Improving Patient Well-Being in Valkenberg Psychiatric Hospital Cape Town, South Africa
Kristen Anderson University of Michigan School of Social Work Cape Town, South Africa South Africa is a culturally diverse country with many ethnicities and languages, 11 of which are officially recognized in the constitution. About 80% of South Africans are of Black African ancestry and SA has the largest communities of European, Asian, and racially mixed ancestry in Africa, as a result of its colonial history. Although South Africa has the biggest economy on the continent, a quarter of South Africans are unemployed and live on $1.25 a day. South Africa ialso ranks in the top 10 countries in the world in income inequality. South Africa had its first democratic election in 1994 when Nelson Mandela was elected President after a negotiated settlement with the Apartheid regime. Cape Town is the legislative capital of South Africa and the most popular tourist destination in the country. The city is still marked by the racial segregation mandated under Apartheid with the majority of the black and colored populations living in impoverished townships on the Cape Flats.
Field Agency Friends of Valkenberg is a non-profit volunteer organization that works in conjunction with Valkenberg Psychiatric Hospital (an underfunded government hospital) to support the psychiatirc patients. Almost all of the patients at the hospital were from the impoverished townships of the Cape Flats. Mission: To improve the hospital experience for patients and help them on the road to recovery by affirming their dignity and self-worth through interactions with committed and caring volunteers.
Outcomes Completed evaluation project resulting in a report and a presentation to disseminate findings Newsletter included a patient story and was disseminated to all stakeholders Two articles were published in local newspapers Fundraising campaign planned and started
Evaluation skills will be very useful in my future career. The ability to work with people from different cultural backgrounds will be essential .
Skills Utilized/Developed Self-awareness Critical thinking Engagement
If you are even remotely thinking about a global experience, do it. Apply for every possible source of funding Be flexible and open minded
Classroom Connections My field tasks: Conduct an evaluation of FOV’s programs and services (focus groups, interviews) Communications – produce newsletter, articles for local newspapers Fundraising campaign Lead weekly cooking group Assist other groups/projects as needed
I learned a lot about the pitfalls of evaluation projects and how to avoid them Being flexible is an absolute must when working abroad
Evaluation skills Services: Responding to direct needs (clothing, transportation assistance, equipment and materials for the wards). Running psycho-social recreational groups including cooking, dancing and sports. Free hair salon Shop selling discount goods to patients and staff
Mental Health Policy gave me a base of knowledge about the US context with which to compare South Africa’s mental health system SW 799 Global Seminar helped me examine my social identities and how these might come into play in my experience abroad Public Policy 717 Social Activism: Perspectives from the Global South is deepening my understanding of the liberation movement in SA and post-apartheid South Africa
Acknowledgments I would like to acknowledge the generous contributions of the International Institute, SSW Office of Student Services Department of Afroamerican and African Studies, and Cross Cultural Solutions. I would also like to acknowledge the Office of Global Activities, particularly Katie Lopez and Larry Root for their support throughout the process.
Research metnal helaht care is South Africa
This poster was created for the Fall 2012 Global Social Work Poster Fair
Striving to Provide a Holistic and Comprehensive Package of Supports and Services to Torture Claimants, Asylum Seekers, and Refugees in HK-SAR as a Case Manager via a Charitable Organization (Christian Action) that Service the Needs and Promotes the Welfare of the Poor and Disadvantaged in HK-SAR while Working in a Citdael (ChungKing Mansions) Comprised of Numerous 17-Story Towers Home to an Unusual and Ever-Changing Ecletic Atmosphere of Restaurants, Hostels or Guesthouses, Stores and Shops, Offices, and Residential Quarters which Acts as a Sleepless Fortress or Sanctuary on a Daily Basis for Thousands of Tourists and Ethnic Minorities in Addition to Hundreds of Torture Claimaints, Asylum Seekers, and Refugees of South Asian, Middle Eastern, European, and American Descent or Origin who Commonly Engage in Legal and Illegal Global Trading, Haggling, and Hustling with One Another amongst the Wailing and Woofing of Peddlers and Vendors within and Outiside the Grungy and Dilapidated Looking Citadel in Tsim Sha Tsui of Kowloon Peninsula in HK-SAR
An Interdisciplinary Approach to Chronic Disease Management Adrienne Call, University of Michigan School of Social Work and Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy Lessons Learned:
Location: Cochabamba, Bolivia
Centro Vivir Con Diabetes:
Bolivia is a Latin American country, landlocked between Peru, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, and Chile.
