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UTAH

HISTORICAL QUARTERLY J. CECIL ALTER

Editor Vols. 1-6 incl. 1928-1933 By many authors

Utah State Historical SocietySalt Lake City 1934.



Utah State Historical Society BOARD OF CONTROL (Terms Expiring April 1, 1929) J. CECIL ALTER, Salt Lake City D. W. PARRATT, Salt Lake City ALBERT F. PHILIPS, Salt Lake City JOEL E. RICKS, Logan PARLEY L. WILLIAMS, Salt Lake City (Terms Expiring April 1, 1931) GEORGE E. FELLOWS, Salt Lake City HUGH RYAN, Salt Lake City FRANK K. SEEGMILLER, Salt Lake City WILLIAM J. SNOW, Provo LEVI E. YOUNG, Salt Lake City

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS 1927-1928 ALBERT F. PHILIPS, President Librarian and Curator WILLIAM J. SNOW, Vice President J. CECIL ALTER, Secretary-Treasurer Editor in Chief All Members, Board of Control, Associate Editors

(Excerpts from the Charter) ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION December 28, 1897 II.

Objects

Section 1. The objects for which this Society is organized are: The encouragement of historical research and inquiry, by the exploration and investigation of aboriginal monuments and remains; the collection of such material as may serve to illustrate the growth, development and resources of Utah and the intermountain region; the preservation of manuscripts, papers, documents and tracts of value, especially narratives of the adventures of early explorers and pioneers; the establishment and maintenance of a public library and museum; the cultivation of


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science, literature and the liberal a r t s ; the dissemination of information; and the holding of meetings at stated intervals for the interchange of views and criticisms. Section 2. This Society shall be authorized to acquire and hold any estate, by purchase, bequest or donation, and to use or dispose of same for its benefit. Section 3. This Society may issue certificates of membership and diplomas for merit and distinguished accomplishment. BY-LAWS I.

Membership

Section 1. Any person of good moral character who is interested in the work of this Society, may be eligible to membership upon complying with the conditions prescribed in these by-laws. Section 2. Active members shall consist of residents of the State of Utah. Life members shall consist of such residents of the State as may contribute not less than $50.00 to the endowment fund of the Society. Corresponding members shall consist of non-residents of the State of literary and historical attainments. Honorary members may consist of explorers and pioneers, or, persons distinguished for literary or scientific work, particularly in the line of American History, who are non-residents of the State. Section 4. Life, corresponding, and honorary members shall be exempt from the payment of dues and assessments. V.

Dues, Fees, Etc.

Section 1. The initiation fee of this Society shall be $2.00. The annual membership fee shall be $2.00. Paid memberships as above will include current subscriptions to the Quarterly magazine, and the privilege of participation in the deliberations of the Society. Non-member subscriptions to the Quarterly magazine are $1 a year or 35 cents a copy. Checks should be made payable to the Utah State Historical Society and mailed to the undersigned. May we have your membership, or your subscription? J.

CECIL A L T E R , Secretary-Treasurer, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah.


Utah Historical Quarterly State Capitol, Salt Lake City Volume I

JANUARY, 1928

Number 1

SALUTATORY To The People of U t a h : On July 22, 1897, the Utah Historical Society was founded, and was incorporated December 28, 1897, under the laws of the State. Its purpose, as its name indicates, is to collect data pertaining to the history of Utah, a state which has more history connected with it than any other west of the Mississippi River. During the decade ending March 7, 1907, several meetings of the Society were held, a number of relics were collected and stored in the State capitol, and on the day mentioned, in an Act passed, and which was approved by the Governor on March 8, 1917, recognized the Society as a State Institution, endowing it with full power to carry out the objects and purposes for which it was organized. The Act of March 8, 1917, provided among other things, that: "The said Society shall hold all its present and future collections of property for the State, and it is hereby made custodian of all records, documents, relics and other material of historic value, which are now or hereafter may be in charge of any State, County, or other official not required by law to be kept as a part of the public records, ten years after the current use of same, or earlier in the discretion of the heads of such departments; and copies thereof, when made and certified by the secretary of said Society under oath and seal, shall have the same force and effect as if made by the original custodian." Efforts are now being made to obtain from the above named officials of the State and its counties and from the settlements and towns the various papers and articles relating to early occurrences and deliberations, so that the same may be filed or placed on display with the Utah Historical Society. Among the principal acquisitions the Society desires are early manuscripts, documents and journals which may be in the hands of the descendants of the Utah Pioneers or other early residents of the State. Should the holder of these writings prefer to retain them, rather than surrender them permanently to the Society, copies of same would nevertheless be appreciated. If the originals are sent to the Society with request that they be copied and returned, the request will be promptly and faithfully complied with; or the


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Society may arrange to have the papers copied under the direct supervision of the holders thereof. Of the founders of the Society, the large majority have long since crossed the Great Divide. While they operated, however, they gathered a number of relics pertaining to the early history of Utah; but manuscripts, journals, diaries and so forth, they did not obtain; and these are what are now most desired for publication and preservation by the Society for public information and benefit. As was set forth by the President of this Society in his latest Annual Report to the Governor, the Society is handicapped by having to operate on meagre funds and with modest facilities; and also to a certain extent by the competition of other State and private organizations which are now and have for many years been collecting material pertaining to the history of Utah. Obviously these historic treasures cannot well be consolidated in the archives of any one department of the State, because they have originated largely from private sources, and have been definitely transferred to the specific institutions mentioned. But the Utah Historical Society nevertheless may be in a better position than most of the State's archivists, for reproducing many of these valuable papers, in its Quarterly magazine, to the advantage of the possessors, and for the ready use of all. . A great deal of such material in existence has already been removed from the State through private channels, into the hands of private collectors. Out-of-the-State libraries, with large funds for acquiring such historic treasures have obtained for their shelves and for their States, valuable collections of material pertaining solely to Utah, which rightfully belonged here. With ample publication resources and facilities the Utah Historical Society may be able to reclaim to the people of the State many such documents, journals and records. Every reader of this Magazine is invited to become a member of the Society. The initiation fee for membership, as fixed in the By-Laws of the Society, is $2, plus an additional sum of $2 as annual dues. The fund derived from the memberships will be used to defray part of the expense of gathering and publishing collections of historical matter. These funds, together with such additional appropriations as the legislature may see fit to make, will enable the Society to function as it should, possibly placing it ultimately on an equal with other States in the preservation of records and valuable manuscripts with its Historical Society. May we have your support, your subscription, and your membership? A L B E R T F. P H I L I P S , President, Utah State Flistorical Society.


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INDIAN NAMES IN UTAH GEOGRAPHY 1 By Wm. R. Palmer2 If one examines the map of the great inland empire commonly spoken of as "The Inter-Mountain West," remembering that this region, not so long ago, was wholly Indian country, one becomes aware of the fact that so far as the map is concerned, the white man has almost expunged the record of the red man's dominion. Only here and there will be found a word the sounds and syllables of which suggest Indian origin. As one, in fancy, peoples again these sun-burned mesas and sage brush plains with their breech-clouted and moccasined inhabitants one finds oneself asking the question: What did the Indians call the mountains, the valleys, and streams before the white man made his map and appended his strange and foreign names? In naming the features of the land, why the white man's ruthless disregard of the ancient and time honored nomenclature of the race he has superseded ? Are the newer names more euphonious, or dignified, or interesting, or appropriate, or do they possess in any way a better logic of fitness that rendered the re-christening advisable? In most instances we will find that the new settlers scarcely paused long enough to ask the Indians if the country and its parts were named. Perhaps our pioneer forebears thought the humble red man had not sense enough to name his landmarks; perhaps they thought him too stolid and unimaginative to create a fitting name; or perhaps their Anglo-Saxon or Scandinavian tongues were too thick to twist themselves around the Indian words, and the Indians were unable to explain the meaning of the names they had bestowed. At any rate, few are the original names that have survived 'Copyright, 1928, by Wm. R. Palmer. Mr. Wm. R. Palmer, a life-long resident of Cedar City, Utah, is president of the Parowan Stake of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints ("Mormon"), Manager of the Cedar Mercantile Company, and director of the Bank of Southern Utah, of Cedar City. He has always had a keen interest in Indians, and has made an exhaustive study of their present habits and past history. His work in this connection is outstanding for its thoroughness and accuracy. In appreciation of his efforts in securing better homes and farms for the Pahute Indians in southwestern Utah, Mr. Palmer has been adopted into their tribe with the rank of Chief, and given the title "Tucu'bin", which means Friend. This relationship has been an 'open sesame' to the confidences and the traditions of the Indians, and has made possible the gathering of this and much other valuable Indian material.—J. C. A. 2


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the re-christening. Some of the changes were justifiable, some excusable, some were improvements, but many of them were without reason, and the names given are not as good as the names they superseded. Our map carries many names that are wholly void of sense or meaning, and bear absolutely no relationship to, or connection with, the places to which they have been attached—names that have been coined with only the thought of euphony, or names transplanted from other states or countries and given without thought of natural fitness. What effort has been made to ascertain and record the names by which our country and its parts were designated by the Indians who inhabited it? Much of this information has already been lost except as some early historian had the forethought to record it, for, of the Indians who lived when the whites came, but few are left. For forty or fifty years these people have been using the white man's names, and the younger generations have come to know but little about the older nomenclature. It is not easy to get such information now, for the Indians are not often communicative even with their trusted friends. The older Indians who know the names have a very limited understanding of English. It is difficult to make them understand what is wanted. And then there is the ever present mercenary demand, 'What you give, what you give?" President A. W. Ivins, a noted Utah pioneer and scout, some time ago asked a Pahute chief to tell him the Indian names of the settlements of Iron County, Utah. After a brief consultation with his tribesmen, the chief came back with the terse proposition, "Cedar, Parowan, pe-ap (big) towns, $10.00 each; Paragonah, Kanarra, not so big towns, $7.00 each; Enoch, Summit, me-a-poots (little towns) $5.00 each." After several years of patient opportunity seeking, and not a little bargaining and bribing, I am able to pass down to history a few of the lost names, and to give the meaning of some others. The data herein presented have been gathered over a period of several years from Indians of all the intermontane tribes, and have been checked and re-checked with the Shivwits, Kaibabits, Utes, Pahvantits, Pahutes and Shoshones. Like most primitive peoples they are not widely traveled. They know but little of the country north of Utah Lake, and this treatise will, therefore cover the southern half of the great inter-mountain basin. For more convenient study we will separate the treatise into three sub-divisions as follows : First, Indian names unchanged by the whites.


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Second, Names of Indian origin given by the whites. Third, Indian names not adopted by the whites. Indian Names Unchanged by the Whites A study of the Great Basin map reveals some names that are of unquestioned Indian origin, but it is interesting to know that only a comparative few of them were applied to their particular place by the Indians themselves. Among these few it seems safe to class the following: Utah. When the Mormon pioneers entered the inter-mountain empire three quarters of a century ago, all the country now embraced in the State of Utah from latitude forty-one to the southern state boundary and extending on to the Grand Canyon of the Colorado, was the tribal domain of the Ute Indian nation. This great nation was divided into several (Escalante says five) independent tribes, and these, in turn, were subdivided into many smaller clans which are usually, though erroneously, called tribes. Among the Indians of Ute stock may be mentioned the Utes, Pahutes, Pahvantits, Shivwits, Kaibabits, Uintkarets, and several others. The language of these several tribes and clans is essentially Ute, though in the long separations, many provincialisms have crept in and modified the mother tongue. When referred to collectively, all these tribes and clans embraced in the Ute Nation are called by the Indians "Ute-ahs." Occasionally, though less frequently, one hears them called "Uintas." They speak of the inter-mountain country as "Tuweap-ah Ute-ah" which means land or country of the Utes. Discussing the Mormon settlement of Utah with a group of Pahutes one day, an old Indian excitedly jumped up and sweeping his arms to indicate the whole country said to me, "Soka tuweap-ah Ute-ah, Mormonie cu-up." Interpreted he said, "This whole country belonged to the Utes but the Mormons came and took it." Another time I had this conversation at the camp. Pointing to a strange Indian who had just come in I asked, Who is he? The answer in broken English was, "He Ute-ah, no sabe me where come." He meant, I don't know where or what clan he comes from but he is a Ute. From the Indian usage cited it seems safe to conclude that our word Utah comes from the Indian word of similar pronuncia-


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tion, and is a collective noun meaning all clans of the Ute Nation. Going back a step further, I have tried to ascertain the meaning of the word "Ute." To most Indians it is, " J u s t name," or, "Just kind Indian." Brig, (whose Indian name is Tu-cu-pit, wild cat), a good Pahute interpreter, ventured the opinion that it means "tall." His line of reasoning, however, seemed not altogether convincing to the other Indians, but there is some historic background to support him. The great Ute chief, Walker, is said to have been six and a half feet tall, and chief Coal Creek John, of Walker's royal lineage, stood over six feet in his moccasins. Brig's idea is that " U t e " means tall Indians. Wasatch Mountains, Utah. This main inter-mountain range almost bisects Utah from north to south. The name is of Ute origin and is pronounced by them "Wahsats." It has several usages, but as applied to mountains it means a traveled valley between mountains—a mountain pass— or a low pass over a high range. Where such a pass is traversed by a definite road or trail, the road or trail is called "paw wahsats." Here it will be well to get a clear understanding of the words pa, pah, and paw, as they are root words in a large number of Indian names. Pa, or pah, the a sounded as in at, pat, etc., means water. Paw—a sounded as in all, Paul, etc., means road or trail. The word wah-sats also means a fork, as forks of a road, forks of a river, or forks of a tree. Koosharem. An Indian village near Richfield, Utah. The name is pronounced by the Indians koo-shar-omp. It means roots that are good to eat. A plant flourished there the roots of which they cooked and ate. It is described as about the size and shape of a small carrot, and of similar flavor. Pahvant. A large valley in west central Utah. The Pahvant valley in Millard County, Utah, is a part of the ancient Lake Bonneville. To the Indians, Sevier Lake was the outstanding physical feature of this valley. When the whites came it was much larger than it now is. It was, and still is, the largest sheet of water between Utah Lake and the Colorado River. It was the largest body of water within the Pahute


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realms, and largest in the experience of most of the Southern Utah Indians. The valley was the home of quite a strong tribe who had, at one time or another, farmed all around the lake shore. Fields belonging to this tribe, with corn, wheat and beans still standing, were found by the Iron County colony of settlers on their march south in December, 1850. They named the place Corn Creek from the incident of finding corn there. The word "Pah-vant"—a sounded as in at—means "close to water." One Indian gave the definition "down to water." Another said, "by the water." Another said "at the water." Still another pointed to the ground and said "water right there." Pah-vent, or pa-vent, means on the water, as a duck or a boat. The Indians who lived in the vicinity of Sevier Lake, or who lived within the Sevier Lake valley, were called "Pah-vant-its," meaning Indians from the vicinity of the big water (lake). The suffix "its" as used here means the same as our word "ites," when we say Ogdenites, Denverites, etc. The same suffix is found in a number of variations such as "wits," "ats," "uts," "is," "ich," "ints," "intez," etc. Such variations are accounted for in the fact that articulation is not uniform among the various tribes, and then it is often difficult to make an exact rendition of Indian sounds into written English. Of these variations, "wits," "its," "uts," and "is" are of most common usage. The Pahvant Valley was also called by the Indians "Pe-ap Tu-weap" which in this case meant "big country," or "big valley." Peap, or pe-amp is big, tu-weap is earth or ground. Panguitch,3 Utah. County seat of Garfield County, Utah. Pa-gu or Pang-we is fish. Panguitch is big or heavy fish. Panguitch Lake was called "Guitch-pa-garit." Pa-garit or pa-car-it is lake. Guitch-pa-garit means fish lake. The little band of Indians who sometimes lived around the lake in the summer months were called "Pa-gu-its." Parowan, Utah. County seat of Iron County. The translation of this word is "mean water," or "evil water." It does not mean bad water, or stinking water, or stagnant water, or salt lake water,—definitions that have been given, a "Pan-gwitch, fish." Vocabulary of the Shoshone Language, by George W. Hill, Salt Lake City, 1877.


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—but literally mean or wicked water. Pa—a sounded as in at— is water. Ruan is evil or mean. The name has its origin in a legend which says that at one time when the Indians were camped near Little Salt Lake the water rushed up and "stole a man." He was carried far out and was never seen again. They say that the lake bottom had holes in it, and that the water sometimes "jumped high up." There may have been volcanic disturbances there, or the lake may at one time have been a geyser. An exploring party of fifty men under command of Parley P. Pratt came into Southern Utah during the winter of 1849-50. This company held a celebration January 8, 1850, on the present site of Parowan. They feasted, raised a liberty pole, and held a meeting during which the place was dedicated as "the site of the city Little Salt Lake as long as the sun shone upon it." One year later the pioneer company came down, arriving at the liberty pole January 13, 1851. Immediately they commenced the building of a town. The name given the place by Parley P. Pratt was never used, and the settlement remained nameless until May 16, 1851 when, in a council meeting attended by Brigham Young, the Indian name Parowan was adopted. Paragoonah. In Iron County, Utah. Pronounced by the Indians Pa-ra-goon-ah, also Pa-ragoone. Its meaning is somewhat in doubt. Some Indians say it is "by a lake;" others say "roiley or muddy water;" others say "creek with caving banks;" others say "just name." Pa is water, goone or goonah is hole. Breaking the word thus it would mean water hole, but the Indians do not incline to that definition. The place is sometimes called Red Creek, and because of this some whites have ascribed to the word Paragoonah the meaning of "red water." This is not correct. There is no syllable or combination of sounds that suggests such a translation. The Indians disclaim such meaning. Un-ka or un-ka-ga is red. The Utes say the word Paragoonah means many springs or marshes, and this perhaps is the correct interpretation. Over the low lands of the Paragoonah Creek there were meadows with many springs and mud holes when the settlers came upon the stream. The Indian who gave this interpretation was not aware of the physical fact of the existence of springs when the name was applied, for most of them dried up before his day, when the settlers diverted the stream upon the upper fields. His definition


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however, describes t h e place so perfectly t h a t t h e r e can be little d o u b t of t h e c o r r e c t n e s s of his rendition. Pahranagat. 4 A valley in S o u t h e r n N e v a d a . In early d a y s t h i s valley w a s a favorite h u n t i n g and fishing ground. T h e r e w a s m u c h w a t e r , a n d ducks and water-fowl a b o u n d e d . T h e valley, h o w e v e r , w a s e v e r y w h e r e w e t and m a r s h y and t h e h u n t e r s ' feet w e r e a l w a y s w e t . F r o m t h i s fact t h e valley took its n a m e . P a - r a n - a - g a t literally says " y o u r feet in the water." Ibapa. A U t a h I n d i a n village. T h e I n d i a n w o r d is Av-im-pa. A v i m is w h i t e clay, a n d pa is w a t e r . T h e combination A v i m p a m e a n s creek w i t h w h i t e clay b a n k s , or w a t e r in white clay. Kanab. 0 C o u n t y s e a t of K a n e C o u n t y , U t a h , and on the Grand Canyon h i g h w a y . N a m e d from t h e I n d i a n w o r d k a n a v w h i c h m e a n s willows. I n t h e early d a y s t h e place t h a t is n o w K a n a b W a s h w a s a willow-covered creek b o t t o m . Toquer. T o q u e r v i l l e , U t a h , a s e t t l e m e n t on t h e Zion P a r k H i g h w a y , takes its n a m e from t h e black volcanic m o u n t a i n a g a i n s t which it nestles. T o q u e r is U t e for black. Paria. T h e P a r i a R i v e r is a t r i b u t a r y of t h e Colorado. T h e Indian word is " p a r i a - n o q u i n t " w h i c h m e a n s E l k River. P a r i a is U t e for elk. Magotsa. ( I n Utah.) T h e old e m i g r a n t r o u t e t o California ran from Cedar City west t h r o u g h t h e I r o n S p r i n g s pass, u p t h e desert p a s t w h a t is 4 "P'ah Ranagats, Pah-ran-ne, Pah-Reneg-Utes, equals Paraniguts." Handbook of American Indians, (Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, D. C ) . By F.'W. Hodge. "Paraniguts (Pa-ran-i-guts, 'people of the marshy spring'). A Paiute band formerly living in the valley of the same name in s. e. Nevada," p. 202, same as above. B "Kanab; town, creek and plateau in Kane County, Utah. A Ute Indian word, meaning "willow." The Origin Of Certain Place Names In The United States. (U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C.) By Henry Gannett.


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now t h e t o w n s of N e w c a s t l e a n d E n t e r p r i s e , over t h e hills to M o u n t a i n M e a d o w s , t h e n c e over t h e s o u t h e r n divide a n d d o w n the slope t o t h e M a g o t s a . T h e I n d i a n w o r d is M a - h a u t - s a , and m e a n s the end of a long slope. T h e w o r d T o p e k a m e a n s t h e same. Mukuntuweap.' T h e main g o r g e of Zion N a t i o n a l P a r k b e a r s a l m o s t s t r a i g h t n o r t h w a r d , and confines w i t h i n its vertical w a l l s t h e w a t e r s of the M u k u n t u w e a p . T h e s t r e a m e m e r g e s i n t o Zion a t t h e point called t h e N a r r o w s . S o m e w r i t e r s h a v e ascribed to Zion C a n y o n t h e I n d i a n n a m e M u k u n t u w e a p , — a m i s t a k e t h a t arises o u t of a failure t o distinguish between the canyon and the stream. T h e Indian name for Zion C a n y o n w a s I-u-goone, or I - o o - g u n e , a n d t h e river M u k u n t u w e a p flows t h r o u g h it. V a r i o u s m e a n i n g s h a v e been ascribed to t h e w o r d M u k u n t u weap, such as "place of t h e g o d s , " "place of m a n y w a t e r s , " etc. T h e s e are n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n fanciful g u e s s e s as t h e r e is n o t h i n g in t h e w o r d to s u g g e s t a n y of t h e m . T e c h n i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e n a m e as given a b o v e is incorrect. It should be M u k u n t - o - w e a p , b u t t h e e r r o r m a y be a c c o u n t e d for in t h e fact t h a t t h e I n d i a n p r o n u n c i a t i o n of t h e letter o is often oo as in soon, coon, etc., and m i g h t easily be m i s t a k e n for u. " T u w e a p " is g r o u n d or e a r t h , n o t creek. " O - w e a p " technically defined, is a dry w a s h or a dry c a n y o n . H o w e v e r it is often loosely used to m e a n j u s t c a n y o n , a n d occasionally is applied t o a s t r e a m flowing t h r o u g h a canyon. T h e l a t t e r is t h e u s a g e in t h i s case. A m o n g t h e I n d i a n s this s t r e a m has t w o n a m e s . Coincidentally t h e y s o u n d so n e a r l y alike as t o p a s s for t h e s a m e , yet they are of different derivation and differ w i d e l y in m e a n i n g . T h e A r i z o n a I n d i a n s call t h e s t r e a m " M u k - u n k - o - w e a p . " M u k - u n k is a v a r i e t y of oose t h e root of w h i c h served several domestic p u r p o s e s . T h e c r o w n and i n n e r r o o t core w e r e used by t h e I n d i a n s and even by t h e w h i t e pioneers for s o a p . I n w a t e r it lathered like soap and h a d excellent cleansing qualities. T h e long o u t e r root fibre w a s shredded a n d t w i s t e d into rope, and into ""September 12 (1870).—Our course, for the last two days, through Pa-ru-nu-weap Canon, was directly to the west. Another stream conies down from the north, and unites just here at Schunesburg with the main branch of the Rio Virgen. We determine to spend a day in the exploration of this stream The Indians call the canon, through which it runs, Mu-koon -tu-weap or' Straight Canon." P. Ill, Exploration of the Colorado River of the West 'and its Tributaries, Explored in 1869, 1870, 1871 and 1872. Washington 1875' Bvy J. W. Powell. '


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strings for rabbit snares. The plant grew especially thrifty along the river and the Indians went there to gather it, for which reason they called the stream "Mukunk-o-weap." Of the Indians who use this name, some translate it "Oose Creek," while others say "Soap Creek." As both the soap and the oose are called "mukunk," there need be no confusion over the root word. The Cedar City Indians, separated from the Arizona Indians by a great mountain range, call this same stream "Mukunt-o-weap." Muk-unt means straight, and o-weap, canyon stream. This is doubtless the source and meaning of the name that has gone into our maps. Parunuweap.' The Parunuweap empties into Mukuntuweap from the east. It seems to mean water running swiftly into a deep hole or deep canyon. This word also, for reasons given above, should be spelled Pa-run-o-weap. Parashont. The Parashont range on the Arizona Strip is well known to the livestock men of Southern Utah. The Indian word for the country is "Paria-a-saut," and means tanned elk skin. Parashont has a mild climate with long periods of open fall weather. For this reason it was a favorite gathering place for the southern Indian bands to meet after the fall hunting season. Here they visited and dried their meats and tanned their skins. Toroweap, Tuweap. The Toroweap Valley leads southward from Pipe Springs National Monument to the Colorado River, and is destined to become a great winter highway to the Grand Canyon of the Colorado. It is sometimes called Tu-weap Valley, though this is erroneous. The word tu-weap simply means earth. Toro-weap means a gully or a wash,—not a canyon or deep gorge. Wah-weap. There are several valleys in Utah and in Nevada called bv the Indians Wah-weap. The word means alkaline seeps or salt licks. It also means little valleys or hollows containing stagmant pools or brackish seeps. "'September 10 (1870).—Here the river turns to the West, and our way, properly, is to the south; but we wish to explore the Rio Virgen as far as possible. * * * The Indian name of the Canyon is Pa-ru -nu-weap, or Roaring Water Canon." p. 109, Exploration of the Colorado River of the West, etc. By J. W. Powell.


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Moapa. 8 M o a p a V a l l e y in N e v a d a has a l m o s t b e c o m e nationally k n o w n for its famed M o a p a c a n t a l o u p e s . T h e I n d i a n s also called t h e valley "Mo-a-pa." T h e w o r d m e a n s a valley or m o u t h of a c a n y o n w i t h a large s t r e a m of w a t e r flowing t h r o u g h it. Timpanoquint, Timpanogos." T h e P r o v o River, U t a h , and M o u n t T i m p a n o g o s n e a r by. T h e w o r d T i m p a n o q u i n t h a s been s l i g h t l y c h a n g e d and transferred b y o u r g e o g r a p h e r s from t h e river t o t h e m o u n t a i n . Mt. T i m p a n o g o s w a s k n o w n to t h e I n d i a n s as " P a - a k - a r - e t K a i b . meaning very high mountain. T h e word "timp-pa" belongs to t h e river. T h e full n a m e for P r o v o R i v e r w a s " T i m p - p a - n o q u i n t , " w h i c h i n t e r p r e t e d is as f o l l o w s : t i m p , r o c k ; pa, w a t e r ; n o - q u i n t , r u n n i n g , — w a t e r r u n n i n g over r o c k s or a s t r e a m with a r o c k y bed. Indian N a m e s Given b y t h e W h i t e s I t would be q u i t e n a t u r a l t h a t some of t h e w o r d s of the Indian t o n g u e w o u l d i m p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s u p o n t h e w h i t e new c o m e r s . W h e n t h e settlers w e r e c a s t i n g a b o u t for n a m e s it w o u l d be expected t h a t s o m e of t h e s e I n d i a n w o r d s w o u l d come t o t h e surface a n d be a d o p t e d . I n s o m e s u c h i n s t a n c e s t h e m e a n i n g of t h e w o r d w o u l d b e of s e c o n d a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I t w a s e n o u g h t h a t it sounded well. T h e appellation m i g h t be t h e n a m e of s o m e friendly or o t h e r w i s e o u t s t a n d i n g chief, s o m e object or condition, or, p e r h a p s a w o r d of I n d i a n origin b u t b r o u g h t from far d i s t a n t t r i b e s . S u c h i n s t a n c e s are c o m p a r a t i v e l y few. and t h e following will serve as i l l u s t r a t i o n s . ""Moapariats (Mo-a-pa-ri'-ats, 'mosquito creek people'). A band oi Faiute formerly living in or near Moapa valley, s. e. Nevada." Handbook o) American Indians. By. F. W. Hodge. ""(May 23, 1844) * * * Among these the principal river is the Timpan-ogo—signifying Rock River—a name which the rocky gradeur of its scenery, remarkable even in this country of rugged mountains, has obtained for it from the Indians. In the Utah language, og-wahbe, the term for river, when coupled with other words in common conversation, is usually abbreviated to ogo; timpan signifying rock. It is probable that this river furnished the name which on the older maps has been generally applied to the Great Salt Lake; but for this I have preferred a name which will be regarded as highly characteristic, restricting to the river the descriptive term Timpan-ogo, and leaving for the lake into which it flows the name of the people who reside on its shores, and by which it is known throughout the country." p. 388 Memoirs of My Life, Chicago and New York, 1887, by John Charles Fremont "Timp, rock; stone." "Timp-in-og-wa, Provo River." "Timp-a-we-to-e! Cast Iron Kettle." "Timp-tim-ad-zo-ni, Grindstone." Vocabulary of the Shoshone Language, by George W. Hill.


INDIAN NAMES IN U T A H GEOGRAPHY

15

Kanarra, Utah. An Iron County settlement on the Zion Park Highway, named for a friendly chief, who, with his tribe, lived on the stream that now bears his name. The old chief met his death near Enoch, Utah, by being thrown from a horse. Kanosh, Utah. In Pahvant Valley and on the Zion Park Highway. This town was named for the Chief Kanosh of the Pahvantits tribe, who became a convert to Mormonism. It is said of him that his dark skin turned gradually lighter until he became almost like a white man. Panaca, Nevada. This town was named by its Mormon settlers from the Indian word panacar, or panagar, which means money. It also means iron, copper, silver or other metals. Sometimes it is applied to metalliferous ores. When the old mining camp, Bullionville, opened up and the Indians saw the metal being extracted from the rocks, they called the camp "Panacar." Later, when the Mormons colonized the same valley, they adopted the Indian name. Moccasin, Arizona. This is a ranch near Pipe Springs National Monument, in Arizona, and is the site of one of the Government Indian Reservations. Its Indian name before the coming of the whites was Pa-it-spick-ine, which meant "bubbling springs." ^Pa, is water, and spickant, springs. The variation above means bubbling or boiling. The place was called Moccasin by the white men from the incident of finding a pair of moccasins at the springs. It may be news to many to learn that "moccasin" is not the word of the western Indians for their footwear. This word comes to us through New England literature rather than from western Indian usage. Likewise "wigwam." The Ute calls his buckskin shoes "new-o-pats," "patsun," or just "pats," and his home is "can." The words moccasin and wigwam, while of Indian origin, are as foreign to the Ute as they are to us. Moccasin has gained usage among them through the constant application of the word on the part of the whites. Navajo Lake, Utah. Near Cedar Breaks. This name was derived from a skirmish there between citizens of Kanarra and Harmony, and a


16

T H E UTAH HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

band of marauding Navajoes. The Indians had raided these settlements and driven off a number of horses. The settlers pursued and overtook the thieves at the lake. The Indians in surprise, scattered in all directions, leaving camp equipment and even much of their clothing and footwear and several of their horses. The Indian name for this lake was "Pa-cu-ab." Piute, Utah. A county in Utah. The word is a corruption of the tribal Pah-ute, or Pai-ute. It is therefore of Indian origin and is one of the few Indian names that was bestowed by the whites. I say bestowed, rather than adopted, because the Indians never used it in the sense that we use it. They applied it to the tribe, while we have applied it to a country. Moreover, it may be noted that the territory embraced within the boundaries of Piute County was never any part of the Pahute Indian realm. This is an illustration of our heedless application of Indian words. The Pahutes were one of the Independent tribes of the Ute nation. The boundaries of their domain were quite definitely defined and recognized by the other tribes. It was that country lying west of the range of mountains, and extending from the Pahvant Valley (inclusive), southward to the Virgin River. Also that country between the Virgin and Colorado Rivers, from Kaibab Mountains (inclusive), westward to the junction of the two streams. When our geographers, or law makers, or whoever was responsible for the naming of the county, bestowed the word Piute on the County it never occurred to them, perhaps, that they were outside the Pahute boundaries or even that the Pahutes ever had a domain of their own. Indian Names Not Used by the Whites The Indians had every landmark, and in fact, every part of the country named, quite as much as we have them named now. Their appellations were usually derived from some characteristic of the places themselves and were, as a rule, significant and appropriate. This Inter-Mountain west was Indian country, and it is regrettable that more of the Indian names were not retained. It would have added much to the interest of travelers to this tourist Mecca if the Indian language had been more liberally spread over its face. As already indicated, not many of the original Ute names were adopted by the settlers. As time went on the Indians came


INDIAN NAMES IN U T A H GEOGRAPHY

17

more and more to use the white man's names and to drop the use of their own. Most of the Indians who were here fifty to seventy years ago are now on their Happy Hunting Grounds, and with them have gone many of the names they knew in this estate. Persistent inquiry has stimulated much discussion of the question among old and young of the tribe, and has brought to light the following unused names: I-u-goone or I-oo-gune. This was the name of the principal canyon in Zion National Park. U-goone or Oo-gune was the name of the Indian arrow quiver. I-u-goone means "like the arrow quiver." One has only to go into the narrow canyon with its sheer three-thousand-foot walls on either side, to see how significant and appropriate the name. The feeling is almost akin to walking into a great sack. The old man who gave me the word illustrated it by going through the motions of putting an arrow into a quiver and then drawing it out again, saying, "have to come out where he go in." Another Indian explained the word by putting his open left hand flat on his knee and spreading two fingers into an open V. Placing his right index finger at the mouth of the V. he drew it down between the fingers and then back out, commenting as he did it, "all same arrow sack, can't get out, can't lose out." Fantastic stories are sometimes told the traveler to Southern Utah about the fear of the Indian that darkness might overtake him in the Zion Canyon, and of his belief that the Canyon is the home of God. Also, that of the game he killed there, he always left a choice quarter on some clean rock as a peace offering to-the deity that had prospered him. These pretty stories seldom fail to interest the eastern visitor, and incidentally they tend to create certain desired dramatic traditions concerning the Park. Guides and others about the Park who tell these stories suppose them to be true, but, like many other pretty stories, they seem to have no foundation in fact. The Indians tell of long encampments in Zion Canyon— even long enough to raise corn and squash. (Juab: See Taw-gu-Uav.) Quitch-o-wer. One of the Zion peaks was called Quitchower. means "like a peak," or sharp pointed.

