Utahâ€™s Historic Architecture Guide
CONTENTS Why This Guide to Architecture? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Building Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Early Residential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Early 20th Century Residential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 World War II & Post-War Residential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Commercial, Public & Industrial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Agricultural Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Religious Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Educational Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Building Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 Classical 1847-1890 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Picturesque 1865-1885 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Victorian 1880-1910 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Early Twentieth-Century 1905-1925 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Period Revival 1890-1940 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Modern 1930-1940 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 World War II/Post-War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
WHY THIS GUIDE TO ARCHITECTURE? This architectural guide is provided by the Utah State Historic Preservation Office for those who have an interest in the historic architecture of Utah. We also developed it to aid consultants in architectural fieldwork. Input for the information came from fieldwork, architectural historians, and published sources. Much of the text and photographs for the earlier buildings comes directly from Thomas Carter and Peter Goss’s Utah’s Historic Architecture, 1847-1940: A Guide. This guide is not exhaustive, but it covers the most commonly found types and styles of historic architecture in the state--residential, commercial, agricultural and religious. Although it mostly covers “historic architecture”(more than 50 years old), in order to make it more useful for consultants doing architectural survey and inventory, the guide also covers some common examples of more-recent types and styles. Construction date ranges are estimates only and apply mainly to Utah. Dates in other states or regions vary.
This guide focuses on the buildings we encounter every day, more commonly known as vernacular architecture. Architectural historians debate what really constitutes vernacular architecture or how to best define it. But ultimately, vernacular architecture is the common architecture for any given region and at any given time. For the most part, vernacular buildings were not formally designed by an architect. In the broader view, however, that is not always the case; architects did design some examples that we consider here to be vernacular.
Type vs. Style This guide will follow the classification system established in Carter and Goss’s field guide: that is, organizing and identifying buildings by both plan type and architectural style. Essentially, type is the most basic arrangement of the building’s layout, in the floor plan and massing of structural components. The building’s style is determined by the architectural and ornamental details applied to the basic structure. Although we may use an example of a building as a particular type in the “type” section, we might also use the same building in the “style” section because of the architectural detail applied to it. In a few categories, the same term is used to denote both a type and a style.
What is considered historic? Many of the examples covered in this guide have only recently become what we call “of the historic era,” meaning they have been around for at least 50 years, which is the age criterion established by the National Register of Historic places. For many of these examples there has not been enough time to study and better understand these buildings, and there is not enough known about them to do further classification and possibly sub-categorization. As our knowledge expands on certain types of architecture, we will update this guide. This guide will always be a work in progress. If you have information to add, please contact us.
BUILDING TYPES When the terms type and style are mentioned together, one might become confused, thinking that they are interchangeable, but within architectural vocabulary they actually refer to two separate concepts. The main characteristic that determines a buildingâ€™s type is the main-level floor planâ€”that is, the size and relationship of rooms and how they are arranged. Although buildings of a particular type may differ slightly, the overall features will be fairly consistent. In this section we have identified fundamental residential, commercial, public, and agricultural building types. Each type is described with a number of examples showing the diversity within the general typology.
Domestic architecture in Utah represents a continuation of broader American patterns, so the house types identified here are generally typical of the country as a whole. The buildings are grouped according to their basic form or shape.
Early Residential Early 20th Century Residential World War II & Post-War Residential Commercial, Public & Industrial Apartment Buldings & Hotel/Motels Agricultural Buildings Religious Buildings Educational Buildings
Early Residential Building Types Many of the residences in this category are difficult to distinguish without inspecting the interior, since all have symmetrical facades parallel to the ridgeline of the roof. You can generally recognize a double cell by its even number of door and window openings (in contrast to the single-cell and hall-parlor types), and central-passage houses are usually (but not always) larger than those with a hall-parlor plan. BUT - only the secific floor plans truly identify these types. The remaining types, including the side-passage house with its distinctive offset door, can all be identified by their exterior appearance. In an effort to demonstrate the stylistic and compositional variety found within each category, we offer several examples of each house type.
Dugout 1850-1920 A dugout might be considered more of an archaeological resource than a building type; however, we are including it as a type because it was a common residential form in early Utah. As the term “dugout” implies, this dwelling type was partially subterranean, dug either into level ground–up to approximately six feet deep–or, more commonly, into a hillside, preferably south-facing, to capture sun in the winter. Interior floor dimensions varied from dugout to dugout, but 12’x 12’ seems to have been an average size. The builder typically constructed a wall of log, earth, stone, or sometimes brick above ground around the perimeter, high enough to provide adequate head room. The roof could either be flat, sloped, or a have a shallow-pitched gable. Roofs were constructed of either flat boards or heavy wood poles (and sometimes metal poles) spaced evenly as rafters. The builder placed willows or other saplings between the poles, and covered them with straw or bundles of brush. Over all this went a thick layer of dirt. Needless to say, the roof did little good in heavy rain, but it did an adequate job of protection at other times. The occupants used the interior space primarily as shelter; it provided little room for domestic work. Furniture was limited to a bed (that could also serve as a bench or table), a couple of chairs, a cupboard, and a sheet-metal stove or small stone
fireplaceâ€“but not much else. Early Utah settlers were likely inclined to build dugouts if they lacked knowledge about the viability of the area they had moved to. Probably the most common reason for the construction of dugouts, however, was expediency. When only a few families settled an area, a shortage of manpower required most families to make do with available resources until they could build more permanent dwellings. Most people think of dugouts only as housing for very early settlers; however, historical references reveal that people used this dwelling type well into the 20th century.
Single-Cell 1847-1910 The single-cell house consists of a single square or rectangle unit that is not further subdivided into rooms. This minimum building form may be one, one and a half, or two stories tall. The single-cell house, sometimes called the “square cabin” or “hall house,” is an English form found in all sections of the United States. While often considered an impermanent frontier dwelling type, this small house was in fact a substantial and fashionable residential form that remained popular in Utah well into the 1890s.
Hall-Parlor 1847-1910 The hall-parlor house is composed of a single square room (the hall) with a smaller room serving as the best room (the parlor) attached to the side. The house is one room deep and may be one, one and a half, or two stories high. While primarily associated with the Classical styles, Utah examples may have Picturesque and Victorian detailing as well. The internal plan is always asymmetrical, but a characteristic three- or five-bay symmetrical faรงade masks that imbalance. Chimneys may stand either internally or at the gable ends. This house type, ubiquitous in America, comes from England. The hall-parlor may be considered the quintessential Utah house during the second half of the 19th century.
Double-Cell 1847-1890 The double-cell house has two square or roughly square units arranged axially. It may be one, one and a half, or two stories tall and usually has a façade with two front doors and either two or four windows arranged symmetrically. Chimneys may be located at the gable ends or in the center of the house. The presence of the two doors has often led people to conclude that polygamous families developed this as a unique Utah house type—with one door for each wife. While in fact the house did lend itself to multifamily living situations, the double-cell house is a common American form in the South and Midwest, with the double doors providing a balance of openings on the principal façade.
Central Passage 1847-1900 The central-passage house type is a modification of the earlier hall-parlor house. It has a passage or hallway (usually containing a staircase) between two square or roughly square rooms. One, one-and-a-half, and two-story examples of the house have been recorded, and both three- and five-bay forms are common (bays are window or door openings). From the outside, an observer generally canâ€™t distinguish the central-passage type from the hall-parlor house, although central-passage houses are usually larger and more elaborate. But in houses built after 1880, the chimneys ordinarily stand on both walls of the central passage. So the resulting pair of internal chimneys indicates the presence of an internal passageâ€”one way to identify these later central-passage types. The house type constitutes a legacy of Georgian stylistic influences on American traditional housing during the 18th century. In its two-story form, the central-passage house (often called an I-house because of its widespread occurrence in Indiana, Illinois, and
Iowa) became something of a national symbol of economic achievement during the 19th century. Successful farms in all parts of the country adopted it as the house form of choice. People in prosperous sections of cities and towns also built this house.
Pair House 1853-1890 The pair house is defined by its distinctive three-room-wide floor plan. The name comes from the Swedish parstuga, meaning a house with a pair of rooms flanking a central room. The pair house differs from the central-passage type in that the central room is more than a passageway; in fact, it is usually either the kitchen or the living room. The house may stand one, one and a half, or two stories tall and has either gable-end or internal chimneys. The presence of paired internal chimneys (more widely spaced than central-passage chimneys) indicate a pair house. The house usually has three or five bays. In the five-bay examples, the inner windows are very close to the central doorway, and the gaps between them and the outer windows reveal the location of the internal walls. This distinctive fenestration pattern becomes another readily recognizable diagnostic feature of the pair-house form. Mormon immigrants from Scandinavia introduced the pair house into Utah. Not surprisingly, most examples stand in Sanpete and Sevier Counties, where many Scandinavian immigrants settled, but other examples are scattered throughout the state.
Double Pile 1847-1880 The double-pile house, in contrast to all the house types previously described, is two rooms deep. This is a regional modification of the Georgian detached house (which has two rooms on either side of a long central passage.) Utah has no examples of the true Georgian form; instead, the double-pile plan generally reflects a New England adaptation in which the central passage runs only halfway through the house, with a tier of three smaller rooms to the rear. Other double-pile forms in Utah extend the hall parlor, pair house, and double-cell types one unit to the rear.
Side Passage/Entry Hall 1847-1920 The side-passage house has a square or rectangular plan with an entrance passage on one side of the main floor, which gives the house a distinctive asymmetrical appearance. The side-passage house is one and a half or two stories and displays a remarkable longevity, being used in styles ranging from the Greek Revival to the Prairie School. The side-passage form originated as an 18th-century variant of the Georgian detached house, which had two rooms on either side of a central passage. In essence, the side-passage house represents two-thirds of the complete Georgian form. The side-passage plan was found in both urban and rural areas of the country during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Saltbox 1847-1870 The saltbox type is defined principally by its roof shape rather than its plan. The saltbox has a two-story front section and a one-story extension, or outshut, to the rear. A long sloping roof contains the entire house. The continuous, unbroken roofline gives the house the shape of an old-fashioned salt storage box. Utah examples occur in central-passage, hall-parlor, and pair-house plans, but all share the distinctive sloping roof. The saltbox is a New England colonial form that never became very popular in Utah, despite many settlersâ€™ Yankee origins. However, people often erroneously give this name to any house with a rear lean-to roof.
Temple Form 1847-1875 The temple-form house is a distinctive type that has its entrance in the narrower side of the house, usually under the gable end of the roof. Temple-form houses may be one and a half or two stories high, and are almost always associated with the Greek Revival style. The house may use different floor plans, including the double-cell and side-passage. It may also have wings on one or both sides. Subordinate to the main block in early 19th-century plans, these side wings had become more prominent by the time of Utahâ€™s settlement. By 1850, several new types, most notably the cross-wing and cruciform houses, were emerging as important new forms. The temple-form house was an early 19th-century product of the Greek Revival stylistic movement. Seeking to capture the spirit of monumental buildings in ancient Greece like the Parthenon, American architectural theorists championed gable-front, pedimented structures with columned porticoes. People commonly built this house type along the expanding New England frontier, and it became particularly popular in the Upper Midwest during the mid-19th century. The popularity of the temple-form houses in the Eastern United States increased steadily during the 1930s and â€˜40s, although usually with a simple gable roof instead of colossal porticoes.
Cross Wing 1880-1910 The cross-wing house consists of two wings placed at right angles so that the floor plan resembles either a “T” or an “L.” The side wing often contains the stairway. The stylistic emphasis of the house is divided equally between the facade of the forward-projecting wing and the porch fronting the main entrance in the side or flanking wing, and it is at these points that decoration is commonly found. The house itself is usually one and a half stories tall, although some are two stories. Smaller one-story examples, often called simply “T-cottages,” also appear with great frequency. The cross-wing house initially developed in association with the Gothic Revival and Italianate styles, but during the late-19th century it became a popular plan for
Victorian dwellings as well. Variants of the basic cross-wing form include the “double cross wing,” a house that has two forward projecting wings, and the “cruciform cross-wing,” a house that has side wings projecting to both sides of the principal wing. Sometimes a builder constructed a single section of a cross wing, planning to add the other wing at a later time. Several of these “half cross wings” stand throughout Utah; they have the general appearance of a temple form house, with the narrow, gable end facing the street. However, they are typically more narrow than a t emple form and do not have a doorway on the front, but rather on the side, where the later wing was to be added.
Central Block with Projecting Bays 1885-1915 The Victorian period in American architecture witnessed a vast increase in the number and variety of popular housing forms. Generally irregular in shape and highly ornamental, these new houses came in various types and styles and were popularized by such house pattern books as Robert Shoppell’s Artistic Modern Houses of Low Cost (1881) and Radford’s American Homes (1903). Victorian houses became common everywhere in Utah after 1890, although they were particularly popular in urban Salt Lake City, Provo, and Ogden. Within this enormous number of different types, two forms emerge as particularly important. The first–and by far the most common–is the central block with projecting bays. This house, found in one, one and a half, or two stories and a bewildering variety of external treatments, represents a basic modification of the older side-passage form. In the Victorian version, projecting bays were added to the principal rooms, thereby achieving a desired external irregularity of design while at the same time making the rooms larger and brighter. The Victorian central block with projecting bays is thus characterized by a roughly large square central section punctuated by bays to one or several sides. The main roof is typically hipped or pyramidal, but may be gabled, while the bays usually are gabled. Sometimes referred to as “Queen Anne cottages,’ these houses are in fact found in various sizes and in a wide range of Victorian-era styles, ranging from the Romanesque to the Neoclassical. In the largest houses, the side passage was often expanded into a formal entrance hall, sometimes containing a fireplace. On the opposite end of the spectrum, the entrances of smaller, less expensive houses usually led directly into the living room or parlor.
Rectangular Block 1885-1915 Another common Victorian house plan, again based on the side-passage type, consists of a rather austere rectangular block with the narrow end facing the street and containing the main entrance. In this respect, the rectangular block is reminiscent of the older temple-form houses. These Victorian houses often have protruding bay windows, but generally lack the pronounced irregularity associated with the central block with projecting bays. They usually have gabled roofs, and often have a front projecting porch or bay window. Again, the smaller houses in this category lack an entrance passage.
Shotgun 1875-1910 The shotgun house is narrow, one story tall, one room wide, and two or more rooms deep. The narrow gable end faces the street and typically contains a single entryway and window. Each room is placed behind the other in single file, with no hallway. The roof ridge is perpendicular to the street. The shotgun is an African-American house form that is most closely associated with New Orleans but is found throughout the Southeast and in the industrial cities of the Northern United States. In Utah the shotgun house is uncommon; it is usually encountered in mining towns and urban working-class neighborhoods. Where did the term “shotgun” come from? Nobody knows. One myth is that if one fired a shotgun through the front door, the shot would pass through the lined-up doors of each room and out the back door. However, typically the doors of the various rooms do not always line up. Possibly, the term may have originated among slaves from southern Africa, who used the word “to-gun,” which means roughly, “place of assembly.”
