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FEATURES

VOLUME

The Governor's Mansion

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Ready for Utah's Second Century B Y ' W L S O N MARTIP4 SIJSAN H0L.T

R O B PETT, EL.LIE S U N N T A

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Fremont Expedition

Mystery Solved at Capitol Reef B Y LEE K R U E T Z E R

Mining Landscapes

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Ghosts of Technology Past BY G A R Y B

PETERSON

Restored and Revitalized Logan's Eccles Theatre B Y B O Y D '. I S Q A i I S E N

Cove Fort

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An Oasis in Central Utah BY DOYALO L. ENDLRS

Urban Pioneers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Restaurants and Brew Pllbs Lead Rev~tal~zat~on BY TY 3ROklLL-L

Stained Glass Windows

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Utah's Architectural Jewelry 6 Y MARY TI'OUTMAN

Environmental Education . . . . .GO Great Basin Env~ronmentaiEducat~onCenter BY L O U I S E K I W G S B V H Y

Main Street Makes a Comeback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 BY BECKY BARTHOLOMEW

Preservation Perspective . . . . . . . .71 R Y ROGER ROPER

Utah's Lost Architecture

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B Y R O C 0 IL. W H E A T O N

UTAH D N I S I O N O F STATE HISTORY DIRECTOR

(XOli.l33.3501

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..MZKJ. Evan

ASSOCIATE DlRECrOR

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Wilson G. Martir

. . . . . . . . . . . . .Roger Rope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lezlie SoltoliL

EDITOR UTAH P R E S E R I ~ A T I O N F R E E L A N C E DESIGNER

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NARNIA PAINT & REMODELING 3353 South Main, #294 Salt Lake City, Utah 84115 (801) 363-15401Fax (801) 269-0755

Large or Small, The Job is Done Well rom the first nail driven to the last brush stroke of paint, Narnia Paint & Remodeling ascribes to the philosophy that a job worth doing is worth doing well. Attentive to detail, the company combines a foundation of honesty, integrity and quality with extensive knowledge and experience. Narnia, established in 1988, takes jobs of all sizes, from replacing missing fascia board and painting a single room to major restorations.

Owners Mel Heath and Steve Aste learned restoration and construction from the masters while employed by one of Utah's oldest and at one time the state's largest construction company. Their combined start-to-finish experience was learned while working on Trolley Square, the Kearns Building, the Tribune Building, the Walker Mansion, the Masonic Temple and the Cathedral of the Madeleine. Knowing the pitfalls that can occur with this type of work and how to avoid them gives Narnia its edge. Going the extra mile for the client is basic to Narnia's way of work. One such example involved an historical building on Park City's Main Street that had been structurally damaged by fire. The facade was ornate and stood three stories high, and although it was not sound, saving the facade was of utmost importance. Narnia's job was to demolish the remainder of the building

in order to rebuild and upgrade all systems to code while saving the facade from high mountain winds and keeping the Main Street sidewalk accessible and safe for two years. Today the building stands as a continuing reminder of Park City's colorful past. Beginning as a two-person operation, Narnia continued to grow. In response, the company slowly and systematically established a solid core of dedicated employees who take great pride in their work, people who look at a hard day's work and feel very good about what they have accomplished. Paying top dollar for their skills means the company can expect the very best-and they get it. Today Narnia Paint & Remodeling provides planning and coordination of whole projects as well as design, matched custom trims, styles and finishes. The firm has a longstanding relationship with the Utah State Historical Society, Utah Heritage Foundation and the Salt Lake City and Park City building departments. "We believe that by always dealing fairly with the customer, along with the pride and loyalty of our employees, we have a competitive edge over other companies," say owners Heath and Aste.

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CULP CONSTRUCTION COMPANY 2320 South Main

Salt Lake City, Utah 84115 (801) 486-2064JFax (801) 485-4755

Preserving the Past with a Reputation for Excellence

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ulp Construction, headquartered in Salt Lake City since 1949, has completed complex and diverse projects, including office buildings, hotels, government facilities, manufacturing plants, medical facilities, schools and churches. As the West's leading restoration contractor, the firm's skills are proven on restoration projects such as the award-winning Cathedral of the Madeleine and the historic Utah Governor's Mansion. These major restoration ventures demanded international expertise, extreme attention to detail, craftsmanship and teamwork, all delivered within strict budget limitations. Culp Construction sees a restoration project as an opportunity to restore a treasure, a precious part of a community's history. Their job is to join the past and the future in a cul-

The challenge to Culp Construction's team was to reconstruct the home, returning it to the same elegance it had when the Kearns lived there. Reporters invited to the home in December 1901 pronounced it "the finest anywhere in the West, from the Missouri River to the Pacific Coast." Entering the mansion today, one will find craftsmanship of the highest quality in the world, as well as the largest wood carving project in this decade. It is virtually impossible to distinguish which sections of millwork, plaster, tile and marble are new and which are surviving pieces. One does not detect the fire protection system, the life-saving seismic upgrades. and the new electrical, plumbing, heating and air conditioning systems. Certainly the Culp Construction restoration team met the challenge and opportunity presented to them, and

mination of technology, skill, craftsmanship and respect. Restoration projects require an understanding of how, when and by whom the building was originally constructed. The general contractor must develop relationships with todays craftspeople who have the knowledge and expertise to replicate the original work. Many of these artisans are world renowned experts in extremely specialized trades. When Thomas and Jeannie Kearns began construction of their palatial mansion in the spring of 1900, they were unaware that one day it would become, with the exception of the White House, the largest executive residences in the country. All 32 rooms and 21,000 square feet were finished using the highest quality hardwoods, decorative plaster, hardware and fixtures available. Almost a century later, the

Their job is to join the past and the future in a culmination of technology, skill, craftsmanship and respect. exceeded expectations. Culp Construction offers its clients a full range of services: construction management, project supervision and scheduling, planning, value engineering, estimating and quality control. Staffed with industry experts experienced in every facet of construction, the firm meets deadlines while maintaining the highest quality. Culp Construction Company commits all its resources to enable our clients' goals to become a reality. Culp Construction Company mission statement: We are a dedicated Team, providing high quality, safe and innovative construction solutions. We are committed to individual and company success, trust and excellence.

Christmas tree in the main entry caught fire. No serious injuries or loss of life occurred. However, the exquisite interior finishes were destroyed, smoke and soot penetrated every cavity of the building. The cleaning process, demolition and structural upgrades took nearly eight months to complete. Each piece of hardwood molding, hardware and furnishings were cautiously

loged and stored. Later every salvageable piece was stripped, repaired, refinished and reinstalled.

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LOWELL CONSTRUCTION COMPANY

General Engineering Building Historic Renovation: An imaginative renovation of a three-story structure, the project received national recognition for its artistic concrete. The designlbuild approach by the owners required close collaboration among the owners, artists, architect, engineers, city officials and contractor. Squatter's: Originally a hotel, this building now includes a restaurant and functioning microbrewery (Salt Lake Brewing Company) while maintaining the architectural integrity of the original structure. Labrett Interiors Retail Studio: After extensive remodeling and fourfold expansion, the historic building now houses a showroom and studio for a major interior design firm. Because of the nature of the client's business, strict attention to finish work detail and quality was essential.

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1035 South 800 West Salt Lake City, Utah 84104 (801) 973-0993lFax (801) 973-0999

Construction Firm Features Use of Recycled Products premier renovation contractor in the Intermountain area, Lowell Construction has successfully completed major commercial, industrial, municipal and residential projects. The firm is a leader in construction that demands precision craftsmanship, attention to detail and the ability to work closely with architects, designers and owners. The company encourages clients to use recycled materials whenever possible, and it maintains an extensive network of suppliers for previously used lumber, hardwoods, stone and other materials. Each jobsite is equipped with bins for recycling. A recycling policy is part of the firm's package to its subcontractors. Founded in 1983, the company offers a full range of services. The philosophy of Lowell Construction is simple: "WE are dedicated to quality, efficiency and service," says owner Paula Volpin Evershed. Renovations completed by Lowell Construction include: TerryIGile Mansion Historic Preservation: Completely renovated, the 1906 mansion is considered to be one of the finest examples of Georgian architecture in Utah.

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Comedy Circuit: Located in Midvale's Historic District, the renovation of this old theater into Utah's premier comedy club spearheaded a revival of Midvale's Main Street. Fuggles: The historic Henderson Building in Salt Lake City was built in 1897-98 as a wholesale grocery business. Renovated by Lowell Construction for the Salt Lake Brewing Company, it is now a microbrewery, restaurant and retail store. Cape Dutch Mansion: Authentic down to the thatched roof, limewash plaster and handwrought hardware, the guest house is a stunning recreation of the South African architecture. In keeping with its dedication to using recycled products, the firm's newest product is a line of outdoor furniture using old-growth redwood salvaged from the historic Southern Pacific Railroad Lucin Cut-off trestle across the Great Salt Lake. Lowell Construction often contributes to a variety of community organizations such as donating labor for the construction of a playhouse for the annual Easter Seal Society auction, labor and materials for Our House (a day-care center for disadvantaged children) and ongoing involvement with S'plore, the Jewish Community Center and neighborhood events. Utah is currently experiencing a cycle of construction activity that is unparalleled. Lowell Construction finds that increasingly sophisticated clientele provide a welcomed demand for the company's capacity to offer cutting edge work.

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top: Cape Dutch Mansion (guest house) 80% complete. bottom 1eft:Terry-Gile Mansion. bottom right:General Engineering Building.


HANSEN QUALITY STONE QUARRIES 8809 South 700 West Sandy, Utah 84070 (801) 255-2911/Fax (801) 562-9597 www.qstone.com.qstone Q utw.

Art Beyond Craft in Masonry

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es Hansen's work on the Salt Lake City-County Building restoration spans a period of more than 17 years. The range of masonry work has included structural corrections, reconstructive cosmetics, duplication of ornament, and imaginative interpretive work that can only be recognized as art in the truest sense. Burtch Beall, architect on the project for many years, applied the following measure to the work of Wes Hansen and his shop: "Wes has become a creative artist in areas where stone detail was so eroded that there was no way to reconstruct an image of its appearance, and sculptural interpretation was essential. The building was originally designed and constructed by artists who produced images interpretively. Wes was able to make composites that restore 'life' to the structure, by what amounts to an artist's study of the styles of sculptural

detail-whether realistic, fantastic or historical-that were still well enough preserved to enter the 'vocabulary' of the building." With this monumental project Hansen made himself open to suggestion and review, thereby integrating himself and his artisans into the flow of the team design for the project. One has to just look up at the Salt Lake skyline to appreciate the quality of work. A close look (carry your binoculars) at the City-County Building illustrates the art beyond craft that Hansen has given posterity. Wes Hansen's grandfather was a blacksmith by trade and self- taught in the stone business of quarrying, fabricating and setting. Wilford H. Hansen Stone Quarries, Inc., formed in 1935, was turned over to J. Weston Hansen in 1975. For a company built on the premise of quality, it was only natural that the recent change of

gray and tan eastern Utah sandstones, Manti limestone, and Utah granite from the original Pioneer Quarry. Among the many buildings for which Hansen has provided the stone are the Salt Lake LDS Temple annex and chapel, the restoration of Cathedral of Madeleine, Herald Building, St. Marks Cathedral, Seventh Day Adventist church, Logan Temple, Manti Temple, Spring City ward house, Kaysville ward house, Utah State Prison church, Social Hall, Hogle Zoo, John Moran Eye Center, Devereaux Mansion, Old Ammusen Building facade (Crossroads Mall), Deer Valley lodges, Student Union at the U of U, Laramie and Rawlins state prisons in Wyoming, the University of Wyoming in Laramie, Deaf and Blind School in Colorado Springs and GTE Headquarters in Dallas. Their credits also list numerous homes, walls and

"Wes has become a creative artist in areas where stone detail was so eroded that there was no way to reconstruct an image of its appearance, and sculptural interpretation was essential." name would be to Wes Hansen's Quality Building Stone. In fact, they like to say that "Our Quality Comes Naturally." Hansen Quality Stone Quarries does its own quarrying from its eight Utah sites. They quarry red, buff and pink sandstone (southern Utah), two

churches throughout Utah and many of the monuments for Sons and Daughters of the Utah Pioneers. During its 65 years of quarrying, fabricating and carving, Hansen Quality Stone Quarries has consistently placed the needs of its customers first.

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MUSEUM OF

ings in addition to collecting, preserving and exhibiting historic objects. The most recent Utah project is his-

AND ART

toric Cove Fort, built in 1867 by the Ira Hinckley family. This significant

45 North West Temple Salt Lake City, Utah 84150 (801) 240-4615JFax (801) 240-5342

restoration brought the only pioneer

Museum Tells of Heritage of Latter-day Saints

stone fort still standing in the state to its original condition. Opened in 1994, the project included restoration and furnishing of the volcanic rock fort and reconstruction of authentic replicas of the original barn, blacksmith shop and other outbuildings. Located just off the junction of highways 1-70 and 1-15

reservation means history for

between Fillmore and Beaver, the isolated site is visited by more than

the Museum of Church History and Art of the Church of Jesus

100,000 people annually. Earlier efforts include the

Christ of Latter-day Saints. In 1869 the museum's predecessor, the Deseret Museum, began collecting objects

restoration and furnishing of the Bee-

related to Latter-day Saint and Utah

hive House, the Manti Temple, the Jacob Hamblin Home, the Brigham Young Winter Home, and historic

history. Since then the collection has grown to include 60,000 artifacts and

tabernacles and meeting houses in various parts of Utah. While many of

works of art documentirig the LDS Church's international expansion. Today, in a modern museum

these sites are open to visitors, others

building opened in 1984 in Salt Lake City, 300,000 visitors a year view a half dozen long-term installations and special short-term exhibits in four changing galleries. The highlight is an exhibit on the history of the church, featuring treasured artifacts, documents and art from church beginnings in upstate New York; from gathering places in Ohio, Missouri and Illinois; from the trek to Utah the story of establishing a Mormon homeland in the Great Basin in the 1840s. Many exhibits at the museum incorporate architectural elements representing the fine craftsmanship in historic buildings. Stained-glass windows, handcrafted woodwork and irreplaceable furnishings from meeting houses, temples and other LDS buildings are presented. Museum personnel help preserve important Latter-day Saint build-

continue as places of worshirs.

The mission of the Utah Heritage Foundation is to preserve, protect, and promote Utah's historic built environment through public awareness, advocacy, and active preservation. As a private, non-profit, membership-based organization, UHF is supported mainly by private resources. U H F strives to fulfill its mission through a wide range of programs and activities. PUBLIC AWARENESS UHF sponsors programs to increase public awareness of Utah's historic resources and the need to protect them. The foundation's signature event is its annual Historic Homes Tour of privately owned historic buildings. U H F also provides regular tours of Salt Lake City landmarks. Through UHF's heritage education program, students learn about Utah's historic architecture and the value of preservation. ADVOCACY U H F advocates preservation-oriented public policies by drafting legislation, testifying before legislative committees, and lobbying for the passage of bills which protect Utah's historic resources. ACTIVE PRESERVATION U H F serves as a catalyst for preservation in Utah through financial and technical assistance and property stewardship. UHF's Revolving Fund Loan Program provides property owners with low-interest loans to rehabilitate historic residential buildings. U H F offers technical assistance to individuals and communities around the state needing advice on a range of preservation issues. U H F also has rehabilitated the historic Memorial House in Memory Grove Park and operates the buildings as an events center. For more information about Utah Heritage Foundation programs or membership, call (801) 533-0858.


Division of State HistoryIUtah State Historical Society 300 Ria Cnande. SallL&c Clry.UT 84101 .8011533-3SW. Pa. 8011533-3503

The Division of State History is the official state agency responsible for historic preservation in Utah. Located in the historic Rio Grande Depot, the Division offers the following historic preservation services and programs: National Register of Historic Places (designation, plaques, etc.) Historical information on thousands of buildings Tax credits for historic building rehabilitation Technical assistance to historic building owners Grants to local governments Archaeological programs OTHER DIVISION SERVICES INCLUDE: Utah State History Museum History research library Historic photo collection (500,000 images) Historic publications Public history grants Oral history program History based conferences and events The Division's membership and fund-raising arm is the Utah State Historical Society. Members of the Historical Society receive: Utah Preservation magazine (annual) Utah Historical Quarterly (4 issues per year) Beehive Histo y (annual) Newsletter (6 per year) 10 percent discount at the Book and Gift Shop Invitations to tours and special events (Annual Meeting, Statehood Day, etc.)

MJSA

nor's Mansion is to return it to its original state. To this end, MJSA assem-

357 Pierpont Avenue Salt Lake City, Utah (801) 364-51 61JFax (801) 394-5167

bled a team of experts: principal Max Smith; partner Rob Pett: an historical

MJSA: Preserving the City's Urban Fabric

T

wenty-five years ago, Salt Lake City architect Max J. Smith envisioned a world where the larger canvas of a city informs the design and preservation of its buildings. Today, Smith's firm is housed in Artspace at the core of the city's interior, once a blighted warehouse district that is now a significant arts and residential center,. MJSA's reputationis firmly established with examples such as the TerryGile Mansion, the David Keith Mansion, and the Harold and Kay Dunn home. Expanding the firm has allowed Smith and partners Jerrold Green, Kin Ng, Rob Pett and Stephen Tobler to indulge their passion for historical preservation and adaptive re-use projects. After the Governor's Mansion was severly damaged by fire in 1993, MJSA was chosen to manage the restoration and preservation, propelling the firm into the architectural preservation limelight. The primary concern with an historic landmark such as the Gover-

preservation specialist and former Chair of the Salt Lake City Landmarks Commission; and, working with MJSA's interior department, consultant Ellie Sonntag; an interior designer and antiquities expert. While the goal of historical preservation is, in Smith's opinion, to preserve original features first and enhance the use of the structure second, the raison d'@treof adaptive reuse work is to take a derelict building of historical importance and give it an altogether new life. At present, MJSA is working to adapt the historic Brigham Young Academy to house the Provo City Library. Other successful adaptive reuse projects include the General Engineering Building (formerly the

MJSA indulges their passion for historical preservation. Pierpont Gallery), Red Rock Brewing Company and The Artspace Rubber Company. "The magic," Smith will tell you, "is coming in and figuring out how to create a vital, income producing entity for future use." In the meantime, MJSA's vision for the future is taking tangible form all over the state.-Victoria Hindley

Call (801) 533-3500 for information about membership or any of the programs listed above. Division of State HistorytUtah State Historical Society 300 Rio Grande, Salt Lake City U T 84101-1182

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able documents and other services.