The Centro Vivir con Diabetes clinic was founded in 2000, with a focus on compressive care. The clinic mission is to "provide comprehensive, current, and quality education to all people with diabetes who need it, regardless of their social or economic status."
Patients glucose readings before and after CVCD education courses.
Home to just over 10 million people, the Bolivian population is extremely diverse, with indigenous people making up over two-thirds of the population. Spanish is the primary language, although Guarani, Aymara, and Quechua are also common. With varied terrain and landscapes, the country ranges from deserts, to tropical rainforests, to mountain ranges.
Comparison of Glucose Levels at Beginning and End of Course 200
Given the cultural differences, having travel experience prior to living in Bolivia was incredibly helpful.
As an integral practice, the clinic offers endocrinology consults, ophthalmology, dental, nutritional, psychological, social work, laboratory, pharmacy, physical therapy, and inpatient services. CVD also offers education courses as well as outreach and prevention campaigns.
50 0 70-110
n = 1,272 30 25.0 25
• 7.2% of the Bolivia population lives with diabetes.* • 7.8% experience impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).* • 19.6% of the population copes with hypertension, and 60.7% are overweight, both leading indicators for diabetes.* • Diabetes is a growing public health concern and given the high levels of IGT, expected to increase in the future. • Diet, exercise, lack of medical care, and social stigma are contributing factors to the diabetes epidemic. *Pan Am Health Organization, 2001.
Brushing up on your Spanish is essential. With a better working knowledge of the language, you can interact on a deeper level with the Bolivian population. The Bolivian culture views disease much differently than Americans, so sensitivity to alternative medicines, local stigmas, and how the population thinks about their health is important.
Age Distribution of CVCD Patients
Diabetes Prevalence in Bolivia:
Having students from social work, public policy, nursing, and undergraduate studies gave the internship project a depth of understanding that would not have been available without the interdisciplinary approach.
With 17 staff members, the clinic is open 6 days a week and serves thousands of patients each year.
Number of patients seen by day Jan - June 2012
40-49 50-59 Age Groups
The interdisciplinary UM team gained skills in the following objectives:
30 25 20 15
Financial Models and Business Data: Understanding government subsidies, private insurance, philanthropy, and clinical operations to improve CVCD's current business practices for sustainability and expansion.
Clinical Patient Outcomes: With de-identified patient data, the team analyzed patient trends and set up longitudinal reports to follow outcomes over time.
Patient Flow: A focus on understanding and identifying areas for improving patient entry, diagnosis, treatment, and long term follow-up outcomes.
10 5 0 1/3 1/10 1/17 1/24 1/31 2/7 2/14 2/21 2/28 3/6 3/13 3/20 3/27 4/3 4/10 4/17 4/24 5/1 5/8 5/15 5/22 5/29 6/5 6/12 6/19 6/26
Gender Distribution of CVCD Patients n = 6,272 70%
20% 10% 0% Male
Relationships: CVCD relationships with other clinics, the patient outreach community, and local schools and churches.
Acknowledgements: Thank you to the School of Social Work, Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, the Nonprofit and Public Management Center, and UM Center for Global Health for making this internship opportunity possible.
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DEFYING GRAVITY —Migrant Children Education System in Beijing, China policies, NGOs, and market as factors INTRODUCTION: Due to the continuum impact of the hukou system, children who follow their parents from rural areas to urban areas to work are considered ‘migrant children’. Most migrant children lack appropriate access to educational resources. The purpose of this project is to identify some of the influential factors that contribute to migrant children’s current educational needs, to frame the institutionalization of the internal migrant schools (dagong zidi xuexiao), and to analyze the implementation of related policy dynamics in Beijing, China. Photo from Natsumi Hayashi
KEY RESEARCH QUESTIONS:
WHAT IS THE HUKOU SYSTEM?
“What is the current stage of migrant school development?” “What is the formation process of the internal migrant schools?” “How do policies impact migrant children’s education rights and operation of the migrant schools?” “How do NGOs impact these changes/processes?”
