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UTAH Preservation/Restoration A Publication for the Preservationist


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Every color on this house goes with every d o r on this house.

The house above is painted in 39 different colors. None You may have a less ambitiouspaint job in mind. But, no of them clash. Honest matter how many colors you use, you can't go wrong with We did this mammoth paint job to demonstrate our Arneritone Color Key Paint exclusive, infallible system for color selection.It's called Visit your local Ameritone dealer or Howells Stores Color Key. And it works like this: today and ask to see their Color Key display. It's just We put all the colors in the world into two color palettes. one more reason to use long-lasting Arneritone Color Key 1and Color Key 2. Every color in Paint Color Key 1goes with every other color in Available at Howells Stores located in: @=o@ k~odSalt Lake City, Orem and Ogden, Utah; and Color Key 1.Color Key 2 works the same way. pant , Boise,Idaho. The house above is painted all in Color Key 2.

howells ..,

The historic Hale House, Heritage Square, Los Angeles, California. (After this picture was taken. the house was repainted its original nine colors.)

Ameritme Paint Corpomtion, Long Beach, California,a memberof the GROW GROUP 01980


A Utah Mansion in Transition

by Robyn Vieta

S

ome eighty-one years ago, Thomas Kearns, millionaire mining magnate, statesman and philanthropist, had a dream. His dream was about a house-a house he would have built for his family on fashionable Brigham Street in Salt Lake City. He envisioned not the ordinary "white picket fence," "shutters at every window" variety-rather a sort of palatial residence, a mansion fashioned after a French chateau his wife, Jennie, had admired while living in Europe. In 1899, Kearns engaged the architect, Carl M. Newhausen, and plans were begun on the home that was destined to become the showplace of the West. Craftsmen and artisans of all descriptions labored on the building for

nearly three years. In late 1902, the home was finally completed and the Kearns family took up residency. Although Thomas Kearns died in 1918 of injuries resulting from an automobile accident, Jennie Kearns lived on in the mansion making it a warm home not only for her three children, but for nieces and nephews as well. In 1937, she deeded the home to the State of Utah to be used as the official Governor's residence. Three governors and their families occupied the mansion. During this time, no major changes were made in the physical structure of the building-funding for this type of upkeep being rather scant. This fact, coupled with a declining commitment for historic oreservatioi, contributed to the gradual deterioration of the structure. In 1956, a new modern executive residence was built on Fairfax Road. It was thought to be more comfortable and better suited to the needs of a First Family. Thus, an era of grandeur and elegance in our Utah history came to a close. The Utah State Historical Society became the tenants in 1857. Certain improvements were made on the structure during the Society's tenancy, heating was improved, and a new roof was put on. Unfortunately, the original tin roof was not replaced, due to a lack of adequate funds to restore the roof back to its original appearance. However, old electrical wiring and plumbing posed constant problems. Again, funding to the Division of State Historv was limited and the Division was on'ly able to secure funding for the exterior restoration of the mansion. In 1971. the Utah State Historical Societv secured its first matching grant to begin the long restoration of the exterior. The Utah State Historical Societv succeeded in getting four federal grants for the exterior restoration, as well as a grant for the interior restoration of the governor's mansion. In 1978, the Governor and Mrs. Scott M. Matheson, with the Utah State Legislature and a grant from the Utah State Historical Societv, , . had a dream to restore the palatial old mansion at 603 East South Temple, and make it usable as a home for the First Family. The legislature voted to make a major commitment to preserve and protect the residence. The executive residence on Fairfax Road was sold. Proceeds of that sale were used to make the mechanical repairs necessary to bring the structure into compliance with local and state

building codes. The architectural firm, Environmental Associates, was retained, and William 1. Nelson became the project architectural consultant. Rocky Mountain Contractors was engaged as the general project contractor under the direction of the architect and Dick Tholen of the Utah State Building Board. Plans for the renovation had already been approved by the Utah State Historical Society, in conjunction with the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, Department of the Interior. At the suggestion of Governor and Mrs. Matheson, the Legislature appointed a committee known as the Executive Mansion Fine Arts Policy Commission. The commission is comprised of men and women from all walks of life whose responsibility is to be the "trustees" of the mansion. It is their dutv to make all decisions on anv matter concerning the Executive Residence. Time alone had taken its toll on the beautiful oolite limestone exterior. Phillip Condra, an expert stone mason from the Midwest, began the tedious process of replacing a i d recarving stones that had been completely eroded. In order for him to perfectly match the stones. it was necessarv for him to obtain limestone from the original and now defunct quany in Sanpete County. His job has been a long and arduous procedure and one that will not be completed for two or three more years. His commitment to quality workmanship has truly become a labor of love. Many other people had similar dreams and their dreams were also realized in the second phase of the Kearns Mansion restoration project. It is an ongoing project of refurbishing and restoring the unique interiors of the residence, enabling it to adequately accommodate present and future Chief Executives and their families. Because there were limited public funds available from the Utah State Historical Society, Friends of the Kearns Mansion became involved. This is a group of people charged with generating and collecting contributions from the private sector. At this same time, the Utah Chapter of the American Society of Interior Designers agreed to plan and supervise execution of the interior restoration and design of the house. Under the direction of Bert Vieta, A.S.I.D., Project Design Coordinator, and co-chairman Thomas Frank, A. S. I. D.-ten designers donated their professional services. Hundreds and


cared enough about historical preservation to try to rekindle sentiment for it. No attempt was made to make the Keams mansion a museum. It has not been taken back to 1902-it has been moved forward to today. It is an "adaptive restoration." People live here and work here. The house must be functional by today's standards, and at the same time be a symbol to future generations that the work done was valuable and worthy of preservation. Monies for the interior restoration were in limited supply from the Utah State Historical Society and the State Building Board. Therefore, the Utah Heritage Foundation, under the chairmanship of Terri Rampton and Barbara Newsnup, commandeered an extensive curriculum of fund-raising events. A thirty-eight member committee devoted six months to the preparation of events aimed at educating the general public to the various aspects of the mansion restoration, at the same time raising funds to cover the cost of furbishing the interior. Dinners were held in the grand ballroom of the mansion, teas were also held for several hundred people, with the opportunity to meet the Mathesons and view the newly completed interior. Orientation week was specificallydefined in-depth view of specific aspects involved in the restoration. Subscribers to this week's activities enjoyed lectures by the artisans, craftsmen, designers and architects involved in the project. Laura Wells of the Heritage Foundation and Margaret Lester, authors of Brigham Street, were on hand to impart current historical and biographical information. Wrapping up the week was an entertaining round-table discussion, including past residents and household employees. A full week was devoted to public tours, and thousands of people eagerly waited in long lines for up to an hour to view the splendid interior. And so another era begins in the lengthy and colorful history of the grand old structure. Since Mrs. Kearns deeded the mansion to the state in 1937, there has never been a time when this beautiful residence was not the t for a brief period, the Governor did not live there. The Kearns mansion has truly been a "Utah Mansion In Transition."

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hundreds of hours of free planning sessions were given by these people as a ~ u b l i cservice effort. For nearlv three years, they carefully planned, sketched, arranged for, and supervised every detail of the interior design. Furniture manufacturers, carpet mills, fabric companies and lighting manufacturers throughout the country and parts of Europe were contacted. They were told the wonderful story of what was happening to this grand old mansion in Salt Lake Citv. Thev were genuinely interested and many agreed to supply their goods at wholesale cost or below. As monies were made available through private donations, furnishings, carpeting, wall coverings and accessories were ordered.

Mr. Vieta, realizing that restoring an old house means much more than merely applying a fresh coat of paint, contacted painting contractors he knew to be skilled in the type of craftsmanship the residence required. These artisans labored for months at truly minimum wages. Their expertise is phenomenal. Things began to come together more quickly now, and as the last hand-painted mural was hung, the last bit of specially milled beehive carpet laid, and the last piece of furniture placed, it has become apparent that great attention has been paid to detail. Every square inch of the Keams mansion has received the best workmanship available. This occurred only because a large group of people


by Hazel S. Parkinson

R

ich in magnificent woods from France, Belgium and the Russian Ural Mountains, the mansion interiors also featured green and white African and Italian marble facings and an all marble kitchen, parguetry hardwood floors, intricate carved wood columns and fireplace fronts, and Mosaic tiles in the bathroom and main entrance. Craftsmen and artists wanted a visual statement of their skills which would remain a tribute to the original workers who built the mansion nearly 80 years ago. They are successful; the craftsmen have met their goal. All the wood was first cleaned and sanded. Cracks and damaged areas were filled, and tinting color and

lacquer were then used to blend in damaged areas. Next step was the use of sanding sealers which provided a bond and filling action-a key to which coats of varnish or lacquer adheres. Careful attention was paid to color, grain, and character of the wood. O n much of the woodwork, several coats of satin lacquer were sprayed on, and then the wood was hand rubbed on the final coat to achieve a certain patina. Areas of particular abuse such as handrails and counter tops were given finishing coats of polyurethane varnish and then hand rubbed with rottenstone and water for a piano finish. The mahogany in the formal dining room represented special challenges because of the nature and cut of the

wood. Wainscot panels were of crotched or fiddle back mahogany, cut the type of in thin slices to grain most often seen in violins. Stress produced by irregular grain plus the unstable character of that type of wood cracks and buckles. Several steps were used in restoring the wainscot panels. First, they were sanded to reduce high areas. Then, three applications of a combination wood filler, sanding sealer and oil color was rubbed into each panel to fill the cracks. Finally, a lacquer sanding sealer was sprayed on and then sanded off. The process was repeated several times. All of the mahogany in the room underwent much of the same process to bring the wood up to standard. Window areas required eight restoration steps because of the


Elegance In Wood Kearns Mansion-The

Governor's Home

The main hallways and stairwells in the mansron are of solid oak importedfrom France.

condition and nature of the wood. The ceiling in the dining room was a gold leaf muted by a coat of glaze. Workmen tested it to find a cleaning method and solution. The surface was so soft that it had to be hand damp-sponged, very carefully, to remove the surface soil but not the glaze. Ceilings in the library and family dining room also were challenging. High relief motifs-flowers, garlands, leaves and ribbons had been painted over. The decision was made to restore these motifs to their original color and antique effect. Artists experimented until they found a glaze effect that matched the original work found intact in other areas. With the new glaze and antiquing it was almost impossible to

tell the difference between old and new. The antique look was achieved by applying tinted liquid over a base coat. It was then wiped and pounced to remove the glaze from high spots, thus enhancing the design. In the drawing room-parlor area, the parquetry floor was striped, bleached, then sanded and sealed and given top finishing coats. The floors blended with the principle putty color, the paint used on the walls and ceiling, and the plantation shutters used in the two rooms. The area provided a nice contrast to the French oaks, Flemish oaks and red mahoganies in the adjacent rooms. With the addition of both French, Chinese, and contemporary "livable" furnishings, plants and accessories the

All phocographr: R~chardSpnnggnte.

now "Executive Residence" is something of which all Utahns can be truly proud. It is a magnificant structure of the past, present, and the future. Principal craftsmen working on interior restoration were Jim Wilhelmsen, Ralph Wilhelmsen and Joe Larsen Jr.

Editor's Note: Continuing research in wood restoration updates new and preferred methods of wood refinishing. Therefore, it is recommended that prior to the restoration of woodwork of historic significance, a consultant be appointed and all specifications be reviewed by professionals.


Kearns Mansion parlor

Wood in the State Dzning Room is Russian Mahogany.


Utah Preservation/Restoration 1980 Volume II/Issue I1 $5

Contents

ON THE COVER: ZIONS FIRST NATIONAL BANK (since 1972) Heber Clty, Utah Basically V~ccorianin style the Hatch home is an excellent example of adaptive reuse. Built ln 1892, the home ofAbram Hatch was designed to serve as a home for his famlly and as a place for conducting his social, business and civlc activities. Mr. Hatch was sent by Brigham Young in 1867 to establish himself as a community leader. He operated a mercantile store, a farm ranch and served as a member of the Territorial Legislature.

UTAH PRESERVATIONIRESTORATION is published annually by University Services, a Utah corporation with editorial and business offices at 1 159 East Second Avenue, Salt Lake City, Utah 84103 (801) 532-3361. Copyright @ 1980 by University Services, Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright contents may not be reproduced in any manner without prior written permission of University Services. EditorlPublisher C . Nina Cutruhus Editorial Consultants Wilson G . Martin Coordinator Preservation Section U t a h State Historical Society Larry Jones Preservation Consultant Utah State Historical Society Assistant Copy Editor Pat Aitkins Staff Photographer Robert D. Welch Contributing Photographers Robert Springgate Bruce 0 . Browning Larry Jones Graphic Design C . Nina Cutrubus Typography Stacy Glissmeyer Natalie Muir Barbara Ashurst Old Photos: Utah State Historical Society Photo Archives.

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Individuals interested in submittine manuscript for publication please mail to University Services, 1159 East Second Avenue, Salt Lake City, U t a h 84103. Publisher assumes n o responsibility for manuscripts or art not accepted. Postage and addressed envelope must accompany material if return is requested. For further information call (801) 532-336 1. U T A H PRESERVATIONIRESTORATION single copy is $5.00plus $1 for postage.

A Utah Mansion in Transition by Robyn Vietu If Walls Could Talk-Deveraux House, Past and Present by Stephanie Churchill and Nancy Davenport Tintic Mining District: Utah's Multiple Resource Historic District by Philip F. Notarianni Reprieve for an Unused Street: An Intricate Puzzle. 25th StreetP'Two-Bit Street" by Colette Penne Keeping Track of History at Ogden's Union Station by Teddy Griffith Living With Antiques by Pat Aitkins Early Lighting by Larry Jones The Far-Reaching Influence of Gustav Stickley: Mission Furniture in Utah by Nancy Richards Culmer House by Larry Jones and Lois Harris Splendor in Glass by Barbara Murphy 19th Century Wallpaper by Samuel]. Dornsrfe, ASID, FRSA Experience in Moving by Lois Harris Preservation Planning Towards an Urban Aesthetic by Wilson Martin A Tour of Prairie School Architecture in SLC @by Peter L. Goss, 1980 USHS Update by Wilson Martin Surviving Your Rehab Project by Henry Wh~teside Annotated Bibliography by Cindy Vail Interior Design in the Restoration of Historic Homes by Elizabeth Crowder Adaptive ReuseIFirst Security Bank, Smithfield by Dianna s. Ellis Paint Color Research by Larry Jones


If Walls Could TalkDevereaux House, Past and Present by Nancy Davenport & Stephanie Churchill

D

evereaux House! Almost everv salt Lake resident knows something or other about Devereaux House through newspaper articles and television reports from the past nine years. To most people, this shabby and neglected mansion surely seems stripped of any importance in our heritage. Few are aware of the role that the men who built it played in the birth and fight for survival of our state.

DEVEREAUX HOUSE in its splendor, 1871

In order to properly appreciate the history of this grand landmark and the reasons behind the present efforts to restore it to its appropriate place in our heritage, one needs to become familiar with the story of William C. Staines and William Jennings. William C. Staines, the "English Gentleman of Refinement and Culture," was born in England in 1818 and, in 1841, joined the Mormon Church. Two years later, he emigrated to Nauvoo. Staines first settled in the Salt Lake Valley in September of 1847, having crossed the plains with the Parley P. Pratt-John Taylor Company as historian and clerk. Probably the Territory's finest horticulturist, Staines spent much of his youth learning all that he could from his father's gardener, and, on his arrival in Salt Lake, Brigham Young is said to have remarked to him, "You tell us what we can raise here and we will plant it." As an expert gardener he not only cultivated fruits and flowers on his three hundred acres in Davis county but, for a time, was superintendent of the gardens and orchards of Brigham Young. History records that on September 18,1857,ten years after his

arrival in Utah, Staines displayed six kinds of peaches from his own orchards. Besides his intense desire to "decorate and beautify Zion," Staines also served as the first territorial librarian in Deseret. He was a founding member of the Deseret Agriculture and Manufacturing Society, served in the territorial legislative assembly, and was a delegate to the constitutional convention in 1856. In 1854, he was listed among the city's businessmen as a "Wine and Soirit Merchant," and he opened the Gaines and andl land Restaurant on Main Street in 1856. However, his greatest success was as emigration agent for the church from 1863-1881. In 1857, Staines built a cottage on South Temple. The grounds originally consisted of two fine garden lots of an acre and a quarter each, so that these spacious grounds, with their delightful cottage, made quite a mark on the growth of the city. Deviating somewhat from the strict plan of the citv. , . Staines built his house 130 feet back, near the center of the grounds, and set out in the front was the finest part of his orchard which was


unsurpassed by any in the valley. With his love of culture and his artistic mind, he made his home a spot of restful beauty. However, this house of peace and serenity soon became a stage for war. In the winter of 1857, with Johnston's Army approaching from Wyoming and Colorado, President Buchanan sent Thomas L. Kane to act as intermediary between the United States Government and the Mormons. The newly appointed Governor of the Territory, Albert Cumming, had come west with Johnston's Army and was spending the winter at Camp Scott. Kane was successful in convincing Governor Cumming and his wife, Sarah, to proceed with him to Salt Lake City, so that Cumming could assume his appointed position. O n April 12, 1858, Cumming was met with military honors at Warm Springs and escorted into Salt Lake City where he was greeted and made comfortable at the Staines house. After a peaceable solution to the war had been reached, Governor and Mrs. Cumming remained at the Staines house for quite some time; and, in June of 1858, Sarah Cumming sent a letter to her sister in the east, giving an excellent description of the house.

It stands back from the street-flowers and lilac bushes in front-peach and other small trees on each side of the house and extending to the street* Zarge garden behind and on each side. The house is built like an English cottage* piazza in front, with flat open work pillars for vines-and a piazza above the first with heavy carved work all around it, with ornamental windows. I went into the large parlour. There was a really magnificent and monstrous piano-London made-and new eight octaves-sent for my use by Heber C. Kimball-some handsome chairs, sent for my use by Brigham Young-und other furniture, carpets, and other comforts sent by other church dignitaries. Then in a china closet, near a large dining room, were cups and saucers and other table furnishings, tablecloths, every thing had been thought of, for me to use, so that I need not be obligated to unpack, till matters are further settled. The letter added that Staines' wives were in Provo, where they were expected to remain. Sarah Cumming conjectured that Staines may, therefore, rent them the house.

In 1865, Staines sold his house to Joseph A. Young, son of Brigham Young, for $20,000. Two years later, Young sold it to William Jennings, a man destined to become Utah's first millionaire, for $30,000. The eight-year-old house had seen much activity in a relatively short time, but the arrival of Mr. Jennings brought something entirely new: two wives and a patter, or perhaps thunder, of twenty-five pair of little feet. William Jennings was born on September 13, 1823, at Yardley, England, where he spent the first twenty-six years of his life. He emigrated to New York in 1847 and later moved to St. Joseph, Missouri, where he took an active interest in the cattle business and, in 1851, married his first wife, Jane Walker, a Mormon. The couple came to Utah in 1852, where Jennings established the first tannery in the valley. This was the beginning of his involvement with the business life of Salt Lake, and from that time on, his life was devoted to the expansion of the city's business interests and the development of its resources. From tanning, he turned his attention to the manufacturing of cloth and was among the first to establish mills for that purpose in the state. William Jennings married his second wife, Priscilla Paul, in 1855 and, a year later, left with his second wife on a mission to Carson Valley where he supplied the mining camps of that region with meat. He built his second wife a substantial log cabin which he cut from the surrounding forests. It was in this cabin, on February 25, 1857, that Priscilla gave birth to their first son, Frank W. Jennings. As a result of his many accomplishments in Carson Valley, Mr. Jennings is ranked , as one of the founders of ~ i v a d aas well as of Utah, and Frank Jennings became one of the first native born sons of Nevada. O n his return to Salt Lake City eighteen months later, Jennings had acquired quite a nest-egg which he used to establish a meat business, In 1860, Jennings branched out into the mercantile business. He purchased from Solomon Young a stock of dry goods amounting to $40,000. By now, Jennings was the leading merchant in Utah. In 1863, he added to merchandizing, banking and brokerage. He exported Utah products to the mines outside the Territory and is said to have been the first Salt Lake merchant to buy and ship Montana gold-dust .


DEVEREAUX HOUSE continued from page thirteen

In 1864, Jennings built the Eagle Emporium, the predecessor to Z.C. M. I. The Emporium was designed by Jennings' father-in-law, William Paul, an architect from England. Jennings purchased for his Emporium large quantities of goods in New York, St. Louis, San Francisco, and Salt Lake City . When Jennings purchased the Staines property in 1867, he also purchased several pieces of adjoining land which were more than half the city block and included the entire frontage of the block on South Temple. The handsome Staines house was then transformed into a pretentious mansion which Jennings named Devereaux House (supposedly after his family's estate in England). During this transformation, the character of the gardens became more ornamental in appearance. The area in front of the mansion was cleared of the fruit trees and transformed into ornamental grounds with iron gates at the entrance and broad carriage ways reaching up to the mansion. Upon completion, the magnificent residence consisted of the mansion, the grounds, one of the finest kitchens in the valley, a vineyard, hot-houses, stables, and a carriage house. Inside the house, the fireplace, windows, and other woodwork were engraved with vines, flowers, and various designs, all the artistry of Ralph Ramsey, the finest wood carver in the Territory. The wood was painted in Utah fashion to resemble oak,

mahogany, cherry, maple and marble. Devereaux House quickly became known for its ambience and its distinguished guests. In 1867, after the death of President Lincoln, Secretary of State William Seward was received at the Jennings' mansion. A few years later, General Phillip Sheridan, who came to Utah to establish another military post in the Territory, was entertained at Devereaux House by Brigham Young. Eventually, even President Ulysses S. Grant was to spend an evening with the gracious Jennings family. Devereaux House was to be later honored by visits from General William Sherman, who became a close friend of Jennings, and President Rutherford B. Hayes, on their brief visits to Salt Lake City, as well as by many distinguished persons from abroad. The Japanese Embassy paid a call and drank wine with the wealthy merchant, and the wife of Sir John Franklin of England was entertained several times by Mrs. Jennings. Needless to say, William Jennings and his majestic mansion shaped the early history, and perhaps destiny, of this Territory. Throughout his lifetime, Jennings succeeded in every business venture he undertook; but in 1879, he was faced with a new challenge-organizing the Utah Central Railroad of which he was to become vice-president. He also helped to organize the Utah Southern Railroad Company and succeeded

HERE

PESTERDAY..