The word


18

T H E U T A H HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Pa-ron-tink-an. Another of the great Zion escarpments was called Pa-rontink-an. Roughly translated the word means "Shelter Mountain." The Indians tell of the mountain having many overhanging rocks and holes and shallow caves where they could live in stormy weather. Un-cap-i-cun-ump. The Cedar Breaks National monument was called Uncapi. cunump. The word means a circle of painted cliffs, also a circle of red cliffs. Unka Carur, also Unka Caru. It is a red mountain near Cedar City, Utah. Unka is red and carur, or caru is hill. The name simply says Red Hill. Wa-see-ap-to. The place that is now Cedar City, Utah. The name means a grove of scrub cedars. These trees covered the site of Cedar City when the white settlers came. This grove was the basis of the names given the place by both the whites and the Indians. Wap-pa-no-quint, also O-wap-pa-no-quint. Coal Creek, the stream that flows through Cedar City, Utah, Wap or O-wap means cedars, pa is water, and no-quint running. The translation of Wap-pa-no-quint is, therefore, "a stream of water running through cedars." "Coal Creek" has been criticised as a hideous name for a beautiful canyon. W h y not remove the objection by dropping our name and adopting the musical Wap-pa-no-quint ?" Pa-rap-it. Rush Lake in Iron County, Utah, was called Pa-rap-it. means "Lake with no outlet."

It

Kaib Whit, Kaib-a-harur. Pine Valley Mountains, Utah. One of the newly opened scenic attractions of Southern Utah is Pine Valley Mountains. This range parallels on the west, the southern end of the Wasatch. The chain is comparatively short, being less than fifty miles in length, but is rugged and colorful, the extreme southern end rising abruptly to an altitude of eleven thousand feet. The range is divided by natural passes into three divisions, each of which was named by the Indians.


INDIAN NAMES IN U T A H

GEOGRAPHY

19

The southern promontory had two names. By the Indians of St. George, Utah, it was called Kaib-Whit, while the Cedar City Indians called it "Kaib-a-harur." The name Kaib-whit seems to have no definite meaning other than the syllable Kaib, which is mountain. This is the same word as Kaib used in the name Kaibab Mountain 10 which means "mountain lying down." The word "Kaib-a-harur" is capable of clearer translation. It means "Mountain standing still." To-ag-ar-er, Muk-quavish Kaib. The middle division of the Pine Valley range was called Toag-ar-er, and the northern division, terminating at the historic Iron Springs Pass, was named Mukquavish Kaib. Pan-ag-up, Pan-ag-a-pa. Iron Springs, Utah. The Iron Springs Pass is "Panagup." The springs and creek are "Panagapa." Panagar or Panacar is iron, and pa water. Panagapa, therefore means to an Indian just what Iron Springs might mean to a white man. The name is derived from the adjacent Iron mountain. To-no-quitch-i-wunt. Wyant. Tonoquitchiwunt, meaning Little Black Mountains, are the hills south of Iron Springs, and Wyant (five peaks) are the hills northward. Taw-gu-Uav, or Taw-gu Juav. (The J silent) Going westward through Iron Springs Pass, Utah, one comes out upon a wide stretch of unwatered plain known locally as "The West Desert." The Indians gave it the name Tawgu Uav. Tawgu means thirsty. The word Uav means desert, or wide valley, and sometimes meadow—a level stretch of country—a plain. It is the same word as Juab, the name of one of Utah's counties. The journal of Isaac C. Haight, a member of the Pratt exploring company of 1849, speaks of the Juab Valley as "Yoab." TawguUav—thirsty plain—is a most appropriate name for the country it covers. The Iron Springs Pass was, in the early days, the gateway ""Kaibab (prob. 'on the mountain', from kaib or kaiba, 'mountain', and the locative ending ab or ba. * * * Powell gave their name to the Kaibab plateau, n. w. Ariz." Handbook of American Indians, by F. W. Hodge.


20

T H E U T A H HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

for two important roads, the old freight road to the early Nevada mining camps, and the southern California emigrant trail. Going westward a day's travel over the old freight road brought the traveler to,— O-weve, or O-wavie,—or O-weve Spickant. Known to the freighter as Desert Springs, near the UtahNevada line. The Indian name means "Wheat grass springs." The old Desert Springs in freighting days was the scene of many crimes, robberies, murders and cattle rustlings. Under the ownership of the historic outlaw, Ben Tasker, the old ranch was the rendezvous of the stage robbers and cattle thieves that infested the Utah-Nevada boundary region. Tune-to-u. Eagle Valley, in Nevada, was Tunetou, which means a " V " shaped valley. Timp-i-ah. Is known to us as Spring Valley, Nevada. Canyon widening out."

It means "Rock

Sega-wina. Rose Valley, Nevada. The Indians tell of a cave there, the roof of which is pointed like a house gable. Up into the crevice of the roof the old Indians shot many arrows which have stuck there to this day. Sega means pointed roof. The valley took its name from this cave. Quev-wim-pa. Antelope Springs, Utah. Returning now to the Iron Springs Pass in Utah, and tracing from there the old California emigrant trail, we come first to Antelope Springs which had the musical Indian name Quevwim-pa. O-wee-tu. Mouth of Pinto Canyon, Utah. The mouth of Pinto Canyon was the junction branches of the old trail. It was called by the Indians which means end, or mouth, of the canyon. At this place there still remains the cedar stumps of what was ox shoeing stall.

of two Oweetu historic once an

Tu-ra-tu-ma, Tu-ra-at-tu. Perhaps the next point of interest in going over the old Cal-


INDIAN NAMES IN U T A H GEOGRAPHY

21

ifornia trail would be Mountain Meadows, Utah. The Cedar City Indians call this place Tu-ra-tu-ma, while the Nevada Indians call it Tu-ra-eat-tu. The latter say it means a wide rolling valley up in the mountains. To the former it means an open treeless plain in the mountains. Cang-it-cho-ip. Pilot Peak, Utah." One of the important landmarks on the California road was Pilot Peak near the present town of Enterprise, Utah. This mountain standing apart and rising to a high, sharp peak, could be seen by the traveler going or coming, for great distances. It was no less a guide to the red man in his western wanderings. He called it Cang-it-cho-ip. Cang is mountain ground, and choip is head. As a name Cangit-choip means mountain head—a peak that stands above or apart from the rest. Pa-ha-weap. The Colorado River. Of the streams, first in importance to the Pahute was, perhaps, the Colorado. He called it Pa-ha-weap. Interpreted it means "water down deep in the earth," or "along way down to water." Pa-russ. The Rio Virgin. The Rio Virgin is a tributary of the Colorado. The river was explored in the early months of the year 1853 by fifteen men from Parowan, Utah, under command of John D. Lee. They traversed the stream from Zion Canyon to its mouth. The Indians called it Pa-roos or Pah-roos, which means a dirty turbulent stream, all of which it is. The name is far more fitting than Virgin/ 2 which decidedly it is not. In 1776 Father Escalante, the Spanish explorer, crossed the Virgin River at the mouth of Ash Creek and went on south over the ground where Hurricane now stands. The Father found on the river a colony of Indians who were raising corn and other garden crops by irrigation. These he called the Parrusis. They "Not to be confused with Pilot Peak, Nevada, (at the Utah-Nevada boundary west of the Great Salt Lake Desert) celebrated as the pilot peak for the ill-fated Donner Party in 1846, and others subsequently.—J. C. A. "Spelled Virgen, by Fremont (1844), and other early explorers subsequently; traditionally reported to have been named after Thomas Virgen, an early trapper-explorer.


22

T H E U T A H HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

were not a distinct tribe. They were Pahutes but were called Parrusis from the fact that they lived on the Parrus or Pa-roos river. To-no-quint, Tots-qua-qui-toa. Two tributaries of the Rio Virgin are Ash Creek called Tono-quint, and Santa Clara called Tots-qua-qui-toa. The derivative of both names is black. To-no-quint is stream carrying black silt, and tots-qua-qui-toa means dark colored country. The name is derived from the black lava rock that covers the hills. When the Mormons came, there was a tribe living on the Santa Clara called Tonoquints, or tonoquint-its. Only one member of this tribe is alive today. His name is Tam-a-lots. He is living on the Shivwits Reservation. U-nav-ich. Black Ridge, Utah. U-naw-weap. Ash Creek Canyon. A s h Creek cuts its way through the Black Ridge which is called by the Indians U-naw-ich, and its gorge or canyon—dry part of the season—is called U-naw-weap. A-Va-pa, and Ava-pa-noquint. Sevier River, Utah. The Sevier River, one of the larger Utah streams, was called Avapa. It seems to mean big quiet waters, or big placid river. Pah-ince No-quint. Beaver River, Utah. The fur bearing beaver is called pah-ince. No-quint is river. The Indian name for this stream is, therefore, just the same as ours,—Beaver River. Saw-on-quint. Little Creek and Little Creek Canyon, Utah. It means sage brush canyon and sage brush creek. On-o-cutch. Bear Valley, Utah. Pa-hump-pa. Cove Fort, Utah. Pa-hump is cane and pa is water. As a name Pa-hump-pa means Cane Creek, or canoe growing in the creek water.


INDIAN NAMES IN U T A H GEOGRAPHY

23

The first company of Southern Utah settlers encamped on this stream, January 5, 1851, and gave it the name Cove Creek. A few years later a heavy stone fort was built there for the protection of emigrants and freighters from Indian attack. Since the fort was built, the name has been changed froir. Cove Creek to Cove Fort. Of the chain of Mormon pioneer forts that in early days extended from Salt Lake City to St. George, this historic old place is the last to survive. It is in a good state of preservation, and, being located on the Zion Park highway, is being inspected by many hundreds of people annually. Chee-ava, Chee-ava-pa. Buckhorn Springs, Utah, on the Zion Park highway. A much used camp ground on the California southern route in early days was Buckhorn Springs, on the northern rim of the valley of the Little Salt Lake. The country round about was known to the Indians as Chee-ava. The spring was called Cheeava-pa. Formerly flourishing there was a plant called cheeava which was good food for both man and animal. It grew twelve to twenty inches high and the stalk only was eaten. I have been unable to identify it. Sak-ar-at Kaib. Mount Baldy, Utah, one of the highest peaks of the Wasatch range, always snow-capped and seen from long distances north or south, was to the early emigrant an important landmark. The Indians knew it by the fitting name Sak-ar-at Kaib, which, interpreted means White Mountain. Se-ma-to. New Harmony, Utah. This was one of the early pioneer settlements. name means a cove.

The Indian

Pa-hump-ton-inch. The eastern foot of Pine Valley Mountains, Utah, had many springs, seeps and cane breaks. The climate was mild and it was a favorite winter ground for the Indians. From the cane beds they gathered many arrows which they feathered and spiked during the winter months. Certain spots of land were sub-irrigated and the Indians found this locality one of the best places for their gardening. Pa-hump is cane. The foothill country was called Pa-hump-ton-inch.


24

T H E U T A H HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Psock-o-atcs. Pintura, Utah. On the Zion Park highway. The Pintura section was and still is, covered with a heavy brush called by the Indians Psockoatcs, and from it the country took its name. To the freighters in the days of the old Silver Reef mining camp, Pintura was known as Bellvue. O-wat-ie. Long Valley, Utah.

It means yellow valley.

U-an-no or U-un-o. St. George, Utah. The St. George valley was a favorite wintering ground. The climate was semi-tropical. The Indians tell of some farming there. They raised corn and squash and some plant from which they harvested a black seed which was stored for winter. From it they made a black bread. U-un-o means a good garden place, or good fields. U-an-o is also a general term for the country we call "Dixie." Pa-ve-ah. The Hurricane Valley was known as Pah-ve-ah and seems to mean a long north-south valley. Chun-qua-wak-ab. The geologically famous Hurricane Fault forms the east wall of Hurricane Valley. The Indian name Chunquawakab means a long line of cliffs. Ma-ag-ara Kaib. The range of mountains between St. George and the Colo rado River was called Maagara Kaib, which means mountains with many kinds of trees on them. They are now frequently called Shivwits Mountains because the Shivwits Indians lived on them. Unka-timpe Wa-wince Pock-ich. Bryce Canyon National Monument, Utah. Just as we have given one name to the whole canyon and other names to its separate parts, so also did the Indians. The above is the general Indian term covering the whole Bryce section. Translation is as follows: Pockich (now often Americanized into pockets) means a bowl shaped canyon; unka is red timpe is rocks, and wa-wince means standing up like men. The whole, therefore, means a bowl shaped canyon filled with red rocks standing up like men.


INDIAN NAMES IN

UTAH GEOGRAPHY

25

In general usage a shorter name, Unka-carru-chich, is given, but this technically speaking, is the name for only one section of Bryce. This means a group of red ridges or peaks. In the lower stretches of the Canyon service berries abounded. An Indian trail from the Paria once wound itself among these bushes, passing up through the Canyon and over the divide where now the Bryce Lodge stands. This trail was called "Te-ar-ump Paw," which says "service berry trail." One of the Bryce Points was called "Uimp-ab-ich,"—Pine Tree Point. That part of the Canyon between the rock filled bowl and the town of Tropic was known as "We-ump O-weap," or in English "Wild Grape Canyon." Pa-ant-oo-Kaib. Powell Mountain, Utah. Standing at the Bryce Lodge and looking eastward, one sees in the distance, a large white sided mountain which is known as Powell Mountain. The Indians call it "Pa-ant-oo Kaib." Some say "Pa-ant-ing Kaib." The meaning is "Big Mountain." The white point on which Powell built his observation monument is called "Av-imp-co A-vant," which means white faced point. The Valley lying between Bryce and Powell Mountain and in which the town of Tropic is situated is called "Av-o-ab." The name means a valley bordered with cliffs or caved banks. Conclusion In conclusion let me remind the reader that the Indian has no written language. He has, therefore, no authoritative standard by which to hold his speech uniform. Every camp has its provincialisms, and one often gets several pronunciations of what is manifestly the same word. Much of the conversation is implied from gestures and facial expressions. Then there is the difficulty of rendering in written English the syllables and sounds of the Indian tongue. Sometimes this is impossible. It can only be approximated. There may be students of the Indian tongue who will not agree with my spelling and translations. To such I would say that the Indian etymology of this region is an open field with no authorities, and no standards. I try to spell a word and to break it into syllables just as it sounds, but I find myself often spelling


26

T H E U T A H HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

and dividing t h e s a m e w o r d differently w h e n I g e t it from different I n d i a n s . A c c e n t a n d inflection differ widely a m o n g them. A s a m e a n s of a r r i v i n g as n e a r l y as possible a t a c c u r a c y , before offering this p a p e r for publication all w o r d s p r e s e n t e d herein, w i t h their p r o n u n c i a t i o n a n d definitions, w e r e s u b m i t t e d to t h e m o s t intelligent and u n d e r s t a n d i n g I n d i a n s a m o n g t h e tribes of S o u t h e r n U t a h , a n d t h e y a p p r o v e d t h e r e n d i t i o n . N a m e s and w o r d s in m y list w h i c h t h e y said w e r e w r o n g h a v e been eliminated. A f t e r s e a r c h i n g a n d u s i n g every t e s t of proof, I pass on w h a t h a s been given to m e feeling t h a t it is as nearly correct as p a i n s t a k i n g r e s e a r c h can m a k e it.

SOME U S E F U L EARLY U T A H INDIAN

REFERENCES

B y J. Cecil Alter The earliest knowledge of the Indians occupying the hospitable valleys flanking the Great Salt Lake is the" vague story appearing in Baron Lahontan's report of 158 years before the Mormons settled in Utah. T h a t narrative purports to have been written by Lahontan from an interview with a group of these Indians themselves, whom he claims to have encountered in January, 1689, probably on the Upper Missouri River. Historians usually consider this one chapter ( X V I ) of Lahontan's Voyages 1 to be apochryphal, because of certain inconsistencies; but it is believed to contain sufficient truth to be worth presenting here in part. " L E T T E R X V I , Dated at Missilimakinac, May 28, 1689. * * * S I R , T h a n k God, I am now return'd from my Voyage upon the Long River, which falls into the River of Missisipi. I would willingly have trac'd it up to its Source, if several Obstacles had n o t stood in my way. I set out from hence the 24th of Sept. accompany'd with my own Detachment, and the five Huntsmen I mention'd in my last; who indeed did me a great deal of Service. All the Soldiers were provided with new Canows loaded with Provisions and Ammunition, and such Commodities as are proper for the Savages. T h e W i n d ' which stood then in the North, wafted me in three days to the Bay of Pouteouatamis, that lay forty Leagues 3 off. (Green Bay W i s ) * * * ^_* * 1

we

bid

adieu

t0

the Navigation upon 'the Lakes of

New Voyages To North America, by the Baron de Lahnntai ru-

from the London â‚Źdiii0 of

iSLSffi

™

" ^r^ftT&fi'Sffi

^ T h e English league is about three miles, and the French league 2.49 miles


EARLY UTAH INDIAN REFERENCES

27

Canada; and setting out September 30, arriv'd October 2, at the foot of the fall of Kakalin. * * * The 19th (October) we embarqu'd upon the River Ouisconsinc (Wisconsin), and being favour'd by a slack Current, arriv'd in four days at the place, where it empties it self into the River Missisipi, which is about half a League broad in that part. The force of the Current, and the breadth of That River, is much the same as that of the Loire. It lies North-East, and South-West; and -its sides are adorn'd with Meadows, lofty Trees and Firs. I observ'd but two Islands upon it, though there may be more, which the darkness of the Night hid from us as we came down.8 The 23d we landed upon an Island in the River Missisipi, over against the River I spoke of but now, and were in hopes to find some wild Goats there, but had the ill fortune to find none. The day after we crost to t'other side of the River, sounding it every where, as we had done the day before, and found nine foot water in the shallowest place. The 2d of November we made the Mouth of the Long River* having first stem'd several rapid Currents of that River, though 'twas then at lowest Ebb. In this little passage we killed several wild Beeves (buffalo?) which we broil'd, and catch'd several large Dabs. On the 3d we enter'd the Mouth of the Long River, which looks like a Lake full of Bull-rushes; we found in the middle of it a narrow Channel, upon which we steer'd till Night, and then lay by to sleep in our Canows." Here we must omit some fifteen pages of active, interesting details of the narrative, as being unimportant to our present purpose, though descriptive of the stream, the country it drains, its wild fowl and beasts, and its Indians, all appearing to be as appropriate to the Missouri River as to any other. "* * * 'Twas then the 19th day of December, (1688) and we had not yet felt all the rigorous Hardships of the Cold. As soon as I had landed and fitted up my Tents or Hutts, I detach'd my Essanapes Slaves to the first of the three Villages that lay before us; * * The Slaves return'd in a great Alarm, occasion'd by the unfavourable Answer they receiv'd from the Gnacsitares, who took us for Spaniards, and were angry with them for conducting us to their Country.' * * * In the mean time the Gnacsitares sent expeditious Couriers to 3 Lahontan does not say he ascended the Mississippi River, as claimed by Captain Howard Stansbury, in An Expedition to the Valley of The Great Salt Lake, Philadelphia, 1852, page 152. *If named by native Indians of the Mississippi valley, this was logically the Missouri river—unless as claimed by some, it was a voyage through the narrator's imagination. "There are certain indications that Lahontan may have been then in the neighborhood of the present town of Pierre, South Dakota.


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the People that live eighty Leagues to the Southward of them," to desire they would send some of their number to examine u s ; ior that People were suppos'd to be well acquainted with the Spaniards of New Mexico. T h e length of the journey did not discourage 'em, for they came as chearfully as if it had been upon a National Concern; and after taking a view of our Cloaths, our Swords, our Fusees, our Air, Complexion, and manner of Speech, were forc'd to own that we were not true Spaniards? * * * T h e i r Governour bears the F i g u r e of a K i n g more than any of the other Commanders of the Savages. H e has an absolute Dominion over all the Villages which are describ'd in my Map.' I n this and the other Islands I saw large Parks, or Inclosures, stock'd with wild Beeves for t h e use of the People. I had an interview for two hours together with the Governour, or the Cacick; and almost our whole Conference related to the Spaniards of New Mexico, who, he assured me, were not distant from his Country above eighty Tazous, each of which is three Leagues." * * * This Adventure happened on the 7th of January ( 1 6 8 9 ) . " " T w o days after, the Cacick came to see me, and brought with him four hundred of his own Subjects, and four Mozeemlek Savages, whom I took for Spaniards. M y Mistake was occasion'd by the great difference between these two American N a t i o n s ; for, the Mozecmlek Savages were cloath'd, they had a thick, busy Beard, and their Hair T h e Platte River valley is eighty Leagues or 240 miles to the south of Pierre, S. D. 'This Map has been the chief cause of Lahontan's undoing, in that it shows his Long River flowing due easterly from the Rocky Mountains to the Mississippi River, emptying at a point well to the north of the Wisconsin River, where no such stream flows, in fact But the whole, grotesque map of the '"Morte or River Longue" country, spreading from the Rocky Mountains to Lake Huron, and from Canada to Arkansas, is so badly awry as a result of inadequate and inaccurate data, and of inexact reproduction, that it bears only a suggestive resemblance to the actual features of the region. Names on it are spelled differently than in the text, orientations are at variance, and other features than the Long River are askew or badly out of place. Referring to the second edition (herein reproduced) Lahontan observes : "To the Translation of my first Volume, I have added an exact Map of Newfound Land, which was not in the Original. I have likwise corrected almost all the Cuts of the Holland Impression, for the Dutch Gravers had iriurdcrVl 'em, by not understanding their Explications, which were all in I'rcnch. They have grav'd Women for Men, and Men for Women; naked fentonH for those that are cloth'd, and e' Contra. As for the Maps, the Kcailrr will find 'cm very exact; And I have taken care to have the Tracts of iny Voyages more nicely delineated, than in the Original." AconliiiK to the map scale, Lahontan's voyage extended up Long River • ilimit MOO miles, or approximately to where Pierre, S. D., now stands, if Long ' r ia really the Missouri River. "Il is alioiil 750 map miles from Pierre, S. D., to Santa Fe, New Mexico


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hung down under their Ears; their Complexion was swarthy, their Address was civil and submissive, their Meen grave, and their Carriage engaging. Upon these Considerations I could not imagine that they were Savages, tho' after all I found myself mistaken. These four Slaves gave me a Description of their Country, which the Gnacsitares represented by way of a Map upon a Deer's Skin; as you see it drawn in this Map. Their Villages stand upon a River that springs out of a ridge of Mountains, from which the Long River likewise derives its Source, there being a great many Brooks there which by a joint Confluence form the River. * * * The Mountains I spoke of but now, are six Leagues broad, and so high that one must cast an infinity of Windings and Turnings before he can cross 'em. Bears and wild Beasts are their only Inhabitants." 0 "The Moseemlek Nation is numerous and puissant. The four Slaves of that Country inform'd me, that at the distance of 150 Leagues from the Place where I then was, their principal River empties itself into a Salt Lake10 of three hundred Leagues in Circumference, the mouth of which is about two Leagues broad: That the lower part of that River is adorn'd with six noble Cities, surrounded with Stone cemented with fat Earth: that the Houses of these Cities have no Roofs, but are open above, like a Platform, as you see 'em drawn in the Map:11 That besides the above-mention'd Cities, there were above an hundred Towns, great and small, round that sort of Sea, upon which they navigate with such Boats as you see drawn in the Map:12 That the People of that Country made Stuffs, Copper Axes, and several other Manufactures, which the Outagamis and my other interpreters could not give me to understand, as being altogether unacquainted with such things: That their government was Despotick, and lodg'd in the hands of one great Head, to whom the rest paid a trembling Submission: That the people upon that Lake call themselves Tahuglauk, and are as numerous as the Leaves of Trees, (such is the Expression that the Savages use for an Hyperbole) : That the Moseemlek People supply the Cities or Towns of the Tahuglauk with great numbers of little Calves, which they take "The dimension given is approximately correct for the actual Continental Divide, generally, in the high Rocky Mountains. "It is approximately 600 air line miles from Great Salt Lake to Pierre, S. D. "Surely this refers to the pueblos of the old Spanish Southwest. "In mixing the reports of various Indians, Lahontan here may have brought in the atmosphere of the lower Coulmbia, where such boats may have been in use, made from long logs. Such boats could not have plied on the dense waters of Great Salt Lake. His note in connection with the illustration of the boat is: "The Vessels us'd by the Tahuglauk in which 200 men may row: provided they are such as some of ye Mozeemlek people drew to me upon ye Barks of Trees. According to my computation such a Vessel must be 130 foot long, from the prow to the stern."


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upon the above mention'd Mountains: and, That the Tahuglauk make use of these Calves for several ends: for, they not only eat their Flesh, but bring 'em up to Labour, and make Cloaths, Boots,-&c, of their Skins. They added, that 'twas their misfortune to be took Prisoners by the Gnacsitares in the War which had lasted for eighteen Years: but, that they hoped a Peace would be speedily concluded, upon which the Prisoners would be exchang'd, pursuant to the usual custom. They gloried in the possession of a greater measure of Reason than the Gnacsitares, could pretend to, to whom they allow no more than the Figure of a Man: for they look upon 'em as Beasts, otherwise. To my mind, their notion upon his Head is not so very extravagant: for I observ'd so much Honour and Politeness in the Conversation of these four Slaves, that I thought I had to do with Europeans: but, after all, I must confess, that the Gnacsitares are the most tractable Nation I met with among all Savages. One of the four Moseemlek Slaves had a reddish sort of Copper Medal hanging upon his Neck, the Figure of which is represented in the Map. I had it melted by Mr. de Tonti's Gun-smith, who understood something of Mettals: but it became thereupon heavier, and deeper colour'd, and withal somewhat tractable. I desir'd the Slaves to give me a circumstantial Account of these Medals; and accordingly they gave me to understand that they are made by the Tahuglauk, who are excellent Artisans, and put a great value upon such Medals. I could pump nothing further out of them, with relation to the Country, Commerce, and Customs of that remote Nation. All they could say was, that the great River of that Nation runs all along westward, and that the salt Lake into which it falls is three hundred Leagues in Circumference, and thirty in breadth, its Mouth stretching a great way to the Southward. I would fain have satisfied my Curiosity in being an eyewitness of the Manners and Customs of the Tahuglauk: but that being impracticable, I was forced to be instructed at second hand by these Moseemlek Slaves: who assur'd me, upon the Faith of a Savage, that the Tahuglauk wear their Beards two Fingers breadth long: that their Garments reach down to their knees; that they cover their heads with a sharp-pointed cap; that they always wear a long Stick or Cane13 in their hands which is tipp'd, not unlike what we use in Europe; that they wear a sort of Boots upon their Legs which reach up to the Knee; and that their Women never shew themselves, which perhaps proceeds from the same Principle that prevails in Italy and Spain; and, in fine, that this People are always at War with the "The Mormon Pioneers found Indians here with beards; and other Mr1„ writers report the use of the stick as a hunting implement, among the Utah


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puissant Nations that are seated in the Neighborhood of the Lake; but withal, that they never disquiet the strowling Nations that fall in their way, by reason of their Weakness: An admirable Lesson for some Princes in the World, who are so much intent upon the making use of the strongest hand." "This was all I could gather upon that Subject. My Curiosity prompted me to desire a more particular Account! but unluckily I wanted a good Interpreter:" and having to do with several Persons that did not well understand themselves, I could make nothing of their incoherent Fustian. * * *" "In the mean time it began to thaw, and the Wind chop'd about to the South-west; upon which I gave notice to the great Cacique of the Gnacsitares, that I had a mind to return to Canada. * This done, I embark'd, and cross'd over from the little Island to the Continent where I fix'd a great long Pole, with the Arms of France done upon a Plate of Lead. I set out on the 26th of January, and arriv'd safe on the 5th of February in the Country of the Essanapes. * * * You must know, that the Stream of the Long River is all very slack and easie, * * * 'Tis true 'tis not very pleasant; for most of its Banks have a dismal Prospect, and the Water it self has an ugly Taste; but then its Usefulness atones for such Inconveniences; for 'tis navigable with the greatest ease, and will bear Barques of fifty Tun, till you come to that place which is mark'd with a Flower-de-luce in the Map, and where I put up the Post that my Soldiers christen'd la Hpntan's Limit. March 2. I arriv'd in the Missisipi, which was then much deeper and more rapid than before by reason of the Rains and Landfloods. To save the Labour of Rowing, we then left our Boats to the Current, and arrived on the 10th in the Island of Rencontres. * * *" "The 12th we arriv'd at the Village of the Otentas, where we took in a plentiful Provision of Turkey corn, of which these People have great store. They inform'd us that their River10 was pretty rapid, and took its Rise from the neighboring Mountains ;16 * * * I took leave of 'em the next day, which was the 13th, and in four days time, by the help of the Current and our Oars, made the River of the Missouris." This done, we run up against the Stream of that River "Just how much Lahontan's narrative, and his reputation, have been damaged by the want of a good interpreter can never be known! "The Otentas River is not below, downstream, but abreast or slightly above the Island of Rencontres on Lahontan's Map. "The Ozark Mountains of Missouri are the only mountains in that general region; they stand far to the south of the Missouri River. "Here Lahontan may blast any hope one may have of conclusively proving his Long River to be the Missouri River of today. We may note, however, that the Missouri Indians were a migratory tribe, and that the "river of the


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which was at least as rapid as the Missisipi was at that time; and arrived on the 18th at the first Village of the Missouris. * * ' After that we rowed hard against the stream, and landed next night near the second Village. * * * To be short, we re-embark'd that same day, about 2 a clock in the Afternoon (19th) and row'd about four Leagues, where we made the River of the Osages, and encamp'd by its Mouth.18 * * * I was obliged to reembark that very night and return the same way that I came. * * * and entered the River Missisipi on the 25th, early in the Morning; the 26th about three a clock in the Afternoon, we descried three or four hundred Savages * * * they were Akansas." "After we had spent two days with them, we pursued our Voyage to the River Ouabach (Wabash, now the Ohio). * They all agreed that 'twas Navigable an hundred Leagues up, and I wish'd heartily, that my time had allowed me to run up to its Source; but that being unseasonable, I sailed up against the Stream (he means the Mississippi here) till we came to the River of the Illinese which we made on the 9th of April, with some difficulty, for the Wind was against us the first two days, and the Current was very rapid." "All I can say of the River Missisipi, now that I am to take leave of it, is, that its narrowest part is half a League over, and the shallowest is a Fathom and a half deep; and that according to the information of the Savages, its stream is pretty gentle for seven or eight Months of the year. As for the Shelves or Banks of Sand, I met with none in it. 'Tis full of Isles which look like Groves by reason of the great plenty of Trees, and in the verdant season of the year afford a very agreeable prospect. Its Banks are Woods, Meadows, and Hills. I cannot be positive, whether it winds much in other places; but as far as I could see, its course is very different from that of our Rivers in France; for I must tell you, by the way, that all the Rivers of America run pretty straight." Missouris" of 1689 was not necessarily the Missouri River of today • though his Map shows the Osage River coming in properly - from the south. Lahontan s River of the Missouri is an insignificant branch, on the Map narrower than the Illinois; and its outlet is 50 or 60 miles above the Ohio a nd midway between the Illinois and the Ohio, coming in from the west. A ^ f t U l U y ^ 6 " l m ° - S 1S , a , m u c h ™ m a e r s t r e a m t h a n t h e Missouri, and empties into the Mississippi only 15 or 20 miles above the Missouri. Lahontan on the way upstream may actually haye left the Mississippi above the Illinois, and entered the Missouri on a cutoff through "a Lake full of Bull-rushes", near the present town of St. Charles, across what is now a very low, flat countrv some 25 miles above the mouth of the Missouri. He could thus have become much confused about the geography of the region. M The Osage River of today is about 125 miles up the Missouri from the Mississippi, a rather long and arduous journev in rowboats for two or three days' time.


UTAH

HISTORICAL QUARTERLY J. CECIL ALTER

Editor Vols. 1-6 incl. 1928-1933 By many authors

Utah State Historical SocietySalt Lake City 1934.


Utah State Historical Society B O A R D OF CONTROL (Terms Expiring April 1, 1929) J. CECIL ALTER, Salt Lake City D. W. PARRATT, Salt Lake City ALBERT F. P H I L I P S , Salt Lake City

JOEL E. RICKS, Logan PARLEY L. WILLIAMS, Salt Lake City

I'lerms Expiring April 1, 1931) GEORGE E. FELLOWS, Salt Lake City WILLIAM J. SNOW, Provo HUGH RYAN, Salt Lake City LEVI E. YOUNG, Salt Lake City FRANK K. SEEGMILLER, Salt Lake City E X E C U T I V E O F F I C E R S 1927-1928 ALBERT F. P H I L I P S , President J. CECIL ALTER, Secretary-Treasurer Librarian and Curator Editor in Chief WILLIAM J. SNOW, Vice President All Members, Board of Control, Associate Editors

MEMBERSHIP Paid memberships at the required fee of $2 a year, will include current subscriptions to the Utah Historical Quarterly. Non-members and institutions may receive the Quarterly at $1 a year or 35 cents per copy; but it is preferred that residents of the State become active members, and thus participate in the deliberations and achievements of the Society. Checks should be made payable to the Utah State Historical Society and mailed to the Secretary-Treasurer, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah.

CONTRIBUTIONS The Society was organized essentially to collect, disseminate and preserve important material pertaining to the history of the State. To effect this end, contributions of writings are solicited, such as old diaries, journals, letters and other writings of the pioneers; also original manuscripts by present day writers on any phase of early Utah history. Treasured papers or manuscripts may be printed in faithful detail in the Quarterly, without harm to them, and without permanently removing them from their possessors. Contributions and correspondence should be addressed to the Editor, Utah Historical Quarterly, 131 State Cap'tol. Salt Lake City, Utah.



