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paramaribo urban lab HOUSING AND MIXED-USE STRATEGY FOR THE HISTORIC CITY CENTER

MAY 2018


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A

Intro


paramaribo Urban Lab

FiNaL rEporT May 2018 Paramaribo, Suriname – Washington, DC


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2 pLaNNiNG arEa TEam 6 ForEWord 13

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

The scope and character of the historic center History of Paramaribo’s historic center Legal and institutional framework Previous studies and concepts

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3

iNTro

EmErGiNG TopiCS

Context and framework of the Urban Design Lab 16 Paramaribo 18 Paramaribo’s historic city center 18 Working methodology 22

3.1 3.2 3.3

30 35 38 40

46 Local Support Group Ingrated urban system of Paramaribo’s center 48 60 Scenarios for housing and mixed-use development


4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

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UrbaN STraTEGY

NEW UrbaN maNaGEmENT

Vision Planning Goals Strategic interventions – Projects Design criteria for Public Space and Housing Prototypes

66 66 66 72

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6

122 Facilitating housing in the WHS 125 Enforcing Local Economic Development 126 Managing Public Space 127 Community Building and Awareness Communication and Community Management 127 Implementation of the UDL housing strategy 127 and pilot projects

5 proJECTS 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

Watermolenstraat and Kerkplein Activation Historical corridor activation Monseigneur Wulfinghstraat Development Keizerstraat Mixed-use Development

80 104 112 116

bibLioGrapHY 134 ANNEX 136


TEam GovErNmENT oF SUriNamE

CoordiNaTioN

aUTHorS

dESiGN TEam

Stephen FokkĂŠ Program Coordinator, Program Implementation Unit PURP Director Suriname Built Heritage Foundation, Ministry of Education, Science and Culture

Jesus Navarrete Sr. Specialist Housing and Urban Development, IDB

Roland Krebs MSc. Urb., MBA

Roland Krebs, MSc. Urb., MBA

Lisa Vlasak MSc. Urban Development

Markus Tomaselli Dr. Arch., Prof., University of Technology, Vienna

Lilian Krishnadath Construction Specialist, Program Implementation Unit PURP (since October 2017) previously: Deputy Permanent Secretary Spatial Planning, Ministry of Public Works

Stephanie van Doorn Housing and Urban Development Consultant, IDB Nadischia Semmoh Operations Analyst, IDB

Ida Jusic MSc. Arch.

Ida Jusic MSc. Arch. Lisa Vlasak MSc. Urban Development Marco Chavez BSc. Arch. Tamara Egger MSc. Arch.


aCadEmiC TEam

STUdENTS

Johan Martinus MSc., Architecture and Urban Planning, Anton de Kom University

Students from the Anton de Kom University of Suriname: Adriana Smets, Chiara Vishnudatt, Dayenne Gesser, Xaviera Vaseur, Dieuwke Cappaert, Dionne Gesser, Doerwishen Gangapersad, Jenny Nizamali, Jiantie Poeran, Karishma Piarisingh, Luciano Doest, Mairah Tirtamenawi, Milton Ferdinand, Naven Ramdat, Nila Autar, Ormildo Velland, Paresh Gena, Priscilla Alendy, Yovanca Adjako, Renisha Ramkhelawan, Rohini Briedjlal, Rugshaar Ishaak, Safoera Mohab-Ali, Vedanta Baldewsingh;

Angelika Namdar MSc., Transport and Maritime Management, Anton de Kom University Femia Wesenhagen MSc., Land Use and Urban Planning, Anton de Kom University Bibi Mustapha Ass. Lecturer, Anton de Kom University

University of Antwerp Aline De Bruyne, Lisa Molemans, Simone Brunings;

Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the InterAmerican Development Bank, its Board of Directors, or the countries they represent.

Markus Tomaselli Dr. Arch., Prof., University of Technology, Vienna Roland Krebs MSc. Urb, MBA, University of Technology, Vienna

ISBN

978-3-900669-28-7


8


LiST oF abbrEviaTioNS

ADEK BMF CNULM DNA ESCP IDB IGSR IWG LISP LSG MI-GLIS MOP PIU PURP SGES SPASU TU Wien UDL UNESCO 9

WHS

Anton de Kom University of Suriname Austrian Ministry of Finance Caribbean Network for Urban and Land Management De Nationale Assemblee (National Assembly) Emerging and Sustainable Cities Program Inter-American Development Bank Institute of Graduate Studies (Anton de Kom University of Suriname) Inter-Departmental Working Group Low-Income Shelter Program Local Support Group Management Institute for Land Registration and Land Information System Multi-Annual Development Plan Program Implementation Unit Paramaribo Urban Rehabilitation Program Stichting Gebouwd Erfgoed Suriname / Suriname Built Heritage Foundation Spatial Planners Associacion of Suriname Vienna University of Technology Urban Design Lab United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization World Heritage Site


abSTraCT

Paramaribo’s historisch centrum is in 2002 als UNESCO werelderfgoed aangewezen vanwege haar grote hoeveelheid koloniale houten gebouwen die in de 17e eeuw door de Nederlanders zijn gebouwd. Terwijl de concentratie van historische monumenten een potentiaal voor duurzame ontwikkeling van Paramaribo’s historisch centrum kan betekenen, is de binnenstad in een staat van degradatie en verwaarlozing. Veel gebouwen zijn in een slechte staat. Woon- en commerciële functies zijn sterk afgenomen over de laatste decennia doordat mensen naar buitenwijken zijn verhuisd. Door het gebrek aan functionele diversiteit en permanente bewoners is het historisch centrum buiten werktijden een verlaten gebied, met als gevolg een gevoel van verlatenheid en onveiligheid. De projectvisie voor het historisch centrum van Paramaribo - als resultaat van het stakeholder overleg - is het creëren van een levendige plek met duurzame woonprojecten en verbonden publieke ruimtes die menselijke mobiliteit mogelijk maken en het historisch centrum verrijken met een bruisende economie door activatie van commerciële, culturele en sociale waarden.

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Om deze doelen te bereiken en de visie voor het historisch centrum te realiseren worden er vier projecten voorgesteld. De mixed-use strategieën Watermolenstraat en Kerkplein activatie, Historische doorgang activatie, woonbouw ontwikkelingsproject Monseigneur Wulfinghstraat en de mixed-use ontwikkeling van de Keizerstraat / Klipstenen Staat. Deze projecten betreffen verschillende gebieden en aspecten van het historisch centrum en doelen er op het gebied aantrekkelijk te maken voor bewoners, ondernemingen, creatieven en bezoekers. Hierbij worden er aanbevelingen gedaan op gebied van publieke ruimte, transport management en cultuur, die alle een sleutelrol spelen voor de aantrekkelijkheid van het historisch centrum als woongebied.


ForEWord STEpHEN Fokké

Stephen Fokké Head of Program Implementation Unit, PURP Director Suriname Built Heritage Foundation, Ministry of Education, Science and Culture

Suriname is implementing the Paramaribo Urban Rehabilitation Program (PURP) for the historic inner city of Paramaribo. The objective of the PURP is to contribute to the socio-economic revitalization of Paramaribo’s historic center. The program is based on 4 pillars: (i) attracting new residents and commercial activities; (ii) restoring historical buildings to value its cultural heritage; (iii) reducing traffic congestion; and (iv) strengthening the institutional framework for managing the historic city´s sustainable development. This is where the Urban Design Lab (UDL) comes into play. The UDL is an innovative planning method that supports participatory planning approaches in a people-centered urban design process. The strategy developed by the Paramaribo Urban Design Lab forms an integrative part of the PURP and adds to the rehabilitation of the historic city center. Working hand in hand, the InterAmerican Development Bank (IDB), the Government of the Republic of Suriname and the UDL-team facilitated a participatory planning process aimed to create ideas for a more vibrant, sustainable and resilient historic center. The goal of the UDL is to bring back residential and commercial functions to Paramaribo’s historic inner city. The strategy presented in this book was developed together with residents, experts and students and combines factors to attract new residents, businesses and interventions to create new spaces and rehabilitate buildings that can be put back into residential and commercial use.

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The Paramaribo Urban Design Lab has allowed residents and students to bring in their ideas for the regeneration of the historic city center and to develop solutions to every-day problems. This is a great step towards a more vibrant, resilient and sustainable future.


1 Intro

The Paramaribo Urban Design Lab is an urban strategy aimed to revitalize Paramaribo’s historic center. A World Heritage Site, Paramaribo’s inner city holds a great potential for sustainable urban development and regeneration. The current publication documents the development of an urban strategy that focusses specifically on bringing back residential and commercial functions to Paramaribo’s historic city center to make it lively and vibrant again.


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Intro A1 16

1.1 Context and framework of the Urban Design Lab In June 2017, the IDB launched the Urban Design Lab (UDL) which is aligned with the implementation of the Emerging and Sustainable Cities Program (ESCP) in Paramaribo and the recently approved investment loan to the Government of Suriname, the Paramaribo Urban Rehabilitation Program (PURP). The Urban Design Lab (UDL) is a project that delivers a comprehensive urban housing strategy for the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Paramaribo. The strategy developed will directly support the Paramaribo Urban Rehabilitation Program (PURP). The objective of the PURP is to contribute to the socio-economic revitalization of Paramaribo’s historic center by (i) attracting new residents and commercial activities; (ii) restoring historical buildings to value its cultural heritage; (iii) reducing traffic congestion; and (iv) strengthening the institutional framework for managing its sustainable development. The focus of the UDL is to bring back residential and commercial functions to the historic city center. Other objectives of the PURP like the redevelopment of the waterfront, the improvement of the transport system, and the creation of spaces for the creative industries will be covered by other consultancies. A comprehensive urban strategy that combines factors to attract new residents and businesses, and interventions to create new spaces and rehabilitate buildings that can be put back into residential and commercial use forms the heart of the UDL. Alternative modes of tenure, such as rental apartments, will be introduced through the housing strategy. In two pilot projects located in a strategically selected area within the historic city center, the new model of mixed use development will be tested, eventually serving as an incubator for further projects in the planning area. The redevelopment of the adjacent public space of these projects has been included in the Urban Design Lab’s creative co-design process.

In order to ensure enhanced participation of stakeholders in the process, strong partnerships with the private and the academic sector (which together form the UDL’s “Local Support Group”) have been established. The Urban Design Lab has been structured in three steps: The first step was a 6-week long preparation and research phase that included meetings with key stakeholders and the collection and interpretation of relevant planning material. The second phase reached out to the people and engaged them in the planning process through focus group discussions and design workshops. The third step has been the planning and design process. After four months of intensive work, the UDL presents the urban housing strategy to the public and the established Local Support Group.

“In the course of the last three decades, Paramaribo’s central area has seen a gradual change in its urban functions, from a vibrant city center to an area with more specialized urban functions. The central area has become an administrative and commercial hub, losing most of its permanent residents, who have moved to newer, better serviced and more dynamic urban sub centers away from the central area.” IDB / PURP


Intro A1 17

Traditional buildings next to Fort Zeelandia


Intro 1 18

1.2 Paramaribo The rest of Paramaribo is characterized by Paramaribo is the capital city of Suriname in the northern residential areas with commercial functions along the part of South America. With a population of 240,924 main roads and some shopping malls and entertainment (according to 2012 census data), Paramaribo is Suriname’s facilities. Most people live in standalone one- to two-family largest urban agglomeration and home to almost half of houses with backyard gardens; apartment buildings are the country’s population. Its colonial and post-colonial very rare in Paramaribo. “It has a lot of history has brought about a high ethnic diversity made of descendants of immigrants from around the world – mainly potential, it has 1.3 Paramaribo’s historic city center the East Indies, the former Dutch East Indies, China, Western Paramaribo’s historic center (30 beautiful buildings, Africa and Europe – which shapes the city’s character until hectares plus a 60 hectares buffer today. zone) was selected as the planning but there are too Paramaribo is the political, financial and site of the Paramaribo Urban Design economic center of Suriname. Most government functions many offices which Lab. The area was designated and foreign representations are located in the city’s UNESCO World Heritage Site makes it too quiet.” a(WHS) historical center. Suriname’s major banks and many national in 2002 thanks to its wealth and international corporations have their headquarters Charissa Muntslag on the of colonial-style wooden buildings in Paramaribo. With its location by the Suriname River, the historic city center erected during the city’s foundation city also serves as the country’s export hub from where its back in the 17th century. 168 buildings major export goods – including bauxite, gold, agricultural have been classified as historical monuments by the products and timber – are shipped to countries around the Surinamese Government. world. As the UNESCO (2017) states, “Paramaribo is Tourism has played an intermediate but an exceptional example of the gradual fusion of European increasing role for Paramaribo. The historical center of architecture and construction techniques with indigenous Paramaribo has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site South American materials and crafts to create a new since 2002 with a notable number of protected colonial architectural idiom.” It is also “a unique example of the monuments. 228,000 visitors have travelled to Suriname contact between the European culture of the Netherlands in 2015 (Trading Economics 2017). Most tourists spend a and the indigenous cultures and environment of South couple of days in the capital city before heading off to the America in the years of intensive colonization of this region country’s inland for wildlife and nature experience. in the 16th and 17th centuries.” Paramaribo has a relatively small city center with While the concentration of historical monuments mostly two- to four-storey buildings, many of which date and places holds a significant potential for the sustainable from colonial times. Next to the World Heritage Site, which regeneration of Paramaribo’s historic center, the inner city covers the historic part of the inner city (30 hectares), is currently is characterized by stage of urban decay and a commercial center with various stores, shopping malls, negligence that makes it an unattractive place for both storage halls and the Central Market of Paramaribo. A residents and tourists. hotel and restaurant zone is located in the northern part of Many of the buildings and places in the historic center are in the city center. a poor physical condition. Some have been left vacant for a


Intro 1 19

Mr. J.C. De Miranda Straat


Intro 1

long time and risk to collapse. Paramaribo has already seen a loss of many heritage buildings through decay, termites or fires – a great threat to the mostly wooden structures – over the last decades, and this trend is expected to continue if no intervention is undertaken to restore the buildings. About 70% of all buildings in the core area of the historic center are used for administrative and government functions and government offices (Sijlbing 2011, p.46). They occupy ground and upper floor areas along some of the center’s main corridors. Residential functions have strongly declined over the past decades, as people gradually moved to the suburbs which provide for newer and better serviced houses that cater the population’s contemporary

needs. According to existing figures, only 417 residents permanently lived within the core area of the historic center in 2010, most of whom are assumed to be either house owners and shopkeepers, who live in residential units above their stores (Sijlbing 2011, p. 17). Only few shops, restaurants and entertainment facilities can be found within outside of the core historic center; most commercial functions are located in the adjacent commercial area, the hotel / gastronomy zone and along the waterfront. However, there is only little exchange between these areas and the historic part of the inner city. Many shops have migrated to the suburbs of Paramaribo as the parking situation in the inner city became worse and

NUMBER OF RESIDENTS LIVING IN THE HISTORIC CENTER Around 1800

Around 1800 the number of residents living in the historic city center was

Only 417 residents lived permanently within the core area of the historic center

approximately 9,650 (Paramaribo World Heritage Site Management Plan

in 2010 (Paramaribo World Heritage Site Management Plan 2011-2015).

2011-2015).

20

= 100 residents


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Preliminary Emerging Topics

Analysis of the workshops

Academic Workshop

parTiCipaTorY WorkSHopS

Focus Group Workshops

2

Identification of key actors

Preparation of workshops

Establishing a Local Support Group

prEparaTorY pHaSE Conducting interviews

1

Review existing data and studies

Intro

1

Methodology timeline of the Urban Design Lab (UDL)

worse. Due to the lack of functional diversity and permanent residents, the historic center turns into a deserted area after office hours. Residents of other neighborhoods do not like to visit the historic center for shopping or recreational purposes in the afternoon or at night. This creates a perception of abandonment and unsafety.

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1.4 Working methodology of the Urban Design Lab The Paramaribo Urban Design Lab has been structured in three steps: The first step was a 6-week long preparation and research phase. The second phase reached out to the people and engaged them in the planning process through workshops and focus group discussions. The third step encompassed the planning and design process. Throughout all stages of the UDL, the team ensured the active involvement of a diverse set of local stakeholders.

Research Process – Setting the base for the Urban Lab In an initial kick-off week in June 2017, the UDL-team introduced itself and the project to a number of stakeholders from the public, private, creative and academic sectors. Sessions to brainstorm on the main challenges in the historic center, as well as explorative walks through the city center guided by a staff of the Ministry of Culture and a city historian were undertaken. The weeks following the UDL’s kick-off were used to study Paramaribo’s historical development and review existing data and studies, relevant laws and urban/ housing policies in place. The team also researched and mapped the ownership structures of houses and vacant plots within the historic center, the condition and occupation of buildings and the current use of ground floor areas. A number of concepts that had been designed by students and urban


Reach out to the public

Internal work

Final Presentation

Management plan

ELaboraTioN oF dESiGN propoSaLS Elaboartion of the design projects

Definition of the urban design projects

Urban strategy

Midterm Workshop

Definition of the prelimminary urban strategy and projects

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PUBLIC / GREEN SPACE NEW PUBLIC / GREEN SPACE

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development consultants in the past were reviewed in order to gain insights on the opportunities and challenges that previous projects faced. A key step within the preparation and research phase was the establishment of the “Local Support Group” (LSG). The LSG comprises a set of key stakeholders from different backgrounds, including people from the IDB, the public sector (Ministry of Culture and Education, Ministry of Public Works, Ministry of Social Affairs and Housing, and the Ministry of Spatial Planning and Land Use), the private sector, culture, local architects, the University, the housing and real estate sector, urban regeneration and selected residents of the historic center and its buffer zones. The creation of the LSG was an important step to inform, include and engage the local leaders in the process and to create ownership and acceptance. As the UDL

The UDL is a temporary think-tank, which helps municipalities find multisectoral solutions in a complex and dynamic world. moved forward, the LSG was constantly updated and new stakeholders were added to the team. Based on the LSG, a total of 14 interviews with 19 stakeholders were conducted to discuss their views on the challenges and potentials, as well as opportunities to implement housing and mixed use in the historic center from different ankles. Based on the outcomes of these interviews, the UDL-team was able to identify a set of preliminary


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Stakeholder Consultation Process - Defining a common vision for the historic center Phase 2 of the process included participatory workshops with stakeholders from the Local Support Group and students from the Anton de Kom University of Suriname. On 15th and 16th of August, 3 Focus Group Workshops with a total of 20 participants from the public sector, the private sector, the academic sector, urban regeneration, tourism, architecture, heritage protection, and residents of the historic center and its buffer zones were undertaken. The aim of the workshops was to set the basis for an urban housing and mixed-use strategy for Paramaribo’s historic center by bringing together local knowledge and ideas and triggering a dialogue between stakeholders of diverse backgrounds. The participants were asked to engage in a mapping exercise aimed at analyzing the perceptions of different age and income groups around housing and commercial development within the historic city center and its buffer zones. A focus group discussion delivered key insights on the participants’ visions and ideas: Who should live in the historic center? Which factors would attract these people to move to the historic city center? Where should residential uses be located to benefit the entire historic center? And what kind of architecture do you envision for new buildings?