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Brigham Young as its president. In later years, he was a director of the Deseret National Bank and, from 1873until his death was superintendent and later vice-president of Z.C.M. I. From 1882 to 1885, Jennings served as Mayor of Salt Lake City, and it was during his administration that Liberty Park was formally opened to the public. He died on January 15, 1886, in Salt Lake City, the father of 25 children, 13 of whom, with his widow Priscilla, survived him and received the bulk of his fortune. Following Jennings' death, the Devereaux House began a long decline into its present lamentable state. Among other uses, it served as an alcoholic rehabilitation center and as offices for a secondhand machinery company. Little was done to protect the house from weather and, over the years, deterioration and neglect took their toll. Ten years ago, following documentation of the house by the Historic American Building Survey and its listing on the National Register of Historic Places, the Utah Heritage Foundation and the Utah State Historical Society began to investigate methods to preserve the Devereaux House. Acquisition by the state seemed the most feasible method and, finally, after several years of persuasive discussion with legislators, the Utah State Legislature agreed, in 1978, to purchase the Devereaux House for $750,000, with the understanding that no further state funds would be spent

IT'S ALL TOO POSSIBLE, as an "economicnecessity."And so, another element of our past is bulldozed out of our lives. But it's not always necessary. Our heritage can be preserved. YOU can help. JOIN Utah Heritage Foundation. JOIN Preservation education Classes for teachers and public Volunteer orientation/training Programs in schools

Volunteer activities in Public awareness Preservation advocacy Special events

Neighborhood conservation Technical services, publications

m m m m 1 m 1 1 1 m m m 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 m m ~ ~ m I I I I m I m

MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION

GONE !IDMORROW?

Name Address Phone U I urould like to participate as a volunteer. Kegular Membership: 8 15.00 Membership benefits include discount prices on tour tickets, some publications. Utah Mail u-ith Heritage checkFoundation to:

355 Quince Street

Salt Lake City, Utah 84103


THE TINTIC MINING DISTRICT: UTAH'S MULTIPLE RESOURCE HISTORIC DISTRICT by Philip K. Notarianni

T

he Tintic Mining District comprises an area approximately eight miles square and includes the Main and East Tintic areas, since these areas were the most significant and contain all of the historical resources. This district lies o n the western and eastern slopes of the central portion of the East Tintic Mountains, which includes portions of Juab and Utah counties. T h e East Tintic Mountains form one of the basin ranges of Utah, having the north-south trend that is characteristic of these ranges and whose origin has been attributed to block faulting. They are aligned with the Oquirrh Range to the north and merge o n the south with the Canyon Range and the Gilson Mountains. T h e East Tintic range is bordered o n the west by the Tintic and Rush Valleys, and on the east by Dog Valley, Goshen Valley, and Cedar Valley. Mining formed the significant aspect of the district. As such, mineralization was found primarily in the following ore runs: Centennial-Eureka, Gemini, Mammoth, Chief, Plutus, Godiva, and the Iron Blossom Ore Run. It was in these areas that most mining, commercial, and residential activity took place. Massive headframes, or gallows-frames, dot the area, as these timber-framed and steel-framed structures were utilized to lower and raise men and equipment in cages in and out of mining shafts. Such structures were part of large surface plants operated by mining companies. Adjoining these headframes are large ore dumps, comprised of overburden or low grade ores not suitable for milling or smelting. Large slag dumps, from 16

EAGLE B BLUE BELL. SURFACE PLANT, Multi-Resource District

area smelters, also exist. In addition, dry farms and ranches are evident which aid in documenting another side of this mining district. Tintic was one of the largest mining districts in area in Utah. Development, primarily in the period 1890-1926, occurred at a steady and high pace, taking into account the susceptibility of mining area to economic fluctuations both within the state and nation. Population and mining activity density were also high during the period. Population figures are put at between six to eight thousand people within Eureka City as the district's center and four other town sites. The area was inundated with shafts and other mine workings as can be viewed on U. S. G. S, maps covering the area. The types of historic resources that are most prominent all involve Tintic's character as a gold, silver, and lead mining district. Remnants of surface plants of various mining enterprises still exist; and those chosen here are those where the headframes (or gallows) are standing. Commercial, social, and public buildings are still evidenced and continue to function. In additon, examples of homes of pioneers, merchants, miners, superintendents and mining entrepreneurs remain. Railroad

structures (old depots), as well as a grain elevator, are also of prominence, Tintic's history can be categorized into four main periods during which it attained prominence: (1) 1869.1878; (2) 1879-1898; (3) 1898-1912; and (4) 1912-1926. T h e initial period, 1869-1878, covers the discovery and early years of development. T h e Sunbeam claim was the first ( 1968), followed by the Dragon, Mammoth, Eureka Hill, and Bullion Beck, to name those where structures remain. This period also produced Tintic's first mills and smelters, and perhaps most important viewed the extension of the Utah Southern Railway into Ironton (near Tintic Junction, west of Eureka) in 1878, thus giving Tintic the advantage of rail transportation. Towns of Diamond, Silver City, Mammoth, and Eureka began around the mining activity. Production of ores increased in the second period, 1879-1898. Th'1s was a direct result of better milling and smelting methods, improved transportation facilities, and the opening of new mines, especially in the area east of Eureka (the Iron Blossom Ore Run). Also of significance was the fact that operations began mining to the depths; thus, previous individual


surface operations gave way to deep mining companies. The entrance of the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad into Tintic in 1891 brought competing railroad lines. Increased production fostered increased activity; consequently, the area grew rapidly. The towns of Diamond and Silver City experienced a fluctuating growth and decline, whereas Mammoth and especially Eureka (which remain) experienced steady growth. In fact, Eureka incorporated as a city on November 8, 1892. The area's population grew, sparking growth in commercial, social, and residential building activity. A n 1893 fire inflicted heavy damage on Eureka's main street, causing city officials to initiate measures whose results are still evident-new structures were to be constructed of block or brick, and wood-framed buildings were to be covered with an iron-clad sheeting. Substantial growth characterized the third period, 1899-1912. Tintic, in 1899, led Utah in value of ore production. The east Tintic area was a heavy producer; also beginning during this time was the operations of the Chief Consolidated Mining Company, which would later prove to be a big producer. By 1900 Eureka's population grew to about 3325 (from 1733 in 1890);Mammoth, and sister camp, Robinson, and Silver City also experienced an increased population. Building of all types continued, with a significant feature being the development of Fitchville just outside the south-central limits of Eureka City. The Fitch family, from Houghton, Michigan, were the principal owners and entrepreneurs of the Chief Consolidated Mining Company. They moved their company's general headquarters near to the mine, built massive and tasteful homes, and maintained a family cemetery west of Eureka. The fourth period, 1913-1926, was marked by continued prosperity and continued work and development of the Chief Consolidated, the Tintic Standard, and North Lilly Mining companies. Values of production grew during the 1920's, fluctuating but reaching a peak in 1925 of' approximately $16,200,000. Eureka's population grew to nearly 4,000. The strike of ore in 1916 by the Tintic Standard Mining Campany gave rise to the town of Dividend in east Tintic (Utah County). Again, as in previous years, commercial, social, and residential building continued but began to decline as the depression years

The Tintic Mining District in Utah repesents the first multiple resource district in the western United States to be listed on the National Register of Historic PIaces. A multiple resource nomination is one "which includes all or a defined portion ofthe historic resources identified in a specified geographical area. " Within the Tintic district, the historic and architectural properties were surveyed and identified; desc9tion and history, as taken from the National Register nomination form, will allow the reader to understand how Tintic and its physical environment effectively document an aspect of Utah's miningpast.

MINERS COTTAGE, Mammoth Historical District

CECIL FITCH SR. HOME, Fitchville, Eureka District

commenced. Social and commercial activity during these years were brisk. Fraternal and social organizations proliferated, as they always had; many were housed in presently-standjng structures. Commercially, Eureka housed from approximately 88 to 112 business concerns, while Mammoth contained 27-54. Eureka was labeled in the press as a "little metropolis. " Milling activity burgeohed during the period. Of particular importance was the utilization of various methods of treating ores, primarily the

Hold-Dern Roasting method and the Augusting process. Also of importance during this time were the various efforts in dry farming the valleys west and east of the East Tintic mountains, especially the efforts of Jesse Knight, an important Mormon mining entrepreneur, who in 1915 erected a 50,000 bushel concrete grain elevator. Depression and post-depression years were ones of decline. Mining and commercial activity began to wane, but the Tintic Standard and Chief Consolidated operations continued 17


until the 1940sand 1950s respectively. Residential homes were moved from Eureka and commercial buildings were also removed. Presently, Eureka City still remains, with some 750 inhabitants and approximately twenty-five businesses. Mammoth has no business concerns and only 35 inhabitants. Despite the decline, the area survives, with mining still evident. In addition, the optimism that has always permeated the atmosphere of a mining town persists.

Architectural Component. Tintic's architecture was typical of that in other mining towns-typical in the sense of expressing the need for utility of architectural design and the overlapping, fusing, and combining of various architectural styles in vogue during specific times. Types found in the Eureka district include residential, commercial, institutional, and industrial architecture. In other areas of the multi-resource district, residential and industrial types dominate. Residential architecture, dating from the 1880s through the 1920s reflects various styles. The predominant type is wood-framed vernacular; that is, indigenous structures constructed in the area primarily for utility. A common type in the 1880s and 1890s was the two-room framed structure with the entrances built on the pitch side of the roof rather than the gable end. To the rear of many of these structures was a shed projection, resulting in a modified form of Colonial saltbox. Vernacular forms also utilized hip roofs; the skeletal frames were often covered with either plant siding, clapboards or horizontal overlapping wooden boards, or vertical board-and-batten. Shingle covering over the roof was the most common. Porches were often built or added, apparently for utilitarian purposes but also for decorative concerns since many exhibited ornate trim. Most miner's cottages reflected the vernacular. Various residences utilized elements of Gothic Revival. Steep pitched roofs and pierced aprons appeared on several dwellings, primarily those which belonged to merchants, businessmen, etc. In addition, the hexagonal bay-window, also reminiscent of the Gothic style, was used in some construction. Residences for mining entrepreneurs, in this case the Walter Fitch family, were strikingly different

HEADFRAME B SURFACE PLANT, Multi-Resource District

and more stylistic. Architecturally the homes in Fitchville exhibited elements primarily of the Bungalow, but some were Prairie styled. Low proportions, gently sloping roofs, and extensive use of glass also render these styles adaptations of the Midwest prairies, compatible with the existent hilly terrain. In various cases columns appear on front porches, and dormers exist but are compatible to the basic style and reflect certain adaptations made to the designs. Interiors were interesting, especially in the cases of exposed beamed ceilings that reflect the architect's study in ship design. Likewise, housing for supervisory personnel of the' Chief Consolidated Mining Company also exhibit specific qualities. Gable-framed structures reminiscent of the bungalow with notched-end rafters extending beyond the supporting walls, and with eaves of great projection, also contain elements of the western style. Such structures perhaps represent free adaptations of the styles to this particular area. Commercial architecture also reflected a wide usage of various elements. Most evident are the vernacular forms, comprised in part of framed structures with a false front of western architecture. The majority of these buildings were covered with a corrugated iron or tin sheeting as protection against fire. Stone edifices with brick or wood facades in the commercial style appeared later. Features of the above forms were an indented entrance flanked by large display windows. Facades often had ornate cornice design done in wood or metal. Italianate influences appeared in

the form of ornamental cornice design, window detailing, and floor plans common to the style, yet sometimes varied, Generally this floor plan included a tall, narrow, deep shop space on the main level with office or meeting space on the second (similar to plans of the false front structure). An indented entrance flanked by display windows serviced the main floor level. Roofs were often flat, usually sealed by asphalt, felt, gravel, and metal; and full upper stories were behind the front as compared to the deceiving empty space of many vernacular forms. Pure styles in commercial architecture are not evident; however, as discussed, elements of various styles do exist. Cast iron piers and bracketed cornices, reminiscent of the Italianate, appear. Decorative brickwork, a hallmark of the Queen Anne style, is also evident, as are elements of Colonial Revival. Stamped sheet metal, often with intricated designs and patterns, remains on numerous walls and ceilings of commercial structures. Institutional designs again followed a combination of various styles. Vernacular forms, such as the wood frame gabled St. Patrick's Church, are represented. Gothic Revival in wood was most evident in the Eureka wardhouse of the LDS Church and Methodist Church. Remaining o n the LDS Church structure is Gothic detailing in the form of lanet windows. Detailed cornices, characteristic of Colonial Revival, are also evident, as in the case of the former Carnegie Public Library. Later school construction (1920s) reflected a plain, utilitarian concern; however, earlier


KNlGHT GRAlN ELEVATOR SOUTH MAIN, Eureka

edifices ( 1890s), now gone, were Romanesque in their detailing of round arches and rough masonry. Industrial architecture is most evident in Tintic in the form of massive gallows or headframes. These structures were heavily braced right triangular units mounted over the shaft. Tintic contains three earlier (over fifty years old) varieties-the two-post wood framed Montana type, early two-post steel construction, and a four-post type. Most gallows average about fifty to sixty feet in height, and some are located with remnants of wooden ore storage bins and various other structures, usually wood, sometimes stone, that comprises the mine's surface plant. Concrete foundations are all that remain of various mills and smelters. The physical relationships of buildings to each other are endemic to mining-districts and areas. Eureka's town layout follows the geographical characteristics of the area-primarily the hilly topography. All commercial enterprises and various institutional structures are located on one long main street, running through the center of town. Wood, brick, and stone buildings run along the street with varying cornice heights. About half the original structures have been removed, but the south side of Main Street remains much the same. Geographically, headframes and mine surface plants exist in Eureka City, thus, a closeness in physical relationship between the various building types. In other areas of the multiple resource district headframes are scattered, but the remnants of ore dumps and railroad grades in the

vicinity create a vision of compatibility and continuity of the mining theme. A breakdown of the approximate percentages of building types is as follows: Residential Commercial Institutional Industrial

84%

5% 4%

7%

The heaviest concentration of these structures is found in the Eureka Historic District. Some known archeological sites do exist in the area (and are noted) but an in-depth archeological survey of the district has not been completed. Preservation and restoration activities within Tintic are almost nonexistent. Various home owners are remodeling, some quite tastefully, but no program or project exists. It was an objective of the Historic Survey of the Tintic Mining Distric to identify historic resources and make preservation staff (of the Utah State Historical Society) time available for consultation and advice concerning preservation and restoration, The choice of districts and sites within the multiple resource area is based upon two main factors. First, the size of the area-selecting surveyed archeological sites, mine sites where headframe or other surface structures exist, and other sites which aid in historic interpretation. Second, districts must represent a clustering of interrelated sites and structures. The Eureka district contains many elements found in the district as a whole, Futhermore, it still exists and functions as the commercial center. Mammoth,

composed of residences and the Mammoth mine, was the site of a once-thriving community bound by the thematic factor of mining, but it has no commercial or institutional structures. Results of the Tintic Mining District Survey are yet to be felt. The project has just been completed, but ways to utilize this material in implementing a preservation plan, primarily to aid Eureka City, will be prepared by the preservation planner working in the State Historical Society's preservation office.

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Arrington, Leonord J. "Abundance from the Earth: The Beginnings of Commercial Mining in Utah," Utah Historical Quarterly, Volume XXXI (Summer, 1963), pp. 192-219. 2. Eureka City Records, City Hall, Eureka, Utah. 3. Harris, Beth Kay. The Towns of Tintic. Denver: Sage Books, 1961. 4. Heikes, V.C. "History of Mining and Metallurgy in the Tintic District," in Waldemar Lindgren and G.F. Loughlin, Geology and Ore Deposics of the Tintic Mining District, Utah.

Washington: G.P.O., 1919. 5. Kanter, H.W.B. A Handbook on the Mines, Miws, and Minerals of Utah. Salt Lake City: 1896. 6. Maquire, Don. Utah's Great Mining Districts. Salt Lake City: Denver and Rio Grande, 1899. 7. McCune, Alice P. History ofJuab County. Springville, Utah: Daughters of the Utah Pioneers, 1947. 8. The Salt Lake Mining Review, September 15, 1899, p. 5 ("Great Is Eureka"). 9. Toone, Bessie Berry. Nuggets from Mammoth. (not published), 1966. 10. United States Department of the Interior, Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, "How to Complete National Register Multiple Resource Nomination Forms-Interim Guidelines."


25TH STREET


REPRIEVE FOR AN UNUSED STREET:AN INTRICATE PUZZLE by Colette Penne

F

or some it was "Two-bit Street," for others-simply "Twenty-fifth." For many it was the hub of all major social activity, both respectable and notorious. People from all over the world have visited here. National magazines have written feature articles about it. Healthy businesses have begun here and others not so strong have had to close their doors. But, most important, families who lived on this street experienced growing up together as did families living anywhere else. Today, it's only an echo of what it once was. These majestic buildings that once housed growing families and prospering business now, for the most part, stand unused and in need of repair. Why the Twenty-fifth Street project you ask? This street is an important part of Ogden's history and should be a rewarding part of its future. Back around the turn of the century, 25th Street was the economic center for a thriving community. It was the favorite meeting place for all walks of life-a bustling avenue, full of talk and travel and trade. Why, a doctor would say, you couldn't visit the area without becoming infected with its contagious attitude of success. And that's an ailment the town was very glad to have. The sound of the hammer from William Fife's blacksmith shop or the smell of freshly baked apple pie from the Saddlerock Restaurant near Franklin Street would just bring your senses alive with excitement. There was always a tingle in the air. New

businesses would come in just to give the area a look and end up never wanting to leave; they were like a youngster in front of Lindsey's ice cream store on a hot summer afternoon. But it was not always just business on 25th; every holiday people would pull up a bench or two and watch those grand parades move majestically up the street. Yes, at one time the entire community's progress reflected each changing emotion of these four city blocks. It could be said that Ogden City was born here on 25th Street. And, judging by its delightful atmosphere, 25th Street was a mighty proud parent. Business activities, the railroad and 25th Street became synonymous. After the golden spike was driven a few miles north of here in 1869, the residents at the west end of the street found themselves host to the grandest

railroad depot between Omaha and San Francisco. "Junction City" station is what the passengers used to call it. Thousands of travelers captured their first scenes of Utah commerce from its generous doors. That station greeted many a young soldier during the years of World War I. But then, of course, none were as welcomed as Utah's own 145th field artillery unit when they pulled into Ogden after two years of loyal service in France. There was a serious influenza epidemic going through the city at that time, but no health warnings could keep the folks from hugging and kissing their doughboys as they marched up 25th Street, around the town, and back down to the station before traveling on up north. Soldiers weren't the only people the railroad brought to 25th Street,

21


Continued from page twenty-one

however. By the 1920s, Ogden became known as the intermountain "melting pot." 25th Street was a sight of horse-drawn hacks competing with reckless "gas buggies" and persistent trolley cars for the business of a curious traveler or a new resident. With establishments like Guyon's Coffee Shop, R. Ochi and Co. 's oriental goods, Margarita Pedrosa's billiards, Nels Sorenson's jewelry, Louis Prantil's confectionary, and Ralph Johnson's locksmith services up and down the sidewalk, one could easily think he was taking a trip around the world without buying a single ticket. The original train station burned down in 1923, but n o one wasted any time building a new one. A little more than a year later, 25th Street had a second Union Station and, like the first, it became a friend to every lonely soldier between the west coast and the Mississippi at one time or another. T h e atmosphere here had changed some, however. By this time, 25th was so familiar with the impulsive attitude of the visiting soldiers that business was

22

adapted to interest them. Culture was sacrificed for casino, art moved from the fountain in City Hall Park to a movie screen in the Lyceum, and excitement could be found up a flight of stairs rather than down a lazy boardwalk. Ross and Jack's still fed their burger-spuds to a large number of local residents, but Ogden City parents soon taught their children to venture n o further west than the Ross and Jack door. Even the impressive Central School had to be sold and the students moved to more desirable surroundings. Some said business was never better on 25th Street, but'that depended on what kind of business you were in. Either way, residents had to learn to live with it. T h e last thirty years have brought the death of the railroad, and the death of the railroad has ended a century of intense life o n 25th Street. So where do we go from here? Well, what should be important in present day Ogden is the role of 25th Street in promoting downtown business. The success of two dynamic

development projects, renovation of our Union Station and construction of the Ogden Mall will be seriously influenced by the atmosphere of this street. What most hope will be a new era in Ogden commerce is an era significantly jeopardized at the moment by the uninviting appearance of a neglected friend. What about the buildings? With a little cooperation between private investment and public improvements, one of the largest sections of turn-of-the-century architecture in Utah could be restored to show healthy indications of progress. And the street? A few horse-drawn or maybe horse-powered trolleys would be welcomed transportation between the business, government, and cultural complexes soon to be in the area. Then, by adding improved lighting and streetscape designs a whole new congregation of foot-traffic could be encouraged to visit anticipating merchants all along the 25th Street walkway.