UTAH DISASTER IUEENUP

After a property loss occurs, Utah Disaster will perform emergency mitigation services to minimize addi-

13081 South Minuteman Drive Draper, Utah 84020 (801) 553-1010 Fax (801) 553-1933

The fire not only caused damage to the front entry, main stairway and dome, but also contaminated the entire structure with soot and smoke.

tional damage. UDK then works with the claimant's insurance company to

A Profile of Utah Disaster Kleenup, Its Restoration Capabilities and lnvolvement with the Governor's Mansion

u

determine the extent of the damage. After an agreement is made concerning what will be restored or replaced, UDK begins the restoration process. This could include content cleaning and decontamination, smoke and odor removal, storage of personal items, electronic cleaning, structural

tah Disaster Kleenup, (UDK)

repair or total reconstruction. UDK

founded in 1974, is a fullservice restoration company and general contractor, which

also deals with delicate items, such as oil paintings, photos, as well as deco-

UDK technician removing soot from the Governor's Mansion.

rative and oriental rugs.

restores buildings and property dam-

Utah Disaster has worked on several historic buildings registered

To remove the soot from ornate wood carvings and other delicate sur-

aged by fire, smoke, water, flooding, wind damage and vandalism. The firm

faces, UDK brought in a special tool

with the Utah State Historical Society

- a Sponge-Jet Blaster. The sponge-

and many antiques and family heirlooms, the most notable of which is

blaster shoots small particles of highly absorbent sponge materials

the Governor's Mansion.

onto the contaminated surface. The velocity of the sponge impacting the

companies in North America. In 1994,

UDK was called to perform two phases in the restoration process of

UDK built a new 32,000 square-foot

the Governor's Mansion, the first

to transfer from the surface onto the

facility in Draper. The structure is con-

being content cleaning and deodor-

sponge.

sidered by industry peers to be the

ization and the second dealing with

most state-of-the-art restoration facil-

the decontamination, cleaning and

sponge-blaster is that the sponge

deodorization of the structure.

material can be cleaned and reused, this helps minimize waste and is bet-

offers 24-hour emergency service 365 days a year. Utah Disaster Kleenup is one of the largest full-service restoration

ter for the environment. The spongeblaster is safer than traditional

state and the Utah Historical Society.

sand-blasting because it is much less

Everything was inventoried, sepa-

abrasive to the structure, produces far less dust particles and is easily

for transportation, cleaning and evaluation.

ity in the country. The building fea-

An emergency processing plant

tures the largest high-tech, electronic cleaning and decontamination labora-

and staging area was established at

tory in the Western United States.

the State Fairgrounds to handle the large project. During the course of the

Other features include a high-lift,

next six months, thousands of items

high-temperature drying room capable of drying 27,000 square feet of

Another unique aspect of the

The mansion housed not only the Governor's personal items, but also many items belonging to the

rated, carefully boxed and readied UDK headquarters Draper, Utah.

surface cases the soot contaminants

cleaned up. UDK is the only restoration firm in the Intermountain States with this new technology. Utah Disaster Kleenup has 100 full-time employees and a skill'bank of approximately 4C0 subcontractors. UDK currently has offices in Draper, Provo and Ogden. Another full-service

carpet at a time, multiple security

were cleaned, decontaminated, deodorized and repaired as needed.

vault storages for personal property;

Contents included, antique furniture,

operation is located in Boise, Idaho, known as Disaster Kleenup Serving

high-bay ozone chamber for odor

crystal chandeliers, decorative rugs,

Treasure Valley. For a free brochure of

neutralization; dehumidification chamber for electronic equipment and valu-

clothing and numerous pieces of silver worth thousands of dollars.

UDK's restoration capabilities, call (801) 553-1010.

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E.B.BERGER,INC. 218 West 12650 South Draper, UT 84020 (801) 553-0993 Fax (801) 553-0998

At E.B. Berger, Quality is Written in Stone

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hen your work is as high-profile as our work is, it has to be done right. "Some of the jobs we're especially proud of are the Cathedral of the Madeleine, the Governor's Mansion restoration and the City and County Building," says David Berger, president and CEO of E.B. Berger, Inc. And that's only a few of a long list. Since 1947, when Dave's father, Elmer, became a partner in his father's lath and plaster business, E.B. Berger, Inc. has been provideing commercial, institutional, industrial and residential construction services to the Wasatch Front. In addition to lath and plaster work E.B. Berger, Inc. offers exterior insulation finish systems; stucco; sprayed on fireproofing; structural and light-gauge

is restoration. "We enjoy restoration more; it's a little out of the ordinary," he says. "Every project presents different challenges." Many of the company's restoration projects entail working with marble and granite floors; lath and plaster walls and ceilings. "In a true restoration, you want to duplicate the original materials, wherever possible." Berger says, "Restoration work is preserving a part of history. Most of the new construction doesn't use the same detailing you see in older buildings; it give us an opportunity to see how they built in earlier times." The skilled craftsmen at E.B. Berger, a third-generation company, add their own history to that of the buildings they restore. "Our people really set us apart," Berger says. "Many of our employees have been with the firm for 20-plus years, and are specially skilled in restoration work. In addition, we're well-grounded in the restoration community and have plenty of experts to call on. We have established relationships with craftsmen, contractors, vendors, engineers

involved, identify potential problems and come to the general contractor with solutions rather than questions." Those solutions come from Berger's 250 employees in several divisions, including a residential exterior division and, most recently, Berger Prefabricated Exterior Panels. The new division provides time- and money-saving exteriors in a variety of finishes, including limestone, granite, marble E.I.F.S. and brick from its local 50,000-square-foot manufacturing facility. "Prefabricated panels save tremendous time over conventional, inplace construction," Berger says. "And the quality control we're able to achieve is a major advantage." Utahns can see examples of Berger's work on the new Scot Matheson Courts Com-

and architects. A lot of times we work

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steel framing; drywall and prefabricated exterior panel systems; ceramic tile and stone flooring; and specialty coatings, from chemical resistant floors and resilient play surfaces to exterior deck coatings and concrete protection. Berger estimates that about 15 percent of the work his company does

with the same teams [subcontractors] from job to job." It's a company's quality and reputation that makes for repeat business, a concept that Dave Berger takes very seriously. "Restoration work is a discovery process," he says. "Problems can crop up, and it's important for us to get

plex, which sports a new limestone exterior that was designed to look like a weathered, historical finish. Berger's attention to detail has served the company well, both in new construction and in restoration. "There's a lot more to these jobs than meets the eye," he says. "In order to do it properly, , you have to have experience." U

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If ever

the rnaxim W h t i worth doing is worth

doing wellwere appropriate, it would be the case of the Utah Governor's Mansion. Its construction in 1902 was a high-water mark in Utah architecture, and its recent restoration is equally exemplary. While visitors will marvel at the restoration of the three-story Chateauesque landmark, probably no one can count the hours spent deliberating and deciding how best to do the job. Months of discovery followed the tragic fire of Dec. 15, 1993. News reports carried indelible images of smoke and flames billowing o n t o the second story balcony, leaving many Utahns believing the stately mansion had seen its final days. Questions abounded: What caused the fire? How extensive is the damage? Should it be restored? What will it cost? These questions-and thousands of othershave been answered now. The process was costly and complex, but the mansion's restoration, completed in July 1996, says the result is all worthwhile. "This building will still be here 300 years from now," promises Mike Jackson, project manager. ABOVE: Smoke and flames from the mid-day fire provide a somber counterpoint to the festive holiday decorations. Many wondered if Utah's grandest mansion would be a total loss. LEFT:Smoke damage on the second story facade proved a challenge to masonry cleaners. Also, intense heat from the flames cracked some of the stone, requiring replacement.

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CENTER: The circular, open staircase acted like a chimney, channeling heat and smoke up to the central dome, destroying it.

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LOWER RIGHT: Ground zero: the charred Christmas tree.

Limiting the Damage The fire began at the base of a Christmas tree in the central hallway, where most of the fire damage occurred, but smoke and soot damage was extensive throughout the structure. Most importantly, no lives were lost. While extinguishing the fire, the Salt Lake City Fire Department took immediate steps to lessen water damage to floors and woodwork. Dams across doorways prevented water from spreading into rooms which did not have to be directly exposed to water from the department's hoses. Within a few hours after the fire was quenched, a team was assembled representing the Office of the State Fire Marshal, the Division of Facilities Construction and Management (DFCM) and the Division of State History. They quickly decided to call in Utah Disaster Kleenup to vacuum all the remaining water, dry out the mansion and begin cleaning all surfaces. Heat was restored to the mansion within a day, thanks to the efforts of the DFCM employees. These quick actions were the beginning of a long effort to ensure the preservation and re-use of this important national treasure. U T A H

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(CLOCKWISE FROM UPPER RIGHT) New hand-carved balustrade on grand stairway. Daniel Peterson restains cleaned mahogany panel in dining room. Temporary supports on the upper south porch await replacements for heat-damaged stones. Consulting architect Kim Hyatt's freehand drawings of original features (based on photos and extant drawings) provided a first step toward restoration. Stencil design for new paint application under review. RIGHT:The restored third-floor ballroom resumes its historic role as a premier venue for special events at the mansion.


The Guiding Principles A basic philosophy of restorationlconservation came into focus. This philosophy emphasizes preservation of the original craftsmanship: replacing original features lost in the fire; and cleaning, repairing and restoring features that were salvageable. Over the next several weeks, a team of representatives from several state agencies set the criteria for the reconstruction. It was decided that the building was in sufficiently good condition, with enough original materials retained, that a comprehensive restorationlconservation program was warranted. In addition, discussions continued concerning an approach which would preserve the historic integrity of the building and at the same time make the building more usable as a residence for governors and their families.

struction manager for the project. Culpys recent work on the conservationlrestoration of the Cathedral of the Madeleine was a deciding factor. A construction management team was formed to meet weekly and oversee the project. Members ofthis committeeincluded Rob Pett of Max J. Smith & Associates, Jeff Davis of Culp Construction, Frank Fuller of the DFCM, Wilson Martin of the Division of State History, Carl Crosby of Risk Management, and Wayne Sowers of GABlRobins Insurance, the insurance carrier for the mansion. Mike Jackson from Culp Construction acted as project manager, filling a key position in ensuring quality work was done. As Bonnie Stevens of the Utah Arts Council says, "This project has been an extraordinary collaboration between many partners to make the building useful and functional."

The Team of Experts The firm of Max J. Smith and Associates OPPOSITE: Views of the grand hall, stairway and dome after restoration. Note the "privacy glass" set in the formerly open oval skylight, providing greater separation between the public space on the main floor from the secondfloor residential quarters.

Local craftsman Bill Kerr of Granite Mill puts finishing touches on the second-floor mezzanine handrail. As part of the reconstruction of the balustrade (or railing) several inches were added to its original height in order to comply with safety codes. ABOVE:

BELOW: The application of gold leafing by Evergreene Painting Studios was the finas step in the intricate restoration/reconstruction of the plaster dome. A soft-bristle brush is used to press the gold leafing into the bas-relief details.

First Steps was selected as the project architect, both Assessing the damage to the mansion was for its experience in restorathe first step. Among the spetion and preservation and cialists brought in were Tim for its ability to deaI with the special needs of a fire-damand Construction; T h o m the largest aged historic structure. Three Gentle, an architectural con~ i servator from Vermont; and years earlier, the firm had wood - ~ a rng been the architect of record Martin L. King of Martin project anyfor the restoration of the fireChurchill Associates, Inc., in w he re in the Virginia, who has extensive damaged David Keith Manexperience In developing sion, only a block away. world in the Culp Construction, a processes for cleaning firecompany with extensive expelast 10 years. damaged buildings. King determined that virtually all rience in historic restoration, interior wall surfaces wouId was selected to act as con-

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successful. While sandblasting is never appropriate for cleaning brick, its limited use on stone can be acceptable. This soft sandblasting was used only in small areas and left no visible damage. Initially, it appeared that all wood and plaster elements in the hallway and major spaces would have to be replaced but, consistent with the original philosophy of conservation and restoration, attempts were made to clean and retain as much original material as possible. In the end significant portions ofthe original materials, even though damaged by soot and smoke, were restored and returned to their original location in the mansion. It was also decided that where the original materials could not be kept, accurate replacements would be installed. Woods that matched original woods were located, and millwork and carvings were completed by the best available tradespeople. Damage to the interior of the mansion was extensive in the most decorative

Capsule History of the Kearns Mansion/ Governor's Residence

area, the central hallway and staircase. Many of the elaborate wood carvings were badly charred; the ornate plaster dome above the staircase was completely destroyed; and the carved newel posts and the ornate light fixtures at the bottom of the staircase required extensive restoration.

All of the woods necessary for the restoration, including quarter sawn white oak, crotch mahogany, prima Vera and sycamore, were selected by members of the construction management team. The woodwork was milled by four Salt Lake firms: Bringard Mill, Granite Mill, Huetter Mill and Salt Lake Mill. The handUpgrading and Modernizing carving, to replicate all of the destroyed As the building interior was exposed, an carving, was done by Agrell & Thorpe, opportunity arose to upgrade the buildLtd., British master carvers from Caliing's structural, mechanical and electrical fornia. "This is the largest wood-carving systems, as well as adding such project anywhere in the world improvements as seismic bracin the last 10 years," Ian Agrell 2 ing and a fire-suppression says. 0 sprinkling system. The new T h e replication of the 2 rn electrical and communication magnificent dome was hansystems included fiber optics dled by Hayles & Howe, a and other modern commuMaryland firm, in associa- $ L nication connections. tion with Evergreene Paint- -5 In making the home an ing Studios in New York. f appropriate residence for a govMolds of the original dome ; ernor and family, Utah's first were made by taking plaster 2 5 ladies Jacalyn Smith Leavitt, castings of the charred dome : Colleen Bangerter and Norma and then repairing the damMatheson were consulted. aged portions. The process I Their suggestions came from was repeated four times in having lived, entertained Of order to make the final cast and worked in the mansion as close to the original as posdone at the since it became the governor's sible. Then the individual highest sections of the dome were residence in 1977. For visual standard, assembled on site. Such attenas well as acoustic privacy, a the mans i0 n removable wheel-cut !glass intetion to detail is a tribute to rior skylight within the previmodern craftsmen. mainfai ns its Daniel Peterson, as well ously open oval was installed oriainal to separate the second floor configuration. as other skilled craftsmen private quarters from the first from Evergreene Painting floor public rooms. Also, Studios, applied the clear privacy doors and glass panels added at the finishes on the wood as well as the decsecond floor close off the private rooms orative finishinglpainting techniques of the first family from the public gallery. including glazing and stencil patterns. For safer access routes in case of fire, the Thom Gentle, who handled the clearcoats, interior was altered to provide a corridor adds, "It is not uncommon to be left with exit from the second and third floors to the a less than optimal restoration of a buildback staircase. The master suite required ing but the people of Utah can be proud of this superior project." Although many alteration to improve the liveability; howoriginal plaster moldings and trim secever, every effort was made to retain the original ceiling decoration and wall partitions were retained in place as a part of . the overall conservation strategy, craftstions. In spite of these alterations, done at the highest standard, the mansion mainman like Dick Cook from Berger & Assotains its original configuration. ciates brought their expertise to plaster

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cializing in the reproduction of historic fabrics. Local artist Bruce Robertson, selected by the Utah Arts Council, painted a mural depicting the harvest in Utah o n the dining room walls. In all of these areas, the underlying philosophy of conservation/restoration drove the decisions. The commitment to excellence by all of the craftspeople, artisans and workers on the mansion is evident in its final demonstration. At the same time, the mansion is a home in which the first family can live, work and entertain. With its reopening in 1996, the event is an inadvertent but fitting statehood centennial gift

The Finishing Touches

iF

to the people of Utah.