Intro 1

“Emerging Topics” relevant to the revitalization of the historic city center. The identification of Emerging Topics was an effective way to summarize the main challenges and to clarify the scope of needed interventions. During the interviews, a mapping exercise was done with some of the interview partners which provided first insights on potential areas for an integrated urban housing and mixed-use strategy. Both the Emerging Topics and the mapping outcomes formed the basis for the stakeholder consultations in phase 2 of the process.

The information gathered in the discussions was synthesized into a clear logic framework showing hierarchies and relationships among topics and ideas from the different statements. It also helped to review and redefine the Emerging Topics which – together with the results from the mapping exercise – created a local and trans-organizational consensus around the challenges of the historic center inner city that would later form the basis of the urban housing strategy. In the week following the stakeholder discussion workshops - from 21st to 25th of August - the UDL-team, together with the Institute of Graduate Studies (IGSR) of the Anton de Kom University of Suriname hosted a 5-day academic workshop. 27 people from the Environmental Science, Infrastructure and Architecture disciplines participated. The aim of the workshop was to involve the students in a hands-on planning exercise that would bring about specific designs and ideas on housing prototypes and the integration of residential / commercial uses into the urban fabric of the historic center. In 6 groups of 4 to 5 students each, the students engaged in city walks, mapping exercises and discussions. The workshop venue was

Unconventional and unique ideas provoked debates and dialogue within the groups, but also in the community, comprised of local residents and engaged citizens in Paramaribo. located within the historic center which enabled the students to engage directly with their selected planning site. Thematic input sessions presented by Mr. Johan Martinus from the IGSR and Prof. Markus Tomaselli from the Vienna University of Technology (UT Vienna) provided thematic


iNTro 1

Participatory workshop with members of Government in August 2017

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guidance and background knowledge to the students. At the end of the week, each group presented an elaborate design for their respective planning site. A number of external guests, encompassing members of the public sector, the private sector and architects gave their feedback on the proposed designs. For the UDL, the workshops were an important milestone in the process of defining an urban housing strategy. Based on the outcomes of the workshops, the UDL-team was able to refine the list of “Emerging Topics� and identify the objectives for the strategy. Based on

these objectives, the team defined clear guidelines for the redevelopment of the planning site and developed specific projects aimed to bring back residents to the historic center. Design Process Based on the outcomes of the interviews, the reviewed data/studies and the workshops, the UDL-team developed an integrated urban housing and mixed-use strategy for the historic center. It is important to understand the strategy not as a final result but rather as an ongoing process of rehabilitation. Two pilot projects will serve as an incubator


Intro A 26

Student Workshop participants in August 2017


Intro 1

Student Workshop in August 2017

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for further developments which will be informed by the guidelines defined in the strategy. These guidelines will support the step-by-step implementation of the strategy and provide inputs on the management needed to realize the implementation. The draft strategy was presented to members of the Inter-Departemental Working Group (see p.38) and the WHS manager on Thursday, 14th of September. Participants had the opportunity to discuss the concept and provide feedback. The feedback was incorporated in the development of the final housing and mixed-use strategy.

The final presentation of the strategy took place on the 13th of October 2017. Members of the IDB, the InterDepartmental Working Group (IWG) and the Program Implementation Unit (PIU) (see p.38,39) were invited to attend the presentation and discuss the next steps in the realization of the strategy.


2 PlannIng area The planning area of the Paramaribo Urban Design Lab encompasses the entire World Heritage Site plus buffer zones. It is the place where Paramaribo’ first settlers from overseas arrived; and where the many cultures that shape the city’s character today have been conjoined. With its richness of historical monuments and places, the World Heritage Site represents a symbol of national pride; however, it has a number of challenges that need to be addressed to make it an enjoyable place for everyone.


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pLaNNiNG arEa 2 30

2.1. The scope and character of the historic center The planning area comprises the historic city center – a UNESCO World Heritage Site (WHS) since 2002 – plus buffer zones. The core historic center has a size of 30 hectares; together with the buffer zones, it covers an area of roughly 60 hectares. The WHS is located in the heart of Paramaribo and borders the Suriname river to its East. The northern border is defined by Van Roseveltkade and Sommelsdijk Kreek. To its west, the historic center is bounded by Tourtonnelaan and Heiligenweg, in latter of which Paramaribo’s main bus terminal is located. The historical city of Paramaribo has become known for its richness of historical buildings aging from the 17th and 18th century. 168 buildings in the historic center are protected monuments (Sijlbing 2011, p. 47). Among its most notable ones is the Fort Zeelandia at the eastern part of the waterfront. Constructed in the early 17th century by the first arriving European colonialists, it is one of Suriname’s oldest buildings and a major tourist attraction today. A number of important government buildings, including the Presidential Palace, the National Assembly, the Cabinet of the President, the Du Plessis Building which hosts the First Lady’s office, a number of ministries and government offices are in close proximity of the Fort. The former building of the National Assembly burnt down in 1996 and has not been reconstructed yet. Paramaribo’s most representative public space is the Onafhankelijkheidsplein (Independence Square) located in front of the Presidential Palace. Currently closed for maintenance, the square normally serves as the main site for public demonstrations, events and concerts. Paramaribo’s Congress Hall is located on the other side of Onafhankelijkheidsplein. Behind the Presidential Palace is the historic center’s largest public green space, the Palmentuin. On an area of around 3 hectares, the garden has more than

1,000 palm trees planted in the late 17th century. The Palmentuin is an important tourist attraction and was cited by the UNESCO as one of the main features of the World Heritage Site. While it is normally not a very busy place, the Palmentuin hosts numerous festivities which make the garden a hotspot of traditional arts, dance and food on public holidays. The waterfront is another important landmark of the historic center: Over a distance of about 800 meters stretches a promenade with some amenities like a small crafts market, a playground and some lower-end gastronomy.

“I hope to see a lively and popular historic city center, not only for the locals, but also for tourists with the main attraction on the waterfront. And hopefully we don’t lose any monuments anymore, because it is already a very small world heritage site.” Stephen Fokké

A multilane one-way street serves as the main corridor connecting Paramaribo’s north and south and divides the river and its promenade from a row of notable monuments, some of which belong to the city’s most precious buildings. Towards the western part of the Waterkant are a few bars and restaurants, a casino, part of the bus terminal, as well as a small port for fishing boats. While the waterfront holds a great potential to serve as an attractive public space, it currently lacks quality amenities and gives


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Lim a Po Straat as an important historical axis

New developments at Spanhoek

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the impression of neglect. Many homeless people gather around the bars and bistros along the Waterkant, causing a feeling of insecurity and discomfort to other visitors. The public space along the promenade is poorly designed, with little shade and a flood protection wall blocking the view onto the river. The busy street is a barrier between the waterfront and its beautiful monumental buildings. Another important corridor is Lim A Postraat, a narrow but busy one-way street crossing the historic

center. Lim A Postraat is characterized by a high density of 2-3 storey historical wooden buildings. Most buildings are occupied by government and advocate offices. Several buildings on the eastern end of Lim A Postraat belong to the Lim A Po Institute for Social Studies. As in most parts of the historic center, the sidewalks are occupied by parking cars during the weekdays, blocking the view on the buildings and making it difficult to walk on the sidewalks. Parallel to Lim A Postraat runs Henck Arron Straat, a busy, multilane one-way street connecting the western suburbs with the city center. A number of important landmarks can be found, including the headquarter building of the Surinaamse Bank, the Cathedral church – a main tourist hotspot, and the residence of the Bishop. Running from west to east, Henck Arron Straat creates an invisible boundary separating the busy and densely built southern part of the inner city from the calmer part in the north, where a number of schools, single-family houses and the Dutch Embassy are located. Another main corridor within the historic center is Keizerstraat which runs parallel to Lim A Po and Henck Arron Straat in the south. The busy one-way street connects the waterfront with the western parts of the city. A couple of shops, a McDonalds restaurant, a Mosque and a Synagogue – two important landmarks of the inner city – can be found alongside the street. Paramaribo’s only car-free public space, a small triangular square called Spanhoek is located in this area. Keizerstraat is connected with Lim A Po and Henck Arron Straat through the Watermolen straat, a narrow but busy two-lane road known as Paramaribo’s red light area. While the southern part of the street has a somewhat “dodgy” atmosphere, some well-kept historical buildings with residential and government functions can be found in the central and upper parts of the street. The buffer zone comprises areas on all sides around the historic center. In the south, a busy commercial


pLaNNiNG arEa 2 33

Watermolen straat, a narrow but busy two-lane road known as Paramaribo’s red light area


Map of Paramaribo, late 19th century


pLaNNiNG arEa 2 35

zone with numerous shops and shopping malls borders the historical city. Paramaribo’s Central Market with its large covered hall is located at the waterfront right next to the bus terminal. While the historical city itself is characterized by car traffic only, a lot of pedestrians commute between the bus terminal, the market hall and the shopping streets within the commercial center. Most buildings have multiple storeys with only few historic structures in-between. Towards its west and north, the historical city is surrounded by mostly residential areas with partly historical one- to two-family houses. Notable landmarks are the hospital and the NGVB stadium. The zone east of Grote Combeweg until Mahonylaan in the north as well as the area north-west of the historic center between Sommelsdijckse Kreek, Oude Charlesburgweg, Wanicastraat and Viottekreek lies within the WHS’s buffer zone. Next to the Palmentuin and Fort Zeelandia in the northern buffer zone is Paramaribo’s main hotel area with numerous hotels, casinos, restaurants, bars and clubs that attract both tourists and locals. 2.2 History and evolution of Paramaribo’s historic center The historical center of Paramaribo is where the city was born. The area was first settled in the mid-17th century by Dutch colonialists who selected the place for its strategic location for defense and its accessibility through the river. The city started to develop around the area of the Fort Zeelandia which counted around 60 wooden structures by the 1680s, mainly occupied by sailors and merchants who set up plantations in the area. With more and more traders and plantation owners moving to Paramaribo, the city grew towards the west where it expanded along Henck Arronstraat, Heerenstraat, Keizerstraat and the waterfront which back then was the main harbor of Paramaribo. The wealthy plantation owners constructed spacious dwellings (some of which were made of bricks imported from the Netherlands) along the main

streets of the city. Today’s Kerkplein used to be the main square of the city during the 17th and 18th centuries. The early 18th century saw the first major planned expansion of the city towards the south where the commercial center is today. This was followed by another expansion towards the west (today’s western buffer zone of the WHS), and later to the north (today’s northern buffer zone) which accommodated mostly military staff and civil workers. By 1800, Paramaribo counted around 1,400 dwellings. According to witnesses, Paramaribo’s population was very diverse at the time. Unlike most African colonial cities, Paramaribo had never been segregated into neighborhoods of different colors. Slave owners used to force their slaves to live in shacks in the backyards of their mansions, often under very poor conditions. This form of houses, called “Prassi-Ossos” still exists in some of the central parts of Paramaribo today.

“The principal streets are very broad, and planted with double rows of orange and lemon trees, thickly covered with fruit, and forming an agreeable shade over the walks beneath them. The whole town resembles an immense garden, abounding with fruit, considerably more than could be consumed by the inhabitants, and affording the passenger a most grateful perfume and refreshing shade.” John Augustine Waller (1820)


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Historic photo of Grote Combeweg corner Van Roseveltkade

Historic photo of Spanhoek

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But also a number of “free blacks” (Sijlbing 2011, p.13) stayed in some of the smaller shacks of the city and worked in lower-status jobs. The 19th century brought about further population boosts. Paramaribo had become the main trading center and more and more plantation owners moved to the city for business. The city at the time was flourishing. In 1821, a large fire destroyed large parts of the city’s center, including numerous houses along the Waterkant. It was the biggest fire in Paramaribo’s history which destroyed around 400 houses. The response was to remove a row of houses between Paramaribo’s core inner city and the southern expansion zone (today’s commercial center) in order to create a natural barrier against fires. The cleared area is where are located the bus terminal and Spanhoek (Vailantsplein) today. A second fire occurred in 1832 which destroyed around 50 buildings. Following the two fires, large parts of the city had to be rebuilt. Many of the monuments that shape the historic city center today date back from the time after the fires. The wealthier traders used imported and later locally produced

bricks to reconstruct their mansions in a more solid way. When slavery was finally abolished in 1862 (to become effective 10 years later), many of the former slaves came to settle down in Paramaribo which furthered the urban expansion and ethnical mixture of Paramaribo. In an attempt to fill the labor gap caused by the abolition of slavery, contract workers (a total of 67,000) from the East Indies and Indonesia were brought to Paramaribo over the following decades.

„I was […] surprised, on crossing the green, to find myself in an extensive street filled with noble buildings, and at the same time presenting the appearance of gardens and the country.” John Augustine Waller (1820)


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Historic photo of Gravenstraat (today known as Henck Arron Straat) in 1949

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The historic center’s decline started in the turn of the second half of the 20th century. World War II had brought about an economic boost for the aluminum-exporting nation. The newly emerged middle class started to build new, modern and larger houses on previous plantations outside the crowded and dirty inner city. With the rise in automobility, more and more people moved to the outskirts, and with them did the shops and businesses that used to make central Paramaribo an active and busy place. Apartments and stores turned into offices, which

dominate the historic center today, and trees were cut down to provide more space for parking. Today, Paramaribo’s historic center has not much to offer to its residents and visitors except a rich stock of beautiful heritage buildings that risk to disappear if no interventions to renovate and reactivate the historic core are undertaken.


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2.3 Legal and institutional framework A number of institutions and policies are concerned with urban planning and world heritage protection in Paramaribo. The following section gives an overview of those relevant for the UDL. Institutions Paramaribo has no local government – all administrative and political functions lie in the hands of the ministries and the District Commissioner of the Paramaribo district.

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Administrative units The UDL operates within the IDB’s Paramaribo Urban Rehabilitation Program (PURP), which is led by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture through the Suriname Built Heritage Foundation (SGES). The ministry provides the legal and administrative framework for the protection of the World Heritage Site and its monuments, and is responsible for the maintenance of the Fort Zeelandia and the Palmentuin. The Suriname Built Heritage Foundation (Stichting Gebouwd Erfgoed - SGES) operates within the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture and manages the protection, development and maintenance of the WHS. This includes the preparation and coordination of the implementation of the Paramaribo World Heritage Site Management Plan 2011-2015. The Ministry of Public Works, through its Directorate of Spatial Planning, is responsible for the development and execution of policies related to spatial and urban planning. This includes all duties related to “planning, building and construction, road and walkway infrastructure, parking, drainage, sewage, waste management, green zones, park development, bridges, sea walls and dikes of the WHS” (Rawlings 2016, p.16), as well as the maintenance government-owned buildings and monuments. Its responsibilities are defined by the 1972 Town Planning Act.

The Ministry of Social Affairs and Housing, through its Department of Housing, is responsible for the creation and execution of policies concerning the housing sector and the provision of housing in Suriname. It also manages (new) housing programs and maintains a list of home-seekers for public and private sector developments. The Ministry of Planning and Development Cooperation deals with the creation and execution of policies in the field of spatial, ecological, and socioeconomic development. Its focus – defined by the 1973 Planning Act – lies not on urban planning per se, but on the sustainable development of the country as a whole. The ministry is not to be confused with the Ministry of Spatial Planning, Land and Forest Management which deals with land use planning and the management and execution of laws and policies related to conservation, nature reserves and wildlife. The District Commissioner of Paramaribo operates within the Ministry of Regional Development and issues licenses for “shops, parking [spaces], businesses [including street vendors], cultural activities, [and] advertisements on public spaces” (Rawlings 2016, p.17) throughout the Paramaribo District and monitors their effects. It also applies sanctions in cases of non-compliance with the rules. The Bureau of Statistics collects and manages all public data, including the most recent (2012) census data. The data are aggregated by resorts (one of which represents Paramaribo’s inner city). The Inter-Departmental Working Group is a board that brings together people from the Ministry of Public Works, the Ministry of Culture and Education, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Spatial Planning, Land and Forest Management, and the Ministry of Regional Development to consult on the different aspects to be analyzed and dedicated during the preparation of the IDB’s Emerging and Sustainable Cities Initiative (ESCI) Action Plan for


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Paramaribo. The IDB has set up a Program Implementation Unit (PIU) to manage the implementation of the PURP, including the UDL housing and mixed-use strategy. The implementation unit is coordinated by the WHS manager and comprises an interdisciplinary team of experts from the communication, procurement, environment, health and safety, finances, construction and operations fields. Non-governmental and private institutions Stadsherstel Suriname is a foundation (Stichting Stadsherstel Suriname) and private corporation (Stadsherstel Suriname Limited) specialized on the renovation of historical buildings. Initially focused on the capital city, Stichting Stadsherstel Paramaribo was established in 2011 with technical support from its Dutch counterpart Stadsherstel Amsterdam and investment from De Surinaamsche Bank. Its influence was later expanded to other parts of Suriname. The principle lies on the purchase and renovation of run-down historical buildings which are then re-sold or leased to tenants. While the foundation is funded entirely on the basis of private donations and public funds, the corporation part of Stadsherstel relies on private shareholders to finance the process. The returns from the sale or rental incomes are used to repay the shareholders (at fixed return rates) and to purchase further buildings. Stadsherstel Suriname has renovated 5 buildings so far and plans to renovate more buildings in the near future. The Spatial Planners Associacion of Suriname (SPASU) was established in 2016 as a forum that brings together an interdisciplinary group of professionals to consult on issues around spatial planning. The Management Institute for Land Registration and Land Information System (MI-GLIS) operates an online cadaster that assigns and documents parcel IDs on land plots in Paramaribo. They also collect and administer land ownership data.