Early 20th Century Residential Building Types The transition from the last decades of the 19th century into the 20th saw an increasing vocabulary of residential architectural types and styles. The rather austere and rigid classicism of the early 19th century was slowly replaced with buildings more organic in form. Various wings, dormers, or turrets sprouted from the central core on houses as asymmetry became more fashionable in Victorianism. But the turn of the 20th century ushered in a modern era of architectural design. Suddenly, houses with all the appendages and accoutrements of the Victorian era looked ungainly and old-fashioned, and the less visible and intrusive on the landscape a house was, the better. The transition was not drastic, but basic forms began to simplify. The Prairie School style developed by Frank Lloyd Wright with its low-to-the ground, simple lines influenced the then-developing bungalow. This house typeâ€”and not just the Prairie School influenced versionâ€”became the house of choice and neighborhoods sprung up everywhere in the state. Following World War I, historical reference became important again in the public taste of architecture as various European and other cultural influences played into the design of the next most popular house type in Utah, the Period Cottage. During this era economics played a role in the vast numbers of houses being constructed, but also the relative decrease in size of the average house to meet the planning needs of communities. However, no matter what city or town one travels to in Utah, one will likely find several examples of houses from this era!
Homestead Temple House 1900-1920 The homestead temple house is a later incarnation of the temple form of the early settlement era of Utah. However, the differences lie in the construction date and typical materials used. The mass-produced version of this later house type was popular throughout the country—particularly the Midwest—and was found in both urban and rural settings. However, in Utah, the homestead temple house was not as common. It is typically found in later settled areas of the state, with somewhat “boomtown” economies. The type features a gable-end primary façade, like the earlier temple form, typically with a porch. But while early temple-form houses were more substantial, being constructed of stone or stucco over adobe, the later versions were less permanent—frame constructed with clapboard, drop siding, masonite, asbestos tile, or asphalt shingle siding. The appearance is almost more akin to a two-story bungalow than the earlier classically influence temple form.
Foursquare 1900-1920 The foursquare house type is a one- or two-story cube-shaped house with a hipped or pyramidal roof. Often it has a wide one-story front porch and a centrally placed hipped dormer in the roof. Primarily associated with the Neoclassical and Prairie School styles, foursquare houses generally consist of four roughly square rooms on each floor. The entrance may lead directly into a living room or to a center or side passage. The large two-story examples of the foursquare were moderately popular in Utah cities and represent a clear rejection of the eclectic irregularity of the Victorian styles. The one-story foursquare was a common residence in Utahâ€™s mining towns after 1900.
Bungalows 1905-1925 As a popular dwelling type in Utah in the years before World War I, the bungalow was a noticeably low, ground-hugging house of one or one-and-a-half stories and a rectangular plan. It had a low-pitched roof that projected conspicuously out over the eaves. Decoration itself was sparse, being generally limited to exposed structural features such as rafter ends, exaggerated purlins and king posts, and heavy, tapered porch posts supporting the overhanging front porch. Porches and verandas facilitated access; inside the house, circulation was unrestricted and spaces open. Convenience was emphasized, so bungalows were generally equipped with small efficient kitchens and built-in features such as bookcases and tables. Most Utah bungalows were built by local contractors following ideas contained in popular pattern books and home-improvement magazines. Four main bungalow types are encountered in Utah. The first has its narrow end placed toward the street and may have either a low-pitched Prairie School style hipped roof or an Arts and Crafts style gable roof. The second type is a one-and-a-half story house characterized by a broad gable roof that projects out over the
front porch. There is almost always a centrally placed dormer having either a shed or gable roof. The third type of bungalow is a small gabled cottage fronted by a Bungalow style porch. The fourth is almost difficult to characterize as a bungalow, as it does not always feature a front porch. This is the box bungalow, and is a very simplified version with the front entrance at the gable end of the house, but no porch, or just a small stoop in place of the porch.
Period Cottages 1910-1935 Utah architecture between the two world wars was characterized by the revival of aesthetic concepts associated with particular historic periods. A range of house types emerged that in a general way imitated older medieval building forms. These â€œperiod housesâ€? often had rectangular floor plans in a hall-parlor or central-passage configuration, or were variants of the cross-wing house with one projecting wing. Appearing deceptively small from the street, often they actually extended deep into the lot. Stylistically, period cottages ranged from Spanish Colonial to Mission, but they most commonly the styles are English Tudor and English Cottage. Period cottages populated the expanding suburbs of larger cities like Salt Lake City, Provo, Ogden, and Logan, but are found in rural communities as well.
Basement House/Hope House 1920-1950 The basement house is a concept that actually relates back to early settlement times in Utah when families would construct expedient subterranean dwellings (dugouts) where there were few resources or little time to build an above-ground dwelling. The basement house (also known as â€œHope Housesâ€? because of the hope that someday they could be expanded upon), was an inexpensive means in the 20th century of obtaining a house for those who could not afford a larger one. Basement houses typically consist of a concrete floor approximately six feet below grade and formed concrete walls that rise about three feet above grade. Basement houses can have a either a flat roof or a gabled roof. Typically, the house is accessed by an exterior stairwell descending to the entry, but flat roof versions may have a rooftop entrance with an enclosed entryway projecting above the roof. Floor plans are similar to those of other houses of the era. When financial means allowed, the roof would be removed and an above-ground story added, essentially turning the original portion of the house into a basement. The percentage of basement houses converted to above-ground houses is not known since they are difficult to distinguish once they have been expanded. Early tax photos may help identify a house that was converted from a basement house.
Cape Cod 1925-1945 The 20th-century Cape Cod type harkens back to colonial New England, the region where this house type developed. Like the period cottage, the Cape Cod heavily references earlier architecture in its exterior appearance; however, the interior was completely modernized to contemporary standards. The basic form is a boxy primary mass with a steeply pitched gable roof parallel to the street. The main distinguishing feature that sets the Cape Cod apart from other nondescript period cottage or WWII-era cottage forms is the gabled dormers on the front of the roof. Although two dormers is typical, there may be a single dormer or as many as four. Some examples have attached garages, although these are not common. Because of its distinct appearance, the Cape Cod is also noted as a style.
Clipped Gable Cottage 1915-1935 A sort of cross between a bungalow and a period cottage, the primary distinguishing feature of the clipped-gable cottage is, as its name suggests, clipped or jerkin head gables on the roof. Typically situated with the broad side and roofline parallel to the street, this type usually has a centrally placed main entrance under a projecting porch. The broad faรงade and lengthwise orientation of the house is reminiscent of a period cottage, while the large porch echoes that of a bungalow. The clipped gable roof ends lend a touch of the Colonial Revival style, while other ornamentation may imply the Arts and Crafts or Prairie School styles. Not quite a bungalow and not quite a Period Cottage, the clipped-gable cottage was popular in newly developing subdivisions in the 1920s and 1930s as well as in older neighborhoods as infill. This type can also be found in rural settings on larger lots. Because of its distinct characteristics, the clipped gable cottage is also an architectural style.
World War II & Post War Residential Building Types You will notice that floor plans do not accompany the later house types in this guide. In these cases, field investigation has not progressed to the extent that specific sub-categories have been identified. But since it seemed wise to point out areas needing further research, we have included these large, general categories in an effort to acknowledge their importance in Utah architecture. We hope that continued investigation by future researchers will more fully describe and explain these important forms During the second half of the 20th century, changes occurred in housing design as a result of innovations in construction and technology as well as an unprecedented demand for single-family dwellings. During World War II, a shortage of construction materials led to smaller, more efficient housing designs influenced by the federal governmentâ€™s plans for war industry-related housing projects. About this time another major design change was taking placeâ€“and that was in how a house interfaced with the street. In prior decades, the primary focus of the Victorian cottage and bungalow types was on the street side, where one could sit on the large front porch and visit with neighbors. However, as the period cottage replaced the bungalow as the most popular house type, the porch became smaller and took on a less significant role. With the development of the World War II-era cottage and the ranch house types, the porch had diminished to little more than a stoop. Then, during the 1940s and 1950s, as new subdivisions sprang up almost overnight and older neighborhoods became crowded with new infill, residents desired more privacy from the street, and the focus of the house shifted toward the back yard, particularly in the Ranch house. These post-war types influenced later housing types for many decades and can be found in any community, rural or urban.
World War II-Era Cottage 1940-1950 From the early 20th century up to the 1940s houses were designed with a narrow street faรงade and a plan that went deep into the property, but by the 1940s a transition began to occur. Primarily because of wartime economics, the narrow, deep floor plan of the bungalow and period cottage types transformed to a single-story, square, boxy plan with small rooms situated around a core. This plan economized space and allowed for easily mass-producible housing at a time when resources and manpower were scarce. The earlier period cottage types transitioned in the 1940s as the appearance became less vertical and more boxy and compact. Gables are not as steeply pitched and the overall appearance is simpler. The enclosed, attached garage became a major feature with this house type as the automobile flourished following the war. Attached garages are typically small and found on the side of the house. As demand for housing reached all time highs following the war, the World War II era cottage was constructed in vast numbers in large, concentrated suburban tracts across the country, most notably in the Levittown developments in the Northeastern United States.
Early Ranch (also with attached garage) 1945-1955 Toward the end of the 1940s, post-war prosperity increased due to veterans receiving GI Bills and easier home-financing terms. As the number of marriages and size of families increased, the small World War II-era-cottage type was becoming obsolete. The core of small rooms based around a compact kitchen and living room began a transition to a new plan, a plan that actually originated during the 1930s in California: the ranch house. In response to the compact, tightly confined WWII-era cottages, the early ranch plan stretched the house slightly more across the lot and provided larger window openings to allow the outdoors in. The ranchâ€™s e xterior appearance resembled that of the WWII-era cottage, only larger. With the transitional early ranch house, floor plans changed slightly from the WWII-era cottage. Bedrooms were pulled away from the kitchen/living room section of the house. The overall appearance is that of an elongated WWII-era cottage; slightly less boxy, but with similar details. As with the WWII-era cottage, the early ranch continued the convenience of a garage attached to the side of the house.
Early ranch houses may have some traditional stylistic influence; however, unlike most types, early ranch style is usually evocative of minimal traditionalismâ€”with even less historical reference.
Ranch (also with attached garage) c. 1955-1980 The complete transition to the ranch-type house from the WWII-era cottage occurred in the mid 1950s. Stretched even longer across the lot than the early ranch, the ranch house type is still being constructed to this day. Although there are various plans associated with the ranch house, the most basic features the living room/dining room/kitchen placed together on one end of the house with a hallway extending from the side off which the bedrooms and bathroom are located. One major change the ranch house type initiated was altering the primary focus of the house from the street to the backyard. No longer was the front porch a welcome invitation to visit with the neighborhood, now the emphasis was placed on the sanctuary of the backyard with emerging presence of the patio and sliding glass doors inviting nature inside as well. As the 1950s progressed into the 1960s horizontal sliding windows began to replace vertical double-hung sashes, and larger plate-glass windows opened a vista into the living room. New “space age” plastic materials for flooring, countertops and other details were introduced as were shapes and colors. As the type progressed into the late 1950s and early 1960s touches of Modernism appeared in the form of large intersecting planes (wide chimneys, carports, and wall planes that extend out from the sides). The Space Age also influenced the architecture with triangular and swooping forms typically in carport and patio roofs and supports. Attached garages were fairly common in the ranch and are typically incorporated into the design so that the same roof line and pitch are used over the garage or carport area. Like the early ranch type, ranch houses also are a style unto themselves—sort of a stripped down progression of the early ranch. A smaller, simplified version of the ranch is the “box ranch,”
which is typically a shorter than a typical ranch, with very few identifying features. Ranch houses are often referred to as â€œramblersâ€? in real estate parlance.
Split Level/Split Entry (also with garage) 1950-1980 The ranch house places the primary living spaces on a single floor, although basements were common in this type. But in the 1950s another house type emerged, which placed rooms on different floors according to useâ€“the split level. Although not as popular in Utah as the ranch when first introduced, the split level increased in popularity during the 1960s and 1970s. The split level has three and sometimes four levels, with one side of the house comprised of a single-story portion and the other half comprised of two levelsâ€”one level a half-story above the main level, and the other level a half-story below. The main level contains the entrance, living room, and kitchen. The upper level contains the bedrooms, and the lower level contains the newly introduced family room/recreation room and bedrooms. In some examples, the lower level contains a garage, which solves the problem of not having enough room on the property for an outbuilding. However, with larger lot sizes, the lower level added living space to the design. Some examples have a fourth level typically comprised of a basement below the first-story level. The placement of various uses on different floors separates public and private areas are separated, giving more privacy to the bedroom areas and emphasizing the living and family rooms. In a variation, the split entry type also implements a raised foundation but has two full floors rather than a staggered layout, essentially creating a two-story ranch house without placing the basement completely below ground level. The raised entryway enters onto a landing from which a stairway ascends a half level to the main living/kitchen/bedroom area or descends a half level to the family room/bedroom/basement area.
Mobile Home 1950-present
Many would not consider mobile homes buildings, mainly because they are “mobile,” and not permanently attached to the ground. Nor would they be considered historic in that they don’t seem to meet the 50-year age criterion. Probably a majority of mobile homes, however, are only moved once – from the sales lot to the dwelling site, and they are mobile only in that they were moved to the site on wheels. As for being historical, some existing mobile homes were manufactured as early as the late 1940s or early 1950s. However, probably because of the semi-permanent construction materials and methods (plus the perceived disposable nature of this type), truly historic mobile homes are difficult to find. Early models are fairly narrow and usually covered in metal or aluminum siding. Double-wide mobile homes came along in the 1960s. Innovations to make the dwellings more permanent include structures (typically
lumber) constructed around or over them to support a gable roof, lean-to additions, and porch enclosures. Because the mobile home is unique in its appearance (compared to other residential examples) it is also noted as an architectural style.
Modular/Manufactured Home 1960s-present Manufactured homes are basically a progression from mobile homes and have become increasingly popular; in part because they represent a dwelling that is more substantial and permanent than a mobile home but less
expensive than a house constructed on site. The concept is not new, however, and has ties to the 18th and 19th centuries in America, when cabins were often relocated, and more recently in the mid-20th century, when people bought decommissioned military and government surplus buildings for residential and other uses.
Modular homes look similar to mobile homes in that they are long and narrow enough to be transported on trailers (sometimes in two lengthwise halves). However, they are typically larger than mobile homes and resemble a basic ranch-type house in appearance. Modular homes are also made to sit on a concrete or concrete block foundation, and some can accommodate a basement, and therefore have a more permanent nature. Construction materials come in a wide variety as well, including aluminum or vinyl siding, log veneer, plywood, stucco, and even a thin brick veneer and â€œpermastone.â€? Like mobile homes, modular homes are commonly sold from roadside lots and are particularly popular in rural areas. Although various styles are used in manufactured homes, like the mobile home they typically have their own style, and so they are noted in the style section as well.
In the 1950s and 1960s the ranch and split level house types dominated domestic architecture. However, as in previous decades, architects had a minor influence on the mostly contractor-built housing. Noted architects such as Richard Neutra and Robert Venturi were designing boldly shaped, geometrical houses in various parts of the country. These examples influenced local architects who designed residences for wealthier clients. Contemporary describes both a type and style. Contemporary-type houses are designed primarily with an open plan and large window expanses to take advantage of view lots. The type incorporates geometrical–particularly angular–shapes, particularly in roof design. In keeping with their intended natural environment, these houses often implement materials like rough wood plank siding and formed concrete walls. Although the architect-designed versions are typically located on hillsides and in canyons, they influenced the more common contractor-designed suburban examples, where “contemporary” refers more to an applied style. Probably the most common types are modified Ranch and Split Level-type houses with larger windows and other architectural details. Another common feature in more-recent examples is a clerestory window in a raised shed roof.