The hukou system is the household registration system which performs a pervasive mechanism of control in China. People are born registered under their province of origin and have been categorized to either an urban household or a rural household. The purpose of the hukou system is to control inner migration, especially from rural areas to urban areas, in order to control the pace of urbanization. It is also used to maintain social control, and to allocate resources across the country. Peoples’ wellbeing has been closely tied with the hukou system since it regulates peoples’ job and educational opportunities, health care, social welfare, and residential rights. Currently, urban residents are much more privileged than rural residents in all of the above areas due to disproportionate development strategies.
METHODOLOGY : This is an exploratory research project that aims to better understand the current educational sphere of migrant children in Beijing. Literature review is essential before and after site visits. The project began with snow balling information collecting.Principals, school owners, teachers and NGO workers are interviewed.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: -Practice culture competence -Conduct independent research -Develop theoretical and analytical skills
CHALLENGES: (Data collection) -May have no specific address or direct route for visiting targeted NGO or migrant schools. -May encounter different dialects when interviewing -May require multiple attempts to collect accurate information
MSW Candidate 2013 Global Special Study 2012 University of Michigan School of Social Work
-Chinese law stipulates the right to education, including nine years of free, public, education without discrimination. However, in practice, migrants were left largely to fend for themselves when it came to their children’s education. -Internal migrants have responded by setting up their own privately-run, and privatelyfunded, schools especially for their own children. Migrant schools have served the needs of a community of children effectively but are generally poorly resourced. - Many have struggled to get their operations going in the face of hostility from local school and municipal authorities, or at best, experienced neglect. Many continue to face the risk of sudden, forcible, closure by local authorities.
FURTHER QUESTIONS: Every interviewee mentioned “maintaining social stability” as the government’s stated primary responsibility. Most of the NGOs, migrant children schools and their communities have been affected by efforts to ‘maintain social stability’ somehow—both positively and negatively. Questions such as “what does “maintaining social stability mean?” “How does that affect the policy and development of migrant children’s education?” are suggested for future inquiry.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS : Office of Global Activities, School of Social Work, University of Michigan, Professor Lawrence Root, Ran Hu, Yu Liu, Lu Gong, Hsing-Hsiang Huang, Ally Zhou, Lan Ma, Kiddy Huang, Cheng-Lang Hsu, Zhi-Qiang, Chuan-Che Huang … and all of the interviewees in China.
Organizational Development in Australia
Acknowledgements: I would like to thank the Office of Global Activities for their support and funds to study in Australia and The Brotherhood of St. Laurence for providing such a positive field placement opportunity. I would especially like to thank Bruce Hart, my supervisor, and Peter Moore and Meredith Ciddor for hosting me.
Tiffany Hsu University of Michigan School of Social Work
Location: Melbourne, Australia Melbourne is the capital city of the state of Victoria in Australia. Melbourne is home to approximately 4 million people and has the most extensive tram system in the world. It is known to be one of the best gastronomical, cultural, and art centers in the world. Currently, Melbourne has been ranked the most livable city in the world.
Placement:The Brotherhood of St. Laurence
Through my time at BSL, I enhanced my skills as a social worker. The following are the top skills I developed:
My global field placement was at the Brotherhood of St. Laurence (BSL) in Melbourne, Australia. The mission of BSL is an Australia free of poverty. The organization covers a wide range of services from early childhood development to older adult residential care. BSL is well known for its advocacy, research and policy center, and the social enterprise unit of op shops.
•Understanding cultural humility/competence
I interned at the Centre for Practice Knowledge and Research unit in the head office. My main project was to conduct a survey on current quality assurance/improvement practices in the organization to get a baseline of what quality systems were in place. This project was the beginning of a two-year long program of implementing a quality assurance/improvement system at BSL. I also did work with implementing reflective practice supervision training throughout the organization and developing a youth foyer model for BSL.
Social Work in Australia Social work in Australia is similar to the United States and British system of social work. The Australian Association of Social Workers estimates that there are approximately 19,300 social workers in Australia. Australians place more of an emphasis on direct practice social work, but there is a growing movement of macro social work in policy and advocacy. Currently social workers in Australia are advocating and lobbying for registration.
