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@universitystar |

Volume 107, Issue 07



Pointe Apartments experiences late move-in By Michael Garcia News Reporter Hundreds of students have been displaced after Pointe San Marcos apartments, a student housing complex, delayed its original move-in date multiple times. Instead of moving into the residence on Aug. 15 as promised, students have had to find alternative housing while trapped in their leases until Oct. 13, the scheduled move in date. The relationship between the residents and management began to deteriorate once communication fell short. Abigail Martinez, nursing sophomore, signed her lease in April. At the time, a representative explained to her they were two weeks ahead of schedule for the apartment's opening. Martinez is one of many to lose a lot of her own money and even some financial aid money due to food and gas. Pointe offered gift cards to the tenants. However, tenants discovered they could only use the gift cards online. Unfortunately, should a prospective tenant decide to break their contract, they would owe all of that money as stated in their current lease, including any reimbursement due to the delay. Mark Evans, public relations manager for Pointe Apartments, said the developer of Pointe San Marcos has continued to work with the city to make sure the property is ready to welcome residents. "The property has given students an excess of $100 a day in compensation, on average so far, depending on whether they choose to stay in a hotel (at Pointe San Marcos’ expense) or if they choose to arrange their own temporary housing," Evans said. "The property has also contracted with a shuttle service to provide ongoing transportation between campus and the hotel."


Mark Foster of Foster the People throws his hands to the sky Oct. 6 during performance at Austin City Limits Music Festival. PHOTO BY LARA DIETRICH | MULTIMEDIA EDITOR

ACL kicks off its 2017 run with weekend one By Katie Burrell Lifestyle Editor Austin City Limits Music Festival weekend one came to a close Oct. 8 night after three days of live music, silent discos, local eats and organizations fighting for their causes. ACL took over Zilker Park for its first weekend of its 16th year while continuing traditions such as ACL Eats and ACL Cares. Weekend one began on Oct. 6 and grew larger each day. The festival had a variety of features for all guests including increased security, a three-DJ silent disco filled each night and a new and improved Rock and Recycle program. Fresh in the minds of fans and ACL security, the Las Vegas massacre had its effects on the festival. Logan Cassidy, local tech employee living in Austin after a move from Ohio, brought with him a statement on his first visit to ACL. Cassidy received a text message from his mother the day after 58 people were shot at a music festival in Las Vegas. Cassidy’s mom told him she did not want him to use his 3-day weekend pass as she feared for his safety. Rather than sell his wristband or get a refund, Cassidy constructed a large black and white sign reading “End mass shoot-

Committee of Progressive Students denied residency at former KA house By Tyler Hernandez News Reporter After backlash on social media, the new student organization Committee of Progressive Students was denied residency at the former fraternity house of Pi Kappa Alpha. Committee of Progressive Students was denied due to social media interactions with the fraternity, and will be taking legal action to fight what they view as discrimination based on political ideology. The house in question, located at 602 Academy St., has been vacant

Former KA house sits vacant after the chapter was suspended from campus. PHOTO BY TYLER JACKSON

since last year when a party thrown by KA resulted in the death of 20-year -old Texas State student, Jordin Taylor. Committee of Progressive Students, led by Rudy Martinez, Committee of Progressive Studentsco-founder and philosophy senior, and John Schuster, co-founder and applied sociology junior, hoped to fill the house with students, artists and workers from the San Marcos area. The move was expected to be challenging from the beginning, as the house was left with significant damages after the previous tenants vacated. “The house is destroyed," Schuster said. "There are walls kicked in, there’s an endless amount of garbage, there are doors knocked down. In one of the rooms, I was shocked when I walked in, I almost had no words. There was a thick rope hanging from the ceiling and it was tied in a knot at the bottom with a hole about the size of someone’s neck.” Martinez said the condition of the house was shocking and was alarmed at some of the items left behind. “It was a noose,” Martinez said. “There are Confederate flags painted above some of the rooms. I would go so far as to say that these people are neanderthals and they were living like neanderthals.”


ings. We’re not afraid of you.” Cassidy carried his sign in one hand and an equally sizable American flag in the other. “It’s not about gun control at all,” Cassidy said. “This is not a political statement. This is just a tribute to those who were impacted by it, and a statement to say that we can’t live in fear.” ACL had $9 beers, carafes of wine, with cans and bottle of water. For sober musicians and attendees, a tent full of friendly faces, shaded seats, cool fans and sweet candy awaited their company. The

concept is called Sober Park, and is run and funded by musicians and Harmonium Inc. Sober Park returned to ACL new and improved with two meetings a day and a fully-stocked tent all day, every day. Karma Stewart is a musician funded by the Sims Foundation. Stewart is 105 days sober as of Oct. 8 and said she enjoys playing her music and traveling as an alcohol-free artist. Stewart ran the tent and the two meetings each day of the festival.

