Utah Historical Quarterly, Volume 38, Number 4, 1970

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UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY

BOARD O F STATE H I S T O R Y Division of Department of Development Services MILTON c. ABRAMS, Smithfield, 1973

President DELLO G. DAYTON, Ogden, 1971

Vice President CHARLES s. PETERSON, Salt Lake City Secretary DEAN R. BRIM HALL, F r u i t a , 1 9 7 3 MRS. JUANITA BROOKS, St. George, 1973

JACK GOODMAN, Salt Lake City, 1973 MRS. A. c. JENSEN, Sandy, 1971 THERON L U K E , PrOVO, 1 9 7 1

CLYDE L. MILLER, Secretary of State

Ex officio HOWARD c. PRICE, J R . , Price, 1971 MRS. ELIZABETH SKANGHY, M i d v a l e , 1 9 7 3

MRS. NAOMI WOOLLEY, Salt Lake City, 1971

ADVISORY BOARD O F E D I T O R S THOMAS G. ALEXANDER, PrOVO S. GEORGE ELLSWORTH, L o g a n

MRS. HELEN z. PAPANIKOLAS, Salt Lake City LAMAR PETERSEN, Salt Lake City

MRS. PEARL JACOBSON, Richfield

HAROLD SCHINDLER, Salt Lake City

DAVID E. MILLER, Salt Lake City

JEROME STOFFEL, Logan

ADMINISTRATION CHARLES s. PETERSON, Director J O H N JAMES, J R . , Librarian

The Utah State Historical Society is an organization devoted to the collection, preservation, and publication of Utah and related history. It was organized by publicspirited Utahns in 1897 for this purpose. In fulfillment of its objectives, the Society publishes the Utah Historical Quarterly, which is distributed to its members with payment of a $5.00 annual membership fee. The Society also maintains a specialized research library of books, pamphlets, photographs, periodicals, microfilms, newspapers, maps, and manuscripts. Many of these items have come to the library as gifts. Donations are encouraged, for only through such means can the Utah State Historical Society live up to its responsibility of preserving the record of Utah's past.

MARGERY w. WARD, Associate Editor IRIS SCOTT, Business Manager

The primary purpose of the Quarterly is the publication of manuscripts, photographs, and documents which relate or give a new interpretation to Utah's unique story. Contributions of writers are solicited for the consideration of the editor. However, the editor assumes no responsibility for the return of manscripts unaccompanied by return postage. Manuscripts and material for publications should be sent to the editor. The Utah State Historical Society does not assume responsibility for statements of fact or opinions expressed by contributors. The Utah Historical Quarterly is entered as second-class postage, paid at Salt Lake City, Utah. Copyright 1970, Utah State Historical Society, 603 East South Temple Street, Salt Lake City, Utah 84102.


UIITAML HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

FALL 1970 / VOLUME 38 / NUMBER 4

Contents SIR RICHARD F. BURTON: EXCEPTIONAL OBSERVER OF THE MORMON SCENE BY FAWN M. BRODIE

295

OVERLAND TO CALIFORNIA IN 1850: THE JOURNAL OF CALVIN TAYLOR EDITED BY BURTON J . WILLIAMS

312

THE PRESIDENT'S REPORT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR 1969-1970 BY MILTON c . A B R A M S

-

REVIEWS AND PUBLICATIONS

INDEX

361

-—

EDITOR ASSOCIATE EDITOR

350

372

CHARLES S. PETERSON Margery W. W a r d

THE COVER An artist's concept of a wagon train fording a river along the Mormon Trail.


Books Reviewed

H I R S H S O N , S T A N L E Y P., The Lord: A Biography of Brigham

Lion of Young,

the

BY DALE L. MORGAN

361

T A G G A R T , S T E P H E N G., Mormonism's Policy: Social and Historical Origins,

Negro

362

BY DENNIS L. LYTHGOE

J A C O B S , W I L B U R R., The Historical Frederick Jackson Turner, With From His Correspondence,

World of Selections

363

BY PAUL W. GATES

P O R T E R , E L I O T , and D O N D. F O W L E R , Down The Colorado: John Wesley Powell Diary of the First Trip Through The Grand Canyon, 1869,

364

BY W. L. RUSHO

E M E N H I S E R , J E D O N , ed., The Dragon on the Hill: Utah's 38th Legislature: Analysis and Comment, BY O. N. M A L M Q U I S T

365

W A T E R S , F R A N K , Pumpkin BY LOUISE L. U D A L L

S M I T H , GIBBS M., Joe BY JEROME BERNSTEIN

Seed

Point, 366

Hill, 367


Sir Richard F. Burton: Exceptional Observer

Of The Mormon Scene

BY F A W N M . BRODIE

A

FTER ACCEPTING an invitation from the Provo branch of the U t a h State Historical Society to speak on Sir Richard F. Burton's City of the Saints, I realized belatedly t h a t this subject presented some difficulty. It would be an affront to an audience simply to repeat what I had already put into print, even if many in that audience had read neither my IntroMrs. Brodie, noted author, lecturer, and historian, is senior lecturer in history at the University of California, Los Angeles. This speech was presented to the U t a h Valley Chapter of the U t a h State Historical Society on January 19, 1970, and to the U t a h Westerners the following evening. T h e portrait of Sir Richard Burton is the work of Louis Desanges in 1861.


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duction to a new edition of The City of the Saints nor my biography of Burton, The Devil Drives. It would be an affront even if many in the audience had read both books and largely forgotten them, which is something that happens frequently, as authors learn to their sorrow. It is a humbling thing, too, for writers to take stock of how little they themselves retain of what others have written, even if the authors have spent years on excited research and more years in the painful anguish of writing. It is also very humbling to me as a teacher to try to reconstruct exactly what I remember of my own college classes or lectures. Of a sociology class at the University of Utah, for example, I remember nothing whatever, and of a class in statistics only my own frightened sense of incapacity. Of Professor E. E. Erickson's class in ethics, however, I do remember one thing; it is the only thing I remember, but it made an impact. Professor Erickson set before the class this problem: What would happen in our society if everyone suddenly began obeying all of the Ten Commandments? It may be that this is now a trite, old-fashioned game everyone in U t a h plays sooner or later, but most of us in my class were fresh off the farm with the smell of hayseed still clinging to us, and the question seemed supremely subversive. We went down the list of commandments; I remember that the fifth — "Honor Thy Father and Thy Mother" — was especially worrisome, even though this was long before the days of chatter about the generation gap, long before the appearance of routine articles in the Ladies Home Journal and Readers Digest written by social psychologists who insist that rebellion against one's parents is a normal and essential step in gaining emotional maturity. Professor Erickson, in talking about abandoning the honoring of one's father and mother, put several blunt questions to us. " H a d this commandment been strictly obeyed in America in the past," he asked, "Would there have been an American Revolution? Would there have been a Mormon church?" But it was his discussion of the last commandment, "Thou shalt not covet . . . anything that is thy neighbor's," that proved to be the most Mephistophelian. Dr. Erickson described in ominous detail what would happen if everyone ceased sinning in this respect — the end of advertising, the decay of competitive society, the breakdown of our economy, panic, famine — all this to students already suffering the depths of the Depression. T h e game was exciting for innocents such as we were; I cannot believe anyone comes to college with that kind of innocence today.


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I was reminded of Dr. Erickson when preparing to write again about Burton, for both men delighted in throwing out disturbing questions before very innocent Victorian people, especially wide-eyed young girls. Nothing was sacred to Burton. In his wanderings on every continent he was driven by a voracious and most un-Victorian curiosity. He had an eye and an ear that were detached from any kind of moral judgment. As I wrote in The Devil Drives, Burton "dwelt fascinated upon all things accounted devilish in his own time." "Good men," he wrote, "are mostly colorless and unpicturesque. So Satan is the true hero of Paradise Lost and by his side God and man are very ordinary; and Mephistopheles is much better society than Faust and Fawn M. Brodie in her home Margaret." 1 As Burton approached in Palisades, California, in 1966. Great Salt Lake Valley in the lumbering stagecoach in 1859, he was delighted to pass successively "the Devil's Backbone," "The Devil's Gate," "the Devil's Postoffice," and "the Devil's Hole." The devil, he concluded, was architect of some of the finest scenery in the West.2 And of course Burton was on his way to visit Brigham Young, accounted by many indignant Puritan Americans to be, if not the anti-Christ, at least the arch-seducer of the century. Many Victorians in England denounced Burton's own life as immoral, as well as his writings. But he was not so much immoral as amoral. This is not to say that he looked at everything without moral judgment, or that he was incapable of indignation. Burton could be ferociously indignant, especially at practices which denied the life force. He wrote eloquently against the slave trade, and looked with particular horror at the practice of castrating young blacks to fill the demands for 1 A Plain and Literal Translation of the Arabian Nights' Entertainment, 1885, I X , 135n, cited in Fawn M. Brodie, The Devil Drives (New York, 1967), 15. " R i c h a r d F. Burton, The City of the Saints . . . (New York, 1862), 147.


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eunuchs in the harems of the Middle East, a practice which was still commonplace in the Sudan as late as the 1870's. T h e annual New Year's ritual murders in Dahomey, where over a hundred captives from neighboring tribes were slaughtered as messengers to take private communications to the dead king's ancestors, also filled him with horror, but so did the public hanging in London of children and young mothers convicted of theft. Cannibalism among the F a n tribe in Africa he discovered was not casual animal savagery, as many thought, but a religious ceremony carried out only by men of the tribe, a ritual as carefully ordered as some of the ceremonies of the C h u r c h of England. And he pointed out that ritual murder and the eating of a portion of the body of the victim — or sacred youth, or young god — in order to obtain the magic powers of the god, was common in the origins of many religions. W h a t is now considered a commonplace idea among anthropologists, social historians, and students of comparative religion, was in Burton's day considered almost too shocking for publication. M u c h of this kind of speculation was edited out of his manuscripts by indignant editors as "garbage." Burton was a true m a n of the Renaissance. H e took all knowledge to be his province. H e was soldier, explorer, ethnologist, archaeologist, poet, translator, one of the two or three great linguists of his time, also an amateur physician, botanist, zoologist, and geologist. "Discovery is mostly my mania," he wrote. 3 And though he risked death to explore the forbidden city of Mecca and to find Lake Tanganyika in his search for the sources of the great Nile, his real passion was not for geographical discovery but for the hidden in man, for the unknowable, and inevitably the unthinkable. I n his last years he took it upon himself to bring to the West the sexual wisdom of the East, where acceptance of the naturalness of the art of love came close to religious exaltation; here he anticipated many of the insights of Havelock Ellis and Sigmund Freud. I n these respects he was eminently a m a n not of the Renaissance but of our own century. H e was above all interested in sexual customs and in the rituals of childbirth, puberty, courtship, marriage, and finally death itself. T h e intimate relationship of all these to religion fascinated him. H e was not interested in the study of sexual aberration as such, but he noted it and described it where he found it, without labeling it immodest, prurient, or unclean. Instead he asked of himself: did it or did it not cons Foreword to Burton's translation of the Carmina of Gaius Valerius in Brodie, The Devil Drives, 16.

Catullus,

1894, cited


Sir Richard F. Burton

299

tribute to a m a n or woman's capacity for love. Insofar as he judged at all — and he judged seldom — this was his test. Burton was a collector of Holy Cities. H e had been to Mecca and H a r a r ; Salt Lake City was third upon his list. But it was chiefly Mormon polygamy that attracted him, not the new religion, nor the great colonizing experiment, nor the theocracy within a democracy. Burton arrived in the United States on the threshold of the Civil War, and he spent three months touring the East and South before coming to M o r m o n territory. H e remained in Salt Lake City only three weeks, and then went on to the brash and burgeoning cities of the Pacific area, Carson City and San Francisco. Still his six hundred-page book concerned only the Indians and the Mormons. I t was clearly the primitivism of the Indians and the sexual eccentricity of the Mormons that excited him above everything else on the American continent. There are reasons for this special preoccupation of Burton's, but I have already written and published them. Here I should prefer to discuss why Burton was the best of all the nineteenth-century observers of the Mormon scene, and also to examine in a general way the difficulties facing anyone — historian, journalist, or biographer — writing about the Mormons, whether writing in Burton's time or today. I do think this society presents special complications. Were Burton writing The City of the Saints today he would find the assignment even tougher, and it goes without saying that he would very quickly abandon Salt Lake City for Short Creek, Arizona. 4 Burton was first of all a truly great scholar. Going to Mecca in disguise, as he did, meant accepting the risk of being killed or castrated, for the city was then, and still is, forbidden to all non-Moslems. But when he went he was already an Arab scholar of some distinction, and his descriptions of Mecca and Medina remain today unsurpassed for the exactness of their detail. Burton loved books; he read them voraciously, compiled bibliographies as other men compile business accounts, and became one of the most celebrated writers of footnotes in the history of British scholarship. So he brought to the M o r m o n scene a capacity to sink into a veritable morass of controversial literature and emerge from it with a clear understanding of what one might call M o r m o n ecology. Wallace Stegner has written that the literature on the Mormons is "enormous, repetitious, con4

Now Colorado City.


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tradictory, and embattled." 5 Burton would have rejoiced in the word "embattled." As a good journalist he naturally arranged an interview with Brigham Young; this was not difficult, for Burton was already so famous an explorer that the Deseret News gave him an official welcome, and Alfred Cumming, governor of the territory, gave him a letter of introduction. But also, like every historian worth his salt, Burton went to the Church Historian's office and read. No doubt he read only that which was considered appropriate to give him; but one must say in all fairness that if he was denied anything he wanted to see, he does not say so. Moreover, when Burton returned to London he went to the Mormon headquarters there and added to his already impressive accumulation of information. In The City of the Saints, he gives us a comprehensive annotated bibliography, even telling us the books he has not read. The latter were very few. Burton in Salt Lake City learned almost at once that "there are three distinct opinions concerning, three separate reasons for, and three diametrically different accounts of, everything that happens; viz., that of the Mormons, which is invariably one-sided; that of the Gentiles, which is sometimes fair and just; and that of the anti-Mormons, wrhich is always prejudiced and violent." 6 Since Burton was not a historian, he was not faced with the almost insuperable task of reconciling or choosing among the three versions on almost every detail of Mormon history. For the "three versions phenomenon" has continued down through the years. One sees it in Kimball Young's sociological analysis of polygamy: he begins with the anti-Mormon version, goes on to the orthodox Mormon version, and finishes with the Gentile version. Every historian today who chooses to write about Mormons of the past may well get the feeling that he is entering a labyrinth in which the ultimate exit is truth, but every time he rounds a corner there are arrows pointing in three different directions. Actually this is an exaggeration of the problem; there is a more exact metaphor. What the historian of Mormonism faces is not a labyrinth but several thousand or several hundred thousand small pieces of history — pieces of mosaic he has himself selected out of the documents. None of these pieces is his own creation, for the historian and biographer do not 5 Wallace Stegner, The Gathering 1964), 313. n Burton, City of the Saints, 197.

of Zion:

The Story of the Mormon

Trail

(New York,


Sir Richard F. Burton

301

invent history. "The biographer," as Desmond MacCarthy has written, "is an artist who is on oath." 7 And the oath is important. But the biographer and historian soon learn that many of their mosaic fragments are inherently contradictory, so that if they put one group together a certain picture emerges, and if they put another group together a quite different picture is created. Yet it is important to remember that in Mormon history, if one assembles everything known about a single episode, a picture can emerge which one can be reasonably certain approaches the truth. The fragments may well fit together neatly, jigsaw fashion, so that no other picture is possible. If that happens, one can be fairly certain that the ultimate design of the mosaic — the final portrait, if one is describing a person — is not mostly one's own creation but truly an approximation of the real past. Of course, even at best there are pieces left over that don't fit anywhere, and sometimes one inadvertently mislabels a fragment. Burton didn't have this problem. He was not creating a historical mosaic, a piece of history, or a biography; he simply accumulated a marvelous collection of fragments and put them into his book in a more or less coherent fashion, to the delight of future historians. Moreover, Burton was not subject, as everyone is today who writes about Mormon history, or for that matter sectarian history of any kind, to the criticism of those who condemn the mosaic not only because they don't like the portrait but also because they discover that a few of the fragments are mislabeled or out of place. This kind of criticism is what Dale Morgan calls "the copyreader's approach to history." It is the approach generally of people who have never written history and who do not know the multitudinous difficulties of selection, and the multitudinous opportunities for small errors. The copyreader in a publishing house does not evaluate a book on its general merits or demerits, like the editors; his job is to scrutinize the manuscript with meticulous care for small errors. A good copyreader is invaluable; he saves both author and publisher a great deal of money, catching mistakes which would otherwise have to be corrected in proof or in subsequent printings. He never gets them all. But the reader with the copyreader's approach to history goes one step further; he collects the small errors and uses the collection to condemn the whole. Instead of evaluating the historical mosaic in general terms, whether clinically or 7

England

As quoted in Richard D. Altick, Lives and Letters, and America (New York, 1965), 301.

a History

of Literary

Biography

in


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philosophically, emotionally or unemotionally, rationally or irrationally, he concentrates on the picayune, and forges it into a weapon of attack. Burton was spared this kind of attack, despite the fact that his book contained many small errors, because he was a celebrated foreigner, and because he wrote about the Saints with more compassion and understanding than any other celebrated visitor of his time. His book was greeted with relief and pleasure by most of his Mormon audience, whether in his own time or in recent times. This brings me to a second useful requirement for a writer on Mormon history, that he be a foreigner. There are, of course, obvious disadvantages: the foreigner may miss important nuances, or simply not have the enthusiasm for detail that someone has who grows up on the scene. He may never properly understand the emotional satisfactions of being "in the brotherhood," which explain so much of the success of the Mormon movement. But the foreigner has one great advantage over what one might call the dissenting Mormon historian, whether JackMormon, or, to use the old-fashioned and cruder word, "apostate." The foreigner does not have problems of anxiety, guilt, and fear. I would suspect that good historians like Dale Morgan, Juanita Brooks, Ray West, Harold Schindler and Klaus Hansen have all suffered in varying degrees from these problems while they were writing Mormon history, as I am frank to admit I have myself. Kimball Young, himself a notable dissenter, is of the opinion that these anxieties often make the apostate distort Mormon history by making it out to be worse than it was.8 I think it is also true that such anxieties also tend in the other direction, to make the dissenting historian protective. This is true of many southern-white historians who write about slavery. They write with the knowledge that the home town folks, or the home town faculty, are looking over their shoulder. Some of the resulting distortion, protection, and omission is unconscious; some is deliberate. But the distortion and omission are there, as anyone can see who reads what the northern-born historian or the black historian has written about the same period or the same problem. Wallace Stegner and Bernard DeVoto are examples of historians of Mormonism who grew up in the scene but were not of it. This, I would imagine, is the perfect background; they did not have problems of anxiety and guilt. But they did have the problem, which Burton did not, of perspective. It is not easy for anyone who grows up in the heart 8

Kimball Young, Isn't One Wife Enough?

(New York, 1954), 303.


Sir Richard F. Burton

303

of Mormonism to fit the society properly into the world scene. This takes a detachment of which very few are capable. Burton in many respects was the ideal foreigner. Since he was a great scholar, he was not repelled by a mass of contradictory literature but waded into it joyously, emerging with an organized as well as philosophical understanding of its nature and historical worth. Secondly, as a foreigner he brought to the scene an extraordinary knowledge of comparative culture. H e was unshockable; he had a supremely unembarrassed mind. Mormon polygamy never dismayed Burton, as it did practically all Americans of the time. H e ÂŤ^MHH^flHg: had lived among Moslem polygamists in India, and as an intelligence officer in the East Indian army had often gone in disguise as an A r a b merchant into the harems of K a r a chi. H e had also written of polygamous practices in East Africa, though when he came to Mormon territory he had not yet visited the Kingdom of Dahomey in West Africa, where the king, with his army of 2,500 Amazons, all technically wives, made Brigham Young look very respectable. Burton did not know how many wives Brigham Young then had, and he could not know that the Mormon prophet would eventually accumulate at least seventy. Seventy, at any rate, is the figure in the latest biography of Brigham Young, The Lion of the Lord, by Professor Stanley Hirshson. 9 If Burton had had access to the late Stanley S. Ivins's remarkable files now in the U t a h State Historical Society, as Hirshson did, I have no doubt he would have been even more Daguerrotype of Brigham Young in 1855.

9 Stanley P. Hirshson, The Lion of the Lord, A Biography of Brigham Young (New York, 1969), 190.


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impressed with Brigham Young than he was. In any case Burton looked at the American version of polygamy clinically, almost like a doctor who has seen an unusual symptom before, only somewhat different, and who examines the difference with scientific fascination and clinical understanding. Burton looked at polygamy with the detachment of a modern anthropologist. In his day the science of anthropology was in its infancy, and he contributed much to its early development in England. If one reads Kimball Young on Mormon polygamy after reading Burton, one cannot fail to be impressed with the degree to which Young's case histories and statistics bear out the truth of Burton's larger generalizations. Over and again the sociologist proves Burton to have been right. Burton himself was modest about his generalizations; he admitted candidly that any woman could learn in one hour more about polygamy in either Salt Lake City or in Islam than a man could learn in a year. Certainly Burton's knowledge of other exotic cultures greatly enriched his book, The City of the Saints, which is peppered with crosscultural allusions. In Utah Valley he looked with special admiration at Mount Nebo, which reminded him, he wrote, of a line in the Koran: it was like "one of the pins which fastened down the plains of earth." When going through Sioux Indian territory he learned that the Sioux warrior would sometimes cut off the nose of his wife to punish her for adultery. This he noted in his journal, adding that he had seen the same practice also among the Hindus. In describing polygamy among the American Indians, he observed that some preferred to marry sisters, saying that "the tent is more quiet." 10 Later he discovered that marrying sisters was commonplace, too, in Salt Lake City. Kimball Young found that among the polygamists he studied those who married sisters numbered nineteen per cent.11 Burton described Mormon polygamy as essentially Puritanical compared with that in the Near East, where there was a totally different attitude toward the body as an object of pleasure. Nevertheless he felt that polygamy softened and feminized the American female — that it turned the stiff New England spinster like Sarah Pratt into, if not a warm and loving wife, at least a tender mother and helpful companion to four other wives and twenty-five children. Wallace Stegner, many years later, in writing his The Gathering of Zion, would describe this phenomenon somewhat differently, but would still make the point that so impressed 10 11

Burton, City of the Saints, 116, 333. Young, Isn't One Wife Enough? 111.


Sir Richard F. Burton

305

Burton. "A man's duty in Salt Lake City," Stegner would write, "every day, was to ask, 'Lord, what is Thy will?' A woman's was to ask, 'Husband, what is thy will?' " 12 Like many men, yesterday and today, Burton believed that man is by nature polygamous. Kimball Young describes the modern marriage system with its inordinately high divorce rate as "tandem polygamy." 13 Neither Burton nor Kimball Young felt any necessity for explaining its popularity among Mormon men. Burton was fascinated, however, to discover that there were women in Deseret who stoutly defended polygamy, and after pursuing the matter with some care, he decided to reproduce in his volume the strong defense of polygamy written by Mrs. Sarah Pratt. He went on to suggest delicately that polygamy attracted some women who wanted security and motherhood but who were happy to share their husband because they found the connubial duties of the marriage bed distasteful. Kimball Young describes several such women in detail. For all his detachment about the polygamous system, Burton did make clear that he believed love between a man and one wife was best. "The tender tie," he wrote, "must be confined to two." Once a third person is introduced, the concentration is shifted away from love to "household comfort, affection, circumspect friendship, and domestic discipline." The result of this shift, he said, was an atmosphere in Salt Lake City which he described as "Moslem gloom." 14 Burton missed one explanation for the success of Mormon polygamy because he was essentially non-political. He had no interest in politics or political systems, and was uninterested in the phenomenon of Mormonism as a theocracy. The authoritarian structure of the church has fascinated many observers since Burton. Wallace Stegner points out that the Pioneer Day celebrations in Utah celebrate not the free individual but "the obedient group." 15 In Burton's day many non-Mormon observers were appalled at the total fusion of church and state in Deseret, which was so alien to the traditions of the republic, and they could not understand why ostensibly free men permitted Brigham Young to dictate where they should settle, how they should vote, and often even whom they should marry, without violent protest. 12

Stegner, Gathering of Zion, 170. " Y o u n g , Isn't One Wife Enough? 445. " B u r t o n , City of the Saints, 418, 431. 15 Stegner, Gathering of Zion, 4.


Brigham Young surrounded by some of his wives. From left to right, top to bottom: Emmeline Free, Mary Ann Angell, Mary Van Cott, Augusta Adams, Martha Bowker, Miriam Works, Eliza Burgess, Naamah Kendall Jenkins Carter, Clara Chase Ross, Lucy Decker, Zina Diantha Huntington, Margaret Pierce, Clara Decker, Harriet Cook Campbell, Lucy Bigelow, Harriet Barney, Emily Dow Partridge, Susan Snively, Ann Eliza Webb, Harriet Amelia Folsom, and Eliza Roxey Snow.


Sir Richard F. Burton

307

Burton was not in any sense an ardent believer in democracy, and he did not share the feeling of many Americans that the Mormons were really enslaved by their theocracy. H e might otherwise have pointed out (as Kimball Young has hinted) that one of the reasons the Mormon male was so obedient to the church hierarchy was the fact that he was permitted quite remarkable sexual freedom. No Mormon man needed to remain tyrannized by a single wife; he could, and in fact did, exercise extraordinary power over his several wives and children. Such freedom and such power doubtless made denial of other basic freedoms bearable. T h e same circumstance was true also in some degree with American Negro slavery. Here complete sexual license was an important factor in making slavery tolerable. Sociologists have long recognized that without it there would have been far more slave insurrections than did in fact occur. Burton brought to the Great Basin phenomenon not only a knowledge of comparative cultures, intellectual sophistication and detachment, but also a marvelously ironic sense of humor. This is not an absolute essential for a good writer on Mormon history, but it is an asset in which we should all rejoice. It serves to temper what might otherwise surface as indignation, and to mellow what might otherwise be unbearable self-righteousness. Bernard DeVoto brought to Mormon history a sardonic humor, cutting, sometimes malicious, often very funny. Wallace Stegner's irony, in both his Mormon Country and his Gathering of Zion, is more compassionate and gentle, but it lightens every chapter. Kimball Young's sober, sociological analysis of Mormon polygamy has many comic moments; the title, Isn't One Wife Enough, is the only unfortunate one of them all, for it suggests a kind of polygamy joke book. Irving Wallace in The Twenty-Seventh Wife, exploits both the comic and the prurient in the polygamous life of Brigham Young; and while his book is on the whole accurate history, he gives us very little social analysis or original portraiture, except for Ann Eliza Young, whose portrait is, I think, exceedingly well drawn. Hirshson's new biography of Brigham Young unfortunately lacks humor altogether. Moreover the book is pervaded with an ill-disguised hostility, and at this late date why should anyone be hostile to Brigham Young? Burton's humor is easy to miss, buried as it is among his compulsive accumulations of data. Most Mormons are familiar with Mark Twain's irreverent description of the Book of Mormon, "chloroform in print."


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But few know Burton's description, admittedly somewhat heavier. "The Book of Mormon," Burton wrote, "emulates the sprightliness of Leviticus." 16 Burton delighted in collecting exaggerated metaphors. He tells us the Saints described the Mormon cricket as "a cross between the spider and a buffalo." And he was happy to report Heber C. Kimball's affectionate phrase to describe his forty-odd wives, "little heifers." 17 He reported with gusto the western names for whiskey — Valley Tan, Jersey Lightening, strychnine, and tarantula juice. Though he spent some time with Porter Rockwell, former bodyguard to Joseph Smith, he failed to get his affectionate name for whiskey. Stegner found it and printed it; Rockwell called whiskey "leopard sweat." There were two more characteristics which made Burton an observer of special quality. He was not a professed athiest, but he did not believe that God interfered directly in the lives of men on earth. He called the soul "a convenient word denoting the sense of personality, or identity." Conscience for him was "a geographical and chronological accident." And he defined the supernatural as "the natural misunderstood, or improperly misunderstood." "No man," he wrote, "positively, absolutely, no man — neither deity nor devil — angel nor spirit — ghost nor goblin — has ever wandered beyond the narrow limits of this world — has ever brought us a single idea or notion which belongs to another and different world." 18 I believe it to be essential that all historians and biographers share to some degree this special kind of detachment about religion that Burton had. Sir Harold Nicholson, British diarist, essayist, and critic, put it this way in his book, The Development of British Biography: "Religious earnestness is . . . fatal to pure biography. . . . A deep belief in a personal deity destroys all deep belief in the unconquerable personality of man." 19 The good historian does not go to the other extreme, believing naively that man is truly "the captain of his fate and the master of his soul." But he must believe that everything a man does can be explained by genetic endowment, by the influence of his parents, his schooling, his whole life environment, including chance. If he believes in any kind of specific, individual divine interference in the life of the man or woman about whom he is writing, the result is not history or biography but hagiogralfi

Burton, City of the Saints, 258. Ibid., 284, 263. 18 Quoted in Brodie, The Devil Drives, 278, 314-15. " H a r o l d Nicholson, The Development of British Biography

17

(New York, 1928), 110.


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phy. T h e hagiographer, he who writes the lives of the saints, he who writes with religious earnestness, serves a useful purpose to his sect, but is seldom believed outside the sect. A Moslem or Protestant cannot accept a life of Saint Catherine written by a devout Catholic, nor can a devout Christian accept as fact a life of Mohammed written by one of Allah's faithful. No one but a Christian Scientist takes seriously as divine miracles the healings of Mary Baker Eddy. And few Latter-day Saints are surprised that non-Mormon historians question the divinity of the Book of Mormon. For once one accepts specific divine intervention as fact, one joins the ranks of the true believer. T h e n one has the excruciatingly difficult task of describing and defining as an historian exactly when the divine intervention began and when it stopped. One can easily imagine the difficulties facing devout Catholic historians this year, when the pope dropped two hundred names from the approved saints list. They will face more problems as scientific tests such as Carbon 14 are increasingly applied to famous relics. T h e pope only a few months ago admitted that such tests have shown that the famous chair of Saint Peter in Rome is not as old as had been thought. Latterday Saint historians have had a similar problem in recent years with the Book of Abraham. Joseph Smith admitted at one time, "A prophet is a prophet only when he is acting as such." 20 T h e devout historian who sets about defining exactly which episodes in a particular life were stimulated by divine intervention, and which were not, encounters difficulties that the non-devout historian would find absolutely insuperable. Certainly the latter has the simpler task. The fundamental difference between the agnostic historian and the devout historian is one of intent. T h e devout historian would enshrine the dead; the agnostic would enlighten the living. T h e devout historian feels an obligation to omit that which is damaging; he has an overpowering emotional commitment to protect the dead. T h e agnostic historian cannot omit that which is damaging lest by failing to tell the whole truth he misleads the living. This is one reason why devout and non-devout historians have so much difficulty agreeing on what constitutes a fact. Finally, one must note a special talent Burton had, which is also an obvious requirement for everyone who writes about people. This was his perception of character. Burton had a remarkable capacity for getting at 20 B. H. Roberts, ed., History of the Church (7 vols., Salt Lake City, 1902-1932), V, 265.

of Jesus Christ of Latter-day

Saints . . .


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the core of a man either in a single interview or by sifting through a mass of documents. Here again one must emphasize that he was a man of the twentieth rather than the nineteenth century. No Victorian was less sentimental, more clinical, more intent on discovering the hidden in man. When Burton came to Mormon country, he was not yet forty, but his capacity in this respect was already formidable. One can best illustrate this by quoting what Burton wrote — and one must regret that he did not write more — about both Joseph Smith and Brigham Young. Jules Remy, a French naturalist who visited Salt Lake City shortly before Burton, and like him wrote a book on the subject, dismissed Joseph Smith, as most men did at the time, as "a mere speculator and impostor." 21 Burton took a more subtle and compassionate approach. Having himself played imposter many times, Burton knew the pleasures of disguise and pretense. But he always stepped facilely into and out of his disguises; there was purpose and control, as with an actor. Burton felt that mere imposture alone could not explain the phenomenon of Joseph Smith. He described him instead as "a man of rude genius, of high courage, of invincible perseverance, fired by zeal, of real tact, of religious fervor, of extraordinary firmness, and of remarkable talent in governing men." 22 Bernard DeVoto was inclined to dismiss Joseph Smith as paranoid and delusional. Kimball Young suggests that he was a parapath, a man who has great difficulty distinguishing between fact and fancy. Burton's view was close to that of Wallace Stegner, who wrote of Joseph Smith: "This was a mighty imagination, a man with an extraordinary capacity to move men." 23 Burton's judgment of Brigham Young was based on two or three interviews, and on hearing him speak at a conference, where among other things he noted his supreme gift of mimicry. It was based also on wide reading, as well as on a first-hand look at the heart of the Mormon empire. "The first impression left upon my mind," Burton wrote of his initial interview, "was that the Prophet is no common man, and that he has none of the weakness and vanity which characterise the common uncommon man." He was impressed by the absence in Brigham Young of bigotry, dogmatism, and fanaticism, by his cold, "somewhat blood21 Jules Remy, A Journal to Great-Salt-Lake City (2 vols., London, 1861). Burton quotes from the French edition in City of the Saints, 204n. 22 Burton, City of the Saints, 406. 23 See Bernard DeVoto, The Year of Decision, 1846 (Boston, 1943), 282; Young, Isn't One Wife Enough? 8 2 ; Stegner, Gathering of Zion, 312.


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less" manner, by his sense of power. "There is," Burton wrote, "a total absence of pretension in his manner, and he has been so long used to power that he cares nothing for its display. The arts by which he rules the heterogeneous mass of conflicting elements are indomitable will, profound secresy, and uncommon astuteness." 24 DeVoto in his Year of Decision, 1846 wrote of Brigham Young that he had "the genius of leadership, of foresight, of command, of administration, of effective will." He called him "a great leader, a great diplomat, a great administrator, and at need a great liar and a great scoundrel." And he concluded by describing him as "one of the finders and one of the makers of the West." 25 Stanley Hirshson in The Lion of the Lord has dredged up much new material, but most of it is dedicated toward documenting "the liar and the scoundrel." His Brigham Young is a "cold and calculating" leader "playing" at the "game" of salvation. He writes that Brigham Young was "bloodthirsty and benevolent, dictatorial and generous, lustful and devout," that he abandoned the "spiritualism" of Joseph Smith's church and replaced it with "iron rule, priestly bondage and materialism." 26 We never see the charismatic leader Burton saw, nor understand the successful creation of the prodigious Mormon empire. Hirshson's study serves only to underline again the rarity of Burton's approach, his combination of intellectual and cultural sophistication, plus his ability to judge character clinically and also compassionately, all of this without feeling the necessity of making any kind of moral repudiation of either the leader or his polygamous society. This is a rare combination, and it is one of the reasons historians of our own day still return to Burton with pleasure, profit, and admiration.