25TH STREET

The modern 25th Street concept provides a creative investor with economic opportunities as broad as his imagination. The current vacant land parcels on 25th Street not only supply enough space for commercial or residential construction, but make possible inviting plaza areas adorned with refreshing trees and flowering plants. By promoting multiple-family residential development and encouraging new or improved hotel convention accommodations, a fresh generation of tenants could be anticipated here on 25th Street. At the same time, the increases in the City tax

base, resulting from all the development, would start in motion a growing cycle of public support and public benefit. Why the 25th Street project you ask? Well, because the 25th Street proposal emphasizes full development of an economically stagnant but potentially powerful section of the Ogden Central Business District. It envisions the restoration of a legend in western history. And, for those whose lives were lived near here, the 25th Street project whispers memories of a bygone but not so distant nor forgotten era. Continued


"TWO-BIT STREET"

C

an you solve the following riddle? What do the Salvation Army, a family of gypsies, Greyhound, Inc., a corporate investment group, absentee landlords, real estate speculators and the Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks have in common? The answer is that all of these groups and about twenty-five others own property in Ogden's 25th Street Historic District. A more challenging riddle to unravel is how such a diverse group of owners can be encouraged to move toward the common goal of revitalizing a two-block section of the Central Business District, changing it from a classic Skid Row into a viable and vibrant specialty shopping district. The Ogden Neighborhood Development Agency (NDA) is beginning this process, and some of the first puzzle parts are fitting together quite nicely. Dramatic attitudinal changes have occurred among 25th Street property owners. A few of the former pessimists have become definite proponents of the project goals. More importantly, owners are becoming much more realistic concerning property values. Many of the property owners have been involved in lower 25th Street for generations. Others are recent investors. The "old timers" often find it difficult to perceive of "Two-Bit Street" as anything more than a section of town where vice abounds and the buildings crumble away, but "new comers" see real possibilities. A first step taken by the NDA to change people's thinking was to demonstrate the viability of putting an old shell of a building to a new use. This was done through renovation of one of 24

the most unstable buildings on the street: the London Ice Cream Parlor, built in 1855, now is home to the Agency offices and the office of the Historic 25th Street Development Company. Not only was this a demonstration project, it also brought the Agency to the Street as a neighbor. In a Skid Row area, this day-to-day contact with a wide array of activities and personalities is an important component in the acceptance of Agency guidance and credibility. At the Western terminus of the Historic District stands Union Station. This partially-renovated railroad station now houses Amtrak and Union

Pacific Railroad offices as well as a theater, banquet rooms, art gallery, railroad museum and the Browning Arms collection. Future plans include a trackside restaurant, vintage car collection, landscaped grounds, and a trolley turn-around for a Central Business District shuttle. Design plans have been produced for each 25th Street storefront of any architectural significance. In some cases, these are prioritized work plans for facade restoration; and, in other cases, building fronts are shown totally redesigned. Some of the 25th Street facades are classic examples of catch-all surfaces for various types of extraneous


material collected through the years. The facade plans were produced with funds from a matching grant through the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA). They are extremely useful in conveying design concepts to owners. They also facilitate in preparing work plans and cost breakdowns for securing matching grants for restoration work through the Utah State Historical Society. An application has been submitted for another NEA Grant which will address design approaches for the building backs, including the structure and yard areas. Design guidelines were prepared for the District. These became an

ordinance with the passage of the 25th Street Redevelopment Plan. Any changes to the exterior of buildings will be subject to review by the newly-formed Ogden City Landmarks Commission and must comply with the Ogden Landmarks Ordinance. One of the most important of the review processes will come through the Board of Trustees of the Historic 25th Street Development Company. This non-profit corporation was formed to channel Small Business Administration (SBA) 502 Program funds into a 10-block area of Ogden's CBD at a substantially lower-than-market interest rate. Most

owners on 25th Street are expected to use the corporation for funding of construction. This affords the Board design control and considerable input concerning the Street's business mix. The highest-magnitude construction project planned in the area is a $15 million Hilton Hotel and Convention Center as well as office complex adjacent to the 25th Street Historic District. This development will occupy an entire half-block directly behind one block of 25th Street frontage. A strong indication of support by the property owners for the restoration concept was evidenced by majority agreement to petition the Ogden City Council to set up a Special Improvement District. This will provide installation of sidewalks in the Historic District. Period street lighting, street trees, furniture, curb and gutter, and buff-colored concrete are slated for construction. The concrete will be scored to resemble old paving stones. The improvements will be paid for with a combination of funds from an Urban Development Action Grant (UDAG), Community Development Block Grant (CDBG), Utah State Historical Society matching grants, and owner participation through assessment. The funding and design mechanisms outlined are ready for use by the pioneering property owner who is prepared to invest his or her capital in one of these turn-of-the-century commercial structures. Original owners have had a combination of reactions to the restoration plans. The Salvation Army has listed its building for sale and will move from the District; the gypsies like all the action on the street but will sell their storefront home for the right price; Greyhound, Inc., plans extensive interior and exterior remodeling; the corporate investment group has leased one piece of property and is waiting for other tenants; some absentee landlords have plans to renovate and open their own businesses in their properties; others remain absentee. The speculators are generally still speculating. The Elks are exploring options of new construction for income property or possibly a small street park. An abundance of plans and dreams abound in a place of former apathy. In a few years, the Ogden shopper or visitor in the Hilton Hotel should be able to visit the Ogden Mall, catch a trolley to 25th Street, do some serious impulse buying in unique shops and socializing in restaurants, clubs, or ice cream parlors to their own delight and that of the Street proprietors.


KEEPING TRACK OF HISTORY AT OGDEN'S UNION STATION by Teddy Griffith

0

gden's Union Station has resumed its role as a center of the community's activity. Threatened with obsolescence by the decline in rail passenger service, the depot was saved by a n imaginative scheme to develop the buildings 2s a museum complex, tourist and convention center. Now the adaptive use of the train station is helping to inspire a Renaissance of Ogden's downtown. Future plans for the area include an enclosed shopping mall, a major hotel and convention center, and an adjacent historic district featuring an array of specialty shops and restaurants. T h e main attraction at Union Station is the depot itself. T h e rambling Mediterranean structure anchors the 25th Street Historic District and defines the western edge of Ogden's central business core. From its carved sandstone and tile mosaic main entrances, a kaleidoscopic view of Mt. Ogden is framed by the historic facades of "Two-Bit Street." T h e monumental Grand Lobby still serves rail passengers, but now it also plays hostess to dancers, auctioneers, convention-goers and even an occasional Chinese dragon. When the huge murals-portraying the construction of the nation's first

26

transcontinental railroad-were dedicated in January, a 200-year-old silk and bamboo dragon from China danced and snorted its way through the banquet tables of guests celebrating the rich ethnic heritage brought to Ogden by the railroad enterprise. T h e former baggage room has been converted to the Railroad museum, designed to interpret Ogden as "Junction CityM-the nearest urban center to the culmination of the Great Race at Promontory in 1869. T h e story is told with dazzling, carefully-researched, multimedia presentations and graphic displays. By the fall of 1980, a model railroad exhibit will be installed in this museum to miniaturize the original

transcontinental railroad. T h e model railroad and an adjacent conference room are made possible by the Edna Wattis Dumke Foundation to honor the E. 0. Wattis and Ezekiel Dumke families. And, within the year, a steam locomotive simulator will give visitors a chance to imagine themselves as engineer of the "Big Boy" locomotive groaning and straining its way up the steep Wasatch grade through Weber Canyon. Above the baggage room, which is now the railroad museum, is the incomparable Browning Firearms collection including the inventor's and production models of the guns designed by John Mose Browning. Considered the world's greatest gun inventor, John


M. Browning appears to the visitor to have left the workshop, brimmed with lathes, tools, parts bins and memorabilia, just temporarily. Even the rough brick wall and paned windows seem identical to one of the four gunsmith shops the Brownings had in Ogden. The gun collection is mounted in handsome glass cases to allow for eye-level, full-circle examination of every detail. And a dramatic multimedia show tells how the Browning inventions helped win wars and contribute to a legacy of American genius. With the contribution of the gun collection and museum, Val. A. Browning has provided a facility of international significance.

The old Mail Terminal, north of the main depot building, now boasts the M. S. Browning Theater, where drama and concert performers can entertain audiences of up to five hundred people. The descendants of Matthew Sandefur Browning, brother of John Mose and one-time mayor of Ogden, have provided the components of the theater to honor the dynamic entrepreneur who had a part in most of the banking and cultural enterprises in the community. The theater has been the scene of major musicals, gun shows, and conventions. The exposed structural beams and art deco design ring true to the building's architecture, purpose, and time of construction in the 1920's. By the fall of 1980, classic

vintage cars from the collection of Mr. and Mrs. Matt Browning will be displayed east of the theater in the Kimball-Browning Vintage Car Museum. The goal for Union Station is self-sufficiency by 1983. Leases, rentals, donations, sales, special events, and grants are expected to facilitate this goal. With an active and representative board of trustees, the logistic and administrative support of Ogden City, and a dedicated corps of volunteers, project objectives will be realized. Ogden's Union Station will become a cultural center of historical and architectural significance which will aid significantly in the revitalization of downtown Ogden.


The view from Union Station toward Mt. Ogden was framed by the Healy Hotel until the 1960's. Although it is gone, many other turn-of-the-century buildings remain to comprise the 25th Street Historic District. Plans are underway to reinstate trolley service from Union Station through the historic district to the mall site, using an authentic trolley such as the one Matthew S . Browning rode decades ago.


The main consideration in adapting the Grand Lobby for new uses was to keep intact the uniqueness of this vast space and to leave untouched such design elements as the hand-hewn beams and the decorative tile drinking fountains. Handcgrained to resemble fine hardwood, the 18" thick beams were carved from huge Douglas fir logs. Insulation was installed between the rafters to reduce heat loss and to improve acoustics. The plaster walls were covered with an acousticalplas ter similar to that used in subway stations to reduce the ricochet of sound and make the lobby suitable for conventions and exhibitions. The first consideration before undertaking new construction at Union Station is an evaluation of the impact on the historic and architectural quality and fabric of the buildings. Aside from cleaning the brick and repainting the woodwork, beautiful design features like the handcarved sandstone entrances and inlaid bnck patterned designs have been left untouched.


Often successful restoration means being in the right place at the right time. Such was the case when the BoyEe Furniture Company was demolished to make room for the new Ogden Mall and Union Station Development. Corporation board members attending an auction of store fixtures noticed a passenger elevator and a beautiful ornate gilded mirror. The elevator is now installed at Union Station and the mirror is featured in the Old Times Hall, with reasonable certainty that it was originally part of the old Ogden Opera House. The oak wainscot and "railroad" chandeliers in the Old Timers Hall were designed to recall the old dining room in the second Union Depot, which succumbed to a devastating fire in 1923. The generous funding received for Union Station did not include work on the second floor. Since the space was needed for meeting rooms and offices, the Union Station Development Corporation put together an unusual alliance of C . E. T.A. workers, a volunteer architectural designer and U .S. Navy Seabees. The once-dingy passageway from the north to the south wings on the second floor seemed to be the world's pigeon headquarters until designers realired its potential for gallery space. Professional masonry cleaners were contracted to do the paint removel, with Union Station's C . E. T . A . crew on hand to help form a plastic "bathtub" to contain the chemicals which washed away many layers of okl paint from the original bnck walls. The local detachment of Seabees volunteered to remove the original maple flooring which had been ruined by water prior to the installation of a fire sprinkling system and to begin the wiring for a track lighting system.


Nowhere is the genius ofJohn Browning better understood than in the workshop reconstructed to simulate one of the four Ogden gunshops of the great inventor. The lathe that came across the plains with the pioneers, the huge milling machine that helped win wars- even the crude worktables John Browning used are there to lend authenticity to the guns. The process of invention-of organization-of manufacturing-is unfolded for the visitor in the workshop. The windows of Union Station, and even the arrangement of steam radiators and the clippings and cartoons from Belgian newspapers, recreate the atmosphere of the last Ogden workshop occupied by the Brownings prior to the move to Mountain Green.

BROWNING FIRE ARMS MUSEUM . . . THE RAILROAD MUSEUM . . . AN ART GALLERY. . . THE M.S. BROVVNINGTHEATRE. . . A TRAIN STATION. Coming Fall of 1980 Kimball-Browning Vintage Cars and Wattis-Dumke Model Railroad. Museum, Shop and Gallery Hours: Monday-Noon p.m. Tuesday through Sat.-Noon to 6 p.m.

to 8

25th and Wall Avenuelogden 84401/(801) 39201 7 7 6 ( 8 0 1 ) 394-1776


ANTIQUE FURNITURE by Pat Aitkins

A

house full of antique furniture doesn't have to look or feel stuffy. It can be both warm and inviting and afford a family comfortable yet functional surroundings. But beware: as any antique collector can attest, acquiring old furniture can become habit forming. You might decide to become a collector for any one of a number of reasons. Perhaps you have inherited a lovely old family piece or happened on to a really good buy at a garage sale. Possibly you view antique collecting as an investment, since antiques, unlike their modern counterparts, actually appreciate in value as you own and use them. Or perhaps you may prefer the lines, materials, and craftsmanship of older furniture to that of newer pieces. Whatever the reason, collectors, as a whole, love and live with their furniture in as much comfort as any modern pieces afford. While it may be something of a compulsion, antique collecting is neither as costly nor as difficult as you may have been led to believe. Furniture for almost any conceivable household use is, as a rule, less expensive in its antique form than it is in its modem form. This is especially true if the collector is willing to familiarize himself with the general value of pieces from different periods, shop around for the best prices and buys, pick up and deliver his own purchases, and do some or all of the restoration work himself. And remember that collectors who are willing to invest in those pieces such as iron beds or mission school desks which have not yet become excessively popular are likely to spend a good deal less on their purchases than are those who must have brass beds or golden oak roll top desks. When you decide to begin purchasing antiques, you should determine just how much you can afford to spend. Then, you should decide how much, if any, restoration work you can or should tackle yourself. It is important that collectors who do their own restoration work familiarize themselves with the proper techniques for such work. You save money stripping a dining set, for example, only if, in the process, you do not damage the wood. Ask antique dealers

The entrance hall of this older avenues home displays Utah primitives and an antique buggy-the pine cupboard (c. 1865) and the wicker buggy (c. 1880).

for restoration guidance. Generally, they care a great deal about what becomes of one of their "finds" and will advise you on the restoration process. Once you have determined what you can afford to spend in time and money, you should determine what periods or styles most intrigue you. But remember that if you decide to collect early American primitives, you will be paying more for your furniture than if you opt instead for mission period pieces. The former are rare and, for the most part, already in someone's collection. The latter are more readily available but they too are becoming highly valued. After you have decided on a period or style, make a list of just what pieces you absolutely must have and which ones you can use "substitutes" for. If, for example, you simple must have a brass bed, an iron bed, which is a good and functional substitute, will likely never make you happy. But if what you want is a graceful and unusual old bed, consider purchasing either an iron or a wooden one. Currently they are easier to come by and considerably less expensive than brass beds. And remember too that any antique which you buy today, properly restored, and use with normal care will probably be worth a good deal more tomorrow. If you can't afford to get what you really want now, buy what you can afford and trade up later.

Once you have gotten your antiques home, you will likely become attached to them. They have a way of making friends with their owners that their contemporary counterparts do not have. Perhaps this is because antiques have a history, part of which you can know from books and articles about collecting and part of which you may never know. After all, each one belonged both to a period that has been written about and to a first owner whose name you will probably never even know. Don't be afraid to use your antique furniture. For the most part, it is as solid, sturdy, dependable and functional as the most expensive new piece. You can count on drawers and doors that open and close easily and well, beds that are sturdy, and tables that don't tilt. But don't abuse your antiques. Spinning wheels are spinning wheels, not lamp bases. Old oak ice boxes make excellent kitchen or dining room storage areas but they make awful speaker cabinets for stereos. The entrance hall of this older avenues home reflects the owners' love of Utah primitives and antique buggies. The pine cupboard (c. 1865) presently holds books. The wicker buggy (c. 1880) serves in its new home as a baby bassinet that can be moved from room to room. Here the parlor and dining room are furnished with a combination of


The parlor and dining room are furnished with a combination of Utah primitives and turn-of-the-century golden oak.

Utah primitives and turn-of-the-century golden oak. The pine dry sink (c. 1870) is used for record storage. The oak dining room set (c. 1890) is sturdy and functional and features three table leaves and a set of six matching press back chairs. Here, as in all of the rooms, modern art (posters, oils, and water colors) are integrated with family pictures. This eclectic approach to collecting and decorating allows the owners to have in their house art and furnishings from a variety of periods. The parlor table (c. 1850) and the rocker (c, 1880) are both Utah pine and were acquired before many people had much of an interest in primitives. Today they are worth considerably more than the owners paid for them. Originally they were purchased to be used until the owners could afford something else, Now they are far too attached to them to part with them. Even kitchens can be filled with antiques. A "hoosier" (c. 1900))an old library table (c. 19lo), a parson's bench (c, 1936))and an oak convertible high chair (c. 1890) complete this breakfast area grouping. The high chair is among the owner's favorite pieces. It converts to a youth chair, stroller, and rocking chair. Living with antiques is like living with the past in the present. Buying and restoring them may well become one of the most rewarding hobbies you ever engage in. The parlor table ( c . 1850) and the rocker (c. 1880) are both Utah pine.

33


EARLY LIGHTING by Larry Jones

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Joseph R. Walker Residence at 4 14 South Main Street, Salt Lake City. Chandelier pictured is a combinationgas and electricfixture. Note electrical desk lamp pluged into chandelier wall sconces are electric. Photo taken in late 1890s. Courtesy of Utah State Historical Society Archives.

W h a t style is your house?

Determine your needs

irst, study the history of your house and determine its architectural style. Here it is helpful to know the date of construction. Try to familiarize yourself with the fixtures and furnishings common to the period. The photo archives at the Utah State Historical Society maintain a vast collection of early photographs which may help you to visualize what early residential interiors looked like. Once you have determined your home's style and period, take a hard look at the interior of your house, its walls and ceilings, for clues to the original locations of lighting fixtures. Then, decide if reinstalling lighting fixtures in their original location is feasible and desirable for you.

If you live in an early, primitive house you've probably already determined that the type of light put out by fireplaces, candles, and kerosene is not what you had in mind. Therefore, it is important to determine your lighting needs. For the most part, work areas such as kitchens and lavatories usually require more light than other areas of the house. Living rooms, parlors, and bedrooms often had centrally mounted ceiling fixtures, wall sconces, and table lamps. Today, many people favor lighting rooms with lamps rather than relying solely on a ceiling fixture. However, chandeliers can tremendously increase the visual quality of a room by forming a central focal point whose presence can be

enhanced or diminished through the use of a dimmer switch. Avoid over-lighting with harsh, bright lights. Use light to enhance and draw attention to certain areas while down playing others. A word of caution, many home owners dislike the style of lighting fixtures which are of the proper period for their house because such fixtures are too frilly, too plain, too tall, or too short. Before making up your mind completely, investigate the fixtures which suit your style of house. You will find, in many cases, that there is a wide variety to choose from. Also, your appreciation of early lighting devices will probably increase as you learn more about them.

Continued


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ere's how to uncomplicate a complicated affair when restoring or rehabilitating an old house. Generally, the reinstallation of lighting fixtures tends to be one of the last areas home owners choose to deal with during the restoration process. When it comes time to confront interior illumination, owners sometimes make one of three mistakes:

1) Purchasing inexpensive "modern" fixtures and installing them in the center of each room's ceiling, most likely where the last fixture was located. 2) Purchasing expensive but inappropriate new or antique lighting fixtures which are not in keeping with the style or period of the house.

3) Installing "trendish" lighting systems such as those in accoustical suspended ceilings with neon tube fixtures. Purchasing lighting fixtures by its very nature tends to be a risky business which leaves many home owners stuck with the wrong choice. All too often lighting purchases are made on the basis of what's readily available at nearby stores, how much it costs and is it on sale. All valid points, but by doing a little homework prior to going shopping it's possible to achieve much more desirable results. Generally, four types of lighting fixtures were available for residential use: ceiling hung, wall or bracket type, table lamps, and floor lamps. Candles, burning fluids, coal oil, kerosene, manufactured gas, natural gas, and electricity were all common sources of illumination in the intermountain region. Many of Utah's larger communities were using manufactured "illumination gas" in the

early 1800s. Salt Lake City first offered manufactured gas service as early as 1872 for use in private and public buildings. For the most part, manufactured gas was made by processing coal or oil to produce combustible gases. For a short period beginning around 1895 "marsh" gas was supplied to customers in the Salt Lake City areas from wells drilled along the shore of the great Salt Lake. With the increased availability of natural gas and electricity the use of manufactured gas tapered off in all but the more remote regions. Electrical power production came early to Utah, primarily to supply the needs of mining and smelting operations as well as street lighting and electric street railways. In April of 1881, Salt Lake City became the fifth city in the world to adopt a central power station lighting system. By 1882 the City of Ogden had begun to supply power for thirty-six private lights and nine street lights. Oil lamps have been used from the 1700s to the present. Kerosene became popular because it was cheap, odor free, and bright. Kerosene lamps are suitable for use in houses dating from the late 1860s. This c. 1895 library or hanging lamp was commonly used above dinner tables and in parlors. It contains a single round with clear, glass chimney under the painted glass shade and crysial prisms. This lamp was ceiling hung and lowered by counter balanced chains for lighting and filling. When lit these lamps would create a soft, pleasing atmosphere, casting shadows from the crystal prisms and brass frame.

This highly ornate, early four-am electric fixture was produced in the l890s. It is silver-plated brass with cast filagree and original ruffled white milk glass shades.

This style made heavy use of square and rectangular forms. Notice how even the shades of this fixture have square openings. Fixtures of this period are excellent choices for use in craftsman, bungalow, mission or prairie style houses.

Later electric lightingfixtures

such a this four light chandelier were common during the 1920s and 1930s. The inverted saucer shape with hanging sockets and shades seems to have been a common shape during this period. The frosted glass shades pictured here are reproductions.

Continued


EARLY LIGHTING 7 style replicas as produced originally by the tin smith or black smith have been around for some time. This is primarily because they are less difficult to reproduce than their later Victorian counter parts and because good originals for the most part have ended up in museums. In the past few years, numerous firms which originally restored antique lighting fixtures have gone into the reproduction of Victorian and craftsman period lighting fixtures.

The upper prismed device above the lamp is a concealed smoke bell to deflect smoke. These lamps can be wired for electricity, and, if carefully done, can be converted back to oil without affecting their antique value. Kits are available to convert oil lamps to electricity without destroying the value of the lamp. Gary Thompson, a Salt Lake City antique dealer and early lighting restorationist , warns against using kerosene fixtures near ceilings or in any location where smoke or soot is likely to discolor paint or wallpaper. Many kerosene lamps found in this region were fitted with unusually tall and narrow glass chimneys which is said to improve their light output in higher altitudes. Antique kerosene lamps are still relatively inexpensive in this region and could be considered a good investment. Just hang on to those original parts.