Interior designer Ellie Sonntag of Sonntag Design and Fine Arts, with the assistance of Anne Morgan of Max J. Smith and Associates, worked with Daniel Peterson, the project manager for Ever-

AUTHORS: Wilson Martin, ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR, OF STATEHISTORY DIVISION

greene Painting Studios, to select paint and decorative finish schemes. Their phi-

Susan Holt, CULTURAL RESOURCE OF STATE HISTORY TECHNICIAN, DIVISION

losophy was to pay attention to the his-

Rob Pett, PROJECT ARCHITECT,

torical elements ofthe building and maintain

M i x J. SMITH& ASSOCIATES Ellie Sonntag, INTERIOR DESIGNER

integrity of design while having the inteU

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Fremont Expedition Mystery solved at Capitol Reef b y Lee K r u e t z e r ,

CAPITOL REEF NATIONAL PARK ARCHAEOT.OGIST

rofessional historians do not always have the satisfaction of being first to solve a historical mystery. The unlikely team of a self-taught daguerreotypist and the orchard manager at Capitol Reef National Park in south-central Utah outshined this historian when they pieced together a 145-year-old puzzle recently. For years Robert Shlaer, a research associate at the Museum of New Mexico in Santa Fe, has been reading old daguerreotype manuals from the 1840s and perfecting his skills at producing images on polished, silver-coated copper plate "negatives," a 19th-century form of photography. While looking through a book of original and recently re-shot photographs from old expeditions, Shlaer realized that John C. Fremont's last explorations could be the prime subject for another book of this genre. Fremont pushed his hardy band of men through Colorado and Utah during the winter of 1853-54, seeking a northern railroad route to the Pacific Ocean. Such a route would divert the railroad supply lines and associated economic benefits from southern and southwestern states championing the cause of slavery, which Fremont vigorously opposed. To help him argue his case, the Pathfinder (as Fremont was known) hired young daguerreotypist Solomon Nunes Carvalho to accompany and chronicle the explorations. T h e expedition was difficult, ending with the starving band eating their horses before stumbling half-frozen into

the Mormon settlement of Parowan. Before caching his heavy equipment somewhere near present-day Loa or Fremont, Carvalho made perhaps 300 daguerreotypes along their route. Unfortunately, his plates were lost in a fire years after the expedition, and all that remains of Carvalho's work are approximately 16 engravings based o n the original images, created for Fremont's expedition report. Fremont, however, never wrote that report. The details ofhis route are pieced

Exact, that is, when the illustration is flipped. According t o Shlaer, i t was Jackson who first wondered whether the images had been reversed at some point in production. The idea had not occurred to Shlaer, who immediately realized that Jackson was correct: daguerreotypes are mirror images of the original subject, and the engravers evidently had failed to make the customary adjustments. Armed with knowledge of the image reversal, Shlaer followed his hunches into

Answers help identify explorer's route through Utah. together mostly from notes, including Carvalho's own, and from the enigmatic engravings. Shlaer, hoping to re-daguerreotype the depicted images for his proposed book, set about to identify and locate those sites. Suspecting that at least one of the engravings was set in Capitol Reef, he sent photocopies of the engravings to the park. There, Orchard Manager Kent Jackson identified the engraving depicting three eerie obelisks amid swirling snow as the North District formation known to his family as "Mom, Pop and Henry." Jackson took Shlaer into the backcountry to view the features, which the delighted daguerreotypist immediately confirmed to be Fremont's long-lost site. Except for a fantasy foreground camping scene created by artists for the engraving, the old illustration was an exact match to Jackson's family of sandstone formations.

nearby Goblin Valley State Park and identified Wild Horse Butte as the second of the elusive landmarks he had been seeking. These discoveries place John C. Fremont's final expedition directly through Capitol Reef National Park and into western Wayne County. While some historians had suspected that his route had been through this area, none had been able to demonstrate it so clearly as have Shlaer and Jackson. A National Park Service metal detector survey in the area has yielded nothing belonging either to the expedition or to that era. It is likely that only Carvalho approached the landmark while the remainder of the team proceeded on at a distance. The camping scene, says Shlaer, was probably invented by artists years after the expedition, possibly to indicate scale or to liven up the landscape. Shlaer, assisted by grants from the Utah Humanities Council and the Avenir Foundation of Colorado, is now producing a


new set of daguerreotypes recreating Carvalho's original images. He plans to p<ublish his work in a book and to create a traveling exhibit for display in small museums throughout Colorado, Kansas and Utah, including the Capitol Reefvisitor Center. Sadly, Kent Jackson died at his home i n F r e m o n t o n Nov. 5, 1 9 9 5 , a few months after helping Shlaer solve the Fremont mystery. Jackson was a history buff and an archaeologist, having grad-

Shlaer is now producing a new set of daguerreotypes recreating Carvalho's original images. He plans to publish a book and create a traveling exhibit.

neovc: This engraving - is a reproduction of Carvalho's original daguerreotype image taken in Capitol Reef's North District. The camp scene was probably added later either to give perspective or just to enliven the image. REPRODUCED B Y PERMISSION.

HUNTINGTON L I B R A R Y . SAN M A R N O . CA

LEFT:

"Mom, Pop and Henry" in a

photograph taken in 1995, when the mystery was unlocked.

uated with a bachelor's degree in archaeology from Brigham Young University. H e grew up working in Capitol Reef's orchards alongside his father, Worthen Jackson, and was orchard manager for 20 years. His knowledge of t h e community a n d its history were integral to the research that helped establish the Fruita Rural Historic Landscape in the area around park headquarters. Desi g n a t i o n o f this historic landscape and documentation of other archaeological a n d historic sites in the park, such as the Fremont "camp site," are part of a multi-year effort t o identify, preserve and interpret the park's cultural resources. F

ROBERT SHLIIER U

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Utah also has a number of unique min-

Mmng Landscapes Ghosts of Technology - - Past by G a r y B . P e t e r s o n ining landscapes are perceived in radically different ways-from "so what" to "visual jewel." These sites are much more than just old buildings. Places have their times and seasons too, and we can learn much about ourselves through our predecessors. Look at the Tintic Mining District. Eureka, the heart of the district, is nestled in a mountain valley surrounded by mine tailings, railroad grades, retaining walls, and mining and processing structures. Most visible perhaps are the mine headframes, soaring skyward with timbers so large the contemporary mind ponders how their size can be: "This must be steel," we think. These carefully engineered structurestagged the Montana two post, the A-frame, the four post and the inclined headframewere once used to hoist men and material in and out of mine shafcs many times deeper than a local skyscraper's elevators. They still exude a power and grace in the landscape beyond what their builders probably intended for such utilitarian structures. As

symbols of the accomplishments of an age ofbuilders before the internal combustion engine, they are both remarkable and useful points of perspective. Active mining districts such as Bingham, with its space-visible pit, are in constant flux. The towns of Bingham, Lark, a n d others have been consumed, and the mountain itself moved elsewhere for processing. Each day the hole spirals wider and deeper, etching a seemingly indelible imprint into the Oquirrh Mountains. The mines of Park City, once dominant on the landscape, have proved to be more ephemeral. In its "gentrification" to ski resort town, Park City has not only lost most of its mining structures but also has seen unimaginable numbers of new buildings constructed. In changing from silver to snow, the structures and technology of Park City's boom days can teach us about our past as far downslope as Brigham Street in Salt Lake City, where the mine owners built their mansions. O n e hopes some interpretive features will remain for our appreciation and education.

ing landscapes of which only fragments remain. The amazing tales and sites of the 1950s uranium boom remain seldom told, under-appreciated and unpreserved. The gilsonite veins of the far eastern Uinta Basin are rare occurrences on an international scale. Our coal mining landscapes have been ravaged with both time and intent. Pity, for the little that remains leaves an increasinglydifficult-to-read surface story of ethnic diversity and consummate skill as well as an underlying imprint of initial Mormon agrarian settlement. After mining districts extract their ores and people leave, the veneer of mining landscapes starts to disappear through time or salvage or tax or hazard liability or something else. New uses, whether for art or retreat or tourism or etcetera, may be sensitive to the historic resources or not. In many cases, however, the material resource is invaluable and becoming more so with its rapid disappearance. No need to obliterate. No need to save everything. What is needed is some sensitivity, some perspective and some educated preservation of past places that will remain to enrich us all. f Gary B. Peterson, geographer, photographer, and sometime designer andpublisher, is currently building an energy-efficient, site-sensitive house and studio overlookingHobble Creek Canyon in Mapleton. Awards include the J.B. Jackson Prize for 'Best Popular Geography in North Americanfor his 1987 booksanpete Scenes: A Guide to Utah's Heart and an award of merit from the American Association for State and Local History in 1989.

1. Ore-loading structures and headframe at the Eagle & Bluebell Mine, Tintic Mining District (April 1982). 2. Gilsonite vein near Bonanza, Uintah County.

Gilsonite, an asphalt-basedsubstance, was extracted from "trenches" that stretch for miles across the landscape. 3.1975 view of Bingham Copper Mine (southwest of Salt Lake City), reputedly the largest open-pit mine in the world. The still-active mine was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1966.4 & 5. Mining landscapescan disappear quickly. The town of Castlegate and Its adjacent mining structures, including the office Butch Cassidy robbed, vanished between 1971 and 1981. 6. A c.1869 beehive-shaped charcoal kiln at old Irontown, west of Cedar City (June 1972). Only a handful of these structures remain in scattered locations throughout Utah. 7. The "A-frame" Bullion Beck Headframe is one of several types of headframes constructed in the Tintic Mining District. In 1986 it was "accident-proofed" by removlng dangerous elements and covering the shaft with heavy gauge chain-linkfencing. Unfortunately, the headframe was damaged in the process. Though still standing, its historic integrity has been unnecessarily compromised (April 1986). 8. The 1877 Wells Fargo Building in Silver Reef (Washington County) was restored several years after this 1980 photograph was taken. Though it is the only original building from the town's mining boom period, other more subtle structures survived, including remains of Chinese dugout dwellings in nearby ravines. 9. Park City's mining-town character is one of its attractions. Though a city ordinance helps protect its original character, development pressures are intense in this popular ski town. New construction and demolition have taken their toll. The four-story Coalition Building and ramp in the foreground of this 1975 photograph are no longer standing. 10. Sunbeam Mine, Tintic Mining District (April 1982). This 186970 mine was the "discovery claim" in the mining district, leading to numerous, full-scale mining operations in the years that followed. The cedar s u p port timbers shown here are one of the few remnants of Utah's early mining activities.

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Restored and Revitalized Lights glow again at a classic Cache County theater b y B o y d P. I s ~ u e l s e n tepping carefully along the scaffold planking some 35 feet above the bare concrete floor of Logan's Capitol Theater, Kathryn Wanlass pauses to concentrate on the intricate plaster detail o f t h e wall across t h e auditorium. Turning, she converses with the half-dozen other volunteers who have joined her. They reach a decision. A subdued dusty-rose tint should be used on one of the major architectural features, replacing the pearlescent highlight preferred by the painter. "People feel strongly about these things," offers Chuck James, the painter. "I've seen marriages threatened over color choices." That scene from the summer of 1992 was one of thousands which led to the grand opening of the Ellen Eccles Theatre in January 1993. T h e theater was renamed for Ellen Stoddard Eccles in recognition of the anchor grant provided by the George S. and Dolores Dore Eccles Foundation. Ellen Eccles was the wife of Utah industrialist David Eccles and a prominent citizen of Logan. T h e story of how the theater which bears her name was brought back from the past shows a convergence of opportunity, vision, perseverance and more than a little luck. Historical Roots With buildings as with people, Walt Whitman's statement rings true: "Tis not the present only, the past is also stored in you." Built in 1923 at a cost of about $250,000, the Capitol was ahead of its time; the builders reinforced the exterior walls and

concrete balcony with steel. T h e wellplanned stage was capable of supporting vaudeville a n d traveling shows. Live performances shared the stage with films, the latter dominating through the 1930s and bringing in thousands of avid moviegoers until television emerged in the 1950s. The crowds waned and films shared the space with community productions for a time. Eventually the stage was sealed off to conserve heat and live productions ceased.

finally, after getting the mayor inside the building, made him a convert. With Municipal Council support, the city agreed to a land trade with Needham and took title to the "Jewel of Cache Valley," faded and neglected though she was. "The city also purchased with nontax funds two empty commercial properties fronting Main Street next to the Capitol," explains Daines. "Reconstruction began to convert this area to a cultural center a n d housing for the

"Thousands of volunteer hours were donated. City, county, state and federal governments all helped financially, but over twothirds of the funds came from private sources." In the late 1980s, Logan businessman Eugene Needham acquired title to some adjacent property and the theater came as part of the package. While Needham was pondering what to do with his cavernous white elephant, Michael Ballam came on stage, so to speak. Ballam, an operatic tenor and member of the music faculty at Utah State University, soon convinced Needham that it should become a public facility, if the city would go along. Persuading t h e city was a n o t h e r matter. Newel Daines, then mayor of Logan, couldn't see the civic advantage. At one point, exasperated, he asked Ballam what part of "no" he didn't understand. Undaunted, Ballam persisted and

Alliance for the Varied Arts, a local arts coordinator." A January 1990 fire destroyed the arts center but spared the theater, which suffered only minor damage in the entrance area. "It was devastating at the time," says Daines, "but it gave us the opportunity to redesign the entire complex a n d integrate t h e new a n d the old portions." Daines also cites the significant contribution made by Jonathan Bullen, a Logan businessman who had become involved in the project. "His efforts were really a major driving force, both in planning and in providing the initial major contribution to fund the arts complex (Bullen Center), which opened in February 1992."


The Restoration Campaign The city recognized that restoring and running a theater were outside its normal operating arena and created a non-profit corporation, the Capitol Arts Alliance, in 1989. Holly Daines, board chair for the volunteer organization, explains, "The reasons the theater was worth restoring are found at the front ofthe auditorium. The fly loft, orchestra pit and proscenium (the arched wall at the front of the stage) are large enough to do full-scale opera. And that's the toughest test ofa theater." The new fly system can handle backdrop changes in seconds and allow complete set changes in less than an hour to do shows in repertory. CAA a d o p t e d literally W i n s t o n Churchill's statement, "First we shape our buildings, then our buildings shape us." Logan architectural firm J H C H Architects was engaged to prepare the master plan and bid drawings. Project Architect Lanny Herron remembers the weekly project meetings. "Boyd Israelsen, a CAA board member, was project manager. Bill Sapp of USU worked with us as technical advi-

"we would do very little differently than we did. Three years' operation of the theater shows that the great majority of our decisions were right." John Emmett, who recently stepped down after six years as CAA board chairman, agrees. "It seemed at the time that we were making a lot of it up as we went along. We were either smart or lucky since it meets or exceeds our expectations in basically all areas."

Here an artist touches up the figure of Zeus near the ceiling of the theater's south wall.

sor, and construction superintendent Ken Norman of Gary L. Olsen Construction Company rounded out our project team." A restoration project usually yields surprises, according to Herron. "This was no exception. Some of them posed problems and others opened up opportunities we took advantage of." Indeed, change orders added an extra 35 percent to the project's cost. "Looking back," says Sapp,

Behind the Scenes One of the major deficiencies of the old theater was its lack of stage access, with no way to get a truck in to unload a traveling show. "We solved this," says Sapp, "by buying an adjacent residence and moving it to another location. Then we put up a three-story annex building. This gave us two loading docks and a prop staging area just off-stage but acoustically isolated from the auditorium. We also gained dressing rooms, a costume shop and rehearsal space. A backstage extension gave us still more dressing rooms and utility areas."


A fully modern HVAC system with microprocessor control and modem access replaced the ancient, unreliable system. "The cooling system earned a Department of Energy conservation award," says Herron, the architect, smiling. "It runs cold water from a nearby irrigation canal through the heat exchanger. Bob McEntire, our mechanical engineer, thought that one up." He explains another feature also aimed at increasing patron comfort. "We made the seats wider and the rows farther apart,

Restorative Work Much of the theater's charm derives from its splendid decorative plaster interior. The original rose tones had faded and were covered with a dull olive-green paint. Chipped and cracked areas were patched and repaired with glass-fiber-reinforced gypsum (GFRG). The patterns of fruit, leaves, cherubs, mythological figures, strings, horns, lions and rams all emerged fresh with careful decorative painting and gold leaf accents. "Were those here

The restored theater offers more than an ornate Interior. It features exceptional staging capabilities and state-of-the art equipment befitting a premier performing arts facility-plus comfortable seating.

so the house capacity went from over 1,300 seats to 1,100. People like the extra space and good sightlines." Bringing the stage magic to life requires a considerable amount of theater technology. Lighting, stage rigging and sound were all put in as completely new systems, according to Sapp. The old wooden grid that supported t h e stage rigging was replaced w i t h steel and a new counterweight fly system put in. "We couldn't afford all the line sets the system can handle," notes Sapp, "but with 39 we're about two-thirds full. And that's enough to handle several shows in repertory." Back-of-house speakers are fed through a phase-delay network to provide audio synchronization with sound arriving there from the main speakers at the side and top of the proscenium.

all the time?" was a frequent question at the theater's re-opening. "We carried the same decorative motif used in the auditorium out into the lobby and promenade," comments Herron. "A new concession counter was constructed, new carpeting laid and matching glass chandeliers hung in the vestibule and lobby." The mezzanine changed even more, according to the architect. "We raised the ceiling, added chandeliers and built new rest rooms. I believe we achieved our objective of understated elegance on the whole facility." Peggy Tueller concurs. Recently arrived from New York City to assume her duties as CAA executive director, Tueller says, "I couldn't believe a place like this existed in Logan. It's a treasure few cities could match." The impact has been more than

cultural and artistic, according to Cache Chamber of Commerce executive director Doug Thompson. "There's been significant economic benefit from the influx of patrons coming from well beyond our local area," he says. "It's also a quality-oflife issue which helps in attracting and retaining new businesses." Looking Back and Ahead The theater's offerings span a wide range of cultural interests, from grand opera to country western, with Broadway shows and local artistic groups adding richly to the mix. "Seeing the role the facility fills in the cultural life of Cache Valley makes the whole effort worthwhile," says Emmett, the former CAA chairman. "The theater portion took 16 months and cost $4.3 million, but that's only the measurable part. T h o u s a n d s o f volunteer hours were donated. City, county, state and federal governments all helped financially, but over two-thirds of the funds came from private sources." Given the Ellen Eccles Theatre's background of close encounters with flame, one decorative feature which many take as symbolic of its re-emergence is found on the auditorium's side walls. Two large murals depict the phoenix, a mythological bird. One is ascending, and represents life; the other, in downward flight, portrays death. According to legend, the phoenix arose to new life from the ashes of its own death pyre, more beautiful and glorious than before. Here, perhaps, reality has overtaken legend. Q To learn more about the Ellen Eccles Theatre and its restoration, contact the Capitol Arts Alliance, 43 S. Main, Logan, UT84321 (801) 753-6518 or JHCH Architects, 135 N. Main, Logan, UT 84321 (80 I ) 753-214 1. Boyd P. lsraelsen teaches technical writing and project management to electrical engineering students at Utah State University. He describes this as a relaxing, part-time career after 35 years of engineering and management in the aerospace industry. He was a recipient of the Utah Governor's Community Service Silver Bowl award in 1996 for his volunteer work in managing the restoration of the Ellen Eccles Theatre.


HOME-TECH,N C .

