UNlVERSllY OF GUELPH January-February. 1971, Vol. 4, No. 1
Computers at Guelph
Sexual Politics: A Review
CREDITS Photography: cover, p. 3, p. 6, p. 12, p. 13, p. 15, Audio-Visual, University of Guelph; p. 5, Ken Barton; p. 14, Dave Bates.
UNIVERSITY O F GUELPH A L U M N I ASSOCIATION HONORARY PRESIDENT: Or. W. C. Winegard. PRESIDENT: P. W. COUSE. OAC '46. SENIOR VICE-PRESIDENT: P. C. Matthews. Well '68. VICE-PRESIDENTS: Mrs. J. D. (Virginia Shortt) Bandeen. Mac '57; P. D. Ferguson, Well '68: T. R. Hilliard. OAC '40; Dr. V. C. R. Walker. OVC '47. SECRETARY: Mrs. D. J. (Jean Kellough) King. Mac '52. TREASURER: J. J. Elmslie. Development Officer. University of Guelph. DIRECTORS: Dr. C. R. Buck, OVC '46: Mrs. B. L. (Pat Lumley) Carswell. Well '68: Miss Jean Dewar, Mac '28; Dr. G. R. Doidge. OVC '52; Mrs. G. M. (Joan Anderson) Jenkinson, Mac '66; Mrs. M. S. (Linda Sully) Keith, Well '67; P. M. Lindley, OAC '57: Or. D. S. Macdonald, OVC '57; D. W. McDonell, OAC '70: T. B. Radford, Well '67; C. G. Trivers. OAC '67. EX-OFFICIO DIRECTORS: R. D. Beveridge. Well '67. President, Arts and Sclemes Alumni Association; M. G. Greer. OAC '41, President. OAC Alumni Association: Or. T. L. Jones. OVC '34, President. OVC Alumni Association; Miss Frances Lampman, Mac '54, President, Macdonald Institute Alumnae Association: J. K. Babcock. OAC '54, Director. Alumni Affairs and Development.
The Guelph Alumnus is published by the Department of Alumni Affairs and Development. University of Guelph. The Editorial Committee is comprised of Editor-J. E. Bates, OAC '60. Alumni Officer; Art Director-Prof. K. E. Chamberlain; J. K. Babcock, OAC '54. Director of Alumni Affairs and Development; 0. L. Waterston. Director of Information: 0. W. Jose. OAC '49. Assistant Oirector of Information; Editorial Assistant-0. A. Bates. OAC '69. Assistant Alumni Officer. The Editorial Advisory Board of the University of Guelph Alumni Association: Glenn Powell, OAC '62. Chairman; Dr. A. E. Austin. Dept. of English; Mrs. G. M. Jenkinson, Mac '66; Mrs. J. M. (Kay Murdock) Little, Mac 59. ExOfficio: J. K. Babcock. OAC '54 and P. W. Couse, OAC '46. Corresponding members: D. R. Baron, OAC '49 and H. G. Dodds, OAC '58. Undelivered copies should be returned to Alumni House. University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario. Canada.
In Search of Old Pictures The picture which accompanies this article was taken just after the turn of the century on the front campus of the colleges. If you r e c o g n i z e yourself (or a friend), all we can say is, congratulations. More than that, we hope there are other photographs like this. If you have been keeping pictures from this or any more r e c e n t era in your scrapbook, we hope you might consider adding them to our "historic photos file." We are hoping to f e a t u r e any good photographs we receive. We don't need n e g a t i v e s , a reasonably clear print is all we n e e d for a good reproduction. If you w i s h , you may r e q u e s t that we return the photographs to you. So if you are getting a little confused with the p i c t u r e s of new buildings which constantly a p p e a r in this magazine, your contribution will ensure the appearance of some of t h e old buildings in this magazine.
We wish to thank Henry Graupner. Planning Department, from whose report "Electronic Data Processing a t the University of Guelph: Past, Present and Future" much of the data for the article beginning on page 3 was derived.
COMPUTERS NEW? WE'VE HAD ONE FOR 18 YEARS! Nowadays, we hear a great deal about computers: about how they will (or already have) transformed the world, about how they put people out of work, and conversely, how they create thousands of new jobs, about how they can accomplish the work of thousands of clerks in one lightblinking afternoon. Almost every institution, governmental, business or educational, can't get by without one (or more), and weary readers are told at great length about the capabilities of each vast installation. In short, it's fairly easy to get sick of hearing about computers. Now, the University of Guelph is no exception to the rule of necessity of a fairly formidable array of electronic data processing equipment, but somehow, it's more comforting to go back a decade and a half, or more, when things were a good deal simpler, and discover just how the "computer revolution" had its start on this campus. One thinks of the computer as a very "modern" sort of device, and i t may be something of a surprise to learn that there was a computer at Guelph in 1953. The Department of Animal Husbandry (now named Animal Science) was involved in the collection of large amounts of data from t h e ~ rresearches into animal breeding and production, particularly the Record of Performance Service program for dairy cattle of the Canada Department of Agriculture. Another source of records was the Dairy Herd Improvement Association in the province, covering the various major breeds. But analysis of this data was becoming almost impossible, simply in terms of the large amounts of calculation involved. Luckily enough, the recent arrival of Dr. J. C. Rennie (now Chairman of the Department of Animal Scrence) who had had some experience with punch card operations, coincided w ~ t hthe receipl of a research grant from the Ontario Livestock Branch, and the Department decided to acquire equipment. The initial line-up of equipment was extremely modest by today's standards, consisting only of a card punch and a card sorter, both used. I.B.M. overhauled the two machines and installed them in January of 1953, on a temporary basis
while the Department awaited delivery of new equipment. This arrived in April, 1953, and included two card punches, one verifier, one sorter and, as a sort of forerunner t o today's computer, an I.B.M. Model 405 tabulator. Rental for this equipment was about $400 a month. From that day t o this, of course, there has been a steady accumulation of equipment and personnel, but interestingly enough, the Department of Animal Science is still the largest single user of computer time on campus, exceeding even the time required by the administration for its multitude of programs for such things as accounting and record keeping, payrolls, budget control, examination and grade reports. While the Department of Physics had acquired a computer in 1959 for the computation of scientific research data, it was the Department of Animal Science which provided the main centre for computing facilities on the campus for many years. By 1961, the Department had obtained an IBM Model 1620 for scientific computation and an IBM Model 1401 was added in 1964 for data processing. I t was department policy to interest other users on campus, and t o provide some analysis and programing assistance t o them, though this resulted in long periods of overtime for the systems and programing staff. For example, in 1956, the Department of Crop Science first made use of the equipment. The Registrar's office carried out a pilot study on the use of punched card systems for student records in 1959 and a comprehensive system was installed in the fall of 1960. By 1967, computer usage on campus had grown to such an extent that the responsibility for providing the main computer services was placed in the newly formed lnstitute of Computer Science, with a Director reporting t o the VicePresident. Academic. The Department of Animal Science, then, finally became just one of many campus-wide users, instead of being the source of computing services on campus. The lnstitute of Computer Science, under the directorship of Dr. K. Okashimo, has grown from its beginning in 1967