Laws and regulations Several laws and regulations guide the development of Paramaribo and its historic center. Some of them are outdated and pose a burden rather than a enabling framework for sustainable urban development in the present context. For certain issues, including housing affordability and maintenance, no regulations exist at all. The 1963 Monuments Act (revised in 2002) was the first legislation targeted at the protection of historical monuments and archeological assets within the WHS. The revised version allows the appointment of protected landscapes. The Monuments Committee was created to ensure the effective execution of the Act. The 1958 Building Act (revised in 2001) “oversees licenses for new constructions and residential areas in Suriname” (Rawlings 2016, p.15) and controls the architectural compatibility of new developments with the existing built environment of the WHS. The Building Committee within the Ministry of Public Works evaluates building plans according to the 1956 and 2002 building codes. The 1956 Building Codes were resolved through the 1956 state decree and define criteria (architecture, scale, height, color, etc.) for new houses within and outside Paramaribo’s inner city. The 2002 Building Codes serve as a guideline for new developments especially within the WHS and its buffer zones. They allow land owners to construct new buildings according to modern architecture, making use of the elements of the historic architecture of Suriname in order to facilitate modern buildings that fit within the historic built environment of the WHS. The Building Commission decides on the approval or disapproval of proposed designs. The 1972 Town Planning Act initially foresaw the development and execution of a comprehensive spatial plan for the city of Paramaribo; however, “only the part on allotment plans and permits for them is effectuated”


pLaNNiNG arEa 2

Paramaribo World Heritage Site, existing and proposed buffer zones

Technical assistance urban development plan for Paramaribo

(Sijlbing 2011, p.53) to date – a strategic document on the development and land use in Paramaribo is still missing. Besides the Town Planning Act, the MultiAnnual Development Plan (MOP) 2006 – 2011 provides statutory guidelines concerned with urban development. The MOP includes criteria around transport and tourism development; however, the document is too general to be effectuated (Sijlbing 2011, p. 57). There is currently no law in place that enables the purchase of apartments. According to the current legal basis, the owner of a house must be the owner of the land on which the house is built. To only buy a house, or parts of a house is legally impossible at the current stage.

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2.4 Previous studies and concepts for the historic center Paramaribo has seen many designs, concepts and proposals for the regeneration of the historic center over the last decades. Some of them were implemented, but most designs have never been realized for various reasons. This section provides a summary of the most important concepts around housing and urban regeneration.

2.4.1 IDB-led programs An Action Plan for the Urban Development of Paramaribo was prepared by the French Bureau PHI Architecture on behalf of the IDB in 2005. The concept encompasses an intersectoral Masterplan for the Paramaribo, Wanica and Commewijne districts. It provides recommendations for residential areas (present and planned), activity areas, main public equipment, the creation and strengthening of secondary centers, the restructuring of the greater inner city, transport and natural areas conservation. The concept foresees a densification of existing residential areas around the inner city and proposes locations for urban expansion along the main transport axes in the Wanica and Commewijne districts. The concept includes a regularization program for the maintenance, parceling and development of empty lots as well as a progressive tax system to incentivate densification and urbanization on areas of existing infrastructure. Neighborhood improvement areas (through land regularization and housing upgrading) were


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suggested to include the historic city center and some of the secondary centers. For the inner city, the plan foresees strategies for public space upgrading (prioritizing the waterfront area), market area restructuring, public transportation strengthening, public land, buildings and equipment management, urban landscape preservation, neighborhood improvement, and a social integration policy for marginalized people. A couple of workshops were organized during the design phase; however, there was no real participation phase to facilitate the development of the concept. Despite the detailed outline of the concept, the action plan has never been implemented due to a change in government in 2005. “The UDP however, has no statutory base, which hampers its use as policy document, but several basics of the plan are used in practice”. (Sijlbing 2011, p.57). The Low-Income Shelter Program (LISP) was another initiative led by the IDB as a response to growing challenges in the housing sector (urban growth, inefficient land use planning, deficiencies in the housing stock, demographic change, land speculation and affordability problems) and the government’s incapacity to establish inclusive housing schemes that cater the poor. The LISP started in 2001 with a loan from the IDB (USD 8.9 million) and contributions from the Surinamese and the Dutch governments (totaling USD 5.2 million). The program provided direct demand-subsidies to low-income households to renovate and expand their homes, technical assistance to private and third sector stakeholders to establish housing programs, and guidance to the government to set up an inclusive housing policy framework. After completion of the first LISP (LISP-1) in 2007, a follow-up (LISP-2) was implemented between 2010 and 2015. Like LISP-1, LISP-2 provided subsidies for low-income households to renovate or expand their homes but with the

option to use the money as a down payment for a new house. It also facilitated a pilot development to promote housing supply for low-income groups. Since the completion of LISP2, no follow-up program has been initiated; however, the Surinamese government is in negotiations around a loan from another bank to facilitate further low-income housing schemes. 2.4.2 WHS regeneration The probably most important study with regards to heritage protection and urban regeneration is the Paramaribo World Heritage Site Management Plan 2011 – 2015, prepared by the consultant Harrold A. Sijlbing on behalf of Suriname Built Heritage Foundation (SGES). Its analysis is based on a SWOT analysis of different aspects (governance and management, socio-economic facets, physical aspects, safety & community). The document includes recommendations around the institutional setting and strategies to facilitate, fund and monitor the realization of goals that were defined by a group of stakeholders relevant to the development of the WHS. The management plan was meant to become the central guideline for heritage protection in Paramaribo’s historic center; however, few components of the plan have been implemented due to financial and personnel constraints. The study “The Historic Urban Landscape (HUL) in the Caribbean: UNESCO World Heritage Cities as models for Sustainable Urban Development to promote walking and cycling”, prepared in 2014 by the Caribbean Network for Urban and Land Management (CNULM/blueSpace) of the University of the West Indies on behalf of the Organization of American States Department of Sustainable Development provides policy recommendations for heritage preservation and urban development in Paramaribo’s historic center. The study provides recommendations for the transformation of


pLaNNiNGIntro arEa

Riverside Harbour Village overzichtproposed waterfront

A 2

DNA Revised construction proposal National Assembly reconstruction plan

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Watermolen Straat into a pedestrian- and cyclist-friendly zone, as this area was identified to play a strategic role in the redevelopment of the historic center. The study further concludes that the city needs a more cohesive planning mechanism, financial incentives and a promotion strategy to attract investment in the inner city and legal mechanisms to regulate land ownership structures in the historic center. The recommendations of the study have never been systematically implemented. Another study by the Caribbean Network for Urban and Land Management (CNULM/blueSpace) of the University of the West Indies on behalf of the Organization of American States Department of Sustainable Development, “Understanding Caribbean Walkable Urban Heritage, Paramaribo� (2014) provides specific design guidelines for Paramaribo’s historic center. The recommendations include interventions in the public space and ground floor areas to make walking and cycling more attractive. The recommendations of the study have never been systematically implemented. There have been several designs for the

redevelopment of the Waterkant. These include the Yacht Club Real Estate Paramaribo from Wizard Caribe BV (2009) which proposes luxury housing, hotels, a yacht harbor and public space redevelopment and the Riverside Harbor Village design from Wizard Caribe bv., Carimexco, Van Kessel and KDV Architects (2009) which links to the Yacht Club Real Estate concept and foresees a flood protection wall, a promenade, apartment complexes and hotels in the planned harbor area at the waterfront. Another concept for the Fort Zeelandia and the Central Market area (Infrastructuurplan Fort Zeelandia Complex, Centrale Markt en Veerplein Meerzorg) was developed by the Surinamese engineering company SUNECON in 2014 which provides detailed design ideas for the two areas. Finally, the concept Herinrichting Waterkant from ACE consultants on behalf of the Ministry of Public Affairs provides design proposal for streetscape and public space redevelopment along the waterfront area. All concepts have in common that they have never been implemented due to various reasons including


pLaNNiNGIntro arEa A 2 43

financial constraints or rejection by the UNESCO or the Ministry of Public Works. A conceptual design for Vaillantsplein, a public square at the border of the WHS, was prepared by SUNECON in 2011 on behalf of the Ministry of Public Works. The design includes the establishment of a public gathering place with a fountain and urban furniture and a café with an open-air sitting space. The preparation phase of the design included 1-2 public workshops; however, the concept has never been implemented due to a lack of financial resources. A concept for the new National Assembly (DNA) complex and the strengthening of the historic inner city was prepared by Carel van Hest Architecten and Architektenbureau Fritz in 2016. It foresees developments along Henck Arron Straat and a 6,000 m2 site next to the waterfront which include the new DNA building and auxilliary buildings, gardens and a parking house catering 750 vehicles. The reconstruction of the DNA building will be implemented as part of the IDB’s PURP, but there are no financial means to realize the remaining design components. A mobility concept for Paramaribo’s inner city (Verkeerscirculatie Binnenstad), prepared by PROSUR N.V. on behalf of the Ministry of Public Works in 2012, provides recommendations to improve mobility and traffic flows in and through the historic center. The concept foresees a ring street around the WHS to relieve the historic center, and a redesign of the public transport and walking routes network. The recommendations have not been implemented to date due to financial and organizational constraints. 2.4.3 Student works A number of design concepts have been developed by urban design and architecture students from the Anton de Kom University of Suriname (ADEK) and partnering institutions, including the Artesis Hogeschool Antwerpen

in Belgium and the Technische Universiteit Delft in the Netherlands. The student works cover different places in the historic center and its buffer zones, including designs for the waterfront, the Van Sommelsdijk Kreek along Van Roseveltkade and Kerkplein, considering aspects like public space development, walkability and security. Notable works of specific interest for the UDL’s strategy include a concept for a pedestrian zone along Lim A Postraat, a design to connect open spaces in the inner city, and the redesign for the building block between Kerkplein, Keizerstraat, Klipstenen Straat and Wagenweg Straat which includes housing typologies with shared backyard gardens. Two concepts for parking garages on the site of the NGVB stadium and nearby the Central Market were developed by Surinamese and Belgian students. Finally, a master thesis on fire safety in the historic center delivers valuable data and ideas for the project. Although government agencies, NGOs and the civil society showed great interest in the results of the student works which were publicly presented and discussed with an interested audience, none of the students’ ideas has been implemented in urban development projects so far.


3 EMERGING TOPICS The outcome of a weeks-long consultation and participation process is a list of emerging topics – issues that describe the challenges and potentials relevant for the revitalization of the historic center through housing and mixed use – and their localization. The emerging topics reflect the views, doubts and ideas of the Local Support Group, which are complemented by scenarios around housing and mixed-use in the historic city center. Together, they form the foundation of the strategy. This way, it can be ensured that the final concept draws upon the views and knowledge of a heterogenous group of local stakeholders.


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A

Intro


EMERGING TOPICS Intro A 3

The following chapter describes the emerging topics derived from the outcomes from the stakeholder interviews and focus group discussions with members from the Local Support Group, as well as the participants’ visions for a more vital historic center. As mentioned earlier, opening up a dialogue between different stakeholders is one of the key elements in the methodology of the Urban Design Lab. During a moderated process of collaborative diagnosis, emerging topics around the challenges and potentials of introducing housing and commercial functions in the historic center were discussed and defined. Statements made by the stakeholders were assorted, analyzed, and consolidated into eight main thematic blocks, considering multiple mentions and special emphases made by the stakeholders: 1. Heritage Value of Monument Buildings and historic ensembles 2. Culture and Community 3. Monofunctionality and Vacancy 4. Local Economic Development 5. (Affordable) Housing 6. Quality and Quantity of Public Space 7. Human Scale Mobility 8. Security In a mapping and focus group discussion exercise during the workshops, the participants specified which places have particular relevance for housing and mixeduse considering the topics, challenges and potentials discussed. They also developed specific scenarios for the historic center and defined places for possible interventions.

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3.1 Local Support Group A key step within the preparation and research phase was the establishment of a “Local Support Group” (LSG). The

LSG comprises a set of key stakeholders from different backgrounds, including staff from the IDB, the public sector (Ministry of Culture and Education, Ministry of Public Works, Ministry of Social Affairs and Housing, and the Ministry of Spatial Planning and Land Use), the private sector, culture, local architects, the University, the housing and real estate sector, urban regeneration and selected residents of the historic center and its buffer zones. The creation of the LSG is an important tool to inform, include and engage the local leaders in the project and to create ownership and acceptance of the project. As the UDL moved forward, the LSG was constantly updated and new stakeholders were added to the team. 3.2

Heritage Value of Monument Buildings and historic ensembles One of the most striking concerns is the poor condition of buildings (both publicly and privately owned) and places in the historic center. Many buildings, including protected heritage monuments, are in a state of decay and need urgent renovation. It was repeatedly stressed that there should be a legal framework for better maintenance and renovation of historical buildings.

„The building has to maintain itself, that’s how the people here think.“ Patricia Tjon-A-Joe and Joel Terzol The decay of so many monuments is related, on the one hand, to financial constraints, as the maintenance costs are high and the current economic situation does not allow for any major investments. Maintenance has to be done on a regular basis, as the mostly wooden structures suffer from humidity, climatic conditions, insect infestations


EMERGING TOPICS 3

Vacancy at Kerk Plein waiting for urban renewal

47

and related threats. Many house owners are not aware of the use and availability of suitable building materials, which makes renovation works even more difficult to implement and to afford. On the other hand, there seems to be a lack of incentives for private house owners to maintain their buildings. Many buildings and vacant land plots have multiple owners, part of whom live abroad. In order to become attractive for these people to renovate and rent

“It has a lot of potential, it has beautiful buildings, but there are too many offices which makes it too quiet.� Charissa Muntslag about the historic center


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PRIVATESECTOR FHR Lim A Po Institute for Social Studies De kleine Historie De West Oseada Simplicity

Stephen Fokké Director SGES, WHS Manager Rachel Deekman Public Awareness and Documentation Officer SGES Harrold A. Sijlbing Consultant SGES Mr. Woei A Tsoi Director Stadsherstel Suriname Ton Smit Stadsherstel Suriname Irene Menlenbeug Policy Advisor Archelogische Deist

URBAN REGENERATION Stichting Gebouwd Erfgoed Suriname Stadsherstel Suriname Archeologische Deist

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O B

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Wonstichting Sekrepatu Terzol Vastgoed Stichting Dak en Thuislozen Ministry of Social Affairs and Housing

Su t of

MARI A R

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HOUSING AND REAL ESTATE

en nm r e ov

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EMERGING TOPICS

Lloyd Kotzebue Director Wonstichting Sekrepatu Renate Claver Wonstichting Sekrepatu Joel Terzol Director Terzol Vastgoed Patricia Tjon-A-Joe Real Estate Expert Terzol Vastgoed

Hans Lim A Po Director of the Lim A Po Institute for Social Studies Abdel Herrenberg Director De kleine Historie Guesthouse Mr. Brakke Director Brakke Anushka Raghoebarsing Oseada Francisca Kuenen Director Simplicity George Findlay Editor-in-Chief Publisher De West

Suriname Archery Federation Woei A Sioe Architects

cts -

3

Anton De Kom University of Suriname University of Technology Vienna

LOCAL ARCHITECTS

or - Loca l A r c hit e

ACADEMIC SECTOR

Fritz Tjong Among Suriname Archery Federation Jaqueline Woei a Sioe Director Woei A Sioe Architects Indira Sitalsing Woei A Sioe Architects Gabriele Giessler Architect Satya Singh Architect

PA

Angelika Namdar Lecturer Urban Design, ADEKUS Johan Martinus Lecturer Urban Design, ADEKUS Marten Schalkwijk Professor Social Change and Development Planning, ADEKUS Femia Wesenhagen Lecturer Urban Design, ADEKUS Bibi Mustapha Ass. Lecturer Urban Design, ADEKUS Markus Tomaselli Head of the Institute of Urban Design and Landcape Architecture, UT Vienna


MULTILATERAL ORGANIZATIONS

- Tourism , Art sa nd

Inter-American Development Bank C ul tu

Cesar Falconi Country Representative IDB Jesus Narravete Sr. Specialist Housing and Urban Development IDB Roland Krebs Housing and Urban Development Consultant IDB Stephanie Van Doorn Housing and Urban Development Consultant IDB Nadishia Semmoh Operations Analyst IDB

Nicola Karcher Private Sector Consultant IDB Lisa Vlasak Urban Design Lab | Consultant IDB Ida Jusic Urban Design Lab | Consultant IDB Juan Francisco Rodriguez Geografia Urbana Carlos Medellin El Equipo Mazzanti

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AN L A

esidents Ho tor - R u s i n S ec ga n d Re a

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RESIDENTS OF THE HISTORIC CITY CENTER

Abdel Herrenberg Francisca Kuenen Juan Pigot Hans Lim A Po George Findlay

GOVERNMENT OF SURINAME

Ministry of Public Works Ministry of Social Affairs and Housing Ministry of Physical Planning, Land and Forestry Management Ministry of Education, Science and Culture Ministry of Finance & IWG

TOURISM, ARTS AND CULTURE Surinam Heritage Festival & United Tour Guides Readytex Arts and Crafts Koto Museum

Lilian Krishnadath Ministry of Public Works & IWG Charissa Muntslag Ministry of Public Works & IWG Anuska Dewansingh Ministry of Public Works & IWG Mrs. Sabajo Ministry of Social Affairs and Housing Rashni Raghoenath-Soerdjlal Ministry of Public Works & IWG Earl Djojokasiran Ministry of Physical Planning, Land and Forestry Management & IWG