24

Burton, City of the Saints, 239-40, 245. DeVoto, Year of Decision, 454. 26 Hirshson, Lion of the Lord, 222, 297, 326.

25


William Henry Jackson painting of the area near Chimney The Jackson paintings used in this article are owned by the Utah State Historical Society.

Rock,

Nebraska.

Overland to California in 1850: The Journal of Calvin Taylor E D I T E D BY B U R T O N J . W I L L I A M S

X

details the overland crossing of Calvin Taylor and Charles Wesley Taylor, his nephew. I n 1850 they left their native city of Cincinnati and joined the tens of thousands who headed westward to HIS

JOURNAL

Dr. Williams is chairman of the D e p a r t m e n t of History at Central Washington State College, Ellensburg.


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California in search of gold. T h a t part of their journey extending from Cincinnati to Fort Laramie was chronicled by the editor in the Summer 1969, Nebraska History. T h e remaining portion appears here. T h e r e are several reasons for dividing the journal into two parts. In the first place the portion of the journal published here is more likely to appeal to the regional interests of those subscribing to the Utah Historical Quarterly. And secondly, the length of the transcribed journal precluded publication in one installment. T h e history of the journal itself is not very clear. It is known, however, that even though Calvin Taylor wrote the journal it ended up in the possession of his nephew Charles Wesley Taylor. Neither Calvin or Charles had a college education which may seem surprising considering the excellent prose of the journal. This may simply be attributable to the fact that the "three R's" were more assiduously pursued in earlier courses of study. Calvin and Charles Taylor returned to Cincinnati and became lost to the historical record in the anonymity of a growing urban center. Virtually nothing is known of Calvin and only a little more about Charles. Apparently Charles dabbled in several business ventures with no great success. Included among his enterprising activities was his involvement in real estate activities. Unfortunately he sold property that was to become extremely valuable at a nominal cost, and bought property which did not prove profitable. But to return to the journal. It passed into the hands of one of Charles Taylor's sons, Walter Scott Taylor, and he in turn gave it to his son, the late John Colville Taylor. At this writing the journal is on permanent loan to the Cincinnati Historical Society. T h e editor is indebted to Mrs. John Colville Taylor for much of the foregoing information. Also I would like to express my debt to her late husband, John Colville Taylor. H e not only furnished his grandfather's journal, but also offered helpful suggestions. And so here the record of still one more overland migrant takes its place among so many others. And the historical picture of the nation's most epic migration comes more sharply into focus and the record stands more nearly complete. T h e Journal of Calvin Taylor July 3rd. — Started at the usual time this morning, the character of the country having undergone an entire change, the road passing through broad defiles and between bold rocky cliffs crossing the dry beds of creeks and deep ravines. T h e Black Hills still


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in front of us appearing more lofty and distinct as we near them. 1 At a distance of about ten miles we passed a bold gushing spring of water situated a few h u n d r e d yards from the right of the road. After having gone about one mile beyond, we ascertained t h a t we could not obtain water for some distance so we unhitched our cattle and drove t h e m back to drink besides filling our water vessels. T h e spring bursts with considerable force from the base of a hill making quite a rivulet in the hitherto dry bed of a creek. H a v i n g refreshed ourselves, we continued our journey and encamped in the evening in a pleasant valley near a small stream of water. Distance 15 miles. July 4th. — T h e day opened clear and pleasant. We started at the usual time, our course lay u p the valley of a small creek affording good running for a few miles, after which our course was over rocky ridges and through deep ravines full of sand and rocks which m a d e heavy pulling for the cattle. About noon, we stopped to rest as usual and this day being a day dear to all truehearted Americans, our thoughts ran back to the land of our homes where we were wont to celebrate this ever memorable day according to our wishes and feelings, a n d though unfavorably situated to celebrate the occasion in the m a n n e r we would like. After partaking of our rather scanty meal under the shade of a tall pine, we loaded our guns a n d pistols and p a r a d e d u p and down the road, with flying colors and martial music which consisted of a clarionet a n d a c a m p kettle which was used for a d r u m , playing the national airs of Hail Columbia and Yankee Doodle, strongly reminding one of the Militia Musters of by gone days. After firing a few rounds in honor of the day, we hitched u p our teams a n d continued on our journey, the road still rough and passing through the dry beds of creeks and occasionally through running water. I n the course of the afternoon, we came upon an elevated piece of ground from which we h a d a most splendid view. A few miles to the south of us arose the lofty peak of Laramie whose rugged sides partially clad with cedars and pines, their dark green foliage together with a deep blue haze of smoke which enshrouds the m o u n t a i n giving it a gloomy yet majestic appearance, while to the north lay in the distance the rolling hills bordering the Platte whose waters are not visible to us here, and upon all sides as far as the vision can extend is presented a most beautiful sight such as one as cannot be described but should be seen to be realized. After crossing a broad valley in which we found a good spring and fine clear creek of water, we encamped for the night. Traveled 20 miles today. July 5th. — Striking our tents we continued on our journey a n d leaving the valley we ascended the hills, the road being steep and stony m a d e difficult pulling for our jaded oxen, but we soon gained the summit from which we h a d one of the finest and most extensive views we have yet had. T h e lofty Laramie is still on our left and the long dark line of the Black Hills in the distant horizon. 2 Together with the rough and broken n a t u r e of the country around they make a place of great interest. O u r road led along a high ridge from which numerous hollows and ravines ran off in a direction generally north to the Platte. T o the south of us the country is m u c h broken and cut u p with deep ravines and broad valleys stretching away to the base of the Black Hills. 1 There are occasional early-day references to the bluffs near present-day Scottsbluff, Nebraska, and the mountains of the Laramie Range as being the "lower Black Hills." 2 Once again Taylor makes reference to the "Black Hills," not to be confused with the Black Hills of present-day South Dakota.


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I n a deep ravine we saw a cliff of red sandstone contrasting finely with the green hills around. T h e soil here is poor being sandy a n d dry, the grass short a n d crisped. T h e prickly p e a r a n d wild sage taking the place of almost everything else, the sage becoming larger a n d more a b u n d a n t the farther we go. W e have seen some beautiful wild flowers for several days past the names of which we d o not know. T o w a r d s evening we descended into a broad valley a n d e n c a m p e d u p o n the bank of a beautiful creek of clear r u n n i n g water. O n our way into c a m p , we were overtaken in a shower of rain accompanied with fine hail which however soon ceased a n d we pitched our tents for the night. Distance today 20 miles. July 6th. — Resumed our m a r c h as usual this morning. M e t the Kendalls in c a m p . 3 All well. T h e country through which we passed today was rough a n d broken. O u r road led over hills, across valleys a n d ravines a n d presenting a scene of singular a p p e a r ance. I m m e n s e hills and cliffs of red sandstone a n d rocks of various kinds mixed together in promiscuous heaps in the wildest confusion, the strata dipping in every possible direction, — from a horizontal to a perpendicular position, the soil presenting a sterile a p p e a r a n c e a n d the grass short a n d crisped. T h e only exception to this is the artemisia or wild sage which flourishes the more as the soil grows poor. Passed some springs this afternoon. E n c a m p e d before sundown in a fine grove of cottonwood trees near a small creek with tolerable good grass. Distance today 20 miles. July 7th. — T h e road today r a t h e r better, our course being u p o n high ground about midway between the Platte and the base of the Black Hills to the south of us. T h e country is quite sterile, dry and sandy but a b o u n d i n g in wild sage, prickly p e a r a n d cactus, together with a few stunted bushes etc. Saw some wild oats 3 or 4 feet high which makes excellent feed for the cattle. M e t the Kendalls w h o h a d killed a fine large buffalo. Some of our m e n went in search of it and did not return until about 10 o'clock at night bringing into c a m p with t h e m three or four h u n d r e d pounds of the m e a t of which we m a d e our suppers, a n d being the first t h a t the most of us h a d ever tasted it proved a rich treat, as we h a d not eaten any fresh m e a n t since starting on our journey. Pursued our way u p the river bottom until we came to the junction of Deer Creek with the Platte. Crossed the creek which is a beautiful stream of clear water a n d proceeding u p the bottom about two miles, e n c a m p e d for the night. Nine 'o' P. M . M a d e some twenty odd miles today. July 8th. — Left our c a m p on Deer Creek and continued u p the Platte valley. T h e r e is a ferry across the Platte near the junction of the creek where we met a large n u m b e r of emigrants lying by in c a m p , some of w h o m h a d come u p on the N o r t h side of the river. T h e country still presents the same sterile appearance, the strata in the hills to the south of us standing nearly on edge a n d extending a distance of some miles. I n the morning the wind sprang u p a n d blew with such violence all day t h a t we could scarcely walk or see for dust which almost blinded us. H a l t e d at noon but could get n o grass for the cattle. Saw another buffalo this afternoon. Several m e n went in pursuit a n d wounded h i m badly but did not get him. E n c a m p e d before sundown on the river bottom. Travelled about 18 miles today. 3

them.

Taylor m a d e previous reference to the Kendalls, however, he never clearly identified


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July 9th. •— Left our c a m p about 10 'o' clock in the m o r n i n g a n d in the middle of the afternoon arrived at the U p p e r Platte ferry. A distance of 1293 miles from Fort L a r a m i e a n d 779 from St. Joseph Missouri. Pitched our tents on the bank of the river a n d drove our cattle 4 or 5 miles out a m o n g the hills to graze, the grass in the bottoms being crisped a n d parched u p affording n o nourishment whatever to our stock. T h e river here is about 100 yards wide and 3 or 4 feet deep for about two thirds of the way across. W h e n you a p p r o a c h the other shore it is from 12 to 15 feet in depth. T h e current is very rapid a n d strong, the water m u d d y and turbulent. T h e Black Hills on our left rising to the heighth of a thousand feet, bold and steep, their sides and tops covered with pines a n d cedars making a pleasant contrast to the bare and sandy plains at their base. T h e Kendalls still in our neighborhood. Distance 10 miles. July 10th. — After an early breakfast this morning, commenced crossing the river. T h e r e is a good ferry established here consisting of three boats each of which will carry two ordinary wagons with their contents. 4 A very great convenience to emigrants as the river is too swift and deep to ford, a n d doing away with the necessity of unloading and reloading wagons etc. T o w a r d s evening our cattle were driven into the river and swam over, having delayed in consequence of a strong wind which rendered it rather dangerous, emigrants having lost their cattle on such occasions. T h e mode of crossing is as follows: U p o n each shore are planted heavy posts which are securely braced, to which is attached stout ropes suspended across the river a n d elevated a few feet above the surface. T o these ropes are attached the boats by means of pullies a n d thrown in such a position that the force of the current alone carried t h e m rapidly across. Having safely crossed we hitched u p a n d went u p the river a few miles above the ferry and encamped on the river bank. F o u n d some good grass for the cattle. C a u g h t some fish this evening a n d h a d a mess for supper a n d breakfast. T h e climate is extremely dry, there b u t little if any dew at night. T h e whole country for miles is completely over run with buffalo crickets a n d grasshoppers in myriads which not only destroy the vegetation b u t devour each other. July 11th. — Resumed our m a r c h this morning. Left the Platte which inclines to the South. T h e country t h r o u g h which we passed today is the most desolate a n d barren of any t h a t we have seen. N o grass of any account and no water except t h a t which is highly impregnated with alkali and deadly to animals. O u r cattle h a d a hard days work through the deep sand a n d over rocks throughout the entire day without grass or water. Stopped at noon as usual to rest a n d take a cold lunch of h a r d bread and fat bacon which we washed down with cold coffee. T h e ground is m u c h broken and difficult to travel. O n our left rise the Black Hills while to the west and n o r t h are high and broken hills and ridges, almost entirely barren giving a gloomy a n d desolate appearance to the country which seems as though it had been swept with the bosom of destruction. Traveled on until 10 'o' clock at night and encamped, making twenty odd miles today. 4 This is no doubt the M o r m o n ferry which began operations in 1847. Also with reference to the Platte River ferry, Taylor computed the distances from Fort Laramie to California to be 1,293 miles and from Fort Laramie to St. Joseph, Missouri, some 779 miles. T h e manner of reporting these distances in the journal is confusing.


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W. H. Jackson painting of wagons approaching Independence Rock, Wyoming. This massive piece of granite was christened in honor of the birth date of the nation, by William Sublette on July 4, 1830. July 12th. -— Struck our tents and traveled about 4 miles to grass and water where we remained in camp all the balance of the day. We dropped one of our wagons and made some repairs, besides dispensing with some unnecessary weight in order to facilitate our journey. July 13th. — Resumed our march this morning, our road leading through deep sands which made heavy pulling. Passed a small creek in the forenoon of tolerable good water where we refreshed ourselves. Continued on until noon when we stopped about one hour as usual to rest and eat our scanty meal. Water highly impregnated with alkali and saleratus. Saw some large dry beds of ponds whose surfaces were completely encrusted with saleratus of considerable thickness and apparently quite pure. 5 The country still barren with scarcely any vegetation except the wild sage. Passed Independence Rock with its thousands of names.6 It is an object of great interest completely isolated and standing in the valley of Sweet Water and upon its bank the road leading along its base and affording a fine opportunity to emigrants to examine it. Passed on and encamped about one mile above on the river bank. Traveled twenty miles today. July 14th. — Finding the grass good at this place, we remained in camp all day to allow our cattle time to recruit having had but little grass for the last two weeks. Paid 5 Saleratus is baking soda. Also it is in this region of the country that the ground began to be littered by the debris from wagons which were being partially emptied to lighten the load. 6 This land mark was regarded as a major milestone on the overland trail.


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a visit to I n d e p e n d e n c e Rock and carved m y n a m e a n d date a m o n g thousands of others. 7 Ascended to the top from which I h a d a fine view of Sweet W a t e r valley and the rugged a n d towering peaks u p o n each side of us. T h e rock is of an oval form of considerable extent covering several acres of g r o u n d a n d about two h u n d r e d feet in heighth. I t is a n immense mass of solid granite traversed by veins of quartz, entirely destitute of soil save in a few crevices where there is a slight accumulation of dirt supporting a scanty growth of wild c u r r a n t bushes. July 15. — Resuming our m a r c h , we passed on u p the valley, fording the river a few miles above c a m p . W e n t to see the pass in the m o u n t a i n known as the devils gate t h r o u g h which t h e river cuts its way. I t is an immense chasm three h u n d r e d yards in length by thirty five in w i d t h t h r o u g h the solid granite. T h e sides or walls tower aloft to the height of four h u n d r e d feet u p o n each side. T h e bed of the stream is completely covered w i t h immense masses of rock which have fallen from the heights above t h r o u g h which the river dashes its impetuous way. As the traveler stands on the edge of the rushing w a t e r a n d looking u p w a r d at the dizzy height which seems as if toppling over on him, he is filled with a strange feeling of awe a n d a d m i r a t i o n at t h e g r a n d e u r a n d sublimity of t h e scene before h i m a n d h o w feeble and insignificant does m a n and all his boasted works a p p e a r w h e n compared with the Almighty power which created 7 Interestingly enough Taylor also carved his n a m e on the base of Chimney Rock in Nebraska.

Summit of Independence Rock painted by W. H. Jackson. The rock stands 6,028 feet above sea level; its northern summit is 136 feet above the terrain. With a circumference of 5ÂŁ00 feet, its mass covers an area of 24.81 acres.


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a n d upheaved these mighty masses of solid rock. These are scenes in which m a n may learn his weakness a n d dependence u p o n that Being to w h o m he is indebted for life a n d all the blessings which surround him. Passed on through the chasm climbing over rocks and a m o n g bushes on the west side of the pass a n d came out in the valley beyond, u p which we went a mile or two a n d w a d e d the river about two feet deep. Coming into the road u p o n the south side of the stream. T h e valley at this point is eight or ten miles wide upon each side of which rise the rugged mountains of solid granite to the height of one a n d two thousand feet. O n the south side, the range is densely timbered to the summit with pines a n d cedars. O n the north, the mountains are broken a n d partially barren rising abruptly from the green sward of the valley terminating in a line of broken summits, the clefts in the rocks affording a scanty soil from which grow a few scattering pines. T h e grass here is pretty good. Continued on till near sundown a n d encamped upon the bank of the river. Traveled 10 miles today. July 16th. — Continued our journey as usual this morning. As we a p p r o a c h the South Pass, the scenery becomes m o r e grand a n d imposing. A n immense chain of m o u n t a i n s bound us on either side whose broken and rugged peaks tower aloft a n d seemingly pierce the sky. 8 Some of our company ascended one of the peaks today from which they caught a first view of the W i n d River m o u n t a i n s at a distance of some seventy miles west, an immense range stretching away to the north, their snowy peaks glittering in the sunbeams like burnished silver and presenting a scene of great beauty a n d sublimity. E n c a m p e d about 6 'o' clock in the evening on the bank of Sweet Water. Distance 18 miles. July 17th. — O u r road this morning left the river inclining a little south. T h e river here leans to the N o r t h through a pass or canyon in the mountains, about 6 or 8 miles in extent, at which point the road again touches the river a n d crosses four times in a distance of a few miles. Left c a m p early in company with several others u p the river with our guns intending to h u n t along until we came u p with the wagons where the road intersects the river, but met n o game. Ascended one of the m o u n t a i n peaks from which I first caught sight of the W i n d River Mountains, distant 50 or 60 miles, looming u p in bold relief against the sky their white tops glittering in the m o r n i n g sun. T w a s a beautiful sight, one which I h a d longed to behold. O n either h a n d rise the lofty mountains of granite, whilst below m e the beautiful Sweet W a t e r w o u n d its serpentine course along through the grassy bosom of the valley, and altogether forming a scene which to be realized in its fullest extent should be seen. E n c a m p e d before sundown on the bank of the river in view of the W i n d River Mountains. Saw a buffalo on the south side of the river. Some of the m e n t went in pursuit but could not succeed in getting near him. Distance 18 miles. July 18th. — Continued our course as usual, the road very sandy m a k i n g h a r d work for the oxen. T h e country is still broken a n d mountainous, immense masses of rock piled on rock towering aloft with broken a n d craggy summits and nearly destitute of vegetation excepting a few pines a n d the never ending artemisia or wild sage, giving the mountains a gloomy yet imposing appearance. T h e road here diverges from the 8 While one is tempted to excuse the superlative tones in which Taylor couches his descriptions of the "rugged peaks" near South Pass as poetic license, it may be that one seeing the mountains after months on the plains would regard them as towering.


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river for a distance of 16 miles before it again touches it, a n d there being no water on the way we filled our kegs a n d canteens at the river. Stopped at n o o n to allow our cattle to graze a n d rest dividing our little supply of water a m o n g t h e m . Towards evening the country became m o r e level, the mountains diminishing on either h a n d a n d diverging n o r t h a n d south. W e have n o w high bluffs of great extent, level on top w i t h here a n d there isolated hills or bluffs all m a i n t a i n i n g the same general level. T o w a r d s sundown, our road led down a high bluff into a valley of Sweet W a t e r where after fording we e n c a m p e d for the night. O u r cattle were driven down the valley about three miles to graze, the grass being eaten off near the c a m p . Charles a n d myself with some 4 or 5 others were appointed to stand guard over them. W e shouldered our guns a n d blankets after supper a n d going d o w n to where the cattle were grazing we built a large fire of the Bois de V a c h e a n d spreading our robes, we rolled ourselves in our blankets with our feet to the fire. W e slept as comfortable as though we h a d been at home, except being disturbed occasionally by the distant howl of some hungry wolf. T h e night was beautiful a n d clear, the climate is extremely dry a n d very little if any dew a n d consequently very little d a n g e r of taking cold. July 19th. — Started about 8 O'clock in the m o r n i n g ; nothing of interest transpired today. T h e character of the country has been the same as for a day or t w o past. This m o r n i n g from a high bluff I h a d a fine view of W i n d River M o u n t a i n s whose snow c a p p e d summits glittered in the rays of the m o r n i n g sun stretching away to an immense distance. O n e of the grandest sights I have ever seen. E n c a m p e d early in the evening n e a r t h e entrance of a deep gorge or defile in the mountains through which flows the Sweet W a t e r from the southwest. T h e road here leaves the river for some 14 miles before it again comes to it. Distance traveled today 14 miles. July 20th. — C o n t i n u e d on as usual. O u r road led today over the hills which are very high b u t of gentle ascent. U p o n the tops of the hills the strata is in a vertical position, very rough a n d broken a n d extending for a long distance u p o n the ridges. T h e road passes over these rocky ridges which were not only h a r d u p o n the cattle but seemed to threaten the dislocation of our wagons already the worse for the wear. T o w a r d s noon we descended into a valley a n d e n c a m p e d for the day u p o n a small stream, a tributary of Sweet Water. Drove our cattle across a ridge to the south of us a b o u t three miles to Sweet W a t e r where we found excellent grass, the river passing for a n u m b e r of miles t h r o u g h a canyon or n a r r o w gorge of perpendicular cliffs does not a d m i t of any travel along its banks. T h e r e are occasionally some n a r r o w strips of bottom along the river which are covered with a luxuriant growth of grass a n d dense thickets of willows amongst which is seen the sweet wild rose in full bloom perfuming the air with its rich fragrance, a n d the ground thickly m a t t e d with the wild strawberry vine, whilst upon the cliffs at intervals were beautiful shady groves of the quaking asp in pleasant contrast with the otherwise barren country a r o u n d . July 2 1 s t . — R e s u m e d our m a r c h this morning. H a d a storm of w i n d a n d rain last night. W e a t h e r cold this morning, requiring our overcoats to keep us comfortable. We are n o w fairly in the South Pass, the Rocky M o u n t a i n s in full view, their rugged peaks c a p p e d with glittering snow. Stopped at noon on the Sweet W a t e r w h e r e we found a b a n k of snow a n d ice at the foot of a bluff and exposed to the rays of the sun which


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W. H. Jackson painting of a wagon train at South Pass, Wyoming. South Pass was the thoroughfare for both the California Trail and the Oregon Trail — the corridor between the Atlantic and Pacific worlds.

was quite a curiosity to us. Continued on till evening a n d e n c a m p e d on the bank of Sweet W a t e r where we have an excellent view of the mountains. Distance about 20 miles. W e are now within a few miles of the summit of the pass which we are all eager to see. July 22nd. — Left c a m p about 8 O'clock this morning. After traveling a b o u t 5 or 6 miles, we crossed the dividing ridge or Summit of the South Pass. T h e rise is so gradual that you can scarcely percieve it. T h e pass is about twenty miles in w i d t h a n d so easy is the ascent along the Sweet W a t e r t h a t you can hardly realize the great elevation to which you have attained, being 7,490 feet above the gulf of Mexico. T w o miles more brought us to the Pacific Springs whose waters flow to the Pacific O c e a n , the fountain head of the great Colorado of the west. T h e water is perfectly clear a n d cold as ice. T h e r e are several of these springs which rise in a low marshy flat covered with a thick sod of grass which yields at every step being a perfect quagmire a n d it is with great difficulty t h a t the springs can be approached. Previous to reaching the springs, I climbed a m o u n t a i n of about two thousand feet elevation to the south of the road from which I h a d a magnificent view of the gigantic Rocky M o u n t a i n s whose lofty a n d rugged peaks capped with eternal snow glittered in the rays of the sun a n d seemingly pierced the sky. Beneath my feet gushed the crystal waters a u g m e n t i n g in volume, pursuing their winding way westward towards the setting sun, receiving tribute from


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every little rill and brook until lost in distance. While to the south and east, wagons seven in n u m b e r having run off from us below Independence Rock in consequence of the difficulty existing between the Company and Captain Wright and of his noncompliance with his contract. 9 Whilst we lay at Independence Rock, some of our men went in pursuit of them armed to the teeth with revolvers, bowie knives etc. determined to take them by force if necessary. They overtook them at this point, where they soon came to a reconciliation, the runaways agreeing to wait until the train came u p in order to get more provisions. T h e pursuing party in the meantime changed their minds and concluded to go along with them. T h e balance of our company consisted of 35 men. Deeming our provisions and teams insufficient to take us through, we determined to proceed to Salt Lake City to recruit and obtain supplies. Accordingly, arranging matters the best as we could, the two parties separated from each other and bidding a rather formal farewell were soon lost to each others sight. 10 T h e country is still barren and sandy, the wild sage flourishing in abundance. Traveled until noon and halted at Big Sandy to graze the cattle and take some refreshment ourselves. About the middle of the afternoon we proceeded on our journey until near midnight when we halted and turned the cattle out to graze there being no water here. We all lay down to rest a few hours. Started before daylight of the 25th. Traveled on until about 10 'o' clock when we again came upon the Big Sandy. A distance of 17 miles from C a m p of the 23rd. Drove our cattle u p the river bottom to grass. Started about the middle of the afternoon from c a m p on Big Sandy. After travelling some 8 miles over a level country towards evening we reach Green River, the great Colorado of the West. A fine stream of water about 200 feet wide and five or six feet deep with a swift current and very clear and cool water abounding in fine fish of which we caught a few called M o u n t a i n Trout. We pitched our tents for the night on the bank of the River. July 26th. — After breakfast this morning, we crossed the river in a ferry boat kept by some Mormons, the mode of crossing being similar to the ferry on Platte River. A strong rope is stretched across the river and fastened to strong posts to which the boat is attached by ropes and pullies, the force of the current carrying it rapidly across. We have dropped another wagon having now but five with seven men to each. Continued our course along the river bottom and encamped about six or seven miles below the ferry on the bank of the river. T h e margin of the river is fringed with cottonwood, willows, etc. while the islands are densely timbered and abounding in grass. July 27th. — Started early this morning. We here left the river. Inclining to the west across the river bottom we ascended there some bluffs. O u r route lay through the same character of country as that traveled over for several days past, the wild sage and some other shrubs, the prickly pear and a variety of flowers being the only vegetation. T h e timber confined to water courses and upon islands. T h e face of the country is a vast rolling plain with low ridges and isolated hills which are covered with boulder stone. T h e plains are gravelly and sandy, the river bottoms have tolerable good soil "Earlier Taylor mentioned "Wright and Co.," however, he did not elaborate on the nature of contract arrangements with Wright, the size of their party, costs, etc., nor does he ever clearly identify who or what constituted "Wright and Co." 10 It appears that a disagreement had been brewing for some time, however, the nature of the difficulty is never made clear.


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a n d p r o d u c e fine grass. T o the southwest of us are the W a h s a t c h M o u n t a i n s whose tops are covered with snow. At the distance which we n o w see t h e m , they lift their peaks in lofty majesty towards the sky piercing the clouds with their heavy heads a n d standing as mighty l a n d m a r k s to the wayfaring traveler. After m a k i n g about 18 miles, we e n c a m p e d on the banks of the Black Fork, a tributary of Green River. July 28th. — Left our e n c a m p m e n t this morning. T h e country is still the same. O u r course since leaving the South Pass being southwest generally over a level country with low hills a n d ridges presenting a desert a p p e a r a n c e . Crossed in our course several streams, tributaries of Green River. I n the afternoon we h a d rains with high wind b u t towards evening it cleared u p a n d became pleasant. O u r course is bringing us nearer every day to the M o u n t a i n s which increase in m a g n i t u d e as we a p p r o a c h them. T h e nights a n d mornings are disagreeably cool owing to the great elevation a n d the vicinity of the snowy peaks. O u r m o r n i n g a n d evening fires we find very comfortable. After traveling about 19 miles, we e n c a m p e d u p o n the b a n k of a considerably [sic] stream convenient to good grass. U p o n the banks of the stream is a scanty growth of willows, the dry branches of which together with sage bushes afford us material to m a k e comfortable fires. July 29th. — W e a t h e r cool this m o r n i n g . After breakfast, four of our c o m p a n y started in a d v a n c e for Salt L a k e City, distance over one h u n d r e d miles, taking their blankets W. H. Jackson painting of Fort Bridger, Wyoming. Fort Bridger was established about 1842 by Jim Bridger, famed mountain man. The fort was purchased by the Mormons in 1852 and abandoned by them in 1857 with the advance of Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston and the United States Army. Later used periodically as a military post, it was finally abandoned in November 1890.

i,;i,v/


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a n d provisions on their backs with the intention of m a k i n g arrangements for exchanging our cattle for horses or mules in order to facilitate our journey t h r o u g h from that point. W e were fully convinced t h a t our present teams were not sufficient many of t h e m being completely worked d o w n and crippled together with the lateness of the season a n d the scarcity of grass. I n the afternoon, we came to a broad a n d extensive valley in which were n u m e r o u s streams of water. H a d a storm of rain accompanied w i t h hail a n d strong wind. W e are still nearing the mountains. Passed Fort Bridger situated in the valley. W e e n c a m p e d towards evening a few miles beyond n e a r a grove of cedars of which we m a d e comfortable fires. July 30th. — R e s u m e d our journey as usual this morning. O u r course for a few miles lay over the same descriptions of country which we h a d been traveling for many days. L o n g level ridges a n d wide plains. About noon we descended a long a n d steep bluff into a broad green valley with plenty of grass a n d solid oats a n d a clear swift stream of water. W e stopped here to noon. I n the afternoon our course lay u p the valley, the hills u p o n either side having m o r e or less timber, while in the valley are groves of willows. T h e universal sage still abounds. This is one of the finest valleys we have seen west of the m o u n t a i n s , filled with fine grass a n d beautiful wild flowers in the greatest profusion. Passed some springs strongly impregnated with copper and iron. E n c a m p e d on the summit of the ridge connecting the Bear a n d W i n d River chain of Mountains. July 31st. — T h e m o r n i n g opened clear a n d cool owing to the great elevation of our c a m p which is a b o u t 8000 feet a n d affording an extensive view on every side. Within probably 15 miles of us arose the Majestic W a h s a t c h range whose snowy peaks penet r a t e the u p p e r regions. F o u n d some excellent springs of water a n d good grass near o u r c a m p . O u r road today led over an interesting portion of country of a mountainous character, high hills a n d extensive ridges. T o w a r d s noon, we descended from the u p l a n d into a deep valley in which was a small creek where we stoped to noon near an excellent spring. C o n t i n u i n g our winding way a m o n g the hills, we descended into a fine valley of Bear River, a bold rushing stream of clear, cool w a t e r whose source is in neighboring M o u n t a i n s . This is a beautiful valley of considerable extent with a good soil a n d luxuriant grass. O n the banks of the river are tall cottonwood trees, some few pines a n d large groves of willows, bushes a n d shrubbery of various kinds. Along the hill sides are i n n u m e r a b l e flowers of great variety a n d beauty a m o n g which I noticed t h e wild sun flower besides other kinds which were entirely new to me. Encamped about the middle of the afternoon convenient to wood and water. August 1 st. — Started as usual this morning. F o r d e d Bear River which was about h u b deep. T h e bed of the stream is entirely covered with boulder stones a n d m a d e it quite difficult for the oxen to get secure footing. T h e country broken a n d mountainous, the valleys affording excellent w a t e r a n d grass. Passed a n u m b e r of fine springs along the road. O u r road has been d o w n hill all day but quite gradual, the formation of the hills being red a n d grey sandstone a n d immense masses of gravel firmly cemented together, the clay or loam being of a reddish n a t u r e . T h e soil in the valley appears to be good. E n c a m p e d before sundow 7 n in a grassy valley n e a r a good spring of water.


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W. H. Jackson painting of a wagon train camped in Echo Canyon, Utah. In 1857 the Mormons built fortifications in the canyon against the "invading" government troops. With the construction of the transcontinental railroad, Echo City, at the mouth of the canyon, was a thriving community for a short time. With the passing of the rails westward, the town quieted.

325 August 2 n d . — O u r course today southwest. Traveled all day down a small stream of water which we crossed at least a dozen times. T h e same kind of country as for a few days past. T h e mountains rising to an immense height on each side, red a n d grey sandstone and gravel being the formation. Passed several fine springs. We h a d some of the roughest and most difficult road today that we have h a d during our journey. T h e crossings at the creek are steep and miry. O u r road for the last two days has been t h r o u g h an extensive defile or pass in the mountains walled in by immense cliffs of rock. Saw a great variety of flowers, wild hops, service berries, wild currants, cherries etc. in the creek bottom, whilst the m o u n tain sides and tops were partially covered with cedars a n d quaking asps. T o w a r d s evening, we reached the foot of the pass on Webers Fork of Bear River at which point there is a new route to Salt Lake City called the Golden Pass, 40 or 50 miles in extent, recently opened by the M o r m o n s a n d u p o n which emigrants are charged toll for wagons, horses, cattle, etc. by the order of the proprietor Brigham Young, who is their chief or president. 1 1 W e took the old road to the right and passing down Webers Creek a few miles encamped for the night.

August 3rd. — Resumed our journey. Crossed Webers Creek two miles from C a m p . O u r course led u p a small stream between the mountains. H a l t e d at noon a n d after dinner commenced the assent of the mountains, the rise being gradual. I n about three miles, we reached the summit which afforded a fine view. T o the west arose the snow capped peaks of the Wahsatch m o u n t a i n s glittering in the sun a n d u p o n all sides the view was grand and impressive. H i g h peaks a n d long ridges met the eye in all directions. T h e descent of the m o u n t a i n was rather difficult, the road being steep a n d rocky in many places leading from one side of the ravine to the other. D u r i n g the descent, one of our wagons upset in a ditch about 8 or 10 feet deep and lighting u p o n the cover with the wheels uppermost, throwing provisions and baggage into a heap besides injuring a m a n w h o was in the wagon at the time, the contents of the wagon covering him u p in the ditch. H e received some bruises about the head, not serious however. H a v i n g drawn out the wagon from the ditch a n d replaced the load, we reached the foot of the 11 Apparently Taylor's party was short on money and chose the older and longer route to Salt Lake City as a result.


