Putting the pieces together
UNIVERSITY OF GUELPH November-December 1971. Vol. 4. No. 6
CONTENTS Guest editorial
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Games children play
The spade in Spain
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Cancer and the virus
Campus highlights Appointments Alumni news
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CREDITS Design: cover, Ken Chamberlain Photography: cover, Ted Carter, Audio Visual Services; p. 3, 5. 14, Audio Visual Services; p. 6, 7, Dr. M. Sadek; p. 8, Dr. R. Sonstegard; p. 11, 12, 13, D. Bates.
UNIVERSITY OF GUELPH ALUMNI ASSOCIATION HONORARY PRESIDENT: Dr. W. C. Wlnegard. PRESIDENT: DR. V. C. R. WALKER. OVC '47. SENIOR VICE-PRESIDENT: T. R. Hilliard, OAC '40. VICE.PRESIDENTS: Mrs. J. D. (Vlrglnla Shoftt) Bandeen, Mac '57. Dr. C. R. Buck. OVC '46, D. W. McDonell. OAC '70, and T. B. Radford. Well '67. SECRETARY: Mrs. G. M. (Joan Anderson) Jenkinson, Mac '66 TREASURER: J. J. Elmslle. Development Officer. University o f Guelph. DIRECTORS: Mrs. J. D. (Vlrgin~aShortt) Bandeen. Mac '57: MISS Elizabeth Brandon, Well '70: Dr. C. R. Buck. OVC '46: Mrs. R. R. (Patric~aSchoenau) Davies. Mac '57: Miss Jean ~ewa;, Mac '28: Dr. G.'R. ~ o i d g e . OVC '52; J. R. Flegg, We11 '68: Miss Patricia Mall, BA '70; D. W. McDonell. OAC '70: A. C. Mcraggart, OAC '35: Dr. J. H. Millinaton. OVC '69: Dr. W. H. M~nshall.OAC '33: T. B y ~ a d f o r d .Well '67: C. G. Tr~vers,OAC '67: and one OVC dlrector to be nominated. EX.OFFICI0 DIRECTORS: R. G. Bennett, OAC '43. President O.A.C. Alumni Association: Miss Rosemary Clark, Mac '59. President Macdonald lnstitute Alumnse Association: P. D. Ferguson. Well '68. President. Arts and Sciences Alumni Association: Dr. T. L. Jones, OVC '34. President. O.V.C. Alumni Association; and J. K. Babcock. OAC '54. Director, Alumni Affairs and Development. The Guelph Alumnus is published by the Department o f Alumni Affa~rsand Development. Univers~tyof Guelph. The Editorial Committee is comprised of Edltor-D. A. Bates, OAC '69, A l u m n ~Officer: Art D~rector-Prof. K. E. Chamberlatn; J. K. Babcock, OAC '54. Dlrector of A l u m n ~ Affa~rsand Development: D. L. Waterston, Dlrector of Information: D. W. Jose. OAC '49. Assistant Dlrector of Information. The Editorla1 Advlsory Board of the University of Guelph Alumni Association: Glenn Powell, OAC '62, Chalrman; Mrs. G. M. Jenklnson, Mac '66 and Mrs. J. M. (Kay) Murdoch) Little. Mac '59, vice.chalrmen; Dr. A. E. Austln. Dept. of Engllsh: and Mr. G. 8. Love. Well '69, Dr. J. H. M~llington.OVC '69. Ex.Offic~o: J. K. Babcock, OAC '54 and Dr. V. C. R. Walker, OVC '47. Corresponding members: D. R. Baron. OAC '49 and H. G. Dodds. OAC '58. Undelivered copies should be returned to Alumni House. University of Guelph. Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
Bringing alumni together By ROWAN WALKER Program emphasis of the University of Guelph Alumni Association in the coming year will stress improved communication and greater alumni involvement. Alumni are not only a significant financial resource but a great human resource of experience and enthusiasm. Thus participation of alumni is a vital force in the development of the University. Though many alumni take part in University and alumni association programs, there are many more who would benefit from a closer relationship with their Alma Mater. The Directors of the Association are planning additional programs t o bring alumni together. New this year will be an opportunity for alumni t o participate in holiday and educational tours, programs for young alumni, recruitment of students, and interesting social functions on campus. Planned also are seminars for cultural and personal development as well as professional improvement. As one of over 13,000 living alumni of the University located in all corners of the world, you are invited t o make 1972 your year t o get involved. To serve the large membership of the University of Guelph Alumni Association, I am pleased t o have the opportunity t o work with a board of directors nominated by the four college alumni associations, representing Arts and Sciences, Macdonald lnstitute (Family and Consumer Studies), Ontario Agricultural College, and Ontario Veterinary College. Presently there are seven colleges on the campus and in due time the Arts and Science Alumni Association may be reformed into additional associations t o provide greater identity and pro-
Dr. V. C. Rowan Walker, OVC '47, president o f the University of Guelph Alumni Association, is director, Laboratory Division, Veterinary Services Branch, Ontario Department of Agriculture and Food.
grams of interest for its constituent alumni. One of the aims of the University of Guelph Alumni Association is t o develop a feeling of unity amongst alumni of the colleges and t o share common interests in our Alma Mater. Should you wish us t o consider some item you feel important t o the role of Guelph Alumni, please contact the Alumni Office or one of the directors listed on the left of this page. We want everyone t o feel a real sense of continuing responsibility and benefit from a close relationship through their college and university alumni associations with the University of Guelph and its constituent colleges.
About this issue Psychology, archeology, and microbiology are featured this issue; three research areas in which university personnel are making or about t o make some discoveries that our readers should find interesting. The gentleman we feature on the next three pages has undoubtedly saved many children from whatever fate their teachers may have decided for them by declaring these children hard t o teach or even retarded. Dr Denis Stott, chairman of the Centre for Educational Disabilities, concluded long ago that these children are really victims o f a temperamental handicap that has prevented them from learning how t o learn. Starting on page three, staff writer Mary Cocivera describes Dr. Stott's successful means of overcoming these handicaps, and offers on page five an insight into the man himself. A few thousand miles removed from Guelph is Carrascosa del Campo - site of the first Canadian archeological e x pedition into Spain. The team of Guelph students and faculty will be directed by Dr. Mahmoud Sadek of the University's Fine Art Department. We plan t o follow up this initial report as the archeological team digs in. And starting on page eight, we take a look at cancer, some hypotheses about the disease, and cancer research on campus. Our regular features follow.
Games children play help them to learn By MARY COCIVERA
FIVE-YEAR-OLDvoices, squeals of delight and high-spirited frolicking seem incongruous with the normally subdued halls of a university. This enthusiasm emanates from children who attend sessions twice a week in the University's Centre for Educational Disabilities, an applied psychology laboratory for innovative research into learning problems. To the casual observer, the children seem completely normal - they play games, work puzzles, and appear engrossed in activities with cards and pictures. The children are normal, except for one thing: They have all been labelled "slow learners," "dull," "non-achievers," or "retarded" by their teachers. Assumed to be dull, these children weren't expected to perform in the classroom - that is, until they came to the Centre for Educational Disabilities. Dr. Denis H. Stott (see page five) and his staff simply don't accept low I.Q. or dullness as excuses for low performance. Instead, they go on the premise that the so-called dunce has just as much ability as anyone else; he simply has not learned to use i t correctly. He suffers from a handicap of temperament, not of mentality. What is most significant about this approach is that handicaps of temperament can be remedied by reconditioning the child's thought process. On the other hand, a label like "mentally handicapped" invites educators to write off the child and doom him to failure. Most of the children at the Centre suffer from one of two common types of temperamental handicaps. The "lnconsequential" child reacts impulsively - he short circuits his intelligence by guessing and then compensates for his errors by disrupting classes and invariably exasperating his teacher. Before long, these "live wires" discover that
Mary Cocivera is a staff writer with the Department of Information, University of Guelph.
guessing works only with very simple tasks. When confronted with serious learning situations, they resort t o avoidance tactics, channeling their boundless energy anywhere but to the business of learning. The "Unforthcoming" child, in contrast, is so timid and apprehensive that performing any task causes him tremendous anxiety. Faced with anything strange or apparently difficult, he becomes completely inhibited and retreats behind a mask of dullness. The child is safe - teachers consider him dull and never call on him to perform. The learning materials and techniques developed at the Centre can coax a learning disabled child out of his role of dunce. The kindergarten children begin with the Flying Start Learning to Learn Kit, a pre-reading program based on psychological and linguistic principles. The kit is made up of a series of absorbing games through which the children develop good learning strategies. Initially, the children work with an adult. Later, two children can "play and learn" together because the materials are designed to be self-correcting. This dissociates the games from the standard classroom format and because the games are fun, the children are motivated to continue "learning." Flying Start builds confidence. Even the most apprehensive child can succeed with the first very simple task The puzzle pieces of "The Brick Wall" - a spelling game are designcoded to help children correct any mistakes.
He progresses step by gentle step through increasingly difficult games, gaining confidence as he goes. Flying Start discourages guessing. The inconsequential child soon learns that he is immediately rewarded for correct, well-thought-out responses. Guessing will get him nowhere. This program can teach a learning disabled child how to learn in as little as six weeks. Five-year-olds respond quickly t o the "reconditioning" process. Older children respond more slowly b e cause their learning styles are firmly set and secondary disabilities (dislike, boredom and lack of self-esteem) often compound the problem. Follow-up studies in schools demonstrate that the good learning strategies stick with the child enabling him to achieve normally. Without the Centre's help, some of these children would never have made it into a regular classroom. A new program for children, scheduled to begin in January, will adopt a broader remedial approach to
maladjustment. In addition to using the Flying Start materials to develop good learning styles, the children will participate in physical activities, geared t o improve their control, coordination and self-confidence. Such training, explains Dr. Stott, will enhance their ability to cope with all types of situations. University students in psychology and physical education will conduct this program. Since the Centre's opening 4% years ago, its staff has been busy with more than the Flying Start program. A Programmed Reading Kit, developed by Dr. Stott in Britain, has been brought up-todate and restyled for Canadian audiences. A Numbers Kit, developed last year at the Centre, will be tested on children this year. A "How to Write English" program is in the works. These kits, aim, not so much at measurable achievement, but at basic concepts. When "the bugs" are ironed out, these kits will be generally available and will be suitable for use in regular
The 1.0.is useless: Stott T HE CENTRE for Educational Disabilities is a resounding success largely because its founder and director, Dr. Denis Stott, dared to challenge the psychologist's sacred cow, the I.Q. According t o this unconventional psychologist, the I.Q. score is useless as a measure of a child's ability. It measures only how well the child has learned to use his mental ability. The Cambridge, Oxford and London educated psychologist never believed in the conventional wisdom of the I.Q. and his suspicions of its deceptive character were confirmed when he worked with juvenile delinquents in England and Scotland They were smart enough to repeatedly outwit the police, yet many, by virtue of I.Q. tests, were classified as retarded. Since then Dr. Stott has openly bucked tradition and developed an educational technology which doesn't assume an upper limit on the child's mental
cspacity. The I.Q. induces a fatalistic acceptance of the child's mental capabilities. Dr. Stott's approach takes a more optimistic view, attributing much "dullness" to a handicap of temperament which prevents the so-called dunce from fully using his mental abilities. This handicap, present at birth, affects his whole life style, including his approach to learning. Helping each child overcome his specific temperamental handicaps and teaching him how t o learn could save him from a life of retardation. Such temperamental handicaps result in retarded functioning, leading most educators to assume a lack of ability. Dr. Stott insists that it is impossible to determine the child's mental capacity until he iesrns to use it correctly. One in every ten children suffer from learning disabilities. Identifying and correcting these handicaps at an early age would result in a tremendous
classrooms, special education classes and at home. The Programmed Reading Kit is already on the market; the Flying Start materials are in the final stages of production. The Centre's biggest problems, according to Dr. Stott, are a shortage of staff and a lack of funds. Third and fourth year psychology students and volunteers (mostly mothers) keep the Centre going. Facilities in the Physical Sciences building and a basic budget are provided by the University. Funds to operate the children's programs have come from the Atkinson Charitable Foundation. The children's programs, temporarily curtailed because of lack of funds will resume in January, supported by a grant from the McLean Foundation. The Centre's future looks brighter, however, because of a recent decision of the Ontario government. For the first time, the government will fund educational research in the provincially-supported universities. Between the children's programs, a summer Opportunities for Youth Project,
savings of human resources in our schools. Because these behaviour patterns are set before the child even enters school, the Centre has concentrated its research on kindergarten children. By developing programs for this age group, Dr. Stott feels that the Centre can perform its greatest service to education. He calls the practice of education one of the most neglected areas of applied psychology. Research at the Centre is starting to fill in this void. The Stott approach seems so logical, you're forced to ask: "Why didn't someone come up with this a long time ago?" The typical academic, explains Dr. Stott, tends to embark on research which will yield immediate results and enable him to publish prolifically. He's eager to "get on with it". Putting psychological theories into practice by developing learning materials takes yelrs of slow, painstaking work, patient
a heavy undergraduate teaching schedule and working with graduate students, Dr. Stott somehow finds time t o organize teacher workshops and seminars a t the Centre. Last year, he ran eight workshop weeks through the University's Continuing Education program. About 15 teachers, supervisors and special education consultants participated in each session, but many had t o be turned away. The Centre's popularity is easily explained: Its techniques work. This year, attempting t o cope with the heavy demand, the Centre has held a workshop for about 120 educators from Canada and the U.S. Another is planned for the spring. These workshops help disseminate the Centre's techniques and materials t o the classrooms, where they'll benefit hundreds of learning disabled children. The Centre for Educational Disabilities, one of the only facilities for learning disabled children in the province, is to elucidate One of the most neglected areas of psychology practice of education.
observation and many mistakes it simply doesn't appeal to academics c w g h t up in the publish or perish atmosphere of universities. After the discipline of developing one kit, additional learning materials become easier to design. Dr. Stott says that over the years, one develops an acute ability to observe events of failure and subsequently delineate a solution. Creativity becomes a "routine thought process, not a random bolt out of the blue." Because Dr. Stott had the courage to disregard the I.Q. and the patience to develop a new learning technology, the learning disabled child now stands a chance. That he can throw off his cloak of dullness and succeed in the classroom has been proven by the scores of children who have participated in the programs at the Centre for EducaM.C. tional Disabilities.
A former Centre volunteer, Mrs. E. (Frances Farmer) Pilon, BA '68, holds giant touch cards which help children recognize both the letter and its sounds. Below Dr. Denis Stott watches children playing with smaller touch cards.
A t home with Scipio Af ricanus
HE NEXT TIME you're touring the plateau country of central Spain, try taking the highway from Madrid t o Valencia, and turning left at Tarancon. Fifteen miles further, near the village of Carrascosa del Campo (full name: Cerro la Muela de Carrascosa del Campo), is a mound perhaps 300 feet long and 25 feet high, which has been part of the landscape for almost two millennia. There you may find a team of University of Guelph students and faculty members, conducting the first Canadian archeological expedition into Spain. Spain is of great importance in the history of civilization, says Dr. Mahmoud Sadek of the University's Fine Art Department, who is directing the expedition; for Iberians, Celts, Greeks, Carthaginians and especially Romans all left a deep imprint on it in ancient times. Thus it contains a wealth of the "mute voices" to which the archeologist harcoins, artifacts, art objects kens each bearing an otherwise forgotten story from the antique past. The mound at Carracosca del Camp0 was chosen last summer after Dr. Sadek spent three weeks touring from site to site, and consulting with Spanish officials, archeologists and local inhabitants, all of whom he found extremely helpful and co-operative. When a site looked promising, he hired diggers and carried out limited excavation. His final choice was Carrascosa since preliminary diggings there uncovered columns and capitals from Roman buildings, pieces of mosaic, and a large number of pottery fragments. Of special interest was a Stone block bearing a Latin inscription, possibly from the period of the Roman general, Scipio Africanus. "The mound
' C .
Artifacts discovered this summer at La Garrovilla, an alternative site to Carracosa del Campo, illustrate typical findings. At left, the expedition's Spanish intera device preter crouches in a plaevium built by Romans to collect rainfall and examines remnants of floor mosaic tiles. mosaic. At right, a portion of another floor
may enclose a villa or it may contain a theatre," says Dr. Sadek. 'We will not know until we begin full-scale digging." The first trip t o Carrascosa del Campo will take place next summer; the Spanish government has already reserved this area for the University of Guelph party. Because of the relatively small size of the party, its work will continue for at least two additional summers. Taking part in the project are four Guelph faculty members: Dr. Victor Matthews of the Languages Department, Professor John Milliken of the School of Landscape Architecture, Professor Mary Rogers of the History Department, and Dr. Sadek. Five students from Guelph will though because of also make the trip limited funds, they will be required to pay their own expenses. Under the terms of an agreement drawn up with the Spanish government, five students from Spanish universities and a Spanish arche. ologist will also participate in the excavation. And in the summer of 1973, it is hoped that Professor lnnes MacKenzie of the University's Physics Department will join the expedition, to carry on work with a high-sensitivity magnetometer, a newly-developed device which detects such as building foundastructures below the surface of the ground. tions
HE AGREEMENT with the Spanish government specifies that relics that are unique will be kept in Spain; but where there are two or more of the same type, one will be given to the University. To display these pieces, facilities could in the future be set up at the University. Another clause of the agreement provides for yearly reports on the project, to be published in Spanish archeological journals. Dr. Sadek, whose background includes degrees from Alexandria University in Egypt, Columbia University i n the United States and the University of Toronto, plus participation in a number of European archeological expeditions, plans to begin the Carrascosa del Campo project by mapping the mound and its features. The next step will be to cut a trench from the centre t o the side of the mound. Such
a trench is not simply gouged out, the way one digs a ditch: an archeologist digs down until the soil changes in colour or consistency, thus indicating a different level. There could be, for instance a two-inch drop between two such levels, with the lower one perhaps 50 years older than the upper. These sections are preserved in the digging so that steps, as in a staircase are cut into the sides of the trench. In this way, archeologists are able to date the various levels and, therefore, the objects they find in them: An artifact of unknown age may appear in the same zone as pieces of proto-Corinthian pottery - which permits it to be dated between 700 and
600 B.C. Archeology, in spite of its slow and painstaking procedures, yields only limited information about the past. So much still remains unsaid, so many stories ununless, perhaps, modern science told finds some means to raise the ghosts of long-dead ancestors, to explain, with their own words, the mysteries of 2,000 years ago. Until such development, man must depend on silent voices, on the artifacts and art works hidden beneath the wheat fields and pastures of Spain. And only the careful sifting of ancient soil, whether at Carrascosa del Campo or elsewhere, can bring these faint, strained sounds t o the delicate ear of E.C. the archeologist.
The search for a cancer cure: Looking for a "non-living" bridge 0 ONE really knows as yet how it starts. The only certainty is that somehow a cell of your body is subtly altered, and when this cell divides, as do all mammalian cells, this change is passed on t o the hundreds and thousands of cells that are the progeny of the initial one. Eventually, these altered cells number sufficiently t o form a lump - a tumour. The disease is called cancer. Cancer has ravaged mankind for many years, and continues t o do so. But recent breakthroughs in cancer research indicate that a cure may be found some day by virtue of an increasing understanding of how cancer develops. The culprit, many researchers now feel, is a virus-perhaps many related virusesand research on the Guelph campus corroborates today's thinking that cancer is indeed a virus-associated disease. Microbiologist Ron Sonstegard has spent the last five years examining a form of leukemia (blood cancer) in three fish species brown bullhead, northern which he is pike, and muskellunge now convinced is of viral origin. His research is quite unique in that the suspected viral infection is the only known epizootic (localized outbreak) of a cancerous disease in a free-living animal population. He estimates over 10 per cent of the muskellunge population in the Kawartha Lakes region of Ontario is afflicted annually - a hitherto unheard-of cancerous disease incidence. The most immediate benefits of his research have accrued t o the sports fishing industry and the tourist trade. One muskie, he says, is worth about $800 in terms of money spent during the fishing season. While no cure for this fish cancer exists, Dr. Sonstegard has discovered that only mature fish are susceptible; since the muskie and pike are such popular game fish, conservation officials now carefully avoid spreading the disease by using only eggs and fry when stocking new waterways.
How cancer kills. Photo at left shows masses of cancer cells surrounding muscle tissue; eventually, the cancerous cells invade the tissue regions (insert photo) and cause breakdown of muscle tissue.
Another microbiologist, Dr. K. F. Gregory recently concluded some experiments with leukemic mice in which he showed that the virus-induced disease was cyclic. The cancerous state, as measured by the presence of specific enzymes in the blood, progressed and then regressed, much like the human leukemia. Such findings "may give a clue t o the human disease," Dr. Gregory says, psrticularly if a mechanism for the remission and recurrence process is ever discovered. Their long-term research hopes are. of course, t o add to the ever-increasing amount of scientific revelations concerning cancer; discoveries that usually set the scientific world buzzing and initiate new research programs that one day may find a cure. The role of a virus as a cancer causal mechanism is one such discovery. Current thinking is this: Once a virus or viral particle has entered a cell, it manages to incorporate its genetic material - deoxyribonucleic acid into (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) the cell's DNA. When a cell divides, so does its DNA. But viral infected cells don't follow the regular pattern of living and dying that normal celk do. "Most viruses kill the cells they infect," says Dr. Sonstegard, "but the viruses we're talking about in cancer research, such as leukemia-inducing viruses, just transform normal cells so they that they remsin undifferentiated just divide and don't have a function. Exactly how a normal cell loses its regulatory powers because of a virus infection is one of the enigmas of science." Eventually, these altered, nonfunctioning cells number in the thousands or millions, and the lump they form is the cancer tumour. Fortunately, for some csncer victims, this growth process either stops or is restricted within the body, and the resultant benign tumour can be destroyed by radiation or surgically removed. Others are less fortunate. The cancerous growth eventually breaks into the tissues of vital organs and destroys them, or else into the circulatory system where it is transported t o other parts of the body. Unless this malignant cancer is detected very early, it's virtually incurable.
The se3rch for a possible viral causal mechanism recently took a promising turn when three independent teams of American cancer researchers discovered that a virus-produced protein stimulates a cancerous transformation in a normal cell, and maintains that diseased state. They also discovered that the cancer-forming process could be reversed by damaging or inactivating the cancercausing material. These experiments suggest that cancer may not be the progressive disease that can be stopped only by eradication of every cancerous cell. The possibility exists that a cure, or at least effective control of some forms of cancer may be realized by dealing with the cancerous transformation of cells, leading perhaps ultimately t o a vaccine cure. Complicating matters considerably is the fact that no human cancer, as yet has been definitely proven to be caused by a virus, although viruses have been confirmed as causal agents for specific leukemias in animals, mainly cats, mice, hamsters, and chickens. Dr. Sonstegard hopes t o add fish to that list very soon, but like the human cancer researchers, the actual virus has eluded him so far.
OWEVER, evidence of the virusassociated nature of cancer contiues t o mount. There are presently four cancer diseases strongly associated with a virus, says Dr. Sonstegard, Burkitt's lymphoma, a leukemia predominately found in African children; cervical cancer; Hodgkin's disease, a leukemia of young adults; and breast cancer. As cancer research continues, he says, many more cancers will likely be linked t o a virus etiology. That something so small as a virus could induce c3ncer remained, until recently, yet another scientific enigma. Scientific jargon described viruses as bridging the gap between living and non-living matter. Possessing a core of genetic material - either DNA or RNA a virus is encased in a protein shell totally inert when not in a host cell. Viruses possess no means of getting
around, and they come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Thousands would f i t in a space no larger than the period at the end of this sentence. Once inside a host, the viruses shed their proteinaceous coats and release their genetic material, which in some cases, researchers feel is the first step in the cancerous transformation of normal cells. This natural sequence of events leads one t o ask: "Can you 'catch' cancer, much like you can catch a cold? The evidence is mixed. The African leukemia, Burkitt's lymphoma, occurs in the heavy-rainfall areas of equatorial Africa where malaria is still a serious disease. It was once thought that the malaria-spreading mosquito might also transmit the cancercausing virus. But the cancer has also been found infrequently in other parts of the world suggesting that the mosquito is not the sole transmitting agent; yet the possibility exists that the malariamosquito relationship may predispose African children t o the cancer. "The evidence for a contagious nature of human leukemia (Hodgkin's Disease) has only recently been reported," says Dr. Sonstegard, relating one specific study which showed the incidence of the disease among former classmates. The cat leukemia is another possible contagious cancer. F COURSE," Dr. Sonstegard says, "cats are very common domestic pets. The question is: 'Is there any correlation between leukemia in families which have leukemic cats?' The only way a reand he would searcher can prove this is t o be able t o have to be very lucky demonstrate that the virus in the child and the cat are the same. "This verification of the contagious nature almost has t o go t o a computer analysis of mortalities across the country before researchers can say a cancer is infectious. Some cases have gone t o statistical analysis and the last time I talked to someone doing this kind of work, he said there was no real evidence of a relationship between leukemic cats and children."
If the virus, or viruses, that researchers suspect as being carcinogenic aren't floating around merely awaiting the opportune moment for infection, where are they? One American researcher hypothesizes that within a normal cell's compliment of genetic material, there exists a specialized area of DNA whose function i t is t o transmit genetic information from cell t o cell. Following the generally accepted cellular modes of division and DNA replication, this genetic information, which is called a "protovirus," would appear in every cell. Any damage or alteration t o this protovirus might affect the cell's overall functioning, initiating the cancer-forming process. If a protovirus does exist, this could explain why non-viral factors - radiation, hormonal imbalances and chemicals are carcinogenic. For example, the cigarette smoker who continually bathes his lungs with smoke may be inhaling a chemical which damages the protovirus regions of lung tissue cells. A similar hypothesis states that cells may possess in their DNA a set of cancer-producing genes "oncogenes" - that are normally suppressed by a controlling mechanism within the cell. Once again, an abnormal stimulus can turn these oncogenes "on". If either of these theories hold true, cancerous diseases are probably non-contagious. At the same time, however, only in rare cases would a vaccine cure -as normally used t o ward off most viral contagious diseases - prove effective. A vaccine is merely a solution of dead or weakened viral cells which stimulates the production of defensive t o fight inparticles - antibodies fection. If viral genes already exist in the host, they wouldn't be recognized as foreign, as antigens, and accordingly, the immunological process wouldn't take place. However, the possibility of an antigen-antibody phenomenon remains. Antigens have been found in the cancerous cells of cervical cancer victims, while antibodies have been discovered in victims of Burkitt's lymphoma. Earlier experimentation has revealed that some tumour cells are associated with an antigen, and that animals have been able t o
develop an immune response t o certain types of virus that cause some types of animal cancers.
ESEARCH at Guelph indicates that antibodies can be used as carriers of boison t o cancer cells where the poison is accumulated with some detrimental effects t o the cancerous region. This research, as conducted by Dr. Gregory, uses an antibody onto which has been "tacked" a diphtheria toxin which shows "a substantial increase i n selectivity" for cancer cells, says Dr. Gregory. Although the toxin is still harmful t o normal cells, the increased toxicity to cancer cells leads Dr. Gregory to say that "the idea appears t o be working." Until recently, most researchers wondered whether cancer was caused by some hit-and-run agent or by some agent which must always be present in order t o maintain the malignant state. If the former possibility proved t o be true, the role of a virus would be hard t o verify. As Dr. Sonstegard puts it: "A researcher would have t o be very lucky - he would have t o hit on just the right case, just the right infection, in order t o make the correlation." Fortunately, evidence points t o the latter possibility. Both the virusproduced protein that turns normal cells into cancerous ones, and another protein-an enzyme called "reverse transcriptase" - suggest that the causal mechanism is present throughout the carcinogenic process. Both proteins are found in cancerous cells, but not in normal cells. And both appear t o have a role in maintaining the cancerous state. Discoveries such as these prompt Dr. Sonstegard t o say that cancer research is "one of the most exciting areas in biological research today. It's certainly going to be one of the most productive because it relates t o one of the major problems in human health." In terms of the potential to save human lives, he says, the cost will be D.A.B. worth it.
At left: Fred Presant, OAC '23, (seated) is congratulated by classmates (from left to right) Cliff Pilkey, Howard Sneyd, and Adam Graham. Above: Gryphons tackle Bob Cook (65) signals TD score by quarterback Brian Riddell (10) during Homecoming football game.
Campus Highlights Feeds industry ~ioneer named Alumnus of Honour
PIONEER in the feeds manufacturing industry was recognized October 15 as the 1971 Alumnus of Honour. Frederick W. Presant, OAC '23,received the award - an annual presentation at the University of Guelph Alumni Association's annual meeting held on Homecoming weekend - for "significant contributions to Canadian agriculture, and for his service t o his country, society and alma mater," the citation reads. Elsewhere during Homecoming weekend: - Dr. V.C.R. Walker, OVC '47,succeeded Paul Couse, OAC '46,as president of the UGAA, -the football Gryphons dropped a 28-15decision t o the visiting Windsor Lancers; -and Paul Ferguson, B.Sc. '67,succeeded Ron Beveridge, BA '67,as presi dent of the Arts and Sciences Alumni Association. At the UGAA annual meeting, which this year was held in the evening and followed a buffet dinner, outgoing Association President Paul Couse read the citation and presented Mr. Presant with his award. "As an early leader in the feeds manufacturing industry, Mr. Presant served as a founding member of the Canadian Feed Manufacturers Association and later as president. The dynamic growth of the industry in supplying goods and management expertise t o the farming community was due, in no small measure,
t o industry pioneers such as Mr. Presant," the citation reads. Born April 25, 1897,Mr. Presant saw active service in World War One in the Royal Flying Corps. After obtaining his BSA degree, Mr. Presant joined the Ontario Department of Agriculture as a Vegetable Extension specialist. He later taught at Guelph and the Western Ontario Experimental Station at Ridgetown before being appointed in 1928 manager, Feeds Division, Toronto Elevators Limited, (now Maple Leaf Mills Ltd.) a post he held until 1941. During World War Two, he sewed with the Canadian Forces Training Corps and acted as feeds administrator of the wartime Prices and Trade Board. Following the war he rejoined Toronto Elevators as vice-president. Mr.Presant retired in 1962. As a charter or founding member of many committees and organizations, Mr. Presant has been recognized as a member of the Order of the British Empire, and as a Fellow of the Agricultural Institute of Canada. Active in alumni affairs, Mr. Presant is a life member and a past-president of the O.A.C. Alumni Association. He served a four-year term as an alumni representative on the University of Toront o senate, and a six-year term on the University of Guelph Board of Governors, including four years as vice-chairman. He was the first chairman of the O.A.C. Advisory Board, and subsequently chaired both the Advisory Board for Conjoint Administration and the Board of Regents of the Federated Colleges at Guelph. "The transition of the Guelph campus from seperate, then federated colleges, t o a university, placed a very heavy responsibility on the board and the predecessor advisory bodies," the citation reads. "Mr. Presant, as the longest serving
member played a very significant role. He served his alma mater with a sensitivity which was so necessary in a time of great change." (ED. NOTE: A limited number of copies of the citation presented t o Mr. Presant are still available. and may be obtained by writing the Department of Alumni Affairs). Following the presentation t o Mr. Presant, Dr. Walker and the new board of directors for 1971-72were elected. Those officers and directors are listed on the inside front cover. Gryphons lose Into each life a little rain must fall, but unfortunately for coach Dick Brown and his football team, it poured most of the 1971 season; and Homecoming was no exception. The visiting University of Windsor Lancers rapped the Gryphons 28-15,the Guelph team's sixth loss of the season. A week later, the Gryphons rallied t o tie the McMaster Marauders, 5-5ending the season with a 1-6-1won-lost record. Against the Lancers, the Gryphons fell behind 7-0early in the game, but rallied for a 9-7lead mid-way through the second quarter. Two late second quarter touchdowns by Windsor put the game out of reach for the Gryphons who managed only one more touchdown to account for their 15 points. The season started roughly for head coach Dick Brown and his team as they were whitewashed 15-0by the Western Ontario Mustangs. And things got progressively rougher as the Gryphons, faced with four games in 16 days - including two against the perennially powerful Waterloo Lutheran Golden Hawks, and one with the eventual conference champions McMaster Marauders lost all four. Guelph appeared headed for the sixth
loss when the Laurentian Voyageurs piled up a 13-0 lead in a game in Sudbury before the Gryphons broke loose for 4 0 points, their biggest scoring spree of the season, to defeat the Voyageurs 40-23. Alumni at the Homecoming game were able to ease the pain caused by the Gryphon's misfortunes by attending the half-time and post-game parties which were held this year in the Gryphon Room, a large multi-purpose room under the stands in Alumni Stadium. Following the game, Wellington College alumni and alumni of the newly formed Arts and Science colleges met for the annual meeting of the Arts and Sciences Alumni Association at which Paul Ferguson, B.Sc. '67, currently an alumni representative on the University Senate, succeeded Ron Beveridge ,BA '67. as president. Other directors elected are Physical Science, Murray Gingrich, B.Sc. '71; Social Science, Larry Gouge, BA '69; Biology, Bob Lincoln, B.Sc. '69; Arts Miriam Ostir, BA '68; Marilyn (Embree) Wiley; BA '69; Keith Wiley, BA '69; Lois (Hunter) James, BA '70; and Tom Radford, BA '67. Sixteen class reunions, including a general meeting and reunion of members of the newly-formed School of Physical Education Alumni Association topped off Homecoming '71.
social requirements, such as the need for park and recreation space and the necessity of preserving flora, fauna and scenery for those who come after us? The Malaysian government has commissioned a master plan for the area, setting forth long-term goals, allowing for the exploitive industries of fishing, forestry, farming and mining, yet still preserving natural and recreational features. The plan is sponsored by the Canadian International Development Agency and administered by a group of firms headed by the Foundation Engineering Corporation of Canada. Among the 30 professionals involved with the project are three Guelph faculty members: Dr. Hugh MacCrirnmon of the Zoology Department, Dr. Richard Protz of the Department of Land Resource Science, and Professor Jack Clark, OAC '50, of the School of Agricultural Economics and Extension Education. Professor Clark is expected to remain in Malaysia until next spring, but Dr. MacCrimmon and Dr.
Pahang Tenggara: An exotic lab for Guelph scientists Pahang Tenggara is a 4.000 squaremile stretch of virgin wilderness in Malaysia, 100 miles east of Kuala Lumpur and reaching to the South China Sea. Its natural features include probably the only untouched coastal tropical forest in the world, as well as the Tasek Bera. a section of swampy lake containing almost prehistoric forms of aquatic life and a major source for Far Eastern tropical fish. The animal life of Pahang Tenggara ranges from the tiger, elephant and rhinoceros t o the seladang, an animal similar to the buffalo in appearance and now close to extinction. The aboriginal Malayan people in the region live in a state similar to that of early Ontario's Indians. The exotic area is the "laboratory" where three University of Guelph faculty members are working on a major development project. The Malaysian government faces, in connection with Pahang Tenggara, the same question that would face any government administration facing the problem: How do you keep uncontrolled development from destroying the area's natural phenomena? In other words, how can econumic needs be harmonized with
Protz have completed a second tour of operation in connection with the master plan. Dr. MacCrimmon's work was that of the conservationist. It concerned seeking ways to preserve natural features that are an important part of Malaysia's national heritage. For instance, wildlife and fisheries in the area must be preserved and managed, he says, waterfalls and other scenic attractions must be retained and areas valuable for recreation and tourism have to be developed. To attain these goals. Dr. MacCrimmon has recommended four park areas for Pahang Tenggara, some for preservation, some for recreation. Dr. MacCrimmon also found Malaysian life and its contrasts interesting. The country is composed of three main ethThe Malay people, who nic groups make up the largest segment of the population; the Chinese, who are the second largest group; and the Indians and several thousand aborigines. Contrasts in life style are striking. In Kuala Lumpur, there are television facilities that broadcast the Cassius Clay-Joe Frazier fight live by satellite from the United States; in rural areas wives of feudal lords have several Mercedes-Benz cars parked before their own private homes; and in the primeval forests of the Pahang Tenggara, aboriginal Malay people live in wooden huts and hunt with poisoned arrows. Professor Richard Protz was senior soil surveyor commissioned for the master plan. His group which included four Canadians as well as a number of Malaysian surveyors completed, over a 10-month period, a survey of half a million acres about one fifth of the total area of Pahang Tenggara. Purpose of the survey was to find out what types of soil are in the region, in order to recommend the best uses for them. Use of land for towns, roads, recreational areas, and especially for crops, was investigated. Soil requirements were examined for about 30 different crops. As a result, it was found that about a dozen different agricultural enterprises could be brought into operation in Pahang Tenggara. In the lowland jungle and in hilly areas you're wet all the time, says Professor Protz. There's a dense canopy of foliage above, through which little sun penetrates. The humidity is constantly very high and the temperature is about 75 degrees all the time, so that, from the exertion of walking up steep slopes. one is constantly wringing wet.
"Hey gang, try teaching," Mrs. Sandra (Forster) Anderson, MAC '69, told College of Family and Consumer Studies students at the annual careers night program. Over 200 students attended and heard 10 speakers describe career opportunities ranging from teaching to merchandising.
Building schedule, enrolment, OVC, and three-semester system discussed in brief to CUA The next five years should be busy ones for the construction industry on the University of Guelph campus. if the proposals outlined in the University's Brief to the Committee on University Affairs is any indication. The Brief is an annual exercise in which the University outlines its program for the next five-year period, as well as making recommendations to the Committee which in turn advises the Minister. Many of the recommendations in the brief centered around the capital funds problems facing universities in general, and this University in particular. In addition, the brief dealt with the three semester system, OVC physical facilities, and enrolment. I t was pointed out in the brief that graduate student enrolment is down somewhat from projections, but undergraduate enrolment is higher than anticipated, and that the university should be able to meet its financial commitments for the current year. However, next year may be more difficult, President W. C. Winegard revealed. The status of the Ontario Veterinary College is also of some concern to the University, the brief pointed out. "There is a very large demand by students for entry to OVC," said Dr. Winegard following the presentation of the brief. "and there is a large need for veterinarians in Canada. We propose to take 105 first-year OVC students in the fall of 1972, rather than the 80 we have been taking up until now." OVC has always intended to expand. the president said, but the capital picture was such that the administration was reluctant to do so. "Something must be done," said Dr. Winegard, "and we are proposing to expand our enrolment on the assumption that the provincial and federal governments can come t o some understanding about the facilities needed at
setting future policies. Buildings proposed for the next five years include: Housing C1 Commons, Engineering Building, Physical Education Phase 2, Central Services Building, University Centre and Administration Building, Social Sciences, Family and Consumer Studies, Biological Sciences (I), Residence Commons (2).Soil Science Extension. A number of buildings and renovations at OVC will be funded through capital funds actually earned by enrolment in other colleges. It is hoped that the necessary provision soon will be made for OVC, and at that time, the money already spent will be credited back to the regular pool. Among the projects for the veterinary college are a Laboratory Animal Building and a Veterinary Field Station, both scheduled for completion in September, 1973.
Town and gown project builds creative playground A playground without swings, slides, and teeter-totters? Hard to imagine? Not so, say University of Guelph fourth year Landscape Architecture students. And they can prove it. On Dakota Drive in the City of Guelph is the city's first "creative playground" without the traditional steel play structures. The idea began last February when 13 sixth semester students decided to carry out a project in the city and see the results take form. With the help of Professor Owen Scott, OAC '65,the students drew up a design, made working drawings and cost estimates for the playground and presented their plan to the city's Board of Parks Management. The
Board approved the plan and allocated funds to carry out the construction. Community/student interaction was an important part of both the planning and construction stages. The students met periodically with area residents where they determined age groups of the children, their recreational needs and the exact location of the play area within the park. They presented slides and drawings of playground equipment and listened to the reactions of parents. According to the students this interaction is essential in planning a successful play area: "Each area has its own specific needs and ideas for open space and child play; only when the community takes an active role in the design can these social, physical, and functional requirements be implemented and provided for," they say in a report. But the project didn't end there. This fall the students carried out the actual construction of the playground, aided by area residents. The city provided a bulldozer to shape the pile of dirt into the proper contours and the students, through the business community, were able to get donations and discounts on materials, and services such as sand, sod, trees, hydro poles, lumber, a cargo net and asphalt. In contrast to most playgrounds, the equipment is made of cedar and can therefore be used year-round. The structures were built by the students in the University's engineering workshop and assembled on the site. Even before the project was entirely completed, children were using the facilities. The students hope this project will set a precedent for future ventures with the city of Guelph and other communities.
It was pointed out in the brief that present interim financing for university facilities excludes OVC and for this reason the College is operating in substandard facilities. One request in the brief was for funds to carry out a full scale study of all aspects of the three-semester system. The work required in such a study is too extensive to permit its being done as a special assignment by faculty carrying a full load. The brief also pointed out that many of the findings would be of value to other universities and the Department of Colleges and Universities in
"Stop right there," says Paul Couse, OAC'46, (third from left) as croupier Graeme Hedley, OAC '64, watches Crown and Anchor wheel slow down. Occasion was a Monte Carlo Night sponsored by the Guelph Branch of the Macdonald Institute Alumnae Association.
Most Guelph PhDs find jobs A survey of PhD graduates from the University of Guelph shows that out of 28 students graduating between October. 1970 and May, 1971,23 were employed by early June. The survey, conducted by the University's Faculty of Graduate Studies, indicated that they were employed as follows: seven held post-doctoral fellowships, six were engaged in teaching at the university level (two in Canada, and four in other countries), three were working in industry (two of them outside Canada), two were engaged with Ontario government agencies, and five were employed in other lines of work, such as teaching at the community college level (three of these within and two outside Canada). Of the remaining five, one held a student visa, which prohibited him from working in Canada, and four were unemployed. One of these four was Canadian, the three others landed immigrants. These figures, however, have a limited validity in that they were gathered so soon after the May Convocation. says Dr. H. S. Armstrong, dean of graduate studies. For PhD grads it is relatively difficult to obtain an adequate position in a few weeks. They normally anticipate a longer period of job hunting than do bachelors or masters graduates. And graduates accepting post-doctoral fellowships. must, at some later date, seek another form of employment. Thus, a survey taken three years after graduation would better reveal what sort of permanent employment PhD graduates had found, Dean Armstrong said.
Some openings available in Bachelor of Arts program Despite the fact that University of Guelph fall freshman enrolment was above projected figures, the Bachelor of Arts program will have openings for a number of freshmen students in January 1972. Students entering the winter semester will have a full selection of courses available t o them and can continue their studies in the spring semester. In that way, they can complete a full academic year by August, 1972. Prospective students are eligible for admission on two bases. They may enter on a regular basis with the Secondary School Honor Graduation Diploma, or they may enter as Mature Students. To be eligible as a Mature student, the applicant must be over 21 and have at least two years employment experience after secondary school.
Mrs. Margaret Beckman (left) and Florence Partridge.
Appointments Mrs. Margaret Beckman has been appointed chief librarian succeeding Miss Florence Partridge. MAC '26, who retired this year. Mrs Beckman came to the University in 1966, serving as systems librarian until 1970. She held a number of library positions before coming to Guelph including head of the cataloguing department at the University of Waterloo from 1959 t o 1964, and director of technical services at Waterloo from 1964 to 1966.She was also chairman of the Waterloo Public Library Board from 1966 to 1968. chairman of the Ontario Library Association's 1966 ~ o m m i t t e eon legislation and grants, and guest lecturer at the University of Toronto in 1968 and at Dalhousie in 1970. In addition she has sewed as consultant to a number of universities, government departments and public organizations. A graduate of Waterloo College in
1946 with a BA degree, Mrs. Beckman
also holds BLS and MLS degrees from the University of Toronto. Mrs Beckman's publications include several books, the most recent being "New Library Design," written in cooperation with Stephen Langmead. She has also written a number of chapters for books, research reports and articles for technical journals. Florence Partridge is a well-known figure on the Guelph campus. After graduation, Miss Partridge went on to obtain a diploma in library science and a BLS from the University of Toronto. She came to Guelph in 1932 as assistant librarian of OAC's Massey Library, becoming head librarian in 1944.With the formation of the Federated Colleges in 1962, Miss Partridge became head librarian and in 1965 was appointed deputy librarian of the University of Guelph library, a position she held until succeeding Laughlan MacRae as Chief Librarian in 1970.
Alumni News Dr. Janet Wardlaw, dean of the College of Family and Consumer Studies, was guest speaker at the annual meeting of the Nova Scotia Chapter, University of Guelph Alumni Association. held Friday, October 29. 1971 at the Paramount Motor Lodge i n Wolfville. Organized by Dianne Wykes, Campbell Gunn and John MacAulay, OAC '60,the event was very well attended by alumni and friends. Also present was Miss Rosemary Clark, Mac '59, president of the Macdonald Institute Alumnae Association. Ed Shuh OAC '40, chairman of the nominating committee, presented the following slate of officers for next year: Past-President, Campbell Gunn, OAC '61; President, Dr. Allan H. Sirnpson. OAC '65; Vice-President, Dr. Gordon Finley. OVC '67; Secretary-Treasurer, Ge6tge Chant, OAC '69; Directors: J. L. Godfrey. OAC '62A; Duncan Hough, OAC '68; and Diane (Rowlings) Wykes, Mac '64.
Young A noted speaker and author, Mr. Young joined INCO in 1937,and was named to his present position in 1957. Under his direction, INCO has undertaken reforesttation projects and experimentation to establish vegetation growth on mine tailing areas.
Gerry Organ in action as a Gryphon
A physical education graduate who starred on the University football Gryphons has won the scoring championship of the Canadian Football League's Eastern Conference. Gerry Organ. B.Sc. (PE) '70. scored one touchdown and booted another 86 points for the Ottawa Rough Riders during the 1970 season to finish 15 points ahead of Montreal place kicker Justin Canale. Organ kicked 31 converts, 17 field goals, and four single points; his field goal average 17 good out of 26 attempts - was .654,best in the nineteam CFL. Ignored by all Canadian teams during the annual draft of university footballers, Organ eventually won a job with the Ottawa team, won the scoring championship, and wound up booting them right into the Eastern Conference playoffs. In the last game of the season against the Montreal Alouettes, Organ tried three field goals and made all three as Montreal's Justin Canale missed five of six attempts. Ottawa won the and a berth in the playoffs. game 9-7, Unfortunately for the young placekicker and the Ottawa team. Hamilton demolished the Rough Riders 23-4in the semi-finals; Organ kicked one field goal.
Since its inception, the Alma Mater Fund has presented 89 ''Alma Mater Scholar" awards worth $150 to students entering the University i n the spring semester. Dr. Me1 LeGard, OVC '23, chairman of the the body reAMF Advisory Council sponsible for allocating alumni gifts has received several letters from students expressing their appreciation. We reprint a few below as a sample of student response to these awards made possible by your contribution.
Dr. Janet Wardlaw with Doug Parks, OAC '40, and Campbell Gunn, OAC '61. A games night, a "not-too-serious" bridge club, a curling bonspiel and a dinner dance highlight the 1971-1972program of the University of Guelph Alumni Association's Ottawa Chapter. Marv Ringham, OAC '66, will serve as president for the coming year succeeding Dr. Narm Tape, OAC '55. Other Executive members are as follows: Secretary-Treasurer, Clarke Topp, OAC '59; Social Committee, Lynn Ringham, MAC '66; Diane Sheridan, MAC '66; Bridge Comm~ttee,Alex Hunt, OAC '46; Curling, Ian McNaughton, OAC '66; Keith Sparling, OAC '65; Directors, Elmer Banting, OAC '50; Lawrence Butt, OAC '65; Mel MacLeod, OAC '65; Norm Tape, OAC '55.
Clare A. Young, OAC '35, has been presented the first Environmental Conservation Distinguished Service Award of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME). Mr. Young, head of the Agricultural Department, The International Nickel Company of Canada Limited, received his award "in appreciation of a lifetime of steadfast dedication to environmental conservation and in recognition of the successful transformation of mining badlands into fertile farmlands," the citation reads.
Dear Sir: Thank you very much for the Alma Mater Scholarship which was awarded to me. The amount of $150.00 assisted me greatly in my first semester, and I'm sure that other students who have been awarded this scholarship feel the same way as myself. Thank you, once again. Elizabeth Ann Bamsey Dear Sir: I would like to thank you for the Alma Mater Scholarship which I have been awarded. It is very assuring to know that many people are concerned about university students and education. May I extend my sincere appreciation to you for your interest and for this honour. Shirley Miller Dear Sir: I would like to thank the Alumni Association for presenting me with an Alma Mater Scholarship. I appreciate the assistance given to me and other students of the university for their previous efforts. Thank you once again. lssac D. Rubin Dear Sir: Would you please convey my thanks to your Association for the Alma Mater Scholarship which I was recently awarded from the University of Guelph. I can assure you that this assistance will be of significance in the furthering of my university education. Thank you very much. Susan Taylor
November-December, 1971, Vol. 4 No. 6 ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED: If your son or daughter is an alumnus of Guelph and has moved, please notify the Alumni Office at the University so that this magazine may be forwarded to the proper address.
Mr. J. E. Hurst Director of Personnel