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P.O. Box 526396 Salt Lake City, Utah 84106 (801) 484-936OlFax (801) 461-01 10

Historic Homes Are Home-Tech's Bread and Butter

Home-Tech's most recent restoration is the J.C.Penney house on Seventh Avenue, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The work included restoring the exterior woodwork of the original bay window and window seat as well as the removal and reconstruction of the front porch and balustrade. Shown in the before and after photos is a second story addition

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estore, rehab or remodelby any label, it is what HomeTech, Inc. does. The firm is a general contractor in Salt Lake City that specializes in older homes, especially historic renovations in the Avenues, city center and the Sugar House areas. Having begun with fixing up old homes and doing general maintenance on rental properties, Michael Mahaffey, president, focused on full service reconstruction and restoration.

ls

Since 1984 Home-Tech has served as the general contractor for the renovation to one degree or another of some 100 homes in the Salt Lake area.

put on the home on "L" street that is lived in today by the 5th generation of the family for which it was built in 1896. The firm served as a sub-contractor for the TerryIGile Mansion on South Temple, doing all of the structural work. Home-Tech also did the structural and log work on the total renovation of Log Haven restaurant and reception center. Other projects of note for HomeTech, Inc., have included the renovation of the Saltair Bed and Breakfast (the historic Anselmo Mansion on 9th East); several remodels of the Waking Owl Bookstore and the adjacent historic apartment building; the jacking up of an entire side and corner of a 2nd Avenue home in order to pour footings and foundations underneath; and a six-month-long total renovation of a late 19th Century home in Alexandria, Virginia.

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Home-Tech most recent restoration is the J.C.Penney house on Seventh Avenue, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Is

Mahaffey was raised in Atlanta, Georgia, and educated in upstate New York, earning degrees in history and English and studying in London. The combination of his interest in history and talents as a builder made for a successful historic renovation company. "Our experience and attention to detail help set us apart," states Mahaffey. "And our sub-contractors and employees are personable and reliable." Home-Tech, Inc., is a member of the National Trust for Historic Preservation as well as a contributing member of the Utah Heritage Foundation.

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GRANITE MILL & FIXTURE 2200 South Maln Street Salt Lake City, Utah 84115 (801) 467-3222

Excellence in Millwork and Interior Finishes ranite Mill has long taken a major role in furnishing new

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buildings and renovating historic sites as well as contemporary landmarks. Today the company is a full-service mill capable of transforming raw materials into a myriad of finished products, installed and ready-to-use. Incorporated in 1909, Granite Mill is one of the oldest architectural woodwork companies in the Intermountain West. A pioneer and leader in the manufacturing of architectural millwork and interior finishes, Gran-

Diesel tractors with 26-foot tandem

ment to its craftsmen. The average

trailers travel roads and freeways, pushing the service area to include the entire nation with occasional shipments destined for jobs around the world. Granite Mill, with its affiliated companies (Anderson, Fieldcrest and Life Design), has the resources of more than 220 employees together with a 250,000-square-foot facility dedicated to and equipped for the manufacture of wood and associated products. The machinery centers are

employee time with Granite is 17 years; some are fourth and fifth generation. Among the firm's projects are the Capitol Theater, Symphony Hall, the City and County Building, the Governor's Mansion, the Devereaux Mansion, White Chapel, Council Hall, the Utah State Capitol (even the Nevada State Capitol!) and numerous churches, temples and hospitality centers. Granite is committed to develop

automated with state-of-the-art, point-

long-term relationships with its cus-

to-point computerized equipment.

tomers. It knows how to anticipate changing needs and provide both creative and practical solutions. The

ite's goal is to continue to maintain a standard of excellence for which the company has been recognized for nearly a century. Granite Planing Mill, the precursor of today's Granite Mill, has roots tied directly to founder F.R. Sandberg and his associates. Generating their own power and resources early in the century, they met a need for woodwork products such as sash, doors, cabinets and moldings. Horse-drawn wagons delivered lumber, often travelling as far as 80 miles from the first plant in Sugar House. Pressed by suburban retail development, Granite moved to its present larger plant in 1966, located in a manufacturing area of Salt Lake City. In contrast to the Carlos steam engine that drove that original line shaft, Granite is now powered by its own electrical substation, powering hundreds of labor-saving motors.

Granite also produces a full spectrum of space planning as well as product design services. Through its unique equipment, the company produces single large-gauge molding up to 12 inches wide. Granite Mill has been a longstanding member of the business community, providing unique highquality products and services to its customers as well as stable employ-

firm is in a partnership with the architect, interior designer and owner to produce a product that is much more than a combination of finished millwork. The goal is to bring forth the mood and feeling that the customer visualized and that only genuine craftsmanship can create.


THOMAS PETERSEN HAMMOND AND ASSOCIATES,INC. 350 East 2100 South Salt Lake City, Utah 84115 (801) 485-966lIFax (801) 485-9665

Expanding Company Provides Complete Architectural Services

homas Petersen Hammond and Associates, Inc., has provided professional architectural services throughout Utah for 23 years. The company's office has recently expanded to nearly double in size, thus accommodating an expanded work base and fulfilling client needs. TPH offers professional services, including programming,master planning, feasibility studies and design services for projects that involve new design, renovation and remodeling. Some of the firm's larger projects include the Biomedical Polymers Research Facility and the Intermountain Network and Scientific Computation Center at the University of Utah.

The Associated Regional and University Pathologists building and the University Park Hotel both located at Research Park. The firm is currently working on Wyeview Married Student Housing Complex for Brigham Young University and has provided major remodeling on projects such as The Humanities and Arts building at Snow College and several Ken Garff Enterprise Facilitiesthroughout the Salt Lake Valley. TPH also designed the architectural facilities at Jordanelle State Park which was completed in 1995. The company's office is fully

of Historic Places. It had been condemned for further use unless substantial structural deficiencies, deteriorating building materials, and life safety violations were addressed in a renovation and restoration effort. There was a demolition directive for the building on the desk of the director of the Utah State Fairgrounds. Thomas Petersen Hammond &Associates was chosen to lead an architecturaland engineering team in the evaluation of and design for the restoration to return this significant building to useful public service. The process started with a com-

automated using computer aided

plete investigationof the existing building from footings to roof. The end product is a revitalized Exhibit Building with a new suspended floor, seismically braced roof and wall systems, and new egress systems. This 35,000-squarefoot facility is designed for many differ-

design (CAD) operators who are proficient in all phases of production. TPH utilizes 3-D studio software to create photo realistic renderings produced in-house. Such service allows for design study and final presentation purposes, making alterations before the project begins. Since its founding in 1973, Thomas Petersen Harnmond & Associates, Inc. has increased to 30 employees. There are currently four Principals in the firm including: Timothy F. Thomas, AIA, Stephen G. Petersen, AIA, John M. Hammond,

ent uses, ranging from dances and public gatherings to use as an exhibit and display building. Mechanical and electrical systems were replaced and features were added, such as a dance floor and concession utilities. The form and design of the original building has been maintained while the exterior materials and details were color enhanced. The project was completed in 1989 at a cost of $1,950,000. The firm was presented a Merit Award in 1989 for the excellence of the restoration by the Utah Society of the American Institute of Architects.

AIA and David N. Fletcher, AIA. Among TPH's most notable projects is the Utah State Fairpark Grand Building, listed in the National Register

The Utah Heritage Foundation also presented the firm with a Heritage Citation Award for work on this outstanding project.


BNA CONSULTING ENGINEERS

Salt Lake City in 1970 and became a

146 West Pierpont Avenue Salt Lake City, Utah 84101 (801) 532-2196lFax (801) 532-2305

has 25 employees. BNA recieved the

separate company in 1979 under the name of Becherer Neilson Associates. In 1992 the firm was reorganized as BNA Consulting Engineers and today

1995 IEA award for Outstanding Electrical Engineering Firm. BNA has provided design ser-

NA Consulting Engineers provides complete electrical engineering and lighting

vices for restoration projects of historical significance including the

Governor's Mansion, the Salt Lake City and County Building, the Egyptian Theater in Ogden, the Joseph Smith Memorial Building (formerly the Hotel Utah), Kingsbury Hall and Gardner Hall at the University of Utah. Major projects recently completed are the Salt Palace Convention Center and the expansion of the Marriott Library at the University of Utah. Currently in design is the Huntsman Cancer Institute and the West Valley

design for industrial, commercial and

Events Center, the new home for the

institutional projects. Their client list

Utah Grizzlies hockey team. BNA Consulting Engineers furnishes services which include technical counseling, lighting design,

represents major public and private building projects in Utah plus numerous out-of-state assignments. BNA has also conducted feasibility studies

electrical estimation, energy conser-

and master plans for medium voltage

vation, electrical power systems,

systems, fuel cell generation facilities

instrumentation and control systems,

and cogeneration plants. The firm

fire and security systems, electrical

works with local and nationally based

master planning, communication sys-

architectural firms, holding profes-

tems and value analysis.

sional licenses in 24 states.

The firm entered the Salt Palace Convention Center in the International

Originally organized in 1959 in Pocatello, Idaho, BNA has provided e ectrical cons~lringtnro~ghouttne 1r:errno~ntan Viest for more than 35 years. A branch off ce was opened n

Illumination Design competition. BNA rece'ved the lnternationa llluminarion Design Award of Mer r for O~rsranaing Light ng Des'gn.


Howard Hughes Medical Institute and

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN WEST

the Biomedical Polymers Research Facility at the University of Utah and the Ezra Taft Benson Building at Brigham

98 West Center Logan, Utah 84321 (801) 752-70311Fax (801) 752-5325

Included in the firm's credits are significant laboratory facilities for the

Young University. Manufacturing facilities include the McDonnell Douglas Company in Salt Lake City and Compeq Corporation in Taipai, Taiwan. BNA has also designed and engineered cogeneration plants at

developed medium voltage master plans for the University of Utah and the Fort Douglas area. Currently, they are developing a similar plan for the campus distribution system at Brigham Young University and Ricks College in Rexburg, Idaho. Area sports facilities for which BNA has provided the electrical engineering include Franklin Quest Field, Special Events Center at Southern Utah University, Winter Olympics facilities at Bear Hollow (a bobsled run, the luge run and ski jumps) and the

toric fabric of the building. Electrical and mechanical systems were also brought up to code. In the attic the architect made use of some 24,000 square feet of "found" space that had not previously been available for

Design West Prides Itself in Architectural Preservation

occupancy by the university. The successful rehabilitation of this 1890s example of high style Romanesque campus architecture will ensure that Old Main will remain the

Snowbird Ski Resort, Primary Children's Hospital and Holy Cross Hospital. In 1990 and 1994 the company

oriented university, while utilizing detailing that was sensitive to the his-

H

istoric preservation has

flagship of Utah State University for

become one of Architectural Design West's areas

another 100 years. Design West has completed

of expertise. Scott Theobald, AIA, Design West's preservation specialist and chairman of Cache County's His-

several significant historic preservation projects within the state: The Old Rock Church in Providence

toric Preservation Commission, has

as a reception center and bed and

directed a number of significant historic projects, including the rehabilita-

breakfast inn. The Park City train depot and the Claim Jumper Hotel, Park City. The Utah Festival Opera Company's Dansante Build~ngreha-

tion of the Old Main building at Utah State University.

. a @@;

-r~ , -

-

b~l~tat~ Logan ino n Logan High School remodel

speed skating oval in Kearns. The company has been

and add~t~ons to the orlg~nal Br~ghamYoung

involved in the community since its inception by being a donor to various charity groups and donating engineering services to worthy projects such as the Children's Museum and the Ronald McDonald House. Within the board of directors

College camRehabilitation of Old Main means the building will remain the flagship of Utah State University for another 100 years.

PUS. The Union Pacific Train

Within days after the 1983 fire at

Depot in Logan.

alone, there is over 80 years of design

Old Main, Architectural Design West

The Center Street Depot Restaurant,

experience which provides a vast pool

was selected as the firm to guide the

of knowledge to utilize. The board consists of Mark Bryant, Jerry Burnside, Carol Feldman, Gary Mesker and Roger Riddle. "BNA has a strong

rehabilitation. This project has been especially satisfying to Design West

Logan. Design West-with

commitment to quality of design and service to the client," states Mark Bryant. "We incorporate this commit-

as the original building was designed in 1889 by Karl C. Schaub, the

offices in

Logan, Salt Lake City, and Park City; Sacramento, California; and Mt. Vernon, Washington-has worked on many historic preservation projects.

founder of Architectural Design West. The exterior masonry walls were

That experience provides the client

seismically upgraded to stabilize the

with a sensitivity to detail that is so

ment into our mission statement and

original structure. The interior spaces

necessary to bring about the success-

work hard to maintain quality and

were reconfigured to accommodate

ful completion of a historic rehabilita-

ethics in our business practices."

the needs of a modern, technology-

tion project.


CHILD ENTERPRISES, INC. 485 S. Main St. Springville, UT 84663 (801) 489-5022 FAX (801) 489-8338

Stonemasons Work with Generations of Skill and Pride

down and do it right." One look at the

helped lay in the 1910s was carefully

revitalized Logan Temple and you

restored by his grandson in 1993.

know the philosophy works. The 16-month transformation required a 25-person crew, working through the winter, to replace all the mortar and restore most of the lime-

"I'm glad to see Utah making an effort to preserve its architectural history," Child says. "While our buildings aren't tremendously old, compared to those in Europe, they hold a special

stone in Utah's second-oldest temple.

significance for us in so many ways.

Time, pollution and weather had taken

They help us remember where we

its toll on the building. "We made it look better than it did when it was new," Child says.

came from." Child's own legacy is taking shape, also. All three of his sons

"I like to do exciting challenging

worked on the Salt Lake Temple with

work," he continues. "These kinds of

him, and his oldest son, Mike, is inter-

eople will forget how much

jobs are once in a lifetime." The Child

ested in carrying the family skill

money they spent, and how

legacy includes several buildings that

through a seventh generation.

long it took to do the work," Rick

have seen the handiwork of more than

Child Enterprises, Inc. handles

one generation. At the Logan Temple, Rick's father, Earl, had helped lay the

contemporary jobs as well as historical ones. "Right now we're working

limestone for an annex that was built in

on two contemporary office buildings

the 1970s. And at the Carnegie Library in Springville ("One of my favorite his-

in Salt Lake City with brick veneers, Child says, "We also did the prison at the Point of the Mountain, at

Child says, "but they won't forget the job you did.' My grandfather taught my father that, and my father taught me. If I've had a motto, that's been it." That's especially true when your work is meant to last for decades. Child, a fifth-generation masonry contractor and owner of Child Enterprises, Inc. in Springville, has been in business since 1975, putting his mark on Utah's history by restoring the masonry on older, historic buildings. His pro-

torical buildings in Utah," Rick says), the brick that Rick's grandfather

Geneva on their continuous caster,

"I'm glad to see Utah making an effort to preserve its architectural history," Child says.

jects have included reconstructing the terra cotta, sandstone or granite on the Salt Lake Temple, the Hotel Utah, the Springville Carnegie Library, and, most recently, the Logan Temple. "I really insist that my people do quality work," Child says. "If something's not right, I tell them to tear it

and we're even working on four or five homes." Child is obviously proud of his crew. "I've set up my own training program, and right now I have four or five good men who are training to be masons. I've got as good a crew as I've ever had, including two outstanding foremen, Richard Wright and Jim Petro, who have the same philosophy about quality work as I do." Next on the list for Child? He's done preliminary work on yet another historically significant building, the Assembly Hall in Salt Lake City. Through a legacy of quality at Child Enterprises, Inc., Utahns are able to retain their own legacy, and continue to view their ancestors' work with pride.


HUETTER MILL AND CABINET COMPANY

Huetter Mill's commercial projects ... Joseph Smith Memorial Building, Assembly Hall on Temple Square, Marriott Library, Primary Children's Hospital, SUU Library, to name a few ... can be seen throughout the intermountain area. Many new, not-sonew and antique homes, including the Governor's Mansion and the 1996

5805 South State Salt Lake City, Utah 84157-0457 (801) 266-3222iFAX (801) 263-0425 l(800) 246-3225

Quality Woodworking Makes an Industry Leader

F

or more than fifty years, Huetter Mill and Cabinet, an architectural millwork and cabinetry supplier, has been a part of the Utah construction landscape. Huetter Mill was started in 1948 by Alfred Huetter, a German- born woodworker and craftsman. There was nothing fancy about the business in those days. Alfred crafted high quality wood windows, residential millwork and cabinetry in a small workshop behind his home in Murray. The original site was about two blocks from Huetter Mill's current location. It was in that shop that Alfred honed his innate love of excellence and established it as the cornerstone of his emerging business. Alfred passed away in 1969. However, his love of excellence found place in his son, Gordon, under whose direction Huetter Mill & Cabinet now operates. The scope of Huetter Mill's operations has expanded dramatically in recent years and established the firm as the industry leader throughout the intermountain area. The original focus of the company, wood windows and residential millwork, has grown to include three distinct areas: commercial cabinet manufacturing, molding manufacturing and sales, and stair part sales.

Huetter Mill has established and maintained a position as an industry leader in both quality and pricing strategy.

Parade of Homes "Best Show winner, feature Huetter Mill's stair parts and/or moldings. Historical and restoration projects, including those requiring a perfect match of antique or outdated molding profiles, are best served by the unique talents of Huetter Mill's superior craftsmen. What will the next half-century bring to Huetter Mill? The current trend among many manufacturers is to trade quality for a quick buck, especially now that Utah is experiencing unprecedented growth. However, as mediocrity becomes the norm for many manufacturers, there will be an even greater demand for quality and excellence. With that in mind, Huetter Mill & Cabinet is taking steps today to meet the ever growing need for its high quality products. In 1997, Huetter Mill will invest significantly in new equipment and by mid-year, will have obtained a substantial amount of additional manufacturing space. These commitments will increase production capacity in commercial cabinetry, and will allow greater production and increase onsite inventory of moldings and stair parts. The next 50 years will bring many opportunities for growth and expansion to Huetter Mill, which will be embraced with the same zeal for quality and excellence exhibited by Alfred Huetter so many years ago.