Cynthia McLeod City Historian & Author Sherida Mormon Director Surinam Heritage Festival & United Tour Guide Joélle Conrad Surinam Heritage Festival Yves Tjon Surinam Heritage Festival Monique Nouchaia Director of Readytex Arts and Crafts Christine van Russel-Henar Director of Koto Museum

Malva Tooy Ministry of Education, Science and Culture Stephen Fokké Ministry of Education, Science and Culture Dave Mendez Ministry of Social Affairs and Housing Clifton Mertosentiko Ministry of Social Affairs and Housing Peter Simson Ministry of Social Affairs and Housing Sagita Jaggan Ministry of Finance & IWG

te sta lE

B

m ade Ac

ic Sec


EMERGING TOPICS 3 50

BUILDING CONDITION

0

good

poor

medium

Historic city center 100

200

400 [m]


EMERGING TOPICS 3 51

out their buildings, they would have to charge unrealistically Citizens celebrathigh rents. ing a Combined with the high prices for land in the national historic center, this boosts the costs for houses, although holiday the demand for high-end housing in the inner city is limited. One house owner stated that the nostalgic value of living in a historic monument is currently the only incentive for people to live in the historic center. There are currently no governmental subsidies or regulations for private house owners to renovate and rent out their buildings, or for house seekers to find affordable places. The stakeholders suggested that it needs a comprehensive management plan to control and coordinate the maintenance of buildings. Another problem related to the bad condition and vacancy of buildings is the concern about fire safety. markets would be well suited to Many interviewees, especially those who own a business or represent the culture and to attract building in the historic center, fear that fires might eventually „Suriname people both locals and tourists. At the same destroy the historic buildings. The danger of fire is time, interventions of this kind could like to give parties.“ aggravated by the fact that many vacant buildings are help to increase peoples’ awareness occupied by homeless people using fire within the buildings, Abdel Herrenberg of the value of the historic buildings and by the tight political situation that might eventually and places of the inner city. spark civil unrest in the historic center. 3.2.3 Monofunctionality and Vacancy 3.2.2 Culture and Community The Local Support Group agreed that the historic center One point that came up several times is the rich cultural lacks a diversity of functions and activities – a challenge heritage and diversity of Paramaribo. The stakeholders highlightened multiple times in the stakeholder meetings agreed that this holds a great potential for the revitalization and the workshops. The city center is characterized by of the inner city of Paramaribo. While some neighborhoods (government) offices which close in the early afternoon, around the historic center are strongly influenced by the and the city center becomes an empty space after office cultural background of their residents which is reflected hours. in the shops, restaurants and street markets, Paramaribo’s Many buildings are unused. There is a very inner city lacks activities that represent the country’s rich limited number of residents in the core zone of the historic culture. It was emphasized that the role of food, sports and center, which contributes to its emptiness at night and in craft is very important within Surinamese traditions and the weekends. The stakeholders said they would like to see should be brought into the inner city. The stakeholders more diverse functions like restaurants, shops, guesthouses, suggested that restaurants, specialty shops and crafts galleries, markets, museums, theatres, etc. in the city center.


EMERGING TOPICS 3

Vacant upper floor

Vacant building

Vacant ground

Vacant lot - parking Historic city center

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VACANCY

0

100

200

400 [m]


EMERGING TOPICS 3 53

“Just bring more functions to the inner city that would attract people from outside of the city.” Charissa Muntslag

Many people nowadays shop in large malls outside of the center due to a lack of shops and parking spaces in the core area of the historical city . New functions and activities would help to attract more people to move to the historic center, and improve the feeling of security during night time. Vacant plots and abandoned houses, which significantly contribute to the abandoned character of the historic city, should be transformed into buildings with different functions. 3.2.4 Local Economic Development It was highlightened multiple times that the historical center needs more diverse ground floor activities like shops and offices for entrepreneurs and start-ups, creative spaces, restaurants and entertainment. The hotel zone and the commercial center have the potential to attract tourists which have to cross the historic center to access these places of interest. The Central Market and the adjacent bus terminal are an important attractor for both visitors and locals. Businesses in the adjacent historic city could easily benefit from the flow of people if the historic center provides more uses that cater all kinds of people. However, the current situation makes it unattractive for entrepreneurs to start their business in the historic center: On the one hand, the rents are too high for regular shopkeepers; on the other hand, there are currently not enough customers to sustain a business in the historic center. A diversification of functions would serve both as a means and as an ends to implement

commercial uses in the ground floor areas and bring back life and customers to the historic center. Temporary uses and events like food festivals, crafts markets and upcycling markets would enhance this process. Street vendors – which significantly contribute to the liveliness of the streets in the commercial center – could be a first step towards bringing back more permanent functions despite the high rental costs. 3.2.5 (Affordable) Housing Most of the stakeholders reacted hesitating when asked whether and how they could imagine residential functions in the historic center. Their main concern was the high cost of land and housing, along with a limited demand for apartment housing among the local population, as most people prefer to live in standalone buildings with a garden and parking space.

“For it to be sustainable, you need to bring us customers.” Monique Nouhchaia

Also noise pollution at night through the bars along the Waterkant was mentioned as a disturbing factor for living in the historic center. There was a certain consensus that the historic center cannot provide realistic housing solutions for low-income groups due to the high value and price of historical buildings and monuments and a lack of livelihood opportunities for young and low-income residents. The only units that currently accommodate lowerincome groups are “Prassi-Ossos ” (see p. 35); however, there is limited space to expand this housing typology from the buffer zones into the core of the historic center. As there are no rent regulations or subsidies, house owners usually


EMERGING TOPICS 3

Existing housing

Historic city center

Vacant plots

54

EXISTING HOUSING

0

100

200

400 [m]


EMERGING TOPICS 3

Luxury housing along the Waterkant

55

charge overpriced rents and rather accept their buildings to be vacant than to rent them out at affordable prices. The only groups the stakeholders could imagine moving to the city center are tourists, expats, elderly or young couples and families who cannot afford or do not want to live in an own house. In order to accommodate the latter groups, there would need to be supportive financial mechanisms and

“I think the population should be stimulated to live again in the city. But which segment of the society would be able to afford it?� Lloyd Kotzebue


EMERGING TOPICS 3 56

GROUND FLOOR USES

0

Gastronomy

Private businesses + services

Private offices

Government office + public services

Education

Historic city center

100

200

400 [m]


EMERGING TOPICS 3

New designed public space at the Revolution Square

57

the option to buy apartments, which is currently not possible from a legal perspective. It was confirmed by a member of the Ministry of Housing and Social Affairs that there is a high demand for middle-income housing but only a limited number of new housing projects which offers new possibilities to accommodate these groups in the historic center. The stakeholders agreed that tourist accommodation and expat housing would be a feasible option to

bring back residents to the historic center, and could be complemented through a cross-subsidy scheme to allow for mixed-income housing. 3.2.6 Quality and Quantity of Public Space Apart from the Waterkant and the Palmentuin, there is a clear lack of attractive public space and recreational areas the historic center. The smaller open spaces within


EMERGING TOPICS 3 58

“Trees are missing! When you walk, you need shade.� Lilian Krishnadath the inner city (e.g. Kerkplein, Spanhoek, and Onafhankelijkheidsplein) lack shade, furniture or facilities for children and youngsters. Missing trees to provide shade make walking and strolling through the city center inconvenient why even short distances are travelled by car. An upgrading of existing public and green spaces, along with the establishment of a green network and new spaces for recreation, would help to make the city more attractive for both customers and residents. Attractive public or semi-public spaces with facilities for children in the backyards of the houses could serve as a substitute for an own garden for new residents of the historic center. Creeks are a natural asset and should be made accessible as recreational corridors and places. 3.2.7 Human Scale Mobility Problems related to traffic, public transport and parking were highlightened repeatedly by the stakeholders. As people cannot reach the center conveniently or park their car in close proximity to their desired destination, many prefer to live and shop outside of the inner city, which contributes to the emptiness after office hours. The public transport system is ineffective why most people rely on their cars. This, in turn, creates noise and pollution – especially along the main transport corridors. There was a consensus among the participants that the implementation of an efficient mobility plan, along with the creation of further parking spaces (e.g. in parking houses), will be imperative if housing was to be established

The public transport system is inefficient and unreliable.

in the historic center. The stakeholders further stressed that there is an urgent need for more pedestrian areas and car-free zones, as there is currently a lack of these spaces. Walking and cycling should become more convenient (e.g. by clearing the sidewalks from cars, by planting trees, and by introducing bicycle lanes along major corridors). The stakeholders stated that proximity to the workplace and public parks would be important to attract new residents. 3.2.8 Security The topic of security was brought up many times. This affects, on the one hand, threats of fires which could harm both buildings and humans. The historic center has seen many fires that destroyed important buildings, including the one of the National Assembly. Fire protection mechanisms are not in place but should become legally binding for both renovated and newly constructed buildings. On the other hand, people are concerned around public safety especially during night time. While the area around De Mirandastraat and Lim A Postraat is considered as generally safe (partly due to the highly protected


EMERGING TOPICS 3

Fires are a permanent threat for the wooden buildings

59

Central Bank headquarter located in the area), other areas are perceived as insecure and “no-go”-zones at night time. This is mostly related to the high numbers of homeless people around the Waterkant, Grote Combeweg, Kerplein, Watermolenstraat and the NGVB Stadium, some of which appear drug addicted or mentally challenged and sleep on the porches or inside of the vacant buildings. Watermolenstraat is known as Paramaribo’s red light district and

“The homeless people live here, this is their area. They are sleeping on the porches. I would not feel safe there.” Irene Menlenbeug about the Waterfront


3

EMERGING TOPICS

Cartography of Perception exercise with the focus groups

people avoid this area, particularly at night. The stakeholders recognize that the revitalization of the historic center through new residents and functions will have positive effects on the security situation but agree that there need to be mechanisms to deal with homelessness and street prostitution. 60

3.3 Scenarios for housing and mixed-use development In order to localize the participants’ ideas and visions for the historic center, two exercises were done during the focus group workshops (see 3.3.1 and 3.3.2). The outcome Waterkant, the area around the Fort Zeelandia, Grote Combe Weg, the western buffer zone and the western parts of the northern buffer zone already have a lot of qualities for housing.


EMERGING TOPICS 3

Cartography of collective perception: blue dots: places where I would want to live; red dots: places where I do not want to live; yellow dots: places that have potential but need improvement

61

Other areas, including Watermolenstraat, the eastern parts of the northern buffer zone and the area around and south of the Central Market and the bus terminal, were considered less attractive. The stakeholders agreed that these places hold potential for housing and commercial functions if the neighborhoods were upgraded. The commercial center was not considered as a particularly attractive area for housing, although its economic significance for the in-

ner city is undisputed. Furthermore, the participants mostly agreed that Lim A Postraat, despite its high cultural value, should not be a priority zone for housing. In order to specify the locations for future housing developments, participants developed scenarios based on the map of perceptions and their individual views on the historic center. This exercise helped to narrow down the selection of potential planning areas:


EMERGING TOPICS 3 62

While the cartography of collective perception exercise was used to trigger (even unrealistic) visions and ideas, the focus group discussions were used to specify the locations, target groups, infrastructure and facilities, and architectural styles from a more strategic point of view. The results showed a quite clear picture:  Â? ENaR_Z\YR[`a_NNa `U\bYQ ORP\ZR N XRf QR velopment priority because its central location within the WHS and its proximity to schools, churches, bus stops and shopping opportunities provides many benefits. At the same time, developing one of the inner city’s most problematic areas might trigger positive spillover effects on the surrounding neighborhoods and corridors.  Â? BUR OY\PX ORadRR[ 9R_X]YRV[ 9RVgR_`a_NNa Klipstenen Straat and Wagenweg Straat was considered a potential area for housing development. The area benefits from its strategic location between the historic center, the commercial center and the western buffer zone, while offering a relatively large amount of open space in the inside of the building block. The former post office building on Kerkplein holds a great potential to be transformed into a modern apartment or shopping / entertainment complex.  Â?BUR[\_aUR_[ObSSR_g\[RdN`QV`Pb``RQReaR[sively as a transition zone between residential areas in the northern suburbs and new developments in the inner city. This transition zone was considered as more feasible for middle- and lower-income housing, as the land prices are not as high as within the core zone of the WHS. At the same time, the area benefits from its proximity to schools, the cathedral and the hospital, and its suburban character in a central location. The Sommelsdijk Kreek was considered a specific asset if better maintained. 3.3.1 Cartography of collective perception The participants worked with an A0 satellite image of the planning area and the buffer zone. Colored stickers (red, yellow and blue) are used for this activity in order to

represent 3 categories of feelings or perception. Each workshop participant was given 5 stickers of each color and was then asked to place the stickers according to the category/feeling and location on the map. The exercise was rolled out as a role play, with each of the participants representing a fictive person from a different age or income group. The participants were asked to place their stickers on the satellite image to answer the following questions, and explain their decision: 1. Where would you want to live? blue sticker 2. Where would you not want to live? red sticker 3. What are the places that need intervention in order to become attractive for residents? yellow sticker 3.3.2 Focus group discussions: Developing scenarios Based on the emerging topics and the outcomes of the Cartography of collective perception exercise, participants were invited to reflect on scenarios to address the discussed challenges. An A0 map and colors were provided to the participants – working in 5 groups of each 3-4 persons – to highlight important areas. The following questions were used to guide the discussion. 1. Which factors would attract people to move to the historic city center? Under which conditions could this take place? 2. Where should residential uses be located to benefit the entire historic center? 3. What kind of architecture should be used for new or refurbished buildings?


EMERGING TOPICS 3 63

Discussion on Urban Strategies for housing and mixed use development during the focus group workshop


4 URBAN STRATEGY Based on the emerging topics and the outcomes of the exercises in the focus group workshops, a common vision for housing and commercial use in the historic center was elaborated and validated with the stakeholders and government officials. The vision encompasses broad planning goals, strategic interventions and design criteria which together form the framework of the strategy. The projects aim to make the historic center an attractive residential neighborhood again, while the design criteria facilitate the creation of unique and high-quality urban housing units for new residents. The housing and mixeduse strategy will be complemented by other components of the IDB’s Paramaribo Urban Rehabilitation Program (PURP) to form a comprehensive and integral urban strategy for the revitalization of Paramaribo’s World Heritage Site.


He

nc

He

rre

ns

ST. PETER AND PAUL BASILICA

kA

rro

ns

tra

at

PALMENTUIN

tra

at

Lim

KERKPLEIN

AP

os

tra

at

rst

ast ra

ize

raa

t

T BUS

er mo W at

AL ERMIN

len

str aa t

Mir and

Ke

at

SPANHOEK

WATERKANT

SURINAME RIVER

FORT ZEELANDIA


URBAN STRATEGY 4

4.1 Vision The project’s vision for the historic center of Paramaribo – as derived from the stakeholder consultation process – is to create a lively place with sustainable housing projects and interconnected public spaces that facilitate human scale mobility, and to enrich the historical center with a vibrant economy by activating commercial, cultural and social values. This vision will be realized through an integrated strategy that encompasses a set of specific projects. The projects are defined alongside the five major goals described below. 4.2 Planning Goals The planning goals for the project were defined on the basis of the emerging topics identified and discussed during the stakeholder meetings and workshops. They provide the framework for the urban housing and mixed-use strategy aimed to make the historic city attractive for new residents.

66

The goals are to:  Â?7[P_RN`RaUR]\]bYNaV\[V[N[Naa_NPaVcRb_ON[ environment suitable for different target groups by creating assets of proximity between housing, parks and working places.  Â?@RUNOVYVaNaRN`f`aRZ\ST_RR[N[Q`NSR]bOYVP spaces that provides shade and light in a walkable streetscape, and to provide recreational areas for residents, customers and visitors.  Â?1_RNaRW\O\]]\_ab[VaVR`dVaUaURP_RNaVcRN[Q technology sector (start-ups, entrepreneurs, etc.), restaurants, cafĂŠs and shops, and to promote cultural-economic development in a mixed-use environment.  Â? /PaVcNaR cNYbR` \S ]_\]R_aVR` P_RNaR NdN_R ness among house owners and residents to maintain their buildings and develop suitable projects, and to enhance building regulations (to improve fire safety, ventilation,

etc.). Incentivize a community-building process by creating civic networks to enhance intangible heritage and cultural values, and to manage process to support functional diversity and mixed-use in the historic center. 4.3 Strategic interventions – Projects In order to achieve the goals and to realize the vision developed for the historic center, the strategy proposes a set of specific projects. The projects cover different areas and aspects of the WHS aimed to make the site attractive for residents, businesses, creatives and visitors. This includes recommendations in the fields of public space, transport management and culture which play a key role for the attractiveness of the historic center as a residential area. The localization of the projects was done on the basis of the outcomes of the participation process and reflects the stakeholders’ views on potential areas for different uses and target groups. A Watermolenstraat and Kerkplein Activation Watermolenstraat has received considerable attention as a main focus area for development and regeneration. Its suitability as a residential zone with businesses was explained by its central location and proximity to schools, public transport and shops. The transformation of Watermolenstraat into a residential corridor with an active ground floor zone and an attractive public space is expected to trigger a maximum spillover effect on the adjacent neighborhoods. The project foresees the activation of vacant plots and buildings through new developments and the reconfiguration of existing ones. Watermolenstraat will be transformed into a creative and commercial street with attractive housing units and shops for daily needs. This implies a reduction of traffic and the creation of walkable corridors. Kerkplein – which used to be the city’s main square during the 17th and 18th centuries – will


Heritage Value of Monument Buildings

OBJECTIVES

PROJECTS

Maintenance and renovation of buildings Fire safety High land prices Multiple ownership

Lack of diverse functions

Increase the population in an attractive urban environment suitable for different target groups by creating assets of proximity between housing, parks, and working places.