Gas lighting Initially, illuminating gas was produced for street lighting. Prior to the turn of the century, there were numerous small gas plants which could be purchased by the homeowner to produce gas for lighting the house. Unfortunately, they were sometimes responsible for explosions when improperly maintained. Natural gas, as a lighting fuel, became popular due to its clean oderless burning and the bright light it gave off. The most common type of gas fixture was the gasolier or gas powered chandelier; and, of these, the two and three arm varieties seem the most common. A simple way to distinguish a gas fixture from an electric one is to look for the gas shade which always opens fairly widely at the top of gas lamps. Ken Newburg and Gary Thompson, long time specialists in restoring antique lighting fixtures in Utah both argree that it is unfeasible and dangerous to use gas fixtures on gas. It is possible to have gas fixtures wired for electricity without having to drill out the gas cock. This allows the fixture, at some future date, to be converted back to gas if the owner so wishes. Gas and combination gas and electric fixtures were in common use prior to and just after the turn of the Century. These fixtures are well suited

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Kerosene wall bracket lamp with mirrored reflector to concentrate light. These lamps were popular in the 1880s and 1890s.

to houses in this area, built from 1880 until around 1905 or later,

Electric Fixtures Early incandescent fixtures were made to resemble candles. Often, light bulbs were left exposed and dangling from cords or standing vertically in a circle around a chandelier. Since incandescent bulbs gave off little heat and had no open flame, they could be mounted in any direction. With the advent of the arts and crafts style popular from around 1905 until 1920, a new form of lighting fixture was especially designed to use electricity. The boom in restoration and rehabilitation of old buildings has placed an accute demand on the dwindling number of original fixtures available. In the past five or six years, many antique dealers specializing in antique lighting fixtures have found that once hard-to-sell fixtures are now difficult to keep in stock. Like most antiques, there simply aren't enough to go around. This demand naturally has lead to a dramatic increase in the number and quality of reproduction fixtures available today. Early colonial

Reproduction fixtures Reproduction lighting fixtures run the gamut ranging in quality from cheap plastic to exceedingly ornate and very expensive examples which rival originals in quality and cost. As a simple rule of thumb, always purchase an original. For the most part original fixtures appreciate in value while inexpensive copies do not. High quality reproductions, on the other hand, probably will increase in value with age. When shopping for a reproduction, those made of solid brass tend to be better choices than brass plated units. Take a small magnet along with you to tell the difference; magnets don't stick to brass. Original glass globes and shades are even more difficult to locate than original fixtures. Chances of finding anyone who will sell you an undamaged, matched set of three or more antique glass shades is highly remote, Finding six or more matching shades is next to impossible. Original shades vary in price from around $5 for very simple ones to over $100 each for shades by Stuben, Quezal and Tiffany. Unfortunately, today there is a limited number of types and styles of reproduction shades available, some of the better varieties tend to be French made and the lesser quality ones from Hong Kong. The most common reproduction shade, well worth avoiding, is a frosted tulip shape which has a ruffled base and is made in Hong Kong .

Shoppingfor lighting fixtures Antique shops are great places to learn more about early lighting fixtures. Spend some time shopping around to see what's available. It is a


good idea, while browsing, to take note of any glass shades which are for sale. Garage sales, estate sales, and flea markets are excellent places to find old lighting fixtures or, more likely, parts of old lighting fixtures. Many times a solid brass fixture will be tarnished black or even painted so scrutinize closely. Later electrical fixtures of the 30 period are much more common at garage sales than are gas or combination gas and electric fixtures. Be sure to look for damaged parts as well as missing ones. It is a good idea to plan to rewire any old fixture which has not been professionally restored. Should you have an opportunity to compare prices on restored early lighting fixtures in different parts of the country, you will probably come to the conclusion that the Intermountain region is a good place to buy them. Utah i;fortunate in having several highly reputable dealers specializing in antique lighting fixtures. Should you wish to contact these dealers or companies which produce reproduct ions, contact the Technical Preservation Service Center of the Utah State Historical Society for an up-to-date listing containing names and addresses of local and national firms.

The ornate fixture on the right is an unusual, eight arm combination gas and elecnic chandelier. Before being converted completely to electricity, four of the arms carried gas and four electricity. Finding a fixture with eight matching and undamaged shades is difficult. The fixture on the left is an all-electn'c unit dated probably after 1910. Generally, ceiling hung chandeliers were approximately 30" long and were intended for use in rooms having ten foot ceilings. The vertical mounting pipes can

The amber art g k s shades of this heavy brass fixture give off a soft room light while focusing light downward. A chandelier like this one would fit well in the dining room of a circa 1920-1930 house.

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Cleaning Glass To clean glass chimneys, shades, globes, and crystal chandeliers use house hold ammonia mixed in warm water. Carefully wash your shades in this solution, then rinse and dry. If you have hand painted or fired enamel painted shades strong ammonia might adversely affect finish.

Polishing Brass Many homeowners elect to leave polished solid brass light fixtures unlacquered so that there is less resemblance to the cheaper brass plated fixtures. A n excellent polish for such fixtures is Happatch-Semi Chrome polish. I t is manufactured in Germany and comes in a paste form in tubes and cans and is available at many hardware stores and motorcycle shops. As with any tarnish remover and polish make certain that all of the substance is removed from the fixture after polishing since small amounts left in corners, cracks, and crevices can adversely affect the metal if allowed to remain and accumulate. There will be less chance of accidental breakage if you carefully remove the glass shades and globes prior to buffing and polishing.

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Original etched glass shades like the ones pictured on this chandelier are becoming difficult to find in matched sets. In the early days of electricity, electrical service was not always reliable. Thus, the combination style light fixture was developed which used gas and electricity. In most cases the electric lights turned downward and the gas lights pointed upward.

This unusual gaslelectric chandelier had dual pipes making up each of its three arms. The top pipe carried gas, the bottom electrical wires. The ruffled milk glass shades are sometimes referred to as petty-coat shades.

Stained glass lamps and ceiling hung fixtures such as this became popular just after the turn of the Century thanks to Louis Comfort Tiffany who designed them for use with the incandescent light bulb. Many such original shades reflect the Art Nouveau and are quite valuable today.


Picture frame with mortised corners designed and made by Asa Kienk~ - - --

THE FAR-REACHING INFLUENCE OF GUSTAV , STICKLEY: MISSION FURNITURE IN UTAH by Nancy Richards

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ubscribers to the Deseret News opened their papers on March 26, 1910, to the news of a "Sale of Arts and Crafts Mission Furniture" at the IXL Stores and to an invitation to "invest in this real Arts and Crafts mission furniture. . for you may hand it down to your grandchildren at an enhanced value. " IXL Stores went out of business several years later, but time has proved their advertising copy prophetic. Widely popular between 1900 and 1920, mission furniture suffered a generation of neglect to experience the current revival of interest by the grandchildren of IXL's customers. This revolutionary style of furniture was labeled "mission" as a merchandising gimmick in an attempt to relate it to the California missions and their romantic associations. The name stuck, but assumed new meaning, for this was furniture with a mission and a purpose of its own. That purpose was inspired in part by the ideals of the turn-of-the-century Arts and Crafts Movement which influenced American architects, such as Frank Lloyd Wright and designer-craftsmen, such as Gustav Stickley. Idealistic Gustav Stickley was the leading designer, manufacturer, and apologist for mission furniture. Disdainful of the ornamented revival styles favored by late Victorian taste and of the shoddy results of machine production, Stickley believed that, as Americans, "we should have in our homes something better suited to our needs and more expressive of our character. . . than imitations of the traditional styles." American

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Dining room set consisting of table, chazrs, sideboard and china cabinet made by L. B J. G. Stickley.

architecture and furniture, he wrote, should "possess the essential qualities of simplicity, durability, comfort, and convenience. " His intention was to bring this kind of furniture-well designed and constructed and reasonably priced-within the reach of the American middle classes. Stickley expounded his philosophy of design and its relationship to healthful living in the Craftsman, a widely-circulated magazine which he published from 1901 to 1916, as well as a variety of pamphlets and books. His

designs were executed at his Craftsman Workshops near Syracuse, New York. Their products were identified by the Craftsman name and by his own trademark: a medieval joiner's compass with the Flemish motto "Als ik kan" (All that I can do) and his signature, Gustav Stickley. The furniture he designed was severely rectilinear with straight lines only occasionally relieved by subtle curves. Construction details, such as projecting tenons and pegs, provided the only decoration. Oak was used


almost exclusively, with iron or hammered copper hardware and leather for cushions, chair seats, or table tops. When Stickley's furniture was previewed at the 1900 Grand Rapids exhibition, the editors of House Beautiful exclaimed enthusiastically that "the day of cheap veneer, of jig-saw ornament, of poor imitations of French periods is happily over. " And so great was the general response that Stickley was soon joined in the making of mission furniture by a host of imitators, foremost among whom were his brothers: Leopold and J. George Stickley manufactured furniture in Fayetteville, New York; Charles Stickley and Schuyler Brandt worked in Binghamton; and George and Albert Stickley were partners in the Stickley Bros. Co. in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Charles P. Limbert and Lifetime Furniture in Grand Rapids, together with innumerable factories throughout the mid-west, produced imitations-good and bad--of Stickley's designs. Mission furniture came to Salt Lake City about 1904. Local furniture stores promoted it in their newspaper ads describing it as "Old Mission," "Early English Mission," "quaint," "archaic, " "modern," "up-to-date," "new and beautiful," "simple and artistic," and "a handsome, stylish and at the same time strong and common sense article. " In 1907, Greenewald Furniture Co. predicted "Misson styles are to be more popular than ever this year." And as late as 1919, Standard Furniture continued to rely on Stickley's snob appeal: "For solid comfort, beauty of design and luxuriousness of proportion this Stickley Morris rocker cannot be surpassed at any price. Can't you just see it in your new living room? And can't you just hear your friends exclaim in admiration?" In the years between 1905 and 1920, six Salt Lake City furniture stores advertised mission furniture. In 1910, Greenewald, "The Store Beautiful," advertised both Gustav(e) Stickley Craftsman furniture and Limbert's Arts and Crafts furniture. From 1910 to 1915 Standard Furniture advertised themselves as the "Sole agents for the L. & J. G. Stickley's Handcraft Mission Furniture. " Dinwoodey's carried the Stickley Bros. line and P. W. Madsen proudly identified their store as "The Home of Lifetime Furniture. " Freed Furniture Co. and IXL Stores also advertised mission furniture. It is clear from the advertising and from the number of surviving pieces, unsigned

Unsignedlibrary table and low rocker are similar to Gustav Stickky 's line ofspindle furniture.

and signed with the labels of obscure Grand Rapids and Chicago manufacturers, that the mid-western companies had also cornered their share of the Utah market. The popularity of mission furniture owed much to the attention it received in homemaker magazines, such as House Beautiful, House and Garden, and The Ladies Home Journal. The Young Women's Journal, published monthly in Salt Lake City by the Young Ladies Mutual Improvement Association, perhaps served a similar purpose. In a

lesson o n "Purchasing for the Home," mission rhetoric was used to inform young Mormon women that "happily, the day of grotesque furniture and design and ornamentation is passed. . . . Good lines, simplicity of construction, and appropriateness make for beauty. " In conclusion, the advice of William Morris, leader of the English Arts and Crafts Movement, was quoted: "Have nothing in your house that you do not know to be useful or believe to be beautiful." Continued


Advertisement for mission furniture from the DESERET EVENlNG NEWS, July 6,

(below): Den in the Kearns Mansion furnished with missionfurniture, c.

1 905.

1 905.

Furniture ,dm-

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Utahns bought mission library tables, bookcases, arm chairs, rockers, and settles for their living rooms and mission tables, chairs, sideboards, and china cabinets for their dining rooms. Interior photographs of the newly completed Kearns and McCune Mansions show mission furniture in several informal rooms. Bungalows, built in the first decades of the century in the expanding sections of Salt Lake City, Ogden, Logan and Provo, were filled with mission furniture. Offices, clubs, and churches used it as well. Photographs of the Alta Club, the Sigma Chi fraternity house at the University of Utah, and the Relief Society board room show mission arm chairs, rockers, and settles. The Salt Lake Blue Print still uses the settle and rocker purchased about 1920 for their office in the Judge Building. An interesting aspect of the local enthusiasm for mission furniture was its manufacture in high school and college woodworking shops. Stickley himself encouraged this; articles in the Craftsrnun stressed the importance of manual training and detailed instructions for the duplication of his 40

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designs were published for students and "home workers. " Several ambitious mission pieces made in the Box Elder High School shop have survived in Brigham City families. An instructor of manual training at the LDS High School in Salt Lake City, Asa Kienke, made mission style furniture for his own home. Salt Lake architect, Alberto 0. Treganza, also tried his hand at designing and making chairs which incorporated elements of mission design. The demise of mission furniture was due, in part, to its success and to the cheap imitations which flooded the market. A 19 10 ad for IXL Stores warned customers of "the loads of crude, poorly constructed products masquerading under the name of 'Mission Furniture.' " Eventually the public grew tired of the mission style and turned to newer styles which provided "a much needed relief to the severe plainness of the ordinary Mission style. " This change in taste can be seen in photographs of the P. W. Madsen furniture store. One photo, taken about 1920, shows half of the main

floor filled with mission style Morris chairs, rockers, arm chairs, settles, foot stools, clocks, and lamps. Another taken in 1926 shows the same area occupied by overstuffed living room sets. What has become of all the mission furniture? It was moved to summer homes, cabins or ranches, left on front porches or in back bedrooms, given away, lost or otherwise discarded and forgotten. Recently, much has gone to California where it was long ago rediscovered by antique dealers and collectors. Round oak dining tables have fared the best; some have been cut down to coffee table height, but others have remained in constant use as evidence of their "simplicity, durability, comfort, and convenience.'' The renewed interest in mission furniture by a generation sympathetic to Stickley's ideals will certainly bring more out of hiding. Its use and enjoyment in contemporary homes will prove again how well, indeed, mission furniture was "fitted for the place it was to occupy and the work it had to do."


(above): Showroom of the P. W. Madsen Furniture Co. on First South in Salt Lake City, c. 1920.

(below): Hall in the McCune Mansion furnished with a Stickley octagonal table.


THE CULMER HOUSE Restoration of Stencils and Wall Paintings by Larry Jones& Louis Harris

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am constantly amazed at the quality of the things that I discover here. To realize the amount of time by a very skilled man that was put into something like this is amazing. Henry Culmer was very involved with this project; I would say obsessed with this project. We owe it the respect, any respect, that we are able to give it," recounts Dale Jolly as he painstakingly removed years of built up dirt and grime from the delicate, painted stencil work in the dining room of the William Culmer House. Dale is a talented art restoration specialist, hired by the current owners of the house to preserve and restore the delicate stenciling and paintings which adorn the walls and ceilings of the first floor rooms. The Culmer house was purchased in a condemned and run down state in 1972 by the Lamar Merrel family who set about to restore the house from a nine unit apartment to a single family dwelling. While steaming off built up layers of paint and wall paper, the Merrel's discovered room after room of intricately painted wall and ceiling decorations. In 1977 the house was once again sold, this time to its current owners, Don and Jane Stromquist. Mrs. Stromquist, when asked about their

restoration plans, quipped "Well we hope to fully restore the house inside and out and then live in it happily ever after!" Armed with that plan, the Stromquists moved quickly to install a modern bathroom and kitchen prior to commencing work on the paintings. As the restoration work got underway this winter, it quickly became apparent that only a portion of the original art work had been uncovered and that much still remained hidden under old wall paper and sprayed on acoustical ceilings. While some of the landscapes are signed and dated by Henry Culmer, all of the stenciling, floral painting, wood graining, and marbelizing found in the house are no doubt his as well, It's unknown exactly why Henry invested so much of himself and his artistic talents in his brother's home; it can only be assumed to have been a relaxing hobby and, indeed, a labor of love. LYhen asked to venture an opinion as to how long such an undertaking might have taken to complete, Dale remarked, "I couldn't begin to guess, particularly considering how much thought went into it and how many changes have been made. We have discovered obvious changes that he has made as he went along. It is incredible the amount of time he spent,

and his stature as an artist adds considerable weight to that as well. He was not unknown; he was a minor artist; he was one of the leading people in this area at the time. For him to put this much time and effort into a thing certainly makes it significant. " Apparently, Henry never totally completed his in-house masterpiece. A blank area on the ceiling of the turret adjacent to the southeast parlor is framed and bordered by painted decoration as if to form enclosures for a landscape which would have been completed at some future date. Henry painted directly upon the plaster walls and ceilings of the house in a process known as Secco painting (painting on dry plaster). His mastery of brushes and technique enabled him not only to create excellent Utah landscapes but also allowed him to simulate wood, marble, and granite in the wainscotting and mouldings found in various rooms. His subtle use of light shadow gave his painting and stenciling a life-like three dimensional appearance. Culmer's artistic achievements in the house are further enhanced by intricate parquay flooring which tastefully repeats the designs painted in the stenciled ceiling borders.


Visiting the Culmer house before Dale Jolly began his restoration efforts, one could easily appreciate the fine art work, at least that which was visible. The colors, however, were rather subdued, being dark and muted. One visitor to the house noted, "ah well, that's the way all those Victorians did stuff, dark and dull, why I have an old oak piano that looks just like that. " Shortly after Dale began work, dramatic changes began to occur. The once dark and murkey stencil painting found along the walls and ceiling of the dining room seemed to be instantly transformed into bright and fresh colors looking as if they had just been applied. Numerous lines once thought to have been painted turned out to be gold leafing which had turned a dark brown. Using soft rags soaked in solvent it was possible to remove the dirt and varnish without removing the thin gold leafing. Once the surface discoloration was removed, the gold leafing regained its original rich color, highlighting stenciling and border details. Prior to actually beginning work, a test sequence using around ten solvents is carried out. Dale commences with the weakest chemical and proceeds toward stronger ones until suitable results are obtained. Each restoration project varies, often requiring different chemicals and solvents. Without careful testing it is possible to do irreparable damage to delicate wall paintings such as these. In this instance testing revealed that acetone would be a suitable solvent. Dale began to clean the painted surfaces by carefully wiping them again with a soft rag soaked in acetone to soften the varnished material that had been applied over the

stenciling, In this instance, the acetone only removed the dirt and the discolored varnish without affecting the actual paint. After the surface has been thoroughly cleaned with acetone Dale applies a mild phosphoric acid solution mixed with a small amount of regular liquid dishwashing soap. The soap helps the acid penetrate the surface and render the under material resoluable. After the acid solution has dried, Dale neutralizes it with a soda and water mixture to remove any acid residue. Once the surface is completely dry, a removable acrylic sealer is brushed over the cleaned area. In this instance, Dale chose to reduce the high gloss of the sealer to give a more semi-gloss or flat appearance. Once the painted surface is protected by the sealer application, damaged areas such as plaster cracks are repaired. The water soluble spackeling paste is used to fill cracks once they have been cleaned of loose matter. When dry, this plaster surface is smoothed out with a damp rag to avoid abrasive sanding. The patched areas are allowed to dry again prior to the application of an acrylic varnish. To mask the bare spackled areas, Dale carefully touches up with oil base paint tinted to match the original color. Dale generally chooses to apply a coat of acrylic varnish as an under coat prior to beginning any touch-up work. When asked if the retouching and color matching were problems, Dale responded, "The most intricate stage is actually the cleaning: it's by far the most tedious, and timing is important. You have to be sure you're being safe. You've got all the time and chances in the world to get the retouching right.

You can always go back. You know, it is the same as retouching a painting; it's a learned skill, like anything else." One glimpse of Dale at work is enough to convince any do-it-yourselfer that this work is not for the amateur. Because original paint pigments differ from those used today, it is often difficult to achieve an exact color match under all lighting conditions. Dale chooses to do most of his retouching in daylight while trying to remain sensitive to the effects of artificial light. Fading and discoloration are common problems encountered with painted surfaces which have suffered long exposure to the damaging effects of ultra violet light. In numerous locations on the walls and ceilings of the Culmer house, light flowing in from nearby windows has faded the colors, Since fading usually tends to gradually progress from unfaded areas to faded areas, Dale will match the colors found in the immediate area of repair rather than retouching using the exact original colors. Otherwise, the repairs would not blend in with the surroundings. The techniques for repairing and repainting stenciled areas are much the same as repairing paintings on canvas. When new stencils seldom do have to be cut, the restorationist will carefully trace the image off an undamaged portion of the original stenciled design. The tracing will be sharpened up on the drawing board and then transferred to a suitable heavy stock or template material. Using a sharp exacto knife, the areas to be painted will be cut out. It's easy to appreciate the great amount of labor and talent that went into ornate polychromatic stenciled designs


(left to right): Wilson Martin, Preservation Development Coordinator, U. S. H.S., Larry Junes, Technical Administrator, U.S.H. S., a d Dale Jolly, Restoration Specialist.

when you consider that each color generally required a separate stencil. Often dozens of stencils were required in order to produce more intricate designs. It's probable that the dining room ceiling and walls of the Culmer house required approximately five to eight stencils to produce the completed work. The stark, flat, and repetitious designs produced by stenciling are usually offset through the use of shading techniques and the application of nonsymmetrical devices such as painted on ivy or grape vines intermingling with the stenciled designs. As Dale repairs and restores wall paintings such as these, he makes his work reversible. There is no guarantee that the paint colors - or -retouching .- techniques . emvloved will not darken or change

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removal without damage to the original art work beneath. Once an entire area such as a ceiling is repaired, Dale usually applies a protective coating of-varnishover the sirface. Such a coating protects the surface while allowing for cleaning, should it be required. This completes the restoration process. On a preservation project such as this, no one restoration process is usually sufficient to adequately solve all the problems which inevitably turn up. The restoration of paintings, stencil work, wood graining, and marbelizing each require a different process for cleaning, repair, and retouching. When such art work is accidentally uncovered as it was in the Culmer

house, it makes good sense to secure the advice of a qualified expert before something irreparable is lost or destroyed. In this case, a fine old house will become a great old house. Preservation Tip Homeowners fortunate enough to have fine stencil work or other valuable original art work in their homes are faced with increased responsibility of maintaining them. To avoid darkening and discoloration of wall and ceiling surfaces always have cooking odors and grease-laden air vented out of the house by mechanical means. Protect painted surfaces and furniture from the harmful effects of direct sunlight through the use of shades, blinds, drapes or awnings.