Utah Historical Quarterly State Capitol, Salt Lake City Volume I

APRIL, 1928

Number 2

UTAH INDIANS PAST AND PRESENT 1 An Etymological and Historical Study of Tribes and Tribal Names from Original Sources by Wm. R. Palmer, Cedar City, Utah Perhaps the earliest attempt at classification of the Utah Indians was that of the Spaniard, Father Escalante, who traversed the Intermountain Basin from Utah Lake to the Colorado River in the year 1776. This man recorded with such accuracy the names and descriptions of the Indians he met that it is possible to identify many of the tribes in the thin remnant of red men who have survived to this day. True, such identification is not easy. In the first place it is always difficult to engage the older Indians in conversation because of their lack of knowledge of the English language and their natural reluctance to part with information without liberal pay. Even when one succeeds in warming them up to the point of conversation, one must have as a background for his study some knowledge of Indian geography and local history from their standpoint, and of their language, for identification can often be made certain only by a study of root words or a knowledge of the old tribal lands. The best way, perhaps, to check the Escalante record, is to follow his travels consecutively and endeavor to account for the Indians he met along his way.* The material presented herewith has been gathered in several years of work among Indians of the following tribes: Utes, Pahutes, Pahvantits, Shivwits, Kaibabits, and Shoshones. The latter are also known as Comanches. These tribes were spread over the Intermountain Basin from Salt Lake southward to the Colorado River, and from Green River westward to Central Nevada. It is to the languages and dialects of these tribes that we must look for the meaning of all the Indian terminology that appears in the history and geography of the major portion of the 'Copyright, April, 1928, by Wm. R. Palmer. (Numbered footnotes supplied by The Editor.) 'Following the Escalante narrative as given in "The Catholic Church in Utah," by Dr. W. R. Harris.


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great I n t e r m o u n t a i n W e s t . T h e n o r t h e r n - m o s t I n d i a n s of the Escalante record are the Puaguampe. 8 Puaguampe. T o the n o r t h w e s t of the c o u n t r y visited by t h e Catholic Father, and on the w e s t shores of Great Salt L a k e , E s c a l a n t e w a s told there lived a people w h o w e r e called " P u a g u a m p e . " T h e explorer did not visit them. T h e tribal connections of these Indians has been a subject of conjecture and r e m a i n s still somew h a t in doubt, and m a n y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s h a v e been rendered as to the m e a n i n g of their tribal name. E s c a l a n t e said it meant "sorcerers." Bancroft translates t h e w o r d " S a l t W a t e r or Salt L a k e , " doubtless from the fact t h a t t h e tribe lived near the Salt L a k e ; while a n o t h e r rendition is "slingers or t h r o w e r s . " O t h e r s have suggested the m e a n i n g "painted I n d i a n s " and "red men." None of t h e s e translations are etymologically supported. I t seems s t r a n g e t h a t the I n d i a n s of Central a n d Southern U t a h k n e w t h e P u a g u a m p e from t h e n o r t h w e s t Salt Lake section b e t t e r t h a n t h e y k n e w t h e L a g u n a s of U t a h Valley w h o were nearer by nearly a h u n d r e d miles of travel. I t appears, however, t h a t the P u a g u a m p e I n d i a n s w e r e comparatively frequent visitors a m o n g t h e Shoshone a n d P a h u t e b a n d s of Central and Western Utah. T h e i r trail led a r o u n d the w e s t shores of Salt L a k e and down along w h a t is n o w t h e U t a h - N e v a d a line t o t h e " A v i m p a " or " I b a p a " c o u n t r y w h e r e t h e y came in contact w i t h t h e Shoshones and Goshutes from Nevada, t h e n c e s o u t h e a s t e r l y across the desert to t h e P a h v a n t Valley w h e r e t h e y m e t and t r a d e d w i t h tribesmen from t h e s o u t h e r n c o u n t r y . T h e L a g u n a s on t h e o t h e r hand, affiliated m o r e w i t h the U t e s from eastern U t a h . T h e i r expeditions extended usually into t h e richer h u n t i n g g r o u n d s of the W a s a t c h and U i n t a s . T h e l a n g u a g e of t h e P u a g u a m p e seems also to h a v e been more closely allied w i t h t h a t of t h e I n d i a n s of t h e W e s t and South. T h i s fact has an i m p o r t a n t b e a r i n g in w o r k i n g out a translation of t h e w o r d P u a g u a m p e . T h e W e s t Salt L a k e I n d i a n s w e r e k n o w n t o t h e P a h u t e s as "Pa-hump-e." T h e P a h v a n t i t s and U t e s called t h e m "Pagaump-e." T h e a in t h e first syllable in each is s o u n d e d as in pat, hat, etc. T h e root word in each of t h e s e l a n g u a g e s is cane, m e a n i n g t h e joint rush b a m b o o cane t h a t g r o w s in s w a m p s and w e t lands. T h e P a h u t e s call cane " p a - h u m p . " T h e U t e s and P a h v a n t i t s say " p a - g a u m p , " and the Shoshones call it "pang a u m p e . " If, as t h e S o u t h e r n I n d i a n s assert, t h e l a n g u a g e of the P u a g u a m p e w a s essentially P a h u t e , it will be a p p a r e n t t h a t there "Puaguampe equals Pahvant.—Handbook of American Indians, by F W Hodge lee.


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37

is nothing in the word to suggest any of the translations of the authors quoted above. As a further analysis of the translations given, "pa," (a sounded as in at) or "pah," is water: "o-op" is salt. Lake is "pakarit" or "pa-garit." Salt water is "pa-o-op," and Salt Water Indians would be "Pa-o-op-e" or "Pa-o-op-is." If the tribal title had been intended to mean "Indians from the Salt Lake," or "Salt Lake Indians," the name would have been "O-op-pagarits." For reasons given elsewhere in this treatise, and assuming that these Indians are of Pahute extraction, I would say with a feeling of certainty that the Puaguampe name was not derived from the fact that these Indians were located on the shore of Great Salt Lake. If this had been the origin of the name, the terminating syllable would have been "is" or "its." "O-omp" is paint. If the tribal name had been "Pa-o-omp-e" it would mean "Wet paint Indians." There is such close similarity in the Indian pronunciation of the words "pa-o-omp" and "pa-gaump" that they might easily be mistaken for the same and a translation rendered accordingly. There is, however, in this case, no reason for supposing such a confusion. The Pahute word for throw or sling is "tu-ravie." The Utes say "ta-vip," and the Shoshone or Comanches say "da-tuqua." Etymologically there would seem to be no relationship or connection between the word Puaguampe and any of the words that mean sling or throw. It has been more difficult to check on the translation "bewitchers" and "sorcerers" because of the difficulty of making the Indians understand what I was talking about. Thus far I have failed to bring out any synonymous word. The nearest approach to a synonym that I have succeeded in getting is "cutchcoeva," which means a snake charmer or a charmed snake that cannot bite. There is much of mysticism in their charms and incantations, but I have failed to establish any connections in their minds between these and our word "bewitch," or between these and Escalante's word "Puaguampe." However, my study of the word Puaguampe from the standpoint of the Ute, Pahute, and Shoshone languages would seem conclusive that the root word is cane. The Pahvantits Indians told me that the Puaguampes lived in a land of many cane beds and that all their arrows and much of their basketry were made of cane. For this reason they were called "Cane Indians." Among the Pahutes and Shebits or Shivwits I found a somewhat misty tradition of the origin of the Puaguampe and the manner of their going away. One gets flickers of the story here and there which, pieced together, runs about like this: Cane, as before stated, is called pa-hump. In the spring it


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bears a cotton similar to that of the cottonwood tree, which is blown about by the wind. This cotton, as it drifts, is called pahump-e." The Indians of the south country knew that there were better lands in the north, and there was once much agitation among them about moving to the better grounds. The question was discussed in a council meeting. The old Indians argued that the stronger tribes of the north would kill their men and steal their women and children. The council of the old men prevailed and it was decided that the tribes would remain rooted to their southern sterile soil. But there were in each of the tribes a few malcontents who still longed for the greener hunting grounds of the Oquirrh Mountains and the fowl-infested swamps around the shores of Great Salt Lake. These gathered themselves together and took their departure. The old Indians said they were like the cane cotton that blows away in the wind, and they called them "Pahump-e." Among certain Northern Nevada tribes these West Salt Lake Indians were known as "Pa-bique-sich," and "Pa-be-oose." It is more than a coincidence that these words also mean cane. In fact, in the face of such a mass of converging evidence, all pointing in the direction of one word, it would seem conclusive that the root word of Puaguampe is cane, and that either from the fact of their being large users of cane; or that they lived in a land where cane abounded; or that like the cane cotton they broke off from the mother stock and drifted away, they were called "Cane Indians." This is the correct translation of the word Puaguampe. Kanosh Johnnie, who is about the last survivor of unquestioned Pahvant blood, says he knew, as a boy, several of the Puaguampe Indians. The tribe is now extinct, but Johnnie thinks there may be two or three of their descendants living among the Indians at White Rocks, Utah. Lagunas. The Utah Valley Indians were not well known to the southern tribes, and known not at all as "Lagunas." Not an Indian interviewed had ever heard the name. This seemed peculiar because the older men did know the physical features of Utah Valley and their Indian names. The word lagunas or lagune is Spanish for lake. It does not appear to be a Ute word—certainly it is not Pahute. The probable explanation of Escalante's use of this word as a tribal name is that the Father did not know the specific Indian nomenclature, and therefore he called them "Lagunas" meaning the Indians he found at the Lake. Another possible explanation is that Escalante gave the Spanish translation of the tribal name. The clan name known to the Pahutes would admit of such a rendition


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Escalante's tribal name "Lagunas" has been translated "fish eaters." The logic of etymology is against such rendition. If the word is of Spanish origin, and there can be little question but that it is, it means simply "Lake Indians." If we assume "Lagunas" to be an Indian word, it would be Ute, for this was a Ute band, and we must look to that language or some of its dialects for a definition. So far as my inquiry has extended, the word is a blank to Ute, Pahute, and Shoshone alike, except to those who speak a little Spanish, and so, considering this as an Indian word, my efforts at deciphering it are negative. Fish in Ute is "pa-gur" and eat is "tickur." In Shoshone the same words are "bangwe" or "pangwe" and "ticarroie." For fish eaters the Pahute would say "pa-gur te-cow-we-cant," or "pangwe covan." It will be noted that there is no similarity in spelling or pronunciation between any of these words and Escalante's "Lagunas." A discussion of the word with the Uinta Indians at White Rocks, Utah, might disclose something more germane, though this would seem improbable because the root words of the various Ute dialects are pretty much the same. To the Southern Indians the Provo River was known as "Timpanoquint." "Timp" is rock, "pa" water, and "noquint" running. The word means a stream with a rocky bed—water flowing over rocks. The Utah Lake was "Timpanoch Pa-garit." Mt. Timpanogos was called "Pay-ak-karrit Kaib," which means tall or high mountain. 4 For the name of the Utah Valley Indians I get several pronunciations of what is apparently intended to be the same word. "Ning," or "Nung," or "Nung-e" means Indians. 5 "Pa-ga-wavant" means lake shore, or the waters edge. One old Indian called the Utah Lake tribe "Nung-e-pa-ga-wa-vants." The translation will be clear—Lake shore Indians. This means precisely the same as Escalante's Spanish word "Lagunas." Another old man gave the name of the Utah Lake Indians as "Pa-ka-an-uints" or "Pa-ga-an-uints." A third man, the oldest and best informed as to Utah Valley and its primitive inhabitants of any I have met, gave the tribal name as "Pa-ga-wa-vant Uints." The two latter names not only define the Lagunas as "dwellers by the lake," but also definitely connects them with the Uinta Indians of Eastern Utah. The name indicates that they were originally Uinta Indians who came over and settled on the shores of Utah Lake. This explains why they made their expeditions eastward, and why they were not as well known to the Southern Pahutes as were the Puaguampe who lived a hundred miles farther 'See page 14, this Quarterly, January, 1928. s ''Nung. The Earth or Sand clan of the Tewa of Hano pueblo, Arizona.

* * " Handbook of American Indians, by F. W. Hodge.


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away. They were drawn to the Uintas by the ties of relationship. So far as my informants know, the Pagawavants are now, as a clan, extinct. It is supposed that when the Government established the Uinta Reservation, the Utah Valley band was gathered to it, and if any of their blood is left it is mingled with the Indians at White Rocks, Utah. Undesignated Indians. On the journey south from Utah Lake and in the desert west of Juab, Utah, Escalante was visited by a group of Indians who wore short beards, and by others who wore bone ornaments in the nose. These doubtless were not distinct tribes, but rather drifting bands of Pahvantits and Sampitches. The Pahvantits wore beards but the nose ornaments were not common among them. Among the Sampitches, however, the custom was more common. The home of these Indians was farther eastward in the Sanpete and Sevier Valleys, but their men made frequent pilgrimages out over the western desert. Here Escalante found them. "Mo-weap" is the Indian word for nose. The Pahutes called the wearers of nose ornaments "Mowin-unk," and the Pahvantits called them "Mo-win-unk-up." Bearded Indians. A little farther south in the vicinity of Sevier Lake and in what is now called Pahvant Valley, Escalante found Indians wearing longer beards. These could have been none other than the Pahvantits whose homes and farms were all around Sevier Lake. The word "Pah-vant" means close to water. The Sevier Lake was called "I-wu-pagarit," which means "Lake water not good to use," or "bad lake water." The lake itself was stagnant and brackish, but the streams that flowed into it were fresh, and their waters were used to irrigate small fields of corn and squash and beans long before the whites entered the country. The dwellers in this valley were really Pahutes, as were all the bands of Indians from there southward to the Colorado River. The Sevier Lake, being the largest body of water in the Pahute realms, was often called "the water," and "the big water." Indians who lived in the Sevier Lake basin were called "Pahvant-its," meaning "Indians from the valley of the big water." The suffix "its," so often occurring in the names of Indian tribes, should be understood. The terminating syllable in many of Escalante's tribal names is "is." The suffix "its" as the Indians use it, and Escalante's "is" are identical. They have the same meaning as our word of common usage "ites," when we speak of "Ogden-ites," "Denver-ites," etc. The Pahvantits were peculiar in that they wore beards and were


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larger, stockier Indians than the other branches of the Pahutes. These seem to be family rather than tribal characteristics, as in all other respects they were essentially Pahutes. Their language and their customs were Pahute, though there were many differences. These differences, however, could doubtless be satisfactorily accounted for in the provincialisms that would inevitably creep in among isolated tribes that had no written language to hold their speech uniform. Huascaris. On entering from the west the valley in which Cedar City now stands, Escalante met Indians whom he called the Huascaris. The tribe may easily be identified with the Cedar Indians of today, but the name he gives cannot be accounted for. The Indians I have interviewed think Huascaris must be a Spanish word, as they have nothing like it in their language,* and have never heard of such a tribal name among the Indians of the country. The Cedar Valley has from time out of memory, been a sort of capital for the many Pahute clans. It was centrally located, and its reigning family was closely related to the royal blood of the greater and more dominating Utes. Cal-o-e-chipe, reigning chief over all the bands of Pahutes when the whites came, had his headquarters in Cedar Valley. He was a near kin of the famous Ute war chief Walker—some say a brother. Cal-o-e-chipe was succeeded by his brother's son, Coal Creek John. He had no son of his own. The tall, dignified austere Indian Chief John was well known and respected in every Mormon settlement in Southern Utah. The Cedar Indians are commonly called Piedes.' The word is a misnomer. The Cedar Valley was always over-run with jack rabbits, called by the Indians "com." Because they abounded, they were the chief source of food supply. The valley was called "Com" or "Rabbit Valley," and the Indians who lived in the valley were sometimes called "Comits," or "Com-o-its." When the whites came the Cedar tribe numbered three or four hundred, and was one of the strongest tribes in the great basin. It has now dwindled to less than fifty. A map insert in "Bancroft's Native Races," page 322, places the Sampitches in the region of Cedar Valley. This is clearly an error as the Sampitches belong in Central Utah, in the Sanpete and Sevier Valleys.' •Huascaris:—Jose R. Lago, Professor of Spanish at the University of Utah says: " 'Huascaris' is not a proper Spanish word." He suggests, however, that it is an Inca word that was adopted by the Spaniards, and quotes the following usage: Huascar was the name of a King of Peru, of the Inca family. He died in 1532. Huasca is a province of Mexico in the State of Hidalgo. '"Piede equals Paiute" Handbook of American Indians, by F. W. Hodge. "'Sampeetches, Sampiches, Sampichya, Sampits, Sampuches, all equal Sanpet (San Pete)." Handbook of American Indians, by F. W. Hodge.


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Tabehuachis." At the southern end of Cedar Valley Indians came to Escalante's party bearing a basket of corn. Their tribe is not here designated, but it is very probable that the visitors belonged to a small tribe known to the Indians here as "Tave-at-sooks" and "Tave-ats-its." They lived on the rim of the basin on some springs that are now embraced in the Kanarra fields. The word "tabe" means day, and "tave" means sun. They are sometimes used interchangeably. The word "tabehuachis," or "tabehuach" is doutbless of Ute or Pahute origin. It is probably a reverse combination of two Pahute words that mean "noon day." "Ta-huat-a" means straight up. For noon the Pahute says, "ta-huat-tav-i," which means the time of day when the sun is. straight up—noon day. Remembering now that "tave" and "tabe" are interchangeable, if we reverse the two syllables and say "tavi-huat" or "tabe-huat" we have practically Escalante's usage. T h e meaning, however, is "noon-day" in either arrangement. Tave-at-sooks or Tave-ats-its means Sun Indians. They were not exactly sun worshipers, but, according to the old Cedar Indians, they believed the sun was a personage with great healing powers and they invoked his aid in healing their wounds and curing their sick. The Indians living today have never heard the word "tave" or "tabe" connected with any tribe other than the Kanarra Indians. From this fact I conclude that the Indians Escalante called "Tabehuachis" were possibly the same as the Tave-at-sooks. Notwithstanding the fact that Escalante applies the term to one of the five independent tribes into which he divides the Ute nation, the word itself suggests a more limited application. Whether or not they were the tribe the Father calls "Tabehuachis," Escalante could not have failed to find the Tave-at-sooks, for their camps lay squarely across his trail as he passed from the Cedar Valley over the rim into the Ash Creek watershed. There is some interesting history connected with the Tave-atsook tribe. When the Mormons, in 1852, passed just over the rim of that same basin and established the old Fort Harmony, they diverted the waters of Kanarra Creek and Harmony Creek and mingled them on the fields of Old Harmony. The chief of the Tave-at-sooks Indians was old Kanarra. The stream was known as "Kanarra's Creek." The old chief regarded the invasion of his territory with some misgivings and watched patiently for a chance to destroy the Mormon colony. After several ""Tabequache, Tabequache Utes, Tabewaches, Tabiachis, all are equal to Tabeguache. Tabeguache. (contr. of Mo-a-wa-ta-ve-wach, 'people living on the warm side of the mounatin.'—Hrdlicka) A Ute Division formerly living in S. W. Colorado, chiefly about Los Pinos. * * * They are now officially designated Uncompahgre Utes." Handbook of American Indians, by F W Hodge.


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years of waiting he saw his chance to strike down some of the leaders. Learning that an expedition was being fitted out to explore the Colorado River, Kanarra mustered his warriors into action and went ahead to wait in ambush. As the Mormon explorers proceeded, the flight of a frightened rabbit aroused the suspicion of one of the scouts, who thereby discovered that Indians were near. A short skirmish ensued in which the Indians were badly beaten, and old Kanarra captured and held a prisoner. During the night he was bound down and tied to a tree. They were camped just on the rim of the Grand Canyon where the cliffs dropped sheer some thousands of feet. In the morning Kanarra was allowed to stand up and walk around a little for the air was cold and the Indian wore only a breech clout. He was also given something to eat. After breakfast a sort of mock trial was held in which the prisoner was sentenced to die by being thrown over the cliff. When the interpreter made known to Kanarra what his fate was to be, the old warrior almost dropped dead of fright. He promised, if they would release him, never again to molest the Mormon settlers, but always to help them, and to warn them of plots and adverse movements against them on the part of other Indians. This punishment was all that was intended by his captors, for there had never been any serious thought of carrying out the sentence. Kanarra was now released, and Wm. Thompson, noting that he was shivering with cold and fright, took off his overcoat and put it over the chief's shoulders. Food was tied up and given to him and he was told to return home and quiet his tribe at once. Instead of going the old Indian begged to remain with them to guard their horses and guide them through the country. Impressed with his sincerity they accepted his services, and Kanarra, to the day of his death, kept faith with the Mormon people. Several times his warnings averted trouble and he was regarded as a good friend and valuable ally. When Old Harmony broke up and was divided into New Harmony and Kanarra, the latter was named in honor of the old chief on whose lands the town was built. Only one member of the Tave-at-sooks tribe is how alive and she chances to be "Mee-se-bats," the daughter of old Kanarra. She is old and blind and lives most of the time with the Pahutes at Indian Peak, Utah. Among the whites she is called Elizabeth. The word meesebats means measles. Parrusis.' From Kanarra the Spanish explorers went south and in seven or eight miles of travel touched Ash Creek. This stream was fol"'Pariisi equals Paiute," Handbook of American Indians, by F. W. Hodge.


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lowed southward to its junction with the Rio Virgen. Here they found Indians who were growing corn and other garden crops by irrigation. These Indians Escalante called "Parrusis." There seems to have been some diversity of opinion as to the classification of this band. Powell applied the term to the Corn Creek Indians. Corn Creek empties into the Sevier Lake, and was so named by the Mormon Iron County pioneers in January, 1851, from the fact that they found a field of corn on the banks of this stream. Powell apparently has supposed that parrusis means corn growers, and, since the Corn Creek Indians were growing corn, they were the Parrusis tribe. As a matter of fact the Corn Creek Indians were Pahvantits. Hodge classes the Parrusis as Pahutes. In this he is correct. They were Pahutes, but so also were all the Escalante Indians from Pahvant Valley south to the Colorado River. The Parrus tribe was well known to all the older Indians I have interviewed, but they are now all gathered to their fathers on the happy hunting grounds. There were also small bands living at what is now Berry Springs and Washington fields, on the Virgen River, that were called Parrusis or more correctly Parrus-its. Powell called them Par-ru-sha-pats. The name of these several bands is taken from the river on which they lived—the Parrus (pronounced by the Indians Pa-roos). This is the Indian name for the Rio Virgen. It means a dirty turbulent stream, all of which it is, and Paroos is a more appropriate name for the river than Virgin. Powell called the Virgen River Indians "Pa-ru-shu-pats."* Yubuincariris. Southward from the Virgen River Escalante went to the Grand Canyon of the Colorado. From the Indians he mentions he must have traveled rather extensively up and down the Canyon in his efforts to find a crossing. Among the Indians he found, he mentions the "Yubuincariris." Several attempts have been made to identify this tribe. By Hodge they are considered to be a tribe that were living west of Green River in 1776. To one familiar with the country this is manifestly incorrect. If this had been true, the word would not have projected itself into the Escalante story at this stage of his journey. From the location given (south of the Parrusis and along the Colorado River), and from the similarity of pronunciation of the two words, there can be little doubt that these were the Uinkarits of whom Powell's Journal makes frequent mention. The Indian pronunciation is U-int-kar-its. The tribe is now extinct, though all the older Indians remember them. Their tribal lands were the Trumbull Mountains. Translation of the name would *See "First Through the Grand Canyon," page 271.


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be as follows: "Uint"—a certain variety of pine tree. "Karis" or "karu"—hill or hills, and "'its" means "people from." A free translation of the combined "Uint-kar-its" would be Indians from the pine hills. Escalante's terminating "iris" of the word Yubuincariris is significant. It indicates the country he was in and the particular band of Uintkarits whom he met. Incidentally also, it confirms our identification of these as the Uintkarits of whom Powell speaks. The tribe was divided into "Big Mountain" and "Little Mountain" Uintkarits. "Uintkar-ar," or "Uintkar-ir" is the Indian designation of the big mountain. "Uintkar-iV" or "Uintkar-w" is the little mountain. The Trumbull Mountains are divided, and are known today by the cattlemen of the country as "Big" and "Little" Trumbull. The big mountain Indians were called by the Indians "Uintkar-ar-its," while the dwellers on Little Trumbull, (sometimes called Nixon Mountain) were known as "Uintkar-u-its." Collectively, the two camps, or the whole tribe, were Uintkarits. With these distinctions in mind it would seem that Escalante's "Yubuincariris" were the big mountain Indians. The distinction is so slight that only a trained ear would detect it, but in the Indian language the meaning of many words are changed by just such slight accent or inflection. Whatever of Uintkarits blood is left has long since lost its identity and is mingled with the Kaibabits at Moccasin, Arizona, and the Shebits at St. George, Utah. Ytimpabichis. Somewhere in that southern country touched by Escalante the Father found a people, now classed as undefinable, whom he called "Ytimpabichis." This people are now all dead but they were known to the older Indians of Southern Utah. I have clear accounts of them from the Kaibabits, the Shebits and from the Pahutes. Among the Indians their country is still called "Timpeab-ich." It is located on the northern benches and foothills of the Trumbull Mountains. The people are called by the Indians today "Timpe-ab-ich-its." Their country was most parched and barren. There was not a living spring or a stream of running water in it. The only water supply was from wind holes and natural rock cisterns where the rain water collected in the season of downfall. Of this kind of water there was plenty. Werrie, a Kaibabits woman, known among the whites as Mamie Merricats, tells me of a visit she paid as a child, to this tribe. The Kaibabits called them "Timpe-pa-caba," which means water in the rocks. She was going with her father to the Grand Canyon and camped over night with the Timpe-pa-caba Indians. At that time there were only two families living. One couple had three children and the other had one. These are all now dead.


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Mamie locates their camp ground as north of what is called Tuweap or Toro-weap Valley. It is probably the country now called Heaton's Pockets. Pagambachis. Westward from the Ytimpabichis, Escalante found the Pagambachis. These are also classed as undefinable. One or two day's travel from the home camp of the Ytimpabichis, there is a spring around which there was in times past a more or less permanent Indian encampment. The Pahutes call the spring Pa-hump-ats and the Shebits call it Pa-gaump-ats. In English it means Cane Spring. This is the same word that was analyzed in our discussion of the Salt Lake Indians, the Puaguampe. Traces of the ancient occupancy are said still to be in evidence at this water hole. The spring is well within the country of the Shebits and the people who lived there were members of that tribe. But because they were located at Pagaumpats they were called Pagaumpats-its. Since this name is so similar to Escalante's "Pagambachis," and the location checks so perfectly, there can be no doubt but that the peoples mentioned are identical. This spring and the country round about is called by the cattlemen of the country "Pockam-pockets." This was easier said than the Indian word, and a cow puncher is not technical in the simple matter of names. There is living today only one Indian who belonged to the little clan who lived at that spring. I know the old man well. Among the whites he is known as "Pock-am-pockets Joe." According to Escalante's classification he would be a Pagambachis, but he calls himself a Shebits and this is correct. From this point on, Escalante's account as reported in the "Catholic Church in Utah," seems confused. He speaks of the "Payatammunis" and the "Payutas" as being still farther to the west, but apparently he paid them no personal visit. He was in the Shebits country and westward and north westward from the Pagambachis he would have found the main body of this tribe. In the country north of the Colorado and as far west as the mouth of the Virgen River there seems to be no trace either in the geography or tribal languages of the country of the "Payatammunis." The Payutas are doubtless branches of the Pahutes, who were scattered from Cedar Valley to the Muddy. The Mormon settlers in 1853 found Indians on the Santa Clara Creek who were called Tonoquints, or more properly Tonoquint-its. Of this tribe only one survives. His name is Tamalots, and he is living with the Shebits at St. George. The word Tonoquint means black creek and was the Indian name for the Santa Clara creek. The band who lived there were


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Shebits, but were called Tonoquint-its because they lived on the stream of that name. The Cedar City Indians apply the same name to Ash Creek. Generalization. Escalante speaks of the fear felt by the Utah Indians at his coming. This shyness was so marked that he called them "Yutas Cobardos,"—coward Utes. The Pahute was never a strong tribe either in numbers or in the cementing force of its inter-clan affiliations. The Pahute country embraced all land west of the mountain range from the Pahvant Valley south to the Virgen River; and all the country between the Virgen and Colorado Rivers from the Kaibab Mountains west to the mouth of the Virgen. Over this extended territory were scattered a possible dozen weak colonies or camps. All told they numbered not more than a thousand to fifteen hundred inhabitants. Their main strength was in seclusion, and in times of trouble they relied more on the country's hiding facilities than on their own fighting strength. These weak settlements were occasionally raided by the Navajoes, the Walapies, and even by the Utes. Their women and children were stolen and sold into slavery, or retained as slaves by the tribes that took them. The manuscript Journal of Isaac C. Haight, a noted early Utah pioneer and scout, tells of the death of a captive Indian boy who was slain by the Utes to appease the angry god who was afflicting them with measles. The Pahute clans were too scattered to form a defensive fighting alliance. Mobilization was out of the question, and in times of trouble the best thing they could do was to run. Such conditions naturally made them wary and shy of strangers who invaded their tribal domain. The Ute nation was divided into several branches or independent tribes, Escalante says five. One of these independent branches was the Pahute tribe. (The word is sometimes spelled Paiute.) The Pahute tribe was subdivided into many camps or clans who are usually, though erroneously, called tribes. This loose usage of the word tribe, and I am guilty of it, is a source of much confusion in classifying the various Indian communities, or colonies. As to the Indians of Pahute extraction, I have discovered that this simple little key amounts almost to an unvarying rule: i. e. "is" or "its" on the end of a proper noun denotes clan and not tribe. Usually also, it denotes the location of the clan. Application of this rule indicates that the clans listed below belonged to the Pahute tribe. The classification is further verified in the fact that these clans all spoke essentially the same language and lived within the Pahute domain.


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Pahvant-its—From Pahvant Valley. Com-o-its— (Cedar Indians) From Rabbit Valley. Called Piedes, but more properly Pahutes. Kaibab-its.—From Kaibab Mountains. Uintkar-its—From Pine Tree Hills. (Trumbull Mountains.) Timpe-ab-ich-its—From "Water in the Rocks" country. Pagaumpats-its—From Pa-hump-ats or Pagaumpats spring. Sheb-its—From forks of the river. Parrus-its—From Parrus (Virgen) River. Tonoquint-its—From "Black Creek." (Santa Clara.) To these I would add the Puaguampe and the Tave-at-sooks. These are exceptions to the rule, but this is explained in the fact that they were not nanjed from their location. The Puaguampe name is derived from the bamboo cane, and Tave-at-sooks from their faith in the sun. Addenda. In addition to the tribes and clans that came within the Escalante record, the records of the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs at Washington, carry the names of many tribes and supposed tribes that are said to have lived at some time within the present borders of Utah. While many of these were Utes and Pahutes, they lived, not in Utah, but in what is now Arizona and Nevada. Without going into a lengthy discussion of each of these, reference, perhaps, should be made to such as have come within the range of my study. The chief aim of this treatise has been to account for and classify the Indians Escalante found a century and a half ago, and that objective has already been covered. It will be sufficient, therefore, for my present purpose, to list, with brief explanatory notes, these additional clans under three divisions as follows: 1st. Utes. 2nd. Pahutes. 3rd. Scattered, Undefinable, and as tribes non-existent. UTES Ak-an-a-quints. Unka-pa-nuk-uints. These are two names that mean the same, and refer, probably, to the same people although they are listed as two separate tribes. The latter name is a misnomer. It should be Unka-pa-noquint. Both names mean Red River, or Red Creek. The Unka-panoquint (called Ak-an-a-quint by the Utes) is an upper tributary of the Paria, and being within the Ute territory, the Indians who lived on it were doubtless Utes. PAHUTES Pa-ru-guns. Pa-gu-its. From Paragoonah and Panguitch Lake, Utah.


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In the summer months the Indians who wintered in and around the Paragoonah valley, were wont to go over the mountain and spend the hot season around the Panguitch Lake. In winter they were "Pa-ru-guns" or "Pa-ru-goons," and in summer they were "Pa-gu-its." The Indian Bureau lists them as two separate tribes. Pier-ru-i-ats. (Should be Paria-ru-e-i-ats.) In traveling the road from Kanab to Orderville, Utah, one sees to the east, a row of peaks that are shaped like great animal hearts. Even the scars and cracks in their white and smoothly weathered walls resemble blood veins, and there is, here and there, splotches of red blood stains upon them. These peaks are called "Paria-ru-e-i-ats" which means "Elk Hearts." No Indians lived there, but the region was good hunting grounds and was frequented by the Southern Pahutes. Unka-kan-ig-uts, Unka-kanig-its. The cliffs extending from Short Creek, Arizona, around to Pipe Springs National Monument are called "Unka-kanig" which means red cliffs. The Indians who lived, or more properly roamed, around under these ledges were called "Unka-kanig-its." They had no permanent encampme'nt there but shifted around over a country extending from the Virgen River to the Kaibab Mountain, according to the changes of the seasons. At one time of the year they were Unka-kanig-its, at another Kaibabits, at still another Parrus-its or Pa-ru-sha-pats, etc. In this manner tribal names have been multiplied and the same Indians classified several times. Pa-spika-i-vats or Pa-spik-av-its. Pa-spika means big springs, Pa-spikav-ats, people who live at the big springs. The suffix "ats" or "vats" is a variation of the more common "is" and "its." The Moccasin Indian Reservation was named "Pa-it-spik-ine." There is also a large spring in Snake Valley, Nevada, called "Pa-itspika." Indians from each of these widely separated points were called "Pa-spika-vats" or "Pa-spik-av-its," and both belong to the Pahute tribe. Ich-uar-ump-ats. I-chu-ar-um-pats. Chuarumpat is the name of the cactus commonly called Joshua. It grows only in the Arizona and Nevada Deserts. There was, fifty years ago, a chief of the Kaibabits tribe named Chuarumpat. Powell met him and calls him Chuarampeak. The " I " that precedes the name means simply I am, or we are, or they are. It is conceivable that someone sometime inquired ,"Who are these Indians?" and was answered, "I-chu-ar-um-pats" which meant, They are Chuarumpats men, whereupon the entire sen-


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tence was written down as the tribal name. The band, whatever its origin or location, were Pahutes. Timpe-shau-wa-gots-its. Timpeshauwagot is blue rocks or blue knolls. Two countries bear this name and both were inhabited by Pahute Indians. One was on the western foothills of the Kaibab Mountains in Arizona, and the other is south from Las Vegas, in Nevada. Uain-uints. Uano-ints. Uano-its. The name of Utah's Dixie (The Hurricane-St. George country) is Uaino or Uano. The Indians living around St. George and on the Santa Clara river and who did some farming were called Uano-its. They are the same as the Shebits or Shivwits. Naug-unt-its. Nau-whunt-its. Nog-wunt-its. Naug-whunt or Naug-unt means mountain sheep's head. There is a knoll near Santa Clara, Utah, called Naugunt. The Santa Clara Indians have been variously called "Naugunt-its," "Uano-its," "Tonoquint-its" and "Shebits." Pa-ga-its. A small creek tributary to the Santa Clara Creek is called "Paga-weap." Indians around there are Pa-ga-its. They are usually and more properly classified as Shebits or Shivwits. Mov-wi-ats. The word means long tailed lizards. A section of country west of Hurricane Valley is called Mov-wi-ap-pat. Moapariats. Moapa Valley, Nevada, Indians. Powell met them in 1870 and was fed by them. Pa-rumpa-i-ats. Pa-rum-pa-i-ats. Pa-rump-ats. These Indians live in Pa-rum-pa, a country west of Las Vegas, Nevada. In the government records they are classed as two separate tribes. Pa-ran-i-guts. Sau-wont-i-ats. Indians from Paranigat Valley, Nevada. These are listed as separate tribes under the above names. The correct name is Sau-wan-du-its. Sau-wont or sau-wab is sage brush. Pawipits. Should be Pa-weap-its. Pa-weap is a little wash south of Panaca, Nev. The Indians who frequent it are called Pa-weap-its. Pa-weap is a watered wash or canyon.