Lack of livelihood opportunities for low-income people in the city center

A

Watermolenstraat and Kerkplein activation

B

Historical corridor activation

C

Monseigneur Wulfinghstraat Housing Development

D

Keizerstraat / Klipstenen Straat mixed-use development

E

Design criteria for Public Space and Housing Prototypes

4

Culture and Community

URBAN STRATEGY

EMERGING TOPICS

Monofunctionality and vacancy Local economic development (Affordable) Housing Quality and quantity of public space Human sacle mobility Safety

67

Lack of diverse functions Vacancy

Rehabilitate a system of green and safe public spaces that provides shade and light in a walkable streetscape, and to provide recreational areas for residents, customers, and visitors.

Affordability issues for residential and commercial uses

Lack of tourism Parking Decreasing attractiveness for businesses

Create job opportunities with the creative and technology sector (start-ups, entrepreneurs, etc.), restaurants, cafĂŠs and shops, and to promote culturaleconomic development in a mixed-use environment.

Lack of regulations and housing subsidies Lack of finical resources

Homeless people

Activate values of properties, create awareness among house owners and residents to maintain their buildings and/ or develop suitable projects, and to enhance building regulations (to improve fire safety, ventilation, etc.).

Lack of green public space Lack of trees for shade Cleanliness

Traffic flow Public transport

Lack of public life after office hours

Incentivize a community-building process by creating civic networks to enhance intangible heritage and cultural values, and to manage process to support functional diversity and mixed-use in the historic center.


URBAN STRATEGY 4 68

be reactivated by transforming its public space into an attractive urban plaza connected with a network of walking paths and nearby open spaces. Two pilot projects along Watermolenstraat – one at the corner Grote Hof Straat, and one at the corner Lim A Postraat – will initiate the redevelopment of the area. The redesign of the triangular square in Grote Hof Straat forms part of one pilot project and will form a key element in a network of public spaces. B Historical Corridor Activation Lim A Postraat has been identified as an important historical corridor with a rich number of heritage buildings. To its one end, the street forms a triangular square with the orthogonal De Miranda Straat. This area – already a significant space due to its beautiful monuments and prestigious government buildings – will gain further importance with the reconstruction of the National Assembly building. To its other end, Lim A Postraat leads into a beautiful alley equipped with ancient trees and buildings, Heerenstraat. Together, this stretch of historic streetscapes forms a historic corridor. The strategy foresees an intervention to activate the value of the historic corridor to make it an economic driver for tourism and local identity. As it was not given major relevance as a residential zone during the stakeholder consultations, the project foresees to activate this corridor by creating attractive walking and open spaces, active ground floor areas and 24-hours activities. Together with the residential and mixed-use corridor along Watermolenstraat, this axis will form the backbone of the historic center. It will – on the one side – make the historic center more attractive for both residents and visitors, while benefitting from the adjacent residential corridor that brings customers and livelihoods into the area. C Monseigneur Wulfinghstraat Housing Development Monseigneur Wulfinghstraat has an important function as

an extension corridor of Watermolenstraat towards the northern buffer zone. The project foresees a new residential complex on a vacant plot in the northern end of the street, and the activation of the surrounding public space. The area was strategically selected for its proximity to schools, doctors and the cathedral which makes the neighborhood particularly interesting for young families and elderly people. Despite its central location, the area is very calm. The Sommelsdijk Kreek – once restored and opened to the public as a green recreational corridor – will become a main attractor of the area. Connections to other open spaces and points of interest within and outside the historic center will be created through shady walking paths. It is expected that the development of the area will have positive spillover effects on both the northern buffer zone which will experience further densification and upgrading, as well as the historic center which will benefit from an increased flow of people between the northern buffer zone and the southern commercial center and transport hub. D Keizerstraat/Klipstenen Straat Mixed-Use Development The fourth strategic project area is the building block between Keizerstraat, Klipstenen Straat, Wagenweg Straat and Kerkplein. Due to its low level of occupation, the block provides considerable potential for housing units (ranging to from single to family units) with shared backyard gardens. Target groups for this development are young couples, families and elderly who will benefit from the central location close to schools and shopping opportunities and the possibility to combine urban living with semi-private recreational facilities. The site will be connected with the other project areas – especially Watermolen straat and Kerkplein, as well as the existing car-free Spanhoek through attractive corridors along Keizerstraat and Wagenwegstraat. The concept foresees commercial activities in the ground floor areas along Wagenwegstraat and Klipstenen


OPEN PUBLIC SPACES

4

URBAN STRATEGY

URBAN STRATEGY AND PROJECT AREAS

69

0

Housing corridor

New buildings

Pilot project

Historic corridor

Pedestiran zone

Green shading

World Heritage Site

Traffic flow of the main axis

100

200

400 [m]


C

D

A2

A3

A1

A

B


PROJECTS AREAS A

WATERMOLENSTRAAT AND KERKPLEIN ACTIVATION Residential and mixed-use corridor Watermolenstraat

A1

A2

A3

Pilot Project A1 A new housing development at the corner of Watermolenstraat and Grote Hoof Straat Pilot Project A2 A new housing development at the corner of at the intersection Watermolenstraat / Lim A Postraat. Kerkplein activation and public space connection

B

HISTORICAL CORRIDOR ACTIVATION De Mirandastraat / Lim A Postraat / Heerenstraat

C

MONSEIGNEUR WULFINGHSTRAAT Housing Development

D

KEIZERSTRAAT / KLIPSTENEN STRAAT Mixed-use Development


URBAN STRATEGY Intro A 4 72

straat with residential units directed towards the inner courtyard in the upper floors. 4.4

Design criteria for Public Space and Housing Prototypes In order to attract new residents to the historic center, a set of design criteria have been developed which are generally applicable in all project areas. These criteria address, on the one hand, the design of public space to create pleasant, walkable, safe and lively residential neighborhoods. On the other hand, they provide guidance for the creation of new housing opportunities that ensure a maximum quality of living for different target groups and provide a diverse set of features that make urban living a unique and attractive alternative to suburban housing. The design criteria for both public spaces and housing typologies reflect the ideas and proposals of local stakeholders and architects present at the workshops. 4.4.1 Housing Prototypes New housing units will be created through the development of vacant plots and the regeneration and transformation of existing buildings. The design criteria were developed in line with the existing building codes from 1965 and 2002 and contribute to the remarkable and typical appearance of the historic center, respecting the historic environment of the inner city. The design criteria provide a flexible framework for both new developments and the transformation of existing buildings except monuments and heritage buildings. The main focus of the housing and mixed-use strategy lies on the densification of neighborhoods through new developments on currently vacant plots and the regeneration of existing buildings. The design criteria are valid for new developments and the transformation of existing buildings except monuments and heritage buildings. This has the following reasons:

1) The selected areas of intervention for housing and mixed use have a significant stock of vacant plots and non-historical buildings, but only few historical buildings or monuments. The historical corridor has a critical number of monuments; however, the focus of this intervention area lies on ground floor activities and public space but not housing which makes the creation and application of design criteria for housing prototypes unfruitful in this area. 2) Monuments are subject to the building codes defined in the Monuments Act of 1956 and 2002. They provide little flexibility for adaptations, why transformations of these buildings must be prepared individually by an architect. The application of standardized design criteria is thus unsuitable for monumental buildings. Examples of successful transformations of monuments into apartment buildings that could serve as an inspiration for architects tasked to redesign a monumental building exist, for example in the building Waterkant 6-8.


00 m2

URBAN STRATEGY Intro

< 500 m2

< 1000 m2

> 1000 m2

60%

<50%

DESIGN CRITERIA FOR HOUSING PROTOTYPES

< 500 m2 70%

< 1,000 m2

< 1000 m2

60%

> 1000 m2

<50%

< 500 m2

max.

17.5m

70%

4 A

max.

13.5m

>>1,000 1000 m2 m2

60%

<50%

3.0m pro

pe

rty

3.0m

lin

e

3.5m

73

DEGREE OF BUILDING DENSITY In order to ensure that enough open space is provided for regeneration, ventilation, fire safety, lightening and other purposes, structures must not exceed a certain density rate on their given plot: Plots with <500 m2 may be developed to a degree of up to 70% of the plot surface, plots with <1,000 m2 up to 60%, and plots with >=1,000m2 must not exceed a building density rate of 50%. This way, a combination of inside and outside living may be achieved that compensates the lack of an own garden.

PLOT BOUNDARY DISTANCE In order to create a consistent streetscape, new structures should be aligned to the plot boundary on the street side. Between adjacent buildings, there should be a minimum distance of 3 meters (ideally 1.5 meters distance to the plot boundary on each side). This distance allows for greater fire safety and aligns with existing building structures (non-enclosed construction).

BUILDING HEIGHTS New structures should respect existing building heights and harmonize with the street width. It is thus recommended that new buildings do not exceed 150% of the street width. Exceptions may be made for clearly defined highpoints at important urban positions within the historic center (e.g. buildings facing the waterfront). At the same time, buildings facing the street must not exceed the height of adjacent buildings or the maximum size of 13.5 meters. Buildings in the back of a plot should not exceed 17.5 meters.


URBAN STRATEGY Intro A 4 GROUND FLOOR USES AND UPPER FLOOR USES In order to reactivate ground floor areas alongside the main streets, commercial activities should be promoted in these spaces. Upper floors, as well as ground floor areas of the back-side buildings should be devoted to residential purposes.

74

ORIENTATION OF BUILDINGS AND UNITS In order to enhance the revitalization of streetscapes, commercial ground floor units should be oriented towards the street. Apartments in the upper floors may be directed both towards the street and the backyard. In a tropic location like Suriname, constructions must ensure cross-ventilation in order to avoid humidity problems and reduce the need of air conditioning. New buildings should thus have a two-sided orientation to allow for cross-ventilation.

ORIENTATION OF ENTRANCE AREAS The most efficient access system to apartments in multi-storey apartment buildings recommended for central Paramaribo is through central staircases. A very flexible access system, central staircases allow for a connection of diverse apartment typologies with different orientations and a maximum use of space.


URBAN STRATEGY Intro

min.

4 A

75% min.

1.5m

FRAME CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY In order to provide a maximum flexibility in the design, construction and use of new buildings, a frame construction based on a 3 meters grid is recommended. The frames may be produced of steel or concrete and filled up with a variety of building materials, depending on the preference and budget of the owner. This construction technology facilitates a great flexibility for a wide range of units and uses. 75

TRADITIONAL ELEMENTS In order to continue the design of existing buildings and provide private or semi-private open spaces for residents, balconies and terraces should be integral features. Balconies directed to the street also provide shade and rain protection for pedestrians. The balconies have a minimum width of 1.5 meters and a minimum length of 75% of the building front. Each residential unit should have access to at least one balcony or ground floor terrace. Windows ideally reflect the design of existing buildings with wooden blinds.

FAĂ&#x2021;ADE GREENERY Façade greenery is a suitable and increasingly popular way to prevent heat and support environmental regeneration in densely built areas, and may be implemented in new structures in the planning site.


URBAN STRATEGY Intro

35m2

A 4

55m2

max.

4.0m

80m2

max.

60°

250m2 $

ROOF Roofs should ideally have a tilt of not more than 60%. This way, enough space to accommodate rooftop apartments is given. Roofs should also not be higher than 4 meters to be in line with the surrounding elements.

76

PARKING As existing parking spaces will be used for new housing developments, parking will be mostly provided alongside the streets, benefitting from the time difference of day users (visitors) and night users (residents).

HOUSING UNITS Depending on the location of a building, different housing units are recommended. The sizes must ensure affordability and comfort at the same time. Single apartments should have a minimum of 35m2, couple units 55m2, and family units (4-headed household) a minimum of 80m2. Luxury units for 4 household members may have up to 250m2. The minimum room size has to be 7m2 and a minimal ceiling height of 2.9 meters.

BACKYARDS Shared, semi-public backyard gardens are aimed to compensate the lack of a private garden. It is essential that the backyards are treated as an integral part of each housing project and need extensive configuration. Urban furniture (incl. facilities for children), covered sitting areas and trees must be provided to create a shady recreational space for the residents.


URBAN STRATEGY Intro 4 A

DESIGN CRITERIA FOR PUBLIC SPACE Min.

1.5 m

Green shading

1.0 m

Shared space

3.0 m

Tree Shade

Organzie activities Urban furniture

Min.

STREETSCAPE Important corridors (e.g. Watermolenstraat and Lim A Postraat) should provide enough space for nonmotorized traffic to increase the walkability in the historic center. Car traffic should be reduced to one lane, and sidewalks should have a minimum width of 1.5 meters. One row of in-line parking spaces should be provided alongside the road. A green stripe (min. width 1 meter) between the

77

Green space

Min.

Traditional balconies

parking spaces and the sidewalks ensure that no cars be parked on pedestrian corridors anymore. Balconies and tree lines provide shade and rain protection for pedestrians and contribute to the walkability of the area. In order to enhance security perceptions at night, street lights should be installed at minimum intervals of 15 meters and cover especially dark corners and intersections.

PUBLIC SQUARES AND GREEN SPACES Public squares and green spaces must provide attractive recreation facilities and serve as a meeting point for residents and visitors. Open spaces must provide protection from sun and rain (e.g. through trees, sun-roofs and / or pavilions) and urban furniture (including sitting facilities, playgrounds, street lights, etc.). The use of public spaces for markets, events and festivals should be actively promoted.


5 PROJECTS

Attracting new residents and businesses requires specific interventions in public space, mobility, culture and housing. The strategy combines four projects in strategically selected areas of the historic city center to increase the safety, walkability and quality of the WHS. Together, they aim to attract a critical number of residents and businesses that make the historic center an interesting and lively place again.


PROJECTS 5 80

The vision of the strategy is to create a lively place with sustainable housing projects and interconnected public spaces that facilitate human scale mobility, and to enrich the historical center with a vibrant economy by activating commercial, cultural and social values. This will be achieved through a series of projects in strategically selected areas of the historic center, each of which has a different target group and provides different features aimed to facilitate diversity and harmony between new residents. The selection of the areas was done based on the outcomes of the participation process and reflect the stakeholdersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; views on potential activities and areas for different uses and target groups. An interdisciplinary group of 27 students from the Anton de Kom University of Suriname and University of Antwerp who participated in the UDLâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s academic workshop, delivered useful ideas around the design and functions of the project areas. Together, the projects form a comprehensive network that forms the backbone of the housing and mixed-use strategy. To initiate the implementation process, the strategy foresees two pilot housing and mixed-use projects that serve as a showcase for the further implementation of the concept. The pilot projects must not be treated as an isolated project but as an integral part of the urban housing and mixed-use strategy. 5.1 Watermolenstraat and Kerkplein Activation Residential and mixed-use corridor Watermolenstraat Watermolenstraat will become a main corridor for housing and mixed-use development. Currently the red-light area of the inner city, this corridor holds a great potential: Its central location nearby all main facilities (shops, schools, bus terminal) and the Waterkant provide the perfect conditions to make this corridor a residential area. Some housing units already exist, and a number of currently vacant plots provide opportunities for new housing developments. The project foresees the creation of an attractive

residential corridor with creative and commercial ground floor activities. Formerly the main commercial street of the historic center, Watermolenstraat should revive its original function and become the missing link between the commercial and the historical center. Ground floor areas will be developed to provide space for shops of daily needs and creative working spaces. The street will be redeveloped according to the design guidelines described in chapter 4.4. This includes the reduction of car traffic to one lane of 3 meters to provide more space for pedestrians, cyclists, regulated parking, and trees. A 2.5 meters in-line parking lane will provide parking spaces for employees and residents of Watermolenstraat and surrounding areas. The sidewalk along Watermolenstraat will be broadened to a minimum of 1.5 meters on each side of the street and bordered by a green stripe with trees to provide shade and protection from sidewalk parkers. The entrances of new buildings should face the street side to create an open and active impression of the ground floor zones. Balconies and building structures currently provide shade and rain protection which will be adopted by new buildings to enhance walkability along Watermolenstraat. An extensive street light system will be installed to provide a maximum of security, especially along the current hotspots for prostitution, in front of new housing developments, and in dark corners and intersections. New housing units will be developed in the upper floors of new structures and existing buildings. A total of 8 potential plots have been identified. The target groups for these housing developments are young people, creatives, expats and elderly who would benefit from the proximity to different services and facilities. The new buildings will be developed along the design criteria presented in chapter 4.4. Two pilot projects along Watermolenstraat will be realized and serve as an incubator for further housing developments.


POTENTIAL AREAS

BUILDING HEIGHTS

OPEN PUBLIC SPACES

The southern part of Watermolen Straat will be revitalised with the development of new buildings. The red lined areas indicate where commercial, community or cultural activity on the ground floor should be provided. The inner courtyards of each plot will have an open design and provide comfortable microclimates with gardens.

The new buildings should not be taller than 4 to 5 storeys. The buildings facing the waterfront and corner buildings should be allowed to 6 to 7 floors.

The system of open public spaces will be complemented with a new plaza and park at Kerkplein. This plaza is designed with a combination of hard stone surfaces and green areas- it will be able to host cultural and leisure activities for all visitors and residents. The new street network in this area will be integrated by connecting the existing and prospective corridors.