Lessons Learned •I will never be an expert on everything so I need to ask for help when I need it •The quality of the work environment will affect the quality of client services •Looking at challenges as opportunities for learning and self-improvement
Outcomes In the course of my 14 week placement at BSL, I had the opportunity to work on a variety of projects with people on many different levels of the organization. Below are a few of my major accomplishments:
•Professional writing and research that is clear, concise, and presented in the most useful manner •Critical thinking of organizational culture and development
Class Connections SW 799: Global Social Work – This class prepared me for working abroad by looking at ethics in the International Federation of Social Workers. It also helped me to understand what the difficulties of being an international social worker are and helped me to prepare for Australia.
Career Connections From my experience at the Brotherhood, I can use the skills I learned in understanding systems and conducting work at a systemic level to pursue a career in government or advocacy. work I also feel that my competency in cultural humility and working in situations outside of my comfort zone will allow me to be more flexible and adaptable in my work as a social worker. I am hoping to either work in London or Melbourne with the connections I made during my time at BSL.
• A report on the current quality systems at BSL. The report was compiled through conducting 5 staff focus groups and interviewing 25 senior/center managers.
•Be flexible and adaptable to the situation, sometimes you will have to think outside of the box
• Assisting and implementing reflective practice training and conflict management training
•Spend your time getting to know your environment and surroundings – take advantage of every opportunity
• Presentation to the senior leadership team on quality systems •Implementing Amartya Sen’s capabilities approach in retirement and ageing services
•Find ways to keep the connections you made abroad, they will help you to land future jobs and advance your career
This poster was created for the Fall 2012 Global Social Work Day Poster Session
Refugee Services Down Under Sarah Jadrich University of Michigan School of Social Work At the Footy match! Go Carlton Blues!
Melbourne, VIC, Australia
• Melbourne is the cultural capital of Australia
• Australia is a popular refugee resettlement country accepting, if you compare relative population sizes, as many refugees as the U.S.
• Policy surrounding asylum seekers is currently one of the most controversial issues in Australia • Refugees and asylum seekers migrate to Australia from all over the word—Liberia, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Congo, Iraq, Afghanistan, Burma and many other countries
My Position •
• My beautiful city! Melbourne, Australia
“You need to scratch where the community is itching, and our community is itching in a lot of ways” (Sierra Leonean community leader)
I spent four months completing my field placement for the Brotherhood of St. Laurence at their Ecumenical Migration Centre (EMC) They are a large non-profit with many centres located in Melbourne and the surrounding suburbs EMC provides services to refugee communities and asylum seekers. They have family counsellors, community development workers, youth programs and many other services
Skills Utilized/Developed • Increased cultural competency, and the ability to analyse whether a program is culturally appropriate • Active listening and generative interviewing skills • Research and evaluation techniques and skills
My Uncle, Cousin, Grandma, and myself hanging out on the Great Ocean Road
Classroom Connections • I took a variety of classes here in the SSW and in the Ford school of Public Policy that would give me the tools necessary for global work
I worked for the Family Service team doing a research/evaluation project focussing on the issues areas of family violence and family breakdown in refugee communities and what services were available to individuals dealing with these issues in the greater Melbourne area
• When I had the opportunity I would tailor my papers and assignments to focus on global issues
We wanted to learn why refugee individuals were not accessing available services, and if there were innovative programs seemed effective
I interviewed 22 direct service employees around the city at different agencies, 19 newly arrived humanitarian entrants, and 10 community leaders who were former refugees that held direct service positions as well as informal leadership roles in their community All research was interview-based, gathered and analysed by myself, written up in a large report with recommendations and then presented to my agency and sent out to all participating agencies.
Career Connections • I hope to return to Australia and continue to work with refugee communities • I see a need to bridge the communication gap between those working on policy and programming and those working on the front lines
Advice • We often view other non-western cultural practices as a barrier rather than something we can learn from and combine with our own practices to create innovative and integrated services that are more culturally appropriate and effective • “Before dealing with another culture, the key area is to understand that culture, how do they operate, what did they achieve in the past? Did they work and what was their strength? Then you build on their strength and see how far you can go; because from their strengths they will gain confidence, but if you take their weaknesses they will lose that confidence to move on” (Congolese community leader ).