For More Information: Gil lon, Edmund V., Jr. , Victorian Stencils for Design and Decoration, Dover Publications, Inc., N. Y. 1968. A picture book of stencil patterns. Labine, Clem, The Interpretive Restoration Part 11, page 50-52, May, 1979, Vol VII #5, The Old House Journal Matlack, Carol, The Grammar of Ornament, A bicycling impresario transforms Victorian ceilings and walls. American Preservation Magazine, November/December, 1979, P. 3 1-40. Olipin, Robert S., Dictionary of Utah Art, Salt Lake Art Center, 1980, p. 43-47, History of H. L. A. Culmer, artist. Goss, Peter L., The William H. Culmer House, Salt Lake City, Utah, Antiques Magazine, p. 545-549, September, 1976,


H. C.A. Culmer

W. H. Culrner

THE REMARKABLE CULMER BROTHERS

G

eorge F, , William H., and Henry L. A. Culmer may well be among the most interesting and enterprising sets of brothers to be introduced into Salt Lake City in the 19th century. The Culmers were born in England in the 1850s and emigrated with their parents to America in 1867. A year later, they settled in Salt Lake City. In Utah, the Culmer brothers organized their own firms: G. F. Culmer and Company Wholesale Grocers and G. F. Culmer and Brothers, retail and wholesale dealers in paint, oils, varnish, and window, stained, and art glass. Additionally, the trio owned the Western Cornice Works which manufactured galvanized iron work, the Wasatch Asphatum Company, which mined for sandstone and limestone, much of which was used to pave streets in Salt Lake City, the Wasatch Marble Quarries, the Mountain Stone Company, and the Kyune Sandstone Quarry, which produced the stone for several historic buildings in Salt Lake, including the Salt Lake City and County Building and the Cathedral of the Madeline. They were also the editors of the "Journal of Commerce", which kept

area businessmen informed of the financial and manufacturing news of the day. The Culmers were also responsible for a number of firsts in Utah's history. William Culmer is credited with being the State's first traveling salesman while working for G. F. Culmer and Brothers. Henry Culmer wrote the first Directory and Gazetteer of Utah ever published. This proved to be an invaluable guide to the Utah Territory. In 1892, George Culmer was called one of the area's first and foremost authorities on steam power and electricity. While George Culmer seemed to be the most business oriented of the three men, each had their own interests and specialties. Business interests aside, William Culmer's most famous association was with Charles Dickens, whom the young Culmer befriended in London. Culmer wrote an account of his association with Dickens in a book entitled Billy the Cartwheeler, which was published posthumously in 1970. Henry Lavander Adolphus Culmer is probably the best remembered of the three ~ u l m e brothers. r His business

and writing skills earned him considerable note, but it is in his artwork that he gained his fame. The youngest of the Culmer brothers, Henry began his painting career about 1880. He traveled widely in Utah, producing landscapes of the Utah desert and the Wasatch range. By the turn of the century, Henry L. A. Culmer had become one of U tah's most popular painters. His magnificent works can still be found on the walls of his brother William's house and on display at the First Security Bank branch at Trolley Square. A local journal of the 1890s summarized the Culmer brothers accomplishments with the following statement:

The Culmer Bros. are gentlemen of unusual business ability, possessed of characteristics of unquestionable honor and liberality, which coupled with their well known enterprise have gained for them the respect of the community and confidence of the trade. They are men that Salt Lake City can be proud of. Indeed, we are still proud of them.


Splendor In Glass Residential stained glass, with its spectacular designs and liquid color, is one of the most pleasing and interesting features of an old house. It remains an intriguing architectural characteristic of homes built during the late 19th Century when stained glass was both acceptable and afforrdable. Entrance door to Culrner House.

By Barbara Murphy

HISTORY OF RESIDENTIAL STAINED GLASS American residential stained glass had its beginnings in the early 1860s as an outgrowth of the popular Gothic Revival style of architecture and the post Civil War Industrial Revolution. These early windows were often simple diamond shaped pieces of glass held together by lead cames, the H-shaped lead channeling. Stained glass produced in the twenty year period between 1880 and 1900 is characterized by a multitude of wonderfully textured glass and amazingly intricate and realistic forms. Influenced by the French, these windows are often referred to as Renaissance windows. They make use of complex designs of leaves, flowers and vines, often winding around an urn or vase. Another style to come out of this period was influenced by the English and called Eastlake or Aesthetic. This style is much more geometric than Renaissance windows and often features sunrises in the corners. During the early 1900s, the use of stained glass declined. Colonial and Modern were the prominent architectural styles and neither of these used much residential stained glass. By the end of World War 1, stained glass was considered an expensive extra in construction. This further decreased its use. In spite of these factors, a few new styles did appear. Neo-Classical was the most predominant. This style is easily identified by its use of the fleur-de-lis, the wreath, the ribbon, or the torch superimposed on a geometric background. This type of window is commonly seen in transom lights in Utah which depict a fleur-de-lis in purple glass. Landscape windows are generally made from opalescent glass. These windows lack detail in their depiction of objects or figures and are sometimes referred to as "a poor man's Tiffany window". Mission Modern, a third type of window style to come out of the early 20th century, is typified by windows with a very simple geometric pattern usually found around the perimeter of the window. They are usually thought of in relation to the


Continued on gage seventy-five

architectural styles of William Bradley and Frank Lloyd Wright. Windows of this style are commonly seen in Craftsman Bungalow, Prairie style, and ~ i s s i o nStyle houses built from 1905 to 1930. During the last ten to fifteen years, there has been a resurgence of the use of residential stained or leaded glass in this country. Appreciated as an art form, people are becoming increasingly more interested in putting these windows in new homes as well as restoring the wonderful windows which already exist in the older homes. Beveled glass has also become increasingly popular in the last few years. Beveling is a process which involves hand guiding a thick, usually clear, piece of cut glass through a beveling machine. This machine cuts the edges of the glass at an angle somewhat less than ninety degrees. Beveling is almost always done on only one side of the glass and, tradition has it, the beveled side of the glass is turned toward the outside. Beveled glass is used in combination with stained glass to add interesting texture and light distribution in the window.

FREQUENT LOCATIONS OF STAINED GLASS One of the most common places for residential stained glass is in the transom over the front door. The address number is frequently incorporated into its design. Sidelights that match the transom and complete the entryway are relatively common. Bay windows often have stained glass in the transom lights above the window opening. The stained glass was usually framed separately instead of being included in the upper sash. Stairway landings are also a popular place for stained glass windows. Here, there is usually adequate wall space to display a large composition. In a Victorian home, any window that is unusually placed or shaped will likely contain stained glass. Stained glass, however, is infrequently found above the second story in residential buildings.

TIPS ON MAINTAINING AND RESTORING STAINED GLASS If you are one of the fortunate people who owns stained glass windows, the following tips will help you in repairing and maintaining them. The most effective way of repairing a stained glass window is to use a flat, horizontal surface. This means taking considerable effort to remove and reinstall the window, and living with a

draft for awhile. Simple repairs, however, can be made while the window is in place.

Buckling One of the most common problems with stained glass in old houses is buckling or warping. This happens when some of the support in the window is lost. If the buckling has occured around the saddle bars or T-bars (metal window supports), it usually indicates an inherent structural weakness in the design of the window. Neither flattening the window nor replacing the old lead is likely to be a permanent solution to this problem. One alternative is to add T-bars, although this distracts from the decorative patterns in the window. Another alternative is to add storm windows by sandwiching the stained glass window between two clear, thermal panes of glass and sealing the three windows together in one frame. This method is beyond the scope of anyone but a trained professional. Simple buc: effective storm windows may be made from glass or lexan, secured into wooden frames and fitted to the outside of the window. Buckling may also result when the copper wire soldered onto the lead came and twisted around the T-bars, has broken or come loose. To remedy this, you need to remove the window while it is still in its sash. This often requires the help of a professional to keep from further damaging the window. Once moved to a flat work space, the window can be taken out of the sash. Untie all T-bars and chip away the putty from around the border of the glass. Next, remove the small nails that hold the lead to the frames and carefully slide the stained glass-buckled side up--out onto a solid work surface. The window will usually flatten itself from its own weight. You can accelerate the process by placing a light weight or moderate hand pressure on the glass. Setting the window in the hot sun also accelerates the process.

Resoldering If a window has buckled, many of the pieces of glass will be loose; this is an indication that the solder joints have broken or the cement has fallen out from under the lead. Check to see if the solder has cracked at each lead joint. Cracked joints can be easily repaired by cleaning out the old solder with steel wool or a wire brush and then applying a drop of flux and some new solder. Check the window to see if the joint needs to be resoldered on both sides; this is often the case.


LATE 19TH CENTURY WALLPAPERS

by Samuel J. Dornsife ASID, FRSA

D

esign based on "natural" leaf, flower and branch motifs that so dominated the 1851 Exhibition was a long time dying out despite concentrated criticism from every side. Wallpapers were never more elaborate than in the 1850s. Zuber's El Dorado had been first printed in 1848. Both JardinD'Armide and Jardin D'Hiver were of the early 1850s. Each took thousands of wood blocks to print a repeat of the design. The then current technical ability and cheap labor combined to make it possible to print such elaborate designs at a marketable price for the well-to-do. Most of the later "scenic" types of wallpapers, such as El Dorado and Isola Bella, were originally shown in brochures of the day in an arrangement that separated scenes or portions of scenes with pilasters or other printed, simulated mouldings or panels. There were printed cornices and dados to complete the "panel" arrangement. These panel components were popular all over the world until at least 1870. Examples in Australia, Europe and America have survived. The panel filling changed over the years. Early an amoire done on a polished ground ("candy-box" paper) or a Baroque or Rococo damask pattern might be used if the more elaborate floral or landscape filler was not desired. Later, this type of damask pattern changed in a design flatter in appearance. Plain matte grounds in powder blue, pearl gray, or ivory were sometimes used for fill (these would resemble a painted wall), and sometimes this plain gtound might have a brilliant gilt ornament spaced on it. 48

Such gilt designs ana damask patterns were occasionally used without the simulated paneling arrangement. But all sidewall papers were accompanied at least by frieze and base borders. From the beginning of the 19th Century through 1890, the most popular wallpaper for halls and staircases was a marble or granite pattern. These were printed to simulate every variety of stone. Those printed with unending veins frequently were cut into blocks with their size tailored in proportion to the wall areas to be covered. They were then hung on the wall, block by block, just as a masonry wall would be constructed. Elaborate marble panels and inlays were frequently cut out of these papers for vestibule walls.

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William Morris produced his first wallpaper, "Trellis"; in 1861. This was the first of a series of designs that were to retain their popularity until today. Few were out of print when Morris & Co. voluntarily went out of business just before World War 11. Many are still available, both in the original hand-blocked form and in a scaled-down, machine-printed version. Charles Locke Eastlake had recommended (Hints on Household Taste-1868 and later) that no wall be covered with the same design from baseboard to cornice. By 1875, wallpapers consisting of frieze, fill, dado and dado border en suite were available; and, by 1880, some dados were to be had with the design arranged to suit the rake of a stair.


popularity beginning in the 1880s. Japanese embossed leather papers contributed to this as part of the overall attention to things "oriental," but another major factor was Frederick Walton's Lincrusta Walton. ("Lin" from linseed oil, "Crusta" to indicate relief and "Walton" from the inventor.) Lincrusta Walton was a practically indestructiblebas-relief wall surface that, after installation, was capable of any sort of custom superimposed decoration from all-over gilding and subsequent glazing to just plain stain and varnish or paint. Lincrusta Walton was so popular that it was manufactured in America under license to avoid shipping and customs costs from abroad. Continued on page fifty

Photographs

Dado papers were immensely popular into the 1890s, but they were never quite so popular for drawing rooms as for libraries, dining rooms and hallways. Dados were so popular that a ditty was written to be sung to the tune of Foster's Camptown Races with "Da-Do, Da-Do" taking the place of "Doo-Dah, Doo-Dah. " An all-paper design that incorporated this frieze-fill-dado principle took prizes at the Centenniel Exhibition in Philadelphia. This was Walter Crane's Margarete Suite with its Alcestis frieze, Margarete filler and Dove and Lily Dado. The Margarete fill design was of conventionalized Margaretes or daisies on a light blue or fawn ground. Six Caryatids in classical dress compose the frieze and represent the idealized housewife with five

attendants. Designs based on what actually were or were supposed to be Japanese influences became very popular beginning in the 1870s. Fans were everywhere from carpet to frieze and if one could not afford or did not desire such a frieze, grass or fibre fans could be arranged artistically against plain paint or wallpaper above the picture moulding. This was the age of the name designer's involvement in furnishing items. In addition to William Morris, Owen Jones, Walter Crane, Lewis F. Day, C.F.A. Voysey, and others were designing wallpapers and carpets, book bindings, book illustrations, decorative tiles, and even houses (in the case of the architects). Designs in light relief attained great

Photo 1 The Dado to Jardin D'Armide. Photo 2 A wallpaper advertisementc. 1850. Photo 3 A geometric of 1866. Photo 4 A more simple "panel" arrangement over simulated damask. Photo 5,6,7 and 8 Morris patterns: chrysanthemum, net ceiling, pomegranite and vine. Photo 9 A "scenic" with printed paneling as exhibited at the New York Crystal Palace in 1853. Photo 10 Three wallpapers of the late 1870s. Photo 10a A similar paper showing "Rake" or dado on stair-1880. Photo I 1 and 12 Two patterns of Lincrusta. Walton 1885. Photo 13 Whiplash Art Nouveau c. 1900. Photo 14 Walter Crane's Margarete Suite. Photo 15 One quarter of a common sort of ceiling arrangement of wallpaper for the early 1880s utilizing three'fill papers and a multitude of borders. Photo 16 A Rococo revival design of the late 1890s.


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Another very popular relief decoration was Tynecastle tapestry, created with canvas. Still others had more exotic names: Subercorium, Calcorian, Muromorna, Cordelova, Analgypta, Lignomur, Corticine, Cameoid, and so forth. Coloring in the 1850s was frequently light; whites, off-whites and grays with perhaps a light touch of gilt were used with brilliantly colored borders. A particularly brilliant shade of royal blue can almost invariably be dated to this period. Coal tar dyes affected wallpaper colors as they did everything else, but by the mid-1860s, color generally was

50

medium-dark with the earlier brilliances slightly subdued. Gilt highlights retained their popularity. As the 1870s advanced, the palette became muddied: greens, blues and reds acquired a brownish cast. These darker colors, frequently heightened with gilt, remained popular through the 1880s. Late in the century, pastels began to show up more and more. Gilt, however, was so popular late in the 19th Century that almost every pattern was printed in an all "gilt" colorway. The 1890s saw another surge of the Rococo revival-an attenuated stage this time-along with the development of Art Nouveau.

The "whiplash" of Art Nouveau was at its peak of popularity around 1900, but the more straight-lined Scottish (or arts and crafts) variety was to retain its popularity into World War I. "Ingrain"or "Oatmeal" wallpapers (wood fibers were impregnated into the pulp to make a textured surface) began to be used in the 1880s. Originally, they were used as a ground for printing, but gradually this sort of wallpaper was used more and more in the plain, unprinted version but with elaborate gilt-encrusted or cut-out borders. This wallpaper fashion also survived well into World War I.


Continued from page fifty-one


LATE 19TH CENTURY WALLPAPERS


AN EXPERIENCE IN MOVING Relocating older buildings " ALast Resort" by Lois Harris

T

he moving of a historic building or buildings eligible for listing on the National Register should only be considered when the building is in jeopardy of being lost at its current location, and when selection of a new site will not jeopardize the building's ability to be listed on the National Register or retain its National Register standing. Other movings of historic buildings can be done, but are not recommended as a proper preservation activity. Moving a charming but dilapidated "dream house" from an undesirable location to a stable and secure neighborhood may seem like the perfect way to accomplish historic preservation, but beware. In pondering the relocation of an older, historic building there are many factors to consider. One of the most important things to decide before the relocation goes beyond the planning state is the reason for the move. Generally, building relocation should only be attempted if it is the only alternative to demolition of a historically or architecturally significant building. House moving is not a 20th century phenomenon; historically, it can be traced back many centuries. In the United States, one of the first illustrations of house moving can be seen in an engraving made by William Birch and Son ( 1799) of a small frame structure being moved in Philadelphia. In the 1830s, David Stevenson, a Scottish civil engineer, sketched the move of a brick house in New York. One account claims that in Martha's Vineyard a house literally "went with" a bride as part of her dowery. Throughout the 19th century, buildings were successfully moved many times in the United States. The reasons that buildings have been moved are many and varied. The most common reason for moving a building has been the construction or widening of a street or road. In 1869,

54

Thomas Quayle House, present home of Utah Heritage Foundation.

the Hotel Pelham (Boston), weighing about 5,000 tons and standing seven stories high, was moved approximately thirteen feet. This move was accomplished in three months and allowed for the widening of the street. The rapid advancement of transportation technology in the 20th century and the growth of federal and state highway systems during that period caused many structures to become candidates for relocation, In some cases, the discovery of valuable mineral deposits beneath existing structures was the cause of their relocation. A large portion of the town of Hibbing, Minnesota was moved when iron ore was discovered beneath the town in 1919. One of the largest relocation projects ever to be undertaken because of the discovery of coal deposits occurred in Most, Czechoslovakia in the 1970s. This project involved moving a huge, 13th

century masonry church and the entire historic section of the town. The Czechoslovakian government spent over $20 million on the town's relocation. Buildings have also been moved to escape from a rising tideline or because of the change in the county seat. An interesting example of the latter happened in Box Butte County, Nebraska, in 1899. Originally the town of Heminford was the county seat and a courthouse was erected there. Then years later, in 1899, the town of Alliance was designated as the new county seat. Faced with the problem of having a courthouse in the wrong town, the county moved the courthouse by railroad car to the town of Alliance which was nine miles away. In the past, and even more so today, rising energy costs and mortgage rates make new construction prohibitive. House moving has often


Miners Hospital, 1 904, Park City. become a less expensive alternative to new construction. In Portland, Oregon, the 27,000 square foot Century Building, weighing about 1,500 tons, was moved in 1977 at a cost of $450,000. The building would have cost over $1 million to build anew. Since few reasons for moving a building have been valid, house moving must be examined on a case-by-casebasis. House moving involves much more than the mere physical removal of a building from one site and its placement on another site. The environmental, cultural, and historical impact of the move must be explored prior to the move. Moving a building a few feet or a few yards can be serious but when a building is totally removed from its original environment to another part of a city, or another city, irreparable damage can occur. Buildings are erected in a specific

location to serve a specific purpose. An old building is a part of a neighborhood, and the loss of that building can change the complexion of that neighborhood. It would be almost unthinkable to move the Alamo from its original site, since its location links it to the struggle against Mexican rule. O n a smaller scale, moving a neighborhood landmark can create a "hole" in the environment and adversely affect the remaining buildings. The new site chosen for the building must also be considered. It must be visually and historically matched to the structure. A new subdivision would hardly be the place to move a 19th century house, for example. Another thing to consider is the technical aspect of the move. Because the move itself is highly technical and requires specialized equipment, it is

necessary to hire a professional to engineer the move. Along with the moving contractor, the owner should decide on a relocation site, select the best route for the move, and determine the pre- and post-move obligations of the contractor. The new site must be prepared and graded, a foundation must be poured, and the original site must be filled in. All of these items should be discussed with the contractor in advance of the move. Further, the moving contractor should be responsible for obtaining all the necessary licenses, permits, and permissions from the proper utility companies. It is the responsibility of the contractor to comply with all state and local regulations regarding the move. The owner should clearly understand the nature of all fees he may be expected to pay, such as the cost of raising utility lines or traffic signals to

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MOVING IT IN UTAH allow for the move. Once the owner becomes aware of the many regulations and fees and potential negative impacts on historic preservation in the relocation of a building, an uneconomical and unnecessary move can be avoided. The rapid expansion of many Western cities in the past few years has made housemoving an unfortunately frequent consideration. Although saving an old building from certain demise may seem attractive, it should be understood that not every building can or should be moved. Those buildings which are to become survivors through relocation must be carefully selected, since they represent a vital link to our past which has withstood the test of time. Helpful publications:

Mowing Historic Buildings, John Obed Curtis Housemoving: OId Houses Make Good Neighbors, Rosaria F. Hodgdon and S. Gregory Lipton.

In Utah, individuals, private preservation groups, and large business interests have had a hand in relocating historic structures. Two of the most visible moves have been the relocation of the Miners Hospital in Park City and the Thomas Quayle House in Salt Lake City. The Miners Hospital, a Park City landmark for 75 years, found itself in the midst of a proposed condominium development. The building could not be worked into the developers' plans, and relocation became the alternative to demolition. The developers, who agreed to pay the $128,000 moving bill, worked with the city, who donated its new site, in formulating a moving plan. In November, 1979, the 400-ton, two-story brick building was moved to a new site about a mile from its original location. Preservation interests in Park City and city officials are now working to restore the historic structure which will be used for public purposes. Another such incident took place in Salt Lake City in October, 1975.

The Thomas Quayle House, a 9 1-year-old frame house, was originally located in downtown Salt Lake City. The building had to be moved or razed to allow for the construction of the Hilton Hotel. Growers Market, Inc. , the building's owner, donated the building to the Utah Heritage Foundation for relocation. The Quayle House was moved to a vacant lot on Quince Street, in the Capitol Hill neighborhood. It is now surrounded by a mini-park and serves as the office and headquarters of the Utah Heritage Foundation. These two projects are examples of how moves can be important to preservation.