5

PROJECTS

KEY INDICATORS WATERMOLENSTRAAT

82

Ground floor activities

Backyard Gardens

2 - 3 storeys

Recreational space

New structures -

Commercial

4 - 5 storeys

Open spaces

Residential use

Garage

6 - 7 storeys

Shared space


OPEN PUBLIC SPACES

TOTAL

F G E

RESIDENTIAL UNITS PLOT AREA BUILT AREA GROSS FLOOR AREA FAR

155 4,097 m2 3,234 m2 11,322 m2 2.8

RESIDENTS

132

D H

C A B

0

83

250

500 [m]

A

RESIDENTIAL UNITS 22 PLOT AREA 2,233 BUILT AREA 1,112 FAR 3.0

B

RESIDENTIAL UNITS PLOT AREA BUILT AREA FAR

5 551 331 3.0

UNITS C RESIDENTIAL PLOT AREA BUILT AREA FAR

8 225 158 2.8

D

RESIDENTIAL UNITS PLOT AREA BUILT AREA FAR

7 251 176 2.1

E

RESIDENTIAL UNITS PLOT AREA BUILT AREA FAR

22 880 460 2.1

F

RESIDENTIAL UNITS PLOT AREA BUILT AREA FAR

12 600 330 1.8

UNITS G RESIDENTIAL PLOT AREA

11 445 222 1.5

H

RESIDENTIAL UNITS PLOT AREA BUILT AREA FAR

23 912 445 2.1

BUILT AREA FAR


PROJECTS 5 84

5.1.1 Pilot Project A1 A new housing development at the corner of Watermolenstraat and Grote Hoof Straat provides an example of how residential and commercial functions may be accommodated in a new structure designed alongside the design criteria for housing prototypes described in chapter 4.4. The new L-shaped building was designed in a way that allows for a maximum number of units with a maximum quality of living. Following the recommended design criteria, the building covers roughly 60% of the plot surface which leaves enough space to accommodate a shared garden in the back-side of the house. The building has 3 storeys plus one rooftop and provides 21 housing units (8 single units and 13 couple units of 35 and 55m2 respectively) for young professionals and elderly people in the upper floors of the building. The apartments are connected through two central interconnected stairways and one elevator. All units are oriented at least two-sided to facilitate cross-ventilation, and have windows facing Grote Hof Straat, Watermolenstraat and / or the inner courtyard. Shared and private balconies oriented towards Watermolenstraat and the backyard provide comfort for the residents and shade for pedestrians in the street. The ground floor area provides space for one housekeeping room and three businesses (units between 52 and 140m2), one facing Watermolenstraat, and two units facing Grote Hof Straat. It is recommended that the larger unit facing Grote Hof Straat be used as a cafĂŠ or restaurant with an outdoor sitting area towards the triangular square. Together with the restaurant on the opposite side of the square, this will provide an attractive framework for the place. The square itself will be redesigned: Closed for traffic, it will provide an attractive space for regeneration embedded in a network of public spaces. It is recommended that the surface of the square, including its sidewalks and


PROJECTS Intro

PILOT PROJECT A1 - IN A NUTSHELL

A 5

4 Floor

Plot size Built area Ground floor area Number of floors Gross Floor Size Floor Area Ratio

880 m2 480 m2 184 m2 3+1 1,840 m2 2.09

Floor Height

upper floors 3 meters; ground floor 3.5 meteres

3 Floor

Number of Housing units

2 Floor

1 Floor

86

19 (8 single a 35 m2 and 11 couple a 55m2)

Number of business units

3 (between 52 and 140 m2)

Ownership

unclear


PROJECTS Intro

Commercial Corridor Stairs / Lobby Cafe / Restaurant Small supermarket Maintenance room Shop Private garden Shady public garden

8

Gr

ote

6

A 5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Ho

fS

1

6

tra

at

2

3 7 3 Floor

2

1

mo len str aa

4

1 Floor

Wa

ter

5

t

2 Floor

Ground Floor

Axonometric

Areas

87

GROUND FLOOR

M 1:250

0

2

5

1. Commercial Corridor 500 2.

Stairs / Looby

4. 5. 6.

Small supermarket Maintenance room Shop

3. Cafe / Restaurant [m]


PROJECTS

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Balcony / Corridor Stairs / Lobby Living room Kitchen Bathroom Main Bedroom Bedroom

3

1 4

7 5

5

6

Gr

4

ote

3

5

Ho

fS

tra

at

7 6

6

1

2

1

7

4

7

3

5 5

6

1

4

3 Floor

3 6

4

mo len str aa

5

3

3

5

t

5

6

5

4

6

1

1 Floor

ter

6

2 Floor

Wa

1

3

2

4

4 3

Ground Floor

Axonometric

Areas

88

FIRST FLOOR

M 1:250

0

2

5

Couple Single

500 [m]

1. 2. 3. 4.

Balcony / Corridor Stairs / Looby Living room / Dinning room Kitchen / Laundry


PROJECTS

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Balcony / Corridor Stairs / Lobby Living room Kitchen Bathroom Main Bedroom Bedroom

4

1 3

7 5

5

6

Gr

3

ote

5

Ho

4

fS

tra

at

7 6

6

1

2

1

7

4

7

3

5 5

6

1

4 3 6

4

6

5

4

6 4

1

mo len str aa

5

3

3

5

t

5

1 Floor

ter

6

2 Floor

Wa

1

3

2

4

3 Floor

Ground Floor

3

Axonometric

89

SECOND FLOOR

M 1:250

0

2

5

500 [m]


PROJECTS

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Balcony / Corridor Stairs / Lobby Living room Kitchen Bathroom Main Bedroom Bedroom

4

1 3

7 5

5

6

Gr

3

ote

5

Ho

4

fS

tra

at

7 6

6

1

2

1

7

4

7

3

5 5

6

1

4

3 Floor

3 6

4

mo len str aa

5

3

3

5

t

5

6

5

4

6

1

1 Floor

ter

6

2 Floor

Wa

1

3

2

4

4 3

Ground Floor

Axonometric

90

THIRD FLOOR

M 1:250

0

2

5

500 [m]


PROJECTS

public to ensure its quality, security and privacy for the residents. Trees, lights and sitting opportunities make sure the garden will serve as an extended living room for the residents. Upon request, residents should be allowed to plant their own fruits and vegetables, and bring in their ideas for the design of the garden. The walls bordering the adjacent properties should be greened to improve the micro climate and provide a nice view.

5

the traffic island currently used as a parking space in the center of the square be flattened to create a coherent character of the square. New trees and urban furniture will provide shaded sitting opportunities. The ground floor zones around the square will accommodate shops, restaurants and coffee shops. The backyard of the building will be transformed into a lush garden of around 400m2, shared by the residents of the building. The garden should be inaccessible to the

91

SECTION GROTE HOF STRAAT - COURTYARD

M 1:250

0

2

5

500 [m]


5.1.2 Pilot Project A2 The second pilot project demonstrates the transformation of an existing vacant building at the intersection Watermolenstraat / Lim A Postraat. The building, which is in an intermediate condition, is publicly owned. It used to host government offices but has remained vacant since mid2017. The two-storey building constructed around the 1970s is not a heritage building. Its main entrance faces Lim A Postraat, with a second entrance directed towards Watermolenstraat. The regeneration and transformation of the building should follow the design criteria for housing prototypes described in chapter 4.4. To achieve a maximum occupation of the building, an additional floor and a rooftop floor should be added on top of the building. All units must have a two-sided orientation to facilitate cross-ventilation. The units created should include single and couple units addressed to the needs and preferences of young professionals and elderly people. It is estimated that the building may accommodate up to 20 residents in 13 units. The faรงade should be renewed with sustainable materials adapted to the surrounding environment. Balconies oriented towards Watermolenstraat provide comfort for the residents and shade for pedestrians in the street. The adjacent parking lot should be developed as a shared garden for the residents. This requires creating shade through trees and / or pavilions and providing urban furniture. Upon request, residents should be allowed to plant their own fruits and vegetables, and bring in their ideas for the design of the garden. The side facing Watermolenstraat should be bordered by a greened fence or wall to ensure privacy and protection from street noise. The ground floor units and some of the units on the first floor provide space for businesses, small shops and ateliers.


PROJECTS

Commercial Corridor Stairs / Lobby Cafe / Restaurant Shop Utility room Office space Private garden

Lim

AP

oS

tra

at

1

5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

3

2

1

5 4

7

3 Floor

Wa ter

6

mo len

str a

at

5

2 Floor

2 1 Floor

6 Ground Floor

Axonometric

95

GROUND FLOOR

M 1:250

0

2

5

500 [m]


PROJECTS

Balcony / Corridor Stairs / Lobby Living room Kitchen Bathroom Main Bedroom Bedroom Office spcae

Lim

AP

oS

4 3 5

7

at

3 4

5

5

6

tra

1

6

5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

6 3

1

4 2 1

6

7 3 5 5

3

str a

at

3 Floor

1

mo len

4

7 2

4 Wa ter

6

2 Floor

1 Floor

8 Ground Floor

1

Axonometric

Areas

96

FIRST FLOOR

M 1:250

0

2

5

Couple Single

500 [m]

1. 2. 3. 4.

Balcony / Corridor Stairs / Looby Living room / Dinning room Kitchen / Laundry


PROJECTS

Balcony / Corridor Stairs / Lobby Living room Kitchen Bathroom Main Bedroom Bedroom Office spcae

Lim

AP

oS

4 3 5

7

at

4 Floor

3 4

5

5

6

tra

1

6

5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

6 3

1

4 2 1

6

7 3 5 5

3

ole

1

ns

tra a

t

3 Floor

ter m

4

7 2

4

2 Floor

Wa

6

Areas

1

1 Floor

8

97

SECOND FLOOR

M 1:250

0

2

5

Couple Single

1.Ground Balcony / Corridor Floor 2. Stairs / Looby 3. Living room / Dinning room 4. Kitchen / Laundry Axonometric 5. Bathroom Areas 6. Main Bedroom 7. Bedroom Couple Single 500 8.1. Balcony Business Hub / Corridor [m]

2. 3. 4.

Stairs / Looby Living room / Dinning room Kitchen / Laundry


PROJECTS

Balcony / Corridor Stairs / Lobby Living room Kitchen Bathroom Main Bedroom Bedroom Office spcae

Lim

AP

oS

tra

at

1 6

5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

7 4

5 3

2

4

1

3

7

1

5 3 Floor

ns

tra

at

6

ter m

ole

1

Wa

2 Floor

1

8

1 Floor

2 Ground Floor

Axonometric

Areas

98

THIRD FLOOR

M 1:250

0

2

5

Couple

500 [m]

1. 2. 3. 4.

Balcony / Corridor Stairs / Looby Living room / Dinning room Kitchen / Laundry


PROJECTS 5 99

SECTION WATERMOLENSTRAAT - COURTYARD

M 1:250

0

2

5

500 [m]


100

A 5

PROJECTS Intro


5.1.3 Kerkplein activation and public space connection Kerkplein activation and public space connection Kerkplein used to be Paramaribo’s central square during the 17th and 18th centuries. Over the last century, the square lost its central function and has turned into a large informal parking space with little quality as a recreational or meeting space. The green area around Centrumkerk is inaccessible to pedestrians, and the sitting facilities are in a bad condition. Two important buildings – the former post office and a 5-storey hotel building – are vacant and occupy one of the most precious and central locations. The project foresees a redevelopment of Kerkplein to re-establish its downtown urban character and provide an attractive meeting place for residents and visitors. To achieve this, more space must be devoted to pedestrians and urban recreational activities. One side of the street surrounding the Centrumkerk will be shut down for traffic and redeveloped – together with the green space around the Centrumkerk and the existing sitting area – into an attractive open space. Urban furniture and additional trees will provide shaded spaces for recreation, street vendors and activities like festivals, street markets and night-time events. The vacant buildings should be given new functions

102

STREETSCAPE WATERMOLENSTRAAT

M 1:250

that provide afternoon and nighttime activities and attract more visitors. In order to create a network of urban public and green spaces across the historic center with Kerkplein as a central element, links will be established along Grote Hof Straat, Oude Hof Straat and Lim A Postraat. Grote Hof Straat, with its pilot housing project and its triangular public square, will become a key connection point between Kerkplein and the residential and commercial corridor along Watermolenstraat. This connection will continue through a tree corridor and the creation of a second green square on Oude Hof Straat. As a continuation to the pedestrian area on Kerkplein, Grote Hof Straat and Oude Hof Straat will both be closed for traffic and provide space for outdoor café and restaurant areas that attract customers even after office hours. Small spots currently used as parking lots in this area will be transformed into small public neighborhood gardens with shaded sitting opportunities and facilities for children. The area will be connected through a tree corridor along Lim A Postraat with other recreational areas like the Palmentuin and Onafhankelijkheidsplein / Waterkant.

0

2

5

500 [m]


CROSS SECTION WATERMOLENSTRAAT PILOT PROJECT A1

103

STREETSCAPE LIM A POSTRAAT

CROSS SECTION WATERMOLENSTRAAT PILOT PROJECT A2

M 1:250

0

2

5

500 [m]


PROJECTS 5 104

5.2

Historical corridor activation: De Mirandastraat / Lim A Postraat / Heerenstraat The ensemble of De Mirandastraat, Lim A Postraat and Heerenstraat constitutes a unique historical corridor that could serve as an important driver for tourism and national/ local identity. The focus of this corridor lies primarily on the activation of the value of the historic corridor to enhance economic, commercial and cultural development. Together with the residential and mixed-use corridor along Watermolenstraat, this axis will form the backbone of the historic center. The intervention foresees different approaches for the three streets of the historic corridor: De Mirandastraat De Mirandastraat has a high density of historic monuments and is located very centrally around some of the most prestigious government buildings of the inner city. The street, and its triangular square to its northern end will gain further importance with the reconstruction of the National Assembly building. The project foresees the creation of a vibrant square for various activities in front of the future National Assembly that could serve as an incubator for the development of the entire area, with new jobs created in the tourism and hotel industry. Historical buildings – some of which are in a desperate state of decay – will be refurbished and new uses implemented. These include high-end accommodation (mostly touristic) and government functions in the upper floors, and shops, bars, museums and galleries in the ground floor areas. The triangular square in front of the new National Assembly building will become the representative square of the historic center and should reflect the historical and cultural value of the place while introducing new functions and activities like movie nights, food festivals, and concerts. Urban furniture and trees to provide shade will enhance

the quality of the place for residents, employees, visitors, and street vendors. Along its entire length, De Mirandastraat will be closed for motorized transport and redeveloped into an attractive walkable corridor with trees and connections to the main recreational areas, Palmentuin and Waterkant. Parking won’t be allowed in this area and be shifted to collective parking facilities nearby the new National Assembly building. In order to enhance safety at night, a sophisticated street light system will be introduced. Lim A Postraat Lim A Postraat forms the heart of the historic corridor. It is a popular street for both locals and tourists with a rich amount of wooden heritage buildings. The Lim A Po Institute for Social Studies, and a number of government and notary offices occupy the precious buildings. Traffic is very bad, and parked cars on the sidewalks and dead ground floor areas make walking unattractive. The project foresees a reactivation of the heritage buildings, especially in the ground floor zones. The street has a high potential to function as the city’s number one tourist corridor with numerous shops, cafés, restaurants, and galleries that attract visitors and customers around the clock in the ground floors. The upper floors could remain offices, or be transformed into short-term high-end living units, like guest houses. Revenues from the commercial activities should be re-invested to facilitate the renovation and maintenance of historical buildings. In order to make Lim A Postraat an attractive and walkable corridor, the project foresees a transformation of the streetscape following the design guidelines described in chapter 4.4. Flowing traffic will be reduced to one lane of 3 meters, and a second lane (2.5 meters) devoted to in-line parking for employees and customers. Broad sidewalks (min. 1.5 meters) on both sides of the street facilitate walking and will be separated by a green stripe with trees to provide


POTENTIAL AREAS

UPPER FLOOR ACTIVITIES

OPEN PUBLIC SPACES

Beyond the rich architecture, characteristic streets like De Mirandastraat form an important part of the social and cultural heritage of Paramaribo. The idea is to put the focus of this area on tourism, high-end housing, commercial functions and galleries in the ground floor areas with a strong connection to the newly designed public square, which will serve as a magnet for tourists as well as locals.

The historic corridor will serve as one of the main hotspots of the historic city center for tourists and the citizens of Paramaribo. The upper floors will mainly provide short-term living for visitors and higher income residents. Job opportunities will be created in the hotel, commercial and gastronomy sectors.

De Mirandastraat will provide various types of gastronomy in the ground floors that face a multifunctional square (presently used as a parking space) with trees, shade, urban furniture, a small statue park and bicycle parking spaces. As this is one of the most important spots of the inner city, the square should be redesigned with weekly activities like movie nights, concerts, etc.

5

PROJECTS

KEY INDICATORS HISTORICAL CORRIDOR ACTIVATION

106

Ground floor activities

Temporary housing

Open space

Conversion

Culture

Waterfront


OPEN PUBLIC SPACES

ACTIVATION OF HISTORICAL BUILDINGS

107


PROJECTS 5 108

shade and protection from sidewalk parkers. Upon request, restaurants and cafĂŠs in the ground floor areas will be allowed to use one or two parking spaces in front of their building as expanded outside sitting areas. Street vendors should be given permission to exhibit and sell arts crafts alongside the sidewalks which attracts customers and facilitates ground floor activities even in the short term. On weekends, the street will be closed to traffic and used for outdoor activities, like a weekly crafts market, food stands, cultural festivals, and childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s activities to make the area lively again. Street light improvements will contribute to the safety perception of locals and visitors. The location of Pilot Project 2 at the intersection of Lim A Postraat and Watermolenstraat will have important implications for the redevelopment and activation of the historical corridor, as it brings together residential functions with commercial activities and regeneration facilities. A tree line along Lim A Postraat connects different green spaces throughout the historic center and contributes to its walkability and attractiveness as both a residential and commercial area. Heerenstraat Heerenstraat, the extension corridor of Lim A Postraat on the other side of Kerkplein, will form the calmer end of the historic corridor. Its old trees and historical buildings make the street unique and provide an idea of how Paramaribo used to look like in former times. Some prestigious uses, like the headquarters of a gold company and a three-star hotel exist alongside government offices and some residential units. The project for this part of the historic corridor foresees mainly the renovation of buildings and the transformation of the streetscape to make it more attractive for pedestrians. As in Lim A Postraat, flowing traffic will be reduced to one lane and in-line parking will be possible provided on both sides of the street. The sidewalks (min. 1.5

meters on each side) will be physically separated from the parking lanes through a green stripe. As in Lim A Postraat, there should be no traffic allowed during weekends to create space for weekly activities and festivals. An improved street lightening system will significantly contribute to the safety perception in the area. The ground floor areas will be reactivated and more diverse functions that attract visitors and residents after office hours, be introduced. The strategic location of Heerenstraat between the core of the inner city and the western buffer zone, which is predominantly a residential area, provides many benefits, as it facilitates an exchange and increased flow of people, both residents and tourists, in the historical corridor.