Commercial, Public & Industrial Building Types Until the past couple of decades, virtually no research had been done on the form of commercial structures. Richard Longstreth developed pioneering studies into commercial architecture typology in the mid-1980s. For this guide we have drawn from those studies and have expanded his typology to include public as well as commercial architecture. Longstrethâ€™s system of classification is based upon form, and more specifically on the faĂ§ade, that portion of the building intended for public view. His analysis does not deal with the interior plans of commercial buildings, since they are usually flexible in arrangement and subject to continual change. His analysis includes a range of commercial functions, including banks, retail stores, office buildings, hotels, and theaters. Because of the prominence of public buildings in a majority of Utah communities, we have expanded Longstrethâ€™s typology to include city halls, city and county buildings, post offices, and court buildings. The major types of commercial and public buildings found in Utah include what Longstreth calls the one- and two-part commercial blocks, the enframed window wall, the two- and three-part vertical blocks, the temple front, the vault, the central block with wings, and the enframed block. Commercial and industrial architectural design changed very little over the course of the 19th century. However, toward the end of the century technological progress in materials, particularly concrete and structural iron and steel reinforcement, made larger buildings possible.
Early commercial buildings typically had a narrow street façade and an enclosed rectangular floor plan that could be divided according to the needs of the user. This worked well when several buildings were tightly lined up along a main thoroughfare within walking distance from residences, and the primary source of transportation was the horse. However, one invention had more influence on commercial architectural design than anything else, the automobile. Now that people were driving rather than walking, changes to both building and site were necessary to accommodate vehicle parking and customer service. Several building types emerged in response to increased automobile usage, including motor courts, motels, commercial courts, drive-in restaurants, supermarkets, service stations, and service-bay businesses. By the early to mid-20th century there were more advances in commercial design than any other type of architecture, and the trend in Utah was similar to most areas of the country. Listed above are descriptions of the most common types of commercial and industrial architecture encountered in the state.
The one-part commercial block is a single street-level structure. In the late 19th and early 20th century, many such buildings were constructed with large plate-glass display windows for use as retail stores. False-façade buildings common to smaller communities in the western United States are generally one-part blocks as well. One-part public buildings are also widespread in Utah, including public libraries and city offices. “Block,” by the way, was a common turn-of-the-century term for even the smallest commercial structures.
This is the most common commercial structure found in Utah communities, often in the form of the local â€œmercâ€? or mercantile. Composed of two distinct zones, the building may range from two to four stories in height. The first part of the structure is on street level and is made up of public spaces such as stores, offices, or banking rooms, often visible through large plate-glass windows. The upper zone contains more private spaces such as apartments, offices, or organizational meeting rooms.
Two-Part Vertical Block
One of the more popular tall commercial building types, the two-part vertical block contains a street-level zone, which may extend to a second story, and an upper, multi-storied portion. In contrast to the two-part block already discussed, the two-part vertical block has two distinctly different facades and consists of at least four stories in all. The street level of the faรงade usually contains large window bays of glass to encourage retail business or to display banking functions. The upper zone is distinguished from the street level by the window pattern or by framing the windows with engaged columns or pilasters. Corners are frequently reinforced by decorative masonry patterns such as quoins. The top of the faรงade usually terminates in a cornice or stringcourse of decorative masonry to differentiate it from the lower stories.
Three-Part Vertical Block
Popular at the same time as the two-part vertical block, this type is differentiated from it by the treatment of its uppermost stories, giving the building three separate and distinct zones of design. The third part often had a greater variety of decorative treatment than the middle or street-level zones. In early 20th-century commercial blocks, lightweight terra-cotta was a popular material for creating the differentiation between these zones.
Enframed Window Wall
The enframed window wall is a composition in which a border surrounds or enframes the entire faรงade or the central section of a small commercial building of one or more stories. Small movie theaters often make use of this design. This type is rare in Utah.
The temple-front faรงade is derived from classical architecture, particularly Greek and Roman temples. This type may be found in the designs of public, religious, and institutional buildings, but in commercial use, the temple front was usually a small bank building. Two faรงade designs were most popular: one with a portico and pediment (prostyle), the other with an entrance framed by columns and by the end walls of the building (dityle in antis). License was taken by many designers; if a pediment was not used on the faรงade, a parapet or balustrade took its place. Buildings situated on corers were often designed in such a manner that the side along the street repeated the pattern of the faรงade columns though the use of engaged columns or pilasters.
The vault has a rectangular faĂ§ade punctured by a large highlighted entrance. It may also contain small windows on either side of the entry. A number of Louis Sullivanâ€™s Midwestern banks from the 1920s follow this design. We include, too, similar buildings in which the entry is to the side of a central monumental window.
Central Block with Wings
This type is a symmetrical composition of a dominant central block flanked by identical wings. The central block is accentuated by its size, decoration, and projection from the wings. In contrast to the three-part block previously discussed, the flanking wings are generally lower and recessed from the central portion. This type was common for banks, public and institutional buildings, and railroad stations.
The enframed block has a rectangular faรงade containing classical columns or pilasters in the form of a colonnade, which is framed by substantial corners, bays, or end walls. As in some versions of the temple front, the colonnade has an entablature with a projecting cornice and a parapet or balustrade. This type is frequently seen in the designs of banks, post offices, courts, and institutional buildings.
Although the Warehouse type has been around since the mid-19th century, major innovations were not made until the first decade of the 20th century. These large, multiple-story structures typically feature a ground-level office area that usually occupies only a portion of the floor, with the rest of the building being open floor space devoted to storage and manufacturing. The buildings are primarily utilitarian in design and might have basic stylistic embellishment on the street level or just at the main entrance. Early examples featured heavy timber framing as the primary structural support. The thick timbers allowed for a slower burn time in case of fire, to which these buildings were prone. In the early 20th century, iron, steel, and reinforced concrete replaced timber as the main structural components. There are
usually several large windows located around the exterior of the warehouse along with rooftop light monitors to allow as much light as possible inside the open spaces. Water towers for fire suppression systems and elevator and stair towers that project above the roofline are other common features. On the main level, usually at the rear or sides, are located loading docks and bays for trucks and freight trains (for those located on railroad spurs). Warehouses are usually, but not always, grouped in industrial areas on the outskirts of cities where the rail lines or roadways provided easy accessibility.
Like the warehouse, the commercial/industrial block type is distinguishable from other commercial types in that it has no major architectural features. Lacking any type of storefront or service bay, this type is basically what the name impliesâ€”a large commercial or industrial-use building with a utilitarian appearance. Entrances and windows, for the most part, are simple and functional and donâ€™t exhibit any stylistic influence. This building type can range from one to a few stories tall, and construction can be from a variety of materials, including brick, concrete block, concrete, or stucco panels. The interior might be divided into office space and open space for storage or work areas.
The commercial court might be considered an early version of the strip mall because it contained more than one commercial establishment, usually food markets. This type typically had an L or U plan, creating a court-like parking area. The building itself was very simple and utilitarian, consisting of open storefronts, usually with a canopy running the length of the storefront, and side and rear walls with no fenestration. Commercial courts were little more than open-air markets. Some provided curbside service so that motorists would not have to leave their automobiles. They might also have had a smaller stand-alone building, such as a filling station or other retail establishment, in the corner of the parking lot. More common earlier in the 20th century, most of these have been demolished or later altered with glass and partial-wall storefronts.
Although the drive-in restaurant concept evolved earlier in the 20th century, it really came into its own in the 1950s with the post-war popularity of the automobile. These rather small, simply constructed buildings situated in the middle of a parking area basically function as a kitchen, with the restaurant â€œseating areaâ€? being the parking lot, where customers eat in their cars or maybe at a picnic table. The drive-in usually has large windows on three sides and a walled-in rear section that contains the cooking area, refrigerator, and storage areas. The building is typically a box with a canopy extending out from the front and possibly the sides to shade customers who order from an exterior window. Sometimes the canopies are swooped and the exterior walls splayed out. Some drive-ins also contain an extension with stalls for cars to park and order via intercoms.
Service-bay businesses are easy to distinguish by their combination of a large vehicle bay with its own entrance and attached office space with a separate pedestrian entrance, usually both on the primary facade. Unlike service stations, where the bays are used for vehicle repair, these buildings typically housed businesses that utilized a service or delivery vehicle of some type. Examples from the early 20th century were oftentimes existing commercial buildings with a garage added to the side with swinging doors; these buildings were commonly quite small. Later examples from the mid-20th century are larger with a fully integrated bay or set of bays that have overhead garage doors and larger office and public space. All types of construction materials are implemented including concrete block, brick, and metal siding. They can be found in the smallest towns and larger urban areas throughout the state.
The transition from horse and buggy to the automobile posed some interesting challenges, such as how to park, how to handle increased and faster-moving traffic, and how to provide fuel for motorized vehicles. Early filling stations became common as automobiles gained popularity, and generally consisted of a gas pump next to a small building (there are a few of these still around). Service stations followed soon after, but really took off in the post-WWII economy to service greater numbers of automobiles. Providing both fuel and mechanical repair, the service station consists of a main building housing the retail portion, where customers pay for services, along with one or more service bays, where mechanics repair vehicles. Fuel pumps sit away from the main building, sometimes sheltered by a canopy, which is either attached to the main building or is freestanding. In the 1950s and 1960s, these buildings and canopies commonly took on an angular, swooping form, similar to drive-in restaurants of the era.
The supermarket combined several food-related shops under a single roof, providing “one-stop” shopping for a suburban, automobile-oriented society. For their time, they were the largest shopping venues around and provided the origins of today’s vast asphalt parking lots, with parking either to the front or side of the building. Although supermarkets had various formats, depending on the grocery chain, they were typically large boxes, sometimes with an arched front façade. A common feature of this type was an all-glass or part glass/part opaque panel façade. Although once very common, since the 1970s the original supermarkets have become increasingly scarce, being replaced by larger big-box retail stores or adapted for other uses.
In the 1960s across the United States resident populations increasingly fled city centers as interstate highways split neighborhoods, crime rates increased, and blight ensued. Along with the rest of the nation, Utah continued the suburbanization and sprawl that began in earnest following WWII, and small commercial districts lost customers in the process. Strip malls became the new â€œcommercial districtâ€? serving residential sprawl. Several small shops located under one roof with plenty of parking available seemed to be the answer for those wanting to forego the trip to a major commercial/retail center. Developers could put up a strip mall quite inexpensively, often with tax incentives from the local municipality. Low rental rates attracted lessees. Strip malls come in a variety of formats (usually a box) but are typically distinguished by a unified exterior theme and entries to each individual shop.
Apartment Buildings & Hotel/Motel Building Types This typology for apartment building and hotel types is an outgrowth of our investigations into commercial architecture. Although aparment buildings have received some attention from historians in recent years, those studeis have been largely confined to such major cities as New York, Washington, and Chicago. Little of significance from these studies is applicable to Utah. Research into 19th- and 20th-century publications on apartments or hotels gives some general information, but again, little of it applies to Utah buildings. The following classifications were developed specifically for apartment buildings and hotels in Utah. This categorization system is based on the form of the building and its orientation to the site, and secondarily on the points of entry and the pattern of circulation within the building. Floor plans have not been studeis in detail. Thirteen majori types have been identified, most with subtypes, ranging from the double house to the â€œHâ€? apartment block.
Double houses are basically duplexes. Depending on the form, a duplex can have the appearance of two mirror-image halves of a building connected together, or of a single unit with fenestration symmetrically arranged to reflect the interior division. There are a few types of double houses, which for purposes of survey fieldwork are not distinguished from each other in the Utah SHPO database. However, for general knowledge they are included here.
Double House: A
This type was referred to as the “double cottage” in pre-Civil War architectural works and as the “double residence” or “pair of houses” after the Civil War. It consists of two living units under one roof. The building is similar in scale and appearance to a single-family house. The two units usually have separate entries and may be either one or two stories high.
Double House: B
Version B of the double house is a horizontally divided building containing one flat or apartment per floor. Unlike A, type B often has a flat roof and is more urban in character. This type may have either a single common entry for both units or separate entries. Adding a mirror image of the façade of this building—in effect doubling it—creates the four-unit block, below.
Double House: C
Type C includes buildings of one, one and a half, or two stories joined together at one end (literally a double house) creating a self-contained unit. This type includes flat-roof examples. More than two such units constitute row housing.
Other Apartment Types
Like the double house, there are a several variations of historic apartment buildings, most of which are laid out in either a single- or double-loaded corridor or a walk-up. Again, for purposes of survey fieldwork the types listed below are not distinguished from each other in the Utah SHPO database but are included for general knowledge.
The four-unit block in essence is the mirror-image duplication of the Double House: B type. Entries for the units may be found on either side of the common wall or in a series of doorways. A variation of this pattern is separate first-floor entries and a common entry for the two second-floor units.
A row house consists of three or more single-family housing unites of one or two stories joined together. This type is quite rare in Utah.
Apartment Block: A
The basic apartment block has two or more stories containing multiple dwelling units. Such buildings may be either horizontal or vertical blocks, depending upon the number of stories and the orientationof the building to the site. Horizontal blocks may be sited parallel to the street on a wide but not very deep lot. In such cases multiple entries are common in the façade. Such entries lead to foyers with adjacent stairs and—in later, taller buildings— elevators to the upper floors. Off the foyers or stair landings are generally located two or more apartments. Two apartments off each foyer or landing usually indicate a basic plan of two apartments running the depth of the building and separated by a common wall.
Apartment Block: B
Sites with limited street frontage or narrow width but great depth can contain horizontal blocks with a single entry in the façade. Within the building, the apartments are usually arranged in a line on either side of a central hall, an arrangement referred to as a “double-loaded corridor.” Occasionally, on wider sites, two such buildings may be constructed parallel to each other with an open court between them. In such cases they may have either the multiple entries of type A or the single-entry, double-loaded corridor of type B.
Apartment Block: C
Square or nearly square sites usually result in an apartment block of two or more stories with a vertical emphasis. Such buldings frequently have a central entry in the façade.
“L” & “T” Apartment Blocks
The “L” block has two or more stories of multiple dwelling units arranged in an “L” configuration. The building may be built close to the street corner with two sides facing the streets, or the configuration may be reversed so that the building is set back on the site and preceded by a forecourt. The “T” block is similar in construction; most frequently, the cross-piece of the “T” is placed adjacent to the street. This form is commonly placed on lots in the middle of the block.
“C” Apartment Block
This type is not to be confused with the “U” court. The two side wings projecting from the back of the “C” are usually not deep, and the open space confined within the shape is too shallow or too small to be considered a real court. Entry into this type may occur at the ends of the wings, or the building may have multiple entries at the back of the “C.”
In the “U”-court form, the court is usually oriented toward the street. Such configurations may have either a single entry point at the base of the “U” behind the court or multiple entries, often one entry facing the court in each wing and one in the base. As in the perpendicular Apartment Block: B, a single entry leads to a foyer, stairs and/or elevator and to a double-loaded corridor. In the case of multiple entries, two or more apartments are located on each floor. Examples of the “U” court may be one or more stories in height. A less common variation is the reverse “U” court, with the court oriented away from the street.