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HISTORICAL ARTS & CASTING, INC.

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5580 West Bagley Park Road West Jordan, Utah 84088-5642 801-280-2400

An Ancient Art Finds New Expression ine cast metal ornamentation speaks of quality, permanence and beauty. Intricate cast-iron storefronts, ornate railings, monumental cast-bronze light fixtures and clock cases are gifts of a proud architectural tradition that considered every structure an artist's canvas. Historical Arts & Casting of West Jordan works with talented architects and forward-thinking clients in restoring many fine historic structures to their former glory. The team also has endowed new projects of contemporary design with the charm of cast iron, bronze and aluminum. The firm's range and depth of experience, its research and its resources make it unique in the

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best of both worlds: time-proven casting techniques plus a wider variety of metal alloys, allowing for great artistic and technical freedom. The craftsmen of HA&C have combined age-old casting techniques with Information Age technology to breathe new life and fuller expression into this ancient art. High-tech computer aided design systems co-exist

actively involved in historical restoration consulting, working directly with architects. They also conduct historical restoration surveys for cast-metal buildings, including documentation, historical research, analysis of the cast-metal

preservation industry. Because of Historical Arts & Casting's unique role, they have opportunities to work with many of America's architectural jewels from New York to San Francisco. An in-house design, engineering and estimating staff is involved in all types of historical renovations, including the dismantling and documenting of historical buildings, which gives them valuable insights into how these structures and their cast-metal elements were built. Their experience in new construction is similarly extensive.

portions of the buildings and the necessary restoration drawings. When it comes to manufacturing, the word fails to do HA&C's craftsmen justice. They do not merely manufacture products; they create handcrafted cast-metal art. Technology has made a wider variety of casting metals available to modern artisans, some being superior

As nationally known experts in cast-metal buildings and architectural elements, Historical Arts & Casting is

for certain applications to anything the craftsmen of past ages had at their disposal. The company enjoys the

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with the same type of casting methods that were used to create ornamentation for Egyptian monuments over 5,000 years ago. Once the drawings for a cast-metal element are complete, the manufacturing staff takes charge of the production of the patterns and tooling for that element, based on the drawings. The firm's foundry craftsmen typically use either the sandcasting or the lost-wax casting method. These methods are extremely complex and temperamental processes whose success requires nothing less than the skills of master craftsmen. HA&C can supply an expert or team to handle the installation from start to finish. For more than 22 years Historical Arts & Casting has been restoring and replicating all types of cast architectural metal ornamentation for restoration and new projects. The firm is playing a vital role in restoring the lost elegance of cast metal to today's architecture.


HYDRO TECH

unusual and difficult stains, experimenting with various chemicals and

1140 East 100 North Pleasant Grove, Utah 84062 (801) 359-8142-Salt Lake County (801) 785-5232-Utah County

methods. As his investigations led him to full-time work with Hydro Tech, he left his job of 24 years at Geneva Steel. As the business grew, the Hunicks found that people wanted related services, such as removing paint from brick or mortar repair or

What is Hydro Tech? structure built with brick says permanency, stability and ndurance, a place that will last forever. Brick is one of the oldest building materials, having been used for 6,000 years, and is the best choice for today's lifestyle as well. And although brick is virtually maintenance-free, it needs cleaning and repair over time. Hydro Tech, whose logo includes a pressure washer, has 20 years' experience cleaning brick, stone and concrete. In addition, they also repair the surfaces of masonry and concrete. Recent restorations for Hydro

A,

Tech include Ogden and Ben Lomond high schools in Ogden. The six-month Ogden High job called for 1,100 bricks for repairs, 14,000 pounds of mortar mix and 18 drums of brick sealer plus cleaning chemicals. Other jobs include Salt Lake Hardware building, the Boston and Newhouse buildings, the Federal Courthouse, Trolley Square, Phillips Plaza, Pauline Downs Apartments, the federal buildings in Provo and Ogden, some of the oldest schools

replacement for deteriorated brick and stone. "Some property owners wanted their brick sealed and made water repellant," Matthew says. Not

other direction. "We don't do any new construction," Roy says, "just cleaning and repair of older buildings." Hydro Tech has attracted people with specialized skills in these fields. "We don't ever hire anyone. Everyone with Hydro Tech is a partner on a permanent basis, all sharing Hydro Tech's success," says Roy. "This promotes a family-like atmosphere." Hydro Tech people like the fact that some of the Hydro Tech team is always attending schools or

Recent restorations for Hydro Tech include Ogden and Ben Lomond high schools in Ogden.

in Utah, Colorado and Nevada, in addition to numerous high-rise buildings in other states and hundreds of homes and smaller jobs locally. Matthew Hunick found that he got so much satisfaction from restoring brick and stone to their original appearance and that the owners so appreciated the brand new look of

all sealants are appropriate. however, so Hydro Tech uses only stateof-the-art "breathable" sealants that do not trap moisture. Hydro Tech helps people with sandblasted brick, tooling it down to a smooth surface again when it is possible and appropriate. The firm has also discovered a need for concrete repairs and recaulking.

conventions to learn more about new methods and products. Niel Lemmon, with 23 years' experience, and Karen King take care of caulking and waterproofing. Niel

their brick that he focused solely on cleaning brick, stone and concrete.

Through the years, Hydro Tech has found that most masonry clean-

ple who work at Hydro Tech are the many friends among building owners, architects, property and facility man-

Roy Hunick, Mathew's father, initially investigated how to remove

ing companies choose to do new construction so it opted to go the

likes Hydro Tech's program the best of any he has been involved with. Karen says the Hydro Tech system "gives you a real incentive to be productive." Among the rewards for the peo-

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Cove An Oasis in Central Utah

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probably felt much as I did fifty years ago when I first saw Cove Fort. I was five years old a n d I remember standing in the courtyard, feeling enclosed by the stone walls which I was sure reached all the way to the sky. These images were still with me as I assisted in the restoration of this stone fort in central Utah. Constructed in 1867 by members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS), Cove Fort was among the largest and grandest of the church's 113 forts built during the last half of the nineteenth century. BY DONALD

L.

ENDERS


Cove Fort remains an oasis in central Utah, inviting travelers to refresh themselves by stepping back in time. Named for Cove Creek near which it was built, Cove Fort was supervised by Ira Hinckley, the grandfather of current LDS Church President Gordon B. Hinckley. Ira, Adelaide and their children left their mountain home east of Salt Lake City in April 1867 to help fortify the Mormon Corridor with the fort. This major line of LDS settlements benveen central Idaho and southern Arizona into southern California extended more than a thousand miles. With permanency in mind, Hinckley worked with able craftsmen using volcanic stone to construct the 100-foot-long and 18-foot-high walls that enclosed the fort. The walls were completed within seven months. Though formidable from the exterior, the interior courtyard was planted with trees and housed living quarters, conveying the atmosphere of "a well-managed home," as Minerva, a Hinckley daughter, put it.

~n 1872 Elizabeth Kane, accompanying her husband, Col. Thomas L. Kane, and Brigham Young's party southward, wrote of her thrill at seeing the Stars and Stripes waving over the main entrance on a lodgepole pine flagpole. Today visitors to the fort also see a 37-star flag atop a similar flagpole-just like the one Elizabeth saw. For the next 14 years, until the completion of the Utah Central Railway made it less important, Cove Fort sheltered thousands of emigrants, church and cerritorial officials, miners, traders, drovers, militia men, artisans and visitors. In 1988 the LDS Church acquired the fort and decided to restore it to its mid1870s period. We began restoration in 1989, aided by historians, architects, archaeologists, horriculturalists, carpenters, heavy-timber framers, blacksmiths, historic costume experts, weavers, potters, tinsmiths, furniture makers, painters and paint-grainers. Additionally,we received

ADVENTURE FOR THE I WHOLE FAMILY! I

IPARK CITY

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SO MUCH MORE TO EXPLORE! In add~tionto the underground elevator and mine train nde, explox the total Park City S~lverMine Adventure experience that includes.

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Remember...this is a reul hfe adventure. We provide hard hats and complimentary yellow slickers. The underground experience is a consistenl50-55 degrees so wear sturdy shoes and bring a jacket! The underground adventure is open to children 4 years and older: children of ail age, are ~nvlledto enjoy the above ground experience.

EASY TO FIND! Take the Park C ~ t yexit. then tollow Route 224 all the way to the mine.

aPLN MONDAY

- SUNDAY

FOR MOM INFORMATION & GROUP BATES

CALL 1@800@467@381

Removal of flooring, which had replaced the original, revealed the heavy timber floor joists cut in the mountains east of Cove Fort during the construction period.

ABOVE:

UPPER LEFT: Steven Pran aboard a loaded hay wagon. Growing hay and garden produce are among the living history activities currently at the fort.

LOWER LEFT:

people-no

Restored dining area and kitchen. Women at the fort prepared meals for as many as 30 small accomplishment at this frontier outpost.


The restored 1867 fort is virtually unchangedon the interior and exte2 rior from its mid-1870's appearance. Eighteen-foottall stone walls enclose the large shaded courtyard, accessed by front and rear gates and flanked by living quarters. Period furnishings have been used throughout, including the telegraphers desk. The "best room" accommodated visiting dignitaries, including Brigham Young.

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Among the surviving architectural elements and artifacts was an 1860s zinc insulator shaped like a ram's horn above the door of a south room. extensive help from enthusiastic and competent volunteers and representatives of city, county and state agencies. Focusing first on the fort itself, we found the original walls-four feet at the base and tapering to two feet at the topwere in relatively good condition. The massive double-gate in front and the single rear gate were still in place. Remnants existed of the catwalk just below the top of the walls, which allowed a view in all directions. Important remaining original features proved invaluable in assisting the historians and architects to design a restoration plan. These included handsomely crafted raised-panel woodwork, most of the doors and windows (some still had their original glass), and some of the mantles and stonework of the fort's twelve fireplaces. Among the surviving architectural elements and artifacts was an 1860s zinc insulator shaped like a ram's horn above the door of a south room; it verified historical records about where the telegraph had been located. A root cellar lay beneath the floor of the southeast room, and fragments of tin and ironware, dishware, pottery and glassware told us about the Hinckleys' eating utensils. Historical documents were a wealth of information, too. Larry Porter, a Hinckley descendant and LDS historian, assembled many of these into his master's thesis about Cove Fort. For example, the account book of the church's sawmill at Beaver, 20 miles south where lumber was milled for the fort's construction, gave information about woodwork. The Deseret Telegraph Company's records revealed the telegrapher's room contained a desk and "key," telegraph blanks, insulators and batteries, and a "sounder" which clicked and chattered with incoming and outgoing messages. Now restored, a copper wire connects the instruments to the insu-

lator, then to the poles and line of a 1000foot section of the old Deseret Telegraph. A partial inventory of the fort's furnishings dating to 1877 listed pine furniture, pottery, tinware, ironware and a double-oven stove. We purchased such a stove for the fort in Thorndike, Maine. Steve Pratt, a slulled blacksmith, repaired the stove, placed it and fitted its tin stovepipe into the original chimney hole. Camel and Lois Jackson, then site directors, promptly fired it up to produce stew and a batch of bread from pioneer recipes. From the Museum of Church History and Art in Salt Lake City and through gifts and purchases, Richard Oman, an LDS museum curator, acquired the pine furnishings for the fort's rooms: tables, chairs, chests, trunks, wardrobes, flour bins, beds, cradles, washstands, stools and benches. Additionally, ceramic dishware, handmade carpets, rugs, quilts, curtains and clothing were positioned as they would have been by the pioneers. Many ofthese furnishings, some of which are uniquely Mormon in design and finish, were made and decorated by converts to the church from America, Canada, the British Isles, Europe and South Africa. Carma deJong Anderson, an expert in historic costume and textiles, saw to the making of many textile and clothing items used to adorn the restored fort's rooms. After a lengthy search, we found in

Iowa a set of 1860s white ironstone dishware with a raised wheat-stalk pattern that matched fragments discovered at the fort site by archaeologists. The "whiteware" can now be seen in the handsomely gained pine cupboard and on the tables in the dining space opposite the kitchen. Replica Utah pottery of historic shape, color and glazes, seen in a number of rooms in the fort, was created for the restoration by Utah potters Andy Watson and Don Gibby. Ira Hinckley himself originally handforged the hardware in the Cove Fort blacksmith shop. Pratt and his sons produced replicas of Hinckley's hinges, locks, strapping, bolts and tools. In the fort's restored shop, they hung the original bellows, made at Beaver for Hinckley, still bearing the maker's mark and long stored in the church's artifacts collection. The two-story barn, perhaps the largest and finest in the Utah Territory, measured 60 feet by 60 feet. Torn down early in this century, old photographs showed its general location, allowing archaeologists to unearth its remains along with those of the blacksmith shop. Some of its timbers laid in a field across from the fort, providing rich clues about the barn's framing design and dimensions. Using a barnpattern book of the 1860s, CooperIRoberts Architects of Salt Lake City designed the replica of Hinckley's barn that was raised on the original foundation by a team of heavy-timber framers from Tennessee. Archaeologists from the Office of Public Archaeology, Brigham Young University, confirmed the location of the patchwork of fence lines that stitched together the fort's barn, blacksmithing, corrals, gardens, hay-yard, orchard and fields. Five different styles of fencing used at Cove Fort in pioneer days were duplicated, each with a specialized purpose. Wide boards nailed close together to rails protected the kitchen gardens. Long willowy poles, kept vertical by heavy strands of wire tied to posts, enclosed the squash and melon patch. The barn corral was a stockade of cedar posts butted and lashed together with rawhide. Traditional four- a n d U

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five-rail fences enclosed the orchard and horse and cattle areas, while barbed wire, then coming into wide use, fenced fields of hay or lucern. Historic landscape specialist Esther Truitt Henrichsen was invaluable in providing insights about the 1870s landscape features. Over the past 32 years I have assisted in the development of LDS Church historic sites from Vermont to the Rocky Mountains. Few assignments have been as rewarding as my participation in the Cove Fort restoration. To experience the ingenuity and craftsmanship of these 1870s trailblazers, simply exit one of the two modern interstates that lead to Cove Fort. I'm sure your expeP rience will be as rich as mine.

845 South Mam - Bountlhl, Utah 84010 Tel. (801) 298-1666 - FAX (801) 298-1666

Donald L. Enders is the senior curator of historic sites for the (LDS) Museum of Church History and Art, Salt Lake City.

Frprther Information CBVBlFOtf is apen year-raland, ftm928 fs.m. b @:a8 p.m. md it!! free. Take elttsl~trelrit M from 1-32 ~r wit #132 ff&ml-15;th~fm is I- t k n ~6 mi&%f'wmeither &t, A shwk

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And who are the "urban pioneers" of this resettlement effort?Adventurous restaurateurs and brew pub proprietors invariably lead the way, bolstered by architects, developers and planners, all ofwhom have vision, creativity, and business savvy, plus a passion for preserving a piece of history. In the 1970s, John Williams dreamed ofopening his own restaurant in the New York Building on a side-street in downtown Salt Lake City. H e paid $100,000 for the building, a structure in which the Salvation Army recently had folded up shop. The upper floors were condemned, and the entire structure was rotten to the core. "It was closed by the Board of Health," Williams says. "It was that bad." Williams' partner was Tom Sieg, a friend who was stepping down from a post at the University of Utah. "'You're going to leave the U to open up a restaurant in a basement on the wrong side of town?"' Williams remembers Sieg's colleagues asking. "People thought he'd gone totally insane." Their grand opening for the New Yorker was in 1978. "And immediately the people came," Williams says. "It was amazing." Another friend, Tom Guinney, came aboard soon after, and the threesomethe founders and co-owners of Gastronomy-opened its next venture, Market Street Grill. Another success, The Oyster Bar, followed. T h e n in 1 9 8 3 the trio acquired the abandoned Fire Station No. 8 along 13th East below the university. It became Market Street Broiler, another hit. Baci Trattoria and Cafe Pierpont followed. In 1987 business partners Jeff Polychronis and Peter Cole wanted to open Salt Lake's first brew pub and knew the perfect place: a turn-of-the-century structure where the Boston Hotel once existed. A fire in the mid-60s spelled the end of the hotel, then other businesses-a tavern, a dry cleaner, a coffee shop-came and went before a restaurant opened. Polychronis and Cole were regulars at the joint but it also failed, closing in 1987. Recognizing that the building had "great potential," Polychronis and Cole

cleaned the exterior, brought the building up to code, and launched Squatter's in 1989. It became an instant hot spot and helped pave the way for future brew pubs, including Polychronis and Cole's next production, Fuggles, in 1994 in the old Henderson warehouse a few blocks away. Squatter's' popularity and her daughter's constant pestering convinced Judi Imlay to enter the microbrewery business in 1995 on Ogden's Historic 25th Street. Imlay, a registered nurse who had grown tired of her profession, had opened an antique store a few years earlier in a 106year-old building on 25th Street. T h e structure, which had housed Kansas City Liquor Store, two Chinese goods and lodging establishments, a furniture store, and later the Salvation Army, was "just a wreck," she says. "There wasn't even a for-sale sign on it." Imlay bought the building anyway. She restored it and sold antiques until her daughter, Kim, who was working at Squat-

Tax incentives can offset some of the costs, however. Owners of "historic" buildings, those listed in the National Register of Historic Places, can save 20 percent of their rehabilitation costs through a federal income tax credit. Even non-landmark buildings constructed before 1936 can qualify for a 10 percent credit. "This is the federal government's way of encouraging reinvestment in older buildings and neighborhoods," says Barbara Murphy, a preservation specialistwith the Utah State Historic Preservation Office. "Without the tax credits, some of these projects simply wouldn't be feasible." Still, restoration projects are not for the weak-hearted. "A lot of developers stay away from older properties," Williams says, "because they scare the hell out of them. Most believe it's easier to build from the ground up and have no surprises." "But," adds the ever-adventurous Williams, "we've always been attracted to older properties and we've developed an

Any worries over relocating are soon forgotten when they witness the intriguing, unique aura that pulls customers to their establishments. ter's, "kept hounding me into opening a brew pub," Imlay recalls. Imlay joined forces with her husband, Jim, and Pete and Kym Buttschardt, took a year to renovate the building again, and opened Rooster's 25th Street Brewing Company in 1995. It's been a big hit since day one. "It's now the place to be," Imlay says. "People love it, and they keep coming back." Naturally, the restoration of a historic building is an expensive endeavor. Hidden costs often lurk behind those pressed metal ceilings, charming brickwalls, and elaborate woodwork. Archaic plumbing and electrical services need to be updated, and seismic and other safety codes must be addressed. All told, it takes a big bank account to pay the bills accrued from a neglected structure, renovate its every inch, and then provide state-of-the-art decor, furniture, restaurant and brewing equipment.

expertise in this area. Plus it's more fun and challenging than a new building." What's more, attempting to replace some remnants of historic buildings would prove too costly in today's inflated market. "Aesthetically, some of the things in our buildings you could not afford to replace," Polychronis says. "Look at the skylights in Fuggles or the bigwood beams in Squatter's. Back then, lumber and other materials came fairly cheap, but it wouldn't be financially efficient to buy those things today." Historic buildings offer practical advantages as well, especially for brew pubs. The high ceilings and large rooms of many older structures easily accommodate bulky brewing tanks and equipment.The National Brewing Institute notes that brew pubs are now opening at a rate of over one per week and most are located in older buildings.