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m o u n t a i n before sundown a n d encamped on the bank of K a n y o n Creek, a tributary of Salt Lake, a fine stream of water whose banks are lined with an almost impenetrable thicket of bushes, small trees, etc. a m o n g which was the Wild Cherry. August 4th. — Left c a m p as usual a n d after traveling u p K a n y o n Creek a few miles, our course turned west u p a large ravine between the mountains. T h e road was extremely rough a n d bad, being in places almost obstructed by immense quantities of boulder stones, some of which were as large as barrels a n d sorely tried our wagons and oxen. D u r i n g the ascent another of our wagons upset a n d pitched the contents into a small rivulet without doing m u c h d a m a g e however. T o w a r d s evening, we encamped in a cottonwood grove near some fine springs, within one mile of the summit of the pass a n d five miles from the base of the mountain. T h e sides of the mountains are covered with cottonwood, quaking asp, balsam, fir etc. August 5th. — Soon after leaving c a m p , we reached the summit of the pass from which we h a d a distant view of Salt Lake valley and the snow capped mountains in the vicinity. O u r road today very rough a n d steep descending rapidly a n d passing through n a r r o w gorges in the m o u n t a i n s which rise thousands of feet u p o n either side and most admirably situated for defense, where a few resolute and determined men by a proper selection of position could effectually defend themselves against a host of enemies. T o w a r d evening, we emerged from the m o u n t a i n defiles into the broad and fertile valley of the Lake, which at this point is about 50 miles in width a n d walled in

W. H. Jackson painting

of the Great Salt Lake Valley,

Utah.


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on both sides by the U t a h and W a h s a t c h range of mountains, whose highest peaks are white with snow, while to the West lay extended the great n a t u r a l curiosity, the Salt Lake, an object of great interest a n d from whose placid surface arose its lofty M o u n t a i n islands whose rugged a n d barren sides are beautifully reflected in the glassy bosom of its waters and the d i m a n d misty outlines of the mountains beyond whose forms seemed to recede a n d fade away until lost in the distant horizon which bounds the great basin. T h e gentle a n d quiet J o r d a n pursuing its winding way t h r o u g h the green a n d luxuriant valley fed in its course by innumerable brooks a n d rills from the m o u n t a i n s whose snowy peaks afford a never failing supply a n d pouring its rich tribute of waters into those of the briny Lake, which still retains its saltiness notwithstanding the immense quantities of fresh water which flow into it from various quarters. T h e valley is dotted with farmhouses, barns, stables etc. with enclosures of large a n d extensive fields in which stand the ripening grain ready for the reapers sickle a n d here a n d there large quantities of the fresh cut grain standing in shocks while in other places, the reapers are busily engaged in cutting, binding a n d shocking it u p . T h e harvest is a b u n d a n t , yielding from 40 to 50 bushels to the acre of good w h e a t of which they have m a n y varieties, a m o n g which are included two or three kinds t h a t is sown in the spring a n d coming to maturity as soon as t h a t sown in the fall. Of this kind is the Saos w h e a t which has a fine large a n d smooth head a n d not bearded. T h e stalks are large a n d tall. This w h e a t is usually sown in drills, 8 to 10 inches apart, but comes u p as thick as t h a t sown in the ordinary way. Besides they have the different kinds of State wheat, all of which come to great perfection a n d entirely free from rust etc. C o r n does not thrive here so well as in t h e states owing probably to the dryness of the climate, but all the different garden vegetables come to great perfection, such as potatoes, tomatoes, beets, beans, peas, squashes, melons, etc., all of which are in great a b u n d a n c e . E n c a m p e d towards evening on a bluff or bench of the m o u n t a i n , at whose base is situated the town, partially hid from our view by the bluff. N e a r our c a m p , which is two miles from the city, are several ditches which convey water from the mountains for irrigation a n d other purposes. T h e water is perfectly cool a n d clear a n d affording to the city a constant supply. August 6th. — Left c a m p this forenoon and passed t h r o u g h t h e city a n d encamped on the bank of the river J o r d a n , two miles west of the city a n d turned our cattle out to grass, intending to remain here until arrangements were m a d e for the further prosecution of our journey, the prospects for which, however, were rather discouraging. This was a joyful occasion to us notwithstanding our prospects for the future, as if afforded an opportunity of present relief a n d of obtaining the rest we all so m u c h needed, worn down by our long a n d tedious journey through a wild a n d inhospitable region a b o u n d ing in dangers a n d difficulties, t h r o u g h all of which a kind providence h a t h safely conducted us without the loss of one of our number, whilst h u n d r e d s of our fellow beings were cut down by the ruthless h a n d of death, far from their homes a n d kindred and of which we h a d a b u n d a n t proof as we journeyed along. Seldom a day passed without seeing m o r e or less along the r o a d ; the majority however were buried at c a m p i n g grounds a n d places away from the road. I a m fully convinced from w h a t I have seen myself a n d from w h a t I have heard from persons of veracity that the n u m b e r u p to this point, a distance of between 1100 a n d 1200 miles from Missouri, would be equal to one for every mile, which is certainly not far from the actual number, besides the large


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n u m b e r of emigrants who returned from different points along the road in consequence of the severe sickness and some of w h o m we met at the junction of the north and south forks of the state, between three and four h u n d r e d miles from the frontier, panic stricken and making the best of their way towards home. All these circumstances tended more or less to fill our minds with gloomy forebodings, but we nevertheless determined to proceed, considering it far more dangerous to return than to go forward, as we were daily approaching a more elevated region of country abounding in good water and a pure a n d healthy atmosphere. T h e Great Salt Lake City is handsomely laid out — situated on the north side of the valley at the foot of a high bluff or bench of the U t a h range of mountains, the ground falling gradually toward the river J o r d a n between one and two miles distant. T h e streets are of great breadth a n d cross each other at right angles, forming large squares which are cut at regular distances by streets of a smaller size, dividing the square into equal parts. T h e whole city is divided into wards of which were nineteen, over each of which a bishop presides. T h e city is not compactly built, being unlike all other cities in this respect. T o each house is allowed one and a quarter acre of ground which is enclosed a n d sufficient to produce all the necessary garden vegetables in the greatest profusion, besides a considerable quantity of wheat and corn, quite adequate to the wants of each family. This arrangement of houses and lots gives to the city quite a pleasant a n d rural appearance, and might with propriety be called an agricultural city. 12 T h e city is watered from the mountains by means of ditches which convey the water through every part of the city; each principal street having a stream u p o n each side, from which are sluice ways to conduct the water into the gardens for irrigation and other purposes whenever required. T h e houses are built of adobes or sundried bricks which are m u c h larger than the ordinary brick, being 12 inches long, 6 inches wide, and 21 inches thick. They are of a lead color a n d have the appearance at a distance of being painted. T h e r e are no bricks burned here owing to the great scarcity of wood, the adobes answering a very good purpose as the climate is mild and dry, requiring the eaves to be projected to protect the walls from rain, a n d make it a very comfortable dwelling. T h e houses are generally moderate sized and from one to one a n d a half storys high and built in m o d e r n style. T h e r e is a large public building called the State House now being finished.13 I t is a square building two storys high. T h e first story is built of a reddish sandstone with sills and caps of the same material. T h e second story is built of adobes. It is altogether quite a respectable building and situated upon the corner of one of the principal streets. Besides there are several stores — a post a n d printing office, and mechanic shops of various kinds, and a large n u m b e r of buildings now in process of erection. Opposite the state house is the church, an immense building of a temporary character designed only for present use, it being the intention of the Mormons to build a magnificent temple far surpassing in splendor a n d magnitude the far famed temple of Nauvoo, all of which n o doubt they have the energy and ability to accomplish, 12 Taylor's description of Salt Lake City is unique to the point of calling special attention to it; i.e., "an agricultural city." 13 This is the Council House, located on the southwest corner of South Temple and Main streets. This was the first government building constructed in U t a h Territory.


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judging from w h a t they have already achieved during the short time which has elapsed since their arrival a n d settlement in this valley. A p a r t from their peculiar notions a n d religious doctrines, the enterprize, perseverence a n d public spirit of these people is deserving of all praise a n d w o r t h of emulation. A large square of ground is reserved for the new temple. T h e y intend to commence quarrying the stone this fall, p r e p a r a t o r y to laying the foundation, the whole superstructure to be built entirely of marble from the neighboring mountains, of which there are inexhaustable quantities, h a n d s o m e a n d durable. D u r i n g my stay here I attended c h u r c h on Sunday afternoon, where was assembled a vast concourse of citizens a n d emigrants, a n d a preacher from O h i o addressed the audience, not a M o r m o n however as I understood. His discourse was singular, the subject of which was the disciples of Christ, t h e motives by which they were actuated in following him, a n d which h e contended were of a mercenary character a n d not from a love of the doctrines which Christ taught, their only object being self aggrandisement, love of popularity, fame, etc. H o w far these views accorded with the feelings of the multitude, I know not, but it struck m e as being strange h o w a m a n in this enlightened age could so construe the simple reading of the acts of the disciples, and of ascribing to them motives which every honest m a n would disdain without once reflecting t h a t "with w h a t j u d g m e n t ye judge, shall ye be j u d g e d , " and that in endeavoring to misrepresent the motives a n d defame the character of the worthy followers of Christ, charging t h e m with infamy, deceit, a n d hypocrisy is himself a false pretender a n d places himself in a very unenviable position a n d one in which he is liable to have the fidelity a n d purity of his own motives called in question at least by all honest a n d liberal minded men. U p o n the close of the discourse, the services were concluded with prayer, reading of notices, and after which followed music by a splendid brass b a n d w h o occupied a large platform (on the front of which were seated t h e Clergy), playing waltzes, marches etc. Immediately all was excitement, a confused h u m of voices r a n through the assembly, friends a n d acquaintances were interchanging salutes, all was hilarity, a n d an entire absence of that respectful solemnity c o m m o n to most temples of worship, strongly reminded one of some holiday occasion when people are wont to collect to indulge in a social intercourse a n d judging from outward appearances, one would suppose the M o r m o n s to be a h a p p y people. I t is clear however that theirs is a religion which addresses itself direction [sic] to the passions, congenial to the fallen n a t u r e of m a n , a n d devoid of the spirituality of t h e gospel. W e find the M o r m o n s to be a civil and quiet people, but still smarting u n d e r the recollection of the wrongs inflicted u p o n t h e m by their persecutors for w h o m they indulge the most bitter hatreds, a n d cultivate a spirit of revenge, invoking curses u p o n t h e m even to the fourth generation. D u r i n g our stay here we boarded at the house of a M o r m o n citizen, W m . Wadsworth, a very intelligent a n d gentlemanly m a n , to w h o m we feel indebted for the kind a n d hospitable treatment we received while w e remained at his house, a n d the valuable information a n d advice he gave us in reference to the routes, etc. for which we shall ever hold h i m in grateful remembrance. August 1 4 t h . — R e m a i n e d in this place u p to this time. I n the m e a n t i m e it became evident to us all from the unsatisfactory m a n n e r in which C a p t . Wright conducted


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himself, causing unnecessary delay, etc., that he was unwilling or unable to make the necessary arrangements for the further prosecution of our journey, a n d being asked repeatedly w h a t he intended to do, and receiving n o satisfaction, the company dem a n d e d of h i m an equal distribution of the property of the train, in consequence of his noncompliance with his contract, to which he very willingly acceeded, glad no doubt to get off so well. 14 Accordingly we m a d e an equal division as near as possible of the property, at the same time allowing C a p t . Wright a very liberal share, notwithstanding his ungentlemanly conduct towards us, did not justly entitle him to anything. T h o u g h the company might in justice have stripped h i m of everything, to their honor be it said, they did not feel disposed to injure h i m in any way, which they could have done for the m e a n a n d niggardly treatment they received at his hands. O u r mess consisted of five; viz., P. T . Tierney, H . Hill, R. Whitby, Charles, and myself. O u r portion was one wagon a n d three yoke of cattle, tent, cooking utensils, etc. O u r wagon a n d cattle we sold a n d bought a light wagon a n d three good horses, besides selling our tools a n d as m u c h of our personal property as we could possibly do without, which together with w h a t little means we h a d with us a n d t h e rigid economy we were forced to practice, enabled us to make a new outfit. W h e n after having reduced our baggage as m u c h as possible a n d buying m o r e provisions, we commenced our journey u n d e r more favorable auspices; taking the n o r t h e r n route a r o u n d the lake the balance of our company going the south route or cut off having to cross a desert of near one h u n d r e d miles in extent without grass or water. 1 5 O u r course lay along the base of the U t a h M o u n t a i n s which are of great elevation with occasional patches of snow u p o n their summits, they lay east of the lake and stretch away to the north. Between the m o u n t a i n s a n d lake is a broad valley, which is in a fine state of cultivation, the settlements extending a distance of about forty miles north of the city. A few miles beyond the city we passed the W a r Sulphur Spring highly impregnated, but of very agreeable temperature. T h e water is conveyed through logs to a bathing establishment recently p u t u p near the city. A few miles farther on are the H o t Sulphur Springs, the w a t e r of which is of a m u c h higher temperature, sufficient to cook eggs, etc., a n d bursting from the base of the mountains in a large volume and m a k i n g a bubling noise. T h e water is clear as crystal and emitting a strong sulphurous odor. T h e pebbles a n d e a r t h over which the w a t e r runs are covered with a coloring m a t t e r resembling verdigris. Continued our journey towards evening, m a k i n g some 18 miles. W e encamped near a fine stream of water with good grass a n d plenty of wood. After dark it commenced clouding u p , the wind blew hard. About 9 o'clock it began to rain with t h u n d e r a n d lightning, a n d continued through the night. W e were rather poorly prepared for rain having sold our tent at the city. W e m a n a g e d however, to pass the night tolerably comfortable, one laying in the wagon, the balance u n d e r n e a t h , this being our first night out a n d as we expected to travel principally alone, we all agreed to stand guard alternately half the night each in order to guard against surprise by Indians who 14 Again the provisions of the contract, etc., are not made clear, however, the matter was finally settled short of bloodshed. 15 T h e cutoff, or southern route, was presumed to be shorter, however, considering the hardships encountered over this route many preferred to circle north and then westerly around the Great Salt Lake.


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are said to be very thievish and treacherous on this route. T h e r e are a n u m b e r of Indians in the vicinity of the lake w h o belong to the U t a h tribe. They are quite friendly but disgustingly filthy in their habits, their principal food being fish a n d a very large species of crickets which they roast and prepare in different ways. T h e y are a numerous a n d unlike tribe but generally friendly to the Whites, owing no doubt to the proximity of the M o r m o n s of w h o m they stand in dread. 1 6 August 15th. — After breakfast resumed our journey u p the valley through the settlements. T h e soil is excellent, producing an a b u n d a n c e of everything necessary for the sustenance of m a n . I n the afternoon we reached Brownsville on Weber River. A fine a n d flourishing settlement about forty miles from Salt Lake City; continued on four miles beyond and crossing a large creek, we encamped for the night convenient to good grass and water. Distance today — 26 miles. August 16th. — Resumed our journey, our route still u p the valley in a north course, a n d along the base of the mountains which rise to an immense height, while on our left the valley stretches away for miles to the lake, the margins of which are white with salt. Towards noon we passed several hot springs which were impregnated with salt and sulphur and bursting from the foot of the mountains in large streams, crossed several fine creeks of pure water, passed a wigwam of U t a h indians who all came running out to see us. T h e y are a sprightly and talkative people, rather forward and troublesome and most accomplished beggars. They teased us for powder balls and caps which we very unceremoniously refused giving them, thinking it bad policy to lend a club to break our own heads. We gave t h e m some tobacco and passed on. Towards sundown we crossed a fine creek and encamped in the bottom near the base of the mountain where we found excellent grass. Distance today — 25 miles. August 17th. — This morning while preparing our breakfast we h a d three I n d i a n visitors, w h o very composedly seated themselves opposite us intently watching our movements. They appeared to be middle-aged and very sedate and quiet. We offered t h e m something to eat which they readily accepted. While they were eating we heard a distant yell a n d looking down the road saw an I n d i a n riding at full speed toward us. H e soon came u p a n d dismounted. We invited him also to eat something. H e was an active and sprightly Indian, very talkative, and withal rather meddlesome and forward, casting many a wishful look in the contents of our wagon and making himself rather too free for so short an acquaintance. H e carried a rifle and rode a very wild and spirited pony, which appeared as restive as its rider. W e suspected them of some mischief and kept an eye upon their movements. After breakfast we hitched u p and took leave of our I n d i a n guests, w h o lingered awhile and disappeared. Towards noon passed several hot springs, some of which were impregnated with salt and others with sulphur. T h e ground around the springs is covered with saline encrustations which resembles very m u c h a heavy frost. Arrived at Bear River about 6 o'clock, P.M. I t is a fine stream of water over one h u n d r e d feet wide and three or M Taylor did not elaborate as to why the Indians feared the Mormons. Actually, Mormon policy toward the Indians was to placate them rather than fight them. Mormon colonists to new areas were often counseled by their leaders to follow this policy.


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four feet deep at the ford. M e t a party of emigrants at the river w h o h a d lost nine mules d u r i n g last night. W h e t h e r they h a d strayed or were stolen by the Indians they did not know, but most likely the latter. C o m m e n c e d preparations for crossing, unloaded our wagon a n d cutting some willows we laid t h e m across the top of the wagon bed a n d u p o n t h e m w e placed our baggage a n d provisions. T h u s prepared, we drove in. T h e current quite strong, two of our company w a d e d along side to assist in case of need. A footman with a pack on his back requested permission to hold on behind, which we granted him. W e reached the opposite b a n k in safety, but owing to the steepness of the bank a n d the situation of our load elevated u p o n willow poles which h a d already begun to roll a n d slip the water being within a few inches of o u r provisions, we d a r e not a t t e m p t to drive u p for fear of losing our entire load. O u r wagon and horses remained in this position until the content of our wagon was carried on shore by those in the water. W h i c h done, we drove out replaced our load a n d continued on about three miles to M u d Creek and e n c a m p e d w h e r e w e found good feed and water. T u r n e d our horses out to feed, securing t h e m with lariats to prevent t h e m from straying. M a d e 23 miles today. August 18th. — Left c a m p after breakfast. I n about two miles we came to some fine springs from which we watered our horses a n d filled our water vessels, t h e r e being no water for a distance of 14 miles. H a v i n g now t u r n e d the northern point of the lake, our course inclined southwest a m o n g the mountains the passes through which were of gentle ascent a n d descent. I n the evening, we came to the w a r m a n d cold springs. T h e r e are a n u m b e r of t h e m bursting from the foot of the m o u n t a i n a n d uniting they form a considerable stream of water. Some of the water is moderately w a r m , some cool, a n d has a brackish taste. Filled our keg a n d canteens a n d continued on about three miles where we found good grass a n d encamped for the night. Distance today — 24 miles. August 19th.—-Resumed our journey. O u r road still a m o n g the mountains which are of m o d e r a t e size a n d destitute of timbers. Passed several creeks of r u n n i n g water in the course of the day. T o w a r d s evening, we descended into a broad a n d extensive valley, the road t h r o u g h which was m u c h cut u p a n d extremely dusty. T h e whole valley as far as the eye can reach being densely covered with sage a n d grease wood bushes giving it a dull a n d gloomy a p p e a r a n c e . O u r general course still southwest. T o w a r d s evening we e n c a m p e d on deep creek which here spreads into a marshy flat, a n d is finally absorbed by the sandy n a t u r e of the soil a n d disappears. Found good grass here a n d lariated our horses for the night. Distance today — 22 miles. August 20th. — Continued our course across the valley which stretches away for miles towards the mountains which bound it on all sides. I t presents a very sterile appearance a n d overrun with wild sage. T h e r e are occasionally some patches of grass dry a n d stunted. Stopped to noon after which we continued on and reached the foot of the m o u n t a i n towards evening where we stopped to water our horses. W e n t on about 1 mile a n d encamped on the side of the m o u n t a i n n e a r an excellent spring of water a n d good grass. N e a r our c a m p was a grove of cedars a n d we procured large quantities of the dry wood which m a d e us most comfortable fires during the night.


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August 21st. — M a d e an early start this morning. O u r road lay for several miles along the bench of the mountains, after which we descended into a valley a n d crossed several streams of water. T h e country through which we are now traveling is very broken a n d mountainous, some of the highest peaks having snow u p o n them. Whilst in the valley, the weather is hot a n d sultry. I n the afternoon we crossed Cassius Creek, a fine clear stream with pebbly bottom, u p which we traveled several miles a n d encamped convenient to water, wood and grass. N e a r the mountains the soil of the valley is poor a n d sterile except along water courses where there is generally an a b u n dance of grass a n d other vegetation. Traveled 28 miles today. August 22nd. — I n a short time after leaving c a m p this morning, we reached the bench of a m o u n t a i n u p which our road led. T h e way was rough a n d steep. I n about 5 miles we reached the junction of the old Fort Hall a n d Salt Lake R o a d . This is quite a picturesque place. O n the old road near the junction are some high conical hills which are appropriately n a m e d , called Steeple Rock, between which the road passes of just sufficient width in one place to a d m i t a wagon. Crossed the m o u n t a i n into another extensive valley which we crossed a n d commenced the ascent of another mountain. T h e road lay along a small creek which heads in the m o u n t a i n . Stopped at noon to rest and feed our horses. After reaching the summit we h a d one of the most extensive views of the country which is very broken a n d mountainous, presenting one of the most irregular scenes I ever beheld. O n all sides as far as the eye could reach was presented a scene of the most utter desolation. Immense masses of rock riven a n d shattered, the fragments strewn in the wildest confusion around, while the sterile mountains lifted their tall heads in gloomy silence as if contemplating the scene. A thick haze or smoke pervaded the atmosphere which lent additional gloom to the scene. Everything around bore ample evidence of some mighty convulsion of nature, which doubtless occurred ages ago when this vast extent of country was upheaved by volcanic agency from the bowels of the great deep. 'Tis here t h a t m a n m a y form some h u m b l e conception of the mighty forces of nature, when set in motion by t h a t Almighty Power w h o created the universe a n d sustains those mighty globes a n d systems of worlds which move through illimitable space, each in its orbit with such perfection a n d harmony. Nothing can exceed the gloomy gradview of the scene. F a r as the vision can extend, ruin and desolation meet the gaze. 'Tis here t h a t n a t u r e reigns supreme a n d will remain unsubdued by m a n in all time to come, and never here will the eye of the traveler be greeted with the sight of the pleasant farm house, the stately barn, the broad and waving fields of ripening grain, nor his ears be saluted with the busy h u m of h u m a n voices. N o cities will be seen with their glittering domes a n d spires reflecting the brilliant rays of the Meridian sun, nor humble village quietly nestled in the cool shades of the forest, nor aught of m a n or his works. I t is a country in which m a n can make n o p e r m a n e n t residence a n d must forever remain so. A n d were it not for the allurements of the beautiful country beyond, would perhaps remain u n t r o d d e n by the feet of civilized man. 1 7 17 J o h n J. Ingalls perceptively commented on the future prospects of civilization in the Great Basin area while visiting Salt Lake City in the 1890's. See the article by this editor in the Autumn 1966 issue of the Midwest Quarterly entitled, "Mormons, Mining and the Golden T r u m p e t of Maroni," pp. 67-77.


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T h e road today was very crooked, steep, a n d rough. Descended towards evening into the extensive valley of Goose Creek, the banks of the streams fringed with willows. F o u n d the grass rather scarce. Crossed the creek and selected a place for c a m p . Distance — 20 miles. August 23rd. — Left c a m p as usual. O u r road lay along the valley of Goose Creek, the soil of which is rich and producing good grass. O n the mountains are some scattering cedars, whilst the whole surface of the country is overrun with the wild sage which increases in size a n d quantity in proposition as the soil becomes more sterile. Passed some U t a h Indians camped in the valley, some of w h o m came out to the road to trade with some emigrants who h a d stopped. T o w a r d s sundown we reached the end of the valley and encamped near the creek. We found the grass scarce here. We found some bunch grass u p o n the sides of the mountains which was so steep and rocky for our horses to climb, we p u t the lariats on them a n d staked them on the creek bank. After supper when the moon arose, some of our mess went u p the side of the m o u n t a i n with knives a n d cut a quantity of grass for the horses to last t h e m during the night. Distance — 17 miles. August 24th. — After breakfast we resumed our journey. O u r road led through a canyon or pass in the mountains, which arose bold and precipitous on either side of us. Immense quantities of rock lay strewn a r o u n d which appeared to be impregnated with iron ore, a n d the cliffs on each side are of the same character. O u r road this forenoon was extremely rough a n d rocky, requiring very careful driving to prevent our wagon from being broken. T h e character of t h e country is broken and mountainous and quite sterile. We found it very difficult to obtain sufficient grass for our horses. I n the afternoon we entered an extensive valley, and found a fine spring of water from which we refreshed ourselves, filled our water vessels, having been without water since morning. Continued down the valley 5 or 6 miles and encamped for the night. Found a few scattering bunches of grass. Owing to the lateness of the season and the immense emigration which has passed t h r o u g h here, we found the grass almost entirely consumed, in consequence of which our horses have fared rather bad for several days past for w a n t of the necessary feed. M a d e about 18 miles today. August 25th. — O u r course today was still down the valley, the country presenting the same sterile appearance, water a n d grass scarce. Towards evening however, the grass became quite a b u n d a n t a n d plenty. O u r horses having been on short allowance for some days, we encamped before sundown in order that they might recruit themselves. 14 miles today. August 26th. — Pursued our course down the valley, reached the end about 2 o'clock, P.M. Entered a canyon a m o n g the mountains, the road tolerably steep but smooth. T o w a r d s evening we descended into a small valley, a n d encamped at the head springs of Canyon Creek, a tributary of H u m b o l d t River. A few miles to the south of us tower the H u m b o l d t Mountains, whose highest peaks are partially covered with snow. T h e whole country thus far, is extremely broken a n d mountainous, there are valleys of some considerable extent, which are susceptible of cultivation. T h e country generally, however, may be termed a desert, the grass very scarce, having been eaten down by the


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vast multitude of horses, mules, and oxen which have passed through. T h e country is destitute of timber except upon some of the highest mountains, and is principally cedar. U p o n the margins of the streams grown stunted cotton woods and willows, which together with the artemisia or wild sage, grease wood, etc. completes the vegetation. Distance today — 20 miles. August 27th. — Continued our course down the valley of Canyon Creek. For a few miles after crossing a ridge we entered upon a more open and level country. T o the south are the H u m b o l d t Mountains, the highest range in this vicinity upon the most elevated peaks of which the snow rests in dazzling whiteness. O u r road here passes the north end of the range whose general course is north and south. T o the north and west of us, the dim and misty outlines of the mountains are scarcely perceptible, from the smoky nature of the atmosphere. We are now fairly within the circle of the great interior basin of California. 18 A vast desert of burning sands strewn with heaps of volcanic ruins as far as the vision can extend. There is a b u n d a n t and satisfactory evidence that nature has underwent some terrible and mighty convulsion. A scene of more complete desolation could not well be imagined. T h e parched and stunted vegetation struggling for existence, the thirsty a n d cracked earth, drinking and absorbing the feeble streams which flow from the mountains, together with the universal and deathlike stillness which reigns around, naturally inspires the mind with a train of gloomy forebodings and enkindles a feeling of awe a n d admiration. But, the mighty forces which wrought this ruin and desolation around now lies dormant and pent u p in the bowels of the earth, where it has slumbered for ages ready to leap forth at the command of the Almighty, with the accumulated power and energy of centuries, with a force that will shake earth to her center a n d spread ruin and desolation through the fair fabric of creation. We are now upon the head waters of H u m b o l d t River. O u r course today was southwest. Continued down the valley and encamped for the night. Distance today — 20 miles. August 28th. — O u r course today was down the valley of H u m b o l d t River. This is quite an extensive valley and abounding in excellent grass. Early in the season the valley was inundated with water, in consequence of which we have an unusual abundance of grass, a fortunate circumstance for us considering the vast emigration which had preceeded us, the advance guard of this immense army of emigrants having passed during the overflow and prior to the a b u n d a n t growth of grass and carrying with them feed for their animals. H a d it not have been for this, there would have been considerable suffering, as but little grass could be had upon the sandy plains and barren side of the mountains. T h e weather here was extremely w a r m and sultry, the nights cool but without any dew. I found this portion of the country very different from what I had anticipated, from the idea of the term "Great Basin" which I supposed was a level and low section of country with but few highlands, although in reality it is a basin of vast extent and of great elevation, but broken and mountainous and traversed in all directions by innumerable ranges of mountains, some of which are of considerable elevation. It is 18

This would be present-day Nevada.


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an immense desert with few exceptions and were it not for the few streams of water which flow in it would be impassible for m a n and beast. Pursued our course down the valley and encamped on the banks of the river convenient to grass and fuel. M a d e some twenty odd miles today. August 29th. —• Resumed our journey early this morning. N o particular change in the appearance of the country, our course still lay down the river bottom. O u r road diverged two or three times today from the river which entered canyons among the mountains. After crossing some low ridges, we came again into the valley. Continued on till near sundown and encamped near the river where we found an abundance of excellent grass for our horses w h o know how to appreciate it. We use great caution with our horses to prevent t h e m from straying or getting stolen by Indians who infest this route a n d commit depredations of various kinds upon emigrants. I n selecting our c a m p i n g place, we endeavored to find an open space convenient to grass and water. W e stake out our horses at some distance before dark, reserving a sufficient space n e a r the wagon for them to graze during the night. Get through cooking generally before dark in order that our fire m a y not be discovered, and securing our horses near us, each one taking his regular t u r n at standing guard half the night each. This we found to be a severe duty, worn down by the fatigues of a long days m a r c h through the burning sands, but to which we cheerfully submitted, considering that not only our safety but perhaps our lives depended upon our watchfulness and vigilance. We h a d not as yet been molested by t h e m although we had traveled most of the way entirely alone, frequently camping miles from the vicinity of other emigrants. Nevertheless we were satisfied that the Indians were lurking near us, watching an opportunity to m a k e a descent upon us, which they could easily have done as we were poorly prepared to resist an attact, having but one serviceable gun and a pistol which only went off occasionally. But of this, of course, the Indians knew nothing about, accordingly making a bold front thinking it our best policy, the Indians generally not willing to r u n the risk of being shot for the sake of plunder, but stealing unawares upon the emigrant in the dead hour of night when he least expects them and silently stealing away his horses, mules, and oxen. Several instances of the kind occurred near us on several occasions where large companies were thus robbed from w a n t of proper vigilance a n d allowing too great scope for their stock. Traveled 20 miles today. August 30th. — Continued our course down the valley. About 10 o'clock, A.M. we came to the junction of the southern road or cut off from Salt Lake, where we met a n u m b e r of emigrants w h o came by the cut-off, some of w h o m left Salt Lake City ten days before we did. They report the desert over one h u n d r e d miles in extent without feed a n d water, p a r t of the road west of the desert very rough and difficult. T h e distance to the junction is called 375 miles by this route, while the old trail or northern route is 350 miles and decidedly the best. T h e majority of emigrants who come by the southern road were induced to believe from reports circulated at the Lake, that it was the best route and that it shortened the distance very materially and supposing they could make the trip through to the mines in about 20 days laid in their supplies accordingly. W h e n at this stage of their journey, the supposed time having already elapsed and the distance only half accomplished, many of t h e m unfortunately found


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themselves nearly out of provisions, some having but a few days supply on h a n d a n d b u t little chance of obtaining any m o r e as the majority of emigrants h a d barely sufficient to last t h e m through a n d could not with safety dispose of any less they too might suffer. F r o m the emigrants we learned t h a t the Indians h a d been very troublesome on the cut-off route a n d t h a t not long since a battle h a d been fought between the Indians a n d a party of emigrants in which six of the latter were killed, five m e n a n d one boy. O n e of the m e n was supposed to be 70 or 80 years from appearance, his head being perfectly white. T h e emigrants interred their remains a n d in searching around found the bodies of two Indians w h o no doubt were killed in the same affray. While on the northern route, the Indians confined their depredations to stealing horses a n d mules and offering no violence to persons as yet as far as we knew of. W e h a d so far escaped molestation from t h e m which was doubtless owing to the precautionary measures we h a d adopted, and our unceasing watchfulness a n d vigilance to which we owe our safety. T h e river below the junction of the two roads enters a canyon through which the road lay for about 5 miles, when we again emerged into the valley and encamped on the river bank convenient to grass a n d fuel. D i s t a n c e — 18 miles. August 31st. — Nothing of particular interest transpired today. J u d g i n g that we were in the advance of the balance of our company, wTe inscribed our names a n d date on a large rock by the road side. September 1st. — Resumed our journey as usual this morning. T h e road here diverged from the river a n d crossed a range of hills. Part of the way the road led t h r o u g h a canyon which was extremely rough a n d rocky. I n the course of the forenoon we saw near the roadside a h u m a n skull, which from appearance we supposed to be t h a t of a white m a n w h o h a d recently died or was killed perhaps by Indians. T h e skull looked fresh, some of the sinews were yet attached to the jaws. Some emigrants w h o overtook us stated that they saw a short distance behind, p a r t of the body a n d lower extremities of a white m a n not yet decayed a n d to w h o m no doubt t h e skull belonged. This in all probability was one of the many footmen who travel alone a n d thus fall an easy prey to the treacherous Indians. Stopped at noon near some springs where we rested a n d ate our dinner, after which we continued our course till near sundown a n d encamped on the river banks. D i s t a n c e — 17 miles. September 2nd. •—• Early this m o r n i n g whilst we were preparing breakfast, some of our old company overtook us unexpectedly, they having come by the cut-off. W e were all very glad to meet each other again and exchange friendly salutations and talk of past occurrences. T h e r e were five of t h e m ; namely, Brookins, Cole, Adams, Wiley, and Arthur. 1 9 T h e y h a d dropped their wagon after crossing the great desert a n d packed u p o n their horses which accounts for their overtaking us as we still retained our wagon. T h e y report unfavorably of the cut off route, there being a great deal of suffering a m o n g emigrants, and the distance as great if not greater t h a n the northern route. T h e y left the balance of the company in a rather critical situation, their teams having 18

As usual Taylor does not clearly identify the parties named.