A variant of the “U” court is the hotel court. In this type the first floor is reserved for commercial functions and the central court is open above that level. Laterally extended versions of this type containing a second court also can be found, as in the “E” or double court. The “E” court was a popular design for large hotels in urban areas.
“H” Apartment Block
What appears at first glance to be a “U” court may turn out to be an “H” apartment block with a second court at the rear. Such designs provide improved light and ventilation to all units.
Following World War II, the inception of the “baby boom” brought an increase in family automobile vacations. The concept of long-distance road journeys had been around since the 1920s, when families would stay at auto camps and motor courts. However, the drastic increase in families hitting the open road because of expanded and improved highway infrastructure warranted a more easily accessible and less-expensive form of overnight lodging. Motels became the standardized form that replaced motor courts as a home away from home. Unlike hotels, instead of being situated in urban centers, motels are usually located conveniently along interstate off-ramps and highways. Another differentiating factor is the exterior access to the rooms in motels, as opposed to access from interior hallways; however, this is not always the case. Although the term “motel” was coined in the 1920s, it did not come in to popular usage until the late 1940s. Motels are typified by an L-, T-, or U-shaped plan, which includes guest rooms and a manager’s office. Motels built within the past 30-40 years may typically include a restaurant, which shares the parking lot, and a swimming pool. Motels sought to distinguish themselves by implementing bright and sometimes quirky neon signage. However, this trend faded as more standard corporate identification became the norm.
Agricultural Building Types Utah’s early economy was based on agriculture, and agricultural outbuildings have historically been an important feature on the landscape. Because of the unique community plan established in Joseph Smith’s “Plat for the City of Zion” and implemented by Brigham Young in the Utah Territory, large agricultural landholdings and buildings were situated outside the primary residential area, but large city lots could contain smaller outbuildings and some barns alongside dwellings and urban gardens. Although most traces of urban outbuildings have vanished, some rural towns still maintain large barns and outbuilding groups. As more and more agricultural land is developed for commercial and residential use, however, historic outbuilding examples are becoming increasingly rare. Utah’s role as an agricultural producer has diminished, and in the areas where agricultural production still exists, the historic outbuildings are commonly replaced or renovated with new materials. Below are descriptions of the most common types of historic agricultural buildings and structures still found in Utah.
The English barn was probably the first type used in the territory since it would have been familiar to Mormon settlers who had immigrated from England and the New England states. This type is distinguished by a gable roof and a large entrance located at the center of the broad side. The barn interior varied depending on how the owner used it. But the most typical arrangement was a large open pen on either side of the barn with a center drive separating the two. Farmers loaded hay into the hay mow (upper story of the barn) either from the center section or from exterior gable-end openings. Lean-tos were common additions to one side of the English barn. These were used for calving pens and feeding areas. Materials used for these barns include logs, vertical wood planking, and stone. Although construction of barns in this plan continues today, materials now include various types of metal siding or wood-sheet siding.
Intermountain barns, named for their prominence in the Intermountain region, are similar in most ways to the English barn, except for one primary feature, the location of the main entrance. While the entrance on the English barn is on the side, the Intermountain barn has the main entrance located on the gable end. With the entryway on the end rather than the side, the barn is easily expandable with lean-tos on both the broad sides, giving the barn its most characteristic appearance. The lean-tos contain calving and holding pens as well as feeding troughs in the milking area. The main portion of the barn can be set up in a number of ways. Usually the entrance end will have small pens to either side of the drive used for implement storage, granary, and so forth, and the rest of the floor will be open. The hay mow is typically located in lofts at both ends of the building. The hay is then fed through chutes that open from the loft down into the side feeding pens. Construction materials are similar to those of the English barn, with logs and wood planking being the most common. As with the English barn, Intermountain barn construction continues today, although with updated materials of dimensioned lumber posts and beams, and metal or wood-sheet siding.
Improvement Era Barn
As science and agriculture merged in the late-19th and early 20th centuries, methods for improving quality and increasing production on dairy farms were developed. Although the population was growing, the number of dairy producers was decreasing, so that those who continued in this business found increasing demand for their products. The result was a change in the way traditional dairy farms were arranged. Early barnyards featured a barn, a separate milking parlor, and a loafing shed. The Improvement Era barn actually combined all of these functions under a single roof. Typically larger than earlier barns, Improvement Era barns commonly have a gambrel roof (Gothic arch and truncated gable roofs can also be found) to allow for greater hay storage on the second floor. A large second-story opening with a projecting hoist allows for the use of a Jackson Fork with which to lift hay to this level. The main floor traditionally features an aisle down the center or down each side on a concrete floor, with gutters used to wash waste away. Rows of feeding troughs and metal stanchions used for securing the cows for milking are located along these aisles. This area might be located on one end or might take up the entire main floor space, depending on the size of the barn. On larger barns, loafing and calving pens might be located at one end. Typically on larger barns, a small perpendicular addition on the side of the barn houses the milk tank and cooling equipment. The barns can be constructed of board-and-batten siding, plank siding, drop siding, concrete block, or even sawed logs.
As with silos, granaries come in a variety of shapes and sizes, and were commonly used in Utah up into the mid-20th century. A few common types of granaries are found throughout the state: the rectangular gable-end entry, the rectangular side-entry, and the octagonal plan. These are constructed in various materials, but perhaps the most common are the wood frame examples implementing “inside-out” construction. With this technique, the frame is visible on the exterior of the building, and the horizontal wood planks are placed inside to make a smooth surface for storage of grain. Another method uses stacked 2”x 4” lumber, laid in a pattern similar to a log cabin with lapped joints. A somewhat unique form of granary found in certain parts of Utah is the octagonal type. As the name suggests, this type has an octagonal footprint, and is typically of stacked lumber construction. Early granaries were constructed of hewn or round logs, and later ones of dimensioned lumber.
As agricultural outbuilding, coops are easily discernable from other farm buildings because they are typically longer and lower in profile. Their roof shape also distinguishes them; most coops have either a shed roof or a partial gable (or saltbox-type) roof, with the front slope of the roof descending only about halfway down. Underneath the front eaves is long bank of window openings (commonly covered with chicken wire) that usually extends nearly the full length of the building. Larger coops may vary from this plan, sometimes being wider with a full gable roof and open sides. Early coops were typically constructed of wood planks; however, by the 20th century cinder and concrete blocks became increasingly popular.
The Quonset hut was introduced during WWII as a multiple-use, utilitarian, portable military building. Following the war, surplus Quonset huts became popular for use as farm and rural storage buildings, as well as for commercial storage. Made of corrugated metal or fiberglass with interior wood framing, the Quonset hut is easily constructed and requires little maintenance. Along with the all-metal exterior siding and long rectangular plan, the Quonset hut is easily recognizable by an arched roof that extends to the ground, forming the side walls (although some rest on raised concrete foundation walls). Doors are on the gable end, and in most early versions these consist of large sliding doors. These are attached to a track framework that extends out beyond the edges of the roof to allow for large openings. Overhead rolling doors are also used, as are pedestrian doors.
Quonset huts are still quite popular, and more-recent variants include a Gothic (pointed) arch shape and larger corrugations in the metal
Religious Building Types Other than New England, probably no other region in the country had as strong a religious underpinning for Euro-American settlement as did Utah and the Intermountain West. When the first groups of settlers arrived, these members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (or Mormons) planned to build Zion. They intended that faith would permeate everything they did. Naturally, ecclesiastical buildings became a part of the early landscape. However, because of the settlersâ€™ humble circumstances, these early buildings were not as dominant as one might think; they were fairly simple and nondescript. Not long after the Mormons settled in Utah, others followed. Members of various faiths arrived, mostly to proselytize among the Mormons, but these religions soon set down roots as well. Members of the earliest established religions in Utah included Jews, Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Methodists, Catholics, and Baptists. Their places of worship became landmarks in many established communities, indicating a growing diversity of beliefs among the citizens.
The very first established place of worship for the Mormon settlers was a bowery near what is now Pioneer Park in Salt Lake City. The first real formal meeting place was the original or “Old” tabernacle on what is now Temple Square, constructed in 1852. In new settlements, Mormons did 2005-S-900-East_largenot always immediately build a local meetinghouse; instead, they often held church meetings in small, multi-purpose buildings or homes. The earliest meetinghouses often appeared similar to larger residences, usually temple form in plan with minor classical design elements. The entrance was on the gable end, and a row of windows lined the two broad sides. If the church had a steeple, it was usually small. The spare interiors typically consisted of a single large room with rows of benches or sometimes chairs, and a small dais or just a podium at the end opposite the entrance. These first-generation meetinghouses were most commonly constructed of adobe brick stuccoed on the exterior. Sometimes as the wards grew in size, members built additions to their meetinghouses, but usually they just replaced the old with a new building. In time, Mormons built tabernacles for regional meetings. These larger, more architectural and more costly buildings could hold more people. Many early examples have been replaced, but some still stand in larger cities. By the turn of the 20th century, meetinghouse design accrued more architectural embellishment and took on a more traditional form, including a steeple (which the early forms usually lacked), and sometimes a small room at the rear of the building for office space. Soon, buildings were being constructed with several rooms in which to hold classes. And, as wards were able to raise money, they built “amusement halls” near the meetinghouses, in which to hold dances, socials, and sporting events. By the 1920s, wards built “cultural halls,” as they came to be called, as part of the meetinghouse. Plans also became somewhat standardized church-wide. Common styles implemented from 1900 through the 1950s included Romanesque,
Victorian Gothic, Prairie School, Colonial Revival, and Minimal Traditional, and even some hints of Modernism. By the end of the 1950s, “ward houses,” as they became known, were fairly large and included a chapel that could be opened up into the cultural hall, classrooms, meeting rooms, and a kitchen. By this time most references to historical styles had given way to a basic, modern appearance. In the early 1980s floor plans changed so that hallway extensions were replaced with a single hall around the perimeter (also known as a “racetrack”) surrounding the chapel and cultural hall. New buildings basically retain this format today, although references to Colonial Revivalism are again popular in the exterior design.
Temples are the most sacred buildings of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and are therefore the most monumental in appearance. While ward houses serve the weekly meeting needs of the congregation, temples serve a specialized purpose for doing specialized priesthood ordinances and ceremonies. Because of this only members of the faith in good standing are allowed to enter and use these buildings. The temple as a specialized building type was established early in Mormon Church history beginning with the first temple constructed in Kirtland, Ohio, in 1836. The Nauvoo, Illinois temple was completed in 1846, just as the Mormons were driven from there. The next temple to be completed was the St. George, Utah, Temple in 1877. Three others were completed in the nineteenth century in Utah: the Logan in 1884, the Manti in 1888, and the Salt Lake City in 1893 (although this was the first one in Utah to begin construction in 1853). Architectural design was not standardized for temples until the latter twentieth century saw a drastic increase in temple construction throughout the world. To keep up requirements the LDS Church designed smaller and more standard plans—for the most part. All LDS temples have adopted design elements common for the era in which they were constructed, but manage to maintain a unique appearance.
Because of the unique settlement circumstances of Utah and the dominance of the Mormon population, early congregations of other Christian faiths were typically small. After the establishment of mines and mining communities and then the arrival of the railroad, a larger, more diverse population of other Christian faiths developed. With more members, congregations could garner enough funding to build a meetinghouse. Except for a few large examples throughout the state, architectural styles for meetinghouses of these faiths are basically indistinguishable from the exterior. Most Protestant faiths used a basic meetinghouse planâ€”basically a rectangular primary building mass with a tower or cupola centered at one end or at the front corner. Early examples of various other Christian meetinghouses are rare.
The Catholic Church is the earliest known Christian presence in Utah, with the 1776 expedition through Utah from Santa Fe of Fathers Dominguez and Escalante. However, it was not until that the Holy See in Rome placed any kind of ecclesiastical responsibility for the Territory. The first known mass in Utah took place in July 1859 at Camp Floyd. With the beginning of mining in Utah in 1863 and the completion of the transcontinental railroad in 1869, Utah received an influx of members of various faiths, including Catholics. To serve these members, Catholic church buildings were constructed where the highest Catholic population bases were, railroad towns and mining settlements.
Not long after the first Mormons settled in the Salt Lake Valley, groups of Jewish settlers followed and established their own community and businesses. However, the first synagogue was not built until the 1883. Four other synagogues were built between 1891 and 1921, reflecting the internal diversity of the practicing Jewish community. The primary differences among the synagogues were based on heritage (German-speaking vs. Eastern European) and religious persuasion (Orthodox, Reform, or Conservative). For the most part, the five synagogues built up to the 1920s followed similar vernacular architectural influences in both design and construction methods. The Bâ€™nai Israel Synagogue, built in 1891, is the only one that subscribed to a national and foreign-influenced design.
Educational Building Types Education in the early decades of Utahâ€™s settlement was a very informal affair. Each Mormon settlement organized its own school and hired a teacher. For the most part, students attended school in small buildings that also housed church meetings, dances, and other community functions. As early as 1867, Congregational, Presbyterian, and Methodist missions established private elementary and secondary schools. These were intended to counterbalance Mormon-controlled schools. With well-trained teachers and free tuition, they attracted many Mormon students. To counter this trend, the LDS Church established its own system of schools, or academies, throughout the region and other areas where there were large groups of Mormons, including Mexico and Canada. In 1890, the territorial legislature voted to establish free, tax-supported schools, with higher standards for teachers. Once this was accomplished, standardized school buildings were built throughout the state based on population requirements. Since then, school buildings have gone through various forms based on educational requirements, architectural trends, and population fluctuations.
Early schoolhouses built following the education reform of the late 19th century were not particularly large buildings and usually had only a couple of rooms. Constructed of brick and usually resting on a raised foundation of stone or concrete, most of these buildings have a hipped or pyramidal roofâ€“sometimes with projecting bays, particularly over the front entranceâ€“which may have a small bell tower on top. The design is fairly simple and symmetrical with a central entrance flanked by an even number of bays on either side. Because of the era, builders used Victorian eclectic styles, with hints of Romanesque revival and classicism. The schoolhouse was especially popular in smaller towns and suburbs with modest school-age populations.
In larger communities, the schoolhouse proved inadequate to house the larger population of school-age children. These communities built larger school buildings, typically with two or three levels. As its name suggest, the school block is block-like in appearance, about as tall as it is wide, usually with a pyramidal or hipped roof. This type was an improvement in updated design of the earlier, more rustic and makeshift schoolhouses, which often had multiple uses.
Continued population increases in larger cities required even more space in schools. The architectural response to this was to expand out. The horizontal school type is easily recognized by its multi-story, broad presence on the site. The building entrance is typically in the center of the rectangular primary faรงade, often at the top of a large stairway. As with the school blocks, the walls on horizontal schools are punctuated by multiple windows to allow light into the individual classrooms, which are situated along single or double-loaded corridors. Sometimes, wings off the rear of the building allow for more window area in classrooms. Along with the school building, the campus might include other buildings, including heating plants and workshops. Because the majority of these school buildings were constructed in the 1920s-1930s, architects incorporated various classical and period revival styles into their designs.