SfiyDtftralmnbnri and &&ng equlment anrhqncesed in Squ6tW'e' interfat,crWllngan npen, ~asuslatrncagharpl~what 11

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Three more concerns, as with any piece of real estate: location, location, location. Abandoned and deteriorating buildings frequently are found in deteriorated crime-ridden areas. Such was the problem Ogden's 25th Street faced over the past 30 years. "The reputation was, 'You just don't go down there,"' says Ogden's Manager of Current Planning

ABOVE: The old Salt Lake High School now houses restaurants, a club, and professional offices. nw: Rooster's was an instant hot spot when it opened in 1995 on Ogden's historic 25th Street.

Greg Montgomery, who has worked for the city since 1981 and has seen, firsthand, 25th Street's revitalization. "It's a good location to d o business now," Montgomery says. "It has a clientele. There are people who think that's the only place you go to get things now." Helped by Ogden's establishment ofa Landmarks Commission and a commitment to purify the stretch by sprucing alleyways, fixing sidewalks and adding street lighting, business owners gradually began settling along 25th Street, particularly its thriving east side where flower shops, coffee houses and salons have sprung up. Polychronis and Cole considered location carefully before opening Squatter's. C O N T I N U E D

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COOPER/ ROBERTS ARCHITECTS, AIA 202 West 300 North Salt Lake City, Utah 84103 (801) 355-591 51Fax (801 ) 355-9885

allotted by the school. Inside renova-

1995, is the restoration of the 1906

tion included classrooms, library, stu-

Forest Dale Golf Course Clubhouse.

dent commons and offices. The project

The firm prepared a comprehensive

was recognized with an award by the

feasibility study and then provided full

Utah Heritage Foundation in 1991.

architectural and engineering ser-

Named a legacy project for

vices. The project included facade

Utah's 1996 Centennial, the new visitor center at This is the Place State

reconstruction, redesign for handicap accessibility of the public meeting area, pro shop, snack bar and administrative offices. The structural,

Specialists in Restoration and Preservation

Park functions as an entrance to both the monument and Old Deseret Vil-

nown especially for its expertise in restoration, renovation

I<

ties programming, historical research, full architectural and engineering ser-

nd reuse, CooperIRoberts Architects, AIA, provides full architec-

vices and general construction supervision. The new facility includes an

projects from CooperIRoberts are the

tural and engineering services for

information center, bookstorelgift

Park City Library and Education Cen-

public and private clients. The company maintains an interest in the

shop, theater, multi-use assembly

ter, Cove Fort Historical Museum in

space, exhibit space, and offices. The

Millard County, First National Bank of

development of new technologies in

firm also designed eight of the historic

Layton, the Social Hall Memorial in

design and construction methods while successfully applying this learn-

buildings replicated at the park. A third example, for which

Salt Lake City, Ancestor Square in St. George, Park City Miners Hospital1

ing to both new buildings and existing facility upgrades.

CooperIRoberts received recognition from the Utah Heritage Foundation in

Library and the restoration of the Brigham City Tabernacle.

The architectural firm of Wallace N. Cooper 2, Architects and Associ-

ates, began in 1976, specializing in restoration and preservation. Allen Roberts joined Cooper the same year and in 1984 the two created CooperIRoberts Architects which now has a staff of 12, four of whom are licensed architects. The firm also does facilities programming and planning, recently completing several studies for new and existing buildings. Many such programs require coordination among multiple agencies, including state, county and local governments as well as public, private and volunteer organizations. The South City Campus of the Salt Lake Community College is a recent example of CooperIRoberts' renovation work. The historic South High School assumed the identity of a college with the development of a new main entrance and phased implernentation of prioritized campus renovations during the condensed two years

lage. The team at CooperIRoberts provided master plan revision, facili-

mechanical and electrical systems were upgraded while maintaining the historical features of the Salt Lake City Parks and Recreation facility. Other outstanding restoration


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The old Garden (later Boston) Hotel, c. 1910, almost 80 years before its transformation into a fashionable brew pub (Salt Lake Brewing Co.'s Squatter's).

"The common wisdom back then was anything built west of West Temple was too far west," Polychronis says. "But Gastronomy had come in and was renovating the Pierpont block. We were pretty confident the growth of Salt Lake City was westward and felt it was a reasonable risk to take."

As Imlay, Polychronis a n d others discovered, any worries over relocating to questionable city districts are soon forgotten when they witness the intriguing, unique aura t h a t pulls customers t o their establishments. Williams recognizes the allure of old structures. "When we create a food establishment," he says, "what always seems to work is the tradition, the history and the ambience of an older building. You can't recreate those things very well." "It's the opportunity to take something that has weathered time successfully and extend it," says Louis Ulrich, an architect with FFKR, Salt Lake's leading restaurant designer, who has Squatter's, Market Street Broiler, Cafe Pierpont, The New Yorker, Baci Trattoria, Fuggles and the new Metropolitan among his credits. "I think much of the success of restaurants in old buildings is they have that character, that flair, both on the social and visual side. And, fortunately, most of my clients have followed my work by offering good menus." "Brewing is an age-old tradition," Polychronis adds, "about 5,000 years old. So to have a pub environment surrounded by lots of character and history is complementary to the feel we're after." Finally, there is the pride factor. These entrepreneurs recognize their ability to provide a socially enjoyable dining atmosphere, generate healthy profits and perform a civic good deed-all at the same time. "We do get satisfaction," Williams says, "standing back from one of our buildings and saying, 'You know, this will be around for another hundred years, and will be passed on for another generation to enjoy."' "We've contributed to the revitalization of downtown," Polychronis agrees. "We're proud ofwhat we've done with our buildings. They easily could have been torn down, and there would be nothing there. This way some of its history and character are preserved. The city is better as a result." F Ty Bronicel is a writer currently residing

in Seattle.


CAPITOL ARTS ALLLANCE

region's primary venue for the performing arts forgotten for three decades.

up residence in the theatre from June through mid-August and presents

Then a miracle occurred in the late 1980s. The abused and neglected

43 South Main Logan, Utah 84321 (801) 753-6518 Fax (801) 753-1232

operatic repertoire that draws many people from outside the state. For season information call 1-800-830-

ugly duckling re-emerged as the Ellen Eccles Theatre- an elegant swan with

6088.

its decorative plaster, ornate murals

A number of local companies

and gold leaf restored to its original splendor. The stage and backstage

The Ellen Eccles Theatre-A Phoenix Risen From the Ashes

A

n historic treasure known as

use the theatre to showcase their productions. These include the Cache

facilities were renovated to state-of-

Community Theatre, Cache Valley

the-art caliber. The acoustics were the

Civic Ballet and the Cache Performing

dream of any theater manager. The responsibility of utilizing this rare and

Dance Company. The Bullen Center, an arts complex managed by the Alliance

unique facility, now owned by the city

the Capitol Theater sat unno-

of Logan, loomed large for the managing entity known as the Capitol Arts Alliance. A diverse public must be

ticed for many years on Main Street in Logan, Utah. Moviegoers munched popcorn and drank soda unaware that they were in an auditorium erected in 1923 in which the priceless interior was covered with burlap

for the Varied Arts, became part of the Theatre's renovation and con-

served, and to that end the CAA spon-

tains an art gallery, gift shop and numerous facilities to accommodate

sors artists and attractions that encompass Broadway, country western, jazz,

the Unicorn Children's Theatre, photography and arts and crafts instruc-

and shrouded in green paint. The

Celtic, classical, comedy, dance, choir

tion. There are also attractive spaces

stage and orchestra pit of one of the

and family-oriented programs.

for dances, dinners, receptions and

West's most opulent theaters were sealed up and silent, leaving the

Michael Ballam's renowned Utah Festival Opera Company takes

other activities that are available to the community.

'

Theabusedand neglected ugly duckling re-emerged as the Ellen Eccles Theatrean elegant swan with its decorative plaster, ornate murals and gold leaf restored to its original splendor.

cLbEN ECCLES THEATRE

To ensure that the Ellen Eccles -

Theatre will never again become

7

obscure an0 unappreciated, Cacne C o ~ n r yand Logan City officials, along witn Bridger and Travel Region (800882-4433 or 801-752-2161) are supporting the Capitol Arts Alliance in its efforts to promote the theatre as an his-

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torical landmark-a not-to-be-missed experience for those traveling through Logan. Bridgerland Travel is happy to assist visitors with lodging accommodations, recreation and tourist informat~on,including a calendar of events

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Stained Glass Windows Utah's Architectural Jewelry by M a r y T r o u t m a n Roebuck & Co. Prefabricated panels could also be purchased from local building material supply stores, such as the Salt Lake Hardware Co. Even though windows were mass produced by reusing designs, all pieces were cut and assembled by hand. Local studios, including the Bennett Glass & Paint Co., designed and produced custom windows for many Utah buildings. Often premade "bevel cluster" panels were purchased from manufacturers in San Francisco, Chicago or New York. Local craftsmen used the bevel cluster as a centerpiece, and completed the window by surrounding these prefabricated sections with a geometric pattern that filled the required size and shape for each particular project. Utah architects, including Frederick Hale, Walter Ware and Albert0 T v probably designed and commissioned panels from local stained glass artisans. Very few of thge &men signed hsov~:Cahoon Mansion, c.1900, Murray. In Utah, Victorianera stained and their windows, makleaded glass was often limited to transoms on the facade and stairway ing it impossible to windows on the side. Patterns were usually simple. The beveled circular tell who manufaclights and delicately textured glass In this stairway window are more elaborate touches. tured most residential stained glass OPPOSITE: Alta Club, Salt Lake City. The architectural shift from Victorian to Craftsman and Prairie styles in the early twentieth century Introduced windows. W h i l e major changes in stained glass design. This Prairie School style window many panels were features geometric patterns formed by narrow bands and angles and undoubtedly ordered accented by warm colors. It was Installed in the front doors of this 1897 building, probably as part of a 1910 remodeling and addition. from catalogs, local

ime was when every self-respecting home featured some stained or leaded glass, with many fine pieces from the era still existing. And the beauty of stained glass only increases. The earliest stained glass windows in Utah are found o n religious structures built in the late 1870s. Initially, designs were developed locally and then sent to eastern manufacturers, who cut, painted and fired the glass. Separate, individual pieces were then shipped by train to Utah, where local craftsmen assembled a n d installed the windows. Around the turn of the century, stained glass windows could be ordered by the square foot from mail order catalogs produced by Pittsburgh Plate Glass or Sears,

craftsmen may have copied catalog patterns to create custom windows for clients. Owners of historic stained glass need to have a basic understanding of their windows so they can perform simple maintenance and know when to contact a professional. Routine, thorough inspection of the overall window and its individual components allow an owner to detect and address problems while they are minor. T h e most sensitive care emphasizes conservation of the window, using the least necessary intervention to stabilize the panel and inhibit further deterioration. Any repairs should be fully reversible and carried out with respect for the historic integrity of the entire window. Each panel must be evaluated separately, and uniquely appropriate repair solutions should be developed for every project. Work that may be ideal for one window may be impractical, or even damaging, to another. T h e Basics Documentation and Standard Care As a steward of historic stained glass, the important first task is to document i t before and after any repair work or major cleaning. Such a record provides valuable insurance information and creates a priceless reference for future repair, restoration o r research. Make color slides w i t h Kodachrome film, which is more archival t h a n o t h e r color films. Take overall shots of both the interior and exterior grid close-up shots of any damaged sections or important details. A ruler or coin placed in each image establishes scale. InexpenU

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UPPER LEFT: Emma AptS., 1913, Salt Lake City. A stained glass elliptical fanllght over the entrance not only identifies the bulldlng (named in honor of the builder's wife) but adds a touch of elegance. This prestige-boosting technlque was used for a number of the city's early twentieth-century apartments.

David Jones House, c.1912, Spanish Fork. The Welsh harp motif in this window reflects the family's ties to Wales and their musical abilities.

ABOVE:

Cahoon Mansion, c.1900, Murray. Classical detailing frames a transom window on this Victorian Eclectic-style house. Diamond patterns were probably the most popular, though most were slmpler than this.

LEFT:

FAR LEFT: David Keith Manslon, 1900, Salt Lake City. This art glass panel was painstakingly reconstructed after being destroyed in a 1987 fire. Salt Lake City craftsman Bob Baird, assisted by Joe George, was able to match the original very closely because of his experience with the window prior to the fire. The process involved melting powdered glass paint, made predominantly from ground glass, onto the surface.


The Basics sive color photocopies, enlarged to virtually any size, can be made from these slides at most copy centers. Photocopies can then be written on, marking needed repairs or other information. Stained glass windows should be cleaned regularly to prevent grime from holding water and pollutants against the window. Thorough cleaning requites great patience and a light touch. Even stubborn dirt can usually be removed by gentle washing with distilled or soft water and a soft cloth. Do not use cleansing powder, steel wool or chemicals containing ammonia or lye. Most importantly, do not clean the window at all if painted surfaces are flaking, or if the panes are in serious disrepair. Refrain from touching loose pieces of glass, especially if they contain multiple cracks, as this might aggravate their condition and even cause them to fall out. Clean individual pieces of glass separately, and use care not to scratch the surface of the glass or apply too much pressure to the window. Be aware that soft lead came is easily damaged. Most stained glass windows are designed to be vertical and stationary. Even if the window is an operable transom with hinges on the top or bottom, refrain from opening it, since gravity will encourage the window to bow. Do not place a leaded glass panel in a door, unless it was originally designed to be there, because movement and vibration from opening and closing the door will weaken the window. Common Problems and Calling For Help Bowing and Warping One of the most common problems with stained glass windows is bowing or warping, which occurs when windows lose some of their structural support. Often this is caused by deteriorated connectionsbetween the panel and reinforcing saddle bars. Wires soldered onto the came and twisted around the saddle bars may have broken loose. Any window held to saddle bars with flexible tie wire should be reattached with rigid wire that is firm and taut.

A

If the solder joints of a buckled window are cracked or broken, a professional will need to resolder the cames. If the solder joints are intact, however, the window can be flattened by a careful owner. Remove the window and the frame together and set them in the sun on top ofa one-fourthinch masonite panel that has been cut to exact dimensions of the glass area. The masonite will protect the window from sinking to the other side while the lead cames heat up and soften. Gravity will encourage the window to flatten, and light pressure can be applied to accelerate the process. Damaged Glass Accept small cracks as part of the natural beauty an antique window acquires with age; do not replace cracked glass unless

stained glass window is meetsd by cutting various pieces of colored or textured glass

nto desired shapes. These individual pieces, :atled lights, are permanently connected by grooved metal strips, called c&mffs,that hold the W zinC are the mt glass in place. Lead, C O ~ ~and common came matals. Stained glass is a blend sf sand, soda and

limestone, combined with variws metal oxides to achieve certain colors and textures. The mixture is heated in kilns until it rndtsand forms

lass as

it cools. Properly made, the colors are part of the glass and will never fade or change, eEcepX to develop patina over several decades. Stained glass putty.is used to seal the glass to the cames. Historically,itwas acornbinationof linseed oil, whiting, lead and soat. The energyefticiency of a stained glass pang1 can be greatty improved by the application of fresh putty.