• Listen and observe those around you before you jump into your work • Be flexible, adaptable and willing to try new things • Don’t be afraid to laugh at yourself • Be humble and open minded
Acknowledgments I am very grateful to the Office of Global Activities and the Alumni Board of Governors for making this experience possible. I also want to thank Peter Moore and Meredith Ciddor for hosting and caring for us during our stay as well as my amazing family in Australia
A special thinks to Tom Griffiths and Hutch Hussein for their amazing supervision and guidance as well as the rest of the Brotherhood staff and the University of This posterMelbourne was createdSchool for the Fall 2012 Global of Social WorkSocial Work Poster Fair
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VOLUNTEERING IN VILLA EL SALVADOR, PERU Elizabeth Van Oeveren University of Michigan School of Social Work
Location: Lima, Peru
Photo by: Donna Connor Retrieved from: http://www.thecitytraveler.com/2009/11/lima/
Volunteer Placement: My volunteer site in Villa El Salvador was called INABIF, an governmental organization dedicated to the welfare of the poorest sectors of Peruvian society.
Peru, seated on the west coast of South America, is renowned for it’s great biodiversity including coastal beaches, deserts, Amazonian jungles, urban cities, and the Andes mountains. It’s culture derives from a rich history stretching back from the ancient Incas to the current day.
My role: -Assist the teacher in the 3 y/o classroom with daily lessons and activities -Introduce children to basic English words (singing songs, practicing shapes and colors)
Lima is the capital and largest city of Peru and is a mostly metropolitan city surrounded by shantytown communities. Lima experienced a surge in population in the late 1980’s to 1990’s when many countryside and Andean peoples migrated to the city for more economic opportunity and to flee attacks of the terrorist group the Shining Path. The population growth was so large and sudden that the city is still working to find housing and provide services to all the people of Lima as well as struggling with social difficulties associated with the influx.
-Assist and encourage children to eat at breakfast, snack time, and lunch (This was of absolute importance as some of the children would likely have no meals at home) -Plan and teach crafts to senior citizens of INABIF to maintain fine motor skills twice a week
Connections -Classroom: SW 623: Interpersonal Practice with Families: Understanding the different roles families play within various cultures SW 605 Infant and Child Development and Behavior: Knowing what were the most important needs to meet for children based on their developmental stages -SW 709 Intergroup Dialogue for facilitating Social Justice: Being able to recognize my own privileged identities as an American abroad -SW 628 Interpersonal Practice with Adults: Seeing first hand that above all things it is the personal relationship we offer clients that makes the most difference
Villa El Salvador is one of the communities founded by families migrating from the countryside to the city. Described as one of the most successful shantytowns in modern history the first families settled in the desert and grew their community rapidly. Despite having excellent internal community organization, the town remains impoverished and lacks many services.
Skills developed -Cross lingual communication: I knew very little Spanish when I arrived in Peru and found that I had to learn how to communicate effectively through more than my words
This special studies gave me the opportunity to broaden my perspective of the field of social work and explore it within a global context. I was able to think critically to consider the questions I wanted to pursue and am certain I will be able to use skills developed in my future endeavors as a professional.
Advice If you’re thinking about a global social work experience…Go for it! You need not have future plans to practice international social work; it is an invaluable experience for any social worker. Personally, it has added great depth and richness to my social work education that I could have never found in a classroom. If you decide to go, keep a journal while there, write down everything and embrace the unpredictable! Accept that you may not fully understand the importance or value of your work until you’re finished.
-Patience: Working in an environment where one knows little of the culture and language can be confusing and exhausting. Improving my patience allowed me to relax and really listen to what the community needed. -Initiative:
About my special studies I volunteered through the agency Cross Cultural Solutions and was placed at a field site in Lima based on the community’s immediate needs. I sought to learn how social workers can take global experience and integrate lessons learned abroad into their local practice.
Often, I was given no instruction at my volunteer site. As time passed I found it best to just jump in and offer my own ideas -Further development of cultural humility: With all the discussion social workers have about cultural competence, it’s easy to think we’ve got it down. However, being in a foreign culture helped me see what an ongoing process development of this skill is as there is always more to learn!