The baby boom following World War II resulted in a vast increase of school-age children by about 1950. This, coupled with the increased residential expansion into the suburbs, created a demand for local schools. Previously, children had been bussed from outlying areas to the large schools in the cities, but more children in the suburbs made it feasible to build schools in these residential tracts. Since the schools were serving fewer children per building, they could be smaller than the large horizontal schools in the cities. Architectural styles of the time eschewed the classical and period revival styles for a simple, modernist influence on these single-story buildings with sprawling wings. Most of the examples also have a large section with a taller roof that houses a combination gymnasium, stage, and lunchroom. Typically set far back of the street and surrounded by large expanses of lawn, the horizontal schools blend in to their suburban surroundings. As demographics in suburban neighborhoods continue to change, many of these schools have been closed and demolished in recent years.
BUILDING STYLES Buildings come in many different formats, or types, that are characterized in this guide mostly by a particular floor or structural plan. Take, for example, the hall-parlor plan that was popular from the early settlement of Utah up into the early twentieth century. Although the plan remained consistent for those sixty or so years, what did change was the style, or the exterior appearance of the house. While early examples were fairly plain and austere, those with a little more affluence could adorn their house in the classical influences of the Greek Revival or Federal styles of architecture. And as time passed and Victorianism prevailed, hints of the various facets of this style could be seen in areas such as windows and window trim, doors, cornice detail, and window and door arches. So, in short, style basically is any applied architectural detail on a building that adds to the basic form.
Classical 1847-1890 Picturesque 1865-1885 Victorian 1880-1910 Early Twentieth-Century 19051925 Period Revival 1890-1940 Modern 1930-1940 World War II/Post War
Classical Building Styles The stylistic history of Utah architecture during much of the 19th century is largely the demonstration of the enduring effects of 18th-century American Classicism. By the time of the American Revolution, Renaissance-derived ideas had permeated the colonial world and were working to transform a collection of essentially local building traditions into a single national style based on a revival of Classical principles. Geometrical composition and symmetrical balance were the hallmarks of Classical design. Buildings everywhere had smooth rectangular facades, centrally placed doors, and evenly spaced windows. Exterior appointments would eventually change, and several important, related styles would emerge during the century, yet the overriding concern for symmetrical design and Classical decorative features would remain a consistently powerful force in American architecture. These Classical styles were prevalent in the Midwest during the 1830s and â€˜40s, and Mormon settlers carried this tradition to the Great Basin. From small, symmetrically pierced log and adobe cabins in the outlying regions to the large Greek Revival mansions of Salt Lake City, Classicism dominated Utah architecture from the pioneer
period until well into the 1880s. The important styles of this period are the Georgian, Federal, and Greek Revival. The Georgian style is primarily associated with the introduction and subsequent popularity of the Georgian house, a large, central-passage, two-room-deep structure with smooth exterior wall surfaces, heavy, flat-arched window heads, and a low-pitched gable roof. These houses, built during the 18th century from Maine to Georgia, stood as conspicuous symbols of economic achievement and social standing. The Federal style, so called because it rose to prominence along the East Coast during the early national or Federalist period between 1790 and 1820, continued many of the basic Georgian features. It is distinguished from the Georgian by the use of elliptical and round-arched windows and doors and by carved decorative ornaments, elements that played off against the rigid symmetry of the overall design. The Greek Revival style, popular in America from about 1820 to 1870, also used the symmetrical format, but featured such Hellenic elements as full entablature, pedimented window heads, pedimented cornice returns below low-pitched gable roofs, and elaborate Classical porticos. The Greek Revival is often interpreted as sign and symbol of the flowering of American democracy during the early 19th century, and while there may be some truth to this assertion, the Greek Revival must also be viewed as part of the larger rational, symmetrical movement in American architecture that had occurred throughout the previous century. Building forms during the Classical period were largely geometric blocks, some big, some little, but all displaying a balance in both massing and detail. Houses were based on traditional floor plans that were essentially transformations of square units, and principal faรงades were normally placed on the long side of the rectangular block, and reflected the room arrangement of the interior. The notable exception, however, was the temple-form type with its main entrance on the narrow side, usually below the gable. The Classical stylistic period also saw the beginnings of the establishment of the architectural profession, but skilled builders and craftsmen continued to design most buildings. The dissemination of architectural ideas remained largely in the
oral tradition, although the period did witness the appearance of such builders’ handbooks as Peter Nicholson’s The Carpenter’s New Guide (London, 1792) and Asher Benjamin’s The Practical House Carpenter (Boston, 1841), both of which were listed in the catalogue of the Utah Territorial Library in 1852.
The Georgian style was largely an 18th-century phenomenon, and not surprisingly it is rare in Utah. However, several large houses that employed Georgian decorative elements still exist from early settlement period. But more important than specific examples of the style is the double-piel (i.e., two-room-deep) Georgian house form itself, and nearly every Utah community has one or two of these distinctive dwellings. Although the true Georgian house has a central passage dividing the two rooms on each side, the most common Georgian form in Utah has the passage running only halfway through the house, with two large rooms in the front and three smaller rooms along the rear. This pattern seems to reflect a lingering New England architectural influence. Characteristics: –symmetrical principal façade –side gables –low pitched roof –coursed ashlar walls –emphasized water table –flat arched window heads with pronounced keystones
Like the Georgian, the Federal style’s popularity largely predates the settlement of Utah, yet is nonetheless evident in early buildings in the state. The continuing influence of this subdued style may be seen in buildings that have the basic Classical symmetrical shape but lack extremes in external decoration. Elliptical and round-arch transoms or panels over windows or doors are distinguishing features of this rather plain style. Often found on two-story, one-room-deep, two-room-wide houses, the Federal style is also used in public and religious buildings. Characteristics: –symmetrical principal façade –side gables –low-pitched roof –elliptical arched openings –thin corner boards (vertical boards at the building’s corners) –lintel-type window heads (i.e., long rectangular beams above windows) –plain, unornamented entablature –clapboard siding
Greek Revival 1847-1890
The Greek Revival was the most popular architectural style in Utah during the early settlement period, and its popularity lingered on in many parts of the state well into the 1890s. The style is often encountered in buildings from the 1870s and 1880s in combination with decorative features from the Gothic Revival and Italianate styles. Greek Revival buildings can be recognized by decorative elements associated with monumental Greek architecture, such as columns, full and often exaggerated entablature, and pedimented gables and window heads. Traditional house types were prevalent, although the new temple-form type, with its forward-facing gable, was introduced during this period and became extremely popular in the northeastern states, the northern Midwest, and Utah. Characteristics: –symmetrical principal façade –gable ends –pedimented returns –pedimented porch roof –entablature (architrave, frieze, cornice) –raking cornice –dentils –columns, usually of the Ionic, Doric, or Corinthian order –transoms with lights –pilasters –pedimented window heads
Picturesque Building Styles The first serious challenge to the Classical architectural tradition in Utah was mounted by the Picturesque styles during the 1860s and 1870s. The Picturesque aesthetic, based upon irregularity of composition and embodied in such styles as the Gothic Revival and Italianate, was the architectural manifestation of American romanticism, which stressed spontaneity and emotion over control and reason. As the prevailing Classicism came to be considered artificial and unnatural, it was replaced by forms thought to be natural and therefore somehow more honest. Picturesque styles used building materials in ways that emphasized their textures and forms and that seemingly reduced the artifice of the builder. Designers stressed the aesthetic appeal of asymmetrical massing, verticality, the use of rich colors, and the application of complicated and often exaggerated decorative schemes. Harmony was not itself shunned, but the Picturesque concept of architecture was based upon an active tension between competing building elements rather than a simple order based upon proportion and symmetry.
Many architectural stylebooks that surfaced during the 1840s and 1850s set forth Picturesque design principles. Books such as Andrew Jackson Downing’s Cottage Residences (1842), William Ranlett’s The Architect (1847), and Gervase Wheeler’s Rural Homes (1851), which contained both essays on the advantages of Picturesque design and romanticized line sketches of cottages and houses, added an important new dimension to the builder’s repertoire. The style most commonly associated with this period is the Gothic Revival, a vertically oriented architecture imported from England characterized by pointed arches, steeply pitched roofs, and the elaborate saw-cut ornament often called “gingerbread” today. The Italianate, another important Picturesque style, introduced the broad flat roof with bracketed eaves into American architecture. The Second Empire style, while not strictly Picturesque given its heavy reliance on formal and Classical details, is included here because it still represented a break from the restraint of the Classical tradition. In Utah it is most commonly and distinctively encountered in the form of a mansard roof placed upon one of the Picturesque-era house types. Although style book writers continued to use the older, more traditional house types such as the central- and side-passages forms, they may also be credited with introducing and popularizing the cross-wing design. Based loosely on a medieval English house form, the cross-wing’s forward-projecting wing, contrasted to the horizontal side wing, is the minimal statement of the Picturesque quest for asymmetry. It became the principal house type in Utah during the late 19th century and is found with Gothic Revival, Italianate, Second Empire, and Victorian decorative appointments. In Utah, as in many other parts of the country, the reaction to the Picturesque was mixed. Picturesque ideas had their most direct impact on the state’s architecture as decorative elements applied to the exteriors of older Classical and traditional forms. Buildings during this period rarely fall into a single stylistic category, but instead mix elements of several styles in an
eclecticism that became a hallmark of the 19th century. The archetypal Picturesque house in Utah, then, is a symmetrical house with a central gable or wall dormers, with or without bargeboards, finials, scrollwork, and other decorative detailing commonly associated with these styles.
Gothic Revival 1865-1880
The Gothic Revival enjoyed its greatest popularity in Utah during the 1870s. It is easily recognized by its steeply pitched gable roofs, gabled dormers with finials, and scroll-cut decorative woodwork along the gables and eaves. Traditional house types such as the hall-parlor and central passage were commonly built during this period with Gothic Revival dormers or a centrally placed cross gable. The cross-wing house gained ascendancy during this time, as did smaller variants of the side-passage form. The effects of such style books as A. J. Downing’s The Architecture of Country Houses were certainly evident, but older patterns still persisted and direct copies of stylebook designs were rare. Midway, in Summit County, and Willard, in Box Elder County, are particularly rich in Gothic Revival buildings. Characteristics: –asymmetrical plan and/or façade –vertical emphasis –multiplication of gables and chimneys –high, steeply pitched roof –central cross gable –wall dormers –bargeboards on gables and dormers –lancet windows –finials at the apex of gables and dormers –tracery –wall buttresses –bay windows –polychromatic treatment of materials
The Italianate was a second architectural style championed by architects and builders of the antebellum period that did not become poplar in Utah until after the Civil War. Italianate houses were constructed in Salt Lake City as early as the 1870s, but they did not become common in outlying communities until the 1880s. Two varieties of Italianate houses are regularly encountered: the first a substantial two-story, box-like residence with a side-passage plan, the second in the form of the ubiquitous cross wing. Both forms are characterized by a low-pitched hip roof, overhanging eaves, bracketed cornices, and tall windows capped by slightly arched and sometimes hooded window heads. Characteristics: –asymmetrical plan and/or façade –multiplication of openings and chimneys –projecting bays –low hipped roof –bracketed cornice or eaves –segmented or arched window heads
Second Empire 1870-1900
The Second Empire style in Utah is chiefly identified by the presence of a “curvilinear” or mansard roof. While popular in Salt Lake City in its complete form during the 1870s, the manifestations of this style are largely confined to decorative trim added to typical 19th-century house forms. Probably the most common of these forms is the cross-wing house with mansard roof. Characteristics: –square or rectangular massing –mansard roof (straight or concave) –roof dormers –roof cresting –wide eaves, occasionally bracketed in a manner similar to the Italianate style –segmented or arched windows –Classical ornamentation
Victorian Building Styles The historical changes that marked an end to the isolation of Utah Territory in the late 19th century are also reflected in the architecture of this period. The great variety of Victorian styles popular in other parts of the country appeared during the 1880s in and around Salt Lake City, and by the 1890s they also appeared in the rural areas of the state. Most of the styles popular during America’s Victorian age emphasized the conventions of the Picturesque, but two styles – Beaux Arts Classicism and Second Renaissance Revival – relied strongly upon bilateral symmetry. The Picturesque characteristics of irregularity, intricacy, and variety present in the Gothic Revival and the Italianate styles discussed in the previous chapter were extended and elaborated upon during the latter decades of the 19th century. Domestic architecture best exemplified these characteristics. Late 19th-century houses were asymmetrical, complex compositions, often of disparate elements, their wall surfaces highly textured and usually intricate and their external surfaces extensively decorated. This conscious effort to achieve visual complexity was not usually achieved by the use of one style; instead, highly eclectic residences combined forms and elements from a number of stylistic sources. Indeed, much of this period’s architecture has been classified by some scholars as “Picturesque Eclecticism.”
A variety of different house types, some of which were carried over from earlier periods, contributed to this visual complexity. For instance, the larger houses of the Victorian period sometimes used the same side-passage plan popular in the Classical period. At least one new form developed during the Victorian period: the “central block with projecting wings.” Roughly square in plan with projecting bays, this type was crowned by either a hipped or a pyramidal roof. The Queen Anne and Eastlake are the best-known styles of the period, both influenced by 19th-century English architects. Indigenous to the United States are the contemporaneous Stick and Shingle styles; like the Queen Anne and Eastlake, these styles used wood construction and materials, yet Utah examples built of masonry are not uncommon. The Queen Anne, Eastlake, and Victorian Eclectic were the most common styles in the state. The Victorian Eclectic style allowed builders and architects great freedom in selecting decorative motifs to achieve a high degree of picturesque intricacy and to enhance the irregular massing of their designs. Church buildings most often used the Victorian Gothic—particularly the churches built for the LDS Church and the Presbyterian Church (whose buildings stand as artifacts of 19th-century Presbyterian missionary efforts among the Mormons. Civic, institutional, and commercial designs often used the Victorian Romanesque Revival style, in part because of the extensive use of masonry construction in Utah. Masonry construction also contributed to the popularity of the Richardsonian Romanesque style, with its Utah examples executed in red sandstone, Kyune sandstone, granite, or Sanpete oolitic limestone. Much less commonly, architects designed in the Chateauesque style, which combines elements of
French medieval architecture with those of the Italian Renaissance. As its name implies, architects mainly used this style in designing large residences for well-to-do clients. When students of the famous French school of architecture, the Ecole des Beaux Arts, introduced Beaux Arts Classicism to the United States, it became very popular for institutional and commercial buildings. However, in Utah many of these designs lacked the sophisticated architecture principles adopted by the Beaux Arts-trained architect. Near the turn of the 20th century, several Ecole-trained architects popularized the Second Renaissance Revival style. Like Beaux Arts Classicism it was commonly used in institutional architecture: libraries, college and university buildings, and private mens’ clubs. Beaux Arts Classicism, the Second Renaissance Revival and the Neoclassical all involve, to a varying degree, the conventions and vocabulary of Classical architecture. The most original, monumental, and innovative use of Classical motifs appears in Beaux Arts Classicism, while the Second Renaissance Revival interprets the Classical by examining and reusing motifs generated during the Italian Renaissance by such architects as Palladio. In the Neoclassical, one finds the most conservative use of Classical motifs, in particular the use of the orders. Across America, these styles reflected a new level of sophistication for both architect and client. Numerous magazines and stylebooks aided the promulgation of these styles. The availability of mass-produced millwork and decorative ornamentation affected stylistic developments on both the national and local levels. The former isolation of rural areas was no longer an obstacle to building well, due to the widespread dissemination of information and building materials. Significant changes in architects’ education affected the sophistication and quality of design. Architect-builders could now study design on a formal basis through correspondence courses without leaving their profession. Opportunities for young persons who aspired to a career in architecture were developed in the drafting rooms of architectural firms. Those seeking a formal education in architecture could do so, based upon the Ecole des Beaux Arts curriculum, in one of twelve schools of architecture established at American universities by 1900. Utah’s familiarity with this proliferation of styles proves the impact of these innovations, which coincided with periods of great economic growth and substantial increase in the state’s population.