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Kwiengomats. Kwiengoma is a country north west from Las Vegas about sixty miles. It is on the borderline between the Pahutes and Shoshones but the Indians there are Pahute. Ya-gats. Yagabats-its. Yagats means cry-baby. This was a derisive name given to John D. Lee. Occasionally one finds a child called Yagats—crybaby, but I can learn of no tribe so called. About twenty miles north of Las Vegas, Nevada, there is a valley called "Yagabats" which means "around a corner." The Indians who live there are called Yagabats-its. Tan-tib-oo-ats. Cham-o-wevie. These are not in the Government list. The word means Southern Indians, and is a general term applying to all the Southern Nevada tribes. Western Nevada Indians use the word Chamowevie as a general term covering the same Indians. Scattered, Undefinable, and as Tribes Non-existent Diggers.10 These are California and Western Nevada Indians who apparently never lived in Utah. Goshutes. A branch of the Shoshone Tribe. They touch Utah at the Indian town of Ibapah, (Avimpa) but their country is Northern Nevada. ""'Digger. Said by Powell to be the English translation of Nuanuints, the name of a small tribe near St. George, S. W. Utah. It was the only Paiute tribe practising agriculture, hence the original signification of the name, 'digger'. In time the name was applied to every tribe known to use roots extensively for food and hence to be 'Diggers'. It thus included very many of the tribes of California, Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Nevada and Arizona, tribes speaking widely different languages and embracing, perhaps, a dozen distinct linguistic stocks. As the root-eaters were supposed to represent a low type of Indian, the term speedily became one of opprobrium. (H. W. H)." Handbook of American Indians, by F. W. Hodge. Thomas J. Farnum, in his Travels in The Great Western Prairies, the Anahuac and the Rocky Mountains, came upon "a family of the Root Digger Indians" a short distance west of Fort Hall (Pocatello) on September 6, 1839; and from the phrasing, one may presume Farnham was not the first to use the name. Joseph Meek, dictating his biography to Mrs. Frances F. Victor in the late sixties, mentions the Digger Indians as if he had encountered and known them by that name in 1832. Washington Irving gathers no little information about "les dignes de pitie," or "the objects of pity," from Captain Bonneville's papers under date of 1833, and subsequently, though writing from a much later date. They are variously credited to the Shoshones, Snakes, Utes, Goshutes, chiefly the last, and to no Indian Nation at all, other than themselves, by the many writers mentioning them.—J. C. A.


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Kwe-ian ti Kwak-its. This name refers to no tribe in particular. It means from across the river." The river referred to is usually the Colorado. Any Indian, Navajo, Moquich, Wallapi or of any other tribe south of the Colorado is Kweian ti Kwakit. Nau-wana-tats. To the Pahutes the word means fighters or wrestlers. If there is a tribe of this name, the Indians interviewed think they are in the San Juan country. Tu-wur-intz. I can learn of no tribe called by this name. The word means night, or darkness. There is a black volcanic hollow on the Utah-Nevada line that was called "Tuwurintz O-weap," but no Indians ever lived there. Sometimes a very dark skinned Indian is nicknamed "Tu-wur-intz." Kwi-ump-us. The word means "top of your head." There was once an old woman of the Cedar City Indians who had a bald spot on her head and they named her Kwiumpus. The Indians think there might be a band in San Juan of this name. If so, they are Utes. SOME U S E F U L EARLY U T A H INDIAN REFERENCES (Continued from the January, 1928 issue) By J. Cecil Alter Probably the earliest printed reference to the Utah Indians is Francisco Garces' journal entry for February 26, 1776, when he was near the Rio de Santa Anna, in the coastal section of southern California.* "This day," * * * he wrote, (pp. 219-226) "I went eight leagues north-northeast and north. I passed through the gap of a sierra that runs northwest, and at its base made a halt at some small springs of water I called (Ojitos) del Santo Angel, where I met some 40 persons of the Chemebet 1 nation. Six Indians of this nation that were on a hill came down as soon as we called *On The Trail Of A Spanish Pioneer, The Diary and Itinerary of Francisco Garces, (Missionary Priest), In His Travels Through Sonora, Arizona and California, 1775-1776. Translated from an official contemporaneous copy of the original Spanish manuscript, and edited with copious critical notes, by Elliott Coues. In Two Volumes; published by Francis P Harner New York City, 1900.—J. C. A. xaarper, "'The Chemebet * * * were the most southerly of the Paiute tribes of Shoshonean stock." F. W. H. (odge) (Bureau of American Ethnology).


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them, with the speed of deer, and regaled me with very good mezcal. The garb of these Indians is, Apache moccasins, shirt of antelope skin, white headdress like a cap with a bunch of those very curious feathers which certain birds of this country have in their crest. These Indians give me the impression of being the most swift-footed of any I have seen. This nation inhabits the territory that there is between the Beneme, a tract of land very scant of water, following thence the border of the Rio Colorado on the northern side as far as the Yuta nation, of whom they give much information; and they are friends of these, as enemies of the Comanches and Moquis. The Chemebets say that their nation extends to another river, north of the Colorado, and that there they sow. They also keep friendship with the Apaches Tejua; they have a language distinct from all the nations of the river; they are intimate friends of the Jamajabs, and when these break their weapons, so do they also. They make some baskets very similar to those of the Canal. Through the different lands that they inhabit they take different names, as are Cajuala Sevinta, Cajuala Chemebet, or Chemeguagua. They conducted themselves with me most beautifully; by no means were they thievish or troublesome, but rather quite considerate. They all carried a crook' besides their weapons." If Indians may be judged by the character of their friends, the Utahs came well recommended from the first. The next reference is that of June 16, 1776, (pp. 330-333) when Garces was traveling through what is now the Hualapai Indian reservation, in Yavapai county, Arizona. "The Indians who were accompanying me said that the Rio Colorado was near, and already were visible cajones very profound which had the color of the sierra. The aguage where we slept was very scanty. The two Indians and the Indian woman who were accompanying me divided with me the mezcal they were carrying for food. On this day the married Indian chanted the whole bendito 3 with little difference in intonation from that in which it is chanted in the missions. I admired this novelty, and presented him with a string of beads, asking him eagerly who had taught it to him. He gave me to understand that the Yutas* his neighbors knew it, for they had heard it many times among the Tiguas; whereupon he fell to chanting it twice over again." "July 3 (1776). As soon as it was dawn came the three young Indians of Zuni, to whom I imparted the new resolution, '"Alcayaia, hook, crook. He means the hooked stick which these and many other Indians habitually carried for the purpose of pulling rats, gophers, and other small game out of their holes. This instrument was about the size of an ordinary walking-stick." (Elliott Coues.) ""The Benedictus, beginning in Spanish Bendito y alabado sea, etc." *"The Utas or Utes, of the Shoshonean stock, after whom the State of Utah was named." F. W H. (odge).


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that I would not g o to their pueblo, m u c h as I desired to do s o ; and I told t h e m my r e a s o n s : since I w a s to be unaccompanied by any of t h e Yabipais I could n o t well r e t u r n by w a y of Moqui, of w h o s e I n d i a n s I should have cause t o be afraid if I were to return w i t h o u t those companions, and even t h o u g h t h e Zunians might b r i n g m e back t o Moqui they could n o t t a k e me on to the Yabipais, w i t h w h o m t h e y had no friendship. It w a s not unk n o w n to me t h a t t h e Y u t a s w e r e friends of t h e Espanoles, and likewise of the Y a b i p a i s ; but this business" would require the j o u r n e y to be prolonged, a new relay of beasts and a stock of presents for those same I n d i a n s , in all of which w a s I lacking; and moreover t h e need of some escort would arise on certain portions of the route. A s all these t h i n g s ' would have to be procured in N e w Mexico, I took into consideration m a n y contingencies, especially t h a t of finding t h e senor governador with perhaps the same notions as the senor c o m a n d a n t e of MonteRey, holding this e n t r a d a to be pernicious, and by no means performed in t h e service of t h e king, as it had not been expressly ordered by his excellency ( t h e v i c e r o y ) . F o r these reasons I determined to w r i t e to the padre ministro of Zuni, even though 1 did not know his name," telling him that I had arrived at the pueblo of Moqui, h a v i n g passed t h r o u g h t h e other intermediate nations, w h o had received me with g r e a t g u s t o ; b u t t h a t (the people of) this pueblo of O r a i b e did not so much as wish to look at m e ; and t h a t I should esteem it a favor if he would send copies of this letter to t h e senor g o v e r n a d o r and to the reverendo padre custodio, to w h o m I commended myself w i t h the greatest res p e c t ; including also in this letter some (account) of t h e petty happenings." H e r e again is a good w o r d for t h e U t a h s ; and the report of a visit to t h e m deferred, t h o u g h obviously not the first visit of white men. On July 4, 1776, Francisco Garces says (pp. 392-397): " I set forth (from the Moqui pueblo) accompanied by the whole retinue until I was outside the pueblo, where, they having taken leave of me, I began my return by the very route of the entrada. I soon lost my way among the sandy places and the small peach orchards, without being able to find a sign of the small spring of water that I had seen on my coming. I found a small well whence, with great fatigue, now afoot and now on muleback, I was able to make the ascent of the mesa, on whose smooth surface I saw some junipers, which were the "'Negocio—Any idea he might have of going to the Yutas, or plan to that end." (Elliott Coues.) '"His name was Fray Mariano Rosate. He was officially as padre at Zuni in July, 1776, during the absence of padre Silvestre Velez de Escalante, who happened just then to be away on his well-known exploration." (Elliott Coues.)


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only ones I had seen this side of the Rio Jaquesila. I found the place of descent after many turnings, and soon lost myself again, taking the road that goes to the Yutas who live north of Moqui and are enemies only of this pueblo of Oraibe and of the Moqui concave (sic)." "The names of the pueblos of Moqui, according to the way the Yabipais pronounced them to me, are: Sesepaulaba; Masagnebe; Jano; Gualpa; Muqui concabe (sic); and this pueblo of Muca which the Zunis name Oraybe, and it was in this that I was. The Yutas, enemies of the last two pueblos, live on the one and the other side of the Rio Colorado in the very confluences (juntas) of the two rivers that compose it. I learned the error of the road, and that the one which I took went to the Yutas, from two Moquis whom I met, who very affably showed me the way to that which I ought to take." * * * (pp. 451). "The pueblo of Oraybe holds and has held as friends all the Yabipais who dwell between the Colorado and the Gila, excepting the Tejua and certain Yutas who inhabit those contiguities; * * * and their (i. e. Oraibes') enemies are the Yabipais Tejua, the Yutas of the Colorado, the Yumas, the Chemeguabas, the Jamajabs, the Pimas Gilenos, and the Cocomaricopas." * * * (pp. 468). "As regards that (Routes which can serve for the communication of these Provinces with New Mexico and MonteRey.) of New Mexico, it is possible to proceed through the Yutas and seek the Rio de San Felipe (Kern River), and down the banks of this will be found my road." (pp. 469-475). "One month after having arrived from my journey at the Mission de San Xavier del Bac I received a letter from the most excellent senor viceroy and with it a copy of another of the Rev. Padre Fray Silvestre Velez de Escalante, dated in New Mexico on the 18th of August of the aforesaid year (1775), which (letter), though they sent it to me to the Rio Colorado, they had to bring back, for I had already set forth for above (up river). I read with the closest attention said copy, * * * but as to the points of the compass and the number of days there is much contradiction in the notion of the reverend padre that the transit has itself to seek (i. e. must be sought) through the Yutas who live at the confluence of the rivers to the north of Moqui, of whom I learned that they were friends of New Mexico, and that, having here passed the Rio Colorado, they roam southwest, descending to the. Chemeguet Cajuala who live on the other side, and seeking the Rio de San Felipe, they follow it to where I was. If from the said Yutas be taken the direction westnorthwest, as says the reverend padre, it is certain one could go to Monte-Rey and also to the Puerto de San Francisco, if there did not intervene the broad Tulares which have


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now been discovered, and through which only will it be possible to pass by means of boats." Francisco Garces' last reference to the Utahs is thus also an introduction to Padre Escalante, who is the next in chronological order to write of these Indians; but Escalante is the first to write of them from first hand information, gained in August, September and October, 1776, and published in the "Diary and Travels of Fray Francisco Atanasio Dominguez and Fray Silvestre Velez de Escalante, to Discover a Route from The Presidio of Santa Fe, New Mexico, to Monterey in southern California.'" AMERICAN POSTS 1 By Edgar M. Ledyard2 Abercrombie, Fort. Military post. (1857-1877). Left bank of Red River of the North, about thirteen miles north of the mouth of the Ottertail River, and two and a quarter miles north of Graham's Point, North Dakota. Aberdeen Proving Ground (Incl. Phillips Field). Thirtyfive miles northeast of Baltimore, Aberdeen, Maryland. Abraham Lincoln, Fort. (See Lincoln, Abraham, Fort). Across Missouri River from Bismarck. Custer started on his last expedition from this post. Burleigh County, North Dakota. Adaize, Fort (1715). This fort was known also as the Mission of Adayes. The fort was located 20 miles below Lac Macdan and one-half mile from the hill where stood the ancient village of Adayes. Canada. Adams, Fort. Military post. The site of Fort Adams was first occupied for defensive purposes during the Revolutionary War and by a permanent garrison in 1799. In July 1812, Congress appropriated $500,000 to complete a post where Fort Adams was located. In 1824 the board of engineers condemned Old Fort Adams as useless. In 1914 it was the headquarters of the coast defenses of Narragansett Bay and had a garrison of five companies of coast artillery. On Brenton's Point, east side of entrance to Newport Harbor, Rhode Island. Adams, Fort (First Corps Area)—One mile southwest of Newport, Rhode Island. Adams, Fort T. B. Temporary fort in Florida War, right 'The Catholic Church In Utah, By Very Rev. W. R. Harris, D. D. L. L, D, Intermountain Catholic Press, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1909 'Copyright April, 1928, by Edgar M. Ledyard. 'Director, Agricultural Department, United States Smelting Refining and Mining Company,'with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, but with active interests pretty generally throughout the country. During the ten years this compilation has engaged the author's attention he has visited and inspected with a discerning interest the sites ruins and


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bank of the Caloosahatchee, about seven miles from Lake Flirt, Florida. Adams, Fort. Wilkinson County on left bank of Mississippi River, below the mouth of Buffalo Bay, Mississippi. A la Corne, Fort. On left bank of North Saskatchewan River in Kinistino, Saskatchewan, Canada. Hudson Bay post. Canada. Alamo, Fort (The Alamo). A Franciscan mission built about 1722 and occasionally used after 1793 as a fort. It is particularly noted for the resistance made by Colonel W. B. Travis in a siege lasting almost continuously from February 23 to March 6, 1836. Colonel Travis was killed here as were also Colonel David Crockett, Colonel James Bowie and others. San Antonio, Texas. A la Reine, Fort. Built October 1738 and burned by the Cree Indians about 1752. Fort A la Reine was located on the right bank of the Assiniboine River. Canada. Albany, Fort. Built on James Bay. Latitude about 52° north, longitude about 82° west. Fort Albany was located on the south side of Factory Island near the mouth of the Albany River. Fort Albany was in the vicinity of old Fort St. Anne and Fort Chechouan. Ontario, Canada. Albany, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. (_.. south of the Potomac. Virginia. present structures of more than five hundred old forts; and he has diligently searched military, and other public and private records, and historical society, library and other files and records far and wide, with a considerable disregard of expense. At that, it is an achievement that could hardly have been accomplished by an individual without such a connection as Mr. Ledyard's, with a large organization having extensive operations and requiring wide travel. The author's investigations of these frontier posts has centered chiefly around those of the western states, particularly those established by the early fur trappers and the pioneers and military authorities on the Indian frontiers. But he has not been content to confine his research to any particular region, and with typical diligence and thoroughness for which all users of the list will be grateful, he has extended his research to include the continental United States and contiguous parts of Canada. The result is, that probably not all but nearly all the forts of importance in this area have been gathered into this list, totaling more than two thousand posts. Thousands of pictures have been taken, and reams of valuable field notes have been made and interviews recorded, with a view to compiling, salvaging and perpetuating as much as possible of the information still extant concerning these original outposts of the Nation's early settlement. It is regretted that only a brief description of each post can be here recorded. As Utah's history has touched the history of practically every State and Province in the heart of North America, so has the frontier history of nearly every State and Province touched in some way the history of Utah and her people. For this reason the entire list of American Forts as compiled by Mr. Ledyard, is being published in this magazine, since the list belongs to no other State or publication any more than, and probably not quite so much as, to Utah and its Historical Quarterly.—J. C A.


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Albuquerque, Post. Barracks at Albuquerque, New Mexico. Alcatraz Island, Post. Fortified island in San Francisco Harbor near Golden Gate, four miles northeast of San Francisco, used as a military prison. California. Alder, Fort (1856). Contemporary with Fort Tilton which was built near the site of Fort Alder. Both were built by Captain J. J. H. Van Backlin. The posts stood below Snoqualimich Falls. Captain Van Backlin had ninety men on this expedition. He was assisted and supported by Chief Patkanim and his Indian allies. Washington. Alexander Battery. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C , north of the Potomac near Fort Sumner, Maryland. Alexander, Fort (1792). Manitoba, Canada. Alexander, Fort. (Redoubt Davis). One of the defenses of Washington, D. C , north of the Potomac, Maryland. Alexander, Fort (1840-1850). North bank of Yellowstone River between Fort Keogh and Fort Sarpy. Left bank of the Yellowstone River, Dakota. (Reference here to old boundary.) In present limits of Montana. Alexander Sarpy, Fort. (See Sarpy, Fort). Montana. Alexandria, Fort. Named in honor of Alexander McKenzie. Built on the "spot" where McKenzie began to retrace his steps on June 23, 1793. Canada. Alleghany Arsenal. At Lawrenceville, on the left bank of Alleghany River, two and one-half miles from Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. Allen, Fort Ethan (First Corps Area). Two and one-half miles southwest of Essex Junction, in a section noted for historical interest and rugged beauty. It was first garrisoned in September 1894. Five miles from Burlington and about the same distance from the shores of Lake Champlain. Vermont. Allen, Fort Ethan (Formery Fort Baker). One of the defenses of Washington, D. C. South of the Potomac. Virginia. Allentown, Camp (Medical Corps). Allentown, Pennsylvania. Amador, Fort (P. C. Dept.). One mile from Balboa. Named after Dr. R. A. Amador, first President of the Republic of Panama. Work was begun in 1906, but real construction commenced in 1913. Fort Grant is also located near. It consists of a number of fortified islands as follows: Naos, Cluebra, Perico and Flanenco. Canal Zone. Amanda, Fort. Left bank of Auglaize River, in Allen county, fifty-five miles from Fort Defiance, Ohio. Amatol Arsenal. One and one-half miles from Hammonton, New Jersey. American Fur Company Post (1823). Near Fond du Lac, at mouth of St. Louis River, near Wisconsin Line, Minnesota.


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American Fur Company Post. (Different site than one above). Near Fond du Lac, mouth of St. Louis River, Minnesota. Amsterdam, Fort. Built under supervision of an engineer named Kryn Fredericksen. Material was scarce and the first fort was a blockhouse merely encircled by palisades of red cedar with sodded earth works. The original fort was built about 1626. A stronger fortification was built by Wouter Van Twiller in 1633. In 1643 the fort was in a bad state of decay and considered inadequate for defense. After Stuyvesant surrendered to the British the name was changed to Fort James. When the Dutch triumphed over the British in 1673, Fort James was named Fort "Willem Henrick" and New York was named New Orange. In 1674 New Orange was returned by a treaty to the British and renamed New York. Fort "Willem Henrik" became Fort James again for a short time. It was later called Fort William when William and Mary ascended the throne of England. When Queen Anne, who married Prince George of Denmark, ascended the throne it received the name of Fort George, under which title it continued until it was demolished at the close of the Revolutionary War. (See Governors Island and Bowling Green.) New York. Anchorage (Attached to Ninth Corps Area). Alaska. Ancient, Fort. A prehistoric Indian fortification now preserved as a State Park, Warren County. Shepherd, Cincinnati, has written on Fort Ancient under "Antiquities of Ohio," (1887). Moorehead, Andover, Massachusetts, (l908) has also written on "For Ancient." The last named contains a bibliography. Ohio. Anderson, Camp. Midway between Areata and Fort Gaston, California. Anderson, Fort. (Confederate work). Site of Fort St, Philip, on right bank of Cape Fear River at Old Brunswick. North Carolina. Andrew, Fort. Gwinet Point, north side of entrance to Plymouth Harbor, a little east of Fort Standish, Massachusetts. Andrews, Fort. Temporary work constructed in Florida War on left bank of the Tenahallawa, six miles above its mouth on the Gulf of Mexico. Florida. Andrews, Fort. On an island nine miles from Boston. This post was established in 1901. The reservation contains 33.13 acres. Massachusetts. Angel Island, Post. Fortified island in San Francisco Harbor, California. Ann, Fort. Left bank of Indian River, near north end of Merrit's Island, Florida. Ann, Fort. (Anne, Fort.) Fritz-John Winthrop fortified a camp here in 1690, while on an expedition against Canada. Fort Peter Schuyler was built here by Colonel Nicholsen on his


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Canadian expedition in 1709. It was rebuilt in 1757 and named Fort Ann. Engagements took place here in 1758 during the French and Indian War, and in 1777 during the Revolutionary War. The British occupied and partly destroyed the fortification in 1777. In ruins as early as 1817 at least. Sixty-five miles north of Albany. Left bank of Wood Creek, eleven miles south of Whitehall, Washington County, New York. Annapolis Naval Academy. Annapolis, Maryland. Annapolis Royal, Fort. Annapolis, Canada. Annutteeliga, Fort. Temporary work constructed during Florida War, Florida. Apache, Camp. Ft. Apache, Arizona. Apache, Fort. This post was established May 16, 1870. It was first called Camp Ord, then changed successively to Camp Mogolom and Camp Thomas. An isolated post located in Tonto Basin, eastern Arizona. Present site on White River. Fort Apache reservation includes parts of Navajo county and Apache county. Arizona. Appalachicola Arsenal. At Chattahoochee, head of Appalachicola River, Florida. Apple River, Fort. Fourteen miles east of Galena. A small fort built during the Black Hawk War. Illinois. Arbuckle, Fort. Head of a small lake about eighteen miles north, and tributary of Lake Istokpoga, seventy-five miles east of Tampa Bay, Florida. Arbuckle, Fort. Now Arbuckle, Murray County. Near right bank of Wild Horse Creek, about five miles from its mouth on the Washita River (Indian Territory) Oklahoma. Arbuckle, Old Fort. On right bank of the Canadian River, about due north from Fort Arbuckle (Indian Territory) Oklahoma. Argyle, Fort. Right bank of the Ogeechee River, about four miles above the mouth of the Cannouchee River. Georgia. Arkansas Post. Arkansas County, Arkansas. Armistead, Fort. Temporary work constructed in Florida War, Florida. Armistead, Fort. Eight miles southeast of Baltimore, Maryland. Armistead, Fort. Temporary work constructed in Creek War. Texas. Armstrong, Fort. Near border of Alabama and Georgia. Left bank of the Coosa River, one mile north of the mouth of Spring Creek and one and one quarter miles southwest from Galesville, Alabama. Armstrong, Fort. Temporary work on Dade's Battle Ground, Sumter County, Florida. Armstrong, Fort. This post was named in honor of Brig-


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adier General Samuel G. Armstrong and was first garrisoned on June 1, 1913. This post is located at the entrance to the Harbor of Honolulu near the city of Honolulu. On Kaakaukukui Reef, Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii. Armstrong, Fort. On the west end of Rock Island, in the Mississippi River, between Rock Island and Davenport. Ordnance Depot at Rock Island. (Broken up in 1845). Illinois. Army and Navy General Hospital. Hot Springs, Arkansas. Army Medical Center. Located in Takoma Park, Washington, D. C. Army Music School. Washington Barracks, Washington, D. C. Artillery Target Range. Tobyhanna, Pennsylvania. Ash House Post (1795-1796). Northwest Fur Company. Canada. Ashley-Henry Post (1822). Near junction of Yellowstone and Missouri rivers. North Dakota. Ashley, Fort (1825). Built by the Rocky Mountain Fur Company. Named in honor of William H. Ashley. Outskirts of present city of Provo. Fort Utah was later built near the site of Fort Ashley. Utah. Aspenhof, Fort. Wyoming. Assiniboine, Fort. In the Dominion Electoral District of Clearwater on the Athabaska River. Alberta, Canada. Assiniboine, Fort. Same as McDonald's House. Northwest Fur Company. Canada. Assiniboine, Fort. On Athabasca River above "crossing," and opposite a Hudson Bay Post. Another Fort Assiniboine was built below the one above named. Canada. Assiniboine, Fort. Military (1879-1912). This post is seven miles distant from Havre. The reservation here contains about 222,000 acres. In 1912 this reservation was turned over by the War Department to the Interior Department. Hill County, Montana. Assumption, Fort. Located on west bank of Mississippi River "some" distance south of junction of the Ohio and Missrssippi. Missouri or Arkansas. Astoria, Fort (1811-1813). Work on the fort began on April 12, 1811. The fort was named Astoria in honor of John Jacob Astor, founder of the Pacific Fur Company. The fort stood about one hundred yards south of the shore lines of the Bay, inland from the O. W. R. R. and N. Company's docks. Site now marked by sign and United States Flag. The Pacific Fur Company sold the fort to the Northwest Company on October 23, 1813. The price paid for all the Astoria properties was $58,000. On December 12, 1813, the American Flag was


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hauled down, the Union Jack put up, and the name changed to Fort George. Astoria, Oregon. Athabasca, Fort. Whilom name for Peter Pond's first house on river a la Bicke or Athabaska. Commonly called Old Pond House. Canada. Atkinson, Fort. Temporary work erected in Florida War, three miles west of Charles Ferry, on the Suwanee River. Lafayette County, Florida. Atkinson, Fort. Right bank of north fork of Turkey River, in Winneshiek County, near mouth of Spring Creek, Iowa. Atkinson, Fort. Left bank of Arkansas River, twenty-six miles below the "Crossing." Kansas. Atkinson, Fort. Right bank of the Missouri River, near Council Bluffs. Located in present town of Fort Calhoun above Omaha. Fort Calhoun later occupied the site of Fort Atkinson. Nebraska. Atkinson, Fort (1859-68). Near same site as Fort Berthold (1845-62). North Dakota. Atkinson, Fort. Built by General Atkinson during the Black Hawk War. Jefferson County, Wisconsin. Aubrey, Fort. Left bank of the Arkansas, fifty miles east of Fort Lyon, at Big Timbers. Kansas. Augur, Camp. (See Fort Washakie). Wyoming. Augusta Arsenal. Three miles from Augusta. At Augusta City, right bank of Savannah River, Georgia. Augusta, Fort. On Susquehanna River north of Fort Harris, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Augusta, Fort. Prince Edward Island. Canada. Augustus, Fort. This was located a little below Fort Saskatchewan. Fort Augustus was built by Mr. Hughes on the site of the present town of Edmonton and used by the Northwest Company until 1821. Canada. Aux Cedras, Fort (1803). Same as Lozell's Post. South Dakota. Aux Trembles, Fort (1781). Said to be named from Populus tremuloides Michx. Name may have come from logs used in fort or from timber surrounding post. Located on right bank of Assiniboine five miles above Portage la Prairie and on a straight stretch of river about three miles in length. Canada. Aux Trembles, Fort. On the Saskatchewan River. Canada. Babbit, Camp. Near Visalia, Tulare County, California. Bailey Battery. One of the defenses of Washington, D. G, north of the Potomac, Maryland. Bainbridge, Fort. Russell County, on the dividing ridge between the tributaries of the Chattahooche and the Tallapoosa, seventeen miles southeast of Tuskegee, Alabama. Baker, Fort. Four miles north of Sausalito. The fort was


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established in 1899. The reservation consists of 1899.66 acres. In 1914 the garrison consisted of three companies of coast artillery. California. Baker, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, north of the Potomac, and east of the "Eastern Branch." District of Columbia. Baker, Fort. Later Fort Ethan Allen, one of the defenses oi Washington, D. C , south of the Potomac. (Not to be confused with For* Ethan Allen in Vermont). Virginia. Baldwin, Fort. Sixteen miles from Bath. Maine. Baldy, Camp. San Bernardino County, California. Ball, Fort. (Stockade built in 1812). Left bank of the Sandusky River, at the little town of Oakley, nearly opposite Tiffin, Seneca County. Ohio. Banks, Fort. On mainland two miles northeast of Boston. This fort was established in 1889 as a part of the defenses of Boston Harbor. Some authorities make distance from Boston seven miles. In 1914 the garrison consisted of three companies of coast artillery. Massachusetts. Barbour, Fort. Temporary post established in Florida War, on the left bank of the Appalachicola, near Aspalaga. Florida. Barker, Fort. Near left bank of Esteinhatchee River, nine miles southwest of Fort Macomb; established in Florida War. Florida. Barnard, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C , south of the Potomac. Virginia. Barnum, Fort. Okeefinokee Swamp; temporary post established in Florida War. Georgia. Barrancas, Fort. Near Pensacola. Site of Spanish Fort "San Carlos de Barrancas," north side of Pensacola Bay, one and three-quarter miles west of Warrington Navy Yard. Military post established in 1870. Two subposts, Fort Dickens and Fort McRee are connected with it. In 1914 the garrison consisted of four companies of coast artillery. Florida. Barrett, Fort. Pincas Village, one hundred miles west of Fort Breckenridge. Arizona. Barrington, Fort. Left bank of the Alatamaha River opposite the Island, two miles below St. Saville, Mcintosh County, Georgia. Barron Field. Fort Worth, Texas. Barry, Fort. Five miles from San Francisco, California. Bascom, Fort. Tucumcari, San Miguel County. Right bank of Canadian River. New Mexico. Basinger, Fort. Temporary work in Florida W a r ; right bank of the Kissimmee River, seventeen miles southeast from its mouth on Lake Okeechobee. Present site of Bassenger, same location as "Fort Basinger"—note different spelling. Bassenger, De Soto County, Florida.


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Bass, Fort. El Paso County near El Paso, Texas. Bath, Camp. Salt Lick. Kentucky. Baton Rouge Arsenal. Left bank of Mississippi River, at Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Baton Rouge Barracks. Left bank of Mississippi River, at Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Bayard, Fort. Two miles from Bayard. Near Pinos Altos, forty miles northwest of Fort Cummings. Established as a United States Military Post in 1866 and discontinued in 1900. In the last named year it was turned over to the Surgeon-General for hospital purposes. Garrisoned by hospital corps detachment. New Mexico. Bayard, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, north of the Potomac. District of Columbia. Beacon, Camp John H. Calexico, California. Beauharnois, Fort (1727). Old French fort on St. Croix River north of junction with Wisconsin River. Wisconsin. Beaumont, William, U. S. A. General Hospital. On Fort Bliss Reservation. Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas. Beaurgard, Camp. Alexandria, Louisiana. Beauregard, Fort. Sullivan's Island, at the northern entrance to Charleston Harbor. South Carolina. Beauregard, Fort. South end of Philip's Island, Port Royal entrance. (Confederate work.) South Carolina. Beauregard, Fort.. (Confederate work.) Near Leesburg, Virginia. Bedford, Fort. Now Bedford, Bedford County, Pennsylvania. Belknap, Fort. Left bank of Brazos River, eleven miles above mouth of Clear Fork, approximately northeast of Brownwood. Texas. Belnap, Fort (1870). Right bank of Milk River. Montana. Bellefontaine Barracks. Right bank of Missouri River, about five miles above mouth. Missouri. Bellefontaine, Fort. St. Louis County, Missouri. Belle Point, Post. Arkansas. Bellingham, Fort. (1856.) Military. On Bellingham Bay, near the mouth of the Frazer's River. Washington. Bellona Arsenal. (Broken up.) On James River, above Richmond, in Chesterfield County. Virginia. Benicia Arsenal. Benicia, Solano County, California. Benicia Barracks. Straits of Carquinez, connecting bays of San Pablo and Suisun. Benicia Solano, California. Benicia Ordinance Intermediate Depot and Arsenal. Benicia, Solano County, California. (To be Continued)


UTAH

HISTORICAL QUARTERLY J. CECIL ALTER

Editor Vols. 1-6 incl. 1928-1933 By many authors

Utah State Historical SocietySalt Lake City 1934.