-Start where the client or community is at! There were many things I initially thought could help the people of Villa El Salvador but quickly learned they did not fit with what the people thought they needed or wanted. -Human connections matter most: After all the time, what seemed to mean the most to the people I worked with was not any of the skills I brought to my placement but the fact that I was there, that I had taken time away from my life and home to spend time with them. -The help you provide may not meet the vision you had… and that’s okay: It can be hard to let go of the goals you had set out to accomplish, but when you do you will see the true value and meaning of your efforts.
Acknowledgements I would like to acknowledge and thank the Office of Global Activities for their contributions in funding this special study, Professor Dan Saunders for his thoughtful guidance, the CCS staff of the Lima house for their warmth and kindness and all my fellow volunteers in Peru for sharing their insight, wisdom, and support as we discovered Lima together.
Women & Children Empowerment Rhonda Sanders Whitney Williams University of Michigan, School of Social Work New Delhi, India
Placement I [Rhonda]:
9Population: 1.2 Billion
• Children, ages 3-7 years old
9 Cultural Humility
• Socioeconomic Status: Lower Class
9 Global Awareness
9Government: Democracy 9 Major Language: Hindi 9Major Religions: Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Islam
Cross-Cultural Solutions Cross-Cultural Solutions (CCS) is a non-profit organization that enables volunteers to make a meaningful contribution to the community by working side-by-side with local people, while gaining a new perspective and insight into the culture and themselves.
• Volunteer Activities: Taught English games, songs and arts & crafts. Taught Mathematics; numbers 1-10, addition Assisted staff with daily routines Taught English vocabulary [fruits, vegetables, animals, greetings] Provided individual attention to the children
Purpose Women are threatened, ridiculed, challenged, mocked and even killed for their beliefs, looks, attitudes, ideas and opinions. The threat of rape and murder are a daily reminder for some women and children to stay in their place and not challenge authority or better themselves. This special studies project created will take a look at the various resources available for women and children in New Delhi, India throughout the community, schools, churches, etc. in order to empower and strengthen women and children in the Indian community. This project will look at community centers, after school programs, and women leaders that currently exist within India. Children are available assets to any community. Western culture emphasizes the importance of education for youth, therefore we wanted to experience how education is structured and valued within a different culture. Our purpose was to also share our experiences with the children and staff around us.
Placement: Vidya Creches (Pappankalan) • VIDYA’S mission is to educate and empower the underprivileged through integrated methods to initiate and implement progressive social change. • Vidya is a voluntary organization dedicated to the education and empowerment of socially handicapped people, particularly handicapped individuals, children and illiterate women.
9 Empathy 9 Understanding of the effects of poverty 9 Poverty vs. Poverty of Hope 9 Appreciation of an Individual’s Experiences 9 Insight into International Power & Privilege Issues
Served as a role model; encouraged and praised the children.
Classroom Connections 9SW 521 – Interpersonal Practice provided skills to foster communication beyond verbal usage. Recognize the importance of building relationships with others
Placement II [Whitney]: • Children - Boys, ages 7-14 years old • Socioeconomic Status: Lower Class
9SW 601 – Children and Youth Development provided understanding of how to approach children and youth. Provided background information about the developmental process of children and youth
Practiced reading aloud and reading comprehension
9SW 790 – Global Studies helped us culturally prepare for our travel. Recognizing what is culturally appropriate, how to handle difficult situations, and foster relationships of others travelling abroad
Taught children how to tell time and about the months of the year
• Volunteer Activities: Taught children English usage of adjectives, pronouns, and verbs
9Cultural sensitivity, humility and awareness 9Recognizing the difference and impact of poverty versus poverty of hope 9The ability to communicate through language barriers 9Deeper understanding of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Islam
Global Placement Recommendations • • • • • •
Travel with an open mind Travel with someone you know (if possible) Be open to new experiences, people, tastes, sounds, etc. Create a customized weekend itinerary specific to your interests Challenge yourself Take time to yourself, traveling to a new country can be overwhelming
Cultural Learning Activities • Visited the Taj Mahal, Red Fort and Lotus Temple • Learned about the Indian Bride Prep Process • Created Bhati, an Indian dish • Learned Hindi • History lesson on India’s Economical & Political advancements and struggles • Learned about different religions practiced in India
Acknowledgements Special thank you to Professor Larry Root, Office of Global Activities, Alumni Board of Governors and the School of Social Work Fine print text can go here or you can just delete this text box.