Queen Anne 1885-1905
History credits the 19th-century English architect Richard Norman Shaw with creating this widespread style. The British government built two Queen Anne buildings at the 1876 American Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. One of the most picturesque of the late-19th-century styles, in its day it became America’s favorite style. In Utah its popularity coincided with the building boom of the late 1880s and 1890s. Residential examples have asymmetrical facades, irregular plans, and varied silhouettes resulting from dormers, gables, and towers. The building materials and decoration were equally varied. Like the Gothic, Italianate and Second Empire styles, stylebooks popularized the design for smaller houses and cottages of one and one and a half stories. Characteristics: –irregular plan –asymmetrical façade –variety of building materials, textures, and colors –carved, lathe-turned, and scroll-cut woodwork –towers –tall chimneys, often with decorative brick patterning –bay windows –round, square, or polygonal turrets –leaded and stained-glass windows –decorative shingle patterns on wall surfaces
This exuberant, decorative style is named for Charles Locke Eastlake, an English architect. Eastlake’s book, Hints on Household Taste, found a ready audience in America, and its illustrations helped generate a style bearing, to the author’s dismay, his name. The style relies primarily upon large amounts of wooden decoration, much of it flat jig-sawn patterns combined with three-dimensional, lath-turned or carved woodwork. Eastlake houses lack the variety of building materials–such as stone, brick, and shingle–that characterized the Queen Anne style. Since wood frame construction was not as popular as masonry in Utah, only a small number of Eastlake houses were built in the state. However, porches and decorative gable cornices in this style are often found in combination with Queen Anne, Victorian Eclectic and other styles. Characteristics: –asymmetrical facades –carved panels –spindles in porch friezes, corner brackets and balusters –ornate lathe-turned columns, balustrades and balusters –jig-sawn decorative patterns in porch friezes and gable cornices
Stick Style 1885-1895
The Stick style, named by architectural historian Vincent J. Scully, is considered a purely American style. The style apparently originated in mid 19th-century style books that discuss a certain “truthfulness” in wood construction. The logical extension of this romantic ideal was to express the structure of the building and its wood material through the application of vertical, horizontal, and even diagonal boards on the exterior surface. Suggestive of the building’s structural frame, these boards are also strongly decorative. Very few examples of this style were ever constructed in Utah. Characteristics: –sill outlined at top of foundation –wood corner posts –horizontal, overlapped siding –studs visible on exterior –corner braces with pendant
Shingle Style 1885-1895
Like the Stick style, the Shingle style was named by Vincent J. Scully and is purely American in its development. Popular on the East Coast, it was supposedly influenced by the colonial architecture of New England. In fact, the style may have developed in reaction to the extreme decorative qualities of the Queen Anne. Shingle-style residences are large, two-or three-story dwellings, the exteriors of which are almost completely covered with wooden shingles. Thus, they are a reaction to the exposed structural members of the Stick style. Utah examples often have wood construction above a stone or brick masonry base or first floor. Characteristics: –large asymmetrical massing –gable roof with long slopes –shallow eaves –tower with conical or bellcast roof –tower roof topped with hip knob and/or finial –shingle siding, often in undulating patterns –multi-light sashes –various shingle patterns
Victorian Gothic 1880-1910
This style includes both residential examples and church buildings. Victorian Gothic churches in Utah were either of masonry or wood frame, highlighted by pointed arched openings and stained-glass windows with wooden tracery and some form of a pointed tower. The polychromy typical of the Victorian Gothic elsewhere is not often seen in Utah. Victorian Gothic cottages were also built in Utah, generally of brick masonry. The more elaborate have pointed arched openings and steeply pitched gables; others acknowledged the Gothic with a simple pointed gable in the façade. Characteristics: –pointed gable –stained-glass windows with wooden tracery –pointed arched windows –gable entry –decorative bargeboards –brick belt course –quatrefoil (clover-like) windows –brick corbelling –polychrome masonry
Victorian Romanesque Revival 1880-1900
The Victorian Romanesque Revival style was used extensively for civic, commercial, and ecclesiastical designs, and to a lesser extent for residences. In this style, semicircular door and window openings highlight brick and stone masonry walls. This superficial reference to the architecture of the medieval period is often enhanced by the use of rock-faced stone arches for entries, window headers, and sills–in otherwise smooth-surfaced masonry walls. Characteristics: –buildings of substantial weight and mass –gable ends terminating in parapets –masonry walls highlighted by rock-faced arches, lintels, and sills –semicircular arches used in windows, doors, and porches –rock-faced foundation –blind arcading –polychrome masonry –foliated capitals –tower roof topped with a hip know and or/finial
Richardsonian Romanesque 880-1900
Made popular by American architect Henry Hobson Richardson in the last quarter of the 19th century, the Richardsonian Romanesque found its way into to civic, commercial, residential, and ecclesiastical designs nationwide. Most frequently, churches and county courthouses used the style. The Salt Lake City & County Building is the state’s finest example of the style. Richardsonian Romanesque buildings, like those of the Romanesque Revival, use a semicircular arch motif for windows, entry porches, and doors. However, this style finds expression in all-stone masonry buildings with rock-faced stonework. Characteristics: –buildings of substantial weight and mass –rock-faced, coursed stone masonry –polychrome masonry –towers topped with hip knobs and/or finials –segmental arched entries –rock-faced stone piers with foliated capitals –columns with smooth shafts and ornamentally foliated capitals –semicircular arches used in windows, doors, and porches –blind arcading –ornamental carving
Victorian Eclectic 1885-1910
As the name implies, this late 19th-century expression is not a distinct style. Instead, the term identifies buildings that show a combination of elements from such popular styles as the Italianate, Queen Anne, Neoclassical, Romanesque Revival, Colonial Revival, and the less common Moorish. This term applies to the majority of Victorian-influenced buildings in the state. Like other late Picturesque styles, cottages and other small residences applied it in scaled-down form.
Characteristics: –irregular plan, asymmetrical façade and roof silhouette –bay windows, round and polygonal turrets, towers, decorative porches, and dormers –conical, bellcast, and onion-dome roofs atop towers –Moorish or horseshoe arches –segmental or arched window and/or door openings –projecting door and window lintels –leaded and stained-glass transom windows –patterned wooden shingles in vertical surfaces –patterned belt courses
The reign of the French king Francis 1 (1515-47) inspired the Chateauesque style, which encompasses elements of the Gothic tradition and the Italian Renaissance. Architect Richard Morris Hunt popularized the style in the United States through his designs for the Vanderbilt family in New York and North Carolina. This ornate, monumental style demanded stone construction or stone in combination with brick masonry. Two examples of the style exist in Utah, both residences designed for prominent and wealthy families: the Thomas Kearns mansion in Salt Lake City and the David Eccles mansion in Logan. Characteristics: –substantial stone and/or brick masonry forms –round corner turrets with conical roofs, topped with hip knob and/or finial –pedimented stone parapets and/or ornately gabled dormer windows –balustraded terraces or balconies on upper floors –stone detailing with classical motifs –windows with stone mullions –tall ornamented chimneys
Beaux Arts Classicism
One of the most famous of all schools of architecture, the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, lent its name to this style. Numerous American architects either attended this institution themselves or learned the style from graduates of the Ecole teaching in American schools of architecture. The style achieved fame by way of exhibitions, most notable the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago, where monumental designs eclectically incorporated the classical vocabulary of Greek, Roman, and Renaissance architecture. Beaux Arts Classicism was favored for large public buildings such as libraries, schools, state beaux-arts1_largecapitols, courthouses, and post offices, and for commercial structures like hotels, railroad depots, banks, and office buildings. Many American examples—including most of those in Utah—do not actually use Beaux Arts planning principles either in their floor plans or in the building’s relationship to its site and surrounding buildings. They do maintain a diversity of Beaux Arts qualities: large volumes of space (e.g. railroad depot waiting rooms), exuberant decorative elements, and interrelated façade components. One of the earliest examples of this style in the state was architect Richard K. A. Kletting’s design for the original Salt Palace, which was built in 1899.
Characteristics: –use of Classical orders in combination with exuberant decorative elements –pavilions projecting from the main structure, with Classical ornamentation sometimes topped by a pediment –balustraded parapet broken by projecting pediments, wall dormers or sculpture –raised basement level, often rusticated y emphasizing masonry joints, exposing mortar, and using rough-hewn stone –round arch and/or segmental arch openings
Second Renaissance Revival 1890-1910
Like the earlier Renaissance Revival style popular in the East between 1840-60 (no examples survive in Utah), the Second Renaissance Revival was inspired by various Italian buildings. In 2nd-renaissance-rev1_largecontrast to the earlier style, the Second Renaissance Revival relied upon a larger scale and attempted to impart a greater simplicity and order, partially through the use of two-dimensional decoration. It gained popularity at the end of the 19th century through the Boston Public Library, designed by well-known East Coast architects McKim, Mead, and White; and through R. M. Hunt’s plan Breakers, Cornelius Vanderbilt’s summer house in Newport, Rhode Island. Private clubs, particularly men’s clubs, at the turn of the century often chose this style—for instance, Salt Lake City’s Alta Club and Commercial Club. Other Utah examples include classroom buildings at the University
of Utah and at Southern Utah University in Cedar City. Characteristics: –symmetrical façade –masonry construction –arcades at ground level, often with a loggia –rusticated ground floor and stone quoins –accentuated belt courses –wide, overhanging cornices –modillions ornamental brackets under the cornice)
Second Renaissance Revival 1890-1910
Like the earlier Renaissance Revival style popular in the East between 1840-60 (no examples survive in Utah), the Second Renaissance Revival was inspired by various Italian buildings. In 2nd-renaissance-rev1_largecontrast to the earlier style, the Second Renaissance Revival relied upon a larger scale and attempted to impart a greater simplicity and order, partially through the use of two-dimensional decoration. It gained popularity at the end of the 19th century through the Boston Public Library, designed by well-known East Coast architects McKim, Mead, and White; and through R. M. Hunt’s plan Breakers, Cornelius Vanderbilt’s summer house in Newport, Rhode Island. Private clubs, particularly men’s clubs, at the turn of the century often chose this style—for instance, Salt Lake City’s Alta Club and Commercial Club. Other Utah examples include classroom buildings at the University
Early Twentieth-Century Building Styles Architectural design in the early 20th century presented the country with a new group of styles less dependent on historical models than were the styles of the preceding Victorian period. As with other major stylistic periods, commencement or concluding dates are not precise, and various popular styles frequently overlap. For example, Victorian cottages in styles such as the Queen Anne were built contemporaneously with bungalows. One of the most visible features of the Bungalow, Arts and Crafts, Prairie School, and other styles of the early 20th century was a lack of the busy three-dimensional ornamentation so popular in the Victorian period. This is not to say that the new architecture lacked ornamentation altogether, but it was more reserved and less three dimensional. Utah’s building tradition quickly absorbed the Bungalow, Arts and Crafts, and Prairie School styles during this period of economic prosperity. The origin of the Bungalow house type has been traced to a dwelling common in India and noted for its verandas. Its popularity in the United States, and particularly Utah, was due in part to the American Arts and Crafts movement. The bungalow was intended to be a comfortable-looking, low profile house that communicated a sense of shelter. This new type of residence became an Everyman’s house, replacing the Victorian cottage of the 1880s and the 1890s. The bungalow came to be a style as well as a building type, and numerous builders’ magazines and pattern books (published by such companies as “Bungalowcraft” of Los Angeles) sketched out many variations on the basic Bungalow. Proponents touted these plans as open and informal in nature and spatially economical. In early 20th-century Utah, as in other areas of the developing western United States, particularly California, the bungalow became one of the most popular residences. Its popularity in California led to a subtype that the designs of the brothers Charles and Henry Greene of Pasadena further enhanced. Thus, a prototypical “California bungalow” was a one-story (two stories on occasion) wood-frame house with a low-pitched roof and partially exposed framing members in its gable ends.
Bungalows were frequently dressed in Neoclassical, Swiss Chalet, Tudor, California, Mission, Arts and Crafts, and Prairie School decorative motifs. In Utah, the latter two were the most popular styles for bungalows. The Arts and Crafts style in America resulted from several influences: the original English movement, called “Arts and Crafts” and led by designer William Morris, who elevated the concept of craftsmanship to art; the work of English architects C. F. A. Voysey and Sir Edwin Lutyens; and the publications of Gustav Stickley, one of the spiritual leaders of the American Arts and Crafts movement, whose Craftsman Magazine contained articles by designers, artisans, artists, and architects. The Arts and Crafts architectural style appeared most frequently in domestic designs, although it also appeared in some civic and religious architecture. Arts and Crafts residences are generally large, two-story structures emphasizing natural materials such as wood shingles, exposed components of the wood structural frame, and brick and stone masonry, including cobblestones and clinker brick. As with the bungalow, the house designs often included porches and verandas, creating an impression of informal living and connecting the house to its site. The early work of Frank Lloyd Wright and his Midwest associates gave rise to the Prairie Style, popular during the first two decades of the 20th century. In addition to creating clean, precise, angular forms, the Prairie School emphasized horizontality. This spareness of appearance was accomplished by the use of masonry or stucco over masonry or wood frame construction, highlighted by wood or cast stone banding. The building often accentuated the texture of its materials and featured abstract patterns in stained and leaded glass. The Prairie School style was particularly popular in Utah, probably because some of Utah’s architects worked in Chicago during the inception of the style. One such architect, Taylor Woolley, apprenticed with Frank Lloyd Wright in the mentor’s
Oak Park studio during the first decade of the century. The appearance of the style in Utah also coincided with a period of rapid urban growth along the Wasatch Front. Between 1910 and 1920, a number of architects in Salt Lake City and Ogden specialized in the style. Some of these found it especially appropriate as a â€œmodernâ€? style for Latter-day Saint ward house and seminary buildings. Architects also designed schools, public libraries, clubs, and commercial structures in this style.