until today there are about 9 0 people directly connected with the Institute, including a small number of part-time employees and students working full-time during one of their semesters off. The lnstitute has a very large computing system known as the IBM 360/50, which includes, besides the basic central processing unit, such exotica as eight tape drives, two high speed printers, a card punch, a card reader, a paper tape reader. and an eight-disc pack. All of this array of equipment costs about $33,000 a month t o rent, which is an 8000 percent increase over the cost of the original 1953 equipment. There are two other computers on campus: a digital computer in the Physics Department and an analog computer in the School of Engineering. The first is used mainly for research for the National Research Council, providing facilities for the reduction of data obtained from McMaster University's Tandem Accelerator. The computer in the Department of Engineering is quite different in function from what most people think of as a computer. I t does not process data, but solves the differential and integral equations used in scientific and engineering work in a large variety of fields, such as hydrology and the design of agricultural machinery. Who uses the computer at Guelph? Probably there would be a shorter answer to the question: who doesn't use the computer at Guelph? Almost every department of every college in the University has some work t o be done by the computer. Broadly speaking, about 6 0 percent of the computer's time is devoted to research. About 35 percent of the work load is consumed for administrative purposes, and a very small one or two percent is accounted for by the teaching of computing science. But the time devoted to the teaching of computing science will grow. As we reported in the last issue of the Guelph Alumnus a Department of Computing and Information Science will be established on July 1, 1971. The key subjects are system analysis and design, computer communications and planning. Graduates
will have a broad competence, be capable of working as senior analysts and supervisor, and be capable of becoming managers after some working experience. But students already have been making extensive use of the computer. During the 1968-69 academic year, the Institute of Computer Science handled a daily average of 731 computer runs for students and 226 runs for faculty and administrative staff. Also, a total of 234 academic personnel and 19 administrative personnel made use of the facilities to carry out 262 projects of a n academic nature and 29 projects for the library and University administration. Of course, i t would be impossible t o describe all of the ways in which the computer is used at Guelph, but several of the more interesting examples give a clue to its pervasive influence on campus. To say the least, Guelph's much admired Library system has had a great influence on other libraries in Canada and the United States. The first use of the computer by the library was for cataloguing of government documents. Not counting books and serials published by governments, there were about 20,000 documents being received each year from all government sources. A "multi-access inquiry" system was developed, which permits search of the catalogue by author, title or source. The up-dated catalogue is printed four times a year, with monthly supplements. The U.S. Department of Agriculture was interested in the system. and the Universities of British Columbia, Pennsylvania and Queens and McMaster Universities introduced their own systems based on the Guelph development. As for circulation of books, Guelph's system was considered the first of its kind in Ontario when i t was introduced with the moving of the library into the McLaughlin Library building in 1968, and has reduced circulation costs by more than 25 percent. The borrower's identification card and the book card are read by a machine at the "out" station, and a master card is punched for each transaction. Returned books have corresponding cards prepared. The circulation tape is updated every night for the nearly 6000
The library book check out: borrower's identity card and book card create a "tape transaction." daily transactions. This system is being replaced with equipment which will tape the transaction data, instead of preparing cards. This will be the first use of this equipment in Canada, and there are apparently only four installations of this type in the United States. One of the newest projects for Guelph's computer is a simulated model of the dietary department of a 1000 bed metropolitan hospital. Dr. Elizabeth Upton of the Department of Consumer studies is supervising the implementation of this "computer game" for courses in food service management. The computer acts as a huge file for three sets of data: a food item file, which lists all the foodstuffs used in the hospital menu, a nutrient file, which contains complete information on the nutrient content of the foods listed, and a recipe file, which lists the ingredients for all recipes used in the menu, their nutrient content, and cost, for 100 servings. When the computer is "told" how many patients selected each item on the menu, the computer increases or decreases this recipe, calculates the total
cost of a menu, the amount of each food needed, the cost of feeding each patient, and nutrients received by each patient. The program was originally developed at Tulane University, in the United States, but was modified by Guelph programers to suit the needs and data of the situation in Canada. What of the future for computers at Guelph? Needless to say, there will soon be a bigger computer at Guelph. The computer is now operated three shifts a day, six days a week and is just able to keep up with demand. Just what kind of equipment will be ordered is still not certain, but one feature is being requested by more and more people on campus: remote terminals. With these, a department could have a terminal in its own premises, often using the main computer simultaneously with another department or with a program being run at the computer itself. Shortly to be introduced is the socalled Student Information System, which will contain, for each student, 90 to 100 elements of biographical, academic and
financial data. The system will replace the existing fragmented, overlapping and incompatible sub-systems such as Admissions, Student Records, Residence Records, Residence Inventory, Vehicle Registrations, Academic Registrations, all of which are in various stages of computerization. The system will provide one major source of input data to a campus operations simulation model, which is still in the planning stages. Guelph's university simulation model must be tailormade for a number of reasons, one of which is the three semester system which is in effect. Bigger computers, total information systems, simulated universities? Somehow it all sounds a little frightening, and it's easy to wish for the simplicities of 1953. In those days, two technicians worked for five months through the winter analysing data on corn in the Department of Crop Science. Now it takes one technician three weeks to accumulate all the data for computer analysis. As the man says, you pays your money and you takes your choice. JEB
Sexual Politics, militant . feminists newest "bible", has become required reading for -. the modern woman (and man). Here twa , University of Guelph faculty members, one'a woman, one a man, detail their reactions to the book