SEE ACL PAGE 2 Tove Lo looks to the crowd Oct. 7 during her performance at Austin City Limits Music Festival. PHOTO BY LARA DIETRICH | MULTIMEDIA EDITOR

Disrespect vs. Patriotism: taking a knee at Texas State By Connor Brown Assistant News Editor Several NFL players throughout the league have knelt in protest during the national anthem this season in response to President Donald Trump's public remarks against the movement. Trump’s comments have since created room for debate regarding players’ rights to express their political beliefs on a national platform. Colin Kaepernick, former quarterback for the San Francisco 49ers, originally started the kneeling movement in 2016 to protest police brutality and racial injustice. Supporters of Kaepernick have since hailed him as a hero, while his critics see him as a symbol of disrespect as he continued to kneel throughout the 2016 season. “Wouldn’t you love to see one of those NFL owners, when someone disrespects our flag, to say, ‘Get that son of a bitch off the field right now. Out. He’s fired. He’s fired.’” Trump said at a rally for Republican Sen. Luther Strange Sept. 22 in Alabama. The president then called on NFL spectators to counter-protest future games by leaving the stadium if they see a player kneeling during the anthem. The president’s comments sparked an immediate response from NFL players as many knelt in solidarity during the

Football team stands together on the sidelines Sept. 2 before playing against Houston Baptist University. PHOTO BY VICTOR RODRIGUEZ | ASSISTANT MULTIMEDIA EDITOR

national anthem in the games that followed. Those who did not kneel during the anthem stood and linked arms with fellow players as they knelt in silence, to support the player's freedom of speech. Though Texas State football players are not on the field during the national anthem due to kickoff timing and last minute instructions from coaching staff, the debate over the right to express political beliefs during the anthem is still a contentious topic on college campuses.


2 | Tuesday, October 10 , 2017

The University Star


Shayan Faradineh News Editor @shayanfaradineh @universitystar

Trinity Building 203 Pleasant St. San Marcos, TX 78666 (512) 245 - 3487

Editors Editor-in-Chief: Denise Cervantes, Managing Editor: Bri Watkins, News Editor: Shayan Faradineh, Lifestyle Editor: Katie Burrell, Opinions Editor: May Olvera, Sports Editor: Lisette Lopez, Copy Desk Chief: Claire Abshier, Design Editor: Vivian Medina, Multimedia Editor: Lara Dietrich, Engagement Editor: John Lee,

Advertising Staff Director of Media Sales: Christina Castro, Account Executive: Andrew Stock Account Executive: Carina Cruz, Account Executive: Folee Hall Account Executive: Cameron Goodall Graphic Designer: Stephanie Cloyd Marketing and PR Manager: Ashley Lujan

Full-Time Staff Director: Laura Krantz, Media Specialist: Dillan Thomson, Publications Coordinator: Linda Allen,

About Us History: The University Star is the student newspaper of Texas State University and is published every Tuesday of the spring and fall and once a month in the summer semesters. It is distributed on campus and throughout San Marcos at 8 a.m. on publication days with a distribution of 6,000. Printing and distribution is by the New Braunfels Herald-Zeitung. Copyright: Copyright Tuesday, October 10, 2017. All copy, photographs and graphics appearing in The University Star are the exclusive property of The University Star and may not be reproduced without the expressed written consent of the editor-in-chief. Deadlines: Letters to the Editor or any contributed articles are due on Monday the week prior to publication. Corrections: Any errors that are in the pages of The University Star and are brought to our attention will be corrected as soon as possible. Visit The Star at


Third runner since August attacked in Austin By Sabrina Bryant News Reporter For the third time since August, a female runner has been attacked near the trails of Lady Bird Lake in Austin. All three assaults have been extremely similar. Each time, a woman running was grabbed from behind. The first attack happened late-August when a woman was jogging on the track of an Austin high school near the lake's trail. A man came up from behind and grabbed her, attempting to cover her face with a cloth. The second sexual assault occurred Sept. 15. A woman was running along the Ann and Roy Butler Hike and Bike Trail at Lady Bird Lake. In the latest attack on Sept. 27, a woman was on the hike and bike trail of Lady Bird Lake. A man grabbed her from behind and attempted to drag her into the nearby bushes. However, the woman was able to fight off her attacker and escape to safety. Police are still investigating as to whether or not any of these incidences are related.