As mentioned above, the bungalow expressed comfort and a sense of shelter, qualities emphasized by the texture of exposed beams, rafters, shingles, bricks, cobblestones, and other structural features. Bungalow plans were advertised as open, informal, and economical. The front door of the bungalow often opened directly into the dining room. The most popular house type in Utah during the first quarter of the 20th century, bungalows are common throughout the state. However, the bungalow court—a group of bungalows separated by a walkway—that was common in other areas of the United States was rare in Utah. The bungalow became the basic middle-class house, replacing the Victorian cottage of the later 19th century. Numerous pattern books, many published in bungalow1_largeCalifornia, helped make it popular, as did a period of economic prosperity that allowed families to purchase their first homes. Characteristics: –one or one and a half stories on a rectangular plan –several major roof types: (1) long, steeply pitched roofs with eaves parallel to the street covering porches that stretch the full width of the façade; (2) low-pitched roofs in California bungalows; (3) hip roofs in Prairie-style examples –dormers in the slope of the roof, often facing the street –cobblestone and/or brick (especially clinker brick) foundations –shingle siding –wood banding –exposed rafters, purlins, ridge beams, brackets –projecting bays on the main floor –casement windows –battered (i.e., rough-textured) stone piers supporting porch roofs –geometrically patterned leaded or stained-glass windows
Arts and Crafts 1900-1915
This style emerged from the pages of Craftsman Magazine (1901-170), a publication containing articles by designers, artisans, and architects sympathetic to the Arts and Crafts movement in America. As a style of architecture, it was mostly adapted to domestic designs, along with small civic commissions like schools, libraries, city halls and small churches. Arts and Crafts houses are generally large, two-story buildings that emphasize such elements of their wood frame construction as rafters, purlins, and ridge beams. Some examples of the style also had half-timbering reminiscent of English Tudor architecture. Porches and verandas aided in creating an impression of informal living and seemed to unite the house with the landscape. In the interiors, natural materials such as stained or oiled wood achieved a cozy, informal quality. Interiors featured inglenooks, tiled fireplaces, built-in bench seats, wood paneling and wainscoting, and metal fixtures whose surfaces often had the appearance of a hand-beaten finish. The innovative Arts and Crafts design philosophy also had an influence upon the Prairie School style. Characteristics: –large, two-story buildings, often with moderated to steeply pitched roofs pierced by gables and dormers –wide porches –side, overhanging eaves –cobblestone and/or brick (especially clinker brick) foundations
–shingle and/or stucco on exterior walls –exposed framing members such as rafters, purlins, and ridge beams –exposed framing members with panels infilled with stucco –casement windows with stained and leaded glass or double-hung windows with small square lights in the upper half
Prairie School 1905-1925
The early work of Frank Lloyd Wright and his Midwest associates gave rise to the Prairie Style, popular during the first two decades of the 20th century. In addition to creating clean, precise, angular forms, the Prairie School emphasized horizontality. Masonry or stucco walls contributed to a spare appearance. Details such as wood or cast stone banding might accentuate the texture of the materials. Leaded or stained glass windows contribute abstract patterns. Residential, ecclesiastical, and civic buildings used this innovative style; it was particularly popular in Utah for residences and for LDS Church meetinghouses. Residential designs included one-story, narrow, masonry bungalows, well-suited to narrow city lots, and larger, symmetrical, two-story houses, nearly square or rectangular in form, with casement windows and hipped roofs with wide, overhanging eaves. Characteristics: –brick masonry, stucco over masonry, or stucco over wood frame construction –single-story porch or porte cochere projecting from the house –low, hipped roof –wide, overhanging eaves –horizontal bands of cast stone or concrete coping –wood banding on wall surfaces and under eaves –casement windows with geometric patterns created in stained and/or leaded glass or with wooden muntins –mullions topped with cast geometric ornamentation
Period Revival 1890-1940 Building Styles The term Period Revival refers to a wide range of historically based styles favored by the American public for nearly half a century. Such styles as the Colonial Revival and Neoclassical remained popular throughout the entire period and appeared concurrently with the non-historical styles (such as bungalow) of the early 20th century. Following World War I other, more varied styles became popular, such as the Spanish Colonial, English Tudor, and French Norman. A number of these styles—including Spanish Colonial, English Tudor, Mission, Pueblo, and French Norman—were based on the indigenous building traditions of North America and Europe. Various explanations have been offered for the popularity of these Period Revival styles. One opinion is that nationalistic pride following World War I led to an increased use of the Colonial Revival and Neoclassical styles, while another states that doughboys returning from Europe favored the English Tudor and French Norman styles. Whatever the reason, many of these historical styles began appearing in all types of architecture. These designs almost always displayed the architect’s or builder’s familiarity with the external, decorative features of the historical style rather than with the building tradition, its formal features, or plan types. Numerous articles in the architectural press on the “country house” reinforced this return to historicism in the teens and twenties. Surprisingly, “country houses” were usually not large but they generally sat on
large lots or acreage and frequently used the English Tudor or French Norman styles. Some authors of the period rationalized the appropriateness of such styles by claiming that the climatic conditions and varied terrain of America resemble those of England and France. They also supported these styles for rural settings because nature enhanced their significant picturesque qualities. This emphasis on the picturesque emerged not only in the magazine articles published at the time but also in their accompanying photographs. unlike the Victorian decorative approach to the picturesque, expressed mostly through a variety of building materials, decorative detailing, and silhouettes, the Period Revival’s historical allusions were based on picturesque architetural massing, with variou sroof pitches, dormer type, and towers. This variety in massing alluded to the irregular forms and additions common in the vernacular architecture from which the styles were derived. Period Revival styles incorporated a basic simplicity of form and façade. Massing and facades, combined with a respect for materials and craftsmanship necessary to imitate certain historical construction techniques (half-timbering, stonemasonry, tile and slate roofing, and wood shingles laid in a simulated thatch pattern) provided texture, another necessary picturesque quality. Various writers of the period suggested that these houses supported the informality of the American way of living. Thus, the interiors conformed to American concepts of comfort and practicality. Architects designed many aspects of modern architecture into these houses, most particularly the open plan, which combined living and dining rooms into an “L”-shaped space. Undoubtedly, this informality in living patterns had been influenced by changes in family relationships after the
Victorian period–and by the shortage of domestic help. The outdoor living area also appeared, which in turn led to a lowering of the height of the first floor in relation to ground level. Unlike the usual Victorian practice of building the house several feet above the grade, the Period Revival house was built within twelve to eighteen inches of grade to allow the family’s living patterns to extend onto a terrace. A later aspect of the Period Revival appeared in the thirties: one-story houses containing one or more wings, a pattern based upon the works of such notable modern architects as Frank Lloyd Wright and Richard Neutra. The architectural style of the “country house,” which reflected the social aspirations of it well-to-do or upper-middle-class owners, quickly migrated to the rapidly expanding suburbs and their spacious house sites. The suburbs, in turn, had grown along with the growth of the streetcar, the interurban railroad, and finally, the automobile. A further trickling down of Period Revival influence appeared in the form of cottages–small, single-family residences constructed by speculative builders both in urban subdivisions and in newly platted suburbs. To counteract what many considered the amateurishly poor design of these single-family residences, and to enhance their professional standing, architects and the architectural press in the twenties and thirties started a movement for standardization. Touting the importance of good architecture in small houses, the architectural profession launched a regionalized stock-plan service known as the Architects’ Small House Service Bureau (A.S.H.S.B.). Designs generated by anonymous architects were made available to the public nationwide.
What began as a professional experiment by architects blossomed into a successful attack on the practice of lumber dealers, contractors, and carpenters designing small houses. The A.S.H.S.B. produced numerous designs for houses of six principal rooms or fewer. The service, which included plans and specifications, cost five dollars per principal room. The experiment lasted nearly a decade and a half, and it designs were built from coast to coast.
Colonial Revival 1890-1940
This term covers a wide variety of American architecture, including buildings inspired by English and Dutch vernacular architecture of the colonial period and the more formal English-inspired architecture of the Georgian and Federal periods of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Extremely popular in Utah as a residential style, it is also seen in numerous religious buildings and in some commercial and institutional buildings. Common characteristics of the style include the gambrel roofs often associated with â€œDutch Colonialâ€? architecture but found widely in New England as well. Gambrel roof designs became especially popular in Salt Lake City, particularly for cottages. Colonial Revival buildings also include and high-style architecture borrowed from Georgian houses, including Palladian windows and fanlights. The Cape Cod cottage, an indigenous New England house type, first became a popular sub-style of the
Colonial Revival during the 1930s. Early 20th-century plan books, such as the nationally popular Radford’s Bungalows, contained numerous Colonial Revival designs. Characteristics: –hip, gable, or gambrel roofs –symmetrical facades –porches and /or porticos with classical motifs –surfaces covered in shingles, wood siding, or brick –bay windows –fanlights –Palladian windows in second-story walls or gables –side and transom lights around the main entry –clear leaded-glass windows –multiple light sashes above single light sashes –broken, segmental, or swan’s neck pediments
Clipped-Gable Cottage 1915-1935
A sort of cross between a Period Cottage and Bungalow, the primary distinguishing feature of the clipped-gable cottage is, as its name suggests, clipped or jerkinhead gables on the roof. Typically situated with the broad side to the street, this type usually has a centrally placed main entrance under a projecting porch. The broad façade and lengthwise orientation of the house is more reminiscent of a period cottage, while the large porch echoes that of a bungalow. The clipped gable roof ends lend a touch of the Colonial Revival style, while other ornamentation may imply the Arts and Crafts or Prairie School styles. The clipped-gable cottage was popular in newly developing subdivisions in the 1920s and 1930s as well as in older neighborhoods as infill. This type can also be found in rural settings on larger lots. Characteristics: –Clipped (jerkinhead) gables on roof ends and porch roof –Long roofline typically situated parallel with street –Large front porch, usually centrally located –Sometimes combined with other styles
The Neoclassical style uses Greek and Roman classical motifs, especially the orders (Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, Composite, and Tuscan), in a more conservative manner than do buildings of Beaux Arts style classicism. Neoclassical buildings are symmetrical, monumental forms with facades highlighted by colonnades or large pedimented porticos that are integral to the design of the building. Banks, courthouses, post offices, and churches from the early decades of this century were often designed in this style. Characteristics: –uninterrupted cornice and /or pedimented porticos –smooth ashlar finish on masonry buildings–symmetrical façade –raised basement story –attic story –pilasters –terra cotta details
Early Christian/Byzantine 1910-1935
Of the Period Revival styles used in non-domestic architecture, the Early Christian/Byzantine is the most frequently seen in church buildings. The Christian basilica form of a great hall—with or without cross wing or transept arm—naturally accommodated the functions of various religious groups, including the LDS Church in Utah. The more centralized plan of Greek origin forms the basis of some of the state’s Greek Orthodox churches. These buildings are generally of brick and stone masonry with tile roofs. On these church buildings the gable end face the street, with entry into the main hall through a rounded arch opening. Secondary entries in the basilica plans might be located along the lateral sides of the hall and in the transept arm. Exterior decoration relies upon the intrinsic quality of the brick and stone masonry and some cast ornamentation in the form of terra-cotta tiles. Characteristics: –stone masonry alternating with brick coursing –tile roofs –low, rounded arch openings –blind arcading –columns with composite capitals –decorative terra cotta tilework –vertical brick courses inserted at regular intervals in the brick bond
Egyptain Revival 1920-1930
This distinctive style first appeared, for a brief period, during the mid-19th century in a variety of building types. Its Period Revival phase was mostly confined to the decade from 1920 to 1930, when it was used for places of entertainment such as movie theaters and in the club buildings of various fraternal orders. Buildings of this style used Egyptian architectural motifs like battered walls, lotus columns, and sphinx-like figures. Walls were constructed of brick and/or stone masonry or were covered with stucco or terra-cotta tiles to imitate some form of masonry construction. Examples of this style in Utah are rare; in fact, the three buildings illustrated here are the only remaining Egyptian Revival buildings in the state. Characteristics: –battered walls –lotus capital columns –statuary of Egyptian rulers –cavetto cornices –composite capitals –rope molding (i.e., a band of terra cotta or other molding in a rope-like design) –vulture and sun disk symbols
English Tudor 1915-1935
English Tudor generically refers to the timber-frame architecture of medieval England. In true timber and half-timber framing, the wall structure is made of heavy timbers, with the spaces between the framing members infilled with various materials and covered with plaster. American examples of this style were not generally based on true timber construction, but merely imitated the visual effect of this method. Small one-and-one-half-story residences, primarily constructed after World War I by speculative builders on small suburban lots, comprise the majority of these buildings. They incorporate surface characteristics of English vernacular cottages using contemporary materials. Picturesque irregular massing, a variety of window shapes, and the decorative use of materials combined to make these small but affordable houses popular–despite their small lots and inflexible plans. Characteristics: –asymmetrical façade –steeply pitched gable roof, often a clipped gable –exposed framing members (occasionally carved) with panels infilled with stucco –stucco walls with randomly placed areas of exposed brick or stone –round or segmental arch openings –diamond-pane and/or bottle-glass lights –tall casement windows with numerous small lights –ornate bargeboards –brick and stone masonry in a textured pattern –brick polychromy –terra cotta window and door surrounds –simulated thatched roofs of wood and asphalt
shingles –clay chimney pots
English Cottage 1920-1940
The primary distinguishing characteristic between this style and the English Tudor style is the construction materials; otherwise these two styles share similar forms, massing, and floor plans. Stucco and false half-timber exterior treatments provide the identity for the English Tudor style, whereas the English Cottage style relies on an all-brick exterior. Otherwise, these two styles are identical. (See English Tudor style.) Characteristics: –all brick exterior –same asymmetrical massing and steeply pitched gabled roof as English Tudor –typically not as large as English Tudor-style houses
Jacobethan Revival 1900-1935
This conglomerate term comes from joining the English historical designations Jacobean and Elizabethan. The designs using this style borrowed motifs from both phases of the English Renaissance. Distinctive gables, window, and chimneys emphasize the forms. The outer walls are often composed principally of brick combined with stone—or terra-cotta imitating stone—in the form of quoins, cornices, parapets, mullions, and door and window surrounds. Gables rise above the roofline, and bay windows project outward from the wall surfaces. Larger buildings use towers and turrets. Characteristics: –steeply pitched gable roofs –bay windows –crenellated parapets –stone or terra-cotta window and door surrounds –ogee arches in entries –decorative window and doorway hoods of stone or terra-cotta
French Norman 1915-1935
The French Norman, like the English Tudor, is a revival style harkening back to medieval European architecture. It was popular during the first three decades of the 20th century. French medieval architecture—especially of the chateau—had actually been popular in America since the early work of architect Richard Morris Hunt. Educated at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Hunt designed country houses influenced by his familiarity with French architecture. His French Norman designs were later eclipsed by his larger and grander works in the Chateauesque style. The French Norman revival, as the second wave of enthusiasm for French architecture, was like the English Tudor in that it was loosely based upon the vernacular architecture of Normandy and Brittany. American designs incorporated stone and brick, often in combination with stucco wall surfaces, half-timbering, and decorative brick patterns. Steeply pitched roofs were also common. Characteristics: –square, round, or octagonal towers with conical or pyramidal roofs –steeply pitched gable and hip roofs –simulated thatched roofs or wood or asphalt shingles –slate or imitation slate roofs –brick and/or stone masonry walls –imitation half-timbering in combination with masonry constructions –decorative brick patterns on wall surfaces –wall dormers
–round and/or segmental openings –terra-cotta window and door surrounds
Spanish Colonial Revival 1915-1935
Based upon the baroque architecture of Mexico, the Spanish Colonial Revival was especially popular during the early part of the 20th century in California, portions of the Southwest, and Florida. Characterized by red tile roofs and white stucco-covered wall surfaces, the style was used spanish-col_largefor schools, churches, residences, apartment buildings, commercial buildings, and governmental complexes. Low-relief ornament, decorative cornices and parapets, and wrought iron grills and balconies differentiate this style from the Mission style. Characteristics: –curvilinear gables –red tile roofs –stucco wall surfaces –wrought iron balconies –low-relief ornamentation –low, rounded arch openings –decorative door surrounds of tile or terra-cotta