Editor's Note: In order to qualify for funds from the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, Department of the Interior, for moving assistance, the building must be an important structure that will be lost if it remains on its present site; the new location must be approved and the move must be approved. We consider these proper standards to follow in any anticipated move that hopes to consider proper preservation standards.


OGDEN HIGH "From the chaotic situation arising out of an era of prosperity without pecedent for decoration, produced by Expo '2.5 in Paris . . . a style emerged . . . ornamental syntax consisted almost entirely of a few motifs such as the zigzag, the triangle, fawelike curves and designs. ' ' Radio City Music Hall interior designer, Donald Deskey, 1933

T

he landmark Ogden High School is regarded as the finest example of Art Deco architecture and design in the State. The school was a WPA project designed by architects Merle McClanahan and Leslie Hodgson in 1935. Construction was completed in 1938. The exterior is a masterpiece of complex masonry detailing with a terra cotta cap; the interior is an eloquent comment on materials of enduring beauty with their usage carefully planned. The auditorium received the greatest artistic focus. It features carefully detailed hardwood wainscoting with walls and ceiling of both formed and run plaster relief. History suggests that when the painting of the ceiling was to be initiated, the vastly talented Mr. McClanahan sat on the auditorium floor with a box of pastels and personally selected the colors as they were applied. Due to its historical significance, any remodeling of this important structure needed to be approached from a viewpoint which recognized and appreciated its value. When the existing library and surrounding areas were scheduled to be remodeled to fit expanded educational objectives, the architectural firm of Sterling R. Lyon was engaged by the Ogden School District. Project designer for the firm, Barbara G. Cowley, wished to achieve the remodeling in a manner consistent with the intentions of the original architectural team and with present pragmatic concerns. The existing library, several adjoining classrooms, and the adjacent lobby area were to be remodeled into a media center that, in addition to being a library, would include a television production room, conference areas, workrooms, and so on. Originally, the two main decorative elements in the library consisted of the ceiling design (achieved in terms of both coloration and relief) and the millwork detailing repeated in both the wainscoting and

existing bookcases. In the remodeling, designer Cowley repeated the ceiling design dimensionally in wood on the sides of the check-out counter and on work tables. One particular original element from the detailing at the top of the wainscot was repeated on study carrels; another original element was repeated in door and window casings. The strong and repeated use of geometric forms is characteristic of Art Deco. Although the octagon was not used in the original library design, it was introduced by designer Cowley for functional reasons. The octagon was repeated in a series of applications. First, the placement of the perimeter rooms and rloor covering at the southern end of the library established a strong octagon pattern. Second, the arrangement of glass-faced conference areas, typing room, and periodical room in the octagon configuration around the book check-out counter enabled more efficient staff supervision of students and activities. Third, a carpet inset with a bold octagonal pattern in rust, orange, and black, bordered on the south by these rooms, was added. Ogden High's school colors are orange and black. Fourth, the book check-out counter is centered in this carpet inset, and the counter itself forms an octagon. Fifth, two octagon-shaped display cases were added with interior lighting, glass shelves in the upper portion, and visibility from all sides. The original walls were sand-finish plaster, a substance difficult to patch without obvious scars evident. Thus, when several of the existing windows on the east needed to be removed to accommodate the addition of required fire stairs, Art Deco panels were added in those areas. Two tones of vinyl wallcovering in a rough plaster texture were cut and applied to the panels in an Art Deco pattern; the design was further defined by stained hardwood

moldings. Since additional speakers were needed around the area for the sound system, these panels were designed to accommodate the speakers and were placed to give proper audio balance in addition to providing visual appeal. Three of the orginal light fixtures, featuring painted geometric designs, were intact and were reused in the entrance. Where existing doors were replaced to conform to code, moldings were added in a chevron pattern. Vinyl tile was specified in the darkroom and teachers'workroom in an application that repeated the original installation: border, feature strip, and diagonal field. The masonry surrounding the fire stair addition duplicates the design of the original building. The search for compatible brick was extensive due to the differences in manufacturing processes and the differences in t h e composition of available brick. The original cap was executed in terra cotta; the effect was simulated on the addition in cast concrete because of availability of material resistance to the effects of weathering. Ogden High School is significant in many respects including its role as an example of governmental planning and funding and as an example of cooperation between federal and state agencies. The Ogden School District clearly intends to preserve a valuable and irreplacable part of Utah's aesthetic heritage. While the original construction was as a WPA project, the library remodeling was funded under an nt Economics ~ e v e l o ~ m eAgency grant. Periodic review by Utah State Historical Society's Wilson Martin and Karl Haglund contributed to a project that has emerged as historically consistent with the fine tradition of the original building and functional in the variety of uses required by the school's diverse educational programs.


PRESERVATION PLANNING TOWARDS AN URBAN AESTHETIC by Wilson Martin

C

ities are ugly. They have no green spaces, no parks, no playgrounds, no places to relax. " Over the last seventy years, urban planners have made these and similar complaints. Whatever planners said and however they said it, it all amounted to the same thing-something had to be done to make cities pleasant places to live in. But whatever planners did, it seemed as if planning for an urban aesthetic had been incapable of affecting the urban environment in any comprehensive way. And to make matters worse, the general public, as often as not, complained that planning and design standards were arbitrary, unfair, and downright uneAmerican. Today, historic preservation is becoming a tool which will provide a reasoned framework for urban beautification. Since old buildings are already in place, one can measure their height, color, texture, and design elements in order to form these into standards for new construction and rehabilitation. Further, in a world of changing economic considerations, preservation, as well as appealing to many people's emotional needs, seems to be far more cost-effective than reconstruction. According to a study completed by the Economic Development Administration, 109 people are employed in rehabilitation compared to 69 in new.construction, per million dollars expended. According to Thomas Dever, a national economic expert on reuse: "The high-rise office building that cost $47 per square inch in 1977 could cost as much as $80 per square foot to replicate today. The average renovation costs now run $15 to $40 per square foot, depending upon the quality 58

of the finish. Therefore, if a building can be purchased at less than $40 per square foot, and rehabilitated for less than $40 per square foot, this structure can often be offered at a lower cost than comparable space in new construction. " With historic preservation roots founded deeply in the economics, employment, and aesthetics of the urban environment, laws which control historic areas were necessary. In order to have control over historic areas, processes had to be put into place to insure the legitimacy of the historic district. Thus, criteria for the listing of sites on the National Register were standardized, updated, and legalized. With the process of listing sites on the National Register now professionalized and legalized in the courts, historic areas developed as "certified historic districts. " These historic districts were then defined in terms of their design elements, Architects and planners identified the cohesive elements (such as height, color, texture, massing, shape, proportion, rhythm, landscape or streetscape features) within these historic districts. The understanding of these cohesive elements led to design standards which affect both new construction and rehabilitation within historic areas. Height restrictions, color, texture, and building material restrictions became commonplace in newly designated historic districts. Using design standards, ordinances were developed which required owners of structures either to rehabilitate or to build new projects achieving similar visual standards as the original structure. This progress of historic preservation from economic reality, through certified historic districts, to

design standards and ordinances, set the precedent for control of the urban aesthetic. The future of historic preservation and design controls in planning looks favorable. Now that standards have been developed and applied to historic districts, standards for building are being considered for newer and larger areas of the city as well. Thus, the procedures developed in historic preservation are becoming the model for the development of other standards to control the urban aesthetic.

Photo I This photograph shows a streetscape in Ogden, Utah. The historic buildings show basic integrity and set the standurd of height, color, materials, setzback and texture. Photo 2 The second photograph is another streetscape of Ogden, Utah which also shows the buildings9integrity. These buildings can set the limits for new buildings in giving the parameters of the height, color, and other design areas. Photo 3 The third photograph is downtown Provo. It shows a group of three buildings which are basicallly unaltered. It sets a different vane ty of standards than was expressed in Ogden, but still can be used in developing ordinances for new construction or rehabilitation. Photo 4 and 5 The fourth and fifth photograph of downtown Provo shows existing buildings which can also assist in establishing design guide lines and ordinances.


A TOUR OF PRAIRIE SCHOOL ARCHITECTURE IN SALT LAKE @ Peter L. Goss, 1980

T

his tour is an introduction to a style of architecture made popular by midwestern architects during the first two decades of this century. Frank Lloyd Wright and a number of his midwestern contemporaries in the Chicago area designed dwellings that Wright described as "prairie houses. " This style, influenced by the American Arts and Crafts Movement, was also suitably utilized by these designers for small-scaled buildings such as schools, churches, libraries, clubhouses and commercial buildings. Features of the Prairie School architecture include low, hipped roofs, wide overhanging eaves, casement windows and the infrequent use of a porte-cochere. There was little or no ornament with the exception of geometrically patterned leaded windows and the use of plain, flat wood banding on portions of the exterior and as a moulding o n the interior of a building. Wall surfaces were either completely stuccoed or partially stuccoed on. the upper portion, from the windowsill to the bottom of the eave. In Utah, where stucco was frequently used in the upper story, the remainder of the wall surface usually consisted of brick masonry. Utah architects, either trained in the midwest or who were familiar with publications illustrating the work of the midwestern designers, introduced the style here in about 1905. Prairie School designs in Utah include all of the building types identified above; however, the greatest use of the style, as in the midwest, was in residential architecture. The Prairie School house and the ubiquitous bungalow, also influenced by the Arts and Crafts Movement, were breaks from the historicism of late nineteenth century American architecture. Both

represented a new and different architecture made popular during the progressive era. Salt Lake City, Ogden and Logan contain the greatest concentration of Utah's Prairie School architecture. Many of the house designs are reminiscent of the early Wrightian dwellings but neither he nor any of his midwestern contemporaries designed buildings in Utah. The only Utah architect to apprentice to the great master was Taylor Woolley and his early work contains a limited number of Prairie School designs. Ware and Treganza, Pope and Burton, and Cannon and Fetzer were the most prolific Salt Lake City firms involved with Prairie School design, These architects came from diverse backgrounds and were able to take advantage of Utah's growth and building boom during the early decades of the century. Like their midwestern counterparts, the Utah designers attracted an upper-middle class clientele of mostly independent business and professional people. Founded in 1901, the firm of Ware and Treganza lasted nearly a quarter of a century before dissolving their partnership. Walter E. Ware, born and raised in Massachusetts, received his early architectural training with the Union Pacific Railroad. In 1889 he moved to Salt Lake City and practiced architecture just over a decade before he was joined by Alberto 0. Treganza. Treganza, fifteen years younger than his partner, was the firm's designer. He had apprenticed with architect Irving Gill in San Diego. Despite his volatile and dogmatic nature his design ability was at its finest when he combined influences from the Arts and Crafts Movement with his superb knowledge of the midwestern Prairie School. Pope and Burton joined forces near

the end of the decade and were quite active in designing for the church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Hyrum C. Pope, a ~ e r m a immigrant, n studied architecture at the Chicago Art Institute and worked in several well known Chicago architectural offices before settling in Salt Lake City. Like Ware and Treganza, the younger of the two partners, Harold W. Burton was the designer, while Pope ran the office. Their designs for L. D. S. Church buildings began as early as 1910 and one of their finest accomplishments in this style was their 1913 design for the L. D.S. temple in Alberta, Canada. The work of this firm demonstrates a great familiarity with the Prairie School and particularly the designs of Frank Lloyd Wright. Lewis T. Cannon and John Fe tzer founded their Salt Lake City firm in 1909. Cannon, a Salt Lake native, graduated with a degree in architecture from M.I.T. in 1896. Fetzer, a Bavarian, attended a five year course in architecture in Nuremburg and arrived in Salt Lake City in 1905, His exposure to the Prairie School style may have been a result of his brief apprenticeship in the office of Ware and Treganza. Cannon and Fetzer also designed a number of L.D.S. Church buildings as well as a small number of residences in the style; however, they are most well known for their Wright inspired West Technical High School ( 1911). All of the buildings listed here are clearly visible from the street or public sidewalk. The listing of these private structures does not give permission to enter either the grounds or the buildings. Beginning at the State Capitol (south side) proceed down State Street observing:


1. ASHBY SNOW HOUSE (1910) Cannon & Fetzer 158 North State Street. Snow, an attorney and businessman, had this house designed and built for $19,000. It is a simple, square plan. Note the projecting, flatroofed porch, leaded glass, casement windows, and the hipped roof. 2. GATEWAY APARTMENTS ( 1915) J. C. Craig 23-28.NorthState Street. This design by a little known architect is highly imitative of the work of the midwestern firm of Purcell and Elmlie. This is especially so in the terra-cotta decoration in the semicircular area above the main entries. The only other notable Prairie School design by this architect is the H. B. Lamb house at 1327 Michigan Awe. Turn left onto South Temple Street and proceed eastward to:

3. LADIES LITERARY CLUB ( 1912) Ware & Treganza 850 East South Temple St. Ware tY Treganza won the competition (over four other entrants) for this long-established club. The group's second clubhouse, the two story bnck design ofa residential scale, is deceiving in that it accommodates not only r e d n g and lounge rooms, but also a large auditorium as well. The upper floor is stuccoed with banding on the exterior. Note the leaded casement windows and the cantilevered porte-cochere. 4. HAXTON PLACE ( 1910) 940 East South Temple St. A unique and charming cul-de-sac off South Temple, Haxton Place was supposedly planned by Thomas G . Griffen as a replica of a similar place in London. Both Griffen and his business associate James T. Keith lived in houses at the south end of the street. Note the Art Nouveau inspired entry gates. Continued

61


GEORGE BADGER HOUSE ( 1915 ) Palliser & Hills 16 Haxton Place A fine example of the Prairie School house by an unknown design team. Badger was a stock and commodities broker and after the crush of 192 9, the house was sold to Julian Bumburger, son of the Governor. The interior is accented by banding and woodwork of oak and gum woods. The design is similar to the work of architect John V a n Bergen, particularly his designs for the Blondels in Oak Park, Illinois. J.T. KEITH & T.G. GRIFFEN HOUSES (1910) Fredric Albert Hale, 34-35 Haxton Place. This, the first buildmg on the place, consists of two houses joined by a common facade. The style of the design is reminiscent of the English Arts and Crafts designers C . F. A. Voysey and M . H. Baillie Scott.

5. FRANK M. CAMERON HOUSE ( 1908) Ware & Treganza 974 East South Temple Street Cameron was the president of Cameron Coal Co. and director of the Utah Savings and Trust Co. He built this house at an estimated cost of $9,000. It is one of the least Prairie School-like designs by Treganza.

Turn right on Tenth East and head south one block to First South. Before turning left onto First South, note: 6. SAMUEL C, SHERRILL HOUSE ( 1908), Ware & Treganza 975 East First South This unique Prairie School design of a T configuration contained a centralfireplace. This element is found in the early residential designs of Frank Lloyd Wright. Sherrill was a mining contractor and vice president of Liberty Fuel.


Turn left onto First South and proceed eastward.

7. MALCOLM A. KEYSER APARTMENT HOUSE ( 1911) Pope & Burton, 1104 East First South This well constructed masonry building exhibits a hipped roof, overhanging eaves, and tall casement windows, all typical of the Prairie School style. The same firm later designed the Keyser residence in the style (see number 2 5). 8 & 9. ALMON A. COVEY HOUSE ( 1909), 1211 East First South HYRUM T. COVEY HOUSE ( 1909), 1229 East First South Ware & Treganza Both houses were designed by Ware 67 Treganza and are early examples of their work. They both illustrate a combination Arts and Crafts bungalow and Prairie School style. Almon Covey was president of the Covey Investment Company and owner of several ranches in Utah and Wyoming. Hyrum Covey, like his brother, held various officesin the Covey Investment Company and once served as president of the Salt Lake Apartment Association.

Proceed eastward to Virginia Street and turn left heading north to Perry Avenue. Before turning right at that corner, note:

10. HOUSE ( c . 1915) 24 Virginia Street A large two story rectangular structure with flanking side porches and a covered entry composed of numerous Prairie School elements. Note the fine brick work, casement window, upper story stucco, and the wide, overhanging eaves of the hipped roof. As you turn right onto Perry Avenue note the house on the opposite corner: 11. HAROLD H. HILLS HOUSE (1915) 40 Virginia Street Hills, a construction engineer and real estate agent, built his Prairie School bungalow for an estimated $4,000. Running 50 feet deep on its narrow lot, from the exterior the building utilizes a number of typical Prairie School elements: hipped roof, overhanging eaves and a moulded drip cap of cast stone.


Proceed slowly on Perry Avenue to:

12. WALTER SCOTT WEILER HOUSE ( 1914) Pope & Burton 1376 Perry Avenue The peaked roof with fired eaves replaces the usual hipped roof, but the wide, overhanging eaves have been retained. Note also the flatroofed, projection porch. This house displays the firm's familiarity with the midwestern work of not only Wright but also of William E. Drummond and Walter Burley Griffin.

14. CHARLES CUTLER PARSONS HOUSE (1912) Frank Winder Moore, 1349 Second Ave. A large Prairie School residence with a Spanish quality imparted by the light colored stucco and roof tiles. Before recent alterations to the exterior it was most reminiscent of the design of Chicago architect George W. Maher. Parsons was a corporate lawyer in the firm of Parsons &? Parsons whose clients included Samuel I. Newhouse, Utah Copper and Inland Steel.

Bear left onto Laurel Street and follow it to Second Avenue. Turn right on Second Ave. and head east to:

Make a left turn onto Military Way and left again onto Third Avenue. At Virginia Street, make a left turn onto Eleventh Avenue and head west.

13. HOUSE (c. 1918) 1315 Second Ave. A large and impressive house with hints of the Prairie School style in the brick work, hipped roofs and the porte-cochere. However the red Spanish tile roof detracts from the overall effect of the style.

15. MALCOLM A. KEYSER HOUSE(1913) Pope & Burton 38 1 Eleventh Avenue Built into the hillside, this two story house atop the garage is similar to the lakeshore view of Frank Lloyd Wright's Hardy House in Racine, Wisconsin of 1907. The Prairie School features of this house have been lessened over the years on both the exterior and interior.


Proceed westward to "A" Street, turn left onto "A" Street and proceed down the hill to Eighth Avenue. Turn left onto Eighth and note:

16. DR. SAMUEL H. ALLEN HOUSE (1910) Ware & Treganza 206 Eighth Avenue Dr. Allen chose the site of his new house for its unobstructed view ofthe Salt Lake Valley. As this house neared completion Mrs. Allen insisted upon a sheltered and more formal entrance and thus the porch was added. Aside from the usual Prairie School features apparent in this tall rectangular building note the attractive articulation ofthe brick masonry.

Continue eastward to "B" Street, turn right and once again proceed southward down the hill.

17. CAITHNESS APARTMENTS ( 1908) Ware & Treganza 86 "B" Street This colorful and highly textured apartment complex displays Treganza's love of Arts and Crafts materials and techniques as well as his knowledge of the Prairie School. The Arts and Crafts influence is visible in the use of contra ting sulfur colored clinker bnck, deep red bnck, colorful tiles and kaded windows. The low apartment house type with an open court was common in Chicago, and this one is quite similar to several in that city designed by Frank Lloyd Wright. Return to South Temple by continuing southward on

"B" Street,

END OF TOUR

Utah State Historical Societv grants for preservation projects historical research and surveys preservation workshops each May photograph and research library historical and rehab publications prehistoric research and restoration

(

Vlsit our new officesand museum at the L1enot.r & Rio Crande Railroad Depot in the Fall of 1.980

Membership is open to everyone and includes Utah Historical Quarterly,the Newsletter and Beehive History. Only $7.50 per year. 307 West Second South Salt Lake City, UT 84101 (801) 533-5755

I


USHS Update by Wilson Martin he Utah State Historical Society is responsible for several programs that benefit historic properties and the general public. The first one surveys the state to discover sites of architectural, archeological, or historical significance. This survey is undertaken by professional historians, architectural historians, and archeologists. Once sites of significance have been identified and located, a nomination is prepared to place them on the National Register of Historic Places. This requires a detailed history and description of the property, as well as support documentation in the form of photographs and map locations. This information is prepared by the professional staff or by the owner of the property in cooperation with the professional staff, The purpose is to identify, nominate, and place on the National Register of Historic Places, sites of national, state, and local significance. Because sites of local significance are placed on the National Register, a wide variety of sites are eligible. The second program the Utah State Historical Society provides to the public is the development grant program which assists properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places to be renovated and rehabilitated. The grants are dispersed throughout the state, with about twenty projects receiving grants each year. The amount of money received varies from a small $2,000-$3,000 grant, up to $40,000 or $50,000. A likely grant recipient will receive somewhere between $4,000-$6,000 to help in the renovation or rehabilitation of a project. This could be an archeological, historical, or architectural resource that has been found to be worthy of listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These grants require a 50% match from the owner. The dollars given by the Utah State Historical Society to do this work normally involve stabilization of the resource. Funds are usually not available for things beyond stabilization, since there are so many resources that are in greater need. The third program is the Utah State Historical Society's responsibility for reviewing federal action and licensed undertakings. This process reviews approximately one hundred federal actions per month to determine the impact that federal action will have

on sites listed in the National Register or eligible for listing on the National Register. If the federal project has an adverse effect, that is if it destroys or alters the site listed or eligible for listing on the National Register, then certain steps must be taken to protect or document the cultural, historical, archeological, or architectural resource. (This action is often referred to as mitigation and is the act of avoiding, photodocumentation before loss, recovery when it deals with an archeological resource, or redesigning the federal action so it does not severely harm the historic resource.) The fourth program the Utah State Historical Society is responsible for is special tax write-offs. These special tax write-offs are available to any building listed on the National Register or which will shortly be listed. It allows for accelerated depreciation of the rehabilitation costs, so long as the rehabilitation has been approved by the Utah State Historical Society. This program has recently been identified in national publications as being one of the best tax shelters available. Our fifth and final program and responsibility is to provide to the general public information about the technical and professional aspects of historic preservation. Each year to facilitate this an annual conference and exhibition is held. This conference and exhibition attracted over 4,000 people in 1979. We anticipate a larger attendance at the 1980 conference to be held May 23-25, in the Ogden Union Station in Ogden, Utah. The Utah State Historical Society provides a number of professional services to assist in the documentation and restoration of homes and commercial properties. Our offices will shortly be moving to the Denver & Rio Grande Depot in Salt Lake City. At that time, we will be opening a preservation information service center which we hope will be useful to the public in informing them about technical and professional aspects of historic preservation. If you have any questions concerning these programs, please feel free to contact the Utah State Historical Society, 307 West 200 South, Salt Lake City, Utah 84101.