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failed and from the great scarcity of feed and water, it was feared that they might suffer considerably. Crossed another range of hills this forenoon, after which our course lay down the river bottom in a west course. Passed the grave of a young m a n by the n a m e of Bowles of Illinois who was shot about two weeks since in a fight between the emigrants and Indians which occurred about 10 miles to the right of the road near the mountains, his friends bringing and interring his remains at the roadside. Continued on down t h e valley as usual, we encamped and found good fuel, grass and water for the night. Distance — 20 miles. September 3rd. — Left c a m p as usual this morning, our course being still down the river. Crossed the point of a mountain. T h e road was very rough and sidling. We m a d e but slow progress, after which our way lay across an extensive bottom. A perfect desert for a distance of 13 or 14 miles. T h e dust lay to the depth of several inches dry and fine as flour. T h e day was w a r m and sultry and the travel of so m a n y teams along the road raised an immense cloud of dust which was almost suffocating. About 1 o'clock, P.M., we reached the river again where we found grass and stopped to noon. After dinner we continued our course down the valley which is of great extent. H u n d r e d s of acres of the valley was covered with a luxuriant growth of wild oats which stood as high as our heads. W h e n not full grown it makes excellent feed for horses a n d cattle. Passed some large trains today, the road was crowded with wagons of every description, and horses, mules, and oxen in hundreds besides large numbers of packers, m a n y of w h o m were traveling on foot with their packs on their own backs; in fact, the road was literally lined with emigrants so we had n o lack of company. Towards evening we encamped near the river bank, where we found good grass. Distance — 24 miles. September 4th. •— Nothing particular occurred today. About noon we met a large train from Missouri consisting of 37 wagons drawn by oxen and laden with provisions principally bacon for the California market. We bought a few pounds of bacon and coffee for which we paid t h e m 50^ per pound, the majority of the emigrants being short of provisions. We encamped near the river. Distance — 20 miles. September 6th. — Left c a m p about 5 o'clock this m o r n i n g to h u n t grass, being obliged to keep our horses tied u p . After going about iy2 miles we came to good grass and water where we remained till near noon to allow our horses to recruit. We then took our dinners and started on our way. T h e road today has been very bad, the sand very deep, making very h a r d pulling; the whole country being in fact a perfect desert except along the river bottom. T h e weather is quite hot through the day. T h e nights are very cool, no dew of any consequence falls. Here we are approaching the sink of the river. T h e country still mountainous and barren — no wood to be seen yet. Kept on till near sundown when we encamped on the river bank. M a d e about 10 miles today. September 7th. — Resumed our journey as usual. O u r road soon left the river bottom a n d on the bench of the mountains the road in the forenoon was very sandy, being


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several [illegible] for our horses in ascending a slight rise it was with difficulty our horses could pull the wagon. About noon we turned in to dinner. F o u n d poor food for the horses. After remaining about iy2 hours we started again. T h e road lay along the river. About the middle of the afternoon we stopped to camp, finding excellent grass of which we cut near 300 pounds to last across the desert which is some 30 miles distant a n d very little grass to be had this side of the desert. Last night was w a r m and sultry. During the night we h a d heavy t h u n d e r and lightning, with it smart showers of rain — the first we have h a d with one exception since leaving Salt L a k e City. M a d e about 15 miles today. September 8th. — H a v i n g laid in our supply of grass we left c a m p as usual. After going a few miles our road left the river. Ascending the bench of the mountain we found the road very deep with a fine dust which the wind lifted as we passed along whisting it aloft in circling eddies. I n about 10 miles we reached the river again where we stopped to noon, t h e roads upon both sides of the river lined with emigrants. Continued down the river alternately in the bottom and on the bench of the mountains, the country still a most sterile appearance, broken and mountainous and destitute of timber, sage, and other bushes, together with willows being about the only thing seen. Camped near sundown on the river, finding good grass a n d water. We m a d e about 15 miles today. September 9th. — T h e road this forenoon led down the river bottom and was pretty good. Stopped about noon to rest after which we ascended the bench of the mountain along which we traveled until near sundown when we descended into the river bottom and encamped. F o u n d the grass very scarce. T h e Kendalls camped on the opposite side of the river from us — all well. 20 M a d e about 20 miles today. September 10th. — O u r road today has been a difficult one on the bench of the m o u n tain, being very dusty a n d cut up. T h e whole country as far as the eye can reach presents one of the most dreary and desolate pictures my eyes ever rested upon. N o grass except in the river bottom which is very scarce owing to the vast emigrations, some portions of which are completely swept of every blade. Along this strewed the remains of wagons, harness, clothing, etc., the persons abandoning their wagon a n d packing upon animals. T h e road is literally strewed with dead cattle, horses, and mules. Stopped to noon giving our horses some of the grass we h a d cut. Pursued our journey along the bench of the m o u n t a i n through the dust and sand and encamped on the river bottom making about 20 miles. O u r horses for the last few days have nearly run down for the want of proper feed. September 11th. — Resumed our journey ascending the bench of the mountain, the road still dusty and sandy, getting worse if possible. Every day grass getting thinner and more scarce making it very difficult to keep u p our horses. H a d it not been that we were lucky in cutting grass a few days before, our horses would have given out. Stopped at noon to rest our horses, giving them the last of the grass we had cut. From appearances we supposed we were approaching the meadows. Pursued our journey 20

T h e Taylors and Kendalls were in periodic contact throughout their overland crossing.


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a few miles find it to be the case. Passed through some old camping grounds where emigrants have stopped to prepare for the passage of the desert. Saw immense quantities of every variety of articles thrown away, horses, wagons, cooking utensils, boots, shoes, clothing, stoves, etc., etc., together with hundreds of dead cattle, horses and mules presenting somewhat the appearance of a battlefield. K e p t on a few miles and encamped at the m e a d o w of the bank of a running stream of water, intending to recruit our horses and cut grass for the desert which is about 15 miles distant (to the sink) . 2 1 F o u n d a n u m b e r of emigrants here on the same business, quite a n u m b e r of the digger tribe of Indians prowling around seeking opportunities to steal horses, mules, etc. M a d e about 17 or 18 miles. September 12th.—-Remained in c a m p today to recruit ourselves a n d horses. Cut grass a n d prepared for crossing the desert which is 40 miles across, our c a m p , at present being about 15 miles from the sink of the river which is the commencement of the desert. W e cut about 150 pounds of a species of cane or reed which is very good and nutritious, the grass being very difficult to get growing in swampy places. In order to get to it you are compelled to wade sloughs, etc. besides standing in water to your knees in order to cut it. T h e cane we procured on dry ground in a short time. This is a general rendezvous for emigrants preparatory to crossing the desert. T o d a y a m a n arrived with a wagon load of flour from Carson River valley to sell to emigrants, besides a n u m b e r of m e n with pack mules with flour, coffee, sugar, brines $1.25 for a p o u n d , bacon from 500 to $1.00 per pound, other things in proportion. T h e r e is a general scarcity of provisions a m o n g emigrants, some being in a suffering condition, living for days u p o n [illegible] beef alone. September 13th. — Resumed our journey as usual this morning, intending to go but a few miles toward the desert to secure good camping ground with grass and water. Some 4 or 5 miles from c a m p we found some excellent grass which we cut the day previous, the horses not liking it m u c h . Cut a n d bundled some 200 pounds or more, in the meantime allowing the horses to graze. Proceeded on. T h e road lay through the bottom, being very dusty a n d sterile. N o grass or water near, the horses becoming fatigued, one of them soon giving signs of giving out, we unhitched, p u t t i n g the remaining one in its stead, kept on. Coming in sight of a lake or sink of the river, this cheered us u p , b u t upon reaching it we were greatly disappointed finding it strongly impregnated with saleratus and salt [alkali] a n d unfit for use. W e were compelled to proceed a n d going a short distance, one of our best horses fell in his harness in the road from fatigue a n d thirst. We urged him on, however, a mile or two and encamped near sundown in company with some 5 or 6 wagons — emigrants from Iowa. O u r prospects for the present looking rather gloomy, we felt more or less depressed in spirit, being foiled as it were upon the very threshhold of the desert, but none the less determined, our intentions were to have retained our wagon to carry our water and grass across the desert, then to throw it away a n d pack our remaining 21

This is probably the Humboldt Sink.


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baggage and provisions on the horses. But, the prospect for either arrangement being very slim, our thirst being so great, we were compelled to use the water which is m u d d y and very disagreeable to the taste, using it for cooking, etc. T h e weather here is disagreeably w a r m through the day, the nights very cold, making it difficult to keep w a r m with all our clothing and blankets. Notwithstanding our difficulties, we are well a n d hearty and intend if our horses fail to shoulder our packs, to foot it the balance of the way, the distance being over 200 miles. M a d e almost 15 miles today. September 14th. — Remained in camp today being unable to proceed on account of the condition of our horses. I n part, m a d e an arrangement with a m a n from Iowa to haul our baggage and provisions across the desert for which we gave him our wagon and harness, intending then to pack upon our horses, should they be in a proper condition. If not, we shall resort to some other means. Emigrants in every possible condition are passing hourly, packing on horses, mules, oxen, a n d large numbers on foot with their packs on their backs. W e are still forced to use the slough water for cooking, drinking, watering our horses, etc. We are not alone in this respect, hundreds of others being caught in the same predicament. It is a common and perhaps a true saying that "misery loves company". Be this as it may, it is no joking matter. We are some 8 or 10 miles from the terminals of the sink which is the commencement of the desert. We expect to make an early start in the morning. September 15th. — Started this morning between 3 and 4 o'clock. After traveling about 10 miles we came to the sink and laid by to breakfast and rested our horses and gave them feed. Crossed the slough of the river on the southside, filling our water vessels with water from the slough which was so highly impregnated with alkali that we could scarecely use it, b u t with us it was hobson's choice. Started upon the desert about 9 : 0 0 A.M. T h e weather w a r m but not disagreeably so. O u r course being south across the desert towards Carson's River. About 1:00 P.M., one of our horses gave out from exhaustion a n d we were reluctantly compelled to leave it to its fate. We learned afterwards that one of the m e n belonging to the train who was behind seeing the condition of the horse, cut its throat thus releasing it from its misery in proportion. As we advanced, we saw the carcasses of horses, cattle, etc., strewed along the road. I n fact the entire distance, 40 miles, literally lined with the dead bodies of animals from which an intolerable stink arises. T h e r e are hundreds, perhaps thousands, thus laying along the way, besides hundreds of wagons, some entire, others torn to pieces with an ennumerable quantity of articles of every description such as are required for an expedition of this kind. But, owing to the failure of teams in crossing, emigrants were compelled to abandon and resort to packing u p the remaining animals or upon their own backs. Continued on till about 3:00 P.M. to water and feed. After remaining two hours we pushed forward on our toilsome way. T h e road for the most p a r t being dusty and sandy, m a d e slavish work for the stock already suffering for want of proper feed and good water. But this was no time for delay. We pushed onward till after night which was cool and pleasant, it being a clear moonlit night.


Crossing of Carson River was done by two artists. H. V. A. von Brechkh, who was with the Captain James H. Simpson exploring and surveying expedition of 1859, did the original drawing, and J. J. Young made the finished watercolor. This painting is in the Cartographic Division of the National Archives, Washington, D. C.

As we passed along the wrecks increased u p o n our vision; horses, wagons, oxen lay scattered a r o u n d on all sides as far as we could see; the clearness a n d stillness of the night interrupted only by the noise of t h e passing train as we slowly moved along. This valley of d e a t h was calculated to p r o d u c e any b u t pleasurable sensations. Continued our weary way t h r o u g h d e e p sand a n d dust until a b o u t 12:00 at night. W e lay down to rest, m a k i n g some 30 miles of the distance, giving the stock t h e remaining feed a n d water. September 16th. — After enjoying a few hours sleep u p o n the ground, we resumed our journey just before the break of day. As the day d a w n e d u p o n us presenting a most gloomy aspect, passed several graves one of which the wolves h a d been digging to get t h e corpse b u t owing to the sandy n a t u r e of the soil, they were not able to succeed. W e soon discovered a long strip of woods in the distance — a favorable sign of water. Soon m e t some m e n returning w h o h a d gone ahead to the river who told us we were near. W e soon reached Carson's River in which ourselves a n d our horses quenched o u r thirst from p u r e r u n n i n g water. T h e river here is some 20 or 25 yards wide a n d 2 to 3 feet deep. T h e banks are fringed w i t h willows a n d large cotton t r e e s — a n agreeable sight to us. All remained at the river until afternoon. O u r prospects looked r a t h e r gloomy.


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After revolving the m a t t e r over in our minds a n d having but two horses left, one of our mess m a d e arrangements to get his baggage, etc., hauled it in a wagon. H a v i n g more baggage a n d fixtures t h a n they could carry, we concluded to overhaul a n d t h r o w away everything we could spare. Accordingly, we w e n t to work a n d soon m a d e things adjusted. Commenced packing, having bought more provisions, paying 200 per p o u n d for flour, 75^ to $1.00 for bacon. T h e r e are quite a n u m b e r of traders here from California with provisions of all kinds on which they m a d e a handsome profit. H a v i n g all things in readiness, we took u p our line of m a r c h going u p the river one or two miles a n d encamped for the night. F o u n d a little grass a n d willows for o u r horses across the river. September 17th. — Commenced our journey this m o r n i n g u n d e r more favorable circumstances, having eaten an early breakfast and adjusted the packs on the horses, we started u p the river on our course. As we were winding our way along the road, one of our horses being very hungry, plunged into a willow thicket a n d went over the bank into a slough, getting complete [illegible] and unable to rise from t h e weight of the packs. W e flew to her relief a n d after removing the load, got her o u t without any difficulty and pursued our way until about 10:00. Stopped to feed b u t could get nothing but willows which our horses could not eat. Ate our dinner a n d went on. A few miles u p the river found some grass. T u r n e d the horses to graze after which we continued on following the river, the main road leaving the river for 12 miles, over a strip of desert without grass or water the road along the river being a pack route and impracticable for wagons, sometimes passing along the bench of a hill affording a narrow footway. Part of the way the river was through a canyon then widened out to a valley, t h e road still sandy a n d heavy and rocky. T h e country still presents a most dreary aspect being very broken a n d mountainous a n d perfectly sterile excepting along the river along the banks of which grow large cottonwood and willow trees with bushes of various kinds, grass rushes, etc. Pushed on u p the river a few miles further a n d seeing some excellent grass across the river, it being about 4 : 0 0 a n d our horses very weary since crossing the desert, we concluded to cross a n d finding a [illegible] place, we turned in to the bottom. W e found it extremely rocky which h u r t our feet considerably in wading. However, we all got over without an accident. Selected a good place for c a m p , turned out t h e horses to graze. This afternoon two m e n with a pack mule fell in company with us, intending to travel with us the balance of the way. September 18th. -— Arose early this m o r n i n g having h a d a comfortable nights rest a n d the horses doing very well. After breakfast we arranged our packs, recrossed the river and pursued our course u p t h e river bottom a n d after going a few miles, came to the junction of the m a i n or wagon road where after a distance, it again strikes the river. K e p t on u p the river a few miles. T h e road crossing a high ridge or bench leaving the river a short time, descending upon the other side into a n extensive bottom u p which we went a mile or two. C a m e to a trading post where were a n u m b e r of emigrants lying by to recruit their stock, others waiting for the balance of their company to come u p . T h e river making a great head to t h e southeast for m a n y miles, we again left the river, ascending a bench of the m o u n t a i n a n d crossing a desert of ten miles,


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c a m e again to the river which we crossed a n d stopped to noon t u r n i n g our horses out to graze. R e m a i n e d two or three hours. Continued u p the river, t h e country still extremely mountainous a n d broken, the m o u n t a i n s getting m o r e heavy as we advance. This afternoon we caught sight of some distant peaks with snow which we took to be the Sierra N e v a d a or some of its parallel ranges, the general course being N o r t h a n d South. T o w a r d s evening came to another trading post a n d turned into a bend of the river a n d e n c a m p e d for the night where we found good grass a n d let t h e horses loose to graze, selecting our c a m p i n g place u n d e r some large cottonwood trees a n d commenced operations for supper. O n e of our c o m p a n y having killed a large duck, we fell to work a n d m a d e a pot pie sticking in some pork a n d dough, m a k i n g a fine mess which with bread and coffee we m a d e a most comfortable meal which strongly reminded us of h o m e which we sat a n d talked about sometime after which we returned to rest, m a k i n g 23 or 24 miles today. September 19th. — Resumed o u r journey as usual, our course still along the river bottom. After going some 14 miles we stopped to noon, remaining about 2/2 hours, we started again. I n a b o u t 3 miles we reached a m o u n t a i n bench or ridge, the road here leaving the river. W e ascended the ridge which we found very rocky and dusty a n d fatiguing to ourselves a n d horses. T h e mountains growing more heavy a n d timber beginning to a p p e a r in a b u n d a n c e m a k i n g quite a contrast to the bald a n d barren hills a n d mountains we have seen for some h u n d r e d s of miles, the distant peaks of the Sierra N e v a d a M o u n t a i n s looming u p in bold relief against the sky. Pursued o u r course across the ridge a distance of 12 miles where we again struck the river after sundown. T h e grass at this point was completely eaten off so we were compelled to go on. This is a very b r o a d a n d extensive valley [Carson]. After going some 4 miles u p the bottom, we succeeded in finding good grass a n d water, it being a bright moonlight night a n d about 8 : 0 0 when we got in, encamped for the night after p a r t a k i n g of some coffee a n d bread. M a d e some 30 miles today. September 20th. — R e m a i n e d in c a m p later this m o r n i n g in consequence of our hard drive yesterday in order to allow our horses to feed sufficiently. Started about 8:00. O u r course lay u p the valley. Again o u r general course today being southwest along the base of the m o u n t a i n s which rise on o u r right thousands of feet in elevation, quite steep a n d clad with pines from the base to the summit, presenting a most grand and beautiful sight. F r o m the base burst a n u m b e r of beautiful and transparent springs a n d streams of water, cool a n d refreshing, frequently crossing our road. Towards evening we passed a n u m b e r of hot sulphur springs bursting from the base of the m o u n t a i n . T h e water too hot to hold the h a n d in a n d from which arises a hot sulp h u r o u s smell. O n our left lays extended the broad a n d extensive valley t h r o u g h which Carson River winds its serpentine course, the banks fringed with willow a n d the valley clothed with a luxuriant growth of grass looking like an immense field of ripened grain. Passed a n u m b e r of trading posts today with coffee, sugar, flour, bacon, etc. to sell the emigrants. Passed on a n d e n c a m p e d near the m o u t h of a canyon a n d a n e a r route to Sacramento City, being a pack route which we intended taking in t h e morning. M a d e about 16 or 18 miles today.


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September 21st. — After breakfast, getting everything in readiness, we commenced our journey leaving the Carson Valley. Entered the canyon which is n a r r o w a n d steep. After going a short distance we commenced the ascent of t h e m o u n t a i n which is very steep a n d rocky. T h e track is very narrow, a mere bridle p a t h passing over loose stone, gravel, a n d sand along the steep sides of the m o u n t a i n . I t was with the greatest difficulty t h e horses could climb. W e frequently h a d to stop to let them rest as well as ourselves. As we ascended we h a d a fine view of Carson Valley stretching away for miles and the river pursuing its serpentine course quietly a n d the distant range of mountains, some of t h e m capped with snow. After gaining the summit's 2000 or 3000 feet elevation, we began to descend gradually a n d about noon we reached the base or valley beyond. About the middle of the forenoon it commenced raining moderately a n d continued o n till after midnight when it ceased. O u r road today has been t h r o u g h an immense pine forest, the most beautiful trees I ever beheld growing from 100 to 200 feet in height a n d from 4 to 6 feet in diameter, straight a n d tapering away to a mere point. I n fact, the whole country is densely timbered; the valleys, the mountains from their bases to their summits which penetrate the clouds. Pursued our way along the bench of the mountains until towards evening when we descended into a valley a n d encamped for the night. T h e w e a t h e r was disagreeable, the night set in storm. W e soon collected a fallen timber a n d m a d e a good fire, it being pine and full of needles, it blazed brightly m a k i n g us all quite comfortable. Cooked our supper, spread o u r bedding u n d e r a large spreading pine, which afforded some little shelter from the wind a n d rain. T o n i g h t our prospects were rather gloomy from the fact of the lateness of the season a n d the liability of being overtaken in t h e snow, a few inches in depth of which would completely obliterate o u r road making it dangerous for us to go forward or back, added to which we h a d b u t 2 or 3 days provisions a n d m a d e us feel anything but pleasant. However, we did not despair b u t lay down to rest waiting the result of morning. M a d e about 15 miles today. September 22nd. — T h e m o r n i n g a p p e a r i n g more favorable, we concluded to go on getting o u r early breakfast a n d we were soon on our way. After going 2 or 3 miles we crossed a stream of water a n d commenced the ascent of a n o t h e r mountain. W e found it difficult b u t not so m u c h as the one yesterday. W e soon gained t h e summit from which we h a d a full view of the country. T o the right of us lay a beautiful lake whose liquid surface lay becalmed in the bosom of the mountains a n d a beautiful green valley which lay between us and the lake m a d e a scene of peculiar beauty. Descending, our road lay t h r o u g h a canyon which widened into a valley. For a short distance from the valley, we descended again into a canyon, rocky a n d steep, walled in on either h a n d with a rugged a n d precipitous side of the m o u n t a i n which rose some thousand feet towering, towering towards the sky in lofty majesty, whose peaks covered with snow were sometimes hidden in t h e clouds. R e a c h i n g the foot of the canyon a n d crossing a foaming m o u n t a i n torrent which c a m e leaping and rushing down with its spray lashing into a foam as white as snow, m a d e a scene of surpassing beauty.


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[illegible] a n d commenced the ascent of a n o t h e r m o u n t a i n ridge of some thousand feet elevation. This we found difficult b u t not so steep as t h e first one. After gaining a level spot from which burst some springs, w e took the w r o n g road which was only a c a m p road a n d led us to the top of the m o u n t a i n — the highest w e have yet climbed. D u r i n g the ascent we h a d become heated a n d covered with perspiration. W e soon felt the affects of t h e cold wind which chilled us through. W e h a d to resort to o u r coats for protection against [illegible] W e h a d one of the most extensive views we have yet had, on everyside of us arose ridge after ridge in aweful majesty as far as t h e eye could reach, while beyond us some h u n d r e d s of feet lay extended broad [illegible] of snow, little lakes a n d streams of water rushed themselves down the precipitious sides of the m o u n tain formed a scene of beautiful a n d g r a n d beyond description a n d one worth the pencil of a p a i n t e r or t h e lyric of the poet. Finding o u r mistake, w e retraced our steps a n d getting onto the right road stopped to dinner, turned t h e horses loose to graze, after which we crossed a small stream a n d ascended a n o t h e r ridge a n d descended into a beautiful valley with fine grass a n d water. W e e n c a m p e d for the night near a trading post, several emigrants lying here in c a m p grazing their stock. M a k e 15 or 16 miles today. September 24th. — Left c a m p early this morning, our course lay through a mountainous a n d broken country over m o u n t a i n ridges a n d valleys of small extent densely covered with timber. Saw some gigantic pines from 6 to 8 feet in diameter towering aloft some 200 feet in height. Saw some cedars today of extraordinary size 5 to 6 feet in diameter, rising 150 or 175 feet high. Oaks m a d e their a p p e a r a n c e today for the first time, the largest about 18 inches in diameter. T h e mountains today a r e more heavy, being now in t h e m a i n range. O u r road became m o r e difficult owing to the great height. W i n d i n g along the sides and along the ridges down again to valley through canyons, there being no grass for a distance of 30 miles, we did not halt a t noon as usual. T h e horses became quite fatigued b u t we urged t h e m on. I n the afternoon we ascended one of t h e highest m o u n t a i n s we h a d yet been on. After gaining the top, our r o a d lay along the ridge. After reaching the highest peak we h a d one of the most g r a n d and r o m a n t i c views w e ever saw. W e h a d an extensive view u p o n all sides. T o the west as far as the eye could reach rose ridge after ridge until m o u n t a i n a n d sky blended together in the distance. W e almost fancied we could see the coast range beyond Sacramento Valley, m a k i n g one of the grandest scenes my eyes ever rested upon. T h e whole country as far as we could see was densely timbered with gigantic pines, cedars, etc., their rich green foliage contrasted finely with the naked a n d b a r r e n region of the country we h a d passed over. Descended the m o u n t a i n , again the road steep a n d rocky, into a small valley or canyon crossing a fine stream of water, said to be the south b r a n c h of the American, where we found a trading post a n d ascertained where we could find grass. D u r i n g the afternoon the weather was cloudy a n d towards evening it commenced raining quite hard. Pushed on until dark a n d coming to a large stream of w a t e r it being deep and rocky. It getting dark we concluded to t u r n back a short distance a n d camp, groped our way t h r o u g h the rain a n d darkness. W e unloaded our packs u n d e r a large pine


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turning o u r horses loose to look out for themselves whilst we commenced operations for kindling a fire. T h e rain falling rapidly and everything being wet, we found it difficult. W e used u p all our matches without succeeding. We used powder, wetting some powder and saturating a rag, putting some in the g u n without wadding, fire the contents into the rag which took fire and feeding it with dry bark we succeeded in making a fire, having no tent or shelter from the rain except w h a t little the trees afforded. 22 T h e r e being plenty of wood at h a n d , we piled on large quantities, the rain still pouring down on us while one side was drying the other was getting wet, thus we kept alternately shifting a n d changing during the whole night, being wet and hungry having eaten nothing since breakfast. W e commenced getting supper making some bread and frying some meal, which we heartily enjoyed, the rain still pitting [illegible]. T h e rain continued without intermission all night and becoming completely exhausted, we wrapped our blankets around us a n d set down u p o n our packs against the tree, indulged ourselves in nodding and getting a n occasional snatch of sleep a n d awake wet a n d chilly. T h u s we passed the night a n d as far as I a m concerned it was one of the most disagreeable nights I ever spent. At length day dawned but still the rain continued which, notwithstanding was a great relief. W e n t to the river and found it past fording. Moved, camped about 1 mile to good grass and remained for the day of September 25th. About the middle of the forenoon the rains ceased and it cleared u p affording us an opportunity of drying our clothes and bedding. M a d e 30 miles today. (September 24th) September 26th. — After a comfortable nights rest we started again on our journey after breakfast, the horses getting pretty good feed during the day a n d night. This morning the creek h a d fallen so that we were able to ford and continued our journey. After going a few miles, one of our horses showed signs of failing. It being some 16 miles to grass, we urged her along. Passed several trading posts a n d ranches today along the road. K e p t on till noon, our horse failing rapidly, we took off our packs and having some grass along with us, we fed it out to the horse resting ourselves in the meantime. Resumed our journey again. I t was with the greatest difficult we could get our horse along. We lightened u p her load, carrying some things ourselves a n d walking slowly allowing her to rest frequently. T h u s we kept on until late in the afternoon when our horse stopped in the road refusing to proceed, b u t we urged her on using every means in our power to get her along to grass and water about two miles distant. Still lightening her load, we succeeded in getting her into c a m p where we found pretty good grass and turned them loose to graze, selecting a good place well sheltered by trees for our bed and rolling together a large heap of pine logs, we h a d a comfortable fire. After cooking our supper we turned in for the night u n d e r the branches of a wide spread pine, soon forgetting the fatigues of the day. M a d e about 16 miles today. September 27th. — Arose early this morning, having enjoyed a good nights rest. After breakfast prepared for our journey and finding our horses unable to proceed, we very reluctantly left her, leaving her, however, near grass and water where she would eventually recruit if left alone. 22

Apparently they soaked the rags in kerosene.


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Having now but one horse left, we were compelled to shoulder our packs, the only resource left us. After getting things arranged, started under the new arrangement which, though not a pleasant one, we put up with the best at all possible. Having but about 22 miles to make to get into Georgetown which under present circumstances, we expect will be the end of our journey, met a large number of miners the last two days going out into locations. The reports are rather unfavorable at present, but being new comers ourselves, we cannot place much credit in the different stories told us. We are resolved to see for ourselves. Stopped awhile to noon and then proceeded on. In the afternoon we had a splendid view of the Sacramento Valley away to the north and south with the coast range of mountains to the west. This was a welcome sight to us, weary and worn as we were from the long and tedious journey over deserts and dreary wastes. We felt encouraged at the near termination of our journey. Reaching a trading post towards evening, we encamped for the night, there being no grass here, we cut down some small oaks for our horses to browse upon, cooking our scanty meal. Made preparations for the night. Made about 15 miles today. September 28th. — Awoke this morning after a refreshing nights rest, after the fatigues of the day. Made preparations for our journey at once, being entirely out of provisions and money, felt rather squamish about the stomach but there was no use for repining at our lot, so shouldering our packs we made a bold push forward having 10 or 12 miles to make, our greatest solicitude being for our poor jaded yet faithful horse who had rendered us such essential service, there being no grass whatever along the way. The only thing to be had was barley which under present circumstances we were unable to procure at least until we reached Georgetown. Continued on our weary way, the road descending rapidly towards the valley which was in sight occasionally, the spot or foot hills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, which now lay to the east of us, lifting their snowy heads to the clouds so that, notwithstanding our present situation which was an unpleasant one but far better than has fallen to the lot of many others, we still had reason to congratulate ourselves upon our good fortune in having escaped the many dangers consequent upon so hazardous a journey through burning sands and desert wastes, in many places entirely destitute of grass or water with the bald and desolate mountains lifting their gloomy heads in everlasting silence, towards the sky very naturally tended to depress the spirits as we plodded our weary way, choked with thirst and suffocated with dust. Our journey had been a tedious one, many thousands who started full of hope and bright anticipation of the future found an untimely grave in a strange land among strangers and beyond the search of kind friends and relatives. A father perhaps sinking in the cold embrace of death leaving behind a helpless and dependent family of children to be cast upon the cold charity of the world; or the young man in the prime of life and full of bright anticipation, ambitious to regain a name in the world has been suddenly cut down by the ruthless hand of death, who in no respect of persons, age, or sex, or conditions of life. The road is a vast channel being literally lined for hundreds of miles with not only the bodies of men, but of vast multitudes of horses, oxen, and mules, with innumerable wrecks of wagons, baggage, clothing, etc., property to the amount of


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hundreds of thousands of dollars totally lost to the use of m a n , a n immense sacrifice to avarice a n d the love of gold. Scenes calculated to m a k e the eager m u l t i t u d e pause a n d think a n d to reflect that there are other subjects which should engage their attention besides the mere getting of gold, b u t so it is with m a n who rushes heedlessly along in the uncertain race, risk, life, limb a n d health in the pursuit of that which can give no solid or real enjoyment. About noon we arrived in Georgetown, a new place, a depot for the mining district around. Selected a place for c a m p a n d went a r o u n d to look at the operations of the mines, there being quite a n u m b e r adjacent to the town along the ravines a n d gullies. September 29th. — H a v i n g sold our remaining horse a n d buying a n d cooking some provisions preparatory to the completion of our journey to Sacramento City. Although in the mining district, o u r inclinations led us to the city being the point for which wc started a n d the prospect of meeting with friends a n d above all to hear from the dear relatives a n d kind friends, not having heard a word from them for so long a n d dreary a period. H a v i n g heard since getting into the settlements that the dreaded Cholera had again swept over the country, carrying multitudes to their graves, our minds were filled with anxious solicitude concerning those w h o m we h a d left behind, w h o m perhaps we were never to meet again in the world. O u r feelings m a y be imagined, but cannot be described. H a v i n g things in readiness, about noon we shouldered our blankets, some clothes and provisions. We started on our journey in the meantime, leaving some of our baggage in a store which we could not take with us, intending to come or send for it in a few days. T o w a r d s evening passed through a pleasant little village or mining town called Greenwood Valley a n d stopped for the night where we very unexpectedly fell in with some old acquaintances from Cincinnati — a neighbor, Joseph Cassell, M . H . Offutt, and a M r . Abrams of Cincinnati; and a M r . Jason L u d l o w of Lawrenceburg, I n d i a n a , with w h o m I became acquainted with some 10 or 11 years since in Mississippi a n d m a d e himself beknown to me. This was cheering to find old friends on the distant rearions a n d inspired us with new.energy a n d hope. 2 3 September 30th. — T o d a y being Sunday, we remained until noon with our friends, talking of h o m e a n d past occurrences, when we again set out on our journey. Continued on till dark a n d stopped for the night near a town or trading post along the road which is lined with them down to the city.

his concludes the Taylor journal. They did not "strike it rich." AcT, cording to John Colville Taylor, the grandson of Charles Wesley Taylor, they found very little gold, only enough to pay their passage back by boat.24 And thus the Taylors returned to Cincinnati with a wealth of experience but no gold. 23 Taylor uses a confusing tense here. Apparently he had m a d e the acqviaintance of Ludlow some years earlier. 24 Letter from J o h n Colville Taylor to the editor, April 5, 1967.


The President's Report For The Fiscal Year 1969-1970 B Y M I L T O N C. A B R A M S

[ T I S A PLEASURE FOR M E to make the Annual Report for the U t a h State Historical Society for 1970. My pleasure stems from the fact that there is much of a positive nature to relate. Dr. Abrams, U t a h State University librarian, has been president of the Historical Society since 1969.


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The Utah State Historical Society has been active during the past twelve months. It has logged a number of solid achievements. Its future appears bright. Its relationship with the Department of Development Services has been amenable. The Board has functioned as the effective policymaking group. Executive Director Milton L. Weilenmann, of the Department of Development Services, has shown a keen sense for the problems and aspirations of state history and has worked well with the Society on numerous occasions. Technically, the relationship in this context is one involving the Division of State History, a part of the Department of Development Services. But, with a growing membership, the Utah State Historical Society is still very much a part of the scene as it has been since 1897. The staff of the Society is dedicated and loyal. Enlarged by the addition of three capable people during the past year it now totals sixteen full-time and four part-time employees. Fiscal Report: The year has been one of a tight budget. Furthermore, it has been one of adjustment. This stems in part from the socalled Arthur Young Plan, an across-the-board salary increase to state employees, which has complicated our planning and reduced revenues available for expenditures other than personnel. Further complicating our finances was the two per cent cut for the 1970-71 budget invoked by Governor Calvin L. Rampton early in July of this year. Coupled with a tight legislative year, it has all made for a limited program. However, when one compares it with the past, this year's total operating budget is favorable as appears in the following: Actual for

Estimated for

1966-67 1967-68 1968-69 1969-70 1970-71

$115,350 125,599 139,386 158,887 186,700

These figures reveal a constant, though certainly not spectacular, growth, and the curtailing influence of inflation notwithstanding, this year's budget permits certain badly needed additional services and programs. It should be pointed out that some $22,000 of the 1970-71 budget were derived from the National Endowment for the Humanities and have no counterpart in the budgets for earlier years. Without these federal monies, the 1970-71 budget represents an increase over the previous year of little more than three per cent. But this discouraging figure does not reveal the entire picture. Forgetting the strictures wished upon us by fiscal timing for the moment, we may point to the fact that, during the


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months since the last annual report, total revenues to the Society have been: Appropriations from the general funds of the state Revenues from other sources:

..$130,000

A p p r o x i m a t e sales (Quarterlies, memberships, etc.)