Iram Leon, president of the Austin Runners Club, fears for the safety of runners. "Any of those would have been too much," Leon said. "But, there's been three in a little over a month. It's frustrating to the community." In response to these attacks, the Austin Police Department will be patrolling by foot, bike and on mounted patrols along Lady Bird Lake and Zilker trails to clear the areas of any suspicious activity. This safety precaution will begin at 4 a.m. each morning. As for the local trails in San Marcos, the University Police Department has said there have been no attacks of this nature on the trails that have come to their attention. The trails are patrolled by the UPD and the San Marcos Police Department. Jose Bañales, chief of police for the University Police Department, encourage students to stay away from isolated, dark or overgrown grassy areas that are hard to see from the trails. "Before you go out on the trails, let somebody know where you're going and

carry your phone with you," Bañales said. Bañales recommends taking the following precautions in order to stay safe. 1. When you go out to the trails to go running or out at night, use the buddy system in order to have a safety contact and don't use headphones that prevent you from hearing your surroundings. 2. Download the Bobcat Guardian (Rave Guardian on the app store) application onto your phone and register. You can use this on and off campus to track your location and alert your most important contacts, if you wish to. 3. Always keep your phone on you in case of an emergency and be aware of your surroundings. In case a student finds themselves in this situation, they encouraged to do whatever to get away, such as yelling, kicking or hurting the attacker in self-defense. If a student does not feel safe, they can call UPD or Bobcat Bobbies (non-emergency) for assistance. The Bobcat Bobbies line is 512-245-7233 and operates seven days a week.

FROM FRONT ACL “I made the choice that I wanted my life at the end of the day,” Stewart said. “We’re trying to create awareness and that there are places they can come and still be sober.” There were tributes to the Las Vegas shooting incident, the death of Tom Petty and the devastation of Hurricane Harvey. Spoon, Tove Lo, The Killers, The Red Hot Chili Peppers and others all paid tribute to the death of former ACL performer Tom Petty. From tribute songs to a skydiving show during Tove Lo and Spoon's, the Free Falling artist was not forgotten at this year’s shows. One of the most popular features of ACL this year was The Austin Parks Foundation partnership with the Rock and Recycle program to expand the project’s impact. Since 2005, Rock and Recycle allowed festival attendees to fill green recycling bags with cans and bottles in exchange for a free T-shirt of their choice. This year, for every participant, APF allocated $5 to the Recycling in Parks initiative making recycling waste in city parks easier. APF is also the beneficiary of ACL, so a portion of proceeds and ticket sales go to improving the environment and parks. Additionally, local artists contributed to a variety of new T-shirt designs each day, with designs running out every night. Allison Watkins, chief strategy officer at APF said her organization’s goal is to restore Zilker Park to its healthy state and

Logan Cassidy poses for a photo Oct. 7 holding an American flag and a sign of tribute to the victims of the recent Las Vegas shooting. PHOTO BY LARA DIETRICH | MULTIMEDIA EDITOR

provide guests with an eco-friendly way to score a free T-shirt. “We wanted to get involved because there is not currently, officially recycling in parks in Austin,” Watkins said. “We’ve had almost a thousand people participate in the past two days.” Although recycling and trash stations were positioned throughout the festival

grounds, many of them were overflowing or underused. Guests participating in the Rock and Recycle initiative helped to alleviate the issue of waste throughout the festival. With weekend one wrapped up, fans of the festival will be preparing for round two from Oct. 13-15.

FROM FRONT POINTE Evans said the Pointe staff realizes the delays have been a significant inconvenience for students and their families. "Pointe San Marcos continues to stay abreast of the situation and is working tirelessly to ensure residents can move into their apartments as soon as possible," Evans said. Pointe San Marcos is not the only apartment complex to receive backlash for a delay. Ella Lofts, Villagio, and many others experienced similar issues. What these apartments have in common is they are all purpose-built student housing—what many refer to as 'rent-by-the-bedroom' apartments. Kama Davis, staff attorney for Dean of Students, said the issue severely affects students. “Over the past years, we have seen apartment complexes fail to open on time, especially in college towns,” Davis said. “When they aren’t finished by the promised date, however, students are often left in a lurch, having to live in hotels, pay for storage for their belongings, incur other costs and still pay rent as required by their lease.” It is common practice for apartment

The contractors of The Pointe have pushed back the move in date twice, causing disruption for would-be tenants and local residents. PHOTO BY ROBERT BLACK

complexes to allow prospective tenants to sign leases before completion of construction, however, it becomes a gamble for project managers and residents. Jane Hughson, City Council Place 4, along with others on the council are pushing to get an ordinance passed in order to grant tenants the ability to break their

leases within 10 days after their promised move-in date with full reimbursement. Students who are having issues or concerns over a lease are encouraged to use the Attorney for Students services located on the fifth floor of the LBJ Student Center.

it's not inhabited by a bunch of perpetuators of a racist, misogynistic, rape-culture ideology.” The refutation was met with criticism from KA supporters, who reached out via email, text and social media to harass and condemn the soon-to-be tenants, stating that the history of the house could not be erased. The landlord, when threatened with legal action, told Committee of Progressive Students to "Bring it on." The landlord declined to comment on the house's cur-

rent condition. When asked about the state of the house and the response from KA supporters, Pi Kappa Alpha distanced themselves from any conflict taking place. David Collier, House Corporation President for the Texas State chapter of Pi Kappa Alpha, said that there were no members, known as “Pikes,” at Texas State. “Pi Kappa Alpha is no longer affiliated with Texas State,” Collier said