disappointed; to hear they were 1100 miles still from me & no possible Chance of getting to them in 8 or 10 months to come is almost to much for me to bear & without any means to Get Provisions or Clothing for the Season that is approaching if I could cross the Mts I would not. rest till I saw them but the Mts are now covered with Snow & my animals would die & I Should perish among the Mts & never see them here therefore I must wait till Spring before I can go to them; I ask God the Eternal Father to bless them & presirve them in health untill I meet them one more on the E a r t h ; & I ask it in the Name of Jesus Christ Amen Mon 25th Oct arose Early & came 20 miles to the Settlement of our people Saw many Glad to see me which comforted me some; this is a delightful valley surrounded by Mts with beautiful Springs of water Tues 26th Oct To day visited the warm Springs & bathed which was a great relief to me after traveling in the dust so long; the water is Just warm enough to bathe in it seems at first to warm to be Immersed in but after the body is wet & the first sensasion is over it is delightful Wed 27th Oct 1847 last night found me a home for the present at my cousins C. Turner which is a Great Relief to my mind I ask God to Bless him & his Family & Substance on my account for all of his kindness to me



Sun 7th Nov 1847 From the 27th of Oct to the present time employed my time in assisting Mr. Turner in building a house; we go 12 miles to a Canion of the Mts for Timber & obtain Beautiful Fir which makes fine Cabbins to live in; there has arrived 556 waggons this season besides the Soldiers of th.e Battalion & we have nearly enclosed by Blocks of buildings about 40 acres or 4-10 acre lots built around each 10 acres; there are from 2 to 5 miles north of us many warm & Hot Springs & seviral small lakes full of Ducks & Geese; the valley extends some 30 or 40 miles South 20 miles west 10 East & probably 100 N o r t h ; the great Salt lake is 20 miles from us laying west & North from the T o w n ; Salt is so plenty we can go to the lake & Shovel it up & soon load waggons & the water of the Lake is so Salt that 4 Barrels of water will make by boiling 1 Barrel of fine table Salt as good as can be made From the 7th to Sun 21st Nov the weather has been Generally fine with the exception of a few warm Snow Storms the snow; fell from 6 in to 12 in depth; the Snow is now nearly gone & it is warm like Summer W e have moved into our Cabbin in the Fort & I am as comfortably Situated as I could expect but Still am lonesome on account of being absent from my Family; I Pray God to Bless them in my absence untill I can go to them in the Spring From the 21st November to the 6 Dec we have had fine weather a light frost nights but warm days, insomuch that Grass is now growing so that Cattle &c are doing well the ground has not been froze except in places where the Sun cannot come; if this weather continues a short time there will be probably 1000 Acers of Wheat Sown & some corn ground plowed besides Onions Lettuce &c put in Gardens the prospect looks fine for this people here From the 6th Dec to the 19th we have had some snow & the Ground is now froze 6 or 8 inches deep; Yesterday I crossed the Jordan & other streams of water on the Ice; but this morning the weather is warm & looks like Spring If the Lord would send warm weather for the Grass to grow & melt the Snow & Ice in the M t s ; how soon would we see our Families in the States From the 19th to the 25th frosty nights and warm days; the Snow is now nearly gone & the weather fine; to day we were waked by the fireing of Cannon & the day was spent in Work by some & amusement by others & at night Dances & plays by the Yong People; I visited one of my Old Neighbors who was driven out of Illinois with me & partook of a fine Christ-



mas Dinner; but my Joys are damped by the consideration of my Family; they are more than a Thousand miles from me & no possible chance to go to them till Spring; their trials Privation and afflictions is unknown to me & were they known I could not releive them; but the Same Being who has Preserved me in all my travels I trust will be their Support in every Situation they may be placed in From the 25th to the 1 day of Jan 1848 the weather has been mild; some snow fell & now is on the ground cattle & horses are doing well in the valley; to day the l t of Jan a publick meeting was called to adopt Lawsi for our regulation for the time being or untill the question is settled between U.S. and Mexico & we know whose hands we shall fall into; time runs Slowly away & will! untill I see by Family & friends From the l t to the 12th Jan the weather has been fine; the frost is out of the Ground & the People are plowing & sowing Grain & making Gardens; to day 12th a company Starts for Winter Quarters Jan 13th yesterday removed my lodgings to Bro Drakes last night had some rain the People are making extensive prepa Here the journal ends as unceremoniously as it began, in the midst of interesting entries. "I found that the portion here," (in the San Diego Historical Society's library), writes Mr. George I. Putnam, "was apparently a fragment taken out of the middle, inasmuch as the diary ended at the foot of a page with a portion of the word 'preparations.' The page on which this word would be completed, and following pages if any, are not here. This has been a source of regret to me, because I realize the value of a full copy; and also because my sympathy had been enlisted on the side of the diary's writer and I wished to learn if the hope that sustained him through so many privations was at last realized. Unless the final portion of the diary is with you, I fear I shall never know the outcome of Bliss' devotion and effort." Unfortunately no more of the Bliss Journal has been found; and the only intimation of his future movements is contained in the following brief entry in the Documentary History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, for 1848, page 35, in the Church Historian's office in Salt Lake City. "Wednesday, May 3, 1848. Capt. Gardner, accompanied by Samuel Lewis, Alva C. Calkins, William Garner, Ami Jackman, David Stewart, Robert S. Bliss, and Abner Blackman, arrived at Winter Quarters from the Valley, bringing many letters." Winter Quarters were at the Omaha-Council Bluffs frontier settlements ; "The Valley" refers of course to the Salt Lake valley.

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