The Mission style emanated from California at the end of the 19th century, based on the design of the old Catholic missions. Like the Spanish Colonial style, it relies upon red tile roofs, stucco wall surfaces, and simple geometric forms. Curvilinear gables, round arches, and arcades are also key features of the style. Unlike the Spanish Colonial style, Mission style uses little surface ornamentation. Characteristics: –red tile roofs –plain stucco walls –curvilinear gables –arched openings –arcades
Pueblo Revival 1915-1935
Derived from the Native American pueblo architecture of the southwestern United States and Mexico, this style was much more popular in California and other parts of the West than in Utah. The residential examples of the style have battered walls emulating the appearance of thick adobe walls, rounded corners, flat roofs (often with set-back upper stories like true pueblos), stucco walls, and roof rafters or vigas projecting from the outer walls. Most Utah examples are either stucco over wood frame or masonry construction. Characteristics: –battered walls, usually stucco-covered –flat roofs with parapets –rafters or vigas projecting from the outer walls –stepped-back upper stories
Modern 1930-1940 Building Styles At the peak of the Period Revival’s popularity, the American public received a glimpse of a new kind of architecture, an architecture that rejected historicism. The new architecture, as it was called by its European pioneers, soon became known in this country as “modern architecture.” Its American premier was not without controversy. The first glimpses came in the form of a number of European entrants to the 1922 Chicago Tribune Tower competition. The architects of these designs seized the opportunity to apply their theories of modern design to that uniquely American building type—the skyscraper. The winning design, however, was a tower in the Gothic Revival style, and American architecture did not assimilate modern European design ideas for almost a decade. By 1923, one of the foreign entrants in the competition, Eliel Saarinen, had permanently settled in the United States. The same year also saw the immigration of a young Viennese architect, Richard Neutra, to southern California. Before the decade ended, Neutra’s design for Dr. Lovell’s Health house in the Hollywood Hills presented America with its first major residence in the International style of modern architecture. In Europe, a number of significant events took place during the 1920s that affected the future of modern design. Architect Walter Gropius founded the Bauhaus, a new school of design in Germany, in the early 1920s. By 1926, a new school facility designed by Gropius became symbolic of both the new architecture and the school’s philosophy. In 1925 Paris hosted the Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes–the origin of the name of the popular Art Deco style. The 1927 League of Nations Competition also brought to public attention a number of modern European architects, in particular the French-Swiss Le Corbusier, who had previously been known for his elegant, modern country villas. Also in 1927, his work and the work of a number of other modern European architects appeared at the highly influential housing settlement of Weissenhofsiedlung in Stuttgart, Germany. Sponsored by the German Werkbund, it was the first
major exhibition of modern architecture in Europe. By the end of the 1920s America had become more familiar with modern architecture. Neutra’s unique steel-framed Lovell house had been completed and the planning of architects Howe and Lescaze for the Philadelphia Savings Fund Society Building, America’s first International Style skyscraper, was well under way. But it was not until the following decade that modern design received full recognition. The Museum of Modern Art in New York City gave the new architecture its seal of approval by producing an exhibition in 1931. Organized by two architectural historians, Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson, “The International Style: Architecture Since 1922” presented the work of 40 architects from 15 countries. So influential was this exhibition that the term “International Style” has stuck, for better or for worse, in the minds of many as the synonym for modern architecture. In his preface to the catalog The International Style, which was published to accompany the exhibition, museum director Alfred H. Barr Jr. enumerated the “aesthetic principles” of the style: Emphasis upon volume—space enclosed by thin planes or surfaces as opposed to the suggestion of mass and solidity. Regularity as opposed to symmetry or other kinds of obvious balance Dependence upon the intrinsic elegance of materials, technical perfection, and fine proportions, as opposed to applied ornament. The authors of the catalog carefully chose works illustrating these points, and included four American buildings: the works of Raymond Hood, Howe &
Lescaze, and Richard Neutra. Full theoretical impact of the teachings of Gropius and Mies van der Rohe, both of whom would eventually head architectural departments at American institutions, and of Le Corbusier, among others, was interrupted by the Second World War. Still, by the end of the 1940s, American architectural education had gone through a major revamping, despite a good deal of protest by more traditionally trained architects. Pre-World War II modern architecture in the United States has been analyzed and divided into a number of styles, the names of which sometimes allude to important exhibits in the modern movement. For example, the Art Deco derives its name from the decorative motifs of the 1925 Paris exhibition, and the International Style is based upon the design characteristics in the Museum of Modern Art exhibition of the same name. Art Moderne was influenced by the streamlined designs of industrial products of the 1930s and 1940s. A more recently recognized style is the PWA Moderne. Congress created the Public Works Administration in 1933 as the Federal Administration of Public Works. This agency administered the construction of public works and loaned money to states and municipalities for public projects. Public works projects of the 1930s often used the PWA Moderne style, which used certain Classical principles incorporating Art Deco decorative motifs and molded ornamentation. The popularity of these styles in Utah did not match that of other western states, most particularly California. International Style or Art Moderne houses in residential neighborhoods are unusual, and those that do exist often find themselves surrounded by more traditional Period Revival styles. More frequently, commercial storefronts and movie theaters used the modern styles. In Utah, most of the buildings in these modern-style buildings were supported by federal monies and included schools, institutions of higher learning, city halls, federal buildings, and county courthouses.
Rejecting all references to historicism, this style emerged in Europe during the 1920s and eventually became known around the world for its unadorned, smooth-surfaced, flat roof designs. Based on the machine aesthetic, which borrowed the appearance of machined surfaces and used machine-finished industrial products, it was made popular by such European architects as Le Corbusier, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, and Walter Gropius. The latter two men immigrated to the United States prior to World War II and both taught and practiced in this country. No building type escaped the influence of this style. It was less popular in Utah than its close kin, the Art Moderne style. Characteristics: –asymmetrical facades –horizontal volumes –stucco over masonry walls –flat roofs without cornices or eaves –extensive use of glass –metal sash –double cantilevered, corner windows –metal pipe railings and balustrades
Art Moderne 1930-1940
Also known as “streamline moderne,” this style was influenced by the International Style and the work of industrial designers. Flat-roofed Art Moderne buildings recall the machine aesthetic, nautical imagery, and especially the aerodynamic imagery of the locomotive and the airplane. The designs incorporated curves: rounded corners, curved windows, or smooth wall surfaces (some of them stucco) highlighted with metal trim or sash. Machine-age materials such as steel pipe railing, aluminum and stainless steel, circular windows, and translucent glass block produced a decorative effect. Characteristics: –irregular plan and asymmetrical façade –smooth-surfaced, flat-roofed volumes usually incorporating rounded corners –stucco or masonry wall surfaces –metal sash –curved windows –class block windows and walls –circular windows similar to a ship’s porthole –double-cantilevered corner windows –unpainted metal trim and/or cornice –steel pipe railings
Art Deco 1930-1940
Referred to by some as the “zigzag” phase of Art Moderne, this style relies upon stylized plant and animal motifs as well as hard-lined, angular geometric patterning in exterior and interior ornament. Influenced by the International Style, this modern style also derived its reliance upon ornamentation from the 1925 Paris Exposition des Arts Decoratifs. Decorative parapets, echoing the effect of crenellation, surrounded the flat-roofed buildings of this style. Ornamentation in the form of panels, cornices, parapets, and window and door surrounds were composed of contrasting materials such as terra-cotta, colored glass, glass block, and various exposed metals. Large-scale monumental buildings often contained central towers, some of which were buttressed by side wings. Characteristics: –angular geometric decorative patterns –vertical molded ornamentation –tower suggestive of high-rise buildings –central tower with stepped wings –decorative parapet
–decorative cornice –ornamental door and window surrounds –metal sash windows –polychromatic decorative glass or glazed brick
PWA Moderne 1935-1940
Art Deco and Art Moderne styles as well as Beaux Arts Classicism and Neoclassical styles influenced the design of Public Works Administration buildings. This use of a stripped-down Classicism has resulted in the term PWA Moderne. Generally associated with governmental buildings, it may also be seen in some commercial buildings. These formal, symmetrical buildings with their Classical roots also contain Art Deco and Art Moderne details that give them an updated appearance. Characteristics: –smooth wall surfaces, flat roof, and plain, narrow cornices –symmetrical façade –projecting pavilions –vertical molded ornamentation –Art Deco decorative motifs –framed entrances –piers, usually without capitals –metal sash
World War II/Post-War Building Styles Following the 1930s, residential architectural design began a process of combining the influences of historial allusion and modernism. This happened to a lesser degree during the first two decades of the 20th century, when the bungalow introduced a sleek, somewhat modern appearance locally with little reference to the past. However, following World War I, historical American and European housing types influenced residential architecture with the introduction of the Period Cottage and Period Revival styles. Traditionalism seemed to appeal more to American taste, and thoroughly modern styles became a novelty both in Utah and across the nation. As the century progressed, however, Modernism had an increasing influence on traditional housing types. Houses that formerly paid homage to the past in many details were now becoming pared down and spare in architectural adornment. Cottages became mere boxes during World War II, and then evolved into the longer Ranch house in the 1950s. Although these houses paid homage to the past in some ways, during this transformation style became less of a factor in architecture as form took over and sentimentality waned. Both very modern and very historically influenced examples of architecture were being constructed during this era; however, the combination of the two was what appealed to the masses, as suburban developments across the country attested. Enormous building projects ensued as suburban growth swelled and people left the city for greener pastures. Improvement in roads and increased automobile ownership drove the move away from urban residency. Larger house lots accommodated the wide ranch house that sat parallel to the street (as opposed to early types that extended back into the property on narrow lots). Setting also became more emphasized as planned subdivisions incorporated landscaping into the overall design.
Minimal Traditional 1940-1955
Following the European and other historical revivals of the 1920s and 1930s, domestic architecture nationwide began a more simplified design approach following the old adage, “Less is more.” During and immediately following WWII, the WWII-era cottage and the early ranch became the house types of choice. Prior to this era, the architecture of choice was the period cottage decorated in various traditional (period revival) themes. However, by the end of the 1930s a combination of events led to a transition in stylistic design. The nation at this time was recovering from the Great Depression. The effects of the Depression not only forced people to live with minimal resources but it also forced a change in how buildings were designed—more simple, with less embellishment. Also by this time, European modernism influenced American architectural thought. Only a few daring individuals fully adopted the simple lines, lack of ornamentation, and machine-like aesthetics of modernism. But in a more subtle way, the sparseness of Modernism affected the general domestic architecture of the era. Although houses still had a hint of historical allusion, it was in minor details such as a roof gable, implied porch pilasters, or quoins at the corners. Although houses continued to be built based on historical patterns, the majority were designed with only a slight nod to the past, and this affect on popular architecture would continue for decades to come. Characteristics: –understated traditional detailing on smaller house form –details typically include door surround, columns or pilaster, and quoins –roof from is either hipped or gabled, sometimes with smaller projecting gables
Post-War Colonial Revival 1940-1950
Although the minimal traditional style was by far the most commonly used for domestic architecture following WWII, some people desired a traditional influence in the design of their abode. The Colonial revival style was one of those that carried on, albeit in a modified form, throughout the first half of the 20th Century. Colonial revivalism became popular in Utah before the turn of the 20th century and never really died out. However, by the 1940s modernism began to influence the style. As with minimal traditionalism, Colonial revivalism became a simpler expression in residential and commercial architecture. There is little difference between the two styles during this eraâ€”the primary distinguishing characteristic being the building form rather than applied ornamentation (of which there is little). Post-war Colonial revival buildings
typically have a blockier appearance than earlier examples. Details that set them apart include a hipped or gable roof—in many examples with a very low pitch, classically inspired door surround and front porch columns or pilasters, vertical window openings (many times with shutters: functioning or non-functioning), and perhaps a fanlight over the front entrance. Characteristics: –basic, boxy overall massing –low-pitched hip or gable roof –understated classical detailing, especially door and window treatments –vertical, double-hung windows
Post-War Modern 1940-1960
For a decade or more prior to World War II, Modernism was a major influence on most of the commercial architecture constructed in industrialized nations. It also had an impact on upscale residential architecture. Following the War, that influence continued, supplemented by advances in construction and finish materials. The early buildings of Modernism used glass and steel as the primary materials to express the boxiness and openness of the style. But in the building boom that followed WWII, new developments in concrete, aluminum, synthetics, and, of course, glass, made it possible to enhance the style.
Technological influences played a role in updating Modernism as popular mindset transitioned from the war to the Space Age. This affected the forms of buildings, whether commercial or residential. Although the box was still very popular, other geometrical forms, such as curves and sharp angles, were used create an updated Modernist style. Characteristics — Typically boxy or planar in appearance — No architectural ornamentation — Large glazed areas or bands of glazing
Park Service Modern 1940-1960
Since its inception in the early 20th century, the National Park Service (NPS) has examined and reexamined how park visitors should experience national parks. Initially, visitors drove through or camped in the parks. However, this concept changed in the 1930s, when the automobile was becoming a standard feature in many households. NPS architecture from this era was natural and rustic, consisting of log and stone visitors’ centers and lodges and tourist cabins. In the mid 1950s, dealing with deteriorated and outdated buildings, the NPS reevaluated how it wanted park visitors to experience their resources. They devised the Mission 66 plan, named for the goal to have all the parks’ facilities updated by 1966. The new concept of a visitor center with interpretive displays and park offices in a single building became the primary focus of park facilities. The NPS hired prominent architects to design buildings that were more forward-thinking in both use and appearance. Rather than one underlying theme with stock building plans for all NPS architecture, each individual park designed its buildings with a bold, commercial appearance, so that no two were alike. Many of these buildings retained some reference to rusticity—at least in use of materials—but others were designed to be more iconic and are very modern in appearance. These buildings’ characteristics include sculptural form, the use of stone and metal, and large expanses of glass. Characteristics: –modern, and somewhat commercial in appearance –varied use of forms and motifs in design –generous use of glass, steel, and stone –designed landscapes around buildings
New Formalism 1955-1975
By the 1950s, the International Style had become a mature ideology in architectural design, and architects were beginning to want more freedom in expression from the stringent principles of the style as practiced in the United States. The concepts of classicism began to creep into architectural vocabulary as the building structure, classical order, geometry in form, and a uniform grid were emphasized. Architects embraced classical standards in developing building proportions and establishing symbolic meaning in their new designs, which incorporated stylized classical columns and entablature, raised podiums as a building platform, and the colonnade as a guide in composition. Besides the theoretical aspects, architects implemented the traditional materials associated with classicism, including marble, granite, and travertine, as well as man-made materials that imitated their qualities of luxury. The design concepts of New Formalism were also applied to urban planning in the use of grand axes and symmetry to achieve monumentality. Traditional modernist architects most associated with developing the style are Howard Johnson, Edward Durrell Stone, and Minoru Yamasaki. In Utah the New Formalist style is limited to a few buildings in the state’s largest urban areas. Characteristics: –typically more monumental in size –implied Classical architectural elements (columns, colonnades, podiums) –geometrical order and symmetry –expensive materials, particularly stone and stone veneers