by Phil Lanthier "They are all crazy and full of fleas, the women," said Leone Battista Alberti, Quattrocento pundit and universal man. The fleas, at least as far as I know, are no longer a problem, but I am still not sure of the craziness, even after reading Kate Millett's inexorable and acid tract in support of demystified and liberated woman. Miss Mlllett has marshalled all of the forbidding apparatus of the Ph.D. dissertation to demonstrate the perfidious treatment to which women have been subjected in the last 150 years, but especially in those decades following the first war when the Suffragette movement had spent its initial force. The result, for all its excessive zeal and cavalier treatment of large areas of complex research, is an important addition to the growing literature of female discontent. Sexual Politics is a political book. an attempt to galvanize society into yet another radical reeorientation of values
by Marion Steele The prayer of the Founders is that Hart House, under the guidance of its warden, may serve, in the generations to come, the higher interests of the University by drawing into a common fellowship the members of the several Colleges and Faculties, and by gathering Into one society the teacher and the student, the graduate and the undergraduate; further that the members of Hart House may discover withln ~ t swalls the true educatlon that IS to be found in good fellowship, in frlendly disputation and debate, in the conversation of wlse and earnest men, in music, pictures, and the play, In the casual book. In sports and games and the mastery of the body .
The sentiments in the above phrases are admirable. The extracurricular llfe of a student indeed should be an integral and rmportant part of h ~ seducatlon. The curiosity of this passage IS that this student centre, Hart House, was intended for the use of men only, despite the fact that the passage says "the members of the several colleges and faculties" and
and consciousness and as such falls into a characteristic literary type of recent years: that which cross breeds several disciplines of thought to create, usually through the medium of special metaphors, a synoptic view of the modern condition more powerfully engaging and entertaining than most contemporary novels. Thus one recalls some of the more popular exhortations of the past decade to relieve ourselves from ossified mental habits: Harvey Cox's yoking of sociology and theology to urge that we speak of God in a secular fashion; Norman 0.Brown's exercise in psychology and history to call us to a new resurrection of the body in a world of erotic exuberance; and Marshall McLuhan's nearly comic assemblage of just about everything in order to shock us out of our typographic trance and into the electrical circuitry of the Global Village. These writers, and others like them, are fundamentally iconoclastic: they shatter old images of God, Man and Society. So also Kate Millett who wields a massive
multidisciplined axe over man's most jealously treasured and enduring of icons: Woman. It cannot be denied that the icon needs at least some drastic refurbishing. Western culture has burdened woman with both absurd veneration and rabid denunciation from earllest times. Whether chivalrous or chauvinistic in attitude, the assumption underlying too much of our art, literature. social and political structures has been that man IS man but woman is Something Else Altogether. We call her Goddess, Mother, Virgin, Nurse, Shrew, Whore, Bitch and Muse. We set her to play roles In theatres of our own design. We attempt to subdue her to man-scaled mechanisms. Woman has had extraordinary difficulty in disengaging herself from the rigid formal boundaries which have circumscribed her. And man has refused to rellnquish those images which satisfy his needs, compensate for his stupidities or reinforce his prejudices. cont. next page
not "the male members". Now why this the wrrter not say what he slip, why d ~ d meant? Certainly at the time the Hart House Founders' Prayer was wrltten in the early twentles there were large numbers of women at the University of Toronto. The writer, perhaps, simply found ~timpossible to acknowledge that they existed because he found their existence at the University of Toronto offensive. Like the gracious Southern gentleman in Gunnar Myrdal's book, An American Dtlemma, who literally did not see blacks on the streets, Vincent Massey could not even allude to the presence of women, In this elevated passage. Thls great Canadian was what Kate Millett would call a male chauvlnlst, and Hart House an instance of sexual politics. Kate Millett defines sexual politics as the arrangements whereby men control women, keep them in an inferlor power pos~tlon,keep them down. The posrtion of women as an oppressed group has often been compared to that of the American Negro - for Instance by the Myrdal's in
their probably still definitive work, as well as by Simone de Beauvoir in The Second Sex. But women on the whole are not econom~callydeprived: just as we may only say "the student as (temporary) nlgger", we ought to refer to "the woman as (rich) nrgger". So Millett focuses on power. But how and why are women powerless? Mlllet considers only for a moment the possibility that the answer may be biology and she concludes that the question of the place of biology In the origins of patriarchy is unanswerable. She makes the astonishing assertion that "Superior strength is not a factor in political relations -vide those of race and class." So she is not willrng to take seriously the posstbility that women were originally subjected for the simple reason that they could not win in a fight and needed a male protector. But the failure to understand this simple point need not weaken an analysis of the ways in which women are now kept powerless, since we cont. next page
For Kate Millett icon-making is no harmless activity; rather it is the prime evidence in her expos6 of a great male conspiracy to control half the population by regarding it in various ways as subhuman. The role of woman, she says. has been imposed upon her by the massive intimidation of a patriarchal society which will admit of no definition other than that which renders woman a docile, ignorant, submissive, ineffectual creature keeping attendance upon children while the male aggressive, intelligent, forceful and efficient -goes about those activities which make him the obviously superior, most fully human entity. This condition of power-relationship between two sexes has been rationalized by every major sphere of human knowledge. With considerable aplomb and daring. Miss Millett sets out to canvass and demolish each of these rat~onalizations. Though it lies outside my competence to assess each of her arguments in such various spheres as biology and
psychology, i t is nonetheless evident that the conclusions she reaches are highly suspicious. She insists that neither biological differences, the institution of the family, religious ideology, anthropological precedent nor psychological makeup provides any support for sex as a status category. On the contrary, woman has come to accept her description because of learning patterns imposed on her by a culture which gives unquestioning adherence to patriarchal values and attitudes. That patriarchy has existed so long is no argument for its validity or its "naturalness', but rather a proof of its real power and pervasiveness. There is a good deal of truth in what Miss Millett is saying. It is undeniable that culture, especially modern mass culture, had distorted, debased and trivialized woman, and that until the glittering icons of the media are seen for what they are, relations between the sexes will continue to be based upon illusion. But Kate Millett's "theory" of patriarchy is surely