28,000

Federal monies: Historic Sites Survey National E n d o w m e n t for the H u m a n i t i e s G r a n t Gifts

10,000 28,000 13,100

Total

..$209,100

A quick analysis indicates that some forty per cent of the total funds available for operation have come from sources other than the general funds of the state — about twenty per cent from membership, sale of Quarterlies, and gifts; and about twenty per cent from federal sources. There can be no question about the fundamental importance to the operation of the State Historical Society of state revenues, but, obviously, monies from external sources are important and, hopefully, will continue. Publications: For more than four decades the Utah State Historical Society has been involved in a program of publications. During that period the Utah Historical Quarterly has provided accurate and important data dealing with Utah's past. The Quarterly has been well received and highly regarded. The proud tradition continues. Authors of national renown are among the Quarterly contributors. Numerous manuscripts continue to come in. These vary widely in character and in content and in historic and literary value. Taken as a whole, however, they provide a resource that makes the future promising for the Quarterly. There are several highlights in the publication achievements of the past year to which we may point. The Winter issue of 1970 was devoted to women in Utah history. To Dr. Leonard J. Arrington, who served as guest editor, goes much of the credit for this fine issue. Hopefully, the Quarterly and others interested in Utah history, will build upon this base and elaborate further on the role of women in our past. Mrs. Helen Z. Papanikolas contributed a most excellent history of the Greeks in Utah for the second issue of 1970. Mr. Nick Papanikolas, of Cannon-Papanikolas, made it possible to increase the number of copies printed of this special issue by a generous gift to the Society. Demand has been high and, although some 2,500 extra copies were printed, the edition is practically sold out.


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Plans have been made for two special issues in 1971. The Spring issue will be devoted to Great Basin and Colorado Plateau Indians and will be produced under the guest editorship of Dr. C. Gregory Crampton, director of the Duke Indian Oral History Program at the University of Utah. Dr. Thomas G. Alexander, professor of history at Brigham Young University, will serve as guest editor for a special issue dealing with reclamation and environmental problems. A generous gift from Mr. and Mrs. Roland Woolley will make possible the publication of a biography of Governor William Spry. No topic seems more within the province of the Society. Photographs of the thirty-five governors of Utah hang in the rotunda of the Mansion. It is proper that this is so but little is known of some, particularly those of the territorial period and because of it they seem almost forelorn. A biography of one territorial governor, James Duane Doty, has been written by Mrs. Alice Smith of the Wisconsin Historical Society. Brigham Young, of course, has been the object of much attention but not specifically in his role as governor. The Spry biography begins to push back the obscurity with which altogether too many of our governors have been shrouded. Hopefully, it will suggest others. Plans are well afoot to join with two University of Utah institutions, the University Press and the Center for Studies of the American West, to issue a number of monographs under joint imprint. This undertaking will be funded from gifts to the Society and from institutional funds available to the University groups. Obviously, the stepped-up activity in the realm of publications has placed much pressure upon the publication staff at the Society. The Associate Editor Margery Ward has grown with the demands of the job and much of the director's time has been required. Arrangements have been made for a part-time editorial secretary to assist in this important branch of activity. Library: The Society's collection and preservation of Utah's history was initiated in the 1930's, principally, through donations. While gifts have continued to be the mainstay of the Society's acquisitions, books in limited numbers have been purchased since the 1940's. Through the generosity of patrons and careful management, our Utah collection has become one of the nation's most important — allowing the library to provide a signal service to scholars and citizens of our state. During the past year, one full-time person, Larry Prina, has been added to the library staff. Mrs. Delia Dye, our reference librarian, has


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Quarterly

left, joining the University of U t a h Library. T h e library holdings include the following: 14,450 12,200 10,000 831 19,000 1,500 190

Books Pamphlets Periodical volumes (estimated) Microfilm rolls Photographs Maps (estimated) Manuscripts

Service, of course, is the main object of the library. During the past year, our librarians have processed 1,673 research visits; 1,274 mail requests; 1,060 phone requests; and have provided many photo copies, microfilms, and photographs to patrons. T h e year has seen a large number of gifts, including such important diaries as those of Volney King and Levi Savage, Jr., come to the Historical Society. An especially fruitful relationship has developed between George S. T a n n e r and the library. Mr. T a n n e r has made an extensive search for manuscripts dealing with the southward movement of the Mormon church. With a sound knowledge of history and wide contacts, he has been successful in locating many heretofore obscure diaries. These, or copies of them, have been given to the Society. Volunteer workers continue to make substantial contributions to the library. Notable among these are Dr. and Mrs. William W. Newby who have worked in manuscripts and in the Society's m a p collection. We are deeply grateful to this distinguished couple and all other volunteers for their valuable contributions. Preservation: T h e Survey of Historic Sites has been a successful aspect of the Historical Society since August of 1969. At that time Melvin T. Smith was appointed preservation officer. Shortly thereafter Governor Calvin L. R a m p t o n established a State Register of Historic Sites and in the fall of 1969 appointed a Committee on Historic and Cultural Sites. Chosen for their knowledge of history, archaeology, and architecture, this distinguished group consists of: Dr. Dello G. Dayton, Dr. Eldon Dorman, Mr. Jack Goodman, Dr. Jesse D. Jennings, Mr. Theron Luke, Mr. Fred L. M a r k h a m , Dr. David E. Miller, Mr. James D. Moyle, Dr. Charles S. Peterson, Mrs. Naomi Woolley, and myself as chairman. T h e Historic Sites Committee has been active, meeting monthly. Their efforts, together with those of the staff, have resulted in the establishment of a sound preservation program for Utah. Some thirty sites


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from twelve counties, have been nominated to the National Register and the following has been placed upon it: Thomas Kearns Mansion (the home of the Historical Society), the Beehive House (L. D. S. Church), the Salt Lake City & County Building, Fort Douglas, and the Isaac Chase Mill. Some eighty-five sites from twenty-one counties have been placed on the State Register of Historic Sites. Salt Lake County, with twentyone sites on the State Register, leads the counties, followed by Washington County which now registers ten. It is anticipated that other sites will soon be added with a total of several hundred eventually taking their place on the National Register, and possibly several thousands upon the State Register. The surveying process proceeds. The Historical Society staff is limited but has sought and received volunteer help from across the state. Sites and information have been submitted by private citizens as well as state, county, and municipal officials. An inventory that is more or less complete will be established within the next year and the ongoing process of evaluation will enable the preservation office to establish priorities in the coming years. A major accomplishment of the past year has been the development of a tentative plan for preservation. Produced by the preservation staff by and with the advice and help of the Committee on Historic Sites, this plan represents Utah's first effort to order and regulate the process of preservation. In the past many of the buildings and sites that constitute our historic patrimony were destroyed in the name of progress with little or no thought of their cultural value. It is hoped that forethought and planning will now enable us to preserve the most important sites and places as an important element of our heritage. In addition to regulating preservation, the preservation plan outlines anticipated expenditures and makes the following requests for federal matching monies: 1971 1972 1973

$270,000 $497,500 $750,000

The 1971 matching request has been based on monies now actually being expended upon preservation activities within the state. The 1972 and 1973 requests presume additional state expenditures for preservation, bringing the instate total to figures that will match those requested. Federal monies for these undertakings will be available under the National Preservation Act of 1966.


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An important adjunct of the Historic Sites Survey is the program of certifying sites. The preservation staff, with the concurrence of the Committee on Historic Sites has developed certificates signifying that sites have been placed upon the State and National Registers. Many of these have been presented during the course of the year and are now displayed with pride by property owners. Recognizing that many lovely and revered older homes cannot be designated to the State or the National Register, the Committee has, also, established a Centennial Home Register. This arrangement permits beautiful and important homes that are not of sufficient historical significance to be placed upon the State Register to receive an award in keeping with their dignity and with the pride taken in them by their owners. This program is calculated to encourage heritage-minded people in their efforts to adjust the housing characteristics of an earlier age to the needs of family life today. It has, also, become apparent that the official survey for historic sites implies a marking program. An official plaque has been designed indicating that a site has been placed upon either the National or the State Register. It will be available for those institutions and parties who care to take advantage of it. During the course of the past year, preservation has attracted much favorable attention. It has, also, become apparent that it is fraught with problems. It is costly. It is increasingly apparent that the need is not to preserve in moth balls, but to extend the utility of historic buildings and sites. This is a matter of attitudes and values as much as it is a matter of economics. A culture that rejects the old and reaches wildly on to the new forfeits the bond with the past that the old provides. In this situation progress threatens to engulf us. This is dramatically apparent in the current concern over environment. Part of this broader context is the question of historic preservation. A major objective of the state's preservation program is to call the attention of Utahns to the cost of untrammeled and unplanned destruction of the physical remnants of the past, and, hopefully, to salvage a sufficient remnant to present a three-dimensional picture to this and to upcoming generations. We may point with pride to a number of outstanding preservation achievements during the past year: the Brigham Young Farm Home of the Latter-day Saints Church; the Corinne chapel of the Methodist church; the West Home in Pleasant Grove. There are others but these suffice and indicate a growing awareness of preservation.


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Luncheon guests at the Society's Eighteenth Annual Meeting listen to Judge Fred W. Keller reminisce about his experiences as a lawman in the San Juan country.

New Programs'. A number of exciting new programs have developed since my last report. Important among these is a contractual arrangement between the Society and the Utah State Parks and Recreation Commission. For some time the Parks Commission has planned a Pioneer Village-Mormon Trail Complex which will begin at Henefer and follow the Mormon Trail to "This is the Place" Monument where a recreated pioneer village will be the culminating attraction. Pursuant to this, an advisory committee was established during the fall of 1969. After meeting with top consultants in the field, the advisory committee, along with the State Parks Commission, determined to proceed with planning for the project. In July an agreement was drawn under the terms of which the Historical Society will provide a detailed historical study of both the Mormon Trail and the village upon which the future direction of the project will turn. Mrs. Margaret Lester, Kent Powell, and Charles Peterson have been assigned to the project. It is proceeding well and initial recommendations have been made. Dr. Howard R. Lamar, chairman of the Department of History at Yale University, presented the evening address at the meeting of the Society held October 31,1970.


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A second important new program is a Pilot Project funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities. Carried on in conjunction with the American Association for State and Local History, this undertaking is to promote measures to stimulate historical activities. William Alderson of the American Association for State and Local History has worked closely with the Society in initiating this program. We have been fortunate in acquiring the services of Glen M. Leonard, a Ph.D. from the University of Utah in 1970, to head the project. He is now well into the planning stages. He will work with local chapters to upgrade and broaden their activities; produce filmstrips and museum kits for use in the public schools and civic and club groups interested in history; and will encourage the development of displays of local history in banks, businesses, and elsewhere in various localities. These two major projects, along with a variety of smaller undertakings, have fully engaged the time of the Society's staff and have filled the office space of the Mansion to capacity. They are important and involve us in expanded historical activities. Awards: It has been a year of solid achievement. The Utah State Historical Society has cooperated with the American Association for State and Local History in making the Association's awards to deserving people and institutions. Charles Peterson, Dello Dayton, and I have served as a screening committee in making recommendations to the AASLH. The American Association for State and Local History Award of Merit — its most important and prestigious award — was given to Juanita Brooks for her long and brilliant service to Utah history. No one is more justly deserving. In 1930 when work relief projects were inaugurated, she served as an area supervisor for the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and later for the Historic Records Survey. Her work in preserving and transcribing pioneer diaries in this period is well known. She has won distinction as a writer and interpreter of Utah's history and is the author of several books on state and local history as well as numerous articles and reviews. Mr. and Mrs. Richard Nibley of Ephraim, Utah, were awarded the American Association for State and Local History Certificate of Commendation for their enthusiastic and effective preservation efforts. Specifically they have restored the Canute Peterson home at Ephraim and assumed a position of leadership in central Utah's preservation efforts. Dean Bradshaw of the Division of Instructional Media of the Utah State Department of Public Instruction was awarded a Certificate of


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Recipients of the Utah State Historical Society's awards for 1970. LEFT Left to right: Dr. Jesse D. Jennings (Fellow), Mrs. Helen Z. Papanikolas (Morris S. Rosenblatt Award), and Dr. Everett L. Cooley (Honorary Life Membership). BELOW Left to right: Mrs. Ruth Witt (J. Grant Iverson Service Award), Mr. and Mrs. G. Eugene England who accepted the award for their son Dr. Eugene England (Service Award), Mrs. Delia McClellan (Teacher Award), Mrs. Pearl Jacobson (Service Award), and Mr. George S. Tanner (Service Award).


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Commendation for his educational film, "They Dared the Unknown," a documentary on John Wesley Powell and his exploration of the Colorado River. Finally, the American Association for State and Local History awarded a Certificate of Commendation to the Union Pacific Railroad for its series of radio spot commercials based on history used in Utah during the Golden Spike Centennial last year. This series represented a fine example of the use of history in advertisement. In addition to the American Association for State and Local History awards, the Historical Society can point with pride to its own awards. This year's Student Awards were received by Richard A. Firmage (University of U t a h ) , Elaine Johnson (Westminster College), Diane Mower (Weber State College), Carma Lois Wadley (Utah State University), and John Woodland Welch (Brigham Young University). Service Awards were given to Mr. George S. Tanner, Dr. and Mrs. William W. Newby, Dr. Eugene England, and Mrs. Pearl Jacobson. In addition Mrs. Ruth Witt was the recipient of the special J. Grant Iverson Service Award. Mrs. Delia McClellan, elementary supervisor of Nebo District, received the Society's Teacher Award for her leadership in the development of a district guide in Utah history and her efforts to improve the teaching of Utah history in her district. Mrs. Helen Z. Papanikolas received the Morris S. Rosenblatt Award for her history of the Greeks in Utah, Toil and Rage in a New Land: The Greek Immigrants in Utah, which was selected as the outstanding contribution to appear in the Utah Historical Quarterly in the past year. Honored as a Fellow of the Society was Dr. Jesse D. Jennings. His nomination to this honor came for his contribution in the field of archeology. Dr. Everett L. Cooley received the Honorary Life Membership for his untiring and devoted efforts on behalf of Utah history. With this account of the past year's accomplishment, I close on an optimistic note. The Society has grown over the years and the spirit of growth exhibited this past year indicates that it will continue to enlarge upon its obligation to serve the citizens of Utah.


REVIEWS AND PUBLICATIONS The Lion of the Lord: A Biography of Brigham Young. By STANLEY P. H I R S H S O N . (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1969. x x + 3 9 1 + x x x v i p p . $8.95) An interesting question is whether a n "outsider" is ever going to be able to write an understanding historical or biographical work relating to t h e M o r mons. If the job can be done, it has not, to date. By "outsider," I m e a n one who has not lived a m o n g t h e M o r m o n s for a sufficient length of time to understand them on both t h e intellectual a n d t h e emotional level; a n d in these days it is to be doubted that a n "outsider" is likely to have enough incentive to want to write such a book, except as Joseph Smith a n d Brigham Y o u n g provide a quarry for a scholarly chase. I have n o t read M r . Hirshson's biography of t h a t rather ambiguous character, Grenville M . Dodge, b u t it does not a p p e a r t h a t writing u p Dodge's life prepared h i m any more successfully to deal with Brigham Y o u n g t h a n M . R. Werner's literary involvement with P. T . B a r n u m prepared him to write the last previous biography of Young, written outside t h e M o r m o n culture. I n 1925 Werner substituted for understanding an attitude — amused a n d ironic d e tachment. M r . Hirshson has substituted . . . w h a t ? I t might be difficult to say. T h e present work offers us a superficial account of Brigham Young's life down to 1844, followed by a series of chapters roughly chronological, b u t dominated by a topical arrangement. However determined M r . Hirshson may

have been to look a t Y o u n g steadily and whole, n o t for one minute, as h e says, allowing himself to forget the esteem in which t h e M o r m o n leader is still held, his external and u n c o m p r e h e n d i n g point of view reflects a singular lack of feeling for the dynamics either of Brigham Young's life o r of Mormonism. T h e flow of time has been of p a r a m o u n t importance in t h e M o r m o n experience; there has never been a day when Mormonism has attained a state of finality about anything — it has always been, a n d continues today, in a state of becoming. So also with its principal personalities. Brigham Y o u n g was n o t t h e same m a n in 1844 t h a t h e was in 1832; neither was h e t h e same m a n in 1877 that h e was in 1857. If a first-rate biography of him is ever written, it will have to b e narrative in character, I think, biography in t h e classic mold, with a n exquisite sense of how a m a n changes in t h e grip of time a n d circumstance. T h e good things t h a t m a y be said about M r . Hirshson's book are p a r t and parcel with the b a d ones. H e exhibited considerable industry in exploiting t h e sources on Mormonism accessible in the libraries of t h e East Coast, including some only newly available to scholars, like t h e Strang Papers a t Yale. H e plainly shirked work in U t a h libraries, however, a n d m u c h of w h a t is lacking in t h e h u m a n dimension of his book could have been come by only by exploiting the U t a h sources. ( M r . Hirshson says h e was denied access to t h e L.D.S. C h u r c h Historian's Office, b u t


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362 plainly he did no serious labor elsewhere in U t a h . ) W h a t he ended u p with was a sophisticated kind of scissors-andpaste job, his text enlivened with the same kind of juicy quotations which served W e r n e r so well a generation ago. W e must go on waiting for a biographer who will address himself to t h e fundam e n t a l question: W h a t kind of person was Brigham Young, really? This is at once a very simple a n d a very complex question, and hopefully someone, sometime, will get at the heart of it. D A L E L.

MORGAN

Bancroft

Library

Mormonism's Negro Policy: Social and Historical Origins. By S T E P H E N G. TAGGART. (Salt Lake City: University of U t a h Press, 1970. x i i i + 82 p p . $4.00) Perhaps the only redeeming quality of T a g g a r t ' s book is his essential theme t h a t "Mormonism's Negro policy had its origins in social a n d historical circumstances rather t h a n in revelation." T h a t m u c h can be accepted a n d has been said before by others. T a g g a r t ' s subordinate point, however, t h a t the policy "grew out of the social stress engendered w h e n the church found itself in a situation where it could not be abolitionist a n d at the same time obtain a n d build u p the land of Zion" is highly questionable. R a t h e r there is every reason to suspect t h a t M o r m o n s were proslavery initially a n d t h a t slavery was compatible with their attitudes toward Negro potential. I n his search for sound evidence, the reader m a y be willing to overlook T a g gart's somewhat cumbersome style. But deep into the short volume, disappointm e n t becomes p e r m a n e n t . T h e author omits numerous valuable source m a terials a n d relies too heavily on secondary sources. F o r instance, when tracing origins of priesthood denial to an 1879

meeting at A b r a h a m Smoot's home, T a g g a r t quotes William E. Berrett's apologetic work, The Church and the Negroid People, rather t h a n the primary source — L. J o h n Nuttall's diary. Further, in outlining Brigham Young's views on the Negro, T a g g a r t resorts to Joseph Fielding Smith's Way to Perfection instead of Young's countless speeches a n d personal papers, the most informative being his 1852 speech to the U t a h legislature (manuscript in church archives). I n treating the m o d e r n scene, T a g g a r t curiously focuses o n the relev a n t Sterling M c M u r r i n account of a conversation with David O . M c K a y concerning Negroes, a n d yet makes no reference to McKay's personal letter of 1947. While McKay's letter may be less startling, it is nevertheless a primary source, a n d offers fresh insight into the view of the m o d e r n church. Easily the most disturbing weakness is the credibility T a g g a r t places on the Smoot meeting. Zebedee Coltrin recalled to J o h n Taylor that Joseph Smith h a d told him personally in 1834 that Negroes were ineligible to t h e priesthood; hence, Elijah Abel was dropped from the q u o r u m when his lineage was discovered. T a g g a r t bemoans the absence of corroborative evidence, yet still "assumes its report to be generally correct," even though Coltrin related the incidents forty-five years after they occurred a n d while h e was in advanced years. If Smith m a d e such a stand, why did he not declare it publicly to the church? Moreover, if Abel really was " d r o p p e d from the q u o r u m , " at the wish of Joseph Smith in the 1840's, why did he represent the q u o r u m on a mission in 1883, as church records attest? Of added significance is the fact that J o h n Taylor was the president of the church who called Abel on his mission. U n accountably, T a g g a r t cryptically dismisses these crucial items as "of little consequence for the analysis." T a g g a r t then suggests t h a t Joseph Smith was "probably predisposed" to


Reviews and Publications accept the curse of C a i n : " H e had been introduced to it as a youth when he read in his geography book that all m e n are descended from the T h r e e sons of N o a h . " T h e a u t h o r claims a book called Sacred Geography, currently in the possession of the Reorganites, was owned by Smith. Even if ownership was verified, however, it would not substantiate the more difficult premise — that he read it, nor that it formed the basis for his attitude toward blacks. Failure to recognize and analyze Smith's a n d Young's ambivalence on the Negro looms as still another flaw in the book. Y o u n g is virtually ignored, a n d yet he was more responsible than Smith for enunciating the early Morm o n philosophy — that slavery was a blessing to the Negro, providing the owner treated him with kindness. Predictably, T a g g a r t does not discern the implicit connection between slavery a n d the M o r m o n belief t h a t Negroes "must serve." T h o u g h he constantly hammers at "Southern fundamentalism," his treatment remains i n a d e q u a t e ; for instance, there is no mention of M o r m o n paternalism, the most revealing example being " A u n t " J a n e James's description of her days as Smith's servant. Finally, T a g g a r t asserts that the p u b lication of the Book of A b r a h a m in 1842 provided a "theological justification" for withholding the priesthood from the Negro, yet he supplies no evidence that Joseph Smith nor anyone else used it for such a purpose. Since the reference in A b r a h a m is obscure, it is m u c h more reasonable to assume t h a t its use was a modern development in Mormonism. As is characteristic of the entire work, T a g g a r t makes an assumption not supported by his evidence. D E N N I S L. L Y T H G O E

Assistant Professor of History Massachusetts State College at Bridgewater

363 The Historical World of Frederick Jackson Turner, With Selections From His Correspondence. Narrative by W I L BUR R.

JACOBS.

(New

Haven

and

L o n d o n : Yale University Press, 1968. x x i i + 289 p p . $10.00) Surely no American historian would deny t h a t Frederick Jackson T u r n e r , Carl L. Becker, and Charles A. Beard should be a m o n g the first of their guild to be enshrined in some future hall of fame of famous scholars. Above all other historians their influence has extended far beyond the limited b o u n d a ries of their field in shaping social and political thought. Becker has h a d his due in a n u m b e r of excellent studies in p a r t based on his manuscripts; T u r n e r , whose correspondence has only lately been released, is now coming in for equally distinguished studies; b u t Beard, unfortunately, m a y never have the same careful appraisal because at his request his correspondence was destroyed. I t was appropriate that Wilbur R. Jacobs and Ray Billington should take the lead in reexamining T u r n e r ' s frontier thesis, the sources of the ideas entering into it, and w h a t remains of its validity today after a long series of devastating attacks upon it. Jacobs intensive work on white and I n d i a n relations prior to 1776 a n d his superb editing of the Letters of Francis Parkman, a n d Billington's Westward Expansion — an equally excellent account of the opening of the West to settlement a n d of the influence of that section on national polities — prepared them admirably for the task of appraising the work of the founder of the frontier school of interpretation. The Historical World of Frederick Jackson Turner is a delightful book in which letters a n d extracts of letters of T u r n e r a n d his associates are included. Introductory explanatory detail skillfully provides the necessary background for the letters which are grouped u n d e r the following chapter headings: " T u r ner's Life and Affairs," " T u r n e r ' s E d u -


364 cational Concerns," "Social History and Politics," "Problems in Writing History," and " T h e Generous Critic." I t is in these introductory remarks and in the epilogue on "Turner's Accomplishments" that Jacobs shares with the reader his profound understanding and appreciation of Turner's role in historiography, all of which is done with w a r m sympathy, but not uncritically. T h e contrast between the "flat, lacking in variety" and "professorial" letters of T u r n e r with the beautiful prose of the Becker letters which are included is noted. Yet, what is wrong with a learned and outstanding teacher writing "professorial" letters which are always "kindly, thoughtful, warm, pleasant. . . ." Becker was a supreme stylist in his letters as well as in his finished publications and T u r n e r was founder of the frontier school. Among the many interesting attitudes brought out in the correspondence are three to which I wish to allude. T h e first, Turner's view expressed after he retired to San Marino, that "the most serious g a p " in the book collection of the Huntington Library was the "Congressional Public Docs," a point that was m a d e in 1927 and which the reviewer has m a d e on more than one occasion since. T h e second, a different concept of Horace Greeley than is presented by some biographers. T u r n e r wrote of the Tribune editor that he was "the prophet and mouthpiece of that New York-New England stream of settlers which made an intellectual section in the Old Northwest and the North East" when they were "exerting a fertilizing influence upon American thought, framing social programs, and preparing reforms" that were later to be carried out. Greeley was a giant among editors and one with a strong reformist bent. T h e part he played in advancing both political and social reforms should not be submerged by u n d u e attention to his pecadillos. Third, my graduate work was begun with Turner's last Ph.D. stu-

Utah Historical

Quarterly

dent, James B. Hedges, whose challenging support for Robert Marion La Follette in 1924 carried his class along with him. W h a t a disillusionment it was to me when later I spent a year in graduate work at Wisconsin to find the climate of opinion in the History Department at that time was either disinterest or hostility toward the state's great reformer. O n e of the most delightful passages in the T u r n e r correspondence, as here given, is a sentence in a letter to Claude H. V a n Tyne, written in support of Carl Becker for a position at the University of Michigan. "His doctoral dissertation is an illustration of a delicate conscience and a training under Osgood, fighting successfully against a literary instinct." T h e fight was not quite that successful. A slight criticism might be made of the vastly detailed bibliographical note, mostly devoted to attacks upon and support for the T u r n e r interpretation. All of this has been published so many times by Billington that it seems unnecessary in this volume. Personally, I would have preferred a few more extracts from the ten thousand items of T u r n e r correspondence and more of the editor's illuminating introductions and footnotes. P A U L W.

GATES

Professor of History Cornell University

Down The Colorado: John Wesley Powell Diary of the First Trip Through The Grand Canyon, 1869. Photographs and Epilogue by ELIOT PORTER. Foreword and Notes by D O N D. FOWLER. (New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1969. 168pp. $30.00) During the 1969 J o h n Wesley Powell Centennial a number of agencies and private individuals researched diaries, letters, photographs, and other material associated with Major Powell. Some excellent books and magazine articles appeared, but these served chiefly to


Reviews and Publications illuminate our picture of Powell, to broaden our understanding of his exploratory trip down the Green and Colorado rivers, or to increase our appreciation of his influential work in government science programs. Down the Colorado is an attractive volume about Major Powell (more particularly about the Grand Canyon), which also does not pretend to put forth new, original material. Indeed its main text is a reprint of Powell's famous report of his river voyage that first appeared as a series of magazine articles in 1875. Powell made minor revisions to the articles when they were printed later in 1875 as the Smithsonian Institution official report. In 1895, seven years before his death, Powell made further minor revisions and published his account under the title Canyons of the Colorado. It is this last version that is reprinted in Down the Colorado. Eliot Porter, who first gained fame from his photographs of Glen Canyon in a Sierra Club book, is the obvious chief architect of Down the Colorado. Porter's Epilogue and his forty-eight color photographs both seem to carry the same message, to wit: (1) Beautiful Glen Canyon has been ruined by Lake Powell, and (2) it is a blessing that the dam builders have been stymied in their efforts to similarly ruin Marble and Grand canyons. A competent archeologist, Don D. Fowler, has included a few footnotes to the Powell narrative and has written an introduction. Fowler's introduction is largely a narrative background of events leading to the 1875 publication of Powell's report. In his final paragraph, however, Fowler says that perhaps Powell's ghost still stalks the Glen Canyon region, gazing down upon the lake named in his honor. Fowler then asks the question, "Is he pleased?" Fowler answers his own question with an abrupt, "I think not." That Powell was a vigorous advocate of dam-buildinof wherever it was feasible

365 is a fact conveniently overlooked by both Fowler and Porter. Also ignored is the obvious impossibility of accurately projecting a man's thinking seventy years beyond his death into an entirely changed situation, which is best illustrated by the fact that Major Powell is considered a spiritual father to both the Sierra Club and the Bureau of Reclamation. Indeed would the ghost of the wise major side completely with either of his quarreling children? Eliot Porter's color photographs, although selected with a bias, are magnificently printed. No one could deny that this is a beautiful book. But since the main body of the text, Powell's report, is readily available in inexpensive editions, Down the Colorado would seem to be strictly a luxury item. W. L. R U S H O

Public Information Officer U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Salt Lake City, Utah The Dragon on the Hill: Utah's 38th Legislature: Analysis and Comment. Edited by J E D O N EMENHISER. (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1970. xiii + 221pp. $2.25) This collection of articles by twentythree contributors analyzing and appraising Utah's Thirty-eighth Legislature is, as the publishers concede in the preface, "something of a failure" when measured against the initially conceived goal of "clearing away the cobwebs of a legislative session with one small book." But in this reviewer's opinion, based upon thirty-nine years experience as a newspaper reporter covering the legislature it is something of a success when measured against the possible goal of shedding light on the anatomy of the "Dragon" and the collection of emotional and psychological stresses and strains which impels it to act as it does. The twenty-one contributors to the comment section (a major portion of


366 the volume) themselves constitute a small duplicate of the D r a g o n with m a n y of the characteristics of the one they are describing a n d evaluating. Collectively, the articles provide a n answer to the question of why a legislature does not proceed from t h e outset of a session to deal with issues in order of their importance. T h e volume as a whole makes it quite clear t h a t one m a n ' s idea of a high priority legislative item is another man's triviality; t h a t one m a n ' s special interest lobby is another m a n ' s courageous protector of the public w e a l ; t h a t one m a n ' s responsible statesmanship is another m a n ' s irresponsible idiocy. For example, one article described in entertaining detail h o w special interest lobbyists were t h w a r t e d a n d the will of the people b r o u g h t to the attention of the legislators. This same incident struck some of t h e other contributors as one of the more obnoxious lobbying examples of the session. O n e contributor observed t h a t except for a bill which died in committee, no measure to protect the interest of consumers was given even serious consideration. Yet one of the most informative articles is devoted to an account of h o w U t a h , in the Thirtyeighth Session, became the first state in the nation to enact t h e Uniform Consumer Credit Code. Some of the most enlightening contributions from members of t h e legislature are case histories of h o w i m p o r t a n t legislation has been achieved. These should be carefully read by freshmen members of the body as antidotes to the reactions of futility a n d frustration normally suffered by newcomers. Despite this reviewer's long exposure to a n d laborious study of the D r a g o n on the Hill, he found this volume to be informative, enlightening, a n d interesting. And prospective readers who have h a d lesser opportunities to observe the beast first-hand should find it even more rewarding t h a n the full-time legislative watchers. For m a x i m u m benefit it should be read in its entirety, as the

Utah Historical Quarterly articles collectively i m p o r t m u c h information which cannot be gleaned from selected contributions read in isolation. A series of such studies, such as the publishers intend to produce in the future, will e n h a n c e t h e value of all a n d could contribute a great deal to broaden public enlightenment on the n a t u r e of the D r a g p n if only those who complain most loudly about lack of information could be induced to read this a n d subsequent volumes. O. N.

MALMQUIST

Political Editor (retired) Salt Lake T r i b u n e Pumpkin Seed Point. By F R A N K W A T ERS. (Chicago: Sage Books, 1969. xiii + 175pp. $6.00) Pumpkin Seed Point by Frank Waters is a narrative of his experiences while living at the H o p i village of Oraibi in northern Arizona, gathering information to be compiled in his most unique a n d remarkable volume, The Book of the Hopi, published in 1963. By recording for the first time the complete H o p i lore the sponsoring foundation hoped to p r o m o t e understanding and peace a m o n g t h a t group a n d to preserve for posterity their past history. D u r i n g the three years in which he was engaged in this study, the author lived in a little house just u n d e r P u m p kin Seed Point (a rocky spur on Hopi T h i r d Mesa shaped like a p u m p k i n seed). His m a n y years of association with Indians of the Southwest imminently qualified M r . Waters for this difficult assignment, yet to the Hopi Traditionalists he was scorned as another foreign intruder. Overcoming this formidable barrier a n d inducing some thirty of the older most conservative Traditionalists to reveal for the very first time their sacred a n d esoteric secrets was no small accomplishment. W h e n the "Great White F a t h e r " first sent his agents to show them the "better way," the Hopi divided in groups known


367

Reviews and Publications as either "Hostile" or "Friendly" depending on their attitude to outside influence. T h e factions are now known as "Traditionalists" a n d "Progressives" a n d still hold t h e same line. As more of their young go away to school the Traditionalists dwindle in n u m b e r b u t make u p for it with increased enthusiasm. T h e "Hostiles wanted no p a r t of the ways of the White m a n , shouting, 'Go away a n d leave us alone. W e don't want you spoiling o u r children. O u r traditions have led us in the good way of life for ages. W e don't need y o u . ' ' : This mood prevails to this day. This then was the field M r . Waters h a d to plow. Without his Hopi coworker Oswald Fredericks (White Bear) a n d his white wife Naomi (Brown B e a r ) , the project would most certainly have come to naught. Yet White Bear was not accepted into any Traditional group a n d was in a way a n outsider. After attending government schools a n d graduating from Bacon College in Muskegee, Oklahoma, M r . Fredericks h a d worked with the Boy Scouts of America in N e w York and the Y M C A in Newark, N e w Jersey, and h a d twenty years of absence from the reservation to handicap him. White Bear, however, was a diplomatic guide and interpreter in seeking out a n d interviewing individual informants in eleven villages, in making trips to shrines, a n d in attending ceremonials. T h e words of the informants were taken on a little battery tape-recorder, translated into English by White Bear, typed by Brown Bear, a n d rechecked by the three for honest interpretation. A theme of mysticism, a note of intuition — of things felt rather t h a n seen — pervades the book. I t surfaces in t h e passionate determination shown by the individual to keep a n d perform his assigned p a r t of the ritual to keep the R o a d of Life open for the benefit of all mankind. T h e a u t h o r encounters the supernatural in witches and ghosts, rocks that talk if you are tuned in, a n d

in dreams. O n e of the oldest T r a d i tionalists, D a n said, "If you are honest; if this project is to be a success, you will have four dreams." T h e dreams came, certain a n d meaningful. W h e n the Evil Eye was p u t on White Bear to do him in, M r . Waters entered the contest saying, "Certainly I believe in ghosts a n d witches . . . . But I also believe that the invisible powers of the h u m a n spirit are stronger. W e all have such powers in a fashion. I do myself. N o w I'll tell you w h a t I'll do. You bring here the most powerful witch you know a n d I'll have a duel with her. W h a t do you say? As if in answer to this rash a n d boastful challenge, a beam of light flashed full u p o n us." I n his conclusion M r . Waters states that the white m a n could learn from the Hopi philosophy. T h e i r priests foretell that mankind is nearing the beginning of a new life to be heralded by the appearance of " T h e Blue Star." A new star almost two thousand years ago led m a n k i n d to a new a n d better life. Now, we substitute knowledge for faith. If we again followed O U R star, faith would lead us to a better life. With his rich a n d a b u n d a n t vocabulary his ability to m a k e graphic combinations of words, a n d his understanding heart, M r . Waters in Pumpkin Seed Point, has added a notch to his reputation as one of the finest writers about the people of the Southwest. T h e reader cannot help b u t have empathy for the author at his reluctance to leave P u m p kin Seed Point. L O U I S E L. U D A L L

Phoenix, Joe Hill.