PROJECTS 5 112

5.3 Monseigneur Wulfinghstraat Housing Development The planned development at the corner Monseigneur Wulfinghstraat and Van Roseveltkade will serve as the main link between the historic center and the northern buffer zone, and creates an extension of the residential and mixed-use corridor in Watermolenstraat. Located at the border of the historic center around Van Sommelsdijk Kreek, the project area holds a great potential to become a vivid residential area: The close proximity to schools in Monseigneur Wulfinghstraat and Henck Arron Straat, sport facilities (NGVB stadium) and doctors in the adjacent hospital make this place very attractive for young families and elderly people. Moreover, the suburban character of the surrounding neighborhood and the quietness of the area contribute to the attractiveness of this place. The project foresees the development of the currently vacant plot bordering Van Sommelsdijk Kreek. The relatively large plot provides space for about 40-50 residential units (single, couple and family apartments) for at least 100 new residents. According to the density indicators defined in the design criteria for new buildings (see chapter 4.4), the plot size will allow for a generous backyard garden that might be directed towards the Kreek and provide shaded facilities for both children and elderly people. In order to activate the recreational quality of the entire area, the project foresees a regeneration of the â&#x20AC;&#x201C; currently underused and partly inaccessible â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Van Sommelsdijk Kreek. A green pedestrian corridor alongside the entire length of the Kreek (from Tourtonnelaan to the Suriname River) with tree lines and shaded sitting areas will serve as the green lung of the neighborhood and connect the area with existing green spaces (Palmentuin) and points of interest (hotel and restaurant zone). The green corridor could also accommodate additional activities like jogging or walking. The connection to other parts of the historic center

will be provided through the creation of an attractive walking path along Monseigneur Wulfinghstraat and Watermolenstraat. It is expected that the strategic location of the residential complex at the northern end of the core historical city will cause an increased flow of people who will cross the historic center on their way to the commercial center, the Central Market and the bus terminal located at the exact opposite side of the WHS. Moreover, the northern buffer zone will most likely experience a positive spillover effect from the development of the area which will trigger further densification and upgrading of existing residential neighborhoods.


POTENTIAL AREA

BUILDING HEIGHTS

The corner of Van Roseveltkade and Monseigneur Wulfinghstraat will serve as a link between the newly developed housing zones in the historic center and the already existing residential neighborhoods in the northern buffer zone. Housing with shared gardens and a recreation area along Van Sommelsdijk Kreek would be an option.

The new structure facing Monseigneur Wulfinghstraat must not be taller than the adjoined school with 4 storeys and to fit into the surrounding neighborhood. The new buildings in the backside of the plot will have 2 to 3 storeys each to create a harmonious transition of size from the buffer zone to the historic city center.

OPEN PUBLIC SPACES

5

PROJECTS

KEY INDICATORS MONSEIGNEUR WULFINGHSTRAAT

2 - 3 storeys

Recreational space

New structures -

4 - 5 storeys

Shared space

Residential use

6 - 7 storeys

Ground floor activities

114

The creek will be redeveloped and have a public foot path. The yard between the creek and the new buildings will serve as a recreation area for the residents of the building, with shady sitting opportunities at the water. Monseigneur Wulfinghstraat will be transformed into a one-way street with more space for pedestrians, trees and sitting opportunities.

Backyard Gardens


OPEN PUBLIC SPACES

TOTAL

C A

RESIDENTIAL UNITS PLOT AREA BUILT AREA GROSS FLOOR AREA FAR

53 3,027 m2 1,514 m2 4,541 m2 1.5

RESIDENTS

109

B

0

A 115

RESIDENTIAL UNITS PLOT AREA BUILT AREA FAR

21 600 -

B

RESIDENTIAL UNITS PLOT AREA BUILT AREA FAR

21 600 -

250

UNITS C RESIDENTIAL PLOT AREA BUILT AREA FAR

500 [m]

11 314 -


PROJECTS 5 116

5.4

Keizerstraat / Klipstenen Straat Mixed-use Development The fourth area of intervention covers the building block between Keizerstraat, Klipstenen Straat, Wagenweg Straat and Kerkplein. The area is located at the western edge of the core historic center next to the commercial center. The project foresees the creation of residential units and commercial ground floor activities. Due to its large size and the low level of occupation, the building block can accommodate a diverse ensemble of buildings with a capacity of around 90 housing units for at least 147 residents. The target groups for this development are young Families, elderly people and starters who benefit from the proximity to various facilities and open spaces. Following the density indicators defined in the design criteria for new buildings (see chapter 4.4), the size of the vacant plots will enable the creation of a generous semi-private backyard garden that accommodates urban furniture and facilities for children. The housing units will be directed towards the calm Wagenweg Straat and the inner courtyard, while the ground floor areas will have be oriented towards the street to provide an open and lively atmosphere. Together with an improved streetlight system, this will enhance the safety in the area. The project foresees the creation of commercial functions (mostly shops) along Keizerstraat which connects the area with the commercial center to its south. Spanhoek, an existing public square at the corner of Keizerstraat, will be integrated into the design. The newly developed houses along Klipstenen Straat will accommodate commercial functions in the ground floors and provide shade and rain protection for pedestrians. Wagenweg Straat will be transformed into an attractive walking and cycling corridor with restaurants and cafĂŠs in the ground floor zones, and in-line parking along one side of the street. Upon request, restaurants and cafĂŠs will be granted permission to use part of the parking spaces in front of their building for extended sitting areas.

Balconies and trees will provide share and protection for rain to increase the walkability of the area, and shaded sitting opportunities be provided as a non-commercial meeting place for residents and visitors. The activation of Wagenweg Straat serves as a direct link to Kerkplein in the one direction, and the western buffer zone in the other direction. The strategic location of the housing and mixed-use development is expected to have a strong positive impact on the core historic center which will benefit from an increased flow of people moving between the developed block and other points of interest located at the opposite side of the historic center, like the Waterkant, the Palmentuin, and the hotel and restaurant zone. Shops in the adjacent commercial center will benefit from the presence of a critical number of new residents / customers. The western buffer zone is likely to experience further activation and densification as the area becomes more attractive as a residential area.


PROJECTS

KEY INDICATORS KEIZERSTRAAT / KLIPSTENEN STRAAT BUILDING HEIGHTS

OPEN PUBLIC SPACES

The area at the corner of Keizerstraat and Klipstenen Straat will have a very mixed pattern of functions, which ranges from big hotels, casinos and a shopping area to small-scale housing at the Wagenweg Straat. The buildings in this planning site have between 2 and 3 storeys in the backside of the plot to up and 5 storeys facing the main streets.

The new quarter will be connected with the already existent public space on Spanhoek. By establishing an eco-corridor at the Wagenweg Straat with trees for shade and better infrastructure for pedestrians, cyclists, and disabled people, driving will be disincentivized in this part of the city.

5

POTENTIAL AREA

The new quarter along the Keizerstraat will help to populate the historic center from the western buffer zone. The new buildings along Klipstenen Straat, a secondary street, provide commercial functions in the ground floors, while the upper floors will hold residential units.

2 - 3 storeys

Recreational space

New structures -

4 - 5 storeys

Open spaces

Residential use

6 - 7 storeys

Shared space

Ground floor activities

118

Backyard Gardens


OPEN PUBLIC SPACES

TOTAL

RESIDENTIAL UNITS PLOT AREA BUILT AREA GROSS FLOOR AREA FAR

93 4,056 m2 2,237 m2 11,322 m2 2.2

RESIDENTS

147

B A

C

F D

E

0

119

A

RESIDENTIAL UNITS 27 PLOT AREA BUILT AREA 1,280 FAR 1.5

B

RESIDENTIAL UNITS 34 PLOT AREA BUILT AREA 1,910 FAR 2.0

D

RESIDENTIAL UNITS PLOT AREA BUILT AREA FAR

5 199 1.8

E

RESIDENTIAL UNITS PLOT AREA BUILT AREA FAR

9 300 3.5

250

500 [m]

UNITS C RESIDENTIAL PLOT AREA BUILT AREA FAR

18 794 1.8

RESIDENTIAL UNITS PLOT AREA BUILT AREA FAR

18 794 1.8

F


6 NEw URBAN MANAGEMENT Paramariboâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s historic center faces a range of challenges that have made the implementation of projects difficult to impossible in the past. Many project designs have never been realized due to economic, legal or political constraints. In order to overcome these burdens, an efficient urban management is needed. The UDL housing and mixeduse strategy provides â&#x20AC;&#x201C; besides from designs for the physical transformation of the historical inner city into a residential and commercial neighborhood â&#x20AC;&#x201C; recommendations on how to deal with existing burdens to make the proposed interventions implementable. This requires an adaptation of the existing policy and legal framework and the involvement and activation of local stakeholders in a process aimed at facilitating a long-term sustainable regeneration of the WHS.


TOwARDS A NEw URBAN MANAGEMENT 6

Paramaribo has seen many designs for the regeneration of its historic center; however, most of them have never been implemented. Members of the ministries, the private sector and residents agree that one of the reasons for this is poor public management and a lack of an enabling legal, financial and political framework. Whilst there are policies in place like the Town Planning Act, the Building Act and the Monuments Act to guide new developments and heritage protection, there are some major deficiencies in the layout and execution of these (Sijlbing 2011). In order to deal with existing burdens to make the proposed housing and mixed-use strategy actually implementable, an efficient urban management that involves and activates local stakeholders is needed. With the creation of the Program Implementation Unit (PIU) targeted specifically at coordinating the implementation of the PURP and its components, including the UDL housing and mixed-use strategy, a key requirement to manage this process has been met. The following chapter provides recommendations around the implementation of the UDL housing and mixed-use strategy to ensure its success and long-term sustainability. 6.1. Facilitating housing in the WHS Bringing back housing and commercial uses to the historic center is a great challenge. High land prices, fragmented ownership structures, the poor condition of buildings and high maintenance costs have made interventions difficult in the past. In order to create new attractive housing opportunities in the historic center, these challenges must be addressed, and interventions for community-building and public awareness be undertaken.

122

6.1.1 Ownership structures and maintenance In cities like Paramaribo, where land ownership is fragmented and poses an obstacle to development, guidelines to streamline the process of land mobilization

must be added to the existing urban planning framework. Many plots and houses have multiple owners who are not willing or able to renovate their buildings or develop their land. Current legislation provides no incentives or rules for land / house owners to maintain their buildings. While this problem has prevented previous developments, it is not unique to Paramaribo. There exist different ways to deal with difficult ownership structures through public-private partnerships, agreements with the private sector, regulations, loans and / or subsidies. The following table on page 119 provides a rough overview of possible approaches; however, it must be clear that the introduction of regulatory frameworks and subsidies is a political decision and needs to be developed with the support of a political economist and / or legal expert. 6.1.2 Affordability and land prices Despite the general decay and limited demand for land or buildings in the historic center, land prices in central Paramaribo are very high, and the heritage and monumental status adds value to many buildings. The information was derived from statements made by residents of the historic center, real estate and urban regeneration experts. There currently exist no data on land or housing prices in the historic center. The one property (historic building, 386 m2, intermediate condition) currently on sale at the corner Watermolenstraat / Lim A Postraat would cost 849,500 EUR. Providing affordable housing in the historic center will be difficult to implement in heritage buildings which do not provide the conditions suited to the means and needs of low-income households. In order to attract a critical number of people to live in the historic center, however, feasible solutions to provide housing units for at least middle-income groups must be put in place. There exist two types of owners in the historic center: The government owns about half of the buildings


LOAN / SUBSIDY / Â? Combination of subsidies, loans, and / or private sector SHAREHOLDER contributions SCHEME Â? Pure financial scheme Â? Must be designed in a way that keeps once-off expenses low and makes investment attractive Â? Current economic situation may be an obstacle Â? Most efficient if combined with one of the below LAND VALUE TAX

EMINENT DOMAIN

123

Â? General tax on land according to its value Â? Widely used to discourage land hoarding and speculation Â? Gives an incentive to property owners to market their land or realty to cover tax duties Â? Tax level has to be adapted to economic conditions Â? Most efficient if combined with a subsidy scheme

6

TOwARDS A NEw URBAN MANAGEMENT

DESCRIPTION CONSIDERATIONS

Â? Compulsory purchase or expropriation of private property through government bodies Â? Legitimacy: public benefit Â? Solution most often proposed by stakeholders Â? Often considered a last resource but used worldwide to meet public and social needs Â? Used to secure land for infrastructure, housing, and other projects of public interest Â? Often considered a necessary means to preserve historic monuments Â? Lack of public financial resources to provide compensation payments for expropriated land owners Â? Land owners must be granted financial and organizational support to develop their property in order to avoid expropriation of owners who are willing but not able to develop their land Â? Land owners must be well informed about their rights and opportunities to avert expropriation Â? Land owners must be given enough time to make an informed decision

PROâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S CONâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S + Non-regulatory scheme + Relatively easy to implement within a difficult political framework + Experience through LISP and Stichting Stadsherstel - High costs for subsidy provider - Dependence on private investors + Common system applied in many cities with a land cadaster + Generates tax income - Difficult to monitor (esp. expats) - Difficult to plan ahead mobilization of land + Timely and comprehensive mobilization of land and buildings - Should be last resort - Possible dissonance with the existing legal framework


TOwARDS A NEw URBAN MANAGEMENT 6 124

and plots in the historic center; the rest is owned by private persons and religious institutions (the Catholic church). This situation implies two models of housing provision:

the private sector are introduced. It is thus advisable to keep the properties in government-hand and delegate the management to a spezialized firm or cooperation.

Publicly owned buildings The high number of publicly owned buildings provides certain benefits with regards to affordable housing. While most government buildings are currently used by ministries and other government offices, it will be necessary in the future to allocate at least part of the units for residential purposes. Other than for privately owned houses, the public sector can relatively easily define the price for rental units in government-owned buildings. This must be financially sustainable and at least cost-recovering (including maintenance costs) to ensure its long-term feasibility. Due to limited economic and organizational capacities within the Ministry of Social Affairs and Housing, it is advisable to outsource the management and rental of housing units to a spezialized housing cooperation. This should happen through a general call for tenders. The criteria for the selection process should be defined not only along economic terms but also consider social responsibility components (like the provision of affordable units). A cross-subsidy scheme, in which the surpluses from luxury housing are used to lower the rents of below-market units has proven successful in the provision of mixed-income housing in Paramaribo through a housing cooperation and could be implemented in the historical center. Wonstichting Sekrepatu has managed government housing projects in the past and expressed interest in managing housing projects in the historic center. Selling government-owned buildings or units to private persons and / or investors is not recommended. While it would generate high revenues in the short term, privatizing housing units risks making the implementation of affordable and sustainable developments more difficult in the medium and longer term unless strict regulations for

Privately owned buildings Privately owned buildings are more difficult to control in terms of rent prices and affordability. This poses a certain challenge for the projectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s implementation, as many buildings / land plots in the project zones (especially Watermolenstraat, Wagenweg Straat, and Klipstenen Straat) are privately owned. In order to become attractive for property owners to (re)develop their buildings, the rental or sale of apartments must be not only cost-recovering but also generate revenues. Introducing supply-targeted regulations that minimize profit (like rent caps) would have adverse effects on property ownersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; motivation to renovate / maintain their building or develop their land. The following solutions offer ways to reduce rents without cutting benefits for private operators: 1. Support the creation of small units. The strategy suggests that important target groups for housing in the historic center should be young people and couples. Their need of space is limited and contemporary urban living would be an attractive alternative, to standalone houses especially for young professionals, creatives and starters. While the m2 price for an apartment is likely to be much higher in the historic center than outside, the small unit size of city apartments (80m2 for a couple studio compared to 200m2 in a standalone house) makes the absolute cost for living less expensive or at least comparable. 2. Enable purchase of apartments. There is currently no law in place that allows the purchase of apartments. As ownership still seems to be the preferred way of living in Paramaribo, it should become possible to purchase smaller units in inner-city apartment houses which would generate the above-mentioned cost trade-off.


TOwARDS A NEw URBAN MANAGEMENT 6

3. Enforce inclusionary housing rule. A way to ensure that a certain number of affordable units be created within an otherwise unregulated housing market is the introduction of an inclusionary housing rule or agreement. This rule prescribes the provision of a minimum number of below-market units within an apartment complex. House owners can use the incomes from high-cost units to crosssubsidize below-market units. The benefit of this system is that it does not create disincentives for house owners as they can still yield a profitable income from renting or selling their apartments. The problem is that this rule makes it necessary to accommodate both high-income and affordable units for middle-income groups in the same property unless several buildings have the same owner which â&#x20AC;&#x201C; in the case of Paramaribo is rarely the case. Moreover, not all buildings in the designated residential neighborhoods in the historic center are suited for luxury housing. A universal rule, in form of a law or regulation, would therefore not be an option. The only way to introduce such a system would be through individual agreements between the government and house owners, which are directly linked to the provision of subsidies for renovations. In other words, a precondition for house owners to access subsidies could be the signing of an inclusionary housing agreement. The introduction of such a system is a political decision and would need further investigation and support through a housing and public policy expert. 6.1.3.