live in a civilization in which the status or power of an individual does not depend on his physical strength. So Millett turns to the findings of social science to tell us how women are kept down. First of all, from the moment she is born, a woman is conditioned to her place as an inferior. She is encouraged to be pleasing rather than assertive, to be obedient rather than independent, t o be passive rather than to be active. These yield an adult woman who has, as Millett and others have pointed out, so many of the characteristics commonly attributed to the Negro in America; the simpering Stepin Fetch~thas his white counterpart in the coy, giggling girl. Both have found that such behaviour flatters those who have power. Feminists can reflect that history has done them a favour in providing the Negro problem in America. If blacks in America are considered to be emotional, childlike and of inferior intelligence, and women are considered in the same terms, then it has to be asked whether we are merely identifying the
normal characteristics of any oppressed group. Freud of course had a different answer. Women are passive, masochistic and narcissistic, he said, not because they are conditioned that way, but because when young they see a naked male and conclude that they are incomplete and so inferlor. Millett attacks the idea of penis envy at some length and with great relish. Why should a small girl not assume that her smooth body is the norm, and so nicer? Why, if there is generally envy for something extra, shouldn't the small boy suffer a great trauma when he realizes he will never have breasts? As Millett sees it, the whole Freudian analysis is coloured by his male chauvinism: what he and other men have, women must surely want. And Freud's male chauvinism goes so far that he even fits childbirth into the scheme: "For, as she continues to mature we are told the female never gives up the hope of a penis, now always properly equated with a baby 'Her happiness is great if later on
lopsided in its failure to see anything operating but power and repression. Her sense of politics is purely Machiavellian; her sense of person is purely deterministic. Woman is man-made she insists, again and again. But what man and woman are she cannot or will not say. She produces recent studies purporting to show that psychosexual personality is "almost entirely" post-natal and learned. But she never explains what she means by her "almost". or what might be left over for woman and man after environment is subtracted. She passes over, in the most perfunctory manner, the question of whether woman's reproductive capacity might just possibly render her significantly different. Her whole thrust seems to be a reduction of woman to a wholly conditioned entity with the added implication that if the conditioning elements were removed, man and woman would blend into some kind of blandular. psychically indeterminate mutant. This would be frightening if it were not
this wish for a baby finds fulfilment in reality, and quite especially so if the baby is a little boy who brings the longed-for penis with him'."
It does seem strained to see this as the source of a girl-child's feelings of inferiority when, as Millett points out, there is available the much simpler explanation that children acquire from the culture into which they are born the knowledge that girls are regarded as inferior. It is not very difficult for a child to perceive the implications of the fact that her parents would prefer that the new baby be a boy rather than a girl. And even if parents show no preferences, the girl cannot escape: school readers show women as amiable unintelligent creatures, television shows and advertising all indicate that women are to please and serve, while men are to do. Now it is not hard to agree with Millett (or with de Beauvoir) that docility and the lack of a sense of self-worth are characteristics of women that likely arise from their condition of dependency, and
so palpably unlikely to occur, or if it did not fly so obviously in the face of common experiences and the real wishes of real men and women. Miss Millett's delight in the data of her research seems t o have cancelled out her common sense. Had she read Simone de Beauvoir more closely than she seems t o have done, she might eventually have come to the brilliantly humane conclusion of The Second Sex where Mme. de Beauvoir tells us that the "wrongs done by one do not make the other innocent", that the autonomous equal woman will nevertheless be different in her equality, that the humanity of both man and woman is dependent upon a reciprocity between two distinct kinds of sensibility, and that finally the true emancipation of woman will only begin with her refusal to be confined only by the relationship she bears to man, and will depend ultimately upon the mutual recognition of man and woman of "the other" in each other. Nevertheless, with theory in hand, Miss
Millett embarks upon a rather disconnected excursion through the last 150 years of female emancipation and repression. She isolates two distinct phases: the years 1830-1930, a period of agitation culminating only in partial reform of the patriarchal ideal, and the years 1930-60, a period of counter-revolution during which both society and society's artists and ideologues (Freud chiefly) reaffirmed with newer terms the primacy of the male. For some reason she feels obliged to switch from an essentially English context in the 19th century to a European context for the counter-revolution in the 20th. One can hardly deny the repressive nature of both Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia during these years, but are they relevant models to describe conditions In England and America during the same period of time? And what is the value of singling out their repressiveness towards women when such action was really part of a larger, more vicious and more fundamental repression inflicted on all manner
of humanity? In her search for models of male supremacist tactics, Miss Millett's "theory", for which she claimed only "tentative and imperfect" status at the outset, now begins to manifest all the signs of the very doctrinaire rigidity which she so abhors in patriarchy. She is highly selective in the writers she chooses to epitomize the time. Her discussion of the 19th century, for example, omits Henry James (Portrait of a Lady) and gives only cursory references to the greatest female novellst of the time, George Eliot. When she moves in on a text, she does so in the most heavyfooted manner. Thus Tennyson, in his attempt to deal with the problems of women in The Princess is accused of "smug badinage", "teasing patronage", and "urgent ~nsecurity".He is said to have produced a "candy coated" work, part mocking, part titillation, which seeks t o "beautify the traditional confinement of women at any cost". Since Miss Millett will not accept the diversity of woman, she