By G I B B S M . S M I T H .

Author Arizona (Salt

Lake City: University of U t a h Press, 1969. viii + 2 8 6 p p . $7.00) At long last appears a truly objective study of Joe Hill, legendary Wobbly organizer a n d songsmith, who was executed by the State of U t a h in 1915 for


368 the murder of a grocer. Too long has this controversial figure been the plaything of the novelist, the dramatist, and the folk singer. Labor historian Philip Foner's tense study, The Case of Joe Hill (New York, 1965) was mined down in the old canard that the Mormon hierarchy and the copper bosses were the prime movers in the conviction and execution of Hill. Smith examines Hill's Swedish unbringing, his membership in the International Workers of the World, his trial and execution, and his influence on the labor movement after his death. Smith is no apologist for the "establishment," and critically emphasizes the general suspicion and hatred permeating all of the states where syndicalism played a major role in the labor strife of the period. (Chances are that Hill would have met a similar fate in the Idaho, California, or Washington of that time.) Smith divorces the legend from the reality in his exhaustive search of the materials directly bearing on his subject. He gives proper credit to Dr. Vernon Jensen for his pioneering article, "The Legend of Joe Hill," Industrial and Labor Relations Review (April, 1951), in which Dr. Jensen interviewed Dr. Frank M. McHugh, the doctor who attended Hill, and to whom Hill supposedly confessed his "crime." From a reading of Smith's account of the trial, one can accept Smith's conclusion that only Hill could solve the fateful question of his guilt or innocence, and he stoically carried the answer to his death. Hill's nai've detachment at the trial seems to confirm that he was cast in the mold of the typical Wobbly as depicted in Donald Barnes's penetrating work, "The Ideology of the Industrial Workers of the World: 19051921" (Ph.D. dissertation, Washington State University, 1962) : apolitical, a believer in direct action, and not bound by customary conventions. The author is convincing in his conclusion that "there is considerable reason to believe that Hill was denied jus-

Utah Historical Quarterly tice in the courts of Utah. . . . Hill's case was almost certainly a fluke turned out by the judicial machinery." The memory of Joe Hill lives not just in his trial, but in his songs, in which the radical messages, wedded to popular hymns and folk tunes, "still generate unity and energy on picket lines." His appeal can be appreciated from a reading of the complete anthology included within the book, which is most attractively laid out. Congratulations to both Professor Smith and the University of Utah Press for giving us the standard by which all other books on the subject will henceforth be measured. JEROME BERNSTEIN

Assistant Professor of History Weber State College

NEW BOOKS AND PUBLICATIONS A California Portfolio: The Golden State in Words and Pictures. By DAVIS DUTTON.

(LOS Angeles:

The

Automobile Club of Southern California, 1970) Devoted Empire Builders (Pioneers of St. George).

By A. K. HAFEN.

(St.

George: Published Privately, 1969) Echoes of the Sage and Cedars: A Centennial History of Oak City, Utah, 1868-1969. By MARGARET W. ROPER. (Salt Lake City: Publishers Press, 1970) The First Book of Copper. By OLIVE W. BURT. (New York: Franklin Watts, Inc., 1968) James Madison Flake: November 8, 1859-February 4, 1946. By S. EUGENE FLAKE. (Bountiful, Utah: Wasatch Press. 1970)


369

Reviews and Publications A Kid on the Comstock: Reminiscences of a Virginia City Childhood. By J O H N T A Y L O R W A L D O R F . Edited with

Introduction DOLORES

a n d C o m m e n t a r y by

BRYANT

WALDORF.

(Palo

Alto, California: American Publishing Company, 1970)

West

ARTICLES OF INTEREST American Heritage, The Magazine of History — X X I , J u n e 1970: " F o r His Was t h e K i n g d o m , a n d t h e Power, a n d t h e Glory . . . Briefly [James Jesse S t r a n g ] , " by R O B E R T P. W E E K S ,

4ff. Navajo Indians Today. By D O R O T H Y F. R O B I N S O N . Revised a n d enlarged edition. ( S a n Antonio, T e x a s : T h e Naylor Company, 1969)

American History Illustrated — V , M a y 1970: " J o h n C. F r e m o n t , " by W I L -

The Navajo Mountain Social Organization

The American West — V I I , July 1970: "Reclamation, T h e Rise a n d Fall of

Terminology.

Community: and Kinship

By M A R Y S H E P A R D S O N

and BLODWEN HAMMOND.

(Berkeley

and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1970) The Overland Mail, 1849-1869: Promoter of Settlement, Percursor of Railroads.

Reprint. 1969) Report

By

LEROY

R.

HAFEN.

(New York:

A M S Press,

Upon the Colorado

River of the

West.

By

LIEUTENANT

JOSEPH

C.

IVES. Reprint. ( N e w York: D a C a p o Press, 1969) Thrashin'

Time:

tana Boyhood.

Memories

of a

Mon-

By M I L T O N S H A T R A W .

(Palo Alto, California: American West Publishing Company, 1970)

LIAM C. D A V I S , 4ff.

a n A m e r i c a n I d e a , " by P A U L S. T A Y -

LOR, 27ff. Arizona and the West — Twelve, Spring 1970: " M a r c u s Aurelius S m i t h : Arizona Delegate a n d Senator," by STEVEN A. FAZIO, 2 3 - 6 2 ; " T h e T r a n s -

Mississippi West in American Heritage: A n Annotated Bibliography," compiled by Catherine E. Hitchcock, 63-94 The California Historical Society Quarterly— X L I X , J u n e 1970: "Wells Fargo Staging over the Sierra," by W. T U R R E N T I N E J A C K S O N , 9 9 - 1 3 3

The Carpenter: Reflections of Mormon Life — I, Spring 1970: "Conditions Prior to Missouri E x o d u s : A Letter by Eliza R . Snow," introduction by C A R O L Y. W I L L I A M S , 4 1 - 5 0

Utah Coal: Market nomic

Impact.

Potential

and Eco-

By F R A N K C. H A C K -

M A N , CRAIG BIGLER, a n d D O U G L A S C.

W. K I R K . (Salt Lake City: Bureau of Economic a n d Business Research, 1968)

The Denver Westerners Monthly Roundup — X X V I , J u n e 1970: "Autobiography by Charles Russell," provided by FRED M A Z Z U L L A , 2 6 - 2 8

Desert — 33, July 1970: 'Hovenweep," Westward with Fremont: The Story of Solomon Carvalho. By S O P H I E G R E E N S P A N . (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1969)

by E L I Z A B E T H C A M P B E L L , 2 6 - 2 9

Dialogue: Thought—

A Journal of Mormon I V , Winter 1969: "Wil-


Utah Historical Quarterly

370 lard Y o u n g : T h e Prophet's Son at

R i m : Grand Canyon National Park,"

West Point," by LEONARD J. ARRING-

by

TON, 37-46

"Capital Reef Extended Monument,"

JAMES

FAIN,

4 - 7 — July

by D O N A L D S. F O L L O W S ,

ElPalacio — 76, N u m b e r 3 : "Disease and D e a t h A m o n g the Anasazi, some notes on southwestern paleoepidemiology," by S T E P H E N J. K U N I T Z ,

17-

21

1970:

4-9

Nevada Historical Society Quarterly — X I I I , Spring 1970: " T h e Yager Journals: Diary of a Journey Across the Plains [Part One]," by [JAMES P R E S S LEY YAGER], 5 - 1 9 ; " T h e Amer-

Idaho Yesterdays: The Quarterly Journal of the Idaho Historical Society — 14, Spring 1970: " ' T h e Fascinating Pleasures of the Far-Famed Spokane House' [Hudson's Bay Company," by ALBERT H . C U L V E R W E L L , 3 - 7 ;

ican Colonial System in Nevada [Territory]," by K E N T D . R I C H A R D S , 2 9 -

38—Summer 1970: " T h e Yager Journals: Diary of a Journey Across the Plains [Part I I ] , " 18-39

"The

Adventures of Alexander Ross in the Snake Country," 8-15

New Mexico Historical Review—XLV, April 1970: "Fort Sumner: A Study in Origins," by F R A N K M C N I T T , 1 0 1 -

The Improvement Era—73, M a y 1970: "Early M o r m o n Artist Proclaimed 'Art Discovery of 1970' [Carl Christian Anton Christensen]," by DAVID W. EVANS, 18ff.—June 1970: "Zion's Ten

Acres," by CARTER E .

GRANT,

16-19 — J u l y 1970: " M o r m o n Colonization in the F a r West," by D R . T . EDGAR L Y O N ,

10-14;

"Nauvoo:

A

Progress Report," by J A Y M . TODD, 20ff.; "Ricks: ' T h e College on the Hill,' " by D E N T O N

Y. B R E W E R T O N ,

66-67

17 Our Public Lands — 20, Spring 1970: "Mining a n Unusual Mineral [Gilsonite]," by GERALD A. H U F F ,

The Pacific Historian — 14, Spring 1970: "Leland Stanford, Midwife of t h e Movies," by N O R M A N

E. T U T O -

ROW, 85-96 Utah Architect — 5 1 , Spring/Summer 1970: " T h e Past for the Future," by GARY D. F O R B U S H ,

The Journal of Arizona History—10, Spring 1969: " T u b a City, M o r m o n Settlement," by B. IRA JUDD, 37-42

18-19

Utah Economic and Business Review — 30, M a y 1970: "Findings of the U t a h Local Government Modernization Study," by L E R O Y F . H A R L O W ,

Los Angeles Westerners Corral, The Branding Iron — N u m b e r 96, M a r c h 1970: "A Tale of Stoddard Wells a n d Beyond [Stoddard House, Milford, Utah],"

by

R.

JACKSON

STODDARD,

12-14 National Parks & Conservation Magazine: The Environmental Journal — 44, M a y 1970: "Moods of the North

18-20

1-8

Utah Law Review — January 1970: " U t a h Legislative Survey: Higher Education Act of 1969," by N E I L R. SABIN, 76-90; " U t a h Legislative Survey: T h e U C C C in U t a h , " by CLYDE A. R. R O M N E Y , 9 1 - 1 0 5 ; " U t a h Legislative Survey: T h e Family Court Act,"

by

NEIL

R.

SABIN,

" U t a h Legislative Survey:

106-21;

Criminal


371

Reviews and Publications and Civil Liability for Bad Checks in Utah," by EDWARD J. MCDONOUGH,

122-29; "Utah Legislative Survey: Utah's Judicial Administration: 1969," by CLYDE A. ROMNEY, 130-35 Western Folklore — XXIX, January 1970: "Notes and Queries — Frontier Birth Beliefs," by JUANITA BROOKS, 53-55

The Western Historical Quarterly — I, April 1970: "Strictly Personal," by

OSCAR OSBURN

WINTHER,

126-

36; "The American Association for State and Local History," by WILLIAM T. ALDERSON, JR., 175-82 Westways — 62, August 1970: "A New Park in the Great Salt Lake," by FRANK A. T I N K E R .

20-21


INDEX

Abney, J. C , Wyoming legislator who passed woman suffrage bill, 13 fn. 14 Abrams, Milton C , photograph, 350; " T h e President's Report For T h e Fiscal Year 1969-1970," 3 5 0 - 6 0 ; chairman of Committee on Historic and Cultural Sites, 354; committee member recommending awards to American Association for State and Local History, 358 Adams, M a u d e , biography, 67—71; born, 6 7 ; parents, 6 7 ; painting as Peter Pan, 6 8 ; photograph, 6 8 ; emphasis on realism, 69; first stage appearance, 6 9 ; triumphs, 70; reaction to role of Peter Pan, 70—71; died, 7 1 ; professor of d r a m a at Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri, 7 1 ; retired, 7 1 ; rumored married, 7 1 ; work with stage lighting, 71 Adondakis, George, Greek businessman in Bingham, 159 Aeschbacher, W. D., The Land Office Business: The Settlement and Administration of American Public Lands, 1789—1837, review by, 90 Agate, produced in U t a h , 242 Ajax Company, Greek business, 203 Alexander, Thomas G., "An Experiment in Progressive Legislation: T h e Granting of Woman Suffrage In U t a h I n 1870," 2 0 30 Allen, James B., " T h e Changing Impact of Mining O n the Economy of Twentieth Century U t a h , " 2 4 0 - 5 5 ; Ghost Towns of the American West, review by, 286-87 Allen, Rufus C , explored Colorado River, 210; president of Southern Indian Mission, 210; replaced as president of Indian Mission, 211 Alfieris, Mary Benakis, Greek school teacher, 184; photograph, 184 American Association for State and Local History, award winners, 358—60 American Hellenic Progressive Association, reason for founding, 186; photograph of Junior Band, 196 American Legion, led campaign against S o u t h E u r o p e a n s , 157—58; p r e j u d i c e toward Greeks, 167 American Smelting and Refining Company ( M u r r a y ) , strike called against, 123 The American West: Frontier & Region, by Caughey, reviewed, 86—87 Anderson, Sarah E., elected to U t a h State House of Representatives, 3 3 ; biography, 4 0 ; lawsuit over right to register as a voter, 40—42; major contribution to U t a h political history, 4 0 - 4 1 ; photograph, 4 1 ; bills introduced into legislature, 42; positions in U t a h Legislature, 42 Angelopoulos, Stephanos, Greek priest, 185; photograph, 185 Anthony, Susan B., photograph, 7; publication by, 8 fn. 2 Anton, George, photograph, 117 Anton, Gus, member of Salt Lake Holy Trinity church construction committee, 198 fn. 131 Arcadian Brotherhood, membership, 183

Arrington, Leonard J., "Women as a Force in the History of U t a h , " 3—6; guest editor of Utah Historical Quarterly, 352 Assumption (Greek Orthodox C h u r c h ) , consecration, 146, 1 4 7 - 4 8 ; photographs, 146, 196, 198; description, 146-47; first priest, 147; see also Greek Orthodox Church Athanasios Diakos, membership, 183 Athas, Chris, Greek businessman in Magna, 159 Athas, Peter E., Greek businessman in Magna, 159; photograph, 192; member of Salt Lake Holy Trinity church construction committee, 198, fn. 131 Athena Club, Greek youth organization, 195 Atwood, M. J., elected school trustee in Kamas, 36 fn. 9 Austrians, folklore, 60; number in Bingham (1912), 122 Avgikos, Tom, Greek businessman in Helper, 154, 159; author of article on why Greeks were reluctant to join U.S. Army in World War I, 154 B Babalis, -, labor agent, 128 Babcock, M a u d May, biography, 77-82 born, 78; decided to be elocutionist, 78 education, 7 8 ; met Susa Young Gates, 78 taught in New York, 7 8 ; converted to Mormonism, 79; family reaction to conversion, 79; left possessions to Mormon church, 79; taught at University of Utah, 79; developed university theatre, 79—80; photographs, 80; honors received, accomplishments, famous friends, 8 1 ; standards, 8 1 ; last production, 8 1 - 8 2 ; died, 8 2 ; little theatre of Pioneer Memorial Theatre named for, 82 Baker, Anna, officer of Industrial Home Association, 265 Baker, Pearl, Trail On The Water, reviewed, 282-83 Barboglis, Joseph, Italian banker in Helper, 180; K u Klux Klan threatened, 180 Bates, Redelia, eastern suffragist, 11 Batestas, Andrew, Greek businessman in Ogden, 158-59 Beale, Lieutenant Edward, reached Colorado River, 209 Bear River, description of country, 324; description, 331-32 Beatie, Phoebe, photograph, back cover, No. 1 Beehive House, placed on National Register of Historic Sites, 355 Bellaros, Ellen, photograph, 142 Benakis, Harry, Mrs. Greek school teacher, 183 Bennett, Russ, and Kay, A Navajo Saga, reviewed, 277—78 Bennett, W. H., labor promoter, 174 Berbis, Mary Nikas, photograph, 193 Bernstein, Jerome, Joe Hill, review by, 367— 68 Big Sandy, description of country, 322 Bigler, Henry, response to sea gulls, 232


Index Bingham, Greeks sent to work in mines, 116 photograph, 1 2 1 ; strike of 1912, 121-33 number of immigrants ( 1 9 1 2 ) , 122; de scription, 122; labor organizers active in, 123; miners demands, 123; native American miners against strike, 123; payscale for miners, 123; strike called, 123; strike issues, 123, 124, 125, 127, 129; National Guard and special deputies brought to, 124; strikers ordered out of mines, 124; mine owners claimed miners need not pay for jobs, 125; activity during strike, 126; arms brought into, 126; attitude of striking miners threatened to capitulate, 127; strikebreakers enter, 127, 129, 130, 1 3 0 3 1 ; deputies brought in, 128; residents leave, 128; Skliris hired strikebreakers for the mines of, 128; Charles Moyer convinced strikers not to return to work, 129; Japanese strike, 129; account of unarmed striker shot by mine company guard, 130; Highland Boy mine opened by strikebreakers, 130; U t a h Copper work resumed by s t r i k e b r e a k e r s , 130; b a t t l e in Galena Gulch, 1 3 1 - 3 2 ; achievements of 1912 strike, 132; raise in wages gained by strikers, 132; strike ended, 132; striking miners desperate, 132; bootlegging, 167; photograph of raid on bootleggers, 168 Borovilos, Paul, photograph, 199 Boulos, Gus, Greek sheep broker, 165 Bourazanis, Dorotheos, photograph, 120 Bowen, Albert E., married E m m a Lucy Gates, 74 Bowen, E m m a Lucy Gates, photographs, 65 7 3 ; daughter of Susa Young Gates, 71 granddaughter of Brigham Young, 71 won piano competition, 7 1 ; biography, 7 1 - 7 5 ; studied in Europe, 7 1 - 7 3 ; decided to take vocal lessons, 72; voice tutor, 72; debut at Royal O p e r a House in Berlin, 7 3 ; performed for Kaiser Wilhelm, 7 3 ; transferred to His Majesty's Royal O p e r a House in Kassel, 7 3 ; married, 74; music teacher, 74; opinion of Alex Templeton, 74; organized Lucy Gates O p e r a Company, 74; testimonial concert, 74; died, 75 Bradshaw, Dean, recipient of American Association for State and Local History Certificate of Commendation, 358-59 Bridger, Fort, painting, 323 Bright, William H., Wyoming legislator introduced woman suffrage bill, 11, 12; biography, 11-12, 13 fn. 14 Brimhall, Lila Eccles, student of M a u d May Babcock, 81 Bringhurst, William, explored Colorado River, 210 Brodie, Fawn M., "Sir Richard F. Burton: Exceptional Observer of the Mormon Scene," 295—311; reminiscences of college days, 296; photograph, 297 Brooks, Juanita, recipient of American Association for State and Local History Award of Merit, 358 Brown, Arthur, attorney, 42 Brunvand, J a n Harold, Cowboy and Western Songs: A Comprehensive Anthology, review by, 280-82

373 Bulgarians, number in Bingham ( 1 9 1 2 ) , 122 Burton, Richard F., "Sir Richard Burton: Exceptional Observer of T h e Mormon Scene," 2 9 5 - 3 1 1 ; painting, 2 9 5 ; delighted in shocking people, 2 9 7 ; life denounced as immoral, 297; opinion regarding "good" men, 297; opinion regarding the devil, 297; indignant, 2 9 7 - 9 8 ; accomplishments, 298; cannibalism religious ceremony, 298; interests, 2 9 8 ; true m a n of the Renaissance, 2 9 8 ; scholar, 2 9 9 ; visited Mecca, Harar, and Salt Lake City, 2 9 9 ; interviewed Brigham Young, 300; learned of three opinions concerning Mormons, 300; attitude of Mormons toward book by, 3 0 2 ; advantage as historian, 3 0 3 ; observations of polygamy, 3 0 4 - 5 ; no interest in politics, 3 0 5 ; humor of, 307, 3 0 8 ; reason Mormon male obedient to church hierarchy, 3 0 7 ; detachment about religion, 3 0 8 ; metaphors in writing, 3 0 8 ; perception of character, 3 0 9 - 1 0 ; description of Joseph Smith, 310; description of Brigham Young, 3 1 0 Buzis, John, arrested, 175; Greek coffeehouse owner, 175

Caine, J o h n T., photograph, 44 California, rejected woman suffrage, 1 6 - 1 7 ; enacted woman suffrage, 19 California Gulls, see Sea Gulls Callas, Ethel Baker, student of M a u d M a y Babcock, 79 Campbell, Eugene E., Utah: A Students' Guide to Localized History, review by, 278-79 Campbell, J o h n A., governor of Wyoming Territory, 15; personal habits, 15; signed woman suffrage bill, 15, 2 1 ; vetoed measure to repeal woman suffrage, 17 Campbell, M a r t h a M., officer of Industrial Home Association, 265 Campfire Frontier: Historical Stories and Poems of the Old West, by Hafen, reviewed, 9 0 - 9 1 Cannon, Abraham H., stated Mormon church hierarchy divided over woman suffrage, 35-36 Cannon, Angus M., lost election for state senate, 3 2 ; Republican candidate for U t a h Senate, 3 2 ; married M a r t h a Hughes, 4 3 ; photograph, 44 Cannon, Frank J., candidate for United States senator, 48 Cannon, George Q., advocate of woman suffrage, 22, 2 5 ; opposed immigration restrictions, 2 2 ; photographs, 23, 256; candidate for United States senator, 4 8 ; attempted to defeat Poland Bill, 257; attempted to prove Salt Lake County probate court fair in decisions, 257—58 Cannon, M a r t h a Hughes, photographs, 31, 4 4 ; Democratic candidate for U t a h Senate, 3 2 ; first woman state senator in U.S., 32; won election for state senate, 32; biography, 4 2 - 4 8 ; legislator, 4 2 - 4 8 ; children, 43, 4 7 ; established nurses training school, 4 3 ; married, 4 3 ; medical student, 4 3 ; phy-


374 sician, 4 3 ; schooling, 4 3 , typesetter, 4 3 ; activities in woman suffrage movement, 43—44; appraisal by reporters, 4 5 ; defended polygamy, 4 5 ; bills introduced in legislature, 45—46; appointed to State Board of Health, 4 6 ; board member of Deaf, D u m b and Blind School, 4 7 ; did not follow husband's dictates, 47 Cannon-Papanikolas, gift to U t a h State Historical Society, 352 Canyon Creek, tributary of Humboldt River, 334; description of country, 334—35 Captain, Gus, photograph, 192; member of Salt Lake Holy Trinity C h u r c h construction committee, 198 fn. 131 Carbon County, Greeks sent to work in coal mines of, 116; strike of 1922, 1 6 6 - 7 5 ; attacks against Greeks in, 167; bootlegging, 167; reason for striking, 168; Scofield incident, 169—70; deputy killed and officer of Standard Coal Company and striker wounded by strikers, 171 ; National G u a r d sent to quell strike in, 1 7 1 ; confrontation between strikers and company officers, 171—72; aftermath of shooting, 172; Helper searched by National Guard, 172; martial law in Helper, 172; mob action in Helper, 172; result of strike of 1912, 175 Carbon Fuel Company, Greek business, 203 Carroll, E m m a L., officer of Industrial H o m e Association, 265 Carson River, painting, 342; description, 3 4 2 ; description of country around, 342— 44 Carson Valley, description, 344-45 Cassius Creek, description of country, 333 Castle Gate, mine explosion, 177; men killed in explosion, 177; relief for families of mine explosion victims, 177; photograph of burial of Greek miners killed in mine explosion, 178; photograph, 179 Castles, George, Greek businessman in Salt Lake City, 158 Catt, Carrie C h a p m a n , 16; publication of. 16 fn. 24 Caughey, J o h n Walton, The American West: Frontier & Region, reviewed, 86—87 Cavalas, John, Greek butcher and baker in Scofield-Clear Creek area, 160; sheepman, 162 Cayias, George, member of Salt Lake Holy Trinity Church construction committee, 198 fn. 131 Cayias, Raymond, photograph, 193 Cayias, William, Greek detective, 155; photograph, 192 Chase Mill, Isaac, placed on National Register of Historic Sites, 355 Chase, Phillips M., doctor who treated immigrants, 59 Chimney Rock, Nebraska, painting of country near, 312 Chipian, Anast, Greek businessman in Bingham, 159 Chlepas, Con, Greek businessman in Magna, 159 Clark, Lucy A., defeated in election for U t a h State Senate, 33

Utah Historical Quarterly Coal, U t a h leading producer, 2 4 2 ; production, 2 4 3 - 4 4 ; employment, 243, 2 4 5 - 4 6 ; photograph of mines, 244; photograph of boilers, 2 4 5 ; fluctuations in production, 245—46; amount of explored, 250; value of manufacturing products from, 251 Colorado, extensive newspaper coverage on woman suffrage, 16; rejected bill on woman suffrage, 16; woman suffrage in state constitution, l 9 ; labor problems in the coal fields of, 135; people killed during labor troubles in, 135 Colorado River, "Colorado Exploration And T h e M o r m o n War," 207—23; engraving of Pyramid Canyon, 207; federal government reserved right to navigate, 208; government expeditions, 208—9; report of Lieutenant Sylvester Mowry, 2 0 8 ; Lieutenant Edward Beale reached, 2 0 9 ; Lieutenant Joseph C. Ives preparations to explore, 209; Mormon interest in, 2 0 9 ; reasons for interest in, 209; explored by Rufus C. Allen, 210; explored by William Bringhurst, 2 1 0 ; engraving of Chimney Peak, 2 1 1 ; George A. Johnson expedition, 2 1 3 15; engraving of Cottonwood Valley, 214; Joseph C. Ives expedition, 217—21; expedition of Jacob Hamblin, 218—21; map listing expeditions ( 1 8 5 5 - 5 8 ) , 220; Amasa M. Lyman expedition, 221—22; reasons for Mormon expeditions, 223 Combs, Barry B., Westward to Promontory: Building the Union Pacific across the plains and mountains. A pictorial documentary, reviewed, 91—92 Communications, employment in Utah, 246 Condas, John, Greek sheepman, 160, 161, 162; lifetime franchise of grazing rights on O q u i r r h Mountains, 1 6 1 ; sheep killed by arsenic wastes from U t a h Copper Company, 162 Cooley, Everett L., Utah: A Students' Guide to Localized History, reviewed, 2 7 8 - 7 9 ; photograph, 359; recipient of U t a h State Historical Society Honorary Life Membership, 360 Copper, most important metallic resource in U t a h , 2 4 2 ; production, 2 4 3 ; fluctuations in p r o d u c t i o n , 2 4 4 - 4 5 ; A r t h u r p l a n t closed, 2 4 5 ; M a g n a mill closed, 245; employment in mining, 249; photograph of Kennecott Copper Company, 251 Corelli, Blanche, tutored E m m a Lucy Gates Bowen, 72 Council House, description, 328 Cowboy and Western Songs: A Comprehensive Anthology, by Fife and Fife, reviewed, 280-82 Crickets, "Mormon, Crickets, and Gulls: A New Look At An Old Story," 2 2 4 - 3 9 ; 1847 pioneers noted in valley, 226; Peter Skene Ogden noted near Great Salt Lake, 226; attacked crops in Salt Lake Valley, 227; Isaac Haight noted attacked crops, 227, 2 2 8 ; John Steele noted attacked crops, 2 2 8 ; Mrs. Lorenzo Dow Young noted attacked crops, 227, 228; Mrs. Patty Sessions noted attacked crops, 228; characteristics of the Mormon, 229; methods used to fight invading, 229; invasions


Index

375

in 1849, 1850, 1855, 2 3 6 - 3 7 ; invaded Rush Valley ( U t a h ) , M a n d a n (North D a k o t a ) , M o n t a n a , Colorado, Saskatchewan, Tooele City ( U t a h ) , and Oregon, 237; see also Sea Gulls Critchlow, Hettie M., officer of Industrial H o m e Association, 265 Culleton, Phil, Bingham policeman aided Greek striker, 131-32 Cumming, Alfred E., appointed governor of U t a h Territory, 210 Curie, J o h n (Scotty), declared Greeks not entirely responsible for strike, 127 Cutrubus, Gus J., Greek businessman in Ogden, 158; Mrs. Greek schoolteacher, 183; Mrs. photograph, 185

D Dandolas, Nick, gambler, 119 Darling, James M., officer of Industrial Christian H o m e Association, 265 Dayton, Dello G., member of Committee of Historic a n d Cultural Sites, 3 5 4 ; committee m e m b e r recommending awards to American Association for State and Local History, 358 Deaf, D u m b , and Blind, act concerning education of children, 46 Delaney, Robert W., The Grand Colorado: The Story of a River and Its Canyons, review by, 285—86 Demas, James, Greek school teacher, 183 Demetra Club, Greek youth organization, 195; photograph of members, 195 Deming, , sheriff informed citizens of rights of Greeks, 179 Demiris, J o h n , Mrs. Greek school teacher, 183; Mrs. photograph, 184 Dempsey, Bruce, killed, 155; lynching of m u r d e r e r threatened, 155 Denos, Steve, Greek businessman of Price. 178 Denver & Rio Grande Western Railroad, Greek labor agent, 115 Deseret Musical and D r a m a t i c Association, formed, 6 6 - 6 7 Deseret, State of, women allowed to vote, 2 1 ; resolution concerning woman suffrage, 26 Devil's Gate, description, 318—19 DeVoto, Bernard, advantages as historian, 3 0 2 - 3 ; historian of Mormonism, 3 0 2 - 3 ; h u m o r of, 307; description of Joseph Smith, 3 1 0 ; description of Brigham Young, 311 Diamanti, John, prescribed folk cures a n d foretold future, 149—50; photograph of himself and family, 150; Greek businessm a n in Helper, 159; sheepman, 160, 1 6 1 ; owner of meat market in Helper, 161 Diamanti, Nick, Greek sheepman, 160 Diamondfield Jack: A Study in Frontier Justice, by Grover, reviewed, 279-80 Dickinson, Anna, eastern suffragist, 11 Diggings and Doings in Park City, by Price, reviewed, 276 Dimas, Charles, photograph, 152; Greek businessman in Bingham, 159

Diumenti, Steve, Greek businessman in Black Hawk, 159 Dokas, George, Greek businessman in Ogden, 158 D o r m a n , Eldon, member of Committee on Historic and Cultural Sites, 354 Dorrity, Sam, shot, 169; trial for assault against, 173 Douglas, Fort, placed on National Register of Historic Sites, 355 Down the Colorado: John Wesley Powell Diary of the First Trip Through The Grand Canyon, 1869, by Porter a n d Fowler, reviewed, 364—65 Dye, Delia, left employ of U t a h State Historical Society, 353—54 Doty, James D u a n e , biography written, 358 Dragatis, Harry, Greek businessman in Price, 159 The Dragon on the Hill: Utah's 38th Legislature: Analysis and Comment, by Emenhiser, 365-66 Drandos, Philip, photograph, 192 Drew, J o h n , played opposite M a u d e Adams, 69 D r u m m o n d , W. W., sent inflamatory report to federal government against Mormons, 210 Duniway, Abigail Scott, West's outstanding suffragist, 18

Echo Canyon, painting, 325 Economou, Maria, investigated living and working conditions of Greek immigrants in America, 137—38 Economy, " T h e Changing I m p a c t of Mining O n the Economy of Twentieth Century U t a h , " 2 4 0 - 5 5 ; input-output economic analysis of U t a h , 252—53 Edmunds-Tucker Act, passed, 18, 2 6 4 ; deprived women of the vote, 29, 33, 35 Ellis, George S., officer of Industrial Christian H o m e Association, 265 Emenhiser, JeDon, The Dragon on the Hill: Utah's 38th Legislature: Analysis and Comment, reviewed, 365—66 Engalitcheff, S u s a n n a B r a n s f o r d E m e r y Holmes Delitch, description, 5 England, Eugene, photograph of parents, 359; recipient of U t a h State Historical Society Service Award, 360 English, n u m b e r in Bingham ( 1 9 1 2 ) , 122 Enough Rope: The inside story of the censure of Senator Joe McCarthy by his colleagues—• the controversial hearings that signaled the end of a turbulent career and a fearsome era in American public life, by Watkins, reviewed, 2 8 7 - 8 9 Everett, Joseph A. F., U t a h artist, 85 Exploration, "Colorado E x p l o r a t i o n And The Mormon War," 207-23 Explorer, Lieutenant Joseph C. Ives's steamer to explore Colorado River, 2 0 9 ; engraving of, 2 1 1 ; steamed along Colorado, 217, 218, 2 1 9 ; Ives left, 221


376 Ferguson, Ellen B., defended polygamy, 2 6 7 68, 268 fn. 12 Ferry, Jeanette, president of Industrial Home Association, 265 Fife, Austin E., and Alta, Cowboy and Western Songs: A Comprehensive Anthology, reviewed, 280-82 Finns, number in Bingham ( 1 9 1 2 ) , 122 Firmage, Richard A., recipient of U t a h State Historical Society Student Award, 360 Flemetakis, Bill, photograph, 193 Flengas, Louis, photograph, 199 Floor, Andrew, Greek businessman in Salt Lake City, 158 Floor, George, Greek businessman in Salt Lake City, 158 Floor, Nick, photograph of children of, 149 Foltz, Clara S., California suffragist, 8 Fountas, George, photograph, 184; Price Greek school committee member, 184 Fourth of July, celebration of wagon train, 314 Fowler, Don D., and Eliot Porter, Down the Colorado: John Wesley Powell Diary of the First Trip Through the Grand Canyon, 1869, reviewed, 364—65 Fremont, John C , noted sea gulls near Great Salt Lake, 226 Frickson, Louis, Mrs. Greek school teacher, 183 Frontiersmen in Blue: The United States Army and the Indian, 1848-1865, by Utley, reviewed, 88-89