The most sensitive care of stained glass emphasizes conservation of the window, using the least necessary intervention. the window is in danger of losing pieces. Small, single cracks should be left alone; moderate cracks can be glued together with two-part, conservation-grade epoxy. Avoid sealing the crack with strapping tape or duct tape, which may damage the glass and remove paint when the tape is removed. If the window must be taped, blue painters' tape is recommended because it remains soft, andwill not dry or melt. If glass pieces are missing or are very badly cracked, they will need to be replaced by a professional. Because the window must be disassembled up to the piece that will be replaced, it is more expensive to install a piece of glass in the middle of the window than one along the edge. An exact duplicate may not be possible since many old glass colors are no longer available. Old time masters were often very secretive about how they obtained their colors, but persistence will usually net a good match. If a studio cannot locate matching glass, they may suggest replacing more pieces than what are structurally needed, in order to create visual balance in the final

piece. Be cautious about this approach, since it is more invasive to the historic fabric than necessary, Ifsuch a method is chosen, be sure to save any pieces that are removed from the window, so they will be available for future repairs. Reputtying and Releading If a stained glass window is drafty, leaking or rattling, it probably needs to be reputtied. This can often be done by a patient owner while the window is in place. Glaziers' putty, a mixture ofprimarily linseed oil and whiting, acts as a weather seal and structural stabilizer. It is gently brushed or thumbed beneath the edges of the came. As when cleaning the window, take care not to apply too much pressure to the glass. Lead that is brittle or cracked will need to be replaced by a professional. Weather conditions a n d p o l l u t i o n can cause deterioration, but rarely will an entire window need to be releaded. Most of the cames will be functional if they are cleaned and resoldered. New cames should match the size and profile of the originals, and resoldered joints should be neatly finished. Avoid the use of chemical patinas that artiU

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ZCMI 2200 South 900 West Salt Lake City, Utah 84137 (801) 579-6777lFax (801) 579-6275

Historic Store Speeds Ahead to the 21st Century

A

merica's First Department Store, a title that belongs to no other retailer in the coun-

try, belongs to Utah's own ZCMI. Along with it comes a 128-year history of selling goods along the Intermountain corridor from the time Utah was a territory. Organized to provide goods for the struggling pioneers, plus give them a method for selling wares and sharing in the profits, Zion's Co-operative Mercantile Institution is proud of

ZCMI symbolizes what is best about homegrown businesses. its history although not stuck in its past. "ZCMI is like the longest-living grand lady. She hasn't stayed alive this long without getting involved in what's going on around her," according to company Chairman, President and CEO Richard H. Madsen. The company has changed often to stay viable in a competitive and everchanging marketplace. Today ZCMl has over 3,000 brands to serve customers at its 15 locations. While honoring its relationships with some of the oldest and best-known names in retail like Levi's, Lenox, Pendleton and Estee Lauder, ZCMl has also continually added new quality names to its roster like Karen Kane, Molton Brown, Mitsubishi and Calvin Klein. During its 125th anniversary in 1994, ZCMl recommitted itself to carrying the

brand names that customers want. "Just as ZCMl itself is a trusted brand to our customers, the merchandise we carry must live up to that same reputation," says Madsen. ZCMl symbolizes what is best about home-grown businesses-a strong commitment to its communities. Today the department store supports the arts and charities in the cities where it does business. Madsen attributes the firm's staying power to remaining true to its founding principles and to the traditional department store concept. ZCMl carries everything from computers to cosmetics and has done much in the name of entertainment during its time. Notables like Bob Hope, Liberace, Dionne Warwick, even the Lord Mayor of London, all have added excitement to the shopping experience by visiting ZCMI. During UKIUtah, a ZCMl promotional in March 1996, Utah's British connections were featured. The centerpiece was a visit from Lady Margaret Thatcher, former prime minister of Great Britain, who cut the ribbon on ZCMl's annual indoor flower show, in Lady Margaret Thatcher visits ZCMl's flagship store during the UWUtah Festival.

front of the historic facade of ZCMl's downtown flagship store. At ZCMl's invitation renowned British designer Zandra Rhodes lent 25 of her famous gowns to a fashion show, an event which served as a benefit for the Utah Symphony. ZCMl's annual Christmas windows, crowd pleasers and award winners, are another way the store salutes the community for its support. While retail business has had its ups and downs, for the past five years ZCMl has experienced record


sales and in 1995 announced its 400th dividend to stockholdersanother history- making event in the retailing world. As a member of the Frederick Atkins buying group, ZCMl joins with other national department stores for purchasing power. With buyers, sales associates, marketers and

ficially "age" new lead , since these may damage historic glass. Protective Glazing Some professionals suggest adding a storm window to mitigate the effects ofweather or pollution on a stained glass window. This is not advisable under most circumstances, however. Large windows in churches or public buildings are often shielded with

managers, ZCMl is one of the largest employers in the state. It is also one of the largest purchasers of print and broadcast advertising in the Intermountain West.

LooKlng ror a Professional?

I. I

- Get (and check!) referencesfor two

It's a story with no ending

or more recent projects that are similar to your type of work.

because, like the state where it was

- Visit thestudios,if possible,to inspect

founded, ZCMl continues to grow and

other work and observe day-bday operations. - Get competitive bids that includle a w r b n description of the extent and nature of the work to be done. Different professionals may recommend highly variant degrees and t y p ~ af s intervention. - Remember that experience rnaking new stained glass is not the same as experience repalring or restoring historic stained glass.

change, saluting its past while continuing to make history. The store is fond of looking back-but

it never lingers

there long, because in retail, you're only as good as your next sale. "In 1868 when ZCMl's founders stated their intent of bringing merchandise to the Salt Lake Valley and selling it for the best price possible, they couldn't possibly have foreseen that their commitment would carry on for 128 years." says Madsen. "Each store president, employee and customer hence has added something important that will no doubt enable us to keep our legacy alive into the 21st century."

I

Resources Zinc cames are currently avallable through the Chicago Metallic Corp. (3121563-46ClO), which has been in business nearly 100 yearg. The company has compiled a group of 28 carnes called the PrairieHouse Classic Series, which includes six carnes that have not been avallable for the past 58 years. The Census of StainedGlassWindows in America maintains a registry of stained glass windows in Canada and the United States. For a directory of recorded windows, or to add your piece to the registry, write to the Stained Glass Association of America, 2304 Silhavy Road, Valparaiso, IN 46383. Ask. for the informative brochure, Conservation and ffestoratm of Stained Glass: An Owners' Guide. A register of Utah craftsmen with recent experience repairing historic stained glass windows isavailablefrom the Utah State Histor~cPreservation Office (.300Rio Grande, Salt Lake City, LJT 84101.80 1/Fi.?R-?5R.23

exterior glazing as a protection against vandalism. Unless there is a clearly identified similar threat to residential stained glass, there may not be a compelling reason to install protective glazing. Not only will the exterior character of the window be compromised, but protective glazing can lead to structural problems since moisture and heat are trapped in the dead air space between layers of glass if it is not properly ventilated. T h i s contributes to accelerated deterioration of the carnes, putty, glass and wooden sash. Warm, moist air from inside the building travels through the stained glass window into the air cavity between the panels, where it cools and condenses. The moisture may then precipitate, collect on the glass and run down onto the sill. More damaging to the window is the greenhouse effect within the air cavity that will cause the temperature of the stained glass panel to rise. As the temperature rises, the trapped

Local studios designed and produced custom windows for many Utah buildings. air expands and pushes against the window. The lead carnes become soft and malleable in the heat, so the window bows and warps. Since the window is designed to be strongest when perfectly vertical, this bowing will worsen as gravity takes its toll. Stained glass has been used to enhance windows since the Middle Ages, perhaps as early as the fifth century. Examples exist from the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Knowing this is enough to inspire one to invest the care necessary to keep stained and leaded glass functioning in a vintage home. F Mary Troutman received her B.S. in architectural studies from the University of Utah in 1995. She is currently the architectural historianand restoration specialist in the South Dakota Historic Preservation Center.


Environmental Education Building a future from the past: Great Basin Environmental Education Center b y L o u i s e I<ing.sb u r y , I n t c r w o u v ~ t n i nRrscnvch S t n t i o ~ ~ , U . S . Forvst S c v ~ > i c e0-qdcn, , UT

H

igh in the mountains of the

Manti-LaSal National Forest eight miles east of Ephraim sits a complex of buildings whose existence spans more than eight decades. With it comes an environmental education mission for the future that is directly linlted to its conservation purpose of the past. The Great Basin Research Station, recently designated a historic district, is so unusual that historians, architects, archaeologists, scientists and educators all lay a claim to it. They are partners in the preservation of the site historically known as a birthplace ofworldwide scientific range management. Today the site is known as the Great Basin Environmental Education Center (GBEEC). The group of 10 buildings and miscellaneous structures, some dating back to 19 12, is slowly acquiring new plumbing, electricity, walls and paint as the Snow College and Utah State University-sponsored program for students and teachers simultaneously takes shape. In its time as a primary research site, this location may have produced some of the most important data for today's study of long-term global climate change. I11 its new life, the complex plays host to two A trail between the South House and the End House leads to a CCC-built tennis court, horseshoe pits, weather station, and a series of active beaver ponds. Plans call for making the trail wheel-chair accessible.

INSET LEFT:


The End House was built by the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1933 following Forest Service standard plans for a "Ranger Station Dwelling." It currently houses participants in environmental education programs.

INSET CENTER:

The East House, the original 1912 OfficelLaboratory, now serves as a museum interpreting the history of the research station. Original artifacts are displayed, including a special mapping instrument called a pantograph. This is one of the favorite places of visitors, especially school-age (K-12)groups.

INSET RIGHT:

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restoration and education projects, trying to accomplish two multipartnership goals: first, preservation of a site used by government and university scientists whose research in the surrounding mountains and canyons created the basis of a revolution in rangeland management; and second, establishment of an ecologicallybased education program to help train Earth's future caretakers. At the turn of the century, foothill communities along the Rocky Mountains were tormented by the spring run-off of mud, water and boulders. By 19 10 federal officials sought a place to study the situation and solve it. Ephraim Canyon in central Utah had what they were looking for: diverse landscape, diverse plant and animal populations, and flood-ravaged terrain. In 1912 an office/laboratory and lodge were constructed with the express purpose of investigating watershed and overgrazing issues. At Great Basin headquarters, researchers lived with their families summer aher summer. In the 1930s, the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) moved in, built more s t r u c t u r e s a n d left a n o t h e r layer of architectural heritage. All told, nearly 50 scientists worked at the location, compiling data and comparing their research results with the scientists before them. Some 200 scientific publications emerged. Land managers and scientists from around the world came to study, changing the way people everywhere look on rangelands. Globally focused researchers have also found that 80 years of raw data present a rare source for assessing current effects of global warming.

A New Purpose By the late 1980s, fewer researchers were using the nearby mountain study plots. Improved roads made the trip from Ephraim less than a full day's journey, so overnight accommodations were less necessary. Another use needed to be found for the Great Basin Station buildings. "The Forest Service preserved the buildings even though they weren't using them

continually," says Don Hartley, historical architect with the Division of State History. "The Forest Service calls it maintenance, but maintenance is preservation. These were serviceable structures." One logical use was using the facilities to draw teachers and students to the study of ecology. By teaching today's elementary through college students the basics, experts can try to initiate learners early to possible careers in caring for the land. In 1989 Snow College and the U.S. Forest Service entered into an agreement to convert the buildings to an education facility. A formal partnership began in 1992 among Snow College, Utah State University, the Utah Division of State History, Ephraim City, Sanpete County, and the U.S. Forest Service's Intermountain Research Station and Manti-LaSal National Forest. Add to the formal partnership the informal partners: community citizens, the Utah Division ofwildlife Resources and the Society of Range Management, to name a few.

The museum provides a look at the lives of researchers of the past, a slice of Forest Service history seen in no other location in the United States.

"The biggest headaches came in trying to meet Forest Service engineering specifications, federal preservation guidelines and a tight construction schedule," says Steve Peterson, then a Snow College professor and the first director of the new GBEEC. Maintaining historic integrity of the buildings, for example, sometimes ran counter to modifications to meet the Americans with Disabilities Act for handicap access. Modern steel fire escapes bolted to the sides of freshly white-painted but old wood buildings made historians wince. Putting in new sewer and water

systems raised serious concerns from some environmental educators when huge trenches and roads were dug through the forest. The partners huddled every day: considering alternatives, compromising, dealing. "Minimally affecting the historic architecture sounds far easier than it actually is. We have constantly been on the phone or meeting with historians and architectural historians at the Division of State History to find solutions," says Stan McDonald, archaeologist for the MantiLaSal National Forest. Among the obstacles were finding the right paint color for roof shingles, replacing worn-out fixtures, rewiring, insulating, replumbing a n d stabilizing t h e buildings' main structural elements. "It comes down to the people who do the actual work," says McDonald. "We're fortunate that the carpenters and construction supervisors from Snow College are sensitive to the historic preservation needs of the buildings. They have been meticulously careful in restoring historic elements such as interior door and window moldings." Problems and Compromises Renovation is one thing. Incorporating some fundamental changes to meet the needs of the site's new education purpose is another. Ten buildings make u p t h e complex, most of which form a classic camp semicircle. Three main buildings-the Lodge, the Palmer House (named ironically after a plush Chicago hotel) and the South House-needed quick attention so that the teachers and students could begin their environmental studies as soon as possible. The South House is a small Cape Cod building with some Arts and Crafts-era design. It was to become a dining hall for large groups with a kitchen, a dormitory upstairs and public, handicap-accessible bathrooms. All went smoothly until Snow College officials proposed attaching a large redwood deck to the back. about the same


I. The old dinner bell was used to call CCC boys and Forest Service employees to dinner. Located near the Lodge kitchen, it is still used to call guests to meals. 2. Snow College construction crews performed much of the rehab work, including insulating, re-wiring, re-plumbing, and limited remodeling. 3. GBEEC serves elementary, secondary, and college students, offering a unique setting for studying environmental issues. 4. Upgrading of the South House included re-roofing, installation of ADA-compliant restrooms, and modification of the interior to a dining hall. Note the pine-tree shutters on the facade. 5. The buildings retained many of their original features, including this built-in dining nook. Historic materials were kept whenever possible during the rehab process. From 1912 to the 1980s, the buildings housed Forest Service scientists engaged in watershed research. Dwindling use prompted the Forest Service to strike an agreement with Snow College, leading to the 1993 opening of the Great Basin Environmental Education Center.

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ACE HARDWOOD FLOORS (801) 963-2247 FAX (801) 963-2247

Fine craftsmanship makes beautiful hardwood floors

w

en Rhett Anderson and

Lane Campbell formed ACE Hardwood Floors in 1994, it was with the understanding that the new company would carry an old-fashioned dedication to quality: They would provide their customers with only the finest materials and highest levels of craftsmanship in refinishing or installing beautiful hardwood floors. Today, the five-person company has become known across the Wasatch Front, doing custom work on the Utah Heritage Foundation's Memorial House; the Utah Territorial State House in Fillmore; the Keith Brown mansion; the Gold Room in the Utah State Capitol; and the restoration of the Thomas Kearns mansion, officially known as the Governor's resi-

dence. The work on the each of these buildings was significant not only for the quality of the workmanship that went into them, but also because each is a precious piece of Utah's heritage, returned to their former glory by dedicated craftsmen such as those at ACE Hardwood Flooring. "A lot of our success is staying small, and not allowing [ourselves] to grow beyond what we're capable of doing well," says company President Rhett Anderson. "Each customer can receive the personal attention they deserve, whether it's the Utah State Capitol or a modest home in the Salt Lake Valley." Anderson and Campbell had a combined 21 years of experience working with a prominent hardwood flooring contractor before forming ACE. "We had a lot of experience in that type of work. When we started out on our own, we already had a niche." Whether installing intricate laser cut inlays and medallions or refinishing turn-of-the-century handcut borders and patterns, ACE Hardwood Floors relies on its skilled craftsmen to bring the full beauty of the floor to life. "We work on new construction, but we really prefer to restore old floors or work directly for homeowners; the remodel market is great right now. Often, the customer draws a picture and says 'I want my floor to look like this,"' Anderson says. "We're kind of unique in that while the Wasatch Front is in the middle of a big building boom, we're still doing almost zero new construction." And that's just fine for Anderson, Campbell and their staff. It's the solid, handhewn beauty of historic hardwood floors that brought them to this business. And the responsibility of keeping them that way that keeps them here.

size as the South House itself. Historians urged a smaller, more compatible deck or detached patio. Historic integrity and current-use needs butted heads. That modern deck suited GBEEC purposes. It finally went up, with the historically minded saying, "Well, at least it can't be seen when you're standing in front of the building." T h e Palmer House is another Cape Cod form. Turning this three-car garage into usable lecture space posed the problem of how to maintain the exterior door and appearance of a garage while securing the inside of the building against the weather. Museum The Intermountain Research Station and Snow College worked together to convert the East House, Arthur Sampson's 1912 officellaboratory, into a museum which opened the day of the August 1993 dedication. Based on a proposal and bid for fabrication by Farrell Allen Display and advertising consultant Jim Wilson of

Salt Lake City, the museum is a restoration of what the East House probably looked like during the 1920s. This includes the bungalow and craftsman details of the exterior, as well as the dark-stained wood and other craftsman period features in the interior. The desk ofArthur W. Sampson, Great Basin's first director, is on display, as well as a medicine ball he would throw over the flagpole for exercise. A pantograph that was used to map quadrant plots lies in a corner. In another corner are skis that a technician used in the 1930s to reach a nearby creek to measure snow. Future plans for the museum include a mannequin of Sampson and an audio narration. T h e museum will orient t h e students and teachers in their stay at the education center and provide a look at the lives of the ecological researchers of the past. To other visitors, this is a slice of Forest Service history seen in no other location in the United States.


Before the Paint Dried The two-year timeline to restore and ready the GBEEC did not happen. Large projects like this rarely keep on schedule. Nwertheless, in summer 1993, before the paint was dry, the first small group of students lived at the center and completed course work for college credit. While still renovating, Snow College turned down requests from several conservation organizations wanting to hold meetings at GBEEC. But as facilities became available, requests were granted. Recent groups to come to the mountain retreat include the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, a six-county economic development group, the State Board of Education, U.S. Forest Supervisors, the Salt Lake Astronomical Society, Manti High School, the Utah Audubon Council, the Utah Native Plant Society and many others. As renovation continues, more workshops, conferences and retreats will move into the GBEEC schedule. Field studies are available for university students, government agencies and individual researchers. Dormitories house up to 50 students, and a library holds information on biological science, range management research and environmental studies. An amphitheater seats several hundred people. Students can use a large audiovisual classroom, then wander into the surrounding acres of aspen and pine forests, alpine meadows and rolling mountains for a nature field trip. This, then, is the current generation's rare opportunity to meld with the pastlive it to a degree as Forest Service researchers and their families did decades ago. And it is a rare way to span several generations' knowledge, i n c o r p o r a t e i t i n t o o u r modern needs, and preserve it beyond the turn of the next century. 8 For information about the center, contact GBEEC, Snow College, 150 College Avenue, Ephraim, UT 84627; (801) 283-4021. Additional history on the site is available in the files of the National Register of Historic Places, Utah State Historic Preservation Office, 300 Rio Grande, Salt Lake City UT 84101; (801) 533-3500.