inferior power. But Millett does not stop there. She is not really willing t o admit that there are any inherent differences between men and women, aside from their physical differences. This may be perhaps attributed to the influence of the evidence from the Masters and Johnson sex experiments, but more likely it may be attributed to a certain American naivetk. People are not all alike. De Beauvoir commented on this in 1949: "Many American women, particularly, are prepared to think that there is no longer any place for woman as such; if a backward individual still takes herself for a woman, her friends advise her t o be psychoanalyzed and thus get rid of this obsession." The Olympian French intellectual is perhaps less haunted by the fear that if she admits that women are inherently different, people will be inclined to deny women their equal claim to power. We can call again on the analogy of the Negro problem in America. Blacks in the fifties only wanted to assimilate into the white community. But in the sixties, after Negroes
had become more self-confident, we heard the cry that Black is Beautiful. But Millett never really faces a question that is crucial to the whole woman questlon: why have women never really escaped from their position of inferior power? "Conditioning" is a pretty slender reed to bear the responsib~litiesof centuries of oppression. Millett does answer partly by telling us about the improvements in woman's condition that occurred during 1850-1920, but she does not suggest why this activity occurred. Could it be that the answer lies in a unique fact about women as an oppressed group: they love their oppressors? During the late n~neteenthcentury the climate was liberal and women who spoke freely could at least feel secure that some men would approve of them. There was, for instance, the strong support of John Stuart Mill who called for equality in law for the two sexes and said:
some directions, unnatural stimulation in others. I t may be asserted without scruple that no other class of dependents have had their character so ent~relydistorted from its natural proportions by their relations with their masters. The achievements of the rebellious women and their male supporters of this era were the winning of the vote and legislation to bring women closer to equality before the law, and to protect them. The latter does not, at first sight, fit into Millett's scheme at all well. For if women are Inherently the same as men, why need they be protected? Because they are conditioned, of course. Millett takes acute notice of the fact that so long as women are not really free, sexual freedom only means sexual exploitation. The groupies who seek rock singers, and the girls of the Manson family are extreme csses of this. So long as little girls are brought up to please and to be submissive so that they have no strong sense of their own worth, they are very easy prey for the sexually exploitive.
What is now called the nature of woman is an eminently artificial thing -the result of forced repression in
cannot and will not read the text in the spirit in which it is presented. Tennyson's poem, though not without fault, is nonetheless an honest attempt to deal with the problem. He sees through his own characters as Millett does not, sees the absurdity of the patriarchal ethic and the equal absurdity of female separatism. He sees also that the solution lies partly in woman's refusal t o accept man's traditional contempt for her (which merely traps her into over-reaction) and partly in the inviolable dignity of the individual human whether male or female. Sexual Politics comes eventually t o rest upon the literary "evidence" of such modern writers as Henry Miller. Norman Mailer, D. H. Lawrence and Jean Genet. In the first two Miss Millett has, of course, chosen easy victims, and she pounces on them with considerable relish, quoting atrocity after atrocity to the accompaniment of devastating scorn. Miller's sexual procedure is described as one which uses women, only to discard
them "such as one might avail oneself of sanitary facilities, Kleenex or toilet paper." Mailer is a "prisoner of the virility cult" whose identification of sex and violence is semi-fascist in nature, and whose hatred of the homosexual is the true sign of the real counter-revolutionary. The inflated egos of both writers make easy targets for any critic and they deserve most of what they get from Miss Millett. But Miss Millett is able t o reduce Lawrence t o the same simple-minded diagram of Miller and Mailer only by an act of crude distortion and insensitivity, and by refusing t o discuss any of those stories which would contradict her thesis. Though one welcomes the refreshing scorn for some of Lawrence's overwrought and purplish passages, it is evident that here too Miss Millett is seeing only what she must see to get her point across. Paul Morel of Sons and Lovers becomes, therefore, a grotesque young egoist of Nietzschean sympathies who "quietly murders" his mother, indulges in sexual
sadism at the expense of the hapless Miriam, and eventually disposes of all his women before moving off t o conquer new worlds. This is as gross a violation of the text as any perpetrated by the most callous and opportunistic of Hollywood film studios. (One shudders, incidentally, t o think of the proliferation of humourless revisionism which is likely t o result once Miss Millett's disciples begin to search the literature of the past for further "instances" of sexual politics. I t is with Genet finally that Kate Millett rests much of her case. Genet is "the only living male writer of first class literary gifts t o have transcended the sexual myths of our era". In his play The Balcony he has presented with "cold blooded realism" the essence of modern sexual ideology and the basic scenario of sexual revolution and counter-revolution. "The political wisdom implicit in Genet's statement in the play is that unless the ideology of real and fantastical virility is abandoned, unless the clinging to male
But what Millett calls the "sexual revolution" was followed by the "counterrevolution" during 1930-1960. Millett, like Betty Friedan, puts much of the blame on Freud and the Freudians, and on the functionalist school in psychology and soctology. The functionalists, by emphasizing what is the place of women in society rather than what i t might be, diverted women's attention from the possibility of changing their lot rather than accepting it. Here it is interesting to contrast these two disciplines of the status quo with modern economics. Although economic analysis is also regarded as value free, i t makes the basic assumption that more is preferable to less. For this reason economists are quite ready to prescribe interference with a "natural" pattern like monopoly or unemployment, because such a pattern is not economically efficient. For quite the same reason, no economist would want to tolerate, for instance, the price d~scriminationinvolved in the payment of higher wages t o men than to women.
Freud has been a favourite target of Arner~canfeminists like Millett for the inferior place in his scheme accorded to women. Millett comments, however, that his "theories of the unconscious and of infant sexuality were major contributions to human understanding". Indeed she might have commented that in one respect, he did a great service to women. For Freud was a very important influence in changing the view that sex is wicked. Once sex is viewed as ordinary and natural, women are likely to be viewed as ordinary and natural, rather than as pure ethereal ladies or scarlet temptresses. Surely this accounts in some measure for the increased acceptance of women working alongside men. Sexual Politics was written well after the revival of feminist sentiment in the sixties, but Millett chooses not t o discuss it, except in a few cliches about altered consciousness, and tn a desperate cry of hope for the future. If she had t r ~ e dto dlscern the forces behind the renewed activity she mtght have felt more hopeful.
For these forces-urbanization, improved contraception and the adoption of laboursaving devices that has accompanied economic growth, which together pushed women into the labour force - should be hard to resist. It is hard to imagine that another Freud could turn back the tide. In any case, during the "counterrevolutton" of 1930-1960, it is quite clear that the lot of most women improved, whatever the effect of Freud and the functionalists on middle-class women. For economic independence is at least the sine qua non for freedom and during this period, an increasing number of women achieved this independence by working. In 1959, 27 percent of all women 14 or over were gainfully employed (in Canada) as compared with 24 percent in 1921; for women aged 35-64 the ratio almost doubled, to 27 percent from 14 percent. (The movement of women into the labour force accelerated during the sixties so that by 1969 these ratios had reached 35 percent and about 3 7 percent respecttvely.)
supremacy as a birth right is finally foregone, all systems of oppression will conGenet's homotinue t o function sexuality is seen to release him from heterosexual folly and t o allow him t o describe clearly what the rest of us can only surmise. In his autobiographical novels, Our Lady of the Flowers and The Thief's Journal with their hierarchical sexual structures in the homosexual underground and in men's prisons, Genet provides Miss Millett with the perfect artistic equivalent t o her Machiavellian concept of power and human relationships. Without a doubt Genet fits neatly into what Miss Millett is saying, but this does not prove that either is capable of conceiving of a human relationship which is not part of the power syndrome, nor does their joint recognition of one pathological aspect of western culture provide them with a transcendent vision. Nowhere in Sexual Politics does Miss Millett describe, either in her own terms or by reference to literary models, what men and woman
. . ."
This increase in women's participation in the labour force was bound t o bring about, eventually, a renewal of feminist activity. For in many jobs women suffered discrimination in pay and opportunity for promotion. The more women in this situation, the more likely was a protest t o be heard. At the same time, the number of women who had worked before bearing children was increasing. These women would be much more likely to chafe in the situation of economic dependence, that they were forced to endure in order to care for their children properly, than would women who had been economically independent. We have already seen some effects of this. The Royal Commission on the Status of Women had published a recommendation that family allowances although, ironicbe greatly increased ally, our bachelor prime minister had suggested, only a few days previously, the removal of this, the only independent income received by thousands of women. But it is the Royal Commission's recommendation that is in tune with the times.
should transcend to. The "transformation of personality", the "altered consciousness" t o which her postscript refers remain vague rhetorical counters, and her hypothesis of what the world could be like after a "fully realized sexual revolution" is sketchy and indeterminate. She seems t o have given insufficient attention t o the possibility that the way out of man's current confusion, may lie through the nourishment of other aspects of the human personality which have little or nothing t o do with the sexual. Miss Millett's view is simply too restrictive, too obsessively concerned with one thing, too much a myth in itself t o provide us with the fully human and fully liberating solution t o the sickness of our times.
Mr. Lanthier is Assistant Professor in the Department of English Language and Literature.
And we already have legislation (in Ontario) prohibiting discrimination against working women. It seemed almost impossible a few decades ago that equal opportunity and "equal pay for equal work" would ever really happen. Now that the idea of equality in economic life is almost universally accepted, the achievement of equality in all aspects of life is only a matter of time.
Miss Steele is Assistant Professor in the Department of Economics.
"Nature, Isay, doth paynt them furthe to be weake, fraile, impacient, feble, and foolishe; and experience hath declared them to be unconstant, variable, cruell, and lacking the spirit of counsel and regiment." "First, Isay, that woman in her greatest perfection was made to serve and obey man, not to rule and command him."
. . two punishments are laid upon her, to witte, a dolor, anguishe, and payn, as oft as ever she shal be mother; and a subjection of her self, her appetites, and will, to her husband, and to his will." 1'
"Nature hath in all beastes printed a certein marke of dominion in the male, and a certein subjection in the female, which they kepe inviolate. " "God, for his greate mercies sake, illuminate the eyes of men, that they may perceive in to what miserable bondage they be broght by the monstriferous empire of Women! And therefore, let all man be advertised, for THE TRUMPET HATH ONES BLOWEN."
John Knox, 1558 excerpts from The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women This tract was prompted by Queen Mary's accession to the throne of England, five years before, and it was received with great excitement and opposition. The Queen died eight months after the publication of "The First Blast", and Knox wrote no more Blasts. John Aylmer, later Bishop of London, commented i n an opposing tract: "The Blast was blowen out of season."