125

Implementation of criteria for housing prototypes In order to provide attractive new housing units for new residents in the historic city center, the strategy has come up with a set of housing typologies that combine different criteria in the design, layout and construction of the buildings that ensure maximum comfort and fire safety of the new housing units. To make sure that new developments and housing units created in existing buildings be constructed in

line with these criteria, these should be integrated into the existing rules for buildings in the historic center. The existing building codes from 2002 already define the guidelines for the renovation of existing and the construction of new buildings in the historic center, whose adherence is controlled by the building commission. The new criteria for the housing prototypes could be added to this framework as a complementary or integrated document. 6.2. Enforcing Local Economic Development Bringing back commercial functions to the historic center faces similar challenges of affordability and profitability as housing. The current lack of customers and the high rents make opening up a business unattractive in the historic center. While the renovation of buildings, the upgrading of the waterfront area and the introduction of a new traffic/ parking management as part of the PURP will certainly increase the flow of customers and the number of businesses in the historic center in the longer term, additional interventions could help to accelerate this process: 1. Temporary ground floor uses: The introduction of temporary uses and activities in vacant ground floor spaces is a simple way to increase the attractivity of deprived neighborhoods. Temporary uses may be galleries, pop-up stores, ateliers, festivals, etc. that attract large numbers of people. The operators of the temporary functions benefit from reduced rent prices which allow them to run their business at no or very low cost for an agreed amount of time. Agreements between the government / private house owners and the operators of temporary businesses must be made alongside a streamlined procedure managed by the Communication Liaison Officer of the PIU. 2. Integration of street vendors: Street vendors can make streets busy and change the character of rundown areas. Currently, there are only street vendors along some streets of the commercial center. Lowering


TOwARDS A NEw URBAN MANAGEMENT 6

registration burdens and stand fees – which fall under the responsibility of the District Commissioner of Paramaribo – could attract a critical number of street vendors and help make the historic center lively even after office hours. 3. Additional improvements in the tourism and economic sector will be necessary to bring more customers into the historic center; however, these lie beyond the scope of this study. Once interest among the entrepreneurs to open their business in the historic center has been triggered, ground floor spaces along the designated areas of the strategy will be rented out. Ideally, a mix of gastronomy, boutiques / souvenir shops, and shops of daily needs for the residents will be achieved. The coordination of these uses will be managed by a designated agency. With the revenues earned from leasing or selling ground floor spaces, both public and private house owners can recover costs for renovation and maintenance, and ideally use surpluses to subsidize housing units on the upper floors. 6.3 Managing Public Space Besides from interventions in the design and use of public spaces, it will be necessary to put in place a system to manage the challenges currently hindering developments in public space and causing discomfort among visitors and residents.

126

Safety Experience from other cities suggests that the safety of an area increases as the area becomes livelier throughout day and night time. It can be assumed that Paramaribo’s historic center will experience the same shift as new businesses and residents move into the area. Some of the problems (especially the high number of homeless people and street prostitution), however, will not vanish through this process but shift to other areas of the city. In order to avoid this, social programs to re-integrate homeless people, drug abuse prevention programs and acceptable solutions

for sex workers will be needed. Homeless people could be re-integrated through local service programs inside and outside of the historic inner city; however, the exact elaboration of these programs lies beyond the scope of the UDL. In the short term, it is necessary to put in place arrangements to make the area safe enough to attract new residents and businesses. Improved street lightening and increased police presence along the main corridors will help to improve security for new residents and visitors during night time. Temporal uses of ground floor spaces can support this process. Cleanliness Many of the problems related to cleanliness are caused by homeless people littering and urinating in the streets. In the short term, granting free public toilet facilities to homeless people could help to reduce the problem. The installation of a waste-watcher scheme (possibly in the form of a reintegration program for homeless people) could support this process. Transport and Parking management At the current stage, public space is widely occupied by parked cars. In order to resolve this problem, a comprehensive parking management is needed. Controlled in-line parking alongside the WHS’s main corridors, collective parking houses outside the historic center, and sun- and rain protected walking corridors help to overcome the gap of parking places created through the upgrading of public spaces, the transformation of present parking lots and the redevelopment of streetscapes. The temporal lag between the different activities (work traffic in the mornings and early afternoons, and residential and visitors’ traffic in the afternoons and at night) will help to fill the gap. In order to prevent sidewalk parking, clear rules and monitoring of these are needed. Public transport


TOwARDS A NEw URBAN MANAGEMENT 6 127

must be improved to offer an alternative to individual transportation. Parking fees can help to incentivize the use of public transport and reduce stationary traffic in the city center. Public space activation Public spaces are only attractive if they are alive. Promoting events, markets, creative activities, etc. can help to make these spaces fun places of encounter and re-activate the heritage value of the historic center. These activities will be managed and promoted by the Communication Liaison Officer of the PIU. 6.4 Community Building and Awareness Experience from many cities suggests that creating attractive places without raising peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s awareness around the value of the urban environment is difficult to achieve. New mechanisms are needed to familiarize new residents with their living environment and bring people together to collectively transform their neighborhoods. This could happen through regular get-togethers, discussion forums and workshops that support citizen-led initiatives and encourage residents, entrepreneurs and visitors to connect. These activities will be managed by the Communication Liaison Officer of the PIU. 6.5 Communication and Community Management The creation of the PIU is a key step in the implementation of the housing and mixed-use strategy. However, the project will not be completed with its implementation but must be seen as an ongoing process that needs permanent management and guidance. So-called â&#x20AC;&#x153;softâ&#x20AC;? interventions aimed at connecting the new citizens, coordinating new functions, creating awareness, activating public spaces through temporary interventions, and supporting citizenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ideas for the improvement of their neighborhood are the key to lively neighborhoods. In order to base all these efforts

on a stable and active platform, a new management unit guiding and overseeing interventions in the historic center is needed. During the implementation phase of the PURP, this task may be done by the PIUâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Communication Liaison Officer. In the longer term, a permanent agency, installed in one of the vacant spaces in the historic center should serve as a contact point for new residents, entrepreneurs and visitors. The responsibilities of the unit include: Â?7[S\_ZNaV\[N[QPNZ]NVT[`S\_U\b`R\d[R_`dU\dN[aa\ renovate their buildings Â?Ab]]\_aN[QZN[NTRZR[a\S_R[\cNaV\[]_\PR`` Â?>_\Z\aV\[P\ZZb[VPNaV\[N[Q`b]]\_a\SaRZ]\_N_fb`R` in vacant buildings â&#x20AC;&#x201C; including negotiations with house owners Â?1\\_QV[NaV\[\SaRZ]\_N_fN[Q]R_ZN[R[aT_\b[QSY\\_ activities â&#x20AC;&#x201C; including monitoring and control of night-time activities in residential areas to avoid noise disturbance Â?=_TN[VgNaV\[\S[Rad\_XV[T\]]\_ab[VaVR`S\_ entrepreneurs and residents Â?>_\Z\aV\[N[Q\_TN[VgNaV\[\SRcR[a`V[]bOYVP`]NPR including cultural festivals Â?=_TN[VgNaV\[\SNdN_R[R``PNZ]NVT[`RTV[S\_ZNaV\[ boards on monuments) Â?Ab]]\_a\SPVaVgR[YRQV[VaVNaVcR` Where possible, the PIU Communication Liaison Officer and the consecutive agency will cooperate with other organizations and companies in the management of certain tasks (e.g. Suriname Heritage Foundation for event organization, or the SGES for awareness campaigns). 6.6

Implementation of the UDL housing strategy and pilot projects For the implementation of the UDL housing strategy and its pilot projects, a step-wise approach that facilitates the coordination of the different aspects of the housing strategy with the other projects and initiatives of the PURP,


TOwARDS A NEw URBAN MANAGEMENT 6 128

is recommended. While the implementation of the pilot projects is meant to set an example for housing productions in the historic center, a more comprehensive approach will be needed to bring the project to the larger scale. The steps described in the timeline are explained in more detail in the preceding sections. 6.6.1 Pilot Project A1 New housing development Watermolenstraat / Grote Hof Straat The first step in the implementation of the new housing development will be the clarification of the ownership structure of the plot. Available information suggests that the land is privately owned. Once the owner is known, he must be informed about the planned intervention and possible funding opportunities. Ideally, the owner agrees to develop the project under the given conditions (timeframe, adherence with the building criteria for housing prototypes, creation of an agreed number of flats for the defined target group, financing, etc.). In this case, a law that allows the separate purchase of land and buildings must be adopted to facilitate the development of freehold flats in the building. The development process must be monitored to ensure its adherence with the guidelines, and supported through a financial subsidy scheme. For the transformation of the triangular square in front of the building, the responsible ministry has to call a public tender and select the bestsuited design proposal. If the owner is not willing to develop the plot, alternative solutions must be negotiated. A possible scenario will be that the government takes over the property and lead the development of the pilot project. In this case, a public tender for the design of the building according to the building criteria must be called. A selected architecture firm will then develop and implement the project. At the same time, a housing and real estate firm must be assigned

the task of developing a housing scheme for the defined target group and manage the rental of residential and aground floor units.

Clarify responsibility

Measure building Assess quality Public tender for redesign and backyard Select architect.

Clarify funding

Renovate building

Redesign backyard

Hire housing / real estate agency to develop housing scheme and rent out units

Hire real estate agency to rent out and manage


of the building and the adjacent parking lot will be called. A selected architecture firm will then be tasked to develop and implement the transformation (including the design of a shared garden in the place of the parking lot). A housing and real estate firm must be assigned the task of developing a housing scheme for the defined target group and manage the renting out of residential and ground floor units.

Land owner and contact no

yes

Find out land owner and

Inform land owner about

6

TOwARDS A NEw URBAN MANAGEMENT

6.6.2 Pilot Project A2 Transformation of a building in Watermolenstraat / Lim A Postraat The implementation of the second pilot project follows an easy-to-implement step-wise approach. The building is publicly owned and used to accommodate offices of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Once the size and condition of the buildings are assessed, a public tender for the redesign

Land owner willing to develop his plot? yes Enforce possibility to

Support funding

Monitor adherence of guidelines for housing prototypes

no Measure plot size

Public tender for design of house and backyard

Select architect,

129

Construct building according to guidelines

Hire housing / real estate agency to develop housing scheme and rent out units

Hire real estate agency to rent out and manage


TOwARDS A NEw A URBAN MANAGEMENT Intro 6

IMPLEMENTATION TIMELINE

OTHER PURP INTERVENTIONS

LEGAL ARRANGEMENTS

ORGANIZATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

UDL PUBLIC SPACE

UDL HOUSING

UDL GROUND FLOORS 130

ater ront e evelop ent ransport trate reative ncubator

econstruction o

bli ator propert re istration sc e e an obili ation sc e e n orce buil in criteria or ousin protot pes nable purc ase o apart ents

stablis o eless an prostitution pro ra Facilitate street ven or sc e e stablis aste atc er sc e e an public toilets

stablis reen corri ors e evelop streetscape ater olenstraat an istoric corri or e enerate an o els i ree e evelop er plein

Facilitate public space interventions

Land prices and housing market study (WHS)

Facilitate te porar use o roun Facilitate street ven ors sc e e

oor spaces


ssess uantit ualit an si e o potential buil in s an plots e ne alternative location or current uses in ovt buil in s un public ten er or arc itects cost esti ation Fi ure out nancin o renovation construction un public ten er or ana e ent o ovt o ne units ree ents it selecte private operators or a or able ousin rocess buil in an renovation per issions or private operators ssess uantit ualit an si e o e istin roun oor areas e ne alternative locations or current uses in ovt buil in s ire real estate a enc or t e rental an ana e ent o roun spaces

ousin renovation onstruction o ne buil in s onitor a erence it buil in renovations

oor

ui elines or ousin protot pes an

ana e iversit an co patibilit o roun oor activities ree ents it selecte private operators or a or able ousin rocess buil in an renovation per issions or private operators


TOwARDS A NEw A URBAN MANAGEMENT Intro 6 132

6.6.3 UDL housing strategy As part of the IDBâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s PURP, the implementation of the UDL strategy has to happen in line with other components of the program. As the transformation of the historic center into an attractive residential and commercial neighborhood is a long-term process that requires certain preconditions, the UDL strategy will be one of the last components to be implemented. It will follow the reconstruction of the National Assembly Building and infrastructure investments like the upgrading of the waterfront and traffic interventions. It is recommended that interventions to strengthen the creative sector be implemented in line with the mixed-use strategy, as there are important overlaps with commercial and ground floor activities. As a first step in the implementation of the housing strategy, the legal and institutional framework conditions need to be set. This includes the clarification of land ownerships of the plots / houses to be developed / transformed. It is recommended that an obligative property registration scheme be introduced to accelerate this process and keep track over new transactions. Once the owners are known, interventions to mobilize the land must be undertaken. This could happen through publicprivate partnerships, special agreements with the private sector, regulations, loans and/ or subsidies, as described in chapter 6.1.1. At the same time, the UDLâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s building criteria for housing prototypes must be incorporated into the existing building codes for the WHS to ensure their compliance. A new law that allows the separate purchase of land and buildings must be adopted to facilitate the purchase of apartment units in the historic center. This first implementation phase is also the time when programs to deal with homeless people, drug addicts and street prostitution, as well as a waste-watcher scheme should be established, as such programs usually take years to become effective. In order to facilitate the activation

of public space and small economies in the WHS from the beginning, a street vendor scheme that allows selected traders to run their businesses at favorable conditions, should be introduced. At the same time the legal and organizational steps are put into place, first interventions to activate the public space and the ground floor zones should be started to increase the general attractiveness of the historic center as a residential and commercial place. To start with, nonphysical interventions, like events and concerts, should be organized in places, parks and squares. As the historic center currently offers no incentives for entrepreneurs to open a business, the activation of ground floor zones must be achieved through temporary uses and street vendors. It is expected that with the increasing attractiveness of the historic center, businesses will become more interested and eventually replace temporary interventions in ground floor areas. Physical transformations in public space should be implemented alongside the PURPâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s waterfront and traffic interventions. Once the public space, transport system and the diversity of activities in the inner city are improved, the historic center will experience an increased demand for housing. Ownership structures should be clarified by this stage, and institutional requirements for the development of the proposed housing units be put in place. The development of housing projects will follow a similar procedure as in the pilot projects, including steps for private sector and public-sector housing. Ideally, the transformation and development of houses will start simultaneously to streamline the process.


133


BIBlIOGRAPHY A AND FIGURES Intro

Bibliography

HISTORIC INNER CITY OF PARAMARIBO; Download version: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/940/. Accessed: 10.04.2018.

ACE Consultancy (n.d.): HERINRICHTING WATERKANT. Ministry of Public Affairs, Paramaribo.

Inter-American Development Bank (2017): 2017-0524 PARAMARIBO URBAN GROWTH STUDY - DRAFT FINAL REPORT, IDB, Washington, D.C.

Aluvihare, Ruwan and Postma, Inge Kok: RUIMTELIJKE ONTWIKKELINGSSTRATEGIE WONINGBOUW, Grondontwikkelingsbedrijf (GOB), Ministerie van SoZaVo, Paramaribo, Suriname. Carel Van Hest Architecten & Architectenbureau Fritz (2016): THE NEW DNA COMPLEX AND THE STRENGTHENING OF THE HISTORIC INNER CITY. CNULM/blueSpace, US/ICOMOS & Columbia University (2014): THE HISTORIC URBAN LANDSCAPE (HUL) IN THE CARIBBEAN: UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE CITIES AS MODELS FOR SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT TO PROMOTE WALKING AND CYCLING. Organization of American States Department of Sustainable Development, Washington, DC. CNULM/blueSpace, US/ICOMOS & Columbia University (2014): UNDERSTANDING CARIBBEAN WALKABLE URBAN HERITAGE. Organization of American States Department of Sustainable Development, Washington, DC. De Bruijne, Ad and Schalkwijk, Aart (2005): THE POSITION AND RESIDENTIAL PATTERNS OF ETHNIC GROUPS IN PARAMARIBO S DEVELOPMENT IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY. New West Indian Guide / Nieuwe West-Indische Gids vol. 79 no. 3 & 4, Paramaribo, Suriname. Dikland, P. and Talip, P. (2013): COMMISSIE MONUMENTENZORG. Paramaribo, Suriname. Fokké, Stephen (2016): HISTORIC INNER CITY OF PARAMARIBO UNESCO WH SITE STATE OF CONSERVATION. UNESCO, Pararmaribo, Suriname.

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BIBlIOGRAPHY AND FIGURES

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Historic photo of Spanhoek, p. 30 Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/bid_ciudades/ albums/72157676622499476 (10.04.2018)

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Figures Zamora, Ramรณn p. 15, 22, 39, 49, 52, 53, 72, 115 Ida Jusic p. 1, 2, 11, 13, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 26, 27, 41, 44, 51, 54, 55, 57 Map of Paramaribo, p. 28 Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Plan_von_Paramaribo.jpg (10.04.2018)

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Source: http://www.geheugenvannederland.nl/nl/geheugen/ view?coll=ngvn&identifier=SFA04%3ASFA001011942 (10.04.2018)

Historic photo of Grote Combeweg corner Van Roseveltkade, p. 30

Historic photo of Gravenstraat (today known as Herren Straat) in 1949, p. 31 Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/bid_ciudades/ albums/72157676622499476 (10.04.2018)


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The Paramaribo Urban Design Lab is an urban strategy aimed to revitalize Paramaribo’s historic center. A World Heritage Site, Paramaribo’s inner city holds a great potential for sustainable urban development and regeneration. The current publication documents the development of an urban strategy that focusses specifically on bringing back residential and commercial functions to Paramaribo’s historic city center to make the inner city more lively and vibrant again. Based on the emerging topics and the outcomes of the exercises in the focus group workshops, a common vision for housing and commercial use in the historic center was elaborated and validated with the stakeholders and governmental officials. The housing and mixed-use strategy will be complemented by other components of the IDB’s Paramaribo Urban Rehabilitation Program (PURP) to form a comprehensive and integral urban strategy for the revitalization of Paramaribo’s World Heritage Site.

ISBN

978-3-900669-28-7

Editor: Institute for Urban Design, Vienna University of Technology Karlsplatz 13, 1040 Vienna, Austria http://www.stb.tuwien.ac.at in cooperation with Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Sustainability and Climate Change Department, Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) 1300 New York Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20577, USA, Tel: (202) 623-1000, Fax: (202) 623-3096 http://iadb.org/cities, @BID_Ciudades

Paramaribo Urban Lab - A Housing and Mixed-Use Strategy for the historic city center  

Paramaribo´s historic center was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site (WHS) in 2002 thanks to its wealth in colonial-style wooden buildin...

Paramaribo Urban Lab - A Housing and Mixed-Use Strategy for the historic city center  

Paramaribo´s historic center was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site (WHS) in 2002 thanks to its wealth in colonial-style wooden buildin...

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