AKZO NOBEL SALT INC.

vides the necessary force for the salt

1510 W. Rowley Road Grantsville, UT 84029 (801) 884-0123lFax (801) 884-0571

the essence of the solar salt-making

Working With Nature

to be deposited. A system of saltwater ponds is process. It takes 5 years to develop the pond floors before salt can be harvested. Pumps and gravity move the brine from concentrating pond to concentrating pond until the saturated

A

kzo Nobel Salt Inc., the

brine reaches the harvesting ponds

world's largest producer of salt, extracts vast amounts

(called crystallizers). The increasing

of solar salt from its most expansive production facility, the 5,000-acre Solaire salt plant off the southern coast of the Great Salt Lake in Utah. A fresh water body until the Ice Age, the Great Salt Lake is now an ideal source of salt, with a salinity level eight times higher than any of the

salinity of the brine in the crystallizers creates a thick layer of salt on the pond bottom over the summer. A ripping process breaks the hard crust of salt crystals in the crystallizer~during the harvesting. Large harvesting machinery cuts off the top layer of salt and loads it into trucks. Large capacity belly dump

world's oceans. A system of diked

trucks haul and drop their solar salt

ponds along with the process of solar

loads into giant bins to prepare them for the washing process. As the salt is washed in a brine

,

solution, the dirty brine is removed three times before

evaporation is used to extract salt

salt goes into a cooling unit so it will not

from the lake, which contains an esti-

be hot to handle. The cooled salt is lifted to a screening process which

mated 6 to 8 billion tons of salt. The Solaire plant, in operation since 1958 and purchased by Akzo Nobel Salt in 1988, is a major supplier

separates the salt into three similar sized crystal grades. Each grade is used for bagging in 40, 50, 80 or 2,000

softening, agricultural and industrial applications...as well as for road de-

pound bags, put into 50 pound cattle blocks where minerals are added to help keep the animals healthy or

icing in the Western snow belt.

shipped bulk.

of exceptionally pure salt for water

The Great Salt Lake supplies

From the brine pumping to har-

the brine; sun and wind catalyze the

vesting the solar salt, production is

evaporation process; and gravity pro-

about a two-year process.


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Main Street Makes a Comeback Small towns found that when they lost their Main Streets, they lost their hearts. by B e c k y B a ~ t h o l o m e w

Main Streets were more than just commercial centers. They also served as main thoroughfares, social gathering places, and stages for civic celebrations. (Top) Brigham City, c.1927, exudes commercial vitality. The archway (still standing in 1997) promotes a local attaction to travelers on what was then the main highway. Flags decorating the street hint at an impending parade and celebration. (Left) A monument anchors the east end of Mt. Pleasant's Main Street, 1938, reinforcing the street's role as a civic plaza. (Far left) Logan c.1961. Most Main Streets continued vital through the 1960's, until bypassed by freeways and drained of businesses and customers by shopping centers and malls.

tah's small cities are engaged in war, and it's not the Sagebrush Rebellion. A century ago, Utah communities had vibrant downtowns. Small-town shop owners saw 30 or more customers a day, greeting them by name. Main Street, with its church, dance hall, theater and drugstorelice cream parlor, was a commercial hub and a social center- binding residents together, giving them a sense of place. That all changed in the last half of the twentieth century with the advent of national retailers, regional shopping malls and strip developments at the edge of towns, sapping the lifeblood from Main Street and leaving behind derelict buildings with struggling businesses. Now cities have discovered that when they lost their Main Streets, they lost their hearts. And some Utah cities want their Main Streets back. In the 1980s Ogden mounted an independent campaign to revitalize its Historic 25th Street. Magna, working with the Salt Lake County Redevelopment Agency, has restored many of its downtown buildings over the past several years. In 1993 Brigham City, Mount Pleasant, Midvale and Parowan qualified as pilot cities for Utah's new Main Street program. This program is allied with the National Trust for Historic Preservation's Main Street Center (MSC), which has helped 850 communities across the country resuscitate their downtowns since 1980.

It Takes More Than a Weekend Soldier Bim Oliver hired on as state director while the MSC's Utah campaign was in its early stages. O n e of his discoveries, Oliver recounts, is that turning Main Street into a viable town center isn't accomplished through rugged individualism. It demands broad participation by everybody with a stake in a downtown. Still, a few dedicated citizens are essential to any town's efforts at revitalization. Brigham City was fortunate in having Larry Douglass, director of the city museum, who provided the initial spark. After the city was selected as a pilot, it established a Main Street board, set up committees, and hired a manager, Shelley Walker. Walker, an old-house enthusiast who was no novice to grant writing, has helped carry the program to its next level. Her motto: "If we saved the American bison, surely we can rescue the American Main Street." Midvale's counterpart to Walker is Keith Alexander, who says only half-facetiously, "Part of my job is to walk the streets." Alexander carries the revitalization message not just from city to merchants but back again. This communication is crucial to keeping everyone involved and working together. The importance of broad support is seen in Parowan's Main Street. The progress was slowed by turnover; Parowan went through three project directors in under two years, yet its Main Street board stayed U

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Before-and-after photos reveal the impact of facade rehab programs in Mt. Pleasant (top) and Brigham City (bottom). (Opposite) Upgraded streetscapes (sidewalks, lighting, etc.), facade restorations, and rear-of-building improvements, such as parking lots and dining areas, have helped rejuvenate Ogden's 25th Street.

committed. Now the original project manager is back, making solid progress on a city work plan.

Lay a Firm Foundation While Oliver and MSC were getting their Utah bearings, their four pilot towns went through a parallel organizing phase. Again Brigham City is a success story. It had done considerable work on its decaying downtown before ever hearing of MSC. The city replaced crumbling sidewalks, and a downtown committee installed planter boxes and planted trees and flowers. A few business owners made improvements to their buildings, and the LDS Church restored its vintage Gothic Revival-style tabernacle. A private consultant hired by the city to do long-term planning made recommendations, including a city-funded 50-50 matching grant program to help downtown businesses renovate facades. O n the flip side, the launch of Panguitch's independent campaign was not as smooth. Business owners Sam and Liz DunU

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ham have had to forge their own way, becoming experts in the how-to's of building rehab while learning about the importance of bigpicture issues such as streetscape improvements and marketing. "Ir's been something of a roller-coaster ride," notes Sam. Now with backing from the chamber of commerce and the city, a concerted effort is under way to restore historic Main Street and jointly market its "new" old image. One reward of solid organization is a vigorous design committee. Without a unified strategy, states Oliver, "you can win a number of renovation battles but you'll lose the war" of a pleasing, work-

Brigham City, Mount Pleasant, Midvale and Parowan qualified for from the National Trust for HistOric

Street Center.

Main

able cityscape. A comprehensive plan may involve preservation, new construction, public improvements, landscaping, even utilities. With such a blueprint in hand, city officials can phase in planning and zoning ordinances as well as incentives for volunteer efforts.

The Real Fun: Sprucing Up One's Image The time comes for a city to act on its plan, often through streetscaping and historic preservation. The typical city council is ready and willing to commit funds to improving a town's appearance. Some cities opt for major projects, but small changes can also make a difference. Witness Midvale's Clutter Control campaign. Its design committee took a walking tour of downtown Midvale, listing problems easy to remedy: broken wall brackets, make-do signs, "Keep Out" spray-painted on a wall. Next, the committee sent a low-key letter to businesses urgingaction. Within a few weeks, 31 of the 33 items were taken


SANDRA SECRESTHKTCH 1045 East Blaine Avenue Salt Lake City, Utah 84105 (801) 466-3494

Architect Specializes in Historic Homes andra Secrest-Hatch is a licensed architect who specializes in remodeling and restoration projects for single-famiiy residences with an emphasis on homes in Salt Lake historic districts. Since 1989 she has been in solo practice and served as architect for over 100 home projects. Between 1981 and 1989, Hatch worked for several architectural firms in Salt Lake City with projects such as the design of the Utah Woolen Mills facade and the Temple Square Hotel remodel. She received a master of architecture degree from the University of Utah in 1982, and in 1987 she became one of the first women to receive an architectural license in Utah. Being a woman in a non-traditional profession is something Hatch takes seriously. She has developed architectural education programs for the Utah Heritage Foundation, Utah Women in Math and Science, Building Connections, Salt Lake Valley school districts and the Youth Art Institute at the University of Utah. Hatch, who is from New Mexico, presently serves on Salt Lake City's Historic Landmarks Commission. Her firm continues to serve clients who desire to restore and modify their historic homes. U

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care of. Now the city is following up with a more ambitious project: new sidewalks, underground electric lines and antique lighting. The second aspect of image enhancement is the one that attracts many participants to a Main Street program: historic preservation. Restoring old buildings is gritty, costly work, but it can be the most rewarding stage of a revitalization campaign. Mount Pleasant is now reaping those rewards. Over 15 buildings on its National Register-listed Main Street have been fixed up. "It was slow going at first," recalls Laurel Christensen, chair of the city's Main Street program, "but now everybody's in on it." A creative matching grant program enticed many into making improvements. Others joined in on their own dollar, including First Security Bank which made its modern building more compatible with its historic neighbors. The enthusiasm has even spread off Main Street. A recent survey o f town residents showed overwhelming support for the restoration of Main Street and for historic preservation in general. The key to historic preservation, says Oliver, is to find new uses for old buildings. Peter Baumgartner recently won a Utah Heritage Foundation award for his renovation of Brigham City's old telephone office. This was a case, says Douglass, "where you take the gorp off and you have a little gem underneath." Cinderblock rendered "in decorative '70s style a go-go" (Douglass's description) had been installed over turn-of-the-century brick. Restoration was a cost-effective method for upgrading both the visual appeal and market value of Baumgartnerk new dental lab (see photos on page 68). Image Doesn't Sell Refrigerators MSC's program is realistic, reinforcing preservation efforts with equal focus on economic development. Most project managers say this is (he hardest part of their Main Street program because it involves U

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working with many individuals and trying to restructure the way people do business. MSC wages this battle on two fronts: bolstering existing businesses while attracting new investment. Efforts to beef up commerce along Main Street are as varied and imaginative as Main Street campaigners themselves. Most Utah cities now bring people downtown for community celebrations-Peach Days, Cinco de Mayo, Christmas lights, summer parades, art fairs, firemen's breakfasts, or all of the above. In Brigham City,

tool. Alexander recently sent a letter to Midvale downtowners suggesting

that other of the town's new retailers were likewise attracted by Panguitch's nineteenth-century ambience. Walker says it more strongly: "People long for a hometown feeling." Outsiders and locals alike are drawn to Jim and Ann Jeppsen's Idle Isle Restaurant in Brigham City, where they enjoy friendly banter and lingering meals surrounded by sculptured wood, deep booths, an old-fashioned soda fountain and soft jukebox music. For the Jeppsens historic preservation is an economic resource.

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acooperativeadver- There are no shortcuts or easy tising effort. answers. Instead, things happen over Economic devela period of years. opment also entails wooing new businesses. In this effort, MidBingo! vale shines. Through the vision of two Even with every piece of artillery in place, developers and help from MSC andaredea vibrant Main Street doesn't happen velopment agency grant, the old Soter overnight. Instead, things happen over a apartment building, empty nearly 20 years, period of years. Because it happens so gradhas been turned into a high-tech office ually, Main Street may be a fully viable building for 30 professionals. Among other institution before many residents take newcomers to Midvale's historic district notice. But Alexander has been involved are an athletic club and a European-style with Midvale so many years he has a clear spa that caters to women. view of its progress. "I'm living in the house Panguitch's Sam Dunham has been I was born in. So I saw the city at its peak, running the Wildhorse Mercantile and saw it emptied, now I'm seeing it grow." Buffalo Java for four years. "When we It's hometown attitudes like his that moved in, three or four buildings were win wars. F empty On Main Street," Dunham Becky Bartholornew is a writer specializing in " T h i s year every single business o n historyandhistoricpreservation. Main Street is full." Dunham believes Utah has only begun For more information contact: U t a h M a i n to exploit its colorful heritage for tourist Sh.eet/Piozew Communities DCED, 3 2 4 s . State appeal. "It was Panguitch's historic qualSuite 500, Salt Lake City, UT 84111, (801) ities that brought me here," he says, adding 538-8638.


Preservation Perspective E

by Roger Roper

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grand parade marked the 50th anniversary of the Mormon pioneers' 1847 arrival in the Salt Lake Valley. Festivities in 1997, the sesquicentennial year, will also include a parade down Main Street. The same street. The same event. But a vastly changed streetscape . The handful of buildings that remain from 1897 are now towered over by highrises. Streetcar tracks and paving blocks have been replaced by asphalt, and the prohsion of utility poles has given way Chinese entry in to a forest of shade trees. Even the peothe Pioneer Semi-Centenple, dressed in their Sunday best on a Main nial Parade hot July day, bear little resemblance street and Third South, to today's casually attired parade-goers. salt Lake City. Some changes have been for the better. Some have not. Historic preservation is about saving important remnants of our past, namely buildings. Most other historical elements slip away quietly with the passing of years-fashions, technologies, and even people come and go. Buildings, with their foundations rooted in the soil, are seemingly more permanent, but as the photograph above illustrates, they are all too ephemeral as well. We marvel at the antiquities of Europe but often scoff at our own remnants of the past. Perhaps they are too familiar and too recent. But the past, even our past, is like an exotic foreign country, and we are like immigrant children, so busy and comfortable in our present that we forget our "old-world" heritage. Eventually we realize the importance of retaining connections with our past, though sometimes too late. Let's celebrate the Pioneer Sesquicentennial year by renewing our commitment to preserve Utah's architectural heritage. Historic buildings anchor our perception of who we are and what we have accomplished, and they can continue to be a vital part of our communities for generations to come.

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4iek d ~A ot w ... TO GET A GRRHT r TO LICENSE THE LOGO TO GB OFFICIAL RECOGNITION fOR YOUR EVENT OR PROJECT r TO YOLUHTEfR rz TO GET YOUR EVENT ON THE MASTER CALENURR IN 1997 UTAH UIll CELf%RATE THE 150 YEAR ANNIVERSRRY OF ITS PIONEER SETTLEIIIENT. LET IHVOLVEOI CRll OA UIRITE...

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The Utah P~oneerSesqu~centenn~al Celebrat~onCoord~nat~ng Counc~l 300 RIOGrande Salt Lake City, Utah 84101-1182


Membership in the Utah State Historical Society is open to everyone. We invite you to join.

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f you are already a member you may use this form or even a piece of plain paper

to purchase gift memberships. One of .ur

Utah State Historical Society, 1897-1997

It's Our 100th Birthdav!

goals in this Centennial year is to double our membersh~p.We need your help.

Membership Secretary Utah State Historical Society 300 Rio Grande Salt Lake City, Utah 84101

Please enter my one-year membership in the category checked. I understand that

I will receive Utah Historical Quarterly, the Newsletter, and Beehive History. I have enclosed a check or money order in the amount indicated. (Or call 533-3525 to charge your membership and gift memberships to your Visa or Mastercard.)

nd are we going to celebrate. We invite you to join us. Literally, we hope you will become a member of the Utah State Historical Society this year and stick around for what is certain to be an exciting second century devoted to collecting, preserving, and sharing all of Utah's history and prehistory. We also invite you to participate in as many of our Centennial activities as you can - especially in July. There will be a variety of entertaining activities for people of all ages and interests.

T h e Utah Historical Society was founded by a group of prominent citizens on July 22, 1897, as part of the Pioneer Semi-centennial celebrating 50 years since the arrival of t h e pioneer settlers in t h e Salt Lake Valley in 1847. Our founders were men and women ofvision who saw the importance of preserving not just a record of the 1847 pioneers but of the Native peoples who were already here and of those who would come here later from all parts of the world.

The Society is housed in the historic Denver & Rio Grande Depot at 300 Rio Grande Street (450 West). Shipler Studios took this photograph of the depot on October 28,1910. It is one of over 500,000 historic photographs in our collections. People from all over the country have made use of these images from the past. The photo archives are just one part of our new History Information

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Center with its full library of historic materials. The fascinating exhibit "Utah at the Crossroads" occupies the grand lobby. It and the Book &Gift Shop are great places to browse.

Address City State

Zip

O Individual, $20

O Senior (65+), $1 5 O Student, $15

Ll Institution, $20 Ll Centennial, $100

U Business, $100

O Contributing, $25 O Sustaining, $35 O Patron, $50

O Sponsor, $250 O Benefactor, $350 U Life, $500


Utah's Lost Architecture --

Salt Lake Theatre Was Home for Music and Drama Located on the northwest corner of State Street West. As such, it was often depicted as an example of nineteenth century architecture in national publications, one ofwhich was Talbot Hamlin's 1944 Greek RevivulArchitectzkre in Americu. Dedicated March 6, 1862, the theatre was resplendent

the norm was a simpler vernacular, or "remembered," architecture of the East. The interior featured an elaborate fourdress circle horseshoe auditorium. The two-story, hip and monitor roofed structure, which was built by local citizenry under the direction of Elias Morris, established Salt Lake City as a center for music and drama.

grandeur and entertainment, it was demolished in 1928. It was relaced by a gas station then later, in 1939, by the Mountain States Telephone and Telegraph Company building. -Rodd L. Wheaton, Assistant Field Director, Cultural Resources and Partnerships, Intermountain FieldArea. National Park Services, Denver, Colorado

ABOVE: Scaffolding still surrounds the theater as it nears completion. FAR L E F T : Telaborate ~~ interior with its tiered balconies.

LEFT:Theater-goers enjoy a production on the newly refurbished stage. c. 1885

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PHOTOS C O U R T E S Y O F UTAH STATE HISTORICAL --

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Visitors Welcome National Historic Site

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249 South 400 East Salt Lake City, Utah 84111

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Profile for Utah State History

Utah Preservation Magazine - Building on the Past Volume 1, 1997