2. Arthur Taylor House, Moab, Grand County-the Taylor House is the ancestral home of one of the oldest families in the southeustern part of Utah.

3. Chapman Library, Salt Luke City-one of the largest Carnegie libraries in Utah.

4. Hawarden House, Salt Lake City-an important sheep baron house in the Granger area of Salt Lake City. Projects recently funded under this program: 5. Elsinore School, Elsinore-a fire had burned the roof off, and now the roof, with the assistance of our grant money and help from the city has been replaced. The small town of Elsinore raised nearly $25,000 to assist in thzs roof replacement, since the roof was not covered by insurance.

6. Ottinger Hall, Salt Lake City-one of the first fire stations in Salt Lake City, recently restored as a fire department museum.

7. Edge of the Cedars, Sun Juan County-an archeological site that was stabilized using historic preservation development monies. Projects that have recently been reviewed as part of the Federal review program:

8. Ogden High School, Ogden, Weber County-note the new addition on the left of the photograph, which shows the new staircase which was added that matches the original structure. 9. Box Elder County Library, Box Elder County-the new addition was designed to be compatible with the old addition. The interior shot shows the ceiling has been left glassed in so that the new building is completely free-standing from the historic building. 10. Piute County Courthouse-in the first picture, one can see the new addition on the far left of the picture. The new addition matches the original foundation, brickwork, and dentil cornice work. This historic Piute County Courthouse is being preserved due to the efforts of the federal review process. 1 I . Archeolog7'cul sites in SanJuan County are shown. This large kiva site was excavated as part of the review process. Projects which have recently been approved for tax benefits. 12. The lrving School in Sugar House, SLC. 13. The familiar N e w York Hotel, SLC.

Sites recently nominated to the National Register of Historic Places: 1. Emery LDS Church, Emery County-one of

the few remaining Mormon frame churches in the state of Utah, having been built in 1900.

14. The Beer Home, SLC. 15. The Firestone Building in Salt Lake City-although not a visually significant structure, is a n important historic resource and has also received tax certification.


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Surviving Your Rehab Project by Henry Whiteside

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ome restoration or remodeling is supposed to be fun and most of the time it is. Safe working practices often seem fussy. But because you'll tackle so many different tasks, many for the first time, and you'll be learning on your own, it's essential that you take responsibility for understanding and avoiding hazards. You'll reduce the risk of injury and of liability for injury to paid or volunteer co-workers. In this article we'll cover preparation for handling accidents, good general work procedures, and protection against specific kinds of hazards. First, know what you'll do in case of a serious accident. Post your emergency phone numbers and the location of the nearest phone. Remember, you may not be doing the calling. Tape a few dimes up if it's a pay phone. Most "first aid" supplies are for minor nuisance injuries that won't take you off the job. Do have something to apply pressure to a badly bleeding wound, possibly a clean bath towel or sanitary napkins. Have water available for flushing eyes or skin. Know how to treat shock and have a blanket on hand. Shock is extremely serious and may result from injuries that are themselves comparatively minor. Have the best C 0 2 fire extinguisher you can afford on hand-but don't delay calling the fire department. Mark your gas, electricity, and water shutoffs prominently, and be sure any shutoff tool needed is permanently available where it's needed. Second, good general working practices will greatly reduce the chance of needing the emergency measures. A snarl of tools, materials, scrap and rubble is bush league and dangerous. Keep the job site picked up and swept. You'll reduce the chance of falls, lost and damaged tools, and dust hazards. Solvents and solvent saturated rags should be stored in a metal container with a lid and emptied frequently, daily if possible. A galvanized trash can is practical. Wear a hard hat and safety-toe boots or shoes if there is danger of falling tools or materials. Emergency preparations and good work

68

practices offer a lot of protection. Third, recognize and protect yourself against specific hazards such as the following:

1) Cuts and punctures-These are often the result of misusing a tool or working when you or the work are out of normal position. This is especially true of power tools with their ability to rip or sever in a matter of seconds. Take the time to set the job up right, with support for the work before and after a cut. Position yourself in a clear workspace for good footing and balance through the whole task. Work with good light. Be sure power tools are properly assembled and guards and

before wearing it again. 3) Eye injuries-Irritants to the skin readily damage the eyes. Liquids can spatter or drip when being poured or used. Power tools throw tiny fragments. If an accident occurs, flush the eye with water and get medical help immediately. If you don't wear glasses, a pair of non-prescription safety glasses, worn all the time on the job, is the best solution. For jobs with a clear risk to the eyes, extra protection makes sense. Goggles that fit over glasses are inexpensive but scratch and mist over easily. A full face shield allows better vision, is more comfortable to wear, and flips up out of the way. Welders will be aware of special protection

stops in place. Read and follow the instructions. 2) Skin injuries-Many substances encountered in restoration work can irritate the skin-solvents, wet cement, acids, cleaning solutions, and fiberglass particles for example. Some chemicals, especially more volatile solvents found in some paint strippers and brush cleaners, readily penetrate the skin and cause illness and damage to internal organs. Benzene has been associated with leukemia. Carbon tetrachloride should not be used for any purpose. Volatile, "hot" solvents with low flash points should be avoided. Ordinary mineral spirits will usually do the job as well with a little more effort. Protect yourself with long sleeves and rubber gloves when using any chemicals. Change contaminated clothing as soon as possible and wash it

needed but bystanders may not. Don't watch or help without the right eye protection. 4) Hearing-Renovators are rarely exposed to noise loud enough and long enough to cause permanent damage. But noise causes fatigue and makes you prone to accidents and mistakes. Plugs, reusable and disposable, and external "ear muff' protectors are readily available. Most reduce the damaging extreme frequencies without keeping you from hearing normal conversation or warnings. 5) Ingesting-Wash your hands before eating, and eat out of the work area if any suspect substances are involved. 6) Lifting-This is a common source of injury-not life-threatening but painful, incapacitating, and often slow to mend. Ample literature on


Rehab protective gear demonstrated by Henry Whiteside.

avoiding back injury, muscle strains, and rupture is available from doctors, insurance companies, and industrial safety agencies. Lift straight and smoothly, without twisting or jerking, use your legs and arms rather than your back. Keep your legs close together and the load close to your body, back straight. Get a friend, rearrange or divide the load, or get some wheels under it. 7) Electrical Shock-Electrical shock even when not lethal can cause you to fall, drop things, or lurch into things. Use "double insulated" power tools if you can. Otherwise use tools with a third, grounding wire in the cord. Use heavy, three-wire extension cords, and know that a three-wire outlet you use is really grounded. If you use an adapter with a "pigtail" wire, know the pigtail is attached to a reliable ground. If you can't be sure you have a ground,guy a ground and circuit tester. A t about $30, it's worth the price. Standing on a wet floor, earth, or cement in contact with earth increases your chance of a serious shock. Use wooden rather than metal ladders and rubber soled work shoes. If you may drill or saw into a cavity containing wiring, run your extension cord from an outlet or a circuit whose layout you know and turn off all other circuits. Plug a radio into any circuit you're working on so you'll know for sure if the circuit is "hot". 8) Breathing-These hazards are the least obvious and require the most thought for adequate protection. Dusts, mists, fumes, and vapors present different dangers and require different protection. You must determine what substances you are exposed to and

whether the protection you have is appropriate. Masks are available, either disposable or reusable, with replaceable filters, The masks must seal snugly around your nose and mouth-a continuous red line on your face when you remove the mask indicates a good fit. Discard the mask or change the filter when breathing becomes difficult or when you begin to smell the substance you're protecting against. Buy a generous supply of disposable masks or filters-it will reduce the temptation to skimp or cheat later. The wrong mask is probably better than none at all, but not if it leads you to longer exposure, believing you are protected. 9) Dusts-In renovation it's almost impossible to know what's in the dust you raise, so if you can see dust in the air, wear a mask. Look for the Testing Certified number, TC2 1 C , followed by the three-digit manufacturer's code that tells you the mask is rated against dusts. A mask certified for dusts and mists will protect against particles in a paint mist but not the vapors. Certain substances are worse than general irritants and can cause permanent lung damage or cancer. Silica dust (from sawing concrete, brick, or ceramic tile), coal dust, cotton dust, redwood dust, and asbestos are among these. Asbestos has been widely used in furnace and duct insulation. Asbestos is hazardous in very small concentrations. Asbestos is a soft greyish-white fibrous material, easily crumbled. Some ceiling and wall materials manufactured in the past contained asbestos. Drywall or gypsum board seam compounds often contained asbestos, readily released when joints were sanded smooth. Making these products with asbestos is illegal now, but look for "asbestos-free" on the labels of new materials. Suspect the presence of asbestos when you wreck out old construction. Ask for masks specificallycertified against asbestos.A m s k rated simply against dust is not adequate. 10) Fumes-Many materials that are inactive solids at room temperature give off "fumes" when heated. (The exact words are important in buying masks. Substances, usually liquids, that evaporate at room temperature are said to give off "vapors" and are discussed below. ) Toxic fumes are most commonly encountered by the home renovator when heat is used to strip lead-based paint releasing lead oxide fumes. Other heavy metals used as rust inhibitors, most common the zinc coating or galvanized metal, pose similar hazards when joining or cutting

metal using heat. Ask for masks certified for use against the metal involved. 11) Vapors-Organic vapors are probably the most common toxic substance likely to be breathed by home renovators. These are volatile liquids, including the "vehicles" that keep a paint or adhesive workable until it has been applied. They are meant to evaporate. As solvents they are used in clean up and especially for stripping old paint or adhesive. Methylene chloride, common to most paint strippers, is extremely toxic. Work outside if at all possible. At a minimum, open doors and windows. Better, set a window fan to draw a flow of air in past your work and out again. Ask for masks labeled TC23C, rated against organic vapors. Work for an hour and then somewhere else for several hours; give your body's defenses a chance to recover. Do not smoke while stripping. All of these volatile substances pose the danger of explosion. But toxic dosage levels of organic vapors are hundreds to thousands of times lower than the minimum explosive mixtures. Methylene chloride is metabolized in the body into carbon monoxide, already present in a smoker's blood. People using these substances have suffered fatal heart attacks. Women who believe they are or may become pregnant and lactating women should not be exposed to organic vapors. Organic solvents and vapors pass through skin and lungs into the placenta and the unborn child and into milk. Damage is greatest in the first trimester before pregnancy is usally confirmed. Slighting safety just isn't a good gamble. There's not much to win and too much to lose. All the safety equipment you can use will cost much less than a good power tool. Even a minor injury will cost more than buying and using the equipment, available from suppliers listed in the yellow pages under "Safety Equipment and Clothing". Finally, it's a matter of judgement. If you're tired or frustrated, you can know all the safety practices and decide not to bother. Keep your reserve of humor and judgement. Take a break, walk around the block, talk it over with a friend, knock off for the day. Take the end of a long day to sweep up, pick up, clean and replace tools, and find some satisfaction in what you've done and learned. One of those satisfactions should be knowing you've avoided unnecessary risks.


ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY by Cindy Vail

Historic Preservation Publications

Bunnell, Gene. Built to Last: A Handbook on Recycling Old Buildings. Washington: Preservation Press, National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1977, 125 pp. Examples of recycled old buildings centered around the state of Massachusetts. Presents the critical role preservation and recycling can play in larger areas. Cantacuzino, Sherban. New Uses for Old Buildings. New York: Watson Guptil, 1975. Historic buildings and the ways in which adaptive use may suit different structures. Diamonstein, Barbaralee. Buildings Reborn, New Uses, Old Places. New

Public Technology Inc. Recycling of Obsolete Buildzngs. Washington, D.C., U. S. Department of Housing and

Bruns, R. M. How to Buy and Fix U p A n Old House, A Guide to House

Urban Development, 1977. A n information bulletin of the Community and Economic Development Task Force.

Renovation. Bethesda , Maryland: Home Technical Publications, 197 8, 125 pp. A good illustrative guide to remodeling old houses.

The Secretary of the Interior's Standdrds for Historic Preservation Projects.

Bullock, Orin M., Jr. The Restoration Manual. Norwalk, Connecticut:

Developed by W. Brown Morton I11 and Gary L. Hume, Technical Preservation Services Division, Washington, D. C. : Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, U. S. Department of the Interior, 1979. Guidelines of the preservation do's and don't's and ways in which to apply the standards.

Silvermine Publishers, 1966, 181 pp. A step by step guide for the layman and homeowner in restorating a historic building.

Shirk, Nancy Carson. Public Funds for Historic Preservation. Washington: Preservation Press, National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1977, 12 pp.

Install, Donald. The Ciire of Old Buikhngs Today, A Practical Guide, New York: Whitney Library of Design, 1972, 197 pp. Technical material at its best; information on the deterioration and restoration of various building materials. Kaplin, Helaine, and Blair Prentice.

Shopsin, William C. , A. I. A. Saving

Large Estates: Conservation, Historic Preservation Adaptive Reuse. Edited by Grania B. Marcus. New York: Society for the Preservation of Long Island Antiquities, 1977. Thompson, Elizabeth K., F. A. I. A., ed. Recycling Buildings: Renovations, Remodelings, Restoration and Reuses. A n Architectural Record Book. New York: McGraw Hill, Inc., 1977.

Rehab Right: How to Rehabilitate Your Oakland House Without Sacrificing Architectural Assets. Oakland, California: City of Oakland Planning Department, June 1978. McKee, Harley J. Introduction to Early American Masonry, Stone, Brick, Mortar and Plaster. Washington: National Trust for Historic Preservation and Columbia University, 1973, 92 pp.

The Old House Journal Catalog: A

York: Harper and Row, 1978. A n excellent handbook which portrays adaptive reuse of historic buildings in a professional manner.

Buyers Guide for Houses Built Before 1920, 1979 Catalog. Brooklyn, New York: The Old House Journal Corporation, 1979, 76 pp. Annual publications which illustrate how to restore your house right.

Fairbridge, Kingsley C. and Korwal, Harvey Jane. Left Living, Recycling

Warehouse Space for Residential Living. Saturday Review PressIE. D. Dutton and Company Incorporated, USH, 1976. "Guide to Historic Preservation. " American Institute of Architects Committee on Historic Resources pamphlet . Various aspects of preservation work, roles of different professional patterns, guidelines for cost considerations and selection of architects.

Restoration and Rehabilitation of Historic Buildings

A Practical Guide to Storefront Rehabilitation: Technical SerieshJo. 2.

Anderson Notter Associates. The Salem Handbook, a Renovation Guide for Home Owners. Salem, Massachusetts: Historic Salem, Inc., 1977, 113 pp.

Preservation Briefs. Washington:

A basic guidebook of excellent advice pertaining to the care and rehabilitation of historic homes in Salem, Massachusetts.

Preservation League of New York State. Norman M. Mintz, USA, 1977. A step by step plan on how to rehabilitate a store front.

Technical Preservation Services, Heritage Conservation and Recreation Services, U. S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C.


# 1 "The Cleaning and Waterproof Coating of Masonry Buildings," Robert C. Mack, AIA, 1975. #2 "Repointing Mortar Joints in Historic Brick Buildings," Robert C. Mack, AIA, 1976. #3 "Conserving Energy in Historic Buildings," Baird M. Smith, AIA, 1978. #4 "Roofing for Historic Buildings," Sarah M. Sweetser, 1978. #5 "Preservation of Historic Adobe Buildings," 1978. #6 "Dangers of Abrasive Cleaning to Historic Buidings," Anne E. Grimmer, 1979. #7 "The Preservation of Historic Glazed Architectural Terra-cotta," de Tee1 Pateterson Tiller, 1979. #8 "Aluminum and Vinyl Sidings on Historic Buildings," John H. Myers, 1979.

Reynolds, Henry. Home Tech Restoration and Renovation Cost Estimates. Bethesda, Maryland: Home

Bulletin of the Association for Preservation Technology. Quarterly journal of the APT. Write APT, Box

Tech Publications, 1978, 154 pp. A handbook on how to correctly estimate prices when remodeling ones historic home. Prices are updated regularly according to the various regions of the U. S.

2487, Station D, Ottawa, Ontario KIP5W6.

Seale, William. Recreating the Historic House Interior. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History, 1978, Geared toward residences and museums; an excellent manual which illustrates how to authentically furnish and decorate the interior of your historic house.

York: Doubleday and Co., Inc., 1979, 191 pp.

Rehdbibtating Old Houses, George Stephens. Information: from the National Trust for Historic Preservation. The Preservation Press, 1976, 13 pp. Discusses the basic aesthetic problems of what and how restoration and renovation should be done. Helpful hints on when to call an architect and how to hire a builder.

of the Historic House Association of America. Write: HHAA, Decatur House, 1600 H Street, N. W., Washington, D.C. 20006.

Historic Preservation. Quarterly journal of the National Trust for Historic Preservation. Write: National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1785 Massachusetts Avenue, N. W. , Washington, D.C. 20036.

The Old HouseJournal. Restoration and Magazines and Periodicals

Reed, Richard Ernie. Return to the City, How to Restore Old Buidings and Ourselves in America's Historic Urban Neighborhoods. Garden City, New

Historic Houses. Bimonthly publication

American Preservation. Bimonthly magazine. Write: The Gracy House, P.O. Box 245 1, Little Rock, Arkansas 72203. Beautifully photographed historic neighborhoods and historic districts which best portray historic preservation.

Maintenance Techniques for the Antique Home. Monthly journal. Write: Old House Journal, 69A Seventh Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11217.

Technology and Conservation. Quarterly magazine published by the Technology Organization, Inc., 1 Emerson Place, Boston, Massachusetts 02 114.

Utah PreservationlRestoration. Annual Antiques. Monthly magazine. Write: The Magazine Antiques, 55 1 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10017. Deals basically with the world of antiques, but often features articles on historic preservation.

publication. Write: University Services, 1159 East Second Avenue, Salt Lake City, Utah 84 103.


Kreh, R.T., Sr. Masonry Skills. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1976. An excellent and definitive guide which will assist you in all aspects of masonry.

Painting Historic Buildings

Banov, Abel. Paints and Coatings Handbook. Michigan: Structures Publishing Company, 1978.

Advanced Masonry Skills. Delmar Publishers, New York, 1978.

.

Maintenance and Care for Your Historic House

Chambers, J. Henry, AIA. Cyclical Maintenance for Historic Buildings. Washington, D.C. : U.S. Department of the Interior, 1976, 125 pp. Best book relating to the subject.

Exterior Maintenance and Improvements. Peterson Home Repair and Maintenance Guides. Allen D. Bovagden Publishers, Inc., Home Guide Division, California, 1977. Greiff, Constance. The Historic Property Owners' Handbook. Washington: Preservation Press, National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1977. Harmon, A.J . Remodeling for Security. How to Enhance the Safety, Beauty and Value of Your Home. New York: McGraw Hill, 1979, 224 pp.

McKee, Harley J , FAIA. Introduction to Early American Masonry, Stone, Brick, Mortar and Plaster. National Trust for Historic Preservation and Columbia University, Washington, D.C., 1973.

Readers Digest Complete Do It Yourself Manual. Pleasantville , New York:

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Exterior Decoration, Victorian Colors for Victorian Houses. The Athenaeum Library of Nineteenth Century America, The Athenaeum of Philadelphia, 1976. A treatise on the artistic use of colors in the ornamentation of buildings and a series of designs. Gardiner, F.B. How to Paint Your Victorian House. New York: Samuel R. Wells, Publisher, 1972.

Readers Digest Association, Inc., 1973,600 pp. Hand, Jackson. How to Do Your O w n Painting and Wallpapering. New York: Warren, Pozzi, Lynch, Albert. Fixing Up. Rhode Island: Prepared by Advisory Group for Warren Restoration, 1979. A bilingual handbook for older homes.

Barnes and Noble Books, 1968.

How to Paint Your Wood House. National Forest Products. Write: Association, 1619 Massachusetts Avenue, N. W., Washington, D.C. 20036. --

Larsen, Michael, Pomada, Elizabeth.

Painted Lddies, Sun Francisco's Resplendent Victorians. New York E. F . Dutton, 1978.


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A n Exterior Interior Heritage Color Collection: Put out by Fuller O'Brien Paints. Paint samples used to help match the original early America colors of historic homes. Devoe Traditions: Put out by Devoe Paints. A collection of exterior acrylic paint colors used to match traditional Victorian colors. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, Painting Outside Wood Surfaces, 1966.

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We specialize in the working and finishing of solid brass

HANDRAIL, BAR-RAIL AND HARDWARE POLISHING AND LACQUERING RESTORING AND REFINISHING PLATING AND ANTIQUING CUSTOM FABRICATION OIL LAMPS AND CANDLESTICKS GLASS LAMP FITTINGS GIFT AND DECORATOR ITEMS KICKPLATES AND DOOR KNOCKERS

Architectural Dictionaries

Architectural Description Guide. The Washington State Historic Preservation Program, Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation, Washington, 1978. A n architectural description guide which pertains to the major styles in the U.S.

965 EAST 9th SOUTH (801) 521-7355 LT LAKE CITY, UTAH 84105


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Washington, D.C., 1977. Excellent publication which illustrates papered and bordered walls as an important feature of the 18th) 19th and 20th Centuries. Myers, Denys P. Gaslighting in America: A Guide for Historic Preservation. U. S Department of the Interior, Heritage Conservation and Recreation Services, Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation, Technical Preservation Services Division, Washington, D. C., 1978. A guide which portrays the types and styles of gas fixtures most prevalent in the homes and on the streets of 19th and 20th Century America.

Thurs, Catherine M. Oil Lamps. The Kerosene Era in North ~meri-ca. Wallace Homestead Book Co., Iowa, 1976. An excellent guide to oil lamps covering a variety of things from history to design.