ANIMALS IN STALLS AND BUSES IN BARNYARD: COLLEGE ROYAL '71 HAS THEM ALL Now entering its 46th year, College Royal '71 promises to be bigger and better than ever. Program highlights will include: the College Royal Ball and crowning of this year's Queen; Variety Night; the Dog Show; and Show Day accompanied by the numerous displays and exhibits housed in the Physical Education Building. And the "all-University thing" as Publicity Director John Murphy described College Royal, will feature an expanded version of last year's overwhelmingly popular open house-departmental display program. "We're switching to a group effort," said Mr. Murphy, as he described the plans of this year's Executive to increase the scope of College Royal to include most of the educational areas embraced by the University. Staffed by faculty members and graduate students, the open houses and departmental displays will offer campus visitors an inside glimpse of teaching methods and research programs carried on at Guelph. And, according to Mr. Murphy, this year's College Royal will need the additional attractions in order to accommodate an expected crowd of over 10,000 persons. Popularity and big crowds appear to be trademarks of livestock exhibitions at Guelph. In fact, College Royal's predecessor got so popular i t had to leave the campus for expanded facilities in Toronto. College Royal itself was founded in 1925 by the late professor Wade Toole but the impetus for the show's creation can be traced to the late 1800s when livestock exhibitions and judging competitions were becoming increasingly popular. Campus interest in these events led to the formation of the OAC's livestock
Above left: television personality Fred Dav~s,master of ceremonies at the '69 College Royal Ball, kisses Carol Manning after announcement of her winning the College Royal Queen contest. Top right: the 1905 international champion OAC Livestock Judging Team. Left to right, top row: J. Bracken, '06; Prof. G. E. Day, '93, Trainer; H. B. Smith, '06. Bottom row: W. A. Munro, '06; H. S. Arkell, '04, Assistant Trainer; G. G. White, '06; and H. A. Craig, '06. Above: 1970 Champion Showman Doug Gardhouse with OAC Dean N. R. Richards, '38, and Hon. W. A. Stewart, Minister of Agriculture. -
judging teams which travelled to various fairs and exhibitions in both Canada and the United States. By the turn of the century, OAC teams had entered international competitions, the most notable being the International Stock Show at Chicago. After a second place finish in 1904, the team won the competition for the next three years. About the same time, local livestock shows were booming, in both attendance figures and livestock entries, and the Guelph Fat Stock Show was no exception. The show moved on campus in the early 1900s. Attendance figures soared and, in response, officials decided to expand the exhibition. New livestock divisions were created and exhibits were set up. Eventually the show got too large for even the campus to handle so it moved to Toronto in 1912 to become the National Livestock and Dairy Show. Ten years later i t was renamed the Royal Winter Fair. The gap left in campus activities was
filled, in part, by the continued good showings of the livestock judging teams. However, by 1925, the appeal of a campus-based livestock show was too great to ignore and so, Professor Toole organized the first College Royal. There were 12 divisions in that first humble effort. Five years later, the number of divisions had quadrupled and shortly thereafter campus clubs began to enter their own exhibits. Today, the "Royal" has grown to the point where some departments offer more competitive areas than College Royal ~tselfdid in its initial years. Add to the initial design the numerous non-livestock classes and divisions student competitors can enter, the "gala" events, and the open houses and one begins to appreciate John Murphy's statement that it's impossible to take everything in. But for those who would like to try, there'll even be a campus bus service on Show Day, (March 13).
Dr. R. J. Hilton, Arboretum Director and Prof. W. Coates examine new relief plan of arboretum.
TAPE-CARRELS PURCHASED WITH '69 AMF FUNDS A new way of "self help" instructions. by means of automatically actuated tape recorders connected to teleohones. each in its own unit in a library c'arrel, hss now been installed to brief students on how to use the basic reference sources in the McLaughlin Library at Guelph. About half the cost of the 18 units constructed was paid for by funds from the 1969 Alma Mater Fund. Sixteen of the units are scattered throughout the library on different floors, and the recorded instructions in each unit refer to subject matter ava~lableon the floor in which the unit is installed. There are plans to install one of the carrels in the OVC library and one is kept in reserve. Five main areas are covered by the tapes and each carrel is clearly labelled as to the subject matter it covers. On some floors, five carrels side by side deal with each of the five areas: newspaper indexes, encyclopedia, yearbooks and handbooks. indexes and abstracts. book reviews and documentation centre catalogues. The user picks up the telephone in the carrel devoted to the reference he wants to use, actuates the tape, and listens to the recorded instructions, all of which were produced by library staff, complete with musical backgrounds. The tape can be stopped and reversed, if the user wishes to go over a section he did not understand. The longest tape lasts about seven minutes, the shortest is about three minutes long. The idea for the taped instructions was evolved by the Committee on Library Instruction, a committee of library staff members. From idea to installation, the
"tape-carrels" took about six months t o design. The library staff, in consultation with Audio Visual Services and Macdonald Electric of Guelph, helped design the units. which were manufactured bv Keil industries, Kitchener. Library staff have found that much time has been saved for them with the decreased frequency of requests for help in using the library's reference sources. Service to students is also better, because the tapes can be used at any time, whether a staff member is on duty in the vicinity or not.
ENROLLMENT INCREASES QUESTIONED The question of imposing a ceiling on student enrollment at Guelph, which could be significantly lower than projected enrollment figures for the University, will be studied by a committee of the University Senate. The study, which will be conducted by the committee on academic priorities, was ~nitiatedby a motion presented to Senate December 15 by Dr. Keith Ronald, chairman of the Zoology Department, and Physics Professor Dr. Jim Stevens. The motion says that the University has reached its "optimum size for the fulfilment of its educational responsibilities." This motion was later withdrawn by the two senators in favour of another motion by OVC Dean Denis Howell calling for the academic priorities committee to examine the question of student enrollment and any ramifications of curtailing student numbers at less than projected figures. A first report is expected before the end of the current academic year. Present planning calls for the University to grow by approximately 500-600 students per year to a peak enrollment of 15,000 by the mid-1980's. There were 6100 undergraduate students enrolled last semester. Dr. Winegard informed Senate the enrollment increases could not be stopped until the 1973-74 academic year. because the University owes the Department of University Affairs space under the existing space entitlement procedure. By that time the University will have grown to approximately 9000 students and any recommendations the committee on academic priorittes might make cannot be implemented until then.
ARBORETUM PLAN APPROVED The proposed University of Guelph Arboretum came one step closer to reality in December, with approval by the University's Board of Governors of the master plan. Progress on this project has been encouraged and assisted by the financial support received from the Alma Mater Fund, says President Winegard. Although the Arboretum at first glance resembles a park, it is definitely "not just another fancy piece of parkland." says Professor W. E. Coates, Landscape Architecture. who is planning consultant for the project. "It will provide the University with outdoor classrooms and laboratory facilities that are vital for many of the programs offered on campus. "The arboretum will fill a void which now exists for scientists in several disciplines," says its director, Dr. R. J. Hilton of the Horticultural Science Department. The arboretum will occupy a 330 acre site at the east end of the campus adjoining Victoria Road, on naturally rolling land whtch already has some natural bush and swamp areas. These features will provide for a number of different kinds of studies, while the areas now open will accommodate over 4 0 different collections of woody plants, ranging from garden roses and hedge plants to plantings of native forest trees and plants noted for their economic value. Included will be a hillside area devoted to species selected for fall color characteristics and another that will emphasize the varied tree and shrub forms that are adapted to this region. It is anticipated that the facilities of the new arboretum will be utilized by many public service agencies in Ontario, including biology units at other universities, federal and provincial forestry workers and development officers in the conservation authorities. Development costs of the Arboretum are estimated at some $1 million but physical development of the site will be phased over the next 15 years. The word arboretum occurs frequently in the history of the University. In 1882
Appointments NEW APPOINTEES TO BOARD OF GOVERNORS Two appointments were made recently to the University's Board of Governors. John M. Lindley, OAC '53, President of Campbell Soup Company Limited, and Guelph barrister Arthur N. Kearns, Q.C. will serve on the Board for a three-year term. Mr. Lindley was raised on a farm and educated in Burlington. Ontario. At OAC, he majored in horticultural science and was active in student affairs, music, drama and intramural sports. Upon graduation in 1953, Mr. Lindley was appointed Fruit and Vegetable Fieldman with the Ontario Department of Agriculture at London. In 1955 he joined Campbell Soup Co. Ltd, and sewed in various positions at Chatham; Toronto; Camden, N.J.; Portage La Prairie, Manitoba; and Listowel. He returned to Toronto in 1966 as Vice-President and General Manager and was appointed President in 1968. An active alumnus, Mr. Lindley was Campaign Chairman for the initial Alma Mater Fund held in 1969 and serves on the Department of Food Science Advisory Council. He is a member of the Board of Governors of the Queensway General Hospital and a Director on the Board of the Grocery Products Manufacturers of Canada. He is also a member of the Agricultural lnstitute of Canada. Mr. Lindley is married to the former Joan Stiles of London, Ontario. They have three children and live in Islington. Mr. Kearns, a graduate of University of Toronto and Osgoode Hall Law School, has practised law in Guelph since 1946 and has been active in many facets of community Irfe. He is a member and past chairman of the Library Board, past chairman of the Guelph Transportation Commission, and past president of the Rotary Club. He is also a member of the Canadian Tax Foundation and the Canadian Military Instttute. In addition, Mr. Kearns sewed from 1952 to 1955 as Officer Commanding, 11th Field Artillery Regiment (Militia). At the same time, Board of Governors
Chairman Ronald S. Ritchie announced the re-appointment for a further term of two original members of the Board. They are Messrs. E. I. Birnbaum and W. E. Hamilton, OAC '26, both of Guelph. Mr. Birnbaum serves as a member of the Senate of the University and as chairman of the Membership Committee of the Board of Governors as well as a member of its other committees. These are: the Executive Planning and Property, and Crty of Guelph Liaison Committees. Mr. Hamilton is chairman of the Planning and Property Committee of the Board of Governors, as well as being a member of the Executive and Members h ~ pCommittees.
CLAY SWITZER NAMED OAC ASSOCIATE DEAN Dr. Clayton M. Switzer, OAC '51, is the new Associate Dean of the Ontario Agricultural College, succeeding Dr. W. E. Tossell, OAC '47, who was appointed Dean of Research for the University. Dr. Switzer has been Professor and Chairman of the Department of Botany for the last three years. As Associate Dean, Dr. Switzer will be associated with the academic and research programs of OAC and will play a leading role in establishing research priorities within the college. He will also be involved in liaison between OAC and the Ontario Department of Agriculture and Food. A native of southwestern Ontario, Dr. Switzer graduated from Strathroy Colleglate lnstitute in 1947. After receiving an MSA from Guelph in 1953, he continued his studies at Iowa State University where he was granted a Ph.D. in plant physiology in 1955. Following this he returned t o Guelph as teacher of plant physiology and weed science in the Department of Botany. Dr. Switzer is the author of many scientific and popular papers on the use of herbicides and their effects on plants. He has played an active role rn weed control extension work and is chairman of the Ontario Herbicide Committee and the Research Plannlng Committee of the National Weed Committee. He is currently a director of the International Turfgrass Society and is chalrman of the teaching and extension section of the Weed Science Society of Amerrca.
Alumni News ROSS CHAPMAN RECEIVES HONORARY DEGREE Dr. Ross A. Chapman, OAC '40. Director General of the Food and Drug Directorate, Canada Department of National Health and Welfare, received an honorary Doctor of Science degree at the January Convocation exercises. Dr. Chapman directs the activities of a staff of some 1100 people located in Ottawa and in five regional centres across Canada. These people include experts in such fields as pharmacology, food, nutrition, microbiology, pharmaceutical sciences, medicine, and veterinary medicine. A graduate of the Ontario Agricultural College with a Bachelor of Science in Agriculture degree, Dr. Chapman received an M.Sc. and a Ph.D. from McGill University. Following a four-year-term as Assistant Professor of Chemistry at McGill, he became head of the food chemistry section of the Food and Drug Directorate in Ottawa in 1948. From 1955 to 1957 he was on leave of absence with the World Health Organization and in 1958 became Assistant Director of the Research Laboratories. In 1963 he was appointed Assistant Director of the Food Section, and in 1965 was appointed to his present position. Dr. Chapman was a member of the Canadian delegation to conferences in Rome and Geneva of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, sponsored by the jornt FAO/WHO program on food standards. He is a member of the expert panel on food additives of the World Health Organizat~onin Geneva and has served on a number of its expert committees. A year ago he headed the Canadian delegation to the United Nations commission on narcotic drugs at Geneva. In 1959 Dr. Chapman received the International Award of the lnstitute of Food Technologists and in 1964 was elected Fellow of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. In 1969 he was the recipient of the W. J. Eva Award of the Canadian lnstitute of Food Technology.
Coming Events February 6
March 5 - 13
COLLEGE ROYAL March March March March
5 6 12 13
Ball and Queen Competition Variety Night Dog Show Show Day Fashion Show Open Houses and Departmental Displays Awards Presentations Square Dancing
March 19 - 20
O.A.C. Alumni Bonspiel
June 19 - 20
OAC - MAC ALUMNI WEEKEND