Galanis, James, Greek businessman in Helper, 159 Galanis, Nick, photograph of family, 194 Galena Gulch, battle, 131-32 Garfield, Greeks sent to work in smelter, 116; smeltermen refuse to handle ore mined by strikebreakers, 131 Gas, natural gas exported, 250 Gates, B. Cecil, organized Lucy Gates Opera Company, 74 Gates, E m m a Lucy, see Bowen, E m m a Lucy Gates Gates, Paul W., The Historical World of Frederick Jackson Turner, With Selections From His Correspondence, review by, 3 6 3 64 Gates, Susa Young, photograph, cover, No. 1; description, 5 ; diary entry, 5—6; appraisal of effects of woman suffrage in U t a h , 3 7 ; daughter, 7 1 ; head of choir and Music Department at Brigham Young Academy, 7 1 ; organist, 7 1 ; writer, 7 1 ; attended International Council of Women in London, 72; met M a u d May Babcock, 78; described U t a h to M a u d Babcock, 78 Gegonas, • (brothers), Greek businessmen in Helper, 159 Gem Stones, produced in U t a h , 242 Gemmel, R. C , attitude toward miners, 54, 138; U t a h Copper official denounced strike, 124; defended labor agent, 127

Utah Historical Quarterly Gentiles, attitude toward woman suffrage, 3 5 ; debate over control of probate courts, 256-58 Georgetown, California, description, 349 Georgelas, Pete, photograph of family, 108 Georgides, (brothers), Greek businessmen in Price, 159 Gerendas, John, Greek businessman in Helper, 159; photograph, 163 Germans, number in Bingham (1912), 122 Gold, produced in U t a h , 242; employment in mining, 249 Ghost Towns of the American West, by Silverberg, reviewed, 286—87 Giannopulos, James, Greek sheepman, 160 Golden Pass, description, 325 Goodman, Jack, member of Committee on Historic and Cultural Sites, 354 Goose Creek, description of country, 334 The Grand Colorado: The Story of a River and its Canyons, by Watkins and Contributors, reviewed, 285-86 Gray (Kyriakos), James, Greek school teacher, 183 Great Basin, description, 335—36 Great Salt Lake, description of route around northern end of, 330-33 Greece, economy, 52, 104; defeated Turkey, 5 2 ; principle export failed, 5 2 ; history, 100-4, 107; photograph, 1 0 1 ; Turkish influence, 104; government alarmed over emigration of young men, 108, 136; condition of young women in, 109; poem about, 133; citizenship status of persons born on Greek land, 1 3 4 - 3 5 ; attempted to get native sons to return, 136-37, 168; investigated charges of mistreatment of immigrants to America, 137—38; importance of money sent by emigrant sons to economy of, 158; advances in, 2 0 1 ; average income in 1939, 2 0 1 ; action in World W a r I I , 202-3 Greek American Progressive Association, reason for founding, 186; photograph of picnic, 188 Greek Orthodox Church, first priests in America, 115; first services and church in Salt Lake City, 115; second church in U t a h , 146; description of a, 146-47; Holy Week, 194—95; photograph of flowered tomb of Christ, 195; changes in America in, 198-99; photograph of memorial service for King George II, 199; women's organization, 199 Greeks, in Utah, 53, 109, 110, 116; conditions among immigrants, 54, 107-8, 110— 12, 116, 118-20, 138; medical aid to immigrant miners, 54, 55, 56, 138, 149; status of women in America, 56, 140-44; folk cures, 5 7 - 5 8 , 111, 149, 150, 164-65; Americans attitude toward, 59, 112—14, 119, 120, 153, 154-56, 155, 167, 178-79, 202; description of M a g n a Greek Town, 5 9 ; Toil and Rage in a New Land: The Greek Immigrants in Utah, 9 7 - 2 0 3 ; character of, 100, 103; reason for immigrating to America, 100, 104-5, 107, 135-36; painting of Revolution of 1821, 102; immigrated to America, 104-5, 107, 108,


Index 2 0 0 - 2 ; dowry system, 105; photograph of early emigrants, 105; photograph of emigrant wearing foustanella, 106; labor agents, 107, 117; attitude of mine operators toward, 109; photograph of Cretan, 109; ignorant of rights, 110; church services in Salt Lake City, 115; reaction to American contempt, 113; report of U.S. Immigration Commission and Dr. Harry Laughlin on immigration of, 114; Greek Town in Salt Lake City, 114; Johnson Act of 1921, 114; interpreters, 116-17; vengence against persecution, 117; women in U t a h ( 1 9 1 0 ) , 1 1 7 - 1 8 ; customs performed by women, 1 1 7 - 1 8 ; photograph of coffeehouse, 118; coffeehouse, 118-19, 120; photograph of funeral, 120; vendetta, 120; number in Bingham ( 1 9 1 2 ) , 122; money sent to homeland, 126, 126 fn. 51, 158; protest treatment to consul in Washington, D . C , by Bingham mine companies, 130; battle between strikers and deputies, 131-32; effect of 1912 Bingham strike on, 133; photographs of weddings, 134, 136, 142, 148; return to homeland in 1912, 1 3 4 - 3 5 ; attitude toward mine operators and American government, 135; photograph of coal miners, 137; beginning of Americanization, 139; brides of early immigrants, 1 3 9 - 4 3 ; women who migrated to America, 1 4 0 - 4 1 ; moral code, 142; attitude of Mormons toward, 143; "Greek Towns" in U t a h , 1 4 4 - 4 5 ; food, 145, 1 4 8 - 4 9 ; homes, 145; hospitality of, 145; boardinghouses, 145-46, 1 6 1 ; icons, 146, 149; photograph of baptism, 148; weddings, 141, 148-49; midwives, 149; ceremonies of, 1 5 1 ; photograph of returned World W a r I soldiers, 152; efforts during World War I, 153; reluctant to join U.S. Army, 153, 154; nationalism, 154; importance of American citizenship to, 156; Italians unite with, 156; trouble in Price, U t a h , 156; early businessmen in Utah, 1 5 8 - 6 0 ; in competition with company stores, 1 6 0 - 6 1 ; sheepmen, 1 6 0 - 6 5 ; life in a sheep camp, 163; sheepherders, 164-65; attitude toward prohibition, 167; strike in Carbon County, 1 6 8 - 7 5 ; J o h n Tenas murdered, 169; public opinion toward Carbon County strikers, 169; Scofield incident, 169-70; attitude of Americans toward Carbon County strikers trial, 172—75; Americanization program, 174, 179—80; attitude of Americans toward Carbon County strikers, 175; customs of widows and orphans, 177; Castle Gate mine explosion, 177; photograph of burial of miners killed in Castle Gate mine explosion, 178; leading businesses in Helper, 180; banded with Italians, Slavic people, and Irish-Catholic railroad men against Ku Klux Klan, 1 8 0 - 8 1 ; first generation American children of, 1 8 1 ; influence of professional people on, 1 8 1 ; Americanization of, 183; schools, 183, 190; fraternal organizations, 183-86, 195-96; social life, 183-96, 187—89; photographs, of schools and teachers, 184, 185, 2 0 1 ; life in the 1920's, 187; photographs of civic and so-

377 cial activities, 187, 188, 192; church, 189; photograph of Cretans, 189; RoyalistV e n i z e l i s t issue, 189; p h o t o g r a p h of Y M C A Sunday school in Helper, 190; effect of Depression on, 1 9 0 - 9 2 ; attitude toward World W a r I I , 1 9 6 - 9 7 ; AmericanGreeks help their fathers' homeland, 200 Green River, description, 322; description of ferry, 322; description of country, 323 Grover, David H., Diamondfield Jack: A Study in Frontier Justice, reviewed, 279-80 Guadelupe Hidalgo, Treaty of, reserved right to navigate Colorado River, 208 Gypsum, deposits in U t a h , 242

H Hafen, Ann Woodbury, Campfire Frontier: Historical Stories and Poems of the Old West, reviewed, 90-91 Hagiographer, useful to his sect, 308-9 Haight, Isaac, noted crickets attacked crops, 227, 228 Haliori, Helen, Greek school teacher, 183; photograph, 184 Hall, Fort, description of country at j u n : tion of Salt Lake Road and road of, 333 Halles, Gregory, dispenser of everything needed for Greek ceremonial life, 1 5 1 ; photographs of Mr. and Mrs., 151, 186 Hamblin, Jacob, president of Southern Indian Mission, 2 1 1 ; mission to "control" Indians, 2 1 1 - 1 2 ; expedition along Colorado River, 216-17, 2 1 8 - 2 1 ; exploring party left Vegas Springs, 218; proceeded on Colorado River expedition on foot, 219 Harding, Warren, President asked to settle strike, 171 Harper, Ida Husted, suffragist, 8; publication by, 8 fn. 2 Harrison, E. L. T., favored woman suffrage, 24; photograph, 28 Hartley, William, "Mormons, Crickets, and Gulls: A New Look At An Old Story," 224-39 Harwood, J. T., U t a h artist, 85 Haskell, Thales, expedition along Colorado River, 2 1 6 - 1 7 ; met Ives expedition, 2 1 8 19; proceeded on Colorado River expedition on foot, 219 Hatch, Abram, proposed giving U t a h women suffrage, 25 Hatch, Ira, sent on mission to Mojaves, 212: Indians hostile toward, 212; member of Colorado River expedition of Amasa Lyman, 221-22 Health, problems enforcing laws concerning, 4 6 ; state board created, 4 6 ; law to teach effects of alcohol and narcotics in public schools, 47 Heleotes, Angelo, photographs, 105, 134; photograph of Mrs., 134 Heleotes, Chris, photograph, 105 Hellenic Society, reason for establishing, 147 Helper, center of K u Klux Klan activity, 180 Flemonas, Georgia, photograph of baptism, 148 Henderson, H. P., attorney, 42 Herrick, William, Wyoming legislator who passed woman suffrage bill, 13 fn. 14


378 Hickman, Bill, probate court suits by, 260—61 Hicks, J o h n D., My Life with History, An Autobiography, reviewed, 284—85 High Road to Promontory: Building the Central Pacific (now the Southern Pacific) across the High Sierra, by K r a u s , reviewed, 93—94 Hirshson, Stanley, description of Brigham Young, 3 1 1 ; The Lion of the Lord: A Biography of Brigham Young, reviewed, 361-62 Historic Sites Survey, Historic a n d Cultural Sites committee members, 3 5 4 ; preservation officer, 3 5 4 ; State Register of Historic Sites established, 354; monies requested, 3 5 5 ; sites placed on National Register of Historic Sites, 3 5 5 ; sites placed on State Register of Historic Sites, 3 5 5 ; tentative plan for preservation developed, 3 5 5 ; certificates and plaques developed, 356; objectives, 356; preservation achievements, 356; see also U t a h State Historical Society The Historical World of Frederick Jackson Turner, With Selections From His Correspondence, by Jacobs, reviewed, 363—64 Holy Trinity Church (Greek Orthodox C h u r c h ) , consecrated, 60, 198; photographs, 191, 199; p h o t o g r a p h of first board of trustees, 1 9 1 ; construction committee, 198 fn. 1 3 1 ; see also Greek O r t h o dox C h u r c h Hooper, William H , favored woman suffrage, 24 H o m e , Alice Merrill, art patron, 8 2 ; born, 8 2 ; parents, 8 2 ; biography, 8 2 - 8 5 ; early life, 8 2 - 8 3 ; "Alice Art Collection" named in honor of, 8 3 ; chairman of Public Health Commission, 8 3 ; children, 83, 83 fn. 5 5 ; contributions to field of art, 83—85; education, 8 3 ; husband, 83 fn. 5 5 ; legislator, 8 3 ; member general board of national Relief Society, 8 3 ; organizer, 8 3 ; president Daughters of U t a h Pioneers, 8 3 ; sponsored exhibits, 8 3 - 8 4 ; wrote text on U t a h art, 8 4 ; honors received, 8 5 ; opened art gallery, 85 H o m e , George H., husband of Alice Merrill H o m e , 83 fn. 55 Hot Sulpher Springs, description, 330 Howard, Mary W., mayor and chairman of K a n a b Town Board, 61 fn.; photograph, 6 1 ; "An Example of W o m e n in Politics," 6 1 - 6 4 ; acts by, 6 2 - 6 3 ; children, 64; fruit festival, 6 4 ; reception for Governor William Spry, 64 H u m b o l d t Mountains, description, 335 H u m b o l d t River, description of country, 335— 41 Hundley, Jr., Norris, and J o h n A. Schutz, eds., The American West: Frontier & Region, reviewed, 86—87 Huse, Clara, officer of Industrial Christian H o m e Association, 265 Hyde. Orson, first mentioned the "Miracle of the Gulls," 233

Utah Historical Quarterly I Iakovos, Archbishop, photograph, 202 Idaho, woman suffrage in state constitution, 19 Independence Rock, description, 317, 3 1 8 ; paintings, 317, 318 Indians, Mormons expanded alliances with, 210—11; hostility along Colorado River, 2 1 3 ; migrant view of in Salt Lake Valley, 330-31 Industrial Christian H o m e Association, Mormon idea of movement, 265 fn.4; organized, 2 6 4 ; officers, 2 6 5 ; objects, 265; memorial to establish, 2 6 7 ; see also Women's Christian Industrial Home Irish, number in Bingham ( 1 9 1 2 ) , 122 Iron, photograph of mining, 240; produced in U t a h , 2 4 2 ; establishment of Geneva Steel, 246; a m o u n t exported, 250 Italians, n u m b e r in Bingham ( 1 9 1 2 ) , 122 Ives, Joseph C , authority and preparations to explore Colorado River, 209; expedition on the Colorado River, 2 1 7 - 2 1 ; made friends with Mojaves, 217; reached expedition's high point of navigation on Colorado River, 2 1 8 ; met Thales Haskell, 218-19 I W W , active in Bingham, 122

Jackling, Daniel C , vice-president of U t a h Copper Company defended labor agent, 125; stated men did not have to pay to get jobs, 127; refused to recognize Western Federation of Labor, 130; announced U t a h Copper Company would increase miners' wages, 132 Jackson, William Henry, paintings, 312, 317, 318,321,323,325,326 Jacobs, Wilbur R., The Historical World of Frederick Jackson Turner, With Selections From His Correspondence, reviewed, 3 6 3 64 Jacobson, Pearl, photograph, 3 5 9 ; recipient of U t a h State Historical Society Service Award, 360 Japanese, n u m b e r in Bingham ( 1 9 1 2 ) , 122; worked as bank men in Bingham mines, 122-23 Jennings, Jesse D., member of Committee on Historic and Cultural Sites, 354; photograph, 3 5 9 ; m a d e U t a h State Historical Society Fellow, 360 Jerefos, Nick, photograph, 192 Jimas, James, Greek businessman in Bingham,'159 Joe Hill, by Smith, reviewed, 367-68 Johnson Act of 1921, 114 Johnson, Elaine, recipient of U t a h State Historical Society Student Award, 360 Johnson, Elmer, major National Guard declared martial law in Helper, 172 Johnson, George A., expedition u p Colorado River, 213—15; benefits from Colorado River expedition, 223 Jones, Mother, labor leader, 109; arrested, 109-10 Jouflas, Chris, photograph, 150 Jouflas, John, Greek sheepman, 160


Index

379

Jouflas, Pete, photograph of Mrs. 140; Greek businessman in Helper, 159; sheepman, 160, 1 6 1 ; owner of meat market in Helper, 161 Jouflas, Ted, Greek sheepman, 160 Julian, George Washington, introduced congressional bill to give woman suffrage in territories, 9

K Kaddis, Gus, photograph, 163 Kalogeropoulos, Antonios, Greek priest, 199; photograph, 199 Kambourakis, Gus, Greek school teacher, 183 Kanab, account of all-woman town board and woman mayor, 61—64; acts of allwoman town board, 62—63; reception for Governor William Spry, 64 Kane, Thomas L., conference with Brigham Young, 216; met Amasa Lyman, 216; stated sea gulls unknown in valley before attacking crickets, 230—31 Kansas, only state west of Rockies with woman suffrage, 19 Kansas, only state west of Rockies with woman suffrage, 19 Kanyon Creek, description of country, 326 Karavellas, , labor agent, 128 Karpakis, Chris, photograph of Mr. and Mrs., 148 Karras, Nick F., Greek businessman in Price, 159; photograph of Mrs. (Bessie D u n t o n ) , 193 Katrakis, Mike, shot by U t a h Copper guard, 130; account of shooting of, 130 Katris, Dorothy, Greek school teacher, 183 Kearns Mansion, Thomas, placed on National Register of Historic Sites, 355 Keller, Fred W., photograph, 357 Kelly, Charles, Diamond field Jack: A Study in Frontier Justice, review by, 279-80 Kelter, T. F., escorted Young out of Scofield after Young shot Greek striker, 169 Kimball, Sarah M., photograph, back cover, No. 1 ; nationally known woman's rights advocate, 27 King, Karl V., brought Greeks to United States, 203 King, Sam A., Carbon County strikers version of shooting told by, 172; attorney for Greeks in Carbon County, 1 7 0 - 7 1 ; warned Greeks against violence, 171; condemned mob action in Helper, 172; defended Carbon County strikers accused of killing deputy, 1 7 2 - 7 5 ; photograph, 173 King, Volney, diary acquired by U t a h State Historical Society, 354 King, William H., dissenting vote from U t a h Supreme Court that women not entitled to vote, 42 Kingman, John W., reason for passing woman suffrage bill, 14; Wyoming Supreme Court justice, 14; reason Wyoming legislature passed woman suffrage bill, 16 Kiousios, Chris, 127 Kiskadden, Asenath Ann (Annie), M a u d e Adams mother, 6 7 ; involved in theatre productions, 67-69 Kiskadden, James, father of M a u d e Adams, 67

Kiskadden, M a u d e , see Adams, M a u d e Klekas, John, photograph of Mrs., 144; Greek school teacher, 183 Klekas, Nick, photograph of Mrs., 144 Kochonis, John, Greek sheepman, 160 Kotsolios, Stellios, photographs, 193 Kotsovos, John, photograph, 192 Koulouris, James, Greek sheepman, 160, 161 ; owner of meat market in Helper, 161; photograph of family, 163 Koulouris, Mary, photograph, 163 Koulouris, Nick, photograph, 163 Kounalis, Sam, member of Salt Lake Floly Trinity church construction committee 198 fn. 131 Kraus, George, High Road to Promontory: Building the Central Pacific (now the Southern Pacific) across the High Sierra, reviewed, 93—94 K u Klux Klan, hostility toward Greek immigrants, 5 9 ; arose in U t a h , 177; newspaper coverage of, 1 7 7 - 7 8 ; burned crosses, 180; gained power, 180; Helper center of activity of, 180; paraded in Salt Lake City, 180; prominent citizens in M a g n a members of, 180; activity in Carbon County, 1 8 0 - 8 1 ; activity culminated in lynching, 1 8 1 ; filed papers of incorporation in Salt Lake City, 181 Kukis, Pete, Webb murder trial, 173

L a Barthe, Eurithe K., elected to U t a h State House of Representatives, 3 3 ; biography, 38; "High H a t Law," 3 8 - 3 9 ; curfew ordinance, 39; memorial concerning Women's Industrial Christian Home, 3 9 ; photograph, 39 Labor, organizers active in Bingham, 123; organizers arrested, 123; see also I W W and Western Federation of Labor Lamar, Howard R., Frontiersmen in Blue: The United States Army and the Indians, 1848-1865, review by, 8 8 - 8 9 ; photograph, 357 Lamb, George, Greek businessman in Logan, 159 Lambrides, Vasilios, Greek priest in Bingham, 126 Lambros, James, photograph, 192 The Land Office Business: The Settlement and Administration of American Public Lands, 1798-1837, by Rohrbaugh, 90 Laramie Mountains, description, 314 Larson, Gustive O., "An Industrial Home for Polygamous Wives," 263-75 Larson, T. A., " W o m a n Suffrage in Western America," 7—19 Las Vegas, Mormon Indian Mission, established, 209-10 Lathouris, Georgia, see Mageras, Magerou Latsis, James, photograph, 192 Lawrence, Henry W., officer of Industrial Christian Home Association, 265 Lead, produced in Utah, 242; employment in mining, 249 Leavitt, Dudley, sent on mission to Mojaves, 212; Indians hostile toward, 212; expedi-


Utah Historical Quarterly

380 tion along Colorado River, 216—17; sent to Las Vegas, 219 Lee, Edward M., encouraged passage of woman suffrage, 12; secretary of Wyoming Territory, 12; reason for passing woman suffrage bill, 1 2 - 1 3 , 15 Lenderis, (brothers), Greek businessmen in Helper, 159 Leonard, Glen M., head of National Endowment for the Humanities Pilot Project, 358 Lester, Margaret, employed on Pioneer Village-Mormon Trail project, 357 Leventis, John, leader of the Cretan Bingh a m mine strikers, 130; photograph, 1 3 1 ; arrested in connection with battle between strikers and deputies, 1 3 1 ; photograph of Mrs., 144; businessman in Bingham, 159; sheepman, 160 Leventis, Steve, arrested in connection with battle between strikers and deputies, 1 3 1 ; Greek businessman in Bingham, 159 Lewis, H . E., general manager of Standard Coal Company wounded by Carbon County strikers, 1 7 1 ; stated shooting started by strikers, 171—72; identified strikers who killed Webb, 172 Lewman, Sam, account of shooting unarmed Greek striker, 130 Liebler, H. Baxter, A Navajo Saga, review by, 277-78 Linardos, Nick, photograph, 164 Linderfelt, Lieutenant K. E., responsible for Ludlow massacre, 135 The Lion of the Lord: A Biography of Brigham Young, by Hirshson, reviewed, 361— 62 Locke, E. G., Westeren Federation secretary arrested, 131 Locke, M a r t h a A., officer of Industrial Home Association, 265 Lord, Clifford L., ed., Utah: A Students' Guide to Localized History, reviewed, 278-79 Louras, John, Greek sheepman, 160 Lovrich, Pete, photograph of M r . and Mrs., 157 Lowe, George A., officer of Industrial Christian Home Association, 265 Ludlow Massacre, people killed, 135 Luke, Theron, member of Committee on Historic and Cultural Sites, 354 Lyman, Amasa M., met Thomas L. Kane, 216; reported activities along the Colorado River to Brigham Young, 2 1 6 ; expedition along Colorado River, 221—22; located place on Colorado River for defensive stand against invading army, 222 Lythgoe, Dennis L., Mormonism's Negro Policy: Social and Historical Origins, review by, 362—63 Lyons, I r a E., officer of Industrial Christian H o m e Association, 265

Mc McBride, George, doctor who treated immigrants, 59 McClellan, Delia, photograph, 3 5 9 ; recipient of U t a h State Historical Society Teacher Award, 360

M c C u n e , Alfred W., candidate for United States senator, 48 M c G r a w , W. M. F., sent inflamatory report to federal government against Mormons, 210

M Mabey, Charles, promised armed aid against Carbon County strikers, 169; sent National G u a r d to Carbon County to quell strike, 171 Mageras, Magerou, photographs, 50, 58, 148; " M a g e r o u : T h e Greek Midwife," 5 0 6 0 ; born, 5 1 ; early life in Greece, 5 1 ; children, 52, 60 fn. 10; married, 5 2 ; arrived in America, 5 4 ; all nationalities treated by, 5 5 ; matchmaker, 5 5 ; treated sick countrymen, 5 5 ; appearance, 5 6 ; midwife to immigrant mothers, 5 6 ; midwife routine and care of mother and baby, 5 6 5 7 ; folk cures, 57—58; saved men's limbs, 5 8 ; set broken bones, 5 8 ; assisted doctors, 5 9 ; immigrants returned to care from, 5 9 ; character, 6 0 ; died, 6 0 ; progeny, 60 Mageras, Nick, photograph, 50; children, 52, 60 fn. 10; early life, 5 2 ; married, 5 2 ; sent to Greece to construct bridge, 5 2 ; immigrated to America, 52—53; boardinghouses burned, 5 3 ; money destroyed, 5 3 ; moved to U t a h , 5 3 ; boardinghouses in Snaketown, 5 3 ; out of favor with Greek labor agent, 5 3 ; representative for Salt Lake Brewery, 5 3 ; brought family to America, 54, died, 60 M a g n a , description of Greek Town, 5 9 ; Greeks sent to work in mill, 116 M a g n a M o t o r Company, owners, 157; photograph, 157 Mahleras, Angelo, Greek sheepmen, 160 Mahleras, Harry, threatened by marshal, 161 Malkogliannis, Nick, Greek sheepman, 160 Malmquist, O. N., The Dragon on the Hill: Utah's 38th Legislature: Analysis and Comment, review by, 365—66 Mamales, William, photograph of Mrs., 144 Mandelis, Jim, photograph, 182 M a n h o o d Suffrage, Fifteenth Amendment adopted, 20 Maniotis, Andreas, Greek sheepman, 162; troubles over sheep, 162 Maniotis, Christ, Greek sheepman, 162; trouble over sheep, 162 Maniotis, John, Greek sheepman, 162; trouble over sheep, 162 M a n n , S. A., U t a h acting governor signed woman suffrage bill, 26 Manousos, George, rumored to be charged with assault, 169; trial for assault on Sam Dorrity, 173 Mantes, Ernest, Greek businessman in Magna, 159 Manufacturing, production in Utah, 246; concerned with metals, 2 4 7 - 4 8 ; value, 2 5 1 ; employment in U t a h , 252 Margetts, Phil, played in Salt Lake Theatre, 69 M a r k h a m , Freed L., member of Committee on Historic and Cultural Sites, 354


Index Marthakis, P. S., photograph, 1 9 3 ; member of Salt Lake Holy Trinity church construction committee, 198 fn. 131 Martinez, Rodolfo, Enough Rope: The inside story of the censure of Senator Joe McCarthy by his colleagues — the controversial hearings that signaled the end of a turbulent career and a fearsome era in American public life, review by, 287-89 Mavroandreas, Gus, Greek sheepman, 162 Me and Mine: The Life Story of Helen Sekaquaptewa, by Udall, 283-84 Melis, Nick, photograph, 192 Melos, Pete, Greek sheepman, 160 Memorial Hall, erected to honor GreekAmerican war dead, 198 Menefee, J. W., Wyoming legislator who passed woman suffrage bill, 13 fn. 14 Merrill, Alice, see H o m e , Alice Merrill Merrill, Bathsheba, mother of Alice Merrill H o m e , 82 Merrill, Clarence, father of Alice Merrill H o m e , 82 Methodists, Women's Home Missionary Society contributed money for establishment of Industrial Home, 264 Metos, George, Greek butcher and baker in Scofield-Clear Creek area, 160; Greek sheepman, 162 Michelog, Nick, Greek businessman in Price, 159 Michelog, Tony, Greek businessman in Helper, 159 Midgley, Waldo, U t a h artist, 85 Miller, David E., member of Committee on Historic and Cultural Sites, 354 Miller, E m m a C , officer of Industrial H o m e Association, 265 Miller, Louis, Wyoming legislator who passed woman suffrage bill, 13 fn. 14 Minerals, labor force in U t a h , 242; produced in U t a h , 2 4 2 ; U t a h ' s non-metallic, 2 4 2 ; value of minerals produced in U t a h , 242, 247; production exported, 2 4 9 - 5 0 ; inputoutput economic analysis, 252—53 Mining, company store and scrip, 1 6 0 - 6 1 ; " T h e Changing Impact of Mining O n the Economy of Twentieth Century U t a h , " 2 4 0 - 5 5 ; influence on U t a h , 2 4 1 ; worth of metals mined in U t a h ( 1 9 0 0 ) , 2 4 1 ; resources in U t a h , 2 4 1 - 4 2 : employment, 242, 243, 244, 246, 246-47, 247; metals mined in U t a h , 242; non-metallic minerals in U t a h , 2 4 2 ; income from, 247; economic dependence in U t a h , 2 4 8 ; taxes paid by industry, 2 4 9 ; payroll ( 1 9 6 4 ) , 250; percentage exported, 250; primary manufacturing, milling, a n d smelting done in U t a h , 2 5 0 ; relationship to economy, 251 Minos Club, membership, 1 8 3 ; photograph of picnic, 187 Moffat, D e a n A., doctor who treated immigrants, 59 Mojaves, Chiefs Cairook and Ireteba friendly with Joseph Ives, 2 1 7 ; engraving of Cairook and Ireteba, 2 1 8 ; hostile attitude toward Ives Expedition, 219; Lyman expedition impressed with physiques of, 222; cautious toward Mormons, 222

381 M o n t a g u e , Keith E., The West of Alfred Jacob Miller (1837) from the Notes and Water Colors in the Walters Art Gallery with an account of the artist, review by, 87-88 Moorman, Donald R., The American West: Frontier & Region, review by, 86—87 Morgan, Dale L., The Lion of the Lord: A Biography of Brigham Young, review by, 361-62 Morgan, James, secretary of Wyoming Miners Union, 171 M o r m o n Battalion, n u m b e r of women with, 3 M o r m o n Cricket, see Crickets Mormonism's Negro Policy: Social and Historical Origins, by Taggart, reviewed, 362-63 Mormons, role played by pioneering women, 4 ; attitude toward woman suffrage, 29— 30, 3 5 ; music, 6 6 ; arts 66—67; attitude of Greeks toward, 143; "Colorado Exploration And T h e Mormon W a r , " 2 0 7 - 2 3 ; interested in Colorado River, 209; reasons for interest in Colorado River, 209, 2 2 3 ; Indian Mission in Las Vegas established, 2 0 9 - 1 0 ; outlying settlers recalled to Salt Lake City, 2 1 0 ; reports against sent to federal government, 210; Indian alliances expanded, 2 1 0 - 1 1 ; "Mormons, Crickets, And Gulls: A New Look At An Old Story," 2 2 4 - 3 9 ; 1847 pioneers noted crickets in Valley, 2 2 6 ; response to sea gulls, 232; contemporary accounts which do not mention the miracle of the gulls, 2 3 3 - 3 4 ; harvest after miracle of the gulls, 234—35; debate over control of probate courts, 256 5 8 ; defended polygamy, 267— 6 8 ; three opinions on anything connected with, 300; problems faced by historian, 300—1; requirements for writer of, 3 0 0 - 1 , 302, 3 0 8 ; criticisms of historians who write about, 301—2; attitude toward Richard F. Burton, City of the Saints, 302; writers distort history, 3 0 2 ; "obedient g r o u p " theory, 3 0 5 ; status of men and women, 3 0 5 ; humor of historians of, 307; reason male obedient to church hierarchy, 3 0 7 ; intent of devout or agnostic historian, 309; description of Green River ferry, 3 2 2 ; migrant view of, 329 Morris, Esther, Wyoming justice of the peace 1870, 15, 17 Mortensen, Dorothy Z., Camp fire Frontier: Historical Stories and Poems of the Old West, review by, 90—91 Moscho, Harry, Mrs. Greek school teacher, 183 Moser, Henri, U t a h artist, 85 M o u n t a i n Meadows Massacre, 211 Mower, Diane, recipient of U t a h State Historical Society Student Award, 360 Moyer, Charles W., attempted to hold off strike, 123; president of Western Federation of Labor, 123; tried to convince strikers to leave Bingham mines, 125; conducted Governor William Spry and party in Bingham, 127; convinced Bingham miners not to return to work, 129


Utah Historical Quarterly

382 Moyle, James D., member of Committee on Historic and Cultural Sites, 354 Mullins, Mrs. George, first woman to vote in U t a h after statehood, 36—37 fn. 9 Murray, Eli H , governor of U t a h supported Industrial Christian Home Association, 264 Murray-Midvale, Greeks sent to work in smelter, 116 Murrin, T . D., Wyoming legislator who passed woman suffrage bill, 13 fn. 14 Musser, Burton, doctor who treated immigrants, 59 My Life with History, An Autobiography, by Hicks, reviewed, 284-85

N Nash, Gerald D., Westward to Promontory: Building the Union Pacific across the plains and mountains. A pictorial documentary, review by, 91-92 National American W o m a n Suffrage Association, 19 A Navajo Saga, by Bennett and Bennett, reviewed, 2 7 7 - 7 8 Nebecker, Aquila, attitude toward running against a woman for U t a h State Senate, 3 3 ; elected to U t a h State Senate, 3 3 ; photograph, 4 4 ; candidate for United States senator, 47 Nebraska, description of bluff near Scottsbluff, 3 1 3 - 1 4 Negro, photograph of lynched, 180; lynched in Carbon County, 181 Netolicky, Stephen, doctor who treated immigrants, 59 Nevada, d e s c r i p t i o n of o v e r l a n d t r a v e l through to California, 335—43 New Mexico, only state west of Rockies without woman suffrage, 19 Newby, William W., volunteer service to U t a h State Historical Society by Dr. and Mrs., 354; Dr. and Mrs. recipients of U t a h State Historical Society Service Award, 360 Newman, Angie F., promoter of Women's Industrial Home, 2 6 4 ; vice-president of Industrial H o m e Association, 2 6 5 ; enlisted support in Washington, D.C., for Industrial Christian Home, 2 6 6 - 6 7 ; protested closing Women's C h r i s t i a n I n d u s t r i a l Home, 273 Nibley, Richard, Mr. and Mrs. recipients of American Association for State and Local History Certificate of Commendation, 358 Nikolodemos, Gus (Gus M o r m o n ) , Greek sheepman, 162; sheep broker, 165 Nineteenth Amendment, see W o m a n Suffrage

Obsidian, production in U t a h , 242 Ogden, Peter Skene, noted sea gulls near U t a h - I d a h o border, 2 2 5 - 2 6 ; noted crickets near Great Salt Lake, 226 Oregon Short Line Railroad, Greeks sent to work for, 116 Owens, Russell, doctor who treated immigrants, 59

Padaladonis ( P a p a n d o n i s ) , George, died in fight between deputies and strikers, 131 P a n Hellenic Grocery Store, operated in Bingham by Leonidas Skliris, 122 Panahaikos, membership, 184, 186 Panhellenic Unions, disbanded, 183 Pagialakis, , Webb murder trial, 173 Papacosta, James, Greek businessman in Helper, 159 Papailion, G. A., Greek consul in Salt Lake City, 153 Papanikolas, Emmanuel, photograph of Mr. and Mrs., 139; photograph of children of, 149; photograph of memorial wheat for, 1 5 1 ; Greek businessman in Magna, 159 Papanikolas, George, Greek businessman in Magna, 159 Papanikolas, Helen Zeese, " M a g e r o u : T h e Greek Midwife," 5 0 - 6 0 ; Toil and Rage in a New Land: The Greek Immigrants in Utah, 9 7 - 2 0 3 ; biography, 204; author of history of Greeks in U t a h printed in Utah Historical Quarterly, 352; photograph, 359; recipient of U t a h State Historical S o c i e t y M o r r i s S. R o s e n b l a t t Award, 360 Papanikolas, Kost, Greek businessman in Magna, 159 Papanikolas, Nick, gift to U t a h State Historical Society, 352 Papanikolas, William, Greek businessman in Magna, 159 Papoulas, John, Greek sheepman, 160, 162 Papoulas, Leona, photograph, 163 Pappas, Angelo, Greek sheepman in Helper, 160 Pappas, Ernest K., spokesman for Greeks denounced labor agent Leonidas Skliris, 128-29 Pappas, George, photograph, 163 Pappas, Gust, Greek businessman in Helper, 159; sheepman, 160; photograph of family, 194 Pappas, James, photograph, 187 Pappasoteriou (Soteriou), Christ, Greek businessman in Bingham, 159 Pappathanasiou, Gust, Greek sheepman, 162 Pappathanasiou, Nick, Greek sheepman, 162 Pappathanasiou, Pete, Greek sheepman, 162 Paulos, Charles, Greek businessman in Magna, 159 Paulos. Gus, Greek businessman in Magna, 159 Perpetual Emigrating Fund, suits filed in probate court, 261 Peterson, Charles S., Me and Mine: The Life Story of Helen Sekaquaptewa, review by, 2 8 3 - 8 4 ; member of Committee on Historic and Cultural Sites, 354; employed on Pioneer Village-Mormon Trail project, 357; committee member recommending awards to American Association for State and Local History, 358 Peterson, Levi S., The Sound of Mountain Water, review by, 92—93 Petrakis, Father Markos, first Greek priest in Price, 147; photographs, 142, 147; photograph of Mrs., 147


Index Petrified Wood, produced in U t a h , 242 Petroleum, importance in U t a h , 2 4 6 ; exported, 250; value of manufacturing products from, 2 5 1 ; photograph of oil operations in Colorado and San J u a n rivers area, 253 Pett, Imer, manager of Bingham Mines Company, 177 Philoptochos, women's church organization, 199 Pioneer Party, number of women in, 3 Pistolas, Alex, Greek businessman in Bingham, 159 Pitchios, Peter, Greek businessman in Bingham, 159 Platis, Gus, Greek businessman in Price, 159 Platte River, description of country near, 3 1 4 - 1 5 ; description of ferry across the Upper, 316 Poland Bill, against extended jurisdiction of probate courts, 257 Politz, Tom, Greek businessman in Salt Lake City, 158 Poll, Richard D., My Life with History, An Autobiography, review by, 284-85 Polygamy, "An Industrial H o m e For Polygamous Wives," 2 6 3 - 7 5 ; anti-polygamy society established, 264; E d m u n d s Law passed, 2 6 4 ; Mrs. Rutherford B. Hayes helped promote Women's Industrial Home, 264; not mentioned specifically in Industrial Christian Home's Articles of Incorporation, 266; M o r m o n women defended, 267-68, 3 0 5 ; Manifesto issued, 2 7 3 ; number of Brigham Young's wives, 3 0 3 ; effect on women, 304; practice of marrying sisters, 304; Richard F. Burton observations of, 304—5; by n a t u r e m a n is polygamous, 305; "Moslem gloom," 305; reasons women defended, 3 0 5 ; see also Women's Christian Industrial Home Porter, Eliot, and Don D. Fowler, Down the Colorado: John Wesley Powell Diary of the First Trip Through The Grand Canyon, 1869, reviewed, 364-65 Post, Morton E., reason for passing woman suffrage bill, 14; Wyoming delegate to Congress, 14 Powell, Jay E., "Fairness in the Salt Lake County Probate Court," 256-62 Powell, Kent, employed on Pioneer VillageMormon Trail project, 357 Powers, Orlando W., candidate for United States senator, 47 Praggastis, John, Mrs. Greek school teacher, 183 Praggastis, Tom, Greek businessman in Bingham, 159 Price, Raye, " U t a h ' s Leading Ladies of the Arts," 6 5 - 8 5 ; Diggings and Doings in Park City, reviewed, 276 Prina, Larry, employee of U t a h State Historical Society, 353 Probate Court, debate over control, 2 5 6 - 5 8 ; "Fairness in the Salt Lake County Probate Court," 2 5 6 - 6 2 ; Poland Bill against extended jurisdiction, 257; powers granted other territories, 257; standard to test fairness of, 2 5 8 ; non-Mormons and nonresidents, 2 5 8 - 5 9 ; Salt Lake County Pro-

383 bate Court records used to determine fairness of courts, 2 5 8 - 6 2 ; civil suits, 259; more sympathetic with outsiders, 2 5 9 - 6 0 ; suits by Brigham Young, 260; suits by Wilford Woodruff, 2 6 0 ; suit by Orrin Porter Rockwell, 260; suit by Bill Hickman, 2 6 0 6 1 ; suits by Perpetual Emigrating F u n d , 2 6 1 ; j u d g m e n t of fairness in Salt Lake County, 262 Prohibition, law flaunted, 167; photograph of raid on bootlegger, 168 Prophet Elias (Greek Orthodox C h u r c h ) , ground-breaking ceremonies, 199; photograph, 2 0 0 ; see also G r e e k O r t h o d o x Church Pumpkin Seed Point, by Waters, reviewed, 366-67

Raikos, Evangelis, photograph, 106 R a m p t o n , Lucybeth C , Diggings and Doings in Park City, review by, 276 Rasiaskis, Zaharias, deputies attempted to arrest in connection with battle between deputies and strikers, 131 Rawlins, Joseph L., candidate for United States senator, 47 Reeder, Jr., C. A., High Road to Promontory: Building the Central Pacific (now the Southern Pacific) across the High Sierra, review by, 93—94 Reese, Owen, doctor who treated immigrants, 59 Reilly, P. T., Trail On The Water, review by, 282-83 Richards, Emily S., photograph, back cover, No. 1; defended polygamy, 2 6 7 - 6 8 , 268

fn. 12 Richards, Franklin D., favored limited woman suffrage, 25 Richards, Franklin S., attorney, 42 Richards, Lee Green, U t a h artist, 85 Ridges, Joseph H., built tabernacle organ, 67 Rizos, Alex, prescribed and provided folk cures, 150; Greek businessman in Salt Lake City, 158 Rizos D r u g Store (Salt Lake C i t y ) , photograph, 159 Roberts, Brigham H., opposed woman suffrage, 34; argument against woman suffrage, 3 5 ; photograph, 3 5 ; spoke at M a r t h a Hughes C a n n o n funeral, 4 8 ; positively asserted the "Miracle of the Gulls," 233 Rockefeller, Jr., J o h n D., labor troubles in mines owned by, 135 Rockwell, Orrin Porter, probate court suit, 260; photograph, 261 Rohrbaugh, Malcolm, The Land Office Business: The Settlement and Administration of American Public Lands, 1789—1837, reviewed, 90 Ross, Marvin C , The West of Alfred Jacob Miller (1837) from the Notes and Water Colors In the Walters Art Gallery with an account of the artist, reviewed, 87—88 Rusho, W. L., Down the Colorado: John Wesley Powell Diary of the First Trip Through the Grand Canyon, 1869, review by, 364—65


384 Salevourakis, (brothers), Greek businessmen in Price, 159 Salt Lake City, description of Greek Town, 114; description of adobe houses in, 3 2 8 ; description, 3 2 8 - 2 9 ; description of southern route from, 336—37 Salt Lake City and County Building, state officers housed in, 275; placed on National Register of Historic Sites, 355 Salt Lake County, "Fairness in the Salt Lake County Probate Court," 2 5 6 - 6 2 ; standard to test fairness of probate court, 258; nonMormons and non-residents, 258—59; probate court records used to determine fairness of court, 2 5 8 - 6 2 ; civil suits, 259; probate court more sympathetic with outsiders, 2 5 9 - 6 0 ; probate court suits by Brigham Young, 260; probate court suits by Wilford Woodruff, 260; suit in probate court by Orrin Porter Rockwell, 260; suit in probate court by Bill Hickman, 260—61 ; suits in probate court by Perpetual Emigrating Fund, 261 ; judgment of fairness in probate court, 262 Salt Lake Theatre, opened, 67 Salt Lake Valley, painting, 326; description, 326—27; crops raised in 1850, 327 Sampino, Sam, Greek sheepman, 160 Sargetakis, Joseph, photograph of Mrs. 151; photograph of family of Mrs., 158; photograph, 176 Sargetis, Theros, Greek businessman in Helper, 159; sheepman, 162 Savage, Jr., Levi, diary acquired by U t a h State Historical Society, 354 Schutz, J o h n A., and Norris Hundley, Jr., eds., The American West: Frontier & Region, reviewed, 86—87 Scott, Hector M., officer of Industrial Christian Home Association, 265 Seagull, photograph of monument, 224, 234; "Mormons, Crickets, and Gulls: A New Look At An Old Story," 2 2 4 - 3 9 ; Peter Skene Ogden noted near U t a h - I d a h o border, 2 2 5 - 2 6 ; J o h n C. Fremont noted near Great Salt Lake, 226; Mormons note attacking crickets, 230; Thomas L. K a n e stated gulls unknown in Valley before attacking crickets, 2 3 0 - 3 1 ; painting of "Miracle of the Gulls," 2 3 1 ; method of consumption of crickets, 231—32; Mormon response to, 232; first mention as a miracle, 2 3 3 ; contemporary accounts which do not mention the miracle, 233—34; harvest after miracle, 2 3 4 - 3 5 ; attacked crickets in 1849, 1850, 1855, 2 3 6 - 3 7 ; attacked crickets in Rush Valley ( U t a h ) , M a n d a n (North D a k o t a ) , M o n t a n a , Colorado, Saskatchewan, Oregon, Tooele ( U t a h ) , and Oregon, 327; reevaluation of importance in stopping crickets in 1848, 2 3 7 - 3 9 ; monument erected, 239 fn. 7 5 ; poem, 239; see also Crickets Service Industries, employment in U t a h , 246 Sessions, Patty, Mrs. noted crickets attacked crops, 228 Shafer, J. Wilson, U t a h governor attitude toward woman suffrage bill, 26

Utah Historical Quarterly Sharp, Joseph, Salt Lake County sheriff, 124 Sheep, Greek sheepman, 160; Greek sheepmen diminish, 162; problems over water, grazing rights, and stray sheep, 162; life in a Greek sheep camp, 163; description of herders, 164; life of a herder, 164-65; relationship between employer and herders, 164 Shelton, Rebecca L., officer of Industrial Christian Home Association, 265 Shuler, Nettie Rogers, 16; publication of, 16

fn. 24 Sierra Nevada Mountains, description, 3 4 5 46 Silvagni, P. O., Italian leader, 156 Silver, produced in U t a h , 242; employment in mining, 249 Silver Queen, see Engalitcheff, Susanna Bransford Emery Holmes Delitch Silverberg, Robert, Ghost Towns of the American West, reviewed, 286—87 Simeonidis, Demetrios, Greek priest, 202; photograph 202 Sioux, punishment for adultery, 304 Skedros, James, photograph, 159; Mrs. Greek school teacher, 183 Skliris, Leonidas, Greek labor agent, 115; operation of, 115-16; exacted tribute from Greek laborers, 121, 122; Bingham miners wanted him fired as U t a h Copper Company labor agent, 125; Daniel C. Jackling, vice-president of U t a h Copper Company, defended, 125; strike issue in Bingham, 127; defended himself as labor agent, 128; hired strikebreakers for the Bingham mines, 128; offered reward to anyone who could prove padrone charge, 128; denounced in newspapers, 128-29; resigned as labor agent of Bingham mines, 129; power broken, 132 Smith, Elias, photograph, 256 Smith, Gibbs M., Joe Hill, reviewed, 367-68 Smith, H. W., ruled women qualified to vote, registered Sarah Anderson, 42 Smith, John, described gulls attacking crickets, 230 Smith, Joseph, idea of a prophet, 309; description by Bernard DeVoto, 310; description by Jules Remy, 310; description by Kimball Young, 310; description by Richard Burton, 310; description by Wallace Stegner, 310 Smith, Joseph Fielding, positively asserted the "Miracle of the Gulls," 233 Smith, Melvin T., "Colorado Exploration And T h e Mormon War," 2 0 7 - 2 3 ; preservation officer of Historic Sites Survey, 354 Smyrnopoulos, Father Damaskinos, Greek priest protested discrimination against Greeks, 179 Snow, Eliza R., description, 5 ; proposed expression of gratitude to Acting Governor S. A. M a n n for passage of woman suffrage bill, 2 7 ; photographs, 28, 306 Snow, Georgia, admitted to the bar, 27 Sons of Pericles, Greek youth organization, 195 The Sound of Mountain Water, by Stegner, 92-93


Index South Pass, description of country, 3 1 9 - 2 0 ; painting of wagon train at, 3 2 1 ; description, 321-22 Souvall, William, photograph, 184; Price Greek school committee member, 184 Spinbon, Harris, died in battle between strikers and deputies, 131 Spry, William H , governor of U t a h opposed to Bingham strike, 1 2 4 - 2 5 ; called meeting in Bingham over strike, 125; sent out Greek detective to investigate Leonidas Skliris's extortion practices, 125; spoke to striking miners, 1 2 6 - 2 7 ; biography to be printed, 353 Squires, Lawrence, U t a h artist, 85 Staes, Stylian, 155; Greek businessman in Price, 159; awarded contract for water pipeline through Price Canyon, 159—60; sheep broker, 165; Greek vice-consul for Utah, Idaho, Nevada, and Wyoming, 168; rebuked countrymen, 168; arrested, 173— 74; photograph, 188 Stamatiades, Father Arteminos, Archbishop of Nablus in Jerusalem, 115; early Greek priest in Price, 115; photograph, 115 Stamoulis, Harry, Greek businessman in Magna, 159 Stamoulis, John, Greek businessman in Magna, 159 ' Stamoulis, Milt, Greek businessman in Magna, 159 Stathakos, Nicholas P., Bingham Greek community leader and banker, 127; Greek businessman in Salt Lake City, 158 Steele, John, noted crickets attacked crops, 228 Steeple Rock, description of country, 333 Stegner, Wallace, The Sound of Mountain Water, reviewed, 92—93; opinion of literature on Mormons, 300; advantages as historian, 3 0 2 - 3 ; historian of Mormonism, 3 0 2 - 3 ; Mormon "obedient group" theory, 305; humor of, 307; description of Joseph Smith, 310 Stephanopoulos, Elias, Greek priest, 202; photograph, 202 Steptoe, Colonel Edward Jenner, command in Salt Lake City, 208; unpopular with Brigham Young, 208 Stewart, Le Conte, U t a h artist, 85 Strike, George Greek businessman in Salt Lake City, 158 Strike, Louis N., Greek businessman in Salt Lake City, 158; member of Salt Lake Holy Trinity Church construction committee, 198 fn. 131 Swedes, number in Bingham (1912), 122 Sweet Water, description of country, 319, 320 Taggart, Stephen G., Mormonism's Negro Policy: Social and Historical Origins, reviewed, 362-63 Takis, Andrew, photograph of Mrs., 144 Tallas, Zack, described Bingham, 122 Tanner, George S., contribution to U t a h State Historical Society, 354; photograph, 359; recipient of U t a h State Historical Society Service Award, 360

385 Tausoulis, Pete, photograph, 199 Taylor, Calvin, brief biography, 3 1 2 - 1 3 ; "Overland to California in 1850: T h e Journal of Calvin Taylor," 3 1 2 - 4 9 ; outfit upon leaving Salt Lake City, 330 Taylor, Charles Wesley, brief biography, 313 Taylor, John Colville, owner of Charles Taylor journal, 313 Taylor Walter Scott, owner of Charles Taylor journal, 313 Teasdel, Mary, born, 75; brother and sister died, 7 5 ; first U t a h woman accepted in the French Salon, 75, 77; studied under J. T. Harwood, 7 5 ; parents, 7 5 ; training, 7 5 ; biography, 75—77; studied in New York and Paris, 7 5 - 7 6 ; painting of, 76; studied under James McNeil Whistler, 7 6 - 7 7 ; location of paintings, 77; died, 77; appointed to board of U t a h Art Institute, 77; opened private studio, 77; spent year in Holland, 77; taught at West High School, 77; U t a h artist, 85 Teasdel, S. P., died, 77; father of Mary Teasdel, 75; ruined financially, 75; wellto-do merchant, 75 Telonas, George, feud over sheep, 162; Greek sheepman, 162 Telonas, Tom, feud over sheep, 162; Greek sheepman, 162 Templeton, Alex, opinion of E m m a Lucy Gates Bowen, 74 Tenas (Htenakis), John, photograph, 166; body examined, 169; funeral, 169-70; Greeks rose up at killing, 169; witnesses to shooting, 169; murder reported in newspapers, 170; photograph of funeral, 170; account of shooting and funeral, 174 Terzich, Yanco, a director of Western Federation of Labor, 125; arrested, 131 Thatcher, Moses, candidate for United States senator, 47 Theos, Angelo, Greek sheepman, 160, 162 Theos (Theodoropoulos), Louis, officer of I W W , 122 T h u r m a n , Samuel R., attorney, 42 Tikas, Louis, Greek labor leader, 135; killed, 135; photograph, 136; photograph of funeral, 136 Tooele, smeltermen pass resolution refusing to handle ore mined by strikebreakers, 131 Tourism, importance to Utah's economy, 254 Trades, employment in U t a h , 246 Trail On the Water, by Baker, reviewed, 282-83 The Transfiguration (Greek Orthodox C h u r c h ) , consecrated, 199; photograph, 200; see also Greek Orthodox Church Transportation, employment in U t a h , 246 Tryfon, Chris, Greek businessman in Magna, 159 Tsangaris, Gus, Greek businessman in Helper, 159 Tsiboukis, Nick, photograph, 191 Tullidge, Edward W., favored woman suffrage, 24 Tyree, Charles, deputy register in Ogden Second Precinct, 41


Utah Historical Quarterly

386 U Udall, Louise, Me and Mine: The Life Story of Helen Sekaquaptewa, reviewed, 283— 84; Pumpkin Seed Point, review by, 366— 67 Union Pacific Railroad, received American Association for State and Local History Certificate of Commendation, 360 United Mine Workers, accused coal operators of inciting prejudice against Greeks, 168-69 United States Government, employment in U t a h , 247; percentage of payrolls in U t a h , 248 U t a h , women elected to U t a h State Senate and House of Representatives, 32, 3 3 ; population in 1890 and 1895, 3 6 ; photograph of Second Legislature, 4 4 ; seat in United States Senate remained vacant, 4 8 ; Greek population, 5 3 ; photograph of Ragtown, 5 5 ; Greek immigrants in, 109, 110; mass meeting in Murray to rid themselves of Greeks, 113; achieved statehood, 274; reasons for economic evolution, 246 Utah: A Students' Guide to Localized History, by Cooley, reviewed, 278—79 U t a h Commission, conducted elections in U t a h 4 1 ; supported Industrial Christian Home Association, 266; photograph, 2 7 1 ; assumed control of Women's Christian Industrial Home, 272; took possession of Christian Industrial Home, 274 U t a h Copper Company, Greek labor agent, 115 U t a h Expedition, sent to U t a h , 2 1 0 ; reached Salt Lake City, 223 U t a h Fuel Company, rivalry with independent producers, 2 4 3 ; subsidiary of Denver & Rio Grande Western Railroad, 243 U t a h Mountains, description, 330 U t a h State Historical Society, " T h e President's Report For the Fiscal Year 19691970," 3 5 0 - 6 0 ; National Endowment for the Humanities, 3 5 1 ; number of employees, 3 5 1 ; budget 1969-70, 3 5 1 - 5 2 ; revenues, 352; publications 352—53; liaison with University of U t a h institutions, 3 5 3 ; library, 3 5 3 - 5 4 ; diaries acquired by, 354; library holdings, 354; volunteer workers, 354; Historic Sites Survey activities, 354— 5 6 ; preservation program, 354—56; agreement between U t a h State Parks Commission and, 357; photographs of Eighteenth Annual Meeting, 357; Pioneer VillageMormon Trail Complex, 357; new programs, 357—58; National Endowment for the Humanities Pilot Project, 3 5 8 ; awards, 359-60 U t a h State Institute of Fine Arts, "Alice Art Collection," 8 3 ; established, 83 U t a h Territory, congressional bill for woman suffrage, 10, 24; passed woman suffrage, 10, 2 1 ; women disfranchised, 18, 29; woman suffrage in state constitution, 19; reaction to women over passage of woman suffrage bill, 2 6 - 2 7 ; "An Experiment in Progressive Legislation: T h e Granting of Woman Suffrage in U t a h in 1870," 20-30

U t a h War, "Colorado Exploration And The Mormon War," 207-23 Utley, Robert M., Frontiersmen in Blue: The United States Army and the Indian, 1848-1865, reviewed, 8 8 - 8 9

Varanakis, Mike, photograph, 184; Price Greek school committee member, 184 Vasilakis, Mihali, photograph, 109 Vaughn, C. I., superintendent of U t a h Railway Company, 1 7 1 ; stated shooting started by strikers, 171—72 Vetas, Sam, Greek businessman in Ogden, 158 Vlamakis, Spiros, helped spirit Andreas Zulis out of country, 175 Voyagis, Andonios, Greek school teacher, 183, 185; photograph, 185 Vulis, Andre, wounded and arrested, 171; see also Zulis, Andreas

w Wadley, C a r m a Lois, recipient of U t a h State Historical Society Student Award, 360 Wadsworth, William, Mormon, 329 War Sulpher Springs, description, 330 Ware, Florence, U t a h artist, 85 Wasatch (Wahsatch) Mountains, description, 323, 324, 325 Washington, women disfranchised, 18; enacted woman suffrage, 18, 19 Waters, Frank, Pumpkin Seed Point, reviewed, 366-67 Watkins, Arthur V., Enough Rope: The inside story of the censure of Senator Joe McCarthy by his colleagues — the controversial hearings that signaled the end of a turbulent career and a fearsome era in American public life, reviewed, 287—89 Watkins, T. H , The Grand Colorado: The Story of a River and its Canyons, reviewed, 285-86 Webb, Arthur P., deputy killed by Carbon County strikers, 1 7 1 ; men arrested for killing, 172; m u r d e r trail of, 173-75 Weber River, description of country, 325 Wedgwood, E. A., commander of National Guard, 125 Weggeland, T. C , doctor who treated immigrants, 59 Weilenmann, Milton L., executive director of U t a h State Department of Development Services, 351 Welch, John Woodland, recipient of U t a h State Historical Society Student Award, 360 Wells, Emmeline B., description, 5; photograph, 2 3 ; Republican candidate for U t a h Senate, 3 2 ; defended polygamy, 267—68, 268 fn. 12 West, Josephine M., defended polygamy, 267-68, 268 fn. 12 The West of Alfred Jacob Miller (1837) from the Notes and Water Colors in the Walters Art Gallery with an account of the artist, by Ross, reviewed, 87—88


Index Western Federation of Labor, called strike in Murray, 123; membership in Bingham, 123; ordered strike in Ely, Nevada, 130; sent aid to Bingham strikers, 132; unrecognized by mine operators, 132 Western Pacific Railroad, Greek labor agent, 115 Westward to Promontory: Building the Union Pacific across the plains and mountains. A pictorial documentary, by Combs, reviewed, 9 1 - 9 2 White, J. H., Bingham policeman aided Greek striker, 1 3 1 - 3 2 ; discharged, 132 White, J e a n Bickmore, "Gentle Persuaders: Utah's First Women Legislators," 3 1 - 4 9 W h i t e , L i e u t e n a n t J a m e s , accompanied George A. Johnson expedition of Colorado River, 213-15 Whitney, Orson F., champion of woman suffrage, 3 4 ; photograph, 34 Widtsoe, J o h n A., brother-in-law of E m m a Lucy Gates, 7 1 ; visited Germany, 71 Widtsoe, Leah, sister of E m m a Lucy Gates, 7 1 ; visited Germany, 71 Willcox, J. K. H., spokesman for woman suffrage, 9 - 1 0 ; member of Universal Franchise Association, 24 Williams, Burton J., ed., "Overland to California in 1850: T h e Journal of Calvin Taylor," 312-49 Wilson, Posey, prominant Wyoming resident, 13 fn. 14 Wind River Mountains, description, 319, 320 Witt, R u t h , photograph, 3 5 9 ; recipient of U t a h State Historical Society J. G r a n t Iverson Service Award, 360 Wobblies, see I W W Wollstonecraft, Mary, suffragist, 8 Woman Suffrage, "Equal Rights" ( p o e m ) , 6; photograph of Susan B. Anthony, 7; " W o m a n Suffrage in Western America," 7 - 1 9 ; Seneca Falls Convention 1848, 8; early movement, 8; objections to, 8; Colorado rejected, 9, 10; Congress submitted proposal to states, 9 ; congressional bill to give territories, 9 ; in territories, 9; Kansas rejected, 9; Nebraska rejected, 9; Oregon rejected, 9; Rhode Island rejected, 9 ; South Dakota rejected, 9 ; Washington rejected, 9; congressional bill for U t a h Territory, 10; Dakota rejected, 10; Idaho legislature rejected, 10; New Mexico legislature rejected, 10; Wyoming enacted law for, 10, 16, 2 1 ; U t a h enacted law for, 10, 16; arguments as to why it was granted in West first, 1 0 - 1 1 ; make-up of Wyoming territorial legislature that passed law for, 1 1 ; proceedings of Wyoming territorial legislature that passed law for, 1 1 ; William Bright introduced bill in Wyoming Territory for, 11, 12; reasons Wyoming legislature passed bill for, 12-16, 15 fn. 2 2 ; Wyoming legislators who passed bill for, 13 fn. 14; m a p showing states in 1896 which had, 14; m a p showing states in 1914 which had, 1 5 ; Colorado rejected bill on, 16; Nineteenth Amendment passed, 16, 19; Wyoming Democrats attempt to repeal, 17 ; Washington Territory enacted, 18; women of U t a h and Washington disfran-

387 chised, 1 8 ; California enacted, 19; Colorado state constitution contains, 19; Idaho state constitution contains, 19; National American W o m a n Suffrage Association, 19; states with in 1914, 19; U t a h state constitution contains, 19; Washington enacted, 19; Wyoming state constitution contains, 19; adopted universally, 20, 2 1 ; "An Experiment In Progressive Legislation: T h e Granting of W o m a n Suffrage I n U t a h I n 1870," 2 0 - 3 0 ; allowed in New Jersey, 2 1 ; allowed in State of Deseret, 21 ; George Q. Cannon advocate of, 2 2 ; Congress believed would eradicate polygamy, 24; E. L. T . Harrison favored, 2 4 ; Edward W. Tullidge favored, 2 4 ; William H . Hooper favored, 2 4 ; Franklin D. Richards favored limited, 2 5 ; considered by U t a h Legislature, 2 5 ; report of Legislative Committee on Elections, 2 5 - 2 6 ; given to women in U t a h Territory, 2 6 ; reaction of U t a h women to passage of, 2 6 - 2 7 ; Relief Society promotes, 2 7 ; attitude of Utahns toward adoption of, 2 8 - 2 9 ; attitude of Mormons toward, 2 9 - 3 0 Women, "Women as a Force in the History of U t a h , " by Leonard J. Arrington, 3 - 6 ; number in U t a h compared to men, 3, 4 ; exercised right of suffrage, 4 ; role played by pioneering Mormon, 4 ; " W o m a n Suffrage in Western America," by T . A. Larson, 7 - 1 9 ; "An Experiment in Progressive Legislation: T h e Granting of Woman Suffrage in U t a h in 1870," by Thomas G. Alexander, 2 0 - 3 0 ; "Gentle Persuaders: Utah's First Women Legislators," by Jean Bickmore White, 3 1 - 4 9 ; elected to U t a h State Senate, 3 2 ; deprived of vote by Edmunds-Tucker Law, 33, 3 5 ; elected to U t a h State House of Representatives, 3 3 ; experience as party workers and voters before statehood, 3 3 ; in first statewide election, 3 3 ; law granting suffrage in U t a h Territory, 3 5 ; arguments against granting suffrage, 3 6 ; act concerning employment of, 4 6 ; account of all-woman town board and w o m a n m a y o r of K a n a b , 6 1 - 6 4 ; "Magerou, T h e Greek Midwife," by Helen Zeese Papanikolas, 5 0 - 6 0 ; " U t a h ' s Leading Ladies of the Arts," by Raye Price, 6 5 - 8 5 ; see also W o m a n Suffrage Women's Christian Industrial Home, "An Industrial H o m e For Polygamous Wives," 2 6 3 - 7 5 ; photograph, 2 6 3 ; board of control, 2 6 8 ; leased building, 2 6 9 ; occupants ( 1 8 8 7 ) , 2 6 9 ; admission requirements liberalized, 2 7 0 ; occupants ( 1 8 8 8 ) , 2 7 0 ; c o n structed, 2 7 2 ; description of building, 2 7 2 ; project failed, 2 7 2 - 7 3 ; U t a h Commission assumed control of building, 2 7 2 ; closed, 2 7 3 ; officers of Association protest closing, 2 7 3 ; Utah Legislature petitioned Congress for building as public school, 2 7 3 ; alterations, 2 7 4 ; state offices in, 2 7 4 ; family hotel. 2 7 5 ; location, 2 7 5 ; sold at auction, 2 7 5 ; see also Polygamy Wood, R u t h W., in charge of Women's Industrial Home, 269 Woodruff, Wilford, probate court suits by, 260


388 Woolley, Naomi, member of Committee on Historic and Cultural Sites, 354 Woolley, Roland, gift to U t a h State Historical Society from Mr. and Mrs., 353 World W a r I, activities of Greeks during, 153—56; casualties, 156 Wright, A. B., U t a h artist, 85 Wright, J o h n C , member U t a h House of Representatives, 25 Wyoming, adopted woman suffrage, 10, 2 1 ; make-up of legislature that passed woman suffrage law, 1 1 ; population in 1870, 12; Democrats attempt to repeal, 17; woman suffrage in state constitution, 19

Yanopoulos, Panayiotis, Greek school teacher, 183, 185; photograph, 185 Young, Ann Eliza Webb, photograph, 306 Young, Augusta Adams, photograph, 306 Young, Brigham, initiated cooperative movement, 2 1 ; relieved as governor of U t a h Territory, 210; probate court suits by, 260; photographs, 261, 303, 3 0 6 ; interviewed by Richard Burton, 3 0 0 ; number of wives, 3 0 3 ; photograph of some of wives, 306; description by Richard Burton, 3 1 0 - 1 1 ; description by Bernard De Voto, 3 1 1 ; description by Stanley Hirshson, 311 Young, Clara Chase Ross, photograph, 306 Young, Clara Decker, photograph, 306 Young, Eliza Burgess, photograph, 306 Young, Eliza Roxey Snow, see Snow, Eliza R. Young, Emily Dow Partridge, photograph, 306 Young, Emmeline Free, photograph, 306 Young, Harriet Amelia Folsom, photograph, 306 Young, Harriet Barney, photograph, 306 Young, Harriet Cook Campbell, opinion of Brigham Young on ability to hold office of sheriff, 2 7 ; photograph, 306 Young, Kimball, opinion of apostate Mormon historians, 3 0 2 ; description of Joseph Smith, 310

Utah Historical Quarterly Young, Lorenzo Dow, Mrs. noted crickets attacked crops, 227, 228 Young, Lucy Bigelow, attended International Council of Women in London, 72; photograph, 306 Young, Lucy Decker, photograph, 306 Young, Mahonri, U t a h artist, 85 Young, Margaret Pierce, photograph, 306 Young, M a r t h a Bowker, photograph, 306 Young, Mary Ann Angell, photograph, 306 Young, Mary V a n Cott, photograph, 306 Young, Miriam Works, photograph, 306 Young, N a a m a h Kendall Jenkins Carter, photograph, 306 Young, R. T., sheriff murdered Greek striker, 169; murder trial dismissed, 174 Young, Saraph, believed first woman to vote in U t a h , 27 Young, Susan Snively, photograph, 306 Young, Zina Diantha Huntington, photograph, 306

Z a h a r o g i a n n i s , D e m e t r i o s , G r e e k school teacher, 183 Zane, Margaret D., officer of Industrial H o m e Association, 265 Zaros, George, photograph, 105 Zeese, George, Greek businessman in Helper, 159; awarded contract for water pipeline through Price Canyon, 1 5 9 - 6 0 ; K u Klux K l a n threatened, 180; member Salt Lake Holy Trinity church construction committee, 198 fn. 131 Zoumadakis, George, Greek businessman in Spring Canyon, 159; account of Carbon County strike problems, 1 7 4 - 7 5 ; forced out of store lease, 175; helped Andreas Zulis leave country, 175 Zinc, produced in U t a h , 242 Zulakis, Mike, Webb murder trial, 173 Zulis (Zulakis), Andreas, disappeared, 172; escaped to Greece, 175; wounded, 175; see also Vulis, Andre


SPECIAL MEMBERSHIPS AND HONOREES OF THE UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY HONORARY LIFE MEMBERS Bernice Gibbs Anderson Kate B. Carter Everett L. Cooley Harold P. Fabian Charles Kelly Nicholas G. Morgan, Sr. A. R. Mortensen Marguerite Sinclair Reusser Joel E. Ricks Horace A. Sorensen Russel B. Swensen FELLOWS Leonard J. Arrington Fawn M. Brodie Juanita Brooks Olive W. Burt C. Gregory Crampton Austin E. Fife LeRoy R. Hafen Jesse D. Jennings A. Karl Larson Gustive O. Larson David E. Miller Dale L, Morgan Wallace Stegner


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