Utah State Historical Society B O A R D OF CONTROL (Terms Expiring April 1, 1929) J. CECIL ALTER, Salt Lake City D. W. PARRATT, Salt Lake City ALBERT F. P H I L I P S , Salt Lake City

JOiEL E. RICKS, Logan PARLEY L. W I L L I A M S , Salt Lake City

(,'lerms Expiring April 1, 1931) GEORGE E. FELLOWS, Salt Lake City W I L L I A M J. SNOW, Provo HUGH RYAN, Salt Lake City LEVI E. YOUNG, Salt Lake City FRANK K. SEEGMILLER, Salt Lake City EXECUTIVES O F F I C E R S 1927-1928 ALBERT F. P H I L I P S , President J. CECIL ALTER, Secretary-Treasurer Librarian and Curator Editor in Chief WILLIAM J. SNOW, Vice President All Members, Board of Control, Associate Editors

MEMBERSHIP Paid memberships at the required fee of $2 a year, will include current subscriptions to the Utah Historical Quarterly. Non-members and institutions may receive the Quarterly at $1 a year or 35 cents per copy; but it is preferred that residents of the State become active members, and thus participate in the deliberations and achievements of the Society. Checks should be made payable to the Utah State Historical Society and mailed to the Secretary-Treasurer, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah.

CONTRIBUTIONS The Society was organized essentially to collect, disseminate and preserve important material pertaining to the history of the State. To effect this end, contributions of writings are solicited, such as old diaries, journals, letters and other writings of the pioneers; also original manuscripts by present day writers on any phase of early Utah history. Treasured papers or manuscripts may be printed in faithful detail in the Quarterly, without harm to them, and without permanently removing them from their possessors. Contributions and correspondence should be addressed to the Editor, Utah Historical Quarterly, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah.


GUNNISON MONUMENT, NEAR DESERET, MILLARD COUNTY, UTAH


Utah Historical Quarterly State Capitol, Salt Lake City Volume I

JULY, 1928

Number 3

GUNNISON MASSACRE—1853—MILLARD COUNTY, UTAH—INDIAN MAREER'S VERSION OF T H E TRAGEDY—1894 By Josiah F. Gibbs1 Nearly seventy-five years have passed since the Gunnison massacre, years, during the first decade, filled to the brim with frontier life for all; with stirring adventure for many, and continuous struggle on the part of the first generation of Utah Pioneers to make and maintain homes. The spirit of the West was that of almost unrestrained lawlessness on the part of white men as compared with the generally peaceful attitude of the redmen. At the date of the Gunnison tragedy, Salt Lake City was but six years old. Utah's only newspaper, the "Deseret News," was small and published once a week. Communication with distant towns and remote hamlets was slow and infrequent. Pressed to the limit for space, the "News" was unable to yield more than a few lines, or at best a few paragraphs, to reports of tragedies and other intensely interesting frontier news which, if it had occurred fifty or sixty years'later, would have been flashed to the world in column stories. And depending almost exclusively, as they were, on the early files of the "News" for the beginnings of Utah history, there is no surprise that later historians gave such scant notice to the Gunnison massacre— at the time, Utah's outstanding tragedy. Of the Indian version of the slaughter not a detail was known— the redmen would not talk—until 1894, when the writer obtained the story and published it in the Millard County "Blade." Quite recently, a friend, an earnest searcher for Indian lore, informed certain members of the Utah State Historical Society of the existence of the redmen's story of their movements, the strategy of the surprise attack, and other preparations during the night before the morning of the terrible deed. Hence this narrative. Because of the almost entire absence of details of the story of 'Mr. Gibbs is a retired mining geologist and engineer, now residing at Marysvale, Utah. He edited and published the Millard County Blade at Deseret in 1893 and 1894.


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the Gunnison tragedy carried in Utah histories, this narrative will be based almost exclusively on information gathered years ago from the pioneers of Millard County, several of whom, eleven days after the massacre, aided in burying the dead. Millard County, Topographically And Structurally; An Inviting Field For Explorers And Scientists For the reason that Pahvant valley, in the eastern part of Millard County, comprises the area in which the shifting scenes of this narrative were enacted, it, alone, will receive attention. Roughly, Pahvant valley is circular in form, and, as roughly, embraces 2,000 square miles. Topographically and structurally, its most striking features are scores of volcanic buttes, craters, several of which are yet appreciably warm; and tens of thousands of acres of ancient and quite recent lava. (Near Black Rock, a station on the Los Angeles and Salt Lake railroad, the mouth of a recently active crater contains a delightfully warm swimming pool.) Exclusive of its craters, buttes and lava beds, the lower and central part of the valley is occupied by alkali flats, chalk and gypsum beds. Twenty miles west of Fillmore a low, narrow eruptive range forms the eastern boundary of Millard County's dead salt sea—one of the very few remnants of ancient Lake Bonneville. The Sevier body of the one-time great lake at its highest period, was 600 feet deep, as compared with 1,050 feet in depth of the Salt Lake valley body. A fascinating phenomenon, embracing the effects of light and shadow, that semi-annually occurs on a few evenings of early October and April, on the centuries-old beach, east side of the Sevier lake, is entitled to special attention. The writer's presence in that locality on that particular occasion, October, 1894, was accidental. • From a point about mid-way, north-south, of the east salt-incrusted shore line, an ancient beach, a mile or so wide, ascends to the west base of the Cricket range, an altitude of 400 or 500 feet above the surface of Sevier lake. Apparently, the beach is without the slightest undulation, and has a thin growth of scrub "shad-scale." Other than that there is not a visible object on the wave-smoothed area. With a companion the writer was standing on the margin of the lake, looking east towards the base of the range at the instant the sun was dropping below the House mountains on the west side of the lake. It was the instant of the sun's disappearance and the occurrence of the after-glow, when seemingly from the desert beach a hundred or more shore-lines emerged—not unlike the flashing of a stereopticon picture on a screen. For five or six seconds the ghostly shore-lines (which in weird, thrilling antiquity mark the periodical rises and recessions of Lake Bonneville) endured, when as suddenly they disappeared. That the redmen recognized the significance of Millard county's


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myriad shore lines, which from the west base of the Pahvant range are strikingly in evidence as far as Spring valley, Nevada, a distance of a hundred and fifty miles, is proved by their name for the great valley—Pahvant—Pah, water, vant, gone or vanished. In fact, Indian names for localities usually suggest local conditions, features or peculiarities. From Sevier and Sanpete valleys the Sevier river enters the northeast corner of Pahvant valley; it flows thence southwesterly twenty-five miles to Gunnison bend, an important locality in our story. In Pahvant valley the river banks are low, but in places above the level of the low land to west and south; and at the time of which we are writing, and centuries theretofore, permitted the annual flooding of the lower areas, forming scores of large and small lakes, swamps and grassland bordered by dense growths of large willows, down to the salt lands on the northeastern shore of the Sevier lake, twenty miles below the town of Deseret. Although somewhat premature, the scene of the massacre will here be described. The locality is six miles westerly from Deseret. Abutting the north bank of the river is a depression formed hundreds of years ago by the slow movement of the river channel from north to south, leaving a depressed area six or seven feet below the river bank and the level of the desert on north side. The eroded area is, roughly, a half-mile east-west by a quarter of a mile wide. In the southwest corner an opening permitted flooding. A shallow lake occupied the lower, central part, margined by marshes, swamps, and on the higher ground by rank meadow grass. Excepting at the southeast corner, where a narrow opening led out to the river, fifty feet distant, the entire area was surrounded by willows. Such were the features of Gunnison's, last camp ground when, fifty-six years ago, the writer first visited the locality. Frontier Conditions In Millard County—1853 Fillmore, the county seat of Millard, was then but two years old, and in this town practically every white resident of Pahvant valley resided. Anson Call was the bishop and leading citizen of the small communi#ty. The hardly-blazed Territorial road to southern California passed through Fillmore. Over that road a few emigrant trains had passed, and the Pahvant Indians, with headquarters on Corn creek, twelve miles southwest of Fillmore, gave the members of the occasional trains hearty greetings for the reason that it afforded opportunities for barter. Indian Chief Kanosh and war-chief Moshoquop kept the members of their tribe from molesting the "Mericat" emigrants. ("Mormons" and "'Mericats" were distinguishing nouns in those early years for Mormons and non-Mormons, and applied more especially to United States soldiers.)


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Moshoquop's Father Murdered by Emigrant Early in October, 1853, a company of emigrants arrived at Fillmore. Bishop Call told them a few Indians were encamped on Meadow creek, eight miles to the southwest; that they were friendly, and requested that they be not molested. The emigrants had hardly made camp, when Moshoquop, his father, Mareer and a few other Indians, who were camped higher up on Meadow creek, arrived and lost no time in the effort to "swap" moccasins, buckskins, etc., for sugar, tobacco and other articles prized by the redmen. Recklessly ignoring the wise counsel of Bishop Call, the emigrants were suspicious of the bows and arrows carried by the Indians, and attempted to disarm them. Naturally, the redmen resented the intrusion on their rights. Moshoquop's father thrust the point of an arrow against the breast of his assailant, who promptly shot the Indian in his side—he died the following day. Two other Indians were wounded, one in his shoulder, the other in his arm; of the emigrants, but one was slightly wounded, and by an arrow in the hand of Moshoquop's father. Kanosh, aided by Bishop Call, who donated several beeves and other articles of food, finally pacified the braves—i. e., all but Moshoquop. A few days after the melee, the war-chief and a band of warriors disappeared within the maze of lava beds and sand dunes in the direction of the lower reaches of the Sevier river. Gunnison Expedition Enters Pahvant Valley Captain John W. Gunnison, engineer, scientist, scholar, author and explorer; R. W. Kern, artist and topographer, explorer and author, and Jacob Creutzfeldt, botanist, comprised the personnel of the scientific division of the expedition, with Gunnison in charge of the exploratory work (Pacific railroad explorations and surveys), while Captain R. M. Morris was in command of the small escort of U. S. soldiers. Wm. Potter, of Manti, Utah, was employed as guide. It was mid-October when the expedition entered Pahvant valley and encamped on Pioneer creek, six miles north of Fillmore. It was Captain Gunnison's second visit to Millard County, and he lost no time in visiting Bishop Call, between whom and himself a warm friendship existed. Bishop Call informed the Captain of the recent trouble between the Indians and emigrants, and of the murder of Moshopuop's father. Captain Gunnison was also informed of the disappearance of the war-chief and a band of warriors to the northwest. In reply to Bishop Call's warning to be on his guard while in the valley, the captain explained that the Pahvants, especially Kanosh and Moshoquop, were his firm friends, and that danger from that quarter, if any, was extremely remote. It seems not to have occurred to the captain that Moshoquop knew nothing of his presence in that part of Utah.


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Expedition Begins Exploratory Work Within a few days after his. interview with Bishop Call, Gunnison and his companions broke camp. Owing to intervening alkali flats, deep sand and other obstacles, a direct route to the Sevier lake, the chief objective, nearly due west from their camp on Pioneer creek, the explorers were compelled to go north to the base of the Canyon range; thence, northwesterly to the Sevier river, where they made camp in the before-referred-to Gunnison Bend. It was at that point that Captain Gunnison outlined his program of exploration. With Professors Kern and Creutzfeldt, a cook, Potter, a corporal and small escort of soldiers, Captain Gunnison would follow the river down to Sevier lake. Meantime, Captain Morris and a few companions were to examine the pass, in the extreme northwestern corner of the valley, as to its feasibility for a trans-continental railroad across that part of the Great Salt Lake desert. (Even at that early date, the Administration at Washington was preparing for the development of the vast western region with its almost limitless resources.) A few men would remain in camp at Gunnison bend. Indian Mareer's Story of the Massacre During the early 90's and many years theretofore, Deseret and vicinity was a favorite dwelling place for a dozen or so families of the rapidly vanishing Pahvants. Of the surviving participants in the massacre, whose picturesque wickiups and occupants were always welcome at Deseret, the writer recalls Moshoquop, Mareer and Sam. As now remembered, Moshoquop died at Deseret in 1893, forty years after the massacre. A year or so after the war-chief's death—it would have been useless before that time—the writer approached Mareer with the object of securing the details of the redmen's participation in the Gunnison tragedy. "Me no savvy," was Mareer's evasive reply. The second attempt was more encouraging—"Mericats tobuck"—mad, was his hopeful answer. It was explained that nearly all the "Mericats" who were angry had since died, and that their papoosies wanted a "pochant pershiney"—newspaper talk—story of how the Indians killed the whitemen. All right—"pike komush echock"—come tomorrow morning. Meantime, a map was made of the river from Deseret down to Sevier lake, with especial care to accurately define the locality of the tragedy. Next morning the map was placed before Mareer, he was handed a pencil, and requested to indicate the place of encampment, then to trace the-movements of the Indians during the night before the massacre, and give their names. Seemingly anxious to palliate the crime, Mareer told the story of the murder of Moshoquop's father, of which he was a witness, and


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then named the participants. They were: Moshoquop, Pants, Mareer and his brother Jim, Carboorits, Nunkiboolits, Tomwants, and his son Koonants, Shipoke, "Doctor" Jacob, Wahbits, Moab, Sam and his brother Toady, Hunkootoop, Boquobits, and "Jimmy Knights" an unusually tricky Indian, well known to the early cattle raisers for the skill and boldness he exhibited in stealing their stock. There were also two Snake valley Indians, a Ute from Nephi, one whose name Mareer could not remember, and Mareer's father. With the pencil Mareer indicated a group of lakelets about eight miles westerly from the hereinbefore described depression, and a mile or two north of the river, as the camp of the warriors. He then began this narrative, which follows: During the early afternoon of October 25th, the whiteman's date, Sam and Toady, armed with bows and arrows, were hunting ducks and rabbits on the south side of the river, a couple of miles or so below Deseret. They were startled by the report of firearms from the north side of the river. Peering through the willows, the redmen saw a small number of horsemen, a few of whom wore United States military uniforms, which proved that they were "Mericats." Trailing in the rear of the horsemen, was an improvised cart, on which was packed bedding, provisions and camp utensils. The soldiers were firing at the flocks of ducks then moving southward. Within the shelter of the willows, the Indians watched the movements of the whitemen until Captain Gunnison and comrades entered their last campground. After carefully observing the details of the camp, Sam and Toady hurried down the river and told Moshoquop of their discovery. The opportunity for avenging his father's death had unexpectedly arrived, and Moshoquop lost no time in planning the details of the attack. It was about midnight when the braves left their camp for the encampment of the whitemen. Without hesitation Mareer traced the sinuous trail of the redmen out to the river, thence up the north bank to the inlet in the southwest corner of the depression, where Moshoquop halted and gave his final instructions. The war-chief, accompanied by Pants, Mareer, Carboorits, Nunkiboolits and several others in crossing the inlet, covered with a thin sheet of ice, got their feet wet, which Mareer distinctly remembered as the only disagreeable incident, while sitting motionless during the remainder of that chill October night, they awaited the fatal signal. Stealthily working their way through the willows on the north bank of the river to the Gunnison camp, Moshoquop, Mareer and others secreted themselves in clumps of willows not more than a hundred feet west of where the explorers were soundly sleeping. Carboorits took his assigned position on the river bank a few yards west of the trail made by the whitemen from their campfire in going to and fro for water. The other warriors skirted the north side of the depression,


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and turning south completed the deadly cordon. Carboorits had been selected to fire the signal gun at the instant the first rays of the sun should strike the camp. It was a few minutes before sunrise when the cook lighted the campfire, over which he placed the iron tripod and kettles. Professors Kern and Creutzfeldt were standing by the fire, while the corporal and his men were caring for the horses, a hundred yards or so northwest of the campfire, where, the previous evening, they had been picketed among clumps of willows. Captain Gunnison had walked out to the river, not more than fifty feet distant, and in a stooping position was bathing his hands and face. Startled by the click of Carboorits' gun as he raised the hammer, the captain sprang to his feet, and the bullet passed harmlessly by. Kern, Creutzfeldt and the cook fell dead beside the campfire, pierced with bullets from the guns of Moshoquop, Pants, Mareer and others. Captain Gunnison, having emptied his revolver at Carboorits, who, illustrated in pantomime by Mareer, ducked and dodged with such agility as to escape injury, turned towards the terrifying babel of warwhoops, shouts of victory, cries for help from those wounded during the first discharge of arrows, and yells from the confused survivors, some of whom were moving the horses to fresh pasturage, or were racing toward their mounts. The corporal and a private leaped on their horses, and by keeping within the clumps of willows reached the higher ground to north, and escaped. Another private ran to the river, plunged in, reached the opposite bank, secreted himself, and during the afternoon reached the camp at Gunnison bend. Reaching the scene of slaughter, Gunnison realized that all was lost, and that his only course, if possible, was that of escape from the heart-breaking scene. Pursued by a shower of deadly arrows, the captain, doubtless, with the hope of securing his saddle horse, ran towards the northwest and disappeared within the willows. Closing Diabolical Scene—Mareer's Story Ends Some two or three hours after the firing of the signal gun, Mareer and a few companions began a search of the willows, a hundred yards or so to northwest, for additional plunder. The redmen were surprised at discovering a whiteman who had been wounded by arrows lying full length on the sward, now marked with crimson stains. Several arrows lying about proved that the wounded man had wrenched them from his body. At the appearance of the Indians the whiteman slowly and painfully raised himself to a sitting position. Mareer, alone, recognized Gunnison, but remained silent. Not even Moshoquop, until eleven days after the massacre, knew of the Captain's presence with the expedition. Extending his hands, palms up, in mute appeal for mercy, Cap-


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tain Gunnison awaited the verdict. T h e r e d m e n hesitated. There w a s s o m e t h i n g i n t h a t silent a p p e a l t h a t t o u c h e d a s t r a n g e r in the h e a r t s of t h e also silent r e d m e n . S u d d e n l y , " J i m m y K n i g h t , " the r e n e g a d e I n d i a n , a p p e a r e d , a n d w i t h o u t s p e a k i n g , r a i s e d h i s g u n and fired. T h e c a p t a i n ' s b o d y s w a y e d , t h e n s a n k t o t h e g r o u n d . 2 ""October 30, (1853).—Kenosh, the chief of the band of murderers, arrived at Fillmore, having been sent for by Mr. Call, accompanied by fifteen or twenty of his people. He brought with him one of the public horses lost by Captain Gunnison's escort, 'which,' he said, 'he had taken from the fellow who came to him with the intelligence of their successful operation, and hastened to return it, meeting Mr. Call's messenger (who had been sent for him) on the way; that he deeply regretted the tragedy; that it was done without authority, by the young men—boys, as he called them—of the band, who had no chief with them, or it would not have happened.' H e subsequently informed the Governor's agent that there were thirty of his people in the party, two of whom were its instigators, seeking revenge for the death of their father, who, they said, had been hilled by emigrants but a few days before."—Lt. E. G. Beckwith, in Pacific Railroad Reports, Vol. II, pages 75-76. "May 13, 1854.— * * * "This afternon, accompanied by two interpreters and several other gentlemen, we proceeded to the Farvain Indian's camp, to see their celebrated chieftain, Kanoshe. * * * I also learned from him, through the interpreters, the following facts, relation to Gunnison's massacre. "There were about thirty Parvain Indians, encamped six miles, N. W. of Gunnison's camp, on Cedar Spring. Potter, a Mormon guide, and one of the exploring party went out to shoot ducks; one of the Parvains was also shooting rabbits, and hearnig the explosion of fire-arms, he marked the direction, and followed the men to their camp. This Indian was the son of a Parvain chief, who was killed by a party of emigrants, under command of Capt. Hildreth, about two weeks before. Marking the spot, he repaired to his own camp, and commenced to make inflammatory speeches to his tribe; he made a fictitious scalp out of horse hair, attached it to a pole, and elevating it, commenced the war dance; the rest of the Parvains continued dancing until midnight. ''They were incited to revenge, for the unprovoked murder of their old chief; who, together with some women and young men, went into Hildreth's camp merely to beg food. They were ordered out, and force was used to take away their bows and arrows; in the scuffle, one of the Americans got his hand cut with an arrow-head, when they were fired upon with rifles, and several persons killed; among them this old chief. "The Parvains, before day, started for Gunnison's camp, surrounded the party who were breakfasting under cover of the willows which grew on the banks of the creek. Capt. Gunnison was the first man who had finished his breakfast; he arose, and while speaking to his men, the Indians, with a tremendous yell, fired upon them. Capt. Gunnison raised his hands and beckoned them to stop. The men immediately fled, only one man fell by the first fire on the spot. The men's first endeavors were to reach their horses; the Indians pursued them, and shot them from their horses. T h e American party never fired a gun; the last man fell three miles from camp."—5\ N. Carvalho, Incidents of Travel and Adventure in the Far We.r£,'pages 196-198. {Autumn, 1854).—"Orders had been given to Colonel Steptoe to arrest and bring to trial the perpetrators of the Gunnison massacre, and after much expense and the exercise of great tact and judgment, most of them were secured and indicted for murder. Eight of the offenders, including a chief named Kanosh, were put on trial at Nephi City; and though the judge distinctly


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Today, on the north side of the river, six miles westerly from Deseret, a beautiful monument stands in the midst of indescribable desolation. Gone are the one-time thrifty willows, lakes and meadows. (The water that years ago was so abundant is now being used on farms higher up on the river—it is now the whiteman's water.) Members of the Arthur L. Cahoon Post of the American Legion quarried the shaft from a nearby field of black flint-like lava and transported it to the sport marked for many years by a cedar post. Near the top of the shaft, those patriots in peace and war secured a large bronze arrow head, bearing in relief the imperishable names of the dead. Into a mound of boulders and cement they planted the base of the shaft, with the bronze plate appropriately turned toward the setting sun. And there, dignified by its isolation, and within the silence of the far-reaching desert, the tribute of sympathy will stand through the ages. On Memorial Day, 1927, from 3,000 to 5,000 old, middle-aged and young residents of Millard County were massed around the Gunnison Monument. They were present for the purpose of participating in the dedicatory ceremonies. Feelingly, a very few of the aged pioneers rehearsed the story of the massacre. The monument, theretofore enveloped in the folds of the stars and stripes, was unveiled; members of the Arthur L. Cahoon Post fired a farewell salute. While the larger part of those present slowly disappeared within clouds of desert dust, a few lingered as if loathe to leave the tragic ground.

FATHER ESCALANTE A N D THE UTAH INDIANS (Continuing: "Some Useful Early Utah Indian References.") By J. Cecil Alter Here are the earliest first-hand references to the Utah Indians, taken verbatim from Escalante's journal as printed in The Catholic Church in Utah, edited by Dr. W. R. Harris. The student should also see Report of Explorations Across the Great Basin of the Territory of Utah, by Capt. J. H. Simpson, appendix R, by Philip H a r r y ; and H. H. Bancroft's History of Nevada, Colorado and Wyoming. These authorities assist in identifying Escalante's route. "Diary and Travels of Fray Francisco Atanasio Dominguez and Fray Silvestre Velez De Escalante, to discover a route from charged the jury that they must find the prisoners guilty or not guilty of murder, a verdict of manslaughter was returned against three of the accused, the rest being acquitted. The sentence was three years' imprisonment in the Utah penitentiary, this being the severest punishment prescribed by statute."— History of Utah, by. Hubert Howe Bancroft, page 493.


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the Presidio of Santa Fe, New Mexico, to Monterey in Southern California. * * (page 125) "On the 29th day of July, in the year 1776 * * we departed from the town of Santa Fe, capital of New Mexico. (p. 129) "5th day of August. * We came to the Rio De Navajo. (p. 130) "Fray Silvestre proceeded to record the point where the two rivers—the Navajo and the San Juan—join, and found it to be about three leagues in an air line to the east of the Nieves (snows), and to be well adapted to settlements on the banks of each river. The San Juan river carries more water than the Navajo, and it is said that farther north are large and fertile tracts, where the river flows over open country. Thus joined the two form a river as large as the northern one in the month of July; and it is called the Rio Grande de Navajo, because it separates the province of this name from the Yuta nation. (p. 134) "15th day of August. Leaving the * River de los Dolores, * A stream was found, but with water enough for the men only, and none for the animals. It was filled up with wood and stone, and, as it seemed, purposely. The water is constant, but not palatable. The Yutas probably closed up the stream for some contingency which they foresaw might happen; for, according to some of our company who had lived among them, they were accustomed to protect themselves in this way. (p. 136) "17th day of August. * We came to the Rio de los Dolores for the third time. * Arriving at the river we found recent tracks of the Yutas, from which we concluded there was a settlement of them near by. * * "As soon as we had halted near a wide part of the river, that we named San Bernardo, Father Fray Francisco Atanasio, accompanied by Andres Muniz as interpreter, and Don Juan Pedro Cisneros, went up the river some three leagues, and there they recognized them as being Yutas; but they could not find the tribe, after having gone to where the small Rio de las Paraliticas (River of the Paralytics) divides the Yutas into two tribes, the Tabehuachis and the Muhuachis, the one living north and the other south of the river. The river was so named because one of our party who saw it first found in a wigwam on the bank of the river three Yuta women suffering from paralysis. (p. 138) "20th clay of August. * (p. 139) It would seem, judging from the trails, and the ruins of wigwams, that this was a camping ground of the Yutas. * * * (p. 140) "23d day of August. We left the camp of San Felipe on the San Pedro river, (the San Miguel) climbed a hill, and, along the foot of a mountain known as Tabechuahis, so called by the Yutas who dwell in those parts, we covered a distance of four leagues, which, on account of the many turns we


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made, could not be more than two leagues to the east of San Felipe. We had left the San Pedro, which has its rise in the Grulla (Crane) in that spur of the mountain which they call la Plata, and which runs toward the north, turns to the northwest, and then to the west, until it unites with the Dolores, near the small range of mountains known as the Salt (La Sal, Utah) because near it are a number of saline pools from which the Yutas, who dwell in these parts, supply their needs. It is a river of moderate size. We stopped for our midday rest near a perennial supply of water that descends from the mountain. In the level country, in the northern part, there is a valley affording good pasturage, and near it a piece of ground shaped like an eyebrow, upon which we found the ruins of an ancient,town whose houses seem to have been built of stone; with this material the Tabehuachis Yutas have constructed a frail and crude intrenchment. * * • (p. 141) "During the afternoon it began to rain, and continued for upwards of an hour and a half. We continued our journey, going up the mountain of the Tabehuachis by way of a lofty and precipitous road; and when we had gone a league to the northeast and another to the east, a Tabehachi Yuta overtook us. (Tabehuachis: See p. 42, this series.) He was the first one we had met since the. day we left Abiquiu, where we had seen two others. In order to be able to converse leisurely with .him, we pitched our camp near a spring of water, where we rested during the heat of the day, and which we called the Fountain of the Guide. We gave him something to eat and to smoke, and afterwards, by means of an interpreter, we questioned him concerning the country which lay before us, and about the rivers and their courses. We also asked him concerning the whereabouts of the Tabehuachis, Muhachis and the Sabuaganas. 1 "At first he pretended to be ignorant of everything, even concerning the country in which he lived. After he lost the fear and suspicions he had entertained towards us, he told us that all the Sabuaganas were in their own country, and that we would meet them very soon; that the Tabehuachis were scattered about among these mountains and vicinity. He said that the rivers from the San Pedro to the San Rafael, inclusive, flow into the Dolores, and then unite with the Navajo. We proposed that he guide us to the village of a Sabeguana chief, who, our interpreter said, was well disposed towards the Spaniards, and acquainted with a good deal of this territory. He agreed to do so if we could wait for him until the afternoon of the next day, to which we 1 Sabaguana, Sabuagana. The variant spelling appears to have been by Escalante himself. "Sabuaganas equals Akanakwint. Akanaquint (Green River). A Ute Division formerly living on Green River, Utah, belonging probably to the Yampa.—F. W. Hodge, Handbook of American Indians.


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agreed, partly that he might guide us, and partly to remove any suspicions that we might be meditating something against him, that would awaken resentment in him and in others. (p. 141) "24th day of August. Before twelve o'clock our Yuta arrived at our camp, where we were awaiting him, bringing with him his family, two women and five children, two of them at the breast, and three from eight to ten years old; all of them very decent in appearance and quite talkative. They thought we had come to engage in trade, and for that reason brought with them antelope skins and other things. Among these were small apple-raisins, black in color, of which we have spoken before, and which resemble small grapes, and are very agreeable to the taste. We explained to them that we had not come on the business they thought we had, nor did we bring any goods to trade. In order that fhey might not think we were explorers of the land, and with a view of keeping them well disposed toward us when they were absent from us, as well as that they might not seek to embarrass us in our progress, and judging that from the Cosninas they might have learned something of the trip made by the R. P. Fray Francisco Garces to the Yutas Payuchis, and thence to other tribes, we told them that one of the Fathers, our brother, had gone to Cosnina and Moqui, and from this latter place had returned to Cosnina. On hearing this, their suspicions were allayed at once, and they appreciated our anxiety to put ourselves on good terms with them, and told us they had known nothing of the Father to whom we referred. We gave them all something to eat, and the guide's wife presented us with a piece of dried venison, and two plates of the raisins to which I have referred. "We returned the compliment by giving them some flour. In the afternoon we gave the Yuta the price he asked for guiding us, two belduques (knives), and sixteen strings of white glass beads, which he handed to his wife, who departed at once along with the rest of the family to their village, while he remained with us, and from this on he was known by the name of Atanasio. * * (p. 143) "26th day of August. We left Lain Spring and traveled in a northeasterly direction one league. At this point the trail that we had followed divides into two, one leading towards the east-northeast, and the other towards the north-east. We followed the latter, and after we had traveled two leagues and a half to the northeast we finished the descent of the mountain, and entered the pleasant valley of the river of San Francisco, called by the Yutas the Ancapagari, (Uncompahgre) which the interpreter tells us means Colorado Lake, from the fact that near its source there is a spring of reddish water, hot and disagreeable to the taste. * * (p. 145) "27th day of August. W e left the San Francisco


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mountain and journeyed down the river in a northwesterly direction ; and having traveled a short distance we met a Yuta by the name of Surdo, with his family. W e spent some time with him, but, after a lengthy conversation, came to the conclusion that there was no information to be gained from him; and we had simply suffered from the heat of the sun, which was very intense, while we were talking with him. * * (p. 146) '"Farther down the river, and about four leagues north of this plain of San Augustine, the river forms a junction with a larger one, called by the people of our party the River of San Javier (Saint Xavier), and by the Yutas the River Tomichi. (Gunnison.) There came to these two rivers in the year 1761 Don Juan Maria de Rivera, crossing this same range of the Tabehuachis, on whose summit is the spot he called Purgatory, according to the description he gives in his journal. The place where we camped before crossing the river, and where we said he cut the figure of the cross on a young poplar tree, with the initials of his name, and the year of his expedition, are still found at the junction of these rivers on the southern bank, as we were informed by our interpreter, Andres Muniz, who came with the said Don Juan Maria the year referred to, as far as the Tabehuachi mountain, saying that although he had remained behind three days' journey before reaching the river, he came last year (1775) along its bank with Pedro Mora and Gregoria Sandoval, who had accompanied Don Juan Maria in the expedition I have referred to. They said that they had come as far as the river at that time, and from that point they had begun their return journey; only two persons sent by Don Juan Maria had crossed the river, to look for Yutas on the shore that was opposite the camp, and from which point they returned; and so it wa's this river that they judged at that time to be the great river Tizon. (Colorado.) * * (p. 147) "29th day of August. About ten o'clock in the morning five Yutas-Sabuaguanas were seen on the opposite bank making a great hue and cry. We thought they were those that our men had gone to look for; but when they came to where we were we saw they were not. We gave them something to eat and to smoke, but after a long conversation about the difficulties they had had during the summer with the Comanches-Yamparicas, we could not get from them anything useful to our interests, because their design was to m a k e r s afraid, exaggerating the danger to which we were exposing ourselves, as the Comanches would kill us if we continued on this course. W e destroyed the force of the pretexts with which they tried to stop our progress, by saying to them that our God, who is above all, would defend us in case of an encounter with our enemies. "30th day of August. In the morning, Andres, the inter-


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preter, and the guide, Atanasio, with five Sabuaganas and one Laguna, 2 arrived. After we had given them food and tobacco we told them of our desire to go to the villages of the Lagunas (the Yutas had told us that the Lagunas lived in villages like those of New Mexico), saying to them that as they were our friends they should furnish us a good guide, who could conduct us to those people, and that we would pay them what they wished. They replied that to go where we wished there was no other road than the one which passed through the Comanches' country; that these would impede our passage, and even take our lives; and also that none of them knew the country between here and the Lagunas. They repeated this many times, insisting that we should turn back from here; we tried to convince them, first by reasoning and then by presents, so as not to offend them. We then presented the Laguna with a woolen cloak, a knife and some white glass beads, saying that we gave these to him so that he would accompany us and guide us to his country. He agreed to do so and we gave them to him. Seeing this, the Sabaguanas suggested no further difficulties, and some of them even confessed to knowing the road. "After all this they urged us to go to their village, saying that the Laguna did not know the way; we knew very well that it was only an invitation to detain us and to enjoy longer our gifts. Many others came today, and we gave them something tu eat and to smoke; so as not to give them occasion to be offended nor to lose so good a guide as we had found, we concluded to go to their village. * The Sabaguanas and the Laguna kept with our company. "31st day of August. * One of the Yuta Sabaguanas that came with us from Santa Monica today ate in so beastly and hoggish manner that we thought he would die of apoplexy. Finding himself so sick, he said the Spaniards had done him harm. This foolish idea made us very careful, because we knew that these savages, if they became ill after having eaten what others ate, even though one of themselves gave the food to them, believe that the person who gave them to eat made them sick, and would try to revenge the wrong which they thought had been done them; but God saved him by causing him to vomit much of the food which he could not digest. "1st day of September. Leaving San Ramon, going north, and traveling three leagues .through small glens of good pasturage and thick growths of small oak, we came across eight Yutas, all on good horses, many of them, of the village to which we were "Lagunas equals Timpaiavats. A Ute division formerly occupying the valley (of Utah Lake, the Spanish Forks, and the adjacent mountains in Utah. Timpanogotzis equals Timpaiavats.—F. W. Hodge, Handbook of American Indians.