Commercial and Industrial Building

Anderson Notter Finegold Inc.

SPECIALIZING IN: BLACK & NICKEL COOK & PARLOR STOVES TURN OF THE CENTURY GOLDEN OAK VICTORIAN & EAST LAKE WALNUT MORMON PINE

Recycling Historic Railroad Stations: A Citizen's Manual. Washington, D. C. : U. S. Department of Transportation, November 1978.

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Blumenson, John G. Identifying American Architecture. Tennessee

Saylor, Henry H. Dictionary of Architecture. John Wiley and Sons,

American Association for State and Local History, 1977.

Inc., New York, 1952.

Carlson G.E. and Putnam.

Architectural and Building Trades Dictionary, 3rd Edition. American

White, Noval. The Architecture Book. Alfred A. Knoph Inc., New York, 1976.

Langenbach, Randolph. A Future From the Past: The Case for Conservation and Reuse of Old Buikhngs in Industrial Communities. Edited by Gene Gunnell. Washington, D. C. : U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the Massachusetts Department of Community Affairs, 1977. Stoehr, Eric C. Bonanza Victorian: Architecture and Society in Colorado Mining Towns. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1975.

Technical Society, Chicago, 1978.

Added Attractions Harris, Cyril, M. Editor, Historic Architecture Sourcebook. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1977. Pothorn, Herbert. Architectural Styles. The Viking Press, New York, 1971.

Frangiamore, Catherine L. Wallpapers in Historic Preservation. Technical Preservation Services Division, Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation, National Park Service, U. S. Department of the Interior,

Thomas, Selma, ed. Rehabilitation: A n Alternative for Historic Industrial Buildings. Washington, D. C. Historic American Engineering Record, Heritage conservation and Recreation Service, U. S. Department of the Interior, 1978.


crack the glass or damage the soft lead, After the paint and dirt have been removed, polish the window with either sawdust or whiting (plaster of paris). Many experts prefer sawdust because it is less messy. Spread the sawdust over the glass and moisten it with a commercial window cleaner. Rub vigorously with a fine steel wool or a stiff scrub brush, and be sure to get into all the corners. This will leave both the glass and lead polished. After this initial cleaning, a commercial window cleaner should be used.

ACQUIRING STAINED GLASS

SPLENDOR IN GLASS continued from page forty-seven

Reputtying T o replace lost putty, a regular glazing compound can be used. Push it up under the lead with your fingers; be sure that you get it around any loose pieces of glass or any gaps between the lead and the glass. T o reputty a large area, it is usually easier to thin the putty with turpentine and apply it with a brush. The putty dries quickly and the excess can be wiped off. If the lead within the window has rotted or become too damaged to hold the glass, a complete reconstruction job will probably be needed. This is a major undertaking and is best left to a professional. Cracked or Missing Glass Another frequent problem with stained glass windows is cracked glass. This can be handled in a number of ways. One way is to leave it alone, as the crack may be the least noticeable alternative. Another way is to cover the crack with a false lead. This is half a piece of came laid over the crack and soldered at both ends. This false lead will look like a solid lead came. If a piece of glass is badly cracked or missing, a new piece of glass will have to be substituted. It is usually easy to acquire glass that is a close match in color and texture, An exact match, however, may be impossible, as quality glass has always been produced in small quantities, and colors and textures tend to vary widely. One way to make the new glass less noticeable is to recut pieces from the corners to replace the missing glass. The new glass can then be placed in the corners where it will go unnoticed. New glass should be selected for its texture, surface color, and transmitted color. High quality glass will change color tones with light changes. Cleaning Stained Glass A final problem commonly encountered with residential stained glass is cleaning. This may include the removal of either dirt or paint. Sometimes beautiful stained glass windows can be easily cleaned in a commercial dip tank. The paint removal solution will dissolve the putty or cement, making reputtying necessary but will not damage the glass or lead. Borders of stained glass windows are another place where heavy build-ups of paint frequently occur. A small, sharp-bladed scraper is useful in removing this paint or dirt from the edges. Remember to use a light touch so that you do not

If you are interested in acquiring a new piece of stained glass or an old one from another home, there are several things to keep in mind. First, look at the overall design of the window. More colors or an intricate pattern do not necessarily indicate a superior window. The shape of the pieces will give an indication of the skill that went into making the window. Straight edges are the easiest to cut. The narrower the sections of glass and the deeper the concave areas are the greater the skill required to construct the window. The glass itself is another indicator of quality. Look for the little imperfections and bubbles that give good quality glass its texture. Look for depth of color, not just brightness. Antique stores are often good places to find old stained glass windows. Another great source to try is wrecking companies. These companies frequently salvage windows before tearing down a building. It may be to your advantage to tell antique dealers or wrecking companies the size and style window you are interested in so that they can keep their eyes open for one and contact you when they come across a window you may be interested in. If you are interested in having a new window made for your home, you will probably need the services of a designer such as N.R. Cabral, an exceptionally talented artist. Experts such as Mr. Cabral will come to your home to see the setting of the window. He will listen to your ideas and show you several design alternatives. Once he has a feel for the kind of window you have in mind, he will return to his studio to prepare a small, detailed watercolor of the proposed window. The homeowner then has the opportunity to decide whether or not to choose the window the expert has designed, If it meets with the owners' approval, the designer will make a full-scale drawing or cartoon from which the window can be made. Each stained glass window is a unique expression. With the proper care, they can be enjoyed by many generations. Additional information on stained glass is available through the Utah State Historical Society Preservation Library.


Interior Design In The Restoration

Of Historic Homes

by Elizabeth E. Crowder

A

daptive re-use of an old historic home can be a tricky business if it is not handled in a manner which reflects the style and feeling of the times in which the home was built. Contracting an interior designer who is familiar with classic design and style is one answer to the myriad of problems that seem to suddenly deluge the individual or family in the process of restoration of an old home. A designer possesses the knowledge of the many, many fabrics, furniture and accessory adaptations presently on the market and has the ability to incorporate new adaptations of old pieces into the total picture in a pleasing manner, resulting in comfortable and utilitarian contemporary usage. Doris Bruno, owner of Doris Bruno Design Studio, has successfully achieved the blending of the old with the new in her work on the Morton Rasmussen Home in Mount Pleasant, Utah. The home is o n the National Register of Historic Sites and is presently owned by Esther R. Christensen, granddaughter of the original owner. Situated on Main Street, the home is an excellent example of Utah regionally adapted Federal architectural styling. It was built in 1875 by Morton Rasmussen of red brick which was made in a kiln on

76

the property. No exterior changes have been made on the home, but some structural changes have been incorporated into the interior of the home. When contacted by Mrs. Christensen to do the interior design work, Ms. Bruno "felt very fortunate to have the opportunity to work on an historic home." The total interior design work has taken four years to complete, due to Mrs. Christensen's desire to utilize only local carpenters and craftsmen to work on the home. In working with Mrs. Christensen, designer Bruno found that the owner wanted to keep the charm of the original home and still make it livable and adapted to today's present needs. In achieving this objective, many of the original furnishings were kept and adaptations of old pieces were purchased to supplement the original scheme of things. Structural changes were supervised, designed and sub-contracted by the interior design firm. The changes incorporated into the home are: a new fireplace in the living room, crown moldings on the ceilings, a dado in the living room, a windowseat in the parlor, along with cabinetry for storage. As one enters the living room one's eye immediately focuses on the fireplace which is new, but adapted to the tradition of the old home. Red is

the dominant color in the room and is reflected in the plush carpet and wallpaper. White Priscilla curtains add a light feeling to the room and the original piano remains an important part of the total design, as does the original corner cupboard. A Queen Anne camelback loveseat adaptation has been purchased to further the traditional look of the living room. Beyond, in the parlor room, Ms. Bruno has helped her client to incorporate present hobbies and memorabilia into a total cohesive look that allows the necessary work and storage space for Mrs. Christensen's genealogical study and a space for displaying objects that tell a story of family members once inhabiting the home. Base cabinetry has been installed, along with a lateral filing system and shelving. New windowseats and moldings have been added to the parlor room and the colorcoordination and selection was based on a collection of blue and white Christmas plates. O n first glance, one would not be able to distinguish between the old and new adaptive pieces that have been incorporated into the room. Ms. Bruno has utilized a new desk that fits well with the original desk chair of the owner's father, along with a reproduction of a 100-year-old clock and lamp, proving once again that, although the home of your dreams may


be historic, one does not need to spend a fortune collecting antiques to acquire the desired look and feel appropriate for an older home. The stairway, leading to the upstairs is another exciting and interesting aspect of the interior of the Morton Rasmussen Home. It proudly boasts a fine collection of photographs of people who have lived in the home. Ms. Bruno feels that "what makes a person feel comfortable", as long as it does not interfere with good design, is very important. She is dedicated to the premise that interior design should reflect the fact that each person is important and works meticulously with each of her clients outlining any structural changes or problems seen at the outset so that a clear picture of costs, time and expenditure of energy are known before the project begins. The interior of this home reflects the careful planning which went into the design work. Before jumping ahead on your own restoration project give yourself and your valued home the time to plan and carefully consider the necessary utilitarian changes you desire to incorporate, while at the same time maintaining the integrity of the home, both on the inside and out.


First Security Bank, Smithfield

by Diana S. Ellis

P

roven example of adaptive use is the First Security Bank in Smithfield, Utah. This structure was originally a Bamberger Railroad electric station, with the ceramic insulators still visible along the east wall of the lobby. Interior planning was begun by designer Barbara G. Cowley in 1974. The project was completed in February of 1976. The intention in remodeling was not to recreate an interior authentic to the initial 1912 construction but rather to recreate an ambience which incorporated many traditions and eras. This approach enabled the use of a Mormon pine secretary (c. 1850), cast iron exterior light fixtures salvaged from the Cosmopolitan Hotel in Denver (c. 1890), a bank calendar from England with the original month and day cards still intact, and ornate Victorian marble-topped tables (c. 1896). Appropriate antiques were also used in areas beyond usual public perusal, such as the employee's lunchroom and the ladies' lounge. In addition to a generally traditional orientation, the interior reflects a very specific relationship to the history of the community. Stained glass panels, illustrating scenes from early Smithfield, define the teller areas, Suzanne Bird of Ogden was commissioned to create scenes of the 1902 Smithfield Tabernacle, the 1897 Cantwell & Sons, the 1868 James Mack Grist Mill, and the 1912 Utah-Idaho Central Railroad. In the thirty years since the railroad has used the structure, it has housed a series of tenants, including a beauty shop and a re tail furniture store. Today, the building is assured of a solid role in the community life of Smithfield. It is encouraging when banking and business leaders, such as those in Smithfield, demonstrate a commitment to the tangible treasures which provide an irreplaceable link with the past.

Bruce W. Browning, photographer.


OLD HOUSE PAINT COLOR RESEARCH "Ever Wondered What The Original Colors of Your House Were? Here's How to Find Out"

I

Architea fax& &wing s h h g Row m@inalcobv scheme leaked. by Larry Jones

D

uring the restoration of an old house, one of the most difficult decisions which you must make is what colors to paint the structure. Whether your home has historical importance or not, you will want to consider which paint scheme will best suit the architectural character of your house, the surrounding neighborhood, and your personal preferences. Often, buildings built during the late 19th and early 20th Century had well thought out paint schemes which were very much a part of the original architectural design. During this period in Utah, the use of a variety of colors was quite common on interiors as well as exteriors. It was rather uncommon to paint a highly decorated "Victorian" house one color as so often is the case today. The rich architectural ornament, detailing, and trim of old houses are visually lost or "painted out" when the entire interior or exterior is painted just one color. Such details were, in the past, set apart from one another by the use of a combination of colors or shades of the same color. 80

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Eady f 892 view of A. 1% W m Hewe mken by H.H. ntonuts, courtesy $0. IJ. U.Library, Gmve Oiiw Collection. Nate how the d-white monochromatic paint s&m fdls e b m g oza the aa~hitec&

deuik,

Determining the original paint colors of an old house lcan be an interesting and enlightening experience. Accurate paint color research, whether carried out by the hameawner or a professional, can lead to an increased understanding and appreciationof the hisrory of the house and the period in which it was built. Understanding the original paint scheme of the h o w can often make the choice of colors much easier when it comes time to repaint. Begin paint color research early in .the restoration process before various deteriorated original parts of the building are altered or replaced. Very few buildings have been so altered as to make it impossible to secure enough reliable paint samples to put together an accurate paint history. Generally, it's best to seek professional assistance when a home has an u m u a l history, is highly ornate, is an uncommon style, or requires a very accurate restoration. Always be on the lookout for unusual painting such as wall muds, galdleafing, hand wmd gaining, marblizhg, stenciling and wallpaper patterns. 14something unusual i~ uncovered, you should contact the Technical Preservation m i c e of the Utah State Historical Society whose staff can put you in contact wirh knowledgeable experts to assist you. The historic William H. Culmer hause in Salt Lake City serves as a gaod case study, The awnem of this

picturesque c. 1881 structure became aware of the history of the Culmer family shortly after purchasing the house several years ago. Henry Culmer, William's brother, was a well known artist and muralist who found some degree of relaxation in painting intricate stencils and wall paintings throughout the first floor rooms of his brother's house. Over the years, the house was divided into apartments and much of this art work was covered over with cheap wallpaper, paint, and sprayed-on ceilings. The current owner, through careful investigation, soon rediscovered long forgotten stenciling and other decorative painting which had been covered over as the result of years of remodelings. Because the owner researched the history of the house and its original owners, he sought professional help in order to salvage and restore the ornate paintings. Most any homeowner, armed with basic hand tools, can begin a fairly accurate examination of the original paint colors of his or her house. To do this, you will need a reasonably sharp X-act0 knife, a scalpel or sharp wood chisel, some 220 and 600 grit weddry finishing paper, some clear lubricating oil, a good magnifying glass, and a ladder. Use the X-act0 knife to cut through the built-up layers of paint, forming a small crater or beveled trench which extends down to the wood or the base


material. Use the magnifying glass to count the layers of paint to gain an idea of how many paint coats and in what sequence they were applied to the structure. Check several places before coming to any firm conclusion about the number of paint coats. Remember that paint fades, weathers, flakes off, changes colors, and is sometimes sanded down between coats. Therefore, concentrate your research in areas where the paint has been protected from the sun and weathering. Likely places are under overhangs, in corners, and in other hard to get at areas. Next, sand the crater of the trench using 220 grit weddry finishing paper (black sandpaper). Use a sanding block to expose a larger area with less effort. Feather edge sand to achieve a smooth, gradual slope which exposes the various paint layers from the outer surface down to the base material. Use a clear, thick lubricating oil while sanding to prolong the life of the paper and smooth out the surface being sanded. Once the crater is large enough to work with, use 600 grit weddry finishing paper with oil to polish out all sanding marks and scratches. Now the various layers of paint should stand out in clearly visible rings. This method produces a usable sample in as few as five minutes. Often, in Utah, sand painting was used to make woodwork resemble stone. This technique requires the dusting of sand into wet paint after it has been applied. When investigating paint colors, sanding of the cratered area slows down dramatically when a layer of sanded paint is reached. Continued sanding will eventually penetrate this layer. To completely research the paint scheme of a house, use a ladder to reach gable details and roof overhangs. Don't forget to check out the paint history of all the elements of your house, including walls, doors, window sashes and frames, trim, mouldings and cornices. Once you have exposed what you think are the original base coats, it's time to figure out a modern color scheme that is equivalent. Remember that some houses had primer coats applied to the bare surface before the final color coat was applied, so don't be misled into thinking the primer was the first coat. The simplest way to match modem paint colors to the original is to secure small paint samples from local paint stores and compare these samples with the originals.

w

Paint Researching on the Andrew J. Warner House

Andrew J. Warner, a real estate agent and clerk at Ogden's Reed Hotel was the original owner of this classic Queen Anne style home located at 726 25th Street in Ogden, Utah. The home was built in 1890. These early black and white photoqaphs of the house, tuken shortly after construction was completed, show the lively polychromatic paint scheme which was typical of the period and style. Ronald D. Hales, a restoration architect, purchased the home in 1977 to serve as his firm's office. Prior to commencing restoration efforts on the house, Ron wisely investigated the photo archives at Weber Stute College to determine if any i n f m t i o n or OM photos of the house or neighborhood were on file. T o his surprise, three g h s plate negatives turned up and are responsible for these very sharp black and white views of the house. The photographs indicated that the original paint scheme of the house was far more ornate than the architect had originally thought. (Photo 5). Paint research was carried out on each element of the house. Every change in decoration, shape and texture on the exterior of the structure was tested to determine the original color. Each element appeared as a different shade of grey on the old photos. (Photo 6 ) . The results of Ron's paint research can be seen in these photographs. The Paint research was carried out in the same method as previously mentioned. (Photos 7 and 8). T o gain some idea of how the originalpaint colors would look, Ron drew up scaled elevations of the house and approximated the paint scheme with the use of colored pencils. Although the colored pencils only agproximated the origindl colors, it allowed the architect to visualize how the house will look when repainted its original colors. A local paint dealer supplied the color samples which very closely match the original colors revealed by the paint research (photo 9 ) . When all structural repair and decorative trim are restored, the house will be repainted to match its original 1890's appearance.

Close-zat,view ofa~1dedand poiished cut base wood in center wirh concentric rings af paint around it.

Close-up view ofporch post and decorative wood turnings.

For additional information on paint research: Paint Color Research and Restoration of Historic Paint, Kevin H . Miller, Association for Preservation Technology, Publication Supplement, September, 197 7. Paint and Color Restoration, Frank S. Welsh, The Old House Journal Vol. 111, No. 8, August 1875, Clem Labine edition. Some Notes of Paint Research and Reproduction, Morgan W . Phillips and Norman R. Weiss, A . P. T. Bulletin, Vol. 111, No. 4, 1975.

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View of second level turret.


About The Writers STEPHANIE D. CHURCHILL: Graduate Stanford; Director Utah Heritage Foundation; Member of Board of Advisors of the National Trust for Historic Preservation; Chairman of the GovernokVs AdvisoryCommittee on Restoration of Devereaux House. NANCY DAVENPORT: certificate in I~~~~~~~ Design; currently Director of Development for Utah Heritage Foundation and Chairman of Annual Heritage House Tour. sAMUELI. WRNSIFE: ASID, FRSA ofHenry A. Dornsife & Sons, renowned interior designers specializing in the Preservation, Restoration, Decoration, Lighting and Landscaping of Nineteenth Century Buildings, Williamsport, PA; Consultant for Devereaux House in SLC, Utah. PETER L. GOSS: Ph. D; Associate Prof. of Architecture, Graduate School of Architecture, U. of U.; Board member of the Utah Heritage Foundation and Utah State Historical Society. TEDDY GRIFFITH: B. A. U. of Michigan; M.S. Utah State University, History of Utah; Executive Director of the Union Station in Ogden, Utah; Utah Advisor National Trust for Historic Preservation; Member Utah State Board of History. LOIS HARRIS: B.S. History, State U. of NY at Cortland; Research of South Temple, Capitol Hill and Avenues Historic Districts Utah State Historical Society; currently Utah Heritage Foundation Revolving Fund Coordinator.

LARRY JONES: B.A. Architecture; Technical Preservation methods; Architectural Consultant in Historic Preservation; currently Technical Administrator, Utah State Historical Society. WILSON MARTIN: Graduate Diploma, Town and Country Planning (England); Directing the economics of reuse, tax benefits associated with historic commercial building, and preservation law; currently Preservation Development Coordinator, Utah State Historical Society. BARBARA MURPHY: Graduate U. of U.; Grants administration, Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service; currently administrator State Society. PHILIPNOTARIANNI: M.S. History, U. ofU. and U. of Minnesota; Ph. D. candidate of U. of U.; currently Historian of Utah State Historical Society. COLETTE PENNE: M. A. in Geography; Responsible for revitalization projects in Ogden, Utah; currently Senior Phnner of Ogden Neighborhood Development Agency. NANCY RICHARDS: B.A. U. ofU.; M.A. State University of NY Cooperstown Graduate program and History museum training; currently curator of collections at Pioneer Trail State Park, SLC, Utah. CINDY VAIL: B.S. Planning; Development grants from Heritage Conservation and Recreation Services; Preservation Grants Consultant, Utah State Historical Society. HENRY WHITESIDE: Ph. D. History; Expert on title research, historical surveys, and foreign affairs; Historian, Utah State Historical Society.

Back Cover WILLIAM S. GODBE HOUSE 543 East First South St. One of the best examples of Gothic Revival architecture in Utah, this incredibly elaborate house was built in 1880 for William S. Godbe, who was a prominent merchant and literary figure. The architect was E.L.T. Harrison, who had also designed the interior of the Salt Lake Theatre. Both Godbe and Harrison were once active Mormons who were excomlnunicated in 1869 for their leadership of the "New Movement," also known as the "Godbeite Movement. " The Godbeites advocated separation of church and state in Utah, the development of Utah's mineral resources, and the abolition of polygamy. The Godbeites were also mystics and spiritualists, and conducted seances in which they communicated with the spirits of the dead who revealed to them an entirely new theological system intended to do away with the strong authoritarian and institutional orientation of the Mormon Church and to reject key elements of Mormon theology. Described by one observer as an "architectural poem," Godbe's house was a concrete expression of much of the philosophy of the Godbeite movement. It was demolished in the 1920s.


Utah's Lost Architecture: The William S. Godbe House 643 East First South Street (Photo: Utah State Historical Society Archives)

Utah PreservationIRestoration Publication/@ 1980 University Services, a Utah Corporation11159 East 2nd AvenueISalt Lake City, Utah 84103

Profile for Utah State History

Utah Preservation Restoration, Volume 2, 1980  

Utah Preservation and Utah Preservation/Restoration showcase exemplary and innovative historic preservation projects throughout Utah and pro...

Utah Preservation Restoration, Volume 2, 1980  

Utah Preservation and Utah Preservation/Restoration showcase exemplary and innovative historic preservation projects throughout Utah and pro...

Profile for utah10