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going. They told us they were going to hunt; but we judged that they traveled in such numbers to show their strength, and to see if we were alone, or if other Spaniards came after u s ; knowing from the night before that we were going to their village, it would not be customary for all of the men to leave at the same time, unless for the reason we have given. We proceeded with only the Laguna, descending a very rough mountain and entering a beautiful valley in which there was a small river, on the banks of which was a forest of very high, straight pine trees, and among them some poplars that seemed to rival the height and straightness of the pines. Through this valley we traveled one league to the east, and arrived at a village composed of thirty wigwams. We stopped a mile below it on the banks of the river, and named our stopping place from San Antonio Martir. * * "As soon as we had stopped Father Fray Francisco Atanasio went to the village with the interpreter, Andres Muniz, to see the chief and the others who had remained with him; having saluted him and his sons affectionately, he asked that all the people might be summoned. The chief consented, and when all of both sexes had joined him, Father Atanasio announced to them the Gospel by the interpreter, who pointed out to them our guide and the Laguna. As soon as the Father began to talk to them, our guide interrupted the interpreter, in order to advise the Sabuaganas, as his countrymen, that they ought to believe all that the Father said, because it was all true. The other Laguna showed his pleasure by the attention which he gave to the speech of the Father. "Among the hearers was a deaf man, who, not knowing what was going on, asked what it was the father said; then the Laguna replied 'the father says, that this which he shows to us, (it was a picture of the crucified Christ), is the only Lord of all, who lives in the highest heaven; and in order to please Him and to see Him, it is necessary to be baptized and to ask pardon of him.' He showed how to ask pardon by crossing himself on the breast. It was a wonderful action for him, as he had probably never seen it done before, neither by the priest nor by the interpreter. "The Father, seeing the pleasure with which they heard him, then proposed to the chief, who at the time ruled the tribe, that if, after talking the matter over with his people he should be willing to receive baptism, we would come to instruct them and teach them how to live aright, in order to baptize them. He replied that he would submit it to his people; but all that afternoon he failed to give any evidence which would encourage us to believe that they accepted our proposition. The Father, rejoicing at the last one (the guide whom we had called Silvestre), and understanding that he was known as Oso Colorado (Red Bear), he preached to all of them, explaining the difference that there is


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between men and the brutes, the end for which each was created, and the evil there was in calling themselves after wild beasts, making themselves in this way equal to, and even inferior, to them. He continued by saying to the Laguna that in the future he would be called Francisco. "The others hearing this began to repeat the name, although with a great deal of effort, the Laguna himself being well pleased with his new name. It happened also that when the Father called to the chief that this one replied that he was not the holder of that office; that it belonged to a fine looking young man who was present. Being asked if the young man was married, he replied that he w a s ; that he had two wives. The young Indian was ashamed of this (the older one seemed to honor the young fellow as being a brother of a famous captain among the Sabaguanas, whom they called Yamputzi), and he tried to make out that he had only one wife. "From this it may be inferred that these savages had some idea or knowledge of the disgust that is caused among civilized men by one man having several wives at the same time. The Father took this as his text, and used the occasion for imparting instruction upon this point, and of exhorting them that each should have only one wife. After all this had taken place we bought from therri a little dried buffalo meat, giving in exchange strings of beads; and we also said to them that we would be glad if they would permit us to exchange some of our horsey that were footsore for others of theirs. They assented to this. * * (p. 154) "2d day of September. Early in the morning the same people came, and in larger numbers than on yesterday afternoon. They reiterated the arguments they had used before, adding to them another and greater difficulty; because they dissuaded the Laguna from his intention of guiding us, and they compelled him to return to us that which we had paid him for guiding us to his country. After having argued more than an hour and a half, without persuading the guide to take that which he had once received, and fulfil his promise to us, and without their ceasing to oppose us, we told them, with an earnestness that seemed fitting at such a juncture, that since the Laguna had voluntarily agreed to accompany us to his country, and since they had placed so many difficulties in our way, we knew clearly and for a-certainty why they took away our guide, and why they impeded our progress, but that we would not turn back for anything they might do; that we would pursue our journey without any guide, even though the Laguna would not accompany us; and that they should understand that we no longer considered them to be our friends. On hearing this they were somewhat mollified, and the young man who has already been mentioned, brother of the captain, Yamputzi, addressed the others and said that since the way had been opened before us, and the Laguna had agreed to be our guide, it was


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not just that we should be embarrassed in any way; and when he had ceased speaking of the matter another one, whom they called a chief, followed with the same exhortation. Then all said to the Laguna that he could no longer refuse to accompany us; but he no longer cared to do so, influenced by what they had already said. After much urging and flattery he received his pay, although with some hesitation, and agreed to go with us. "The village had already changed its location, and was moving towards the spot occupied by the chief, Yamputzi, at the time that we went out from the stony place of San Antonio Martir. We did not know what direction to take, because the guide who had repented' of his bargain did not wish to go ahead, nor tell us the way. He remained near the village with the horse we had given him, on the pretext of looking for a saddle, we following where the Sabaguanas had gone, although not wishing to, because we desired to leave them. We charged the interpreter to get him away as soon as possible, and tried to encourage him. He did so, and all the Yutas having gone, the guide now showed us the road, and sent the interpreter to tell us to return where he was stopping. Here we found him bidding goodbye to his countrymen, who remained with the Sabaguanas, and they told him how to arrange the journey. "Along with the guide, Silvestre, we found here another Laguna, who wished to accompany us. As we had not known of his desire before, we had not provided a horse for him, and so as not to be longer detained, Don Juan Lain took him behind on his crupper. With great pleasure we left the road that led to the village, and with the two Lagunas, Silvestre and the boy that we named Joaquin, we proceeded on our journey. * * (p. 156) "3d day of September. * In many parts of the canyon there are little huts that show the Yutas have camped here. Following the bed of the ravine in which the stream is hidden (it can be seen from the northern bank) we traveled a league'and a half to the northeast, and halted almost at the foot of a mountain which the Yutas called Nabuncari, naming the stopping place San Silvestre. "4th day of September. * By the southern bank and over a plain of wild-cane, we went some three-quarters of a league to the west, passing a bit of a mountain of pinon, and entered into another canebrake, where were three Yuta women and a child, preparing the small fruits that they had gathered along the streams and small rivers near by. We spoke to them, and they gave us some of their fruits, which were cherries, limes and pine nuts of this year's growth. The cherries that are grown in these parts are very sour, but dried, as these Yutas prepare them, are of a sweet-sour, and very pleasant taste. We continued our journey, and having gone three and a half leagues to the west-northwest, from the said river, passing near cabins of the Yutas, in the opening of whose settlement is a large stone standing like


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a washing stone, we entered a glen or small valley of good pasturage. (p. 158) "6th day of September. We left the plain and the river of San Rafael (Grand). * * (p. 159) "We overtook the rest, who were detained and were quarreling with the guide, and traveled two leagues to the northwest; by leaving the road that led up the river to the west, and as it seemed straighter, he took us by another road that, entering a canyon, went directly north, telling us that although that road went through the canyon to the north, we would soon turn to the west. Our compan'ions acquainted with the Yuta language tried to convince us that the guide, Silvestre, had taken us by that road, in order to confuse us by turns that would not take us forward, or to lead us into some ambuscade of Sabuaganas waiting for us. "In order to make us more suspicious of the guide, they assured us of their having heard many of the Sabuaganas in the village tell him to take us by the road that did not go by the lake, and that after going eight or ten days in useless turnings we would have to turn back. Although it was not altogether unlikely that some had said this, we did not believe that the guide would consent to it. Even though they had really succeeded in their design, none of our companions had ever told us anything like it, and they would have done so, because in the valley the people had not ceased to enlarge upon other obstacles which were less to be feared, and which, in any evil that might occur, they risked as much as we. "We well knew that going to the north it would be more roundabout ; but Silvestre told us that he took us by that road because in the other there was a high, dangerous mountain, so we wished to follow his advise; but all the company, except Don Juan Lain, urged us to go the other road, some because they feared unnecessarily the Comaches, and others because in taking that direction their personal inclinations did not in the least correspond with ours. At this time there arrived a Yuta-Sabuaguanas of the most northern tribe, and told us that the road to the north went very high up. So that we had to follow the west. Going two leagues to the west, and crossing another small river, we halted on its bank, naming the stopping place LaContraguia. * * "^'There were three villages of Sabuaganas here, from which there came six men, and among them one who had just come from the Comanches-Yamparicas, where he had gone with four others to steal horses. He said that the Comanches had all gone away. These men left us and went by the River Napeste, or to the east, and we traveled on with our companions. These Sabuaganas were the last we saw. * * (p. 161) "8th day of September. We left the Natividad de Nuestra Senora going north, and proceeding half a league we came to a river of good, living water, and going up a rocky slope free from stones we took a road over better ground than yesterday, and went two


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leagues and a half to the northwest over an extended plain of rising ground, and through some forests of poplar, arriving at a high ridge, from which the guide, Silvestre, showed us the mountains, on the northern slope of which lived the ComanchesrYamparicas, that we saw to the north of the Sabuaganas, and on a point of the same mountain to west, he showed us, were his people. * * (p. 164) "13th day of September. About eleven o'clock in the morning we left the Arroyo del Cibolo over a plain that is at the foot of a small range which the Yutas and the Lagunas call Sabuagari; it extends from east to west, and one sees its white rocks from the high, rising plain that is in front of the Canyon Pintado. Going three leagues and three-quarters to the west, we arrived at a flow of water known to the guide, which is at the foot of the mountain almost at its western point; we continued in the same direction a quarter of a league, by a well-beaten path near to which, towards the south, rise two full springs of fine water, within a gunshot of each other, that we named the Fuentes de Santa Clara (the Fountains of Saint Clara). On account of the moisture they communicate to the small plain which they water and which absorbs them this land produces good and abundant pasturage. From here we traveled a league to the north-west, by the same trail, and crossed a stream that comes from the plain of the Fuentes, and in which are large tanks of water. From here, and on down, there is in its valley, which is broad and level, good and abundant pasturage. We crossed it again; we climbed several hills covered with small stones, and having journeyed two leagues to the northwest, we arrived at a large river, which we called the San Buenaventura. (Green River, Utah.) "This river of San Buenaventura is the largest that we have crossed and is the same one that Fray Alonso de Posada says, in his report, separates the Yuta nation from the Comanche, if we may judge by the description he gives of it, and the distance he says it is from Santa Fe. And it is certainly true that on the northeast and north it is the boundary line between these two peoples. Its course from this point is west-southwest; from the region above this point to where we now are its course is to the west. It forms a junction with the river of San Clemente (White) ; but we do not know if it does so with other rivers previously mentioned. There is here a fine plain abounding in pasturage and fertile, arable land, provided it were irrigated, which might be, perhaps, a little more than a league in width, and some four or five leagues in length, entering in between two mountains; the space taking the form of a corral, and the mountains coming so close together that one can hardly distinguish the opening through which the river flows. The river can be crossed only at the one fording place, which our guide assured us was in this neighborhood, to the west of the mountain that stood farthest to the north,close to a range of hills composed of loose earth of a leaden color, and, in places, of a yellowish tinge. The bottom is full of small


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stones, and the river so deep that the mules could not cross it except by swimming. We stopped on its southern bank about a mile from the ford. We called the stopping place the Vega de Santa Cruz (the Plain of the Holy Cross.")" * * AMERICAN POSTS (Continued) By Edgar M. Ledyard Benjamin Harrison, Fort. Ten miles from Indianapolis. A United States Military Post named for President Benjamin Harrison. Lawrence, Indiana. Bennett, Fort. Stanley County, South Dakota. Bennett, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C, south of the Potomac. Virginia. Benning, Fort. Southwest of Columbus; reservation adjoining city limits. Georgia. Benson, Camp. Newport, Maine. Benson Battery. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C, north of the Potomac. Maryland. Bent's Fort. On the Arkansas about seventy miles below the present city of Pueblo. Bent's Fort was founded in 1829 and was one of the most important places in the West for years. It was about 100 by 150 feet in size; at the time of Fremont's visit it employed 80 to 100 men. Original fort destroyed by Indians in 1853 and new post established about thirty miles down the river. Colorado. Benton Barracks. St. Louis; established during the Rebellion. Missouri. Benton, Fort (1846). On left bank of Missouri River. Established by the American Fur Company in 1846 and named after Senator Benton of Missouri. This fort replaced Fort Louis erected by the same company near Pabloy's Island, a few miles below the new site, two years before. In the same year, 1846, another company started a rival trading post in the same locality, naming it Fort Campbell for the Campbells of St. Louis. In the early Catholic Church records Fort Benton was called Fort Benton, also Fort Campbell. It appears as Fort Benton up to 1855, becomnig Fort Campbell in 1858. Fort Benton was incorporated as a town in 1865. A little later it became the location of a military post. A few companies of United States troops were quartered here for several years. Gold was offered by traders at "A few miles north of Jensen, Utah, and directly south, in front of, and in plain view from, the Dinosaur National Monument or quarry; a short distance below the big bend in the stream from west to south.


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Fort Benton in 1857. Following this clue gold was discovered in many sections in the vicinity. Chouteau County, Montana. Berkeley, Camp. Lagunitas, Marin County, California. Berkeley, Camp. Pineville, South Carolina. Berry, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C, south of the Potomac. Arlington, Alexandria County, Virginia. Berthold, Fort (1845-62.) Near same site as Fort Atkinson (1859-68). Left bank of Missouri River, twenty-one miles below the mouth of Little Missouri, opposite mouth of "Dancing Bear River." Blackwater, McLean County, North Dakota. Biddle, Camp. Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania. Bidwell, Fort. Northeast part Modoc County. Surprise Valley, Siskiyou County, California, near upper lake. Bienvenue Barracks. Right bank of Bayou Bienvenue, about one mile from its mouth at Lake Borgne; built to defend pass to New Orleans. Louisiana. Biloxi, Fort. Established by French and formerly called Fort De Maurepas. Biloxi Bay. Mississippi. Bingham, Fort. Pleasantview, Juniata County, Pennsylvania. Built in 1749, by Samuel Bingham. Destroyed by Indians in 1756 and rebuilt by Ralph Sterrett in 1760. Bingham, Fort. In 1851-152 Mayor Farr of Ogden divided the region around the present site of Ogden into districts. The first district organized outside the boundaries of Ogden City north of Ogden River, was called Bingham Fort District in which Bingham Fort was located. Bingham Fort District was later called Lynn. Farr's Fort, Brown's Fort, Kingdon's Fort and Mount Fort were established at about the same time. Ogden, Weber County, Utah. Birdstail, Fort. Canada. Blackmore, Fort. Scott County, Virginia. Blaisdell, Fort. One of the Rebel defenses before Petersburg. Virginia. Blakely, Fort. Left bank of Blakely River opposite the mouth of Tensaw River. Built by Rebels to defend Mobile. Alabama. Alabama. Blees, Fort. Macon, Macon County, Missouri. Blenker, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C , south of the Potomac. Now Fort Reynolds. Virginia. Bliss, Fort. Left bank of the Rio Grande, near Franklin, Texas, and opposite El Paso, Mexico, (formerly El Paso Post). A United States Military Post. The strength and character of the garrison varies greatly according to conditions on the Border. In 1914 all mobile arms of the service were stationed at Fort Bliss. Fort Bliss Reservation, five miles northeast of El Paso. Texas. Block House, The. The Block House was located in North-


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western North Carolina at the end of the Wilderness Road. North Carolina. Blount, Fort. Also called Williamsburg. Smith County, Tennessee. Blue Mounds, Fort. One and one-half miles south of East Blue Mound. Established during Black Hawk War. Wisconsin. Boise, Fort. Thomas McKay built a temporary post for the Hudson's Bay Company eight or ten miles above the mouth of the Reed or Boise River. This fort was a simple log structure and the first trading post within the present limits of Idaho. The Whitmans were entertained here in 1836. Reverend H. H. Spaulding preached a sermon at the request of the Hudson's Bay Company officials on the occasion of the Whitmans' visit to the post, Reverend Spaulding being a member of the party. This was the second sermon preached within the boundaries of present Idaho. The first sermon preached within the present limits of Idaho was delivered by Reverend Jason Lee of the Methodist Episcopal Church at Fort Hall two years before. In 1837 or 1838 the site of Fort Boise was changed by Francis Payette and a new fort was built on the east side of the Snake River about one mile north of the mouth of the Boise River. The second, or what may be called permanent Fort Boise was built of mud. In 1853 unusually high waters of the Snake River washed the second Fort Boise away and it was abandoned in 1855. The second Fort Boise was built by the Hudson's Bay Company to take business away from Fort Hall erected in 1834. In 1836, however, the Hudson's Bay Company acquired Fort Hall by purchase and Fort Hall superseded Fort Boise in importance as a trading post. The second Fort Boise was one of the most celebrated stopping points on the Oregon Trail reached after a long dry journey over the Snake River plains. In July, 1863, the United States Government began the construction of what may be called the third Fort Boise. This post was situated on a plateau overlooking the site of the present city of Boise. The third Fort Boise was built by a company of Oregon cavalry under the direction of Major Pinkney Lugenbeel. The situation of the third post was not onlybeautiful but strategic. The Oregon Trail ran close to it and the Boise Basin and Owyhee mining district, which the Fort was built to protect, was connected with it by trail. Idaho. Boiling Field (District of Washington). Two miles south of the capitol, Washington, D. C. Bonneville, Fort (1832). Bonneville's first camp made in the winter of 1832-33. At the mouth of Carmen Creek a little north of the present town of Salmon, Lemhi County. The second camp made that winter was in Swan Basin, Idaho. Boone, Fort. Near Frankfort, Kentucky. Built during the Civil War. Kentucky.


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Boone's, Fort. This fort was at the end of one of the main branches of the Wilderness Road, the other branch running to Louisville, Kentucky. Later called Boonesborough, Kentucky. Borden, Camp. Ontario, Canada. Bornwell, Fort. Craven County, North Carolina. Boston Q. M. Intermediate Dept. Army Base. Boston, Massachusetts. Bouis, Fort. Same as Fort Defiance (1845). South Dakota. Bouis, Post. North Dakota. Bowie, Camp. Military Post located near Tucson. Supplies were shipped in from Fort Yuma. Tucson was the headquarters of the Military District. Arizona. Bowie, Camp. Fort Worth. Cochise County (mail Bowie) and Pima County (mail Dos Cabezos). Apache Pass. Texas. Bowyer, Fort. Site of present Fort Morgan, Mobile Point. This post was built by General Wilkinson in April, 1813. It was garrisoned by General Jackson with 160 men under Major William Lawrence and unsuccessfully attacked by the British on September 14, 1814. It was again attacked by the British on February 8, 1815, and surrendered to them on February 11, 1815. Later Fort Morgan, Mobile Bay. Alabama. Boyd, Camp. On Fort Bliss Reservation. Fort Bliss, Texas. Boyle, Fort. Muldraugh's Hill, northern boundary, between Marion and Green Counties; built during the Rebellion. Kentucky. Braden, Fort. Temporary post on the left bank of the Ocklockonee River, on the Tallahasse road eighteen miles southwest of that city. Florida. Brady, Fort. Fort Brady was located on the site of a former Indian Village named Bowating where some 2,000 Algonquin Indians lived. Bowating was later called Sault Ste. Marie. The French and Indians maintained a garrison here until about 1762. In 1820 General Louis Cass visited the fort and hauled the British flag down, putting up the flag of the United States. Colonel Hugh Brady occupied the post in 1822 and built a cantonment. The present site of the post was selected by General Philip H. Sheridan. Right bank of Sault Sainte Marie, at the "Falls." The post contains seventy-five acres. In 1914 an infantry detachment constituted the garrison. About one mile west of Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. Bragg, Fort. Two miles north of Noyar River and fifty miles south of the Mendocino. Named for General Braxton Bragg who succeeded Captain U. S. Grant at this post. On Mendocino Indian Reservation. Mendocino County, California. Bragg, Fort. Ten miles northwest of Fayettsville. Artillery camp. North Carolina.


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Branch, Camp. Cummings, Humpton County, South Carolina. Branch, Fort. Gibson County, Indiana. Branch, Fort. Logan County, West Virginia. Brandon House (1794). Hudson Bay Company, Canada. Brank, Camp. Green Ridge, Pettis County, Missouri. Brasseau's Houses. Trading posts. Montana. Brasseaux, Fort (1822). South Dakota. Brazos River, Post on. At Phantom Hill, two hundred and fifty miles northwest of Austin. (See Fort Phantom Hill). Texas. Breckinridge, Fort. At the junction of the Aravaypa and San Pedro rivers. Formerly Fort Aravaypa (Arivaipa), now Fort Grant, New Mexico (old boundary) Graham County. Arizona. Bremerton Washington Naval Station. Reached by steamer from Seattle. Washington. Brewerton, Fort. Onondaga County. Present town of Brewerton. New York. Bridger, Fort. Valley of Black's Fork, one hundred miles east of Salt Lake City. Established summer of 1843 by James Bridger. Bridger founded the fort in Mexican territory. Bridge t s original fort occupied a space of about two acres. The site is known but the buildings obliterated (1923). Part of the cobblestone wall built by the Mormons was in existence in 1923. The cobblestone wall referred to above, a cattle corral, and other improvements were made by the Mormons in 1855. In 1857 the fort was burned by the Mormons on the approach of Johnston's Army. In November of the same year it was leased by the United States Government by Captain John H. Dickerson. Fort Supply was located on Smith's Fork twelve miles from Fort Bridger. Camp Scott was three miles below Fort Bridger on Black's Fork. In 1858 Fort Bridger was the headquarters station for a mail and passenger stage line. In 1860 it was made a pony express station. In March, 1861, it was also made a home station for the Overland Stage Line and the same year the pony express stables were turned over to the Overland Stage Line. In 1866 Wells Fargo & Company maintained headquarters at Fort Bridger. The Union Pacific, completed in 1869, absorbed the stage business. The post was garrisoned by troops from 1857 to 1878. From 1878 to 1880 the post was without a garrison. In 1883 the post was rehabilitated to care for an enlarged garrison. Troops were withdrawn in November, 1890. In 1923 many of the buildings used by the military were in a fair state of preservation. Officers' row, the parade grounds and the general layout were easily recognized. One of the post buildings was used as a hotel at that time. Judge Carter succeeded Bridger. aside


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from Mormon and military occupancy noted above. His heirs own the property at present (1928). Camp Scott was located near Fort Bridger. Fort Bridger was included in the early boundaries of Utah. Uinta County, Wyoming. Brook, Fort. Head of Tampa Bay, east of the mouth of Hillsboro River at Tampa, Florida. Tampa, Hillsborough County, Florida. Brooke, Fort Frank. Head of Dead Man's Bay, on right bank of the Esteinhatchee (Steinhatchee) River. LaFayette County, Florida. Brooklyn Navy Yard. New York. Brooks Field. Seven miles southeast of San Antonio, Texas. Brooks, Fort. Temporary work in Florida War, on the left bank of the Ocklawaha River, north of the mouth of Orange Lake Creek. Florida. Brooks, Fort. Orange Springs, Marion County, Florida. Bross, Fort. One of the Rebel defenses Petersburg, Virginia. Brown, Fort. See Plattsburg Barracks. New York. Brown, Fort. At the junction of the Auglaize and Little Auglaize Rivers, Paulding County, fifteen miles south of Fort Defiance, Ohio. Brown, Fort. Left bank of the Rio Grande, Brownsville, opposite Matamoras, Mexico. This fort was built by General Taylor during the Mexican War. Turned over to the Interior Department in 1911. Brownsville, Texas. Browne, Fort. Temporary work constructed in Florida War, ten miles due east of Pilatka, on St. John's River. Florida. Brown's Fort. Miles Goodyear obtained a grant of land from the Mexican Government in 1841.- Under this he claimed the tract of land beginning at Weber Canyon, following the base of the mountains north to the Hot Springs, thence west to Great Salt Lake along the shore to a point opposite Weber Canyon and thence back to the beginning. This land extended about eight miles north and south and from the base of the mountains east to the shores of Salt Lake on the west. Goodyear built a picket fort and a few log houses ori land now occupied by the Union Pacific Railroad Company in Ogden. Goodyear was living at the fort with a few mountaineers and half-breed Indians when Captain James Brown of the Mormon Battalion arrived. Captain Brown purchased all of his rights for the sum of $3,000.00. Captain Brown established a colony at Ogden in the Spring of 1848 and located in this section. The fort built by Goodyear and later occupied by the Mormons was renamed Brown's Fort. Farr's Fort, Bingham Fort, Mount Fort and Kingdon's Fort were in the same vicinity. Ogden, Utah. Browning, Fort (1869-70). Montana. Brule, Fort. Montana.


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T H E UTAH HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Buchanan, Fort. Near Calabasas Ranch, forty-five miles southeast of Tucson. Mail from Nogales. Arizona. Buckeye, Fort. Source of the" Esteinhatchee River; temporary work in the Florida War. (See Fort Barker). Florida. Buffalo Barracks. Erected at Buffalo during Canada Border disturbances. On the eastern extremity of Lake Erie. (See Fort Porter). New York. Buffalo, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C, south of the Potomac. Virginia. Buffalo Grove, Fort. Erected during the Black Hawk War. Illinois. Buford Camp. Junction of the Snake and Bruneau Rivers. Idaho. Buford, Fort (1866). Left bank of the Missouri River, five miles above the mouth of the Yellowstone River. Mail Williston. Williams County, North Dakota. Buford, Fort John. Near Lodge Pole Creek Route, two miles east of Big Laramie. (Lodge Pole Creek is in Perkins County. Big Laramie not on maps consulted. Apparently in Standing Rock Indian Reservation). South Dakota. Bullis Camp. Beckman, Texas. Bunker Hill, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D, C, north of the Potomac. District of Columbia. Burgwin Cantonment. Near the source of the Rio Grande, nine miles north of Taos. New Mexico. Burke, Camp. Angelica, New York. Butler, Camp. Established during the Civil War. Illinois. Butler, Fort. Left bank of St. John's River, opposite Volusia; temporary post established in the Florida War. Florida. Butler, Fort. Donaldsonville, right bank of the Mississippi, east side of the mouth of Bayou Lafourche. (Built during the Rebellion.) Louisiana. Butler, Fort. San Miguel County, Tucumcari, New Mexico. Byington, Fort. One of the defenses of Knoxville, west of the city and north of the Holston River. Tennessee. Caban, Fort. Stood at mouth of Panca Creek ("Ponca" Creek flows into the Missouri River at a point about 5 miles east of Verde in the northwestern part of Knox County). Nebraska. Cadotts' House (1798). Northwest Company. Minnesota. Cady, Camp. Fort Mojave road, one hundred and fifty miles west of Wilmington. California. Cahokia, Fort. Across river from junction of Mississippi and Missouri Rivers; in Madison County. Illinois. Calgary, Fort. Canada. Calhoun, Fort. Right bank of the Missouri River, seventeen miles above Omaha City. Formerly Fort Atkinson. Site of


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old "Council Bluffs" of Lewis and Clark. Present town of Fort Calhoun on same site. Washington County. Nebraska. Calhoun, Fort. Rip-Raps, Hampton Roads, mouth of James River (now Fort Wool). Virginia. Call Field. Wichita Falls, Texas. Call Fort. Temporary fort on the right bank of Santa Fe River, eight miles due north from Newmansville. Florida. Call's Fort. Near Bear River City. Built by Anson Call, a Mormon Pioneer. Station on Utah and Idaho Northern Railroad. Box Elder County, Utah. Cameron Battery. One of the defenses of Washington, north of the Potomac. District of Columbia. Cameron, Camp. Military post located near Tucson. Supplies were shipped in from Fort Yuma. Tucson was the headquarters of the Military District of this section. Arizona. Camerrr. Camp. Foot of Santa Rita Mountains, fifteen miles northwest of Tubac. Arizona. Cameron, Fort. On January 12, 1872, C. M. Hawley, Associate Justice of the Second Territorial Judicial District of Utah, addressed a letter to General Ord, commanding the military der - + r . p t , t of tVie Platte, r^op-imending the establishment of a military post in southern Utah. General Ord transmitted this litter wiih his recommendations to Secretary of War Belknap. Act ng on these suggestions a battalion consisting of companies E, G, I, and D, 14th United States Infantry, under command of Colonel Wilkins, established a temporary camp in May, 1872. ^he S O H ' T S were at first quartered in tents along the Beaver River. The barracks were built in 1873. The site of Post Cameron was selected by General Ord and was first called the "Post of Beaver." On July 1, 1874, by order of General Sheridan, the name Was changed to Fort Cameron in honor of Colonel James Cameron, an officer from New York who was killed during the Civil War on July 21, 1861„ General Sheridan visited Fort Cameron in 1882. After this visit General Sheridan recommended that the War Department sell the buildings, in which about $200,000 had been invested, to the highest bidder at auction and this was • done. Tohn R. Murdock and his associates purchased Fort Cameron on April 30th, 1883, for $4,800. The first purchase did not include the land but Mr. Murdock later obtained title to the land also. A branch of Brigham Young Academy was established at Fort Cameron. It ran under the name of Beaver Branch until 1911 when the name was changed to Murdock Academy in honor of Mr. Murdock. Murdock Academy used part o£ the old buildings and erected! some new ones. Murdock Academy was abandoned in May, 1925. Two miles northeast of Beaver, Beaver County, Utah. Camp Augur. (See Fort Washakie). Wyoming.


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T H E U T A H HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Camp Biddle. (See Carlisle Barracks). Pennsylvania. Camp Bowie. (See Bowie, Camp). Arizona. Camp Chehalis. (See Chehalis, Fort). Washington. . Camp Coldwater. (See Fort Snelling). Minnesota. Camp Floyd. Established in 1858 by General Albert Sidney Johnston. Forty-four miles southwest of Salt Lake City. Later called Fort Crittenden. Fairfield, Utah County, Utah. Camp Ord. (See Apache, Fort). Arizona. Campbell, Fort. (See Benton, Fort). Montana. Campo. Post of Southern California Border District. California. Canby, Fort. Temporary fort established in Navajo Country. Rehoboth, McKinley County, New Mexico. Canby, Fort. Military Post. (1864). Subpost of Fort Stevens, ten miles from Fort Stevens, mouth of Columbia River. Originally called Fort Cape Disappointment—name changed to Canby in honor of officer killed in Modoc war. Troops withdrawn in 1905-06 while rebuilding. Coast Artillery post in 1914. Illwaco, Pacific County, Washington. Cape Disappointment, Fort. Mouth of Columbia River. (See Fort Canby). Washington. Cape May (Aviation). Cape May, -New Jersey. Capron, Fort. Right bank of Indian River opposite Indian River Inlet. Florida. Caribou, Camp. Wilson Mills, Maine. Carillon, Fort. An old French fort at Ticonderoga. In 1759 an English force under General Amherst advanced from Ticonderoga toward Fort Carillon. The French, afraid to make a stand, destroyed the fort and retreated down the lake to Fort Frederic, on Crown Point. New York. Carlin, Camp. Cheyenne, Laramie County, Wyoming. Carlisle Barracks. Near Carlisle (Cavalry School for Practice). This post is one of the oldest in the country, having been founded on its present site early in the Revolutionary War. The principal early buildings were built in 1777 by Hessian prisoners. Camp Biddle was maintained at Carlisle during part of the Civil War. This place was raided on July 1, 1863, by Brigadier General Fitzhugh Lee and Major General J. E. B. Stuart. Pennsylvania. Carlstrom Field. Seven miles southeast of Arcadia, Florida. Carlstrom Field. Florida. Carney, Fort. On east bank of Tombigbee River in southern section of Clarke county. Alabama. Caroline, Fort. In 1564 French Huguenots, under Rene de Laudonniere, landed at or near the site of St. Augustine, Florida, and erected Fort Caroline. On September 8th, 1565 Menendez landed at the same place and built Fort San Augustin and then destroyed Fort Caroline and massacred its inhabitants. St. Augustine, Florida,


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Carroll, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, southeast from Giesboro' Point. District of Columbia. Carroll, Fort. Right bank of the northeast branch of Pease Creek; temporary fort established in the Florida War. Florida. Carroll, Fort. On the Patapsco River, eight miles below Baltimore, Maryland. Carruthers Field. Fort Worth, Texas. Cascades, Fort. Military Post. Right bank of Columbia River, below the rapids. Washington. Casey, Fort. Temporary fort at Charlotte Harbor. Florida. Casey, Fort. Five miles from Port Townsend and fifty-three miles from Seattle. In 1914 the garrison consisted qf three companies of coast artillery. It is one of our important coast defenses. Washington. Casimir, Fort. An old Dutch fort built by Peter Stuyvesant in 1651 on the Delaware River on the site of the present New Castle, New Castle County. New Castle was the landing place of William Penn in 1682. Delaware. Caspar, Fort. Platte Bridge, left bank of North Fork of Platte River. Casper, Wyoming. Cass, Fort (1832-35). (Same as Tollock's Fort). This trading post was located three miles below the Big Horn on the Yellowstone River. This post was at one time under Samuel Tollock formerly with the Rocky Mountain Company. Fort Cass belonged to the Rocky Mountain Fur Company. Montana. Cass, Fort. Temporary fort established in Creek War. Tennessee. Cass, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C , south of the Potomac. Virginia. Cassville, Fort. Founded in Black Hawk War. N e a r s i t e of present town of Cassville on east bank of the Mississippi River. Wisconsin. Castine Battery. East side of Penobscot Bay, entrance to Castine Harbor and Penobscot River, nine miles from Belfast on the opposite bank. Maine. Castle Garden. New York. Castle Pickney. On Island at mouth of Cooper River. South Carolina. Castle William (See Fort Independence). New York. Caswell, Fort. East end of Oak Island, mouth of Cape Feat River. North Carolina. Caswell, Fort. Thirty-five miles from Southport by rail and twenty-seven miles from Wilmington. North Carolina. Cedar, Fort. Same as Fort Recovery (1822-23). South Dakota.


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T H E UTAH HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Cedar, Fort. West of Lehi on one of the roads across Cedar Valley to Fairfield. Built as protection against the Indians. Latter-day Saints' Meeting House stands in old enclosure. Utah County, Utah. Center, Fort. Temporary fort on the left bank of the Thiathlopopkahatchie, three miles from its mouth on the Okeechobee Lake. Florida. Chadbourne, Fort. Near left bank of Oak Creek about seventeen miles above its junction with the Colorado. Coke County. Texas. Chambly, Fort. About thirty miles east of Montreal. British Post in Revolutionary War. Canada. Champlain Arsenal. Vegennes, Addison County, Vermont. Chandler Field. Essington, Pennsylvania. Chanute Field. One mile southeast of Rantoul, Illinois. Chaplin, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, southeast from Benning's Bridge. District of Columbia. Chapultepec. (Fortified hill and castle). A small hill, three miles southwest of the city of Mexico, rising about 150 feet above the surrounding plain. In the war between Mexico and the United States the hill was strongly fortified by the Mexicans and was the scene of the last serious conflict of the war on September 12-13, 1847. Mexico. Chardon, Fort (1843-44). Montana. Charles, Fort. Montana. Charles, Old Fort. This post was located on Parris Island, South Carolina and was built in 1562 by Jean Ribault. It was situated on Means Creek which opens into the mouth of what is known as Beaufort River, just west by south of Marsh Island, The Fort was restored through Congressional assistance. A bill was passed in June, 1924, authorizing approximately $10,000 to be used in this connection. "Old Fort Charles was situated on a small island in Archer's Creek, a few miles from the present town of Beaufort, South Carolina."—Library of American History, edited by Edward S. Ellis. South Carolina. Charleston Arsenal. Charleston, South Carolina. Charleston Ordinance Reserve Depot. One mile east of North Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina. Charleston Port Terminal. Charleston, South Carolina. Charlotte, Fort. Also called Fort Conde. Mobile, Alabama Charlotte, Fort. (Old and effaced). Mobile, Alabama. Charlotte, Fort. Canada. Chartres, Fort. Mouth of Kaskaskia. Short distance south of Fort Cahokia. Prairie du Rocher, Randolph County, Illinois. Chase, Camp. Near Columbus; established during the Rebellion. Franklin County, Ohio. (To be Continued)


UTAH

HISTORICAL QUARTERLY J. CECIL ALTER

Editor Vols. 1-6 incl. 1928-1933 By many authors

Utah State Historical SocietySalt Lake City 1934.


Utah State Historical Society B O A R D OF CONTROL (Terms Expiring April 1, 1929) J. CECIL ALTER, Salt Lake City D. W. PARRATT, Salt Lake City ALBERT F. P H I L I P S , Salt Lake City

JOEL E. RICKS, Logan PARLEY L. W I L L I A M S , Salt Lake City

I'lerms Expiring April 1, 1931) GEORGE E. FELLOWS, Salt Lake City W I L L I A M J. SNOW, Provo HUGH RYAN, Salt Lake City LEVI E. YOUNG, Salt Lake City FRANK K. SEEGMILLER, Salt Lake City E X E C U T I V E O F F I C E R S 1927-192S ALBERT F. P H I L I P S , President J. CECIL ALTER, Secretary-Treasurer Librarian and Curator Editor in Chief WILLIAM J. SNOW, Vice President All Members, Board of Control, Associate Editors

MEMBERSHIP Paid memberships at the required fee of $2 a year, will include current subscriptions to the Utah Historical Quarterly. Non-members and institutions may receive the Quarterly at $1 a year or 35 cents per copy; but it is preferred that residents of the State become active members, and thus participate in the deliberations and achievements of the Society. Checks should be made payable to the Utah State Historical Society and mailed to the Secretary-Treasurer, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah.

CONTRIBUTIONS The Society was organized essentially to collect, disseminate and preserve important material pertaining to the history of the State. To effect this end, contributions of writings are solicited, such as old diaries, journals, letters and other writings of the pioneers; also original manuscripts by present day writers on any phase of early Utah history. Treasured papers or manuscripts may be printed in faithful detail in the Quarterly, without harm to them, and without permanently removing them from their possessors. Contributions and correspondence should be addressed to the Editor, Utah Historical Quarterly, 131 State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah.


CHARTER

MEMBERS

U T A H HISTORICAL SOCIETY December 28, 1897 CHARLES ADAMS, Farowan CALEB R. B A R R A T T , Salt Lake City ROBERT N. BASKIN, Salt Lake City C H A R L E S W. B E N N E T T , Salt Lake City A L E X A N D E R C. B I S H O P , Salt Lake City N A T . M. B R I G H A M , Salt Lake City ISABEL CAMERON-BROWN Salt Lake City E L E C T A BULLOCK, Provo J O H N T. C A I N E , Salt Lake City A N G U S M. C A N N O N , Salt Lake City J O H N Q. C A N N O N , Salt Lake City SPENCER CLAWSON, Salt Lake City E D W A R D F. COLBORN, Salt Lake City GEORGE Q. CORAY, Salt Lake City BENJ. F. C U M M I N G S , JR., Salt Lake City CHRISTOPHER DIEHL, Salt Lake City J O H N E. DOOLY, Salt Lake City WILLARD DONE, Salt Lake City

E L L E N B. F E R G U S O N , Salt Lake City J A M E S X. F E R G U S O N , Helper C H A R L E S C. G O O D W I N , Salt Lake City J O S E P H GEOGHEGAN, Salt Lake City H E B E R J. G R A N T , Salt Lake City J A M E S T. H A M M O N D , Salt Lake City H A R R Y C. H I L L , Salt Lake City F I D E L I A M. B. H A M I L T O N , Salt Lake City L E W I S S. H I L L S , Salt Lake City JOHN HORTON, American Fork WILLIAM HOWARD, Huntington H A D L E Y D. J O H N S O N , Salt Lake City ANDREW JENSON, Salt Lake City J O S E P H T. K I N G S B U R Y , Salt Lake City A N T O I N E T T E B. K I N N E Y , Salt Lake City C L E S S O N S. K I N N E Y , Salt Lake City K U R I T H E K. L a B A R T H E , Salt Lake City H E N R Y W. L A W R E N C E , Salt Lake City


CHARTER MEMBERS U T A H H I S T O R I C A L SOCIETY December 28, 1897 WILLIAM A. LEE, Ogden JERROLD R. LETCHER, Salt Lake City ROBERT C. LUND, St. George JOHN T. LYNCH, Salt Lake City THOMAS MARSHALL, Salt Lake City JACOB F. MILLER, Farmington ELIAS MORRIS, Salt Lake City WILLIAM S. McCORNICK, Salt Lake City HARRY F. McCUNE, Nephi EMMA J. McVICKER, Salt Lake City AQUILLA NEBEKER, Laketown JOHN PARRY, Cedar City ORLANDO W. POWERS, Salt Lake City CHARLES W. PENROSE, Salt Lake City ARTHUR PRATT, Salt Lake City FRANKLIN D. RICHARDS, Ogden FRANKLIN S. RICHARDS, Salt Lake City MORRIS L. RITCHIE, Salt Lake City CHARLES R. SAVAGE, Salt Lake City

LEWIS R. SHURTLIFF, Ogden ELIAS A. SMITH, Salt Lake City GRANT H. SMITH, Salt Lake City JOHN HENRY SMITH, Salt Lake City JOSEPH D. SMITH, Logan ABRAHAM O. SMOOT, Provo GEORGE W. THATCHER, Logan MATH. THOMAS, Farmington EMMELINE B. WELLS, Salt Lake City BARRY WRIDE, Provo HEBER M. WELLS, Salt Lake City HORACE G .WHITNEY, Salt Lake City ORSON F. WHITNEY, Salt Lake City EVERETT W. WILSON, Salt Lake City PARLEY L. WILLIAMS, Salt Lake City JOHN R. WINDER, Salt Lake City ALFALES YOUNG, Salt Lake City RICHARD W. YOUNG, Salt Lake City CHARLES S. ZANE, Salt Lake City


WASHAKIE, SHOSHONE CHIEF


Utah Historical Quarterly State Capitol, Salt Lake City Volume I

O C T O B E R , 1928

Number 4

PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS OF WASH-A-KIE, CHIEF OF T H E SHOSHONES B y P. L. W i l l i a m s * P r e f a t o r y to n o t i n g t h e s e " r e c o l l e c t i o n s " it will not be amiss to give s o m e a c c o u n t of t h e S h o s h o n e T r i b e of I n d i a n s , their location, and r e l a t i o n s t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t . T h e y had, p r e v i o u s t o a T r e a t y w i t h t h e m entered into in 1868, been o c c u p y i n g t h e region in n o r t h w e s t e r n W y o m i n g generally d e s i g n a t e d as t h e " W i n d R i v e r C o u n t r y , " and adjacent territory. T h i s region prior to t h e A c t of C o n g r e s s o r g a n i z i n g the T e r r i t o r y of W y o m i n g , w a s , for some t i m e included in D a k o t a T e r r i t o r y . O n t h e 3rd day of J u l y , 1868 a T r e a t y w a s concluded b e t w e e n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e S h o s h o n e s ( E a s t ern b a n d ) and B a n n o c k T r i b e s of I n d i a n s at a conference held at Fort Bridger, U t a h . A t this conference t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the G o v e r n m e n t w e r e h e a d e d b y General S h e r m a n and included some other M i l i t a r y officers and p r o m i n e n t civilians; while t h e Indians w e r e r e p r e s e n t e d by W a s h - A - K i e , the head Chief of the S h o s h o n e s , a n d several Sub-Chiefs a n d head m e n of t h e Tribes, p a r t i e s , to said T r e a t y . T h i s T r e a t y w a s s u b s e q u e n t l y ratified by t h e S e n a t e , and thereafter, on t h e 21st of F e b r u a r y , 1869, w a s proclaimed by *Mr. Williams, a retired lawyer residing in Salt Lake City, was a charter member of this Society, a|nd is now a member of the Board of Cojitrol. Born in 1842, and coming West, to Wyoming, in 1868, he is a pioneer himself. He was admitted to the bar in Wyoming in 1868, and became District Attorney at South Pass City. He came to Salt Lake City in 1871, where he has since resided. Mr. Williams organized the Salt Lake City street railway company in 1872; and became Salt Lake City superintendent of District schools in 1886; and was a member of the Utah legislature in 1893-4. In 1887 when the United States government escheated the property of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Mr. Williams was appointed attorney for the receiver, continuing in that capacity until the property was returned to the Church. He also successfully defended Robert T. Burton, who as sheriff at the head of a posse, was charged with murder, growing out of the so-called Morrisite War in 1862. Mr. Williams was for a great many years, and until his retirement from the law practice, the general attorney for the Union Pacific System, (Oregon Short Line) with headquarters in this city.


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President Johnson. The proclamation sets out at length the Treaty, and is printed in Volume 15, U. S. Statutes at large, beginning at page 673. The signatures of the Government negotiators are first appended, followed by the names and cross marks of the Indian representatives, the first being "Wash-AKie his X Mark." Amongst the others signing is "Nar-Kok his X Mark." The language of the Treaty seems to indicate there had been no earlier treaty entered into between the Government and these Tribes. Among other provisions it set aside and established a reservation for the Shoshones, which included in a general way the Wind River Country before mentioned. Its boundaries are not very definitely fixed, referring mainly to water sheds and streams. For a considerable distance its western boundary is the summit of the Wind River Mountains. The southern end reaches to within about twenty-five miles northerly of the "South Pass" of the Rocky Mountains, and extended northerly up—approximately two hundred miles. The Treaty provided that the Indians should make their permanent home within the reservation, and that whites should be excluded therefrom, excepting the Indian Agent to be appointed, his necessary assistants and such other officers and employees of the Government as were considered necessary or desirable in aiding the Indians to adjust themselves to the new conditions. Among such were named a physician, a school teacher, a farmer, a carpenter, a blacksmith, a surveyor and a miller. Provision was made for building, by the Government, a lumber and grist mill, residence and office for the agent, a schoolhouse and residences for the several employees above named. There was also provision made for building an additional school house and supplying an additional teacher, whenever thirty additional children between the ages of six and sixteen years could be persuaded to attend school. The Treaty clearly contemplated an effort on the part of the Government to educate and civilize the Indians, and this purpose was welcomed and looked upon with favor by Wash-AKie. One further provision contained in the Treaty was to the effect that if acceptable to the Indians, other groups or tribes might be moved on to the reservation and occupy it jointly with the Shoshones. This provision resulted unfortunately, as will later appear. In 1868, and only a few days after the Treaty was concluded at Fort Bridger, Congress passed the Act organizing the Territory of Wyoming. It was made up in most part of portions of Dakota and Nebraska Territories, but included also some territory carved out of Montana, Idaho and Utah. The


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notch now existing in the northeast corner of our state was the territory taken from Utah, and which includes Fort Bridger. No officers were appointed for the new Territory until early in the Spring of 1869, and after the inauguration of President Grant. All of these officers were from the eastern and middlewest states. They soon appeared and entered upon the duties of their respective offices, and thus started the Territorial Government to function. At this time I was located at South Pass City, a new Mining Camp or town. It is situated about twelve miles north of the famous Mountain "South Pass." At the first session of the Territorial Legislature, held late in the year 1869, counties were established and county seats fixed. South Pass City was made the County Seat of Sweetwater County. My personal acquaintance with Wash-A-Kie began in 1869 and continued with considerable intimacy until I removed from the Territory at the end of 1871. Wash-A-Kie exhibited not only great interest in this recent organization of the Territory as a whole, but also in its division into counties, and the various local officers thereof, and the functions to be performed by each. He made, inquiries of the Sheriff for information on these subjects, and he brought WashA-Kie and the Sub-Chief Nar-Kok to my office to obtain as full an explanation as I was able to give. I was at this time Prosecuting Attorney of Sweetwater County. Wash-A-Kie could neither speak nor understand English, and in his association with white men he was invariably accompanied by Nar-Kok as his interpreter. He was a very intelligent young man who spoke and understood English very well, and was a very efficient interpreter. Wash-A-Kie was at this time about sixty years of age. He was a broad shouldered, deep chested, muscular man, and had been in his young manhood, no doubt, possessed of great physical strength and endurance. Stories of remarkable feats of this nature were a tradition among his tribesmen as I learned from Nar-Kok. His hair was slightly sprinkled with gray. His face was free from wrinkles, his expression was kindly, though always serious and thoughtful. On this first interview with him I was amazed at the far reaching and comprehensive questions he asked. _ Some of them were difficult for me, from my limited storehouse of knowledge, to answer satisfactorily to myself, and I imagined were not fully satisfactory to him. These questions indicated he had done some very intelligent thinking on these subjects. He left no phase of our local Territorial or County Governments untouched. He desired to be informed as to each officer and the duties each was charged with. He expressed the opinion that some of these rules of public administration might be followed in the Government of his tribe. In


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subsequent meetings with him the conversation was frequently turned, by him, to these and kindred questions. He was, as I estimated him, a man of unusual natural ability, a man of vision, and forward looking. He indicated that it was his thought, that the time had arrived when his people must give up some of the past habits and customs and gradually substitute those of the whites. At one of our visits together he expressed the hope and desire that his young men would settle down and engage in raising cattle and other domestic animals. He seemed to have realized that in the development and progress of the human race from barbarism to the higher civilization, that the pastoral life naturally precedes agricultural pursuits. Nar-Kok informed me that Wash-A-Kie was both an advocate and an example of temperance and that he was greatly disturbed by the fact that the "bootleggers" of that time were smuggling whisky into the reservation and debauching his young men. Prior to the adoption of the Treaty, as well as afterwards, it was the custom of the tribe to spend most of the year in the Wind River region, but about the 1st of June, the whole tribe, men, women and children, with all their belongings, ponies, tents, camp equipment, etc., would start on a trip to the Uintah Mountains in northeastern Utah, where they remained during the summer, returning about the latter part of September. There was at that time a great abundance of game and fish in these mountains, and so was an attractive place for the summer location of these Indians. The journey to and from this hunting and fishing ground was made by way of South Pass City, over the "South Pass" of the mountain divide, across the broad valley of the Green River and by Fort Bridger. Thus the) r passed South Pass City twice each year, and on these trips invariably camped in the edge of the town one or two days, during which time they mingled with, in a friendly way, the town people, who in turn visited the Indians at their camp. I, and a friend who occupied the same office, extended to Wash-A-Kie and Nar-Kok an invitation to visit and dine with us on every occasion they passed our town. This they invariably did, were always glad to see us, and especially enjoyed the white man's food. We thus had a good deal of conversation, through Nar-Kok, and became quite well acquainted. These expeditions might, appear to be in violation of the stipulation that they should make their permanent home within the reservation, but Wash-A-Kie and his people were well within their treaty rights, as it contained a clause permitting them to hunt and fish upon any of the unoccupied lands of the Government. Under the provision of the treaty permitting other groups or tribes of Indians to occupy jointly with the Shoshones the


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reservation established for them in 1870, as I recall it, a band of Sibux Indians were removed from their previous location in eastern Wyoming and western Nebraska and placed within the Shoshone reservation. This band of Indians were called the Ogallalah Sioux. They had been used to roaming over vast areas and were warlike in their habits. It was understood among the whites that they did not like this^change of location, but that some pressure had been applied by the Government to bring it about. However this may have been, they were received kindly by Wash-A-Kie, who was not only friendly with the whites but maintained the reputation of cultivating peaceful and friendly relations with neighboring tribes. But the Ogallalahs were in a very different frame of mind. They were mad from the time of their arrival, and soon began to divide up into small roving bands, attacking and killing mining prospectors, cattlemen and others located near the reservation. This condition became worse as time went on, resulting in the Spring of 1871 of the Sioux making war on the Shoshones, which was repelled with courage and vigor. Finally, about the middle of May, 1871, the warriors of the two tribes met in fierce combat, resulting in a decisive victory for the Shoshones who were led by Nar-Kok, who was generally called the W a r Chief. The victors killed and scalped a number of the Sioux and drove them off the reservation. Soon after this battle the Shoshones started for their summer camping and hunting grounds. On this trip they stopped at South Pass City two days and nights, and each night celebrated by their war dance their recent victory. In these dances were displayed as war trophies the scalps of the Sioux they had killed. These scalps were carried by young squaws on long willow rods. Nar-Kok told us these scalps were presented by the lovers of the young girls and that such heroism would assure their success in the courtship they were carrying on. We were invited by Nar-Kok to Wash-A-Kie's tee-pee while one of these war dances was going on. He invited us to be seated on blankets on the ground in the door of his tent where we could all see the dancers. He was not inclined to talk on this occasion, but smoked his pipe, looked at the dancers with composure, although it seemed to me that he felt regret that they had been forced into war. While this was Wash-A-Kie's manner, the tribe generally were in high spirits over their late achievement. Nar-Kok told us they would keep up the war dance every night for two moons. From all my observation of Wash-A-Kie I came to the conclusion that he was, indeed, an example of "Nature's noblemen." I may close with recounting an incident that occurred soon


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after I left Wyoming and was related to me by the Indian Agent Dr. Irwin. He was very enthusiastic in his encouragement of the Indians to become settled and establish family homes. WashA-Kie was in sympathy with this policy, and at the suggestion of the Agent consented to have a dwelling house built for him, and he would occupy it as an example to his tribe. He selected as the site for his house, a spot near some hot sulphur spring, several miles from the Agency. He chose this place so that he could bathe in the waters for the benefit of his health, and especially for relief from rheumatism, from which he suffered at times. A three-room cottage was built, and when he moved into it, at his invitation, the Agent and a few other Government employees visited him and they had a genuine house-warming party. On their departure Wash-A-Kie invited them to return and visit him in two or three weeks and see how he was getting along in his new home. They accordingly made the visit at the end of three weeks, and found Wash-A-Kie living and sleeping in his tent standing nearby. He explained he could not sleep in the house, that after spending two or three sleepless nights in it he was forced to go back to his tee-pee to get needed rest and sleep. He, however, thought the house should be used for some purpose. He was a crude Utilitarian Philosopher, and having TIO other use for the house, he had stalled his favorite ponies in it.

FATHER ESCALANTE AND THE UTAH INDIANS (Continuing: "Some Useful Early Utah Indian References.") By J. Cecil Alter Continued from "Diary and Travels of Fray Francisco Atanasio Dominguez and Fray Silvestre Velez De Escalante, to discover a route from the Presidio of Santa Fe, New Mexico, to Monterey in Southern California," in "The Catholic Church in Utah," by Dr. W. R. Harris. "14th day of September. We did not travel today. * * * (On Green River, near Jensen, Utah.) "It also happened this morning that the Laguna Joaquin, from mischief, mounted a very vicious horse, which fell, throwing the fellow some distance. We were much frightened, thinking that the fall had injuried the Laguna, who, recovering from his fright, began to shed tears and cry aloud; but God permitted that the horse receive all the wounds, injuring his neck, and so being useless."


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"16th day of September. * * As soon as we ascended we found tracks one or two days old as if made by twelve horses and men on foot. Examining the tracks closely they seemed to show that for some time the men had been hiding in the highest part of the mountain. We suspected that they were some Sabuaganas who had followed us, thinking to steal our animals in this stopping place, performing an act very similar to what we had attributed to the Comanches, or rather, to the Yutas. More than that, the guide, Silvestre, gave us additional foundation for our suspicions for the night before he separated himself a short distance from the camp to sleep, as if by accident. During our whole march he had not used the blanket that we had given him, and today he left the camp with it on, not removing it all day, and we suspected that he put it on so as to be recognized by the Sabuaganas in case he should leave us. Our suspicions were further aroused by his pausing for a time, as if thinking and acting confused, when we reached the hill where we had found the tracks, wishing to proceed by the river, and now by this road. He gave us no open reason whatever for our suspicions, entirely concealing his real intentions, and in the progress of our travels he gave us ample proofs of his innocence." * * "As soon as we stopped, two of our companions went over the tracks to the southwest, to explore the immediate country, and they concluded that the tracks were made by the Comanches." "17th day of September. W e left the plain of Las Llagas de N. P. San Francisco, going southwest, ascending some low hills, a league farther on, we left the road we were going, which followed the tracks of the men and horses. Silvestre told us they were Comanches that were pursuing the Yutas, who probably had been out hunting buffalos. He convinced us of this as much by the direction in which they went as by the other signs that they left." * * * (p. 168) " W e descended to a large plain bordering another river and went a league and a half to the west, reaching the junction of the two rivers that flow from the mountain which is near here, and to the north of the river of San Buenaventura and flow together to the'east, until they join with the river of San Buenaventura. The more eastern river before its junction flows to the southeast, and we named it the San Damian (Uinta) ; the other flows east, and we named it the San Cosine (Duchesne). We went by this latter one, and traveled a league to the west, finding near the river the ruins of an ancient village, in which were remnants of straw mats, jugs and pitchers made of clay; the form of the village was round, as shown by the ruins, and almost entirely surrounded by an enbankment." * *


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"Shortly after having stopped, at the foot of the mountain, we saw smoke, and asking the guide whom he thought had caused it, he replied that probably some Comanches, or some of the Lagunas, who had camped here while hunting." "18th day of September." "We left the Ribera de San Cosme, and the guide, wishing to cross to the other side of the river, and go along it, led us through a forest or bramble of cistus almost impenetrable, and into a large marshy place till at last we were compelled to return, and cross the river three times, causing us many useless turns; then over a nearby hill and its plain we went three leagues to the southwest; going down to the west-southwest a league, we crossed the river the fifth time and now proceeded over the plain, where we traveled three leagues and a quarter, ascending a high table-land, at the top very stony, and traveled three-quarters of a league, including the going up and coming down; crossing another small river that flows by here and enters into the San Cosme, we named it the Santa Catarina de Sena, and camped on its bank. To-day, nine leagues. From the village of the Sabuaganas and the camp of San Antonia Martir to this point we counted eighty-eight leagues, and from Santa Fe two hundred and eighty-seven. (The old Spanish league is equal to 2.63 miles) (p. 171) After passing Currant Creek: "21st day of September. Going from the spring of Saint Lucy. * * Through a forest of poplars a quarter of a league farther, we turned to the west a league and three-quarters, over rough timber lands, through mountain passes of soft earth with many charcoal pits, or small holes hidden among a rank growth of weeds, in which every moment the animals sank and fell; then we descended by a small river filled with fine trout, of which the Laguna Joaquin with an arrow killed and caught two, each one of which weighed more than two pounds. This river runs to the southeast, through a pleasant valley of good pasturage, many springs, and beautiful forests of white poplar, not high nor large. It is a good location for a village with all that is needed. We named it the Valle de la Purisima (the Valley of the Most Pure.) The guide Silvestre told us that for some time a large settlement of Lagunas had lived here, who had subsisted mostly on the fish from the river, and that they had left through fear of the Comanches, who began coming into this part of the Sierras." * * "The guide, wishing to travel faster than we were able, went so fast that at every step he was hidden from us in the forest: we could not follow him, because aside from the density of the forest, there was no path, and we could not find his trail. We continued through the forest, and the farther we


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went the more dense it became, until after going half a league to the west, we came out of it upon a small high hill, from which the guide showed us the side on which was the lake; and to the southeast of this another part of the Sierra in which he lived, he told us, and also a great many people speaking the same language and of the same great tribe as the Lagunas." * * * (p. 173.) "22d day of September. From the top of the last peak we could see pillars of smoke rising, not very far away and in front of us. The guide said that they were some of his people who were there hunting. We attempted to get into communication with them, to let them know that we were not enemies, so that they might not try to get away from us or receive us with arrows; they continued to raise more smoke in the opening through which we would have to enter to get to the lake, and in this made us believe that they had already seen us; for the smoke is the first and most common sign which in case of surprise, all the people in this part of America use. We told Silvestre that during the night he must be very careful, for if any of them should know of our arrival, they might come near to see what kind of people we were; and about two o'clock in the morning, the hour in which, according to his idea, some of them might come near, he talked a long time in a loud voice, in his own language, giving them to understand that we were quiet people and good friends. We do not know if any one heard him or not." "23d day of September. Now that we had arrived at (the vicinity of) the lake (Utah), (above Castilla Springs Resort), in order that Silvestre and Joaquin might enter their country feeling affection for us, we gave to each of them a yard of woolen cloth and another of red ribbon, and they immediately put them on. Silvestre cast around his body the blanket we had formerly given him, and then arranged in a turban around his head the woolen cloth, leaving the two ends hanging down his shoulders. When he mounted his horse he reminded us of the redeemed captives which the Redemptorist Fathers carry in their procession on the feast day of Our Lady of Mercy." * * (p. 174.) "In this narrow part of the (Spanish.Fork) canon there are some places very difficult to pass, but they are easily repaired; we continued to the northwest half a league, crossing to the other side of the river; ascended a low hill and beheld the lake and extended valley of Nuestra Senora de' la Merced de los Timpanogotzis, as we called it; we also saw smoke arising from all parts, the news of our entrance having gone before us." * * (p. 175.) " W e found the grass of the plains (above Spanish Fork town) where we came, recently burned over and others


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already burning, from which we inferred that-these Indians had thought us to be Comanches, or other enemies; and as they had probably seen that we were bringing animals, it had been their intention to destroy the pasturage along our way, so that because of the lack of this we would be obliged to leave the valley sooner. But as it.is so large and broad, we could not do it in so short a time, even though they had put fires everywhere. For this reason our small part remaining in this location, as soon as we had halted, Father Francisco Atanasio, with the guide Silvestre, his companion Joaquin and the interpreter Muniz, left for the first of the settlements, and going as rapidly as possible, though the horses were so fatigued, in order to arrive this afternoon, they went six leagues and a half to the northnorthwest. They arrived, and were received by some of the men with their weapons ready to defend their families and homes. But as soon as Silvestre had spoken to them, they changed their warlike appearance to the most courteous and simple expressions of peace and affection. They took them very cheerfully to their simple huts, and after they had embraced them in a singular manner, and signified to them that they desired peace, and that they loved us as much as our best friends, the Father gave them opportunity, so that they could talk at length with our guide Silvestre, who gave them an account of what he had observed and seen, and spoke so much in our favor, of our design and work, that we could not have wished for anything better." "He told them at length of how well we had treated him, and how much he loved us, and among other things he told them with great satisfaction that the Lagunas had said that the Comanches would kill us, and would take from us our animals: and that we had gone through the country that they frequented most, and even crossed their recent tracks; that we had not changed our course, nor had we seen them; verifying what the Father had said; that God would free us from all our enemies; so that even though we passed through their country they would not harm us, nor we disturb them. He concluded by saying that the Fathers spoke only the truth, that everybody could travel in their company without danger, and that only the Spaniards were good people. He confirmed them more in this belief by their seeing that the boy Joaquin was so careful of us that, unmindful of his own people, he would not leave the Father except to care for the animals that we brought. He hardly cared to talk to his people, nor even to mingle with them, but only to remain near the Father, sleeping in any vacant place near his side. That was a matter that caused much surprise not only to his own people, but also to us, that one who was a mere child, and an Indian who had never before seen either priest or Spaniard, should act in this way."


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"After talking a long time about this, and many gathering from the near villages, and our giving them something to smoke, the Father gave them to understand, by means of the interpreter and Silvestre, that our motive in coming to- them was to bring them the light, the principal motive being to seek the salvation of their souls, and to show them the means by which they could obtain it. The first and most necessary being, to believe in the only true God, to love Him. and to obey Him entirely, doing all that His holy and immaculate law demanded; and that they would teach them clearly and fully all this, and that they would give to them the holy water of baptism, if they wished to become Christians; and that priests should come to teach them and Spaniards to live among them. And that they would teach them to plant and sow, and to raise herds of cattle, so that then they would be able to eat and to dress like the Spaniards,, to obey the law, and to live as God had commanded. The priests would teach them, and our Chief would send them everything necessary, for He is very great and rich and we call Him King; it they wished to be Christians He would take them for His sons and would care for them as His people." "He afterwards said to them, that it was necessary for us to continue our journey, to learn about the Father, our brother, and that we needed that another one of them should guide us to the other tribe that they were acquainted with, that the other guide might vouch for us. In all of this conversation Silvestre was a great help to us. They heard us with pleasure, and replied that to all we said they were attentive, thus manifesting their gentleness. They had among their number two chiefs, but . not the principal one that commanded this people, so the Father begged that they would call him, and they replied that his house was very distant, but that he would come tomorrow. They then retired to their wigwams, but some remained in conversation with Silvestre all night." "24th day of September. We sent word to the others of our company by Joaquin and the other Laguna, that they should come from Dulcisimo Nombre de Jesus to the village where Ave were, where the Indians of this and the other villages would gather; they arrived about midday. The big chief with the two others came very early, and many old men and the head men of the tribe. We conversed with them a long time about the things already referred to, and all unanimously replied that the Fathers should come and live with the Tatas (so the religious Yutas are called), to teach them. And they offered all their land so they could build their houses to suit themselves; adding that they could go over the land, and that there would always be spies where the Comanches entered the land, so that when they


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should come into the valley or into other parts of the Sierra, the Spaniards would be promptly notified, and they could go out all together to punish them." "Seeing such wonderful gentleness and willingness to receive our proposals, we told them that when our journey was finished we would return with more priests and more Spaniards to remember what they had said, so that afterwards they should not repent of it. They replied that they were firm in all they promised, begging us that we would not delay long in coming. We said to them that although we all believed what they said, we desired some token from them that they wished to become Christians, to show to our great Chief and to the rest of the Spaniards, because with such a token the Spaniards would believe more in their good desires, and it would encourage us to return more promptly. We did this in order to better test their good intentions; and they replied that they would give us a token very willingly tomorrow morning." "We then presented the Chief a knife and some glass beads, and Don Bernardo Miera gave him. a small hatchet; and for all the rest of the company we gave to each a few glass beads, for there were many of them, and they were all pleased and satisfied. We then reminded them of the promise of the guide, and that they promised that we could take Joaquin, who wished to go with u s ; they replied that they had talked about it,' and had decided that not only Joaquin but also a new guide, would go with us, if we wished, even to our own country, and could return with us when we should return; adding that none of them were very well acquainted with the country in the direction that they knew we had to take, but that with the two, Joaquin and the new guide, we could go, asking our way from the tribes along the route." "This expression of great sincerity, so clear and to the purpose, filled us with great joy, and completely assured us that without the least deceit, and with perfect spontaniety and free will, moved by divine grace, .they desired and would accept Christianity. We put before them the same that we had given to_ Silvestre, in order that they might decide who was to go with us as our guide, and at once one of those standing near took it, and now became our guide and companion, and we gave him the name of Jose Maria (Joseph Mary.) We now determined to proceed in our journey the following dav, for the settlement and port of Monterey." "They told us that there was a sick child whom they wished us to see and to baptize. We went, and found it to be a youth, and almost recovered from a long sickness, and entirely out of


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danger, so that we did not find it necessary to give it the water baptism. The mother afterwards brought it to where we were, and begged us to baptize it, and to comfort her we told her that we would soon return, and then would baptize all, both large and small. Finally we informed them that we had very little food, and if it pleased them to sell us some dried fish. They brought it, and we bought a good amount. All day and part of the night they were coming and talking with us, and they all seemed very simple, gentle, kind and affectionate. Our Silvestre was now looked upon with great respect, and gained some authority among them for having brought us and being so appreciated by us." "25th day of September. In the morning they returned to us bringing the token that we had asked of them and explained its meaning to us. The day before, when we had asked it of them, we told the interpreter that neither he nor the others should say anything to the Indians about this, so that we could see what they would do of themselves. Showing them the cross of the rosary, he gave 'them to understand that they should paint it as one of the figures. They took it away, and painted three figures on three crosses; then they brought the token to us, saying that the figure that had the most red color, or as they said, blood, represented the big chief, because in war with the Comanches he had received the most wounds; the other that had less blood, was inferior to the first one; and the one that had no blood was not a warrior, but was of authority among them. These three figures of men were rudely painted with earth and red-ochre, on a small piece of deer skin; we received them, saying that the big chief of the Spaniards would be pleased to see it, and.that when we should return we would bring it with us so that they might see how much we valued it, and that it might remind them of their promises, and all that we had done. We told them that if, while we were gone, they had sickness or trouble with their enemies, they should cry out to God saying: True God, help us, protect us; and as they could not articulate these words very well, they could simply say Jesus, Mary.! Jesus, Mary! They began to repeat this with facility, Silvestre fervently saying it first; and while we were preparing to depart, they did not cease to repeat these sacred names. They bade us all good-bye with great affection, and Silvestre especially embraced us, almost crying. They again charged us not to be long in returning, saying that they would expect us within the year."


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AMERICAN POSTS (Continued) By Edgar M. Ledyard Chauncey, Fort. Old fort at Sackett's Harbor, N. Y., on Lake Ontario. New York. Chehalis, Fort. Lower Chehalis, Gray's Harbor. First •called Camp Chehalis. Washington. Chesterfield House. Canada. Chequamegon, Fort. Old French settlement and post near Lake Superior, Wisconsin. Chicago District Ordinance Office. 600 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois. Chicago Quartermaster Inter. Depot. Chicago, Illinois. Chicago Quartermaster Corps Subsistence School. Chicago, Illinois. Chigas, Camp. At Santa Fe Street Bridge. El Paso, Texas. Childs, Fort. It was established and named by a detachment of Missouri volunteers.. The name was changed to Fort Kearny in 1848. This post was used as a depot by the Mormons. (See Fort Kearney.) Kearney, Kearney County, Nebraska. Chilkott Barracks. At Haines on Chilkat Inlet. Alaska. Chipewayan, Fort. (Also spelled Chippewyan and Chipewayan.) A trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company, southwest end of Lake Athabaska. One of the most populous of the far northern stations. About one hundred orphans are trained here for future colonization work. Alberta, Canada. Chippeway, Fort. On Niagara River, ten miles above Niagara or Newark. New York. Chipola, Fort. Temporary fort established in Florida War. Florida. Chiswell, Fort. (1760.) On west bank near source of New River, Virginia. Chokkonikla, Fort. Temporary fort near mouth of Payne's Creek, established in Florida War. Florida. Christina, Fort. Built in 1638 by Swedish Fur Traders on present site of Wilmington. Delaware. Christina, Fort. (About 1750.) "50 miles southwest of Philadelphia." Delaware. Christmas, Fort. Temporary fort midway on the road between Fort McNiel and Fort Lane; established in Florida War. Florida. Churchill, Fort. South coast of Hudson Bay. Longitude 94 west; latitude 58.52 north. Mouth of Churchill River. Trading Station. Canada. Churchill, Fort (1860). Military Post. Right bank of Car-


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son River, 25 miles from Virginia City. Historical post and stage station. Many buildings on old site. Preserved by a society of interested people of Nevada. Lyon County, Nevada. Cincinnati District Ordnance Office. Cincinnati, Ohio. Citadel, The. Halifax, Nova Scotia. Clagett, Fort. Chouteau County, Montana. Claiborne, Fort. On site of present town Claiborne. Left bank of Alabama River, at the bend, a little below the mouth of Limestone Creek. Monroe County, Alabama. Clark, Camp. Nevada, Missouri. Clark Field. Aviation Field, Camp Stotsenburg, Philippine Islands. Clark, Fort (1813). Where Rock Island depot now stands. Right bank of Illinois River at Peoria. (Old Peoria Fort). Peoria, Illinois. Clark, Fort. Hatteras Inlet. Built by the Conferedates. North Carolina. Clark, Fort (1831). Also spelled Fort Clarke. Right bank of the Missouri, eight miles below the mouth of the Big Knife River at Ree Village. North Dakota. Clark, Fort. At source of Las Moras River, about twentyfive miles from its mouth and 30 miles north of Fort Duncan. This historic post is situated in Kinney County near Brackettville, the county seat of Kinney County. It is one hundred and forty miles west of San Antonia, ten miles from Spofford Junction and twenty miles from the Rio Grande. This post was established June 15, 1852. This fort was designed for the protection of the San Antonio and Eagle Pass wagon road and for the protection of the Rio Grande border against depredations by Mexicans and Indians. It was named after Major John B. Clark. It has been garrisoned by many noted officers. A noted military and civic cemetery is located here with many unknown graves. In 1914 two squadrons were stationed here. Ten miles northwest of Spofford, Texas. Also called Fort Clarke. Kinney County, Texas. Clarke, Fort. Temporary fort during Florida W a r on the left bank of the Ocilla River, ten miles above its mouth. Temporary fort during Florida War, in vicinity of Alachu Prairie, about twelve miles southeast from Newnansville. Florida. Clarke, Fort. Right bank of Lizard River, in Webster County, near its mouth. Iowa. Clarke, Camp. Morrill County, Bayard, Nebraska. Clatsop, Fort (1805-06). Wintering post, Lewis & Clark Expedition at mouth of the Columbia River (south bank). Some distance from river. Flag and marker on site. Near Astoria. Oregon. Clay Camp. Procious, West Virginia.


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Clayton, Fort—Miraflores Dump. On the Pacific side of the Panama Canal. Canal Zone. Cleveland District Ordance Office. Cleveland, Ohio. Clinch Fort. At mouth of St. Mary's River, near St. Marys, Nassau County. Northern extremity of Amelia Island, Cumberland Sound at entrance to St. Mary's River, north of Fernandina. Florida. Clinch, Fort. Near Pensacola, fourteen miles from Barrancas, Florida. Clinch, Fort. Right bank of the Withlacoochee River, eight miles above its mouth. The Withlacoochee river divides Citrus and Levy counties at this point. Florida. Clinch, Fort. Temporary fort, sixty-two miles east of Tampa Bay, on the northwestern end of Lake Locha Popka. Florida. Clinton, Castle. Battery at the southern extremity of New York City, called "Castle Garden." New York. Clinton, Fort. Right bank of Hudson River, "six miles below West Point." This fort was built during the Revolutionary War with the idea of making the river impassable for the British fleet in 1777. Forts Clinton and Montgomery were on the west bank of the Hudson River, one on either side of a small stream. New York. Clover Field (Ninth Corps Area). Aviation Field. Santa Monica, California. Cobb, Fort. Caddo County (Indian Territory). Junction of Pond Creek and Washita River. Oklahoma. Cock Hill, Fort. Left bank of the Hudson in the extreme northern limits of New York City. New York. Cody, Camp. Deming, New Mexico. Coffee, Fort—(Indian Territory). Swallow Rock, on the Arkansas River, twelve miles southwest of Fort Smith. Oklahoma. Col. Fur Company Post (1822). Minnesota. Col. Fur Company Post. South Dakota. Coldwater, Camp. See Fort Snelling. Minnesota. Collins, Fort. Original site of post near Laporte, Colorado. Moved to present site of Fort Collins account of high water of Cache la Poudre River. Near present site of Union Pacific depot, Fort Collins, Colorado. Colorado, Camp. Near Colorado River, on road from Forts Mason and Belknap. Coleman, Coleman County, Texas. Colt, Camp. Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Columbia Barracks. Right bank of Columbia River (now called Fort Vancouver.) Washington. Columbia, Fort. Opposite Fort Stevens at the mouth of Columbia River. Oregon.


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Columbia, Fort (1825). Same site as Fort Vancouver (1825-62). Hudson's Bay Company Post. Washington. Columbus Arsenal. Columbus, Franklin County, Ohio. Columbus, Fort. Governor's Island, New York Harbor. (See Fort Jay, also Governor's Island). New York. Columbus General Reserve Depot. Seven miles east of Columbus, Ohio. Colville, Fort. (Site selected in 1825, buildings erected in 1826). The Hudson's Bay Company had no posts west of the Rocky Mountains prior to 1821. In that year the old Hudson's Bay Company was amalgamated with the Northwest Company; the new merger took the name of the Hudson's Bay Company. The Hudson's Bay Company was chartered by Charles II of England. It was a great monopoly and exercised despotic but usually wise control. . In 1824 the Hudson's Bay Company sent Doctor John McLoughlin to the Columbia River region as Chief Factor. He established his headquarters at Vancouver (Washington). After looking over the ground he decided to abandon Spokan House and establish a new post further north. He chose as a .site for Fort Colville a beautiful plain overlooking the Columbia River near Kettle Falls. It was named in honor of Lord Colville, who was at that time Governor-in-Chief of the Hudson's Bay Company's Territories in North America. This post was second in importance only to the post at Vancouver, and a receiving point and outfitting point for the great trapping areas of the north. After American occupation it constituted a base for military expeditions, mining outfits and travelers. Fort Colville was visited in 1841 by Sir George Simpson, then Governor-in-Chief of the Hudson's Bay Company. Simpson was at that time on his "Journey Around the World." Archibald McDonald was the Chief Trader and Chief Factor of the post at that time. Simpson was entertained royally by Chief Factor McDonald. Simpson had just treminated a laborious journey of over two thousand miles on horseback across plains, mountains and forests being in the saddle about lP/i hours a day and as high as 50 miles were made in one day. Simpson expressed his gratitude as follows: "Just fancy, at the base of the Rocky Mountains a roasted turkey, a suckling pig, new bread, fresh butter, eggs, ale, etc. * * * No wonder that some of our party ate more than was good for them." Simpson found a large farm with barns, stables, field of wheat, corn, potatoes, peas, oats, barley, turnips, melons and cucumbers and so forth; also cattle grazing on ranges beyond the fences. Eighty men, whites and savages, arrayed in their 'Sunday's best' received Simpson at the gate. The fort was of large size and made of wood. Houses were built of cedar. It stood about a mile from the nearest point of the Columbia and about two miles from Chau-


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diere Falls. Kettle Falls was called Chaudiere Fall's at that time. Salmon were so abundant at the falls that as many as a thousand, weighing upwards of forty pounds, were caught in one day with a single basket. Basket fishing may be seen at Kettle Falls at present, 1928. A grist mill was attached to the establishment in 1841 and an excellent quality of bread was made from the flour produced there. The journey was resumed below Chaudiere Falls. The canoe in which Governor Simpson rode was propelled by six oarsmen and the crew covered more than 100 miles in 15 hours. In later years the most distinguished resident of Fort Colville was Ranald MacDonald. Fort Colville was visited in the summer of 1890 by Elizabeth B. Custer, widow of General George A. Custer. At that time the blockhouse was still in existence and there were port holes for muskets and a large opening for a gun. A broken half of a small verdigris covered cannon, said to have been brought from the battle field of Quebec, was shown to the visitors by MacDonald. Fathers Blanchet and De Smet worked in this section. Father De Smet obtained wheat, oats and potatoes at Colville which.he carried to Montana to begin farming operations there. In 1845 Father Ravalli erected a small chapel north of the fort and in 1847 Father Devost opened a mission here. This old Catholic mission, or one of later date, may be seen near the road north of the site of old Fort Colville. There were in 1925 a few buildings, near the river, apparently stables and supply houses, formerly belonging to the post. Twelve miles northwest of Colville, Stevens County, Washington. Colville, Fort. Military post, 1859-1872. In 1859 George B. McClelland, then a Captain of engineers in the United States Army, accompanied by two companies of infantry under Captains Frazer and Archer, left The Dalles, Oregon, on a trip to the north. McClelland was later Commanding General of the Army of the Potomac and Frazer and Archer were afterwards Generals in the Confederate Army. A site for a post was selected three miles northeast of the present town of Colville. The post was named Fort Colville in honor of the Hudson's Bay Post. Gold was discovered in different parts of the section from 1855 to 1858. Indians were troublesome and military posts were established for the protection of miners and settlers. The post was established in June 1859. In the autumn of 1862 the regular troops stationed at Fort Colville (village nearby called Pinkney City) were called east to assist in the War of the Rebellion. Two companies were recruited in San Francisco to take the place of those who left the post at Fort Colville. Major Curtis was in command at first but was shortly afterwards replaced by Major Rumells. The San Francisco troops were on duty until after the close of the war after which the post was again gar-


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risoned by regular troops. There is at present a cemetery at the Military Fort Colville in which are buried a number of soldiers and civilians. The parade ground is across the road from the cemetery. Some of the foundations of the military post may be discerned. Near Colville, Stevens County, Washington. Comstock, Fort. One of the defenses of Knoxville, north boundary of the city. Tennessee. Conant, Fort. Western side of Gloucester Harbor, at "Stage Head." Massachusetts. Concho, Camp. Right bank of Salt Fork, seventeen miles, from its mouth on the Concho River. San Angelo, Tom Green County, Texas. Conde, de la Mobile. Northern extremity of Mobile Bay, longitude 35.30 west; latitude 29.51 north. Alabama. Conde, Fort. An old fort at Mobile. Also called Fort Charlotte. Now Mobile. Alabama. Confederation, Foxt. Also known as Fort Tombecbee. In Sumter County, right bank of Tombigbee at Jones' Bluff. Alabama. Conger, Fort. A signal station erected in 1882 by the Greely expedition on Lady Franklin Bay in Grinnell Land (West of Greenland, separated from the latter by the Kennedy Channel.) Canada. Connah, Fort (1847). Hudson's Bay Company. Montana. Connor, Fort. Named for General Patrick E. Connor. Fort Connor was later called Fort Reno. Johnson County, Wyoming. Conrad, Fort. Present town of Conrad is in Teton County on a railroad a little south of Marias. River. The Marias River flows into the Missouri below Fort Benton. Site in this section. Montana. Conrad, Fort. Valverde, Socorro County, New Mexico. Constitution, Fort. Right bank of entrance to Portsmouth Harbor. Opposite Fort McClary. Three miles southeast of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Constitution, Fort. Left bank of Hudson River, opposite West Point. New York. Conti, Fort. See Fort Niagara. New York. Cook, Fort. On Missouri River near Fort Clagett. Montana. Cooke, Camp. Right bank of Missouri River, mouth of the Judith. Montana. Cooper, Camp. Adjacent to the left bank of Clear Fork of Brazos River, five miles east of the mouth of Otey's Creek. Texas. Cooper, Fort. Temporary fort thirteen miles south of Clinch's Battle Ground, on the Withlacoochie, established in Florida War. Florida.


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Corcoran, Fort. O n e of t h e defenses of W a s h i n g t o n , D. C, s o u t h of t h e P o t o m a c . V i r g i n i a . Cornwallis, Fort. N e a r A u g u s t a , Georgia, w h e r e St. Paul's Church n o w s t a n d s . Georgia. Corozal, Post of. F o r t y - f o u r miles s o u t h e a s t of Colon, three miles from Pacific t e r m i n a l of P a n a m a Canal. Canal Zone. Cottonwood Springs, Fort. T h i s p o s t w a s located on the . s o u t h side of t h e P l a t t e River, n e a r C o t t o n w o o d S p r i n g s . It w a s established F e b r u a r y 20, 1866, b y M a j o r S. W . O'Brien of t h e 7th I o w a Calvary. I t w a s later called F o r t M c P h e r s o n after Major-General J a m e s B. M c P h e r s o n . N e b r a s k a . Coulonge, Fort. Q u e b e c , C a n a d a . Courchesne, C a m p . D i s c o n t i n u e d a t early date. Location not k n o w n . ( M i s c e l l a n e o u s ) . Cove Fort. Cove F o r t w a s erected by t h e M o r m o n s in 1867 to p r o t e c t settlers in this section a g a i n s t I n d i a n s . T h e fort is s q u a r e . T h e r e are a n u m b e r of h o u s e s inside the fort. T h e roofs of t h e h o u s e s slope t o w a r d s t h e i n t e r i o r ; t h e walls of the fort form t h e back walls of the houses. I n 1922 t h e r e w e r e three big c o t t o n w o o d t r e e s inside t h e fort and five i m m e d i a t e l y outside. A well inside t h e fort furnished w a t e r t o o c c u p a n t s in case of a siege. Cove Creek r u n s a r o u n d t h e front and r i g h t side of the fort. T h e old doors in t h e front of the fort w e r e m a d e of wood. T h e door frames w e r e m a d e of h e a v y _timbers w i t h planks nailed on either side of t h e u p r i g h t s . T h e space b e t w e e n the planks w a s filled w i t h sand. T h e s e l a r g e doors have been removed and s t a n d inside t h e fort at p r e s e n t . T h e large space occupied by the doors has been b o a r d e d up, smaller d o o r s r e p l a c i n g them. Cove F o r t formerly b e l o n g e d to Mr. K e s s l e r ; it w a s the ranch house for Cove F o r t R a n c h . Cove F o r t is on the m a i n highway b e t w e e n Fillmore, t h e first capital of U t a h , and Beaver. It is in an excellent state of p r e s e r v a t i o n a n d has been set a p a r t as a l a n d m a r k . Millard County, U t a h . Covington, F o r t . E a s t o f B a l t i m o r e on point into Patapsco River. P a t a p s c o River n e a r F o r t M c H e n r y . F o r t s Covington and M c H e n r y c o m m a n d e d t h e p a s s a g e from the P a t a p s c o into the h a r b o r of B a l t i m o r e . Covington, Fort. ( E f f a c e d ) . Left b a n k of S a l m o n River, at F r e n c h Mills. T h e A r m y of t h e N o r t h r e m a i n e d at Fort Covington d u r i n g the w i n t e r of 1813-14. F r a n k l i n C o u n t y , New York. Covington Center, Fort. F r a n k l i n C o u n t y , N e w York. Craig, Fort'. R i g h t bank of Rio G r a n d e , eight miles below F o r t Conrad and near Val V e r d e . San Marcial, Socorro County, N e w Mexico. Craig, Fort. O n e of t h e defenses of W a s h i n g t o n , south of the P o t o m a c . V i r g i n i a .


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Cralo, Fort. Erected in 1642. Now Van Rensselaer Place on the east side of the Hudson River, two miles below (south) of Albany, with which it is connected by three bridges. It is an old brick house with a modern Mansard roof and a flag-staff. It was here that Richard Schuckburg, a surgeon of the British Army, wrote Yankee Doodle in 1757. It is now preserved as a national memorial. New York. Crane, Fort. Temporary fort near the head of Lake Pithlochoco, about seven miles north of Micanopy, established in Florida War. Florida. Crawford, Fort. Short distance southeast of Brewton, Escambia County, Alabama. Crawford, Fort. United States military post between Montrose and Ouray, Colorado. (10 miles from Montrose and 26 miles from Ouray). Baedeker mentions this post—on same site or near Fort Uncompahgre. Colorado. Crawford, Fort. Temporary fort on the left bank of Manatee River, seventeen miles from Fort Hamer, established in Florida War. Florida. Crawford, Fort. Military (1819). Near Prairie du Chien, established in 1710. Left bank of Mississippi River, near Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin. Creek, Camp. Flayden, Leslie County, Kentucky. Creek, Camp. Argo, Pike County, Kentucky Creek, Camp. Manhattan, Gallatin County, Montana. Creek, Camp. Connelly's Springs,, Burke County, North Carolina. Creek Camp. Floyd County, Virginia. Creek, Camp. Mercer County, West Virginia. Crevecoeur, Fort. Coast of West Florida in St. Joseph's Bay, longitude 85.30 west; latitude 29.51 north. Florida. Crevecoeur, Fort. This fort was built in 1679 by La Salle and his companions. The fort stood near the present site of Peoria. When La Salle returned to this post in 1681 he found the fort in ruins. Illinois. Crissy Field. A sub-post of Presidio of San Francisco, California. Crittenden, Fort. Cedar Valley, forty-four miles southwest of Salt Lake City. (Formerly Camp Floyd.) Present site, of Fairfield. Military cemetery near old site. "Johnston's Army" was stationed here from 1858 to 1861. Utah. Crockett, Fort. Southeast of and adjacent to Galveston, Texas. Crockett, Fort Davy. Northwestern part of Utah. Daggett County near Bridgeport. Utah. Croghan, Fort. "Left bank of Missouri River, near Council Bluffs." No buildings erected; temporary post. Iowa.


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Croghan, Fort. Right bank of Hamilton Creek, 14 miles from its mouth, Texas. Crook, Fort. Right bank of Fall River, 7 miles north of Pitt River Ferry. California. Crook, Fort. Eleven miles south of Omaha, Nebraska. On the Burlington and Missouri Pacific Railways. In 1914 this fort was garrisoned by detachment of infantry. Nebraska. Crook, Camp. Harding County, South Dakota. Crooks-McLellan Post. West bank of Missouri River, just above Fort Sully on opposite side of river. South Dakota. Cross, Fort. Temporary fort established in Florida War, 21 miles S. W. from Fort Armstrong, and 19 miles N. W. from Fort Dade. Florida. Cross, Fort. Palm Point, on the Gulf Coast, N. W. from Cape Sable, near Old Fort Poinsett. Florida. Cross, Redoubt. One of the defenses of Washington, D. S., north of the Potomac. Maryland. Crown Point, Fort. Lake Champlain, New York. Cuartel de Espana—Headquarters of Post of Manila. Manila, Luzon, Philippine Islands. Cuartel de Infanteria. Manila, Luzon, Philippine Islands. Culonge, Fort. This may be the same as Fort Coulonge of Quebec. Culonge is given as 170 miles west of Montreal. Canada. Cumberland, Fort. At end of Bay of Funday in Nova Scotia 20 miles north of Halifax. Canada. Cumberland, Fort. Located on the Potomac^ River. Cumberland. This fort was visited by Braddock and his troops on the expedition west. "General Braddock was carried to Fort Cumberland to die after his defeat by the French and Indians in 1755, being mortally wounded at the time." Maryland. Cummings, Fort. Temporary fort established in Florida War, midway between Forts Davenport and Sullivan. Florida. Cummings, Fort. Cook's Springs, eastern end of Cook's Canyon. Deming, Grant County, New Mexico. Curry, Camp. Yosemite National Park, California. Curtis Bay Ordnance Reserve Depot. Seven miles south of Baltimore, Maryland. Curtis, Camp. Bear, Beauregard County, Iowa. Curtiss Elmwood Air Reserve Depot—Troops: Discontinued. Maryland. Custer, Camp. Four miles west of Battle Creek, Michigan. Custer, Fort. Military (1878). Crow Agency, Rosebud County, Montana. D. A. Russell, Fort. Fort D. A. Russell is a large post. The buildings are of brick with wooden porches painted white.


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At the entrance to the post are two signs as follows: "U. S. Military Reservation Fort D. A. Russell. Established in 1867 as a frontier post for the protection of settlers and the working force on the Union Pacific Railroad against roving bands of Indians. Campaigns against the 'Bannocks,' 'Cheyennes,' 'Nez Perces' and 'Sioux' were conducted from this post in the early days," and "This post was named in honor of General D. A. Russell who saved the 6th Army Corps from destruction during the Civil War. He was killed in action at Opequon, Va., September 18, 1864." Successor of Camp Carlin, nearby. About two miles from Cheyenne, Wyoming. Dacotah, Fort. (Dakota). Left bank of big Sioux River at Sioux Falls, Dakotah (South Dakota). Dade, Fort. Left bank of the Withlacoochee, on the road south, and 13 miles from Dade's Battle Ground, temporarilyoccupied in Florida War. Florida. Dade, Fort. Thirty-five miles southwest of Tampa, Florida. Daer (Selkirks) Fort (1812-23). Close to Canadian line. North Dakota. Dale, Fort. North part of Butler County, Alabama. Dale, Fort. Fort Dale, Rutland County, Vermont. Dallas, Fort. On key, Biscayne Bay on left bank of Miami River at its mouth. Florida. Dalles, Fort. Left bank of the Columbia River, at the "Dalles." Oregon. Darien, Fort. In the Colonial History of Georgia, Lib. of American History, page 292 is the following: "With a number of his Highland soldiers, Oglethrope made an exploratory voyage among the islands along the coast. Frederica was founded on St. Simon's Island, where a fort was erected.—The town was named New Inverness, and the fort, Darien." Georgia. Davis, Camp. Macon County, Alabama. Davis, Fort. A garrison post of two companies. The post is located three miles east of Nome. Alaska. Davis, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, east of the eastern Branch. Washington, District of Columbia. Davis, Fort. At the sources (in the forks) of Limpia (Limbia) River, tributary of the Rio Pecos, thirty-seven miles north of San Estavan and four hundred and seventy-five miles northwest of San Antonio, Jeff Davis County, Texas. Davis, Fort. One of the Rebel defenses before Petersburg. Virginia. Davis, Fort William D. Near Gatun, Canal Zone. Davis, Redoubt. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C , north of the Potomac, formerly Fort Alexander. Maryland. Davison, Fort. One of the Rebel defenses before Petersburg. (Possibly same as Fort Davis, above). Virginia.


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Dearborn, Fort. The site of this fort is commemorated by a tablet on the Wrigley Building. Fort Dearborn was built on the present site of Chicago in 1804 and 1805. It is well known from a massacre which occurred nearby (marked by a monument) on August 15, 1812. Captain Nathan Heald left the fort with sixtyseven men and about thirty settlers intending to go to Detroit. The Company was under the escort of a body of Miami Indians. At a short distance from the fort they were attacked by an ambushed force of five hundred Indians assisted by the escorts. About two-thirds of the Company were killed and the rest captured. The fort was destroyed on the following day, rebuilt in 1816, evacuated in 1823, reoccupied in 1828, and demolished in 1856. Chicago, Illinois. Dearborr (Dearborn?), Fort. Temporary fort established in Florida War, thirteen miles southwest from Fort Floyd, Georgia. Decatur, Fort. Left bank of the Tallapoosa River—about three miles below the mouth of the Ufoupee (Ujoupee) Creek. Macon County. (About ten miles west of Tuskagee). Alabama. Defiance, Fort. Apache County, Arizona. Defiance, Fort. Navajo country in Canyon Bonito, one hundred eighty miles west of Santa Fe. New Mexico. Defiance, Fort. Rehoboth, McKinley County, New Mexico. Defiance, Fort. Junction of Auglaize River and the "Miama of the Lake." On the Maumee River at its junction with the Au-glaize, fifty miles southwest of Fort Meigs. Built by General Anthony Wayne in the summer of 1794. Ohio. Defiance, Fort (1845). Same as Fort Bouis. West bank of Missouri River below Fort George. South Dakota. Defiance, Fort. Augusta County, Virginia. Defiance, Fort. Fayette County, West Virginia. Defiance, Fort. At Parkinson's Farm, five miles southwest of Mineral Point. Built during Black Hawk War. Wisconsin. De Kaib, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, D. C, south of the Potomac (now Fort Strong). Virginia. Delafield Battery. South end of Folly Island, Stono Inlet, five miles below Charleston Harbor. South Carolina. Delaware, Fort. Pea Patch Island, Delaware River, opposite Delaware City. One mile east of Fort Dupont, Delaware. This post was located on Pea Patch Island, in the Delaware River one and one-eighth miles from the Delaware shore, one mile from the New Jersey shore and forty-two miles below Philadelphia. Work on the fortifications first directed here, was begun by Captain Clark in 1814. Work was continued through '31, '34, '36, '39, and later. Pea Patch Island prison camp for Confederate prisoners was maintained here during the Civil War. Delaware.


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Delaware Ordnance Reserve Depot. In New Jersey, six miles northeast of Wilmington, Delaware. Fredricktown, New Jersey. De Lesseps, Fort (P. C. Dept.) One of the newer army posts of the United States. Fort De Lesseps is about half way between Fort Sherman and Fort Randolph. Canal Zone. De Maurepas, Fort. Biloxi Bay. Now called Fort Biloxi. Established by the French. Mississippi. De Monville, Fort. See Fort Niagara, New York. Dennison, Camp. Hamilton County, Ohio. Deposit, Camp. Lowndes County, Alabama. Deposit, Fort. In southern part of Lowndes County on Louisville and Nashville Railroad. Alabama. Deposit, Fort. Grant Marshall County, Alabama. De Russy, Fort. One of the defenses of Washington, north of Potomac. District of Columbia. De Russy, Fort. (Hawaiian Dept.) Four miles from Honolulu, Hawaii. De Russy, Fort. Right bank of Red River near present site of Alexandria. Some 50 miles above the junction of the Red River with the Mississippi. Louisiana. De Soto, Fort. Tampa, Florida. Des Moines, Fort. At junction of Des Moines and Raccoon Rivers. (Old description, referring to old fort). South of and five miles distant from Des Moines. This post is of modern construction throughout. It is usually garrisoned by an entire regiment of cavalry. Seventh Corps area. Iowa. Des Trembles, Fort (1794). Minnesota. Detroit Arsenal. Dearbornville, on Rouge River, ten miles from Detroit. Michigan. Detroit Barracks. "Detroit City," on right bank of Detroit River. Michigan. Detroit District Ordnance Office. Detroit, Michigan. Detroit, Fort. Name given on maps but do not find anything authentic regarding a post of this particular name. Reference to this fort is made in Foster's History of the United States, published by the State of Kansas, Topeka, 1917, giving date of building as 1701, see page 108. Detroit was founded in 1701. Various forts at Detroit. Detroit, Michigan. Devens, Camp. One mile south of Ayer, Massachusetts. De Vereches, Fort. Received its name from a French lady who defended the fort against the Iroquois Indians in 1690. Canada. Deynaud, Fort. Left bank of Caloosahatchie River, five miles from its source and twenty-seven miles northeast from Forty Myers. Florida. Diablo, Camp. Canal Zone.


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Diamond, Fort. Was first called, then named Fort Lafayette. Near Fort Hamilton. Narrows entrance to New York Harbor. (Now Fort Lafayette). New York. Diamond Grove, Fort. Short distance northeast of Plattsville. (Black Hawk W a r ) . Wisconsin. Dick, Fort. Del Norte County, California. Dickens, Fort. A sub-post of Fort Barrancas (q. v.). See also Fort McRae. Florida. Dickerson, Fort. One of the defenses of Knoxville, south of the Holston River. Tennessee. Dickson's Post (1806). East bank of Mississippi River. Minnesota. Dickson's Post (1835). East bank of Missouri River. South Dakota. Disappointment, Fort Cape. Mouth of Columbia River, occupied by a Battery. (Name changed to Forty Canby). Washington. Dix, Camp. One-half mile southwest of Wrightstown. New Jersey. Dixon's Fort. Present town of Dixon, Lee County, Illinois. Doane, Fort. Temporary fort on the outskirts of Big Cypress Swamp ; established in Florida War. Florida. Dobbs, Fort. This fort was located not far below the forks of the Yadkin. North Carolina. Doddridge, Camp. Doddridge County, West Virginia. Dodge, Camp. Eleven and a half miles north of Des Moines. Iowa. Dodge, Fort. Left bank of Des Moines River, in Webster County nearly opposite the mouth of Lizard River (now a town of that name). Iowa. Dodge, Fort. Left bank of the Arkansas River, one hundred fifteen miles east from Fort Aubrey and fifty-five miles southwest from Fort Larned. Original site of post aboutfive miles from present town, same name. Ford County, Kansas. Donelson, Fort. Near Fort Henry, Stewart County. This fort was captured by General Grant and Commodore Foote on February 6, 1862. Left bank of Cumberland River, near Dover. Ellis's Library of American History, page 916, in relating events of the year 1862 of the Civil War, says: "Eastern Kentucky was under Union control, but the Confederates had a strong grip upon the Western Portion. Their line extended from Bowling Green on the right to Columbus on the left. The whole line was commanded by Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, who had improved his naturally strong position by building two forts— Fort Henry on the right bank of the Tennessee in Kentucky, and Fort Donelson on the left bank of the Cumberland, just


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within the limits of Tennessee." (See Fort Henry). (Confederate Work). Tennessee. Doniphan, Camp. Ft. Sill, Oklahoma. Dorr Field. Eleven and three-quarter miles east of Arcadia, Florida. Douglas (Eighth Corps Area). On Mexican Border, ArizonaDouglas, Camp. At Springfield; established during Rebellion. Illinois. Douglas, Camp. At Fort Douglas. "Three miles east of Salt Lake City." Utah. Douglas, Camp. Camp Douglas, Wisconsin. Douglas, Fort. Johnson County, Arkansas. Douglas, Fort (1812). This was presumably a Red River Settlement. Ranald MacDonald in footnote, page 114, mentions Reverend John West arriving at the post on October 14, 1820, to act as Chaplain to the Hudson's Bay Company. This fort w a s located near Red River Settlement and was established some time prior to 1820. Canada. Douglas, Fort. This post was established by Colonel Patrick E. Connor in October, 1862. Colonel Connor brought in 1000 infantry, 500 cavalry, a battery of artillery and about 200 wagons. Colonel Connor organized an expedition from here against the Indians in 1863, starting from this post for Bear River. The post was named in honor of Stephen A. Douglas. On bench east of Salt Lake City. Detention Camp during World War. Utah. Downing, Fort. Temporary fort established in Florida War. Near the right bank of the Suwanee, nine miles from mouth of Santa Fe River. Florida. Drane, Fort. South of Micanopy; temporary fort established in Florida War. Fairfield, Marion County, Florida. Drum, Barracks. Near Wilmington. (Sometimes called Camp Drum). California. Drum, Camp. (See Fort Dalles, also Drum Barracks). Oregon. (To be Continued) BOOK REVIEW By Albert F. Philips Francis Drake and other early Explorers Along the Pacific Coast is the title of a most interesting volume pertaining to the early history of the Pacific slope by Dr. John W. Robertson. The volume is in five sections beginning with Cortes, the Discoverer; Indians of the California; Jesuit Survey of Baja California; Drake's Voyage in the South Sea; and the Harbor of St. Francis. There is an appendix


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which gives Hakluyt's account of Drake's voyage from Guatulco to the coast of California, his landing in a good bay near 38 degree, his exploration of the interior together with his annexation of this country. The narrative is a reprint of the six leaves surreptitiously inserted, says Dr. Robertson, in the year 1589, its author being unknown. There is also a narrative extracted from the world encompassed which covers this same period of Drake's voyage; to which is added extracts from the first and second declaration of John Drake given before Vera Y. Aragon of Santa Fe, and the inquisition at Lima. Geographical changes in the maps of the world following the discovery of Columbus and the Spanish Settlement of New Spain; the discovery of the Pacific Ocean and the explorations made by Cortes to find the Indian shore, together with Ulloa's exploration of the gulf of California and his discovery that Baja California was a part of the mainland; also a relation of the original use of the word "California" and the origin of this name, are treated in the first section. In section two is given a description of the Indians found in the Channel Islands and along the coasts of the gulf of California, their traditions, mores and civilization; together with an account of the exploration of Cabrillo and Ferelo who explored the Pacific coast of the Californias as far north as 34 degrees and further discoveries along the coast in north latitude and the search for the harbor of Saint Francis. Jesuit survey of California and discoveries along the coast of the gulf of California is treated in the third section and points out that these discoveries demonstrated the connection between Baja California and Sonora where they established missions and explored the country north to San Diego and east as far as the Moquis. Drake's famous voyage in the South sea is detailed in the Fourth section "which voyage was fitted out and personally directed by Queen Elizabeth, partly as an exploring expedition to search for a strait that was supposed to connect the Pacific with Hudson's Bay in the Atlantic; also an account of Drake's execution of Doughty, his passage through the straits of Magellan, his capture of Spanish Ships, his raid on the cities of New Spain and his reception by Queen Elizabeth." This voyage is treated at length and new light on the expedition is given. Drake's landing near latitude 38 is treated in the fifth section "where he finds a fair and good bay and spends six weeks in refitting the golden Hinde and exploring the adjacent country, annexing it to England under the name Nova Albion; together with a relation of the efforts of certain historians to locate the harbor of St. Francis and a critical summary of the arguments on which they based their various selections." The printing and binding are very fine and artistic, done by the Grabhorn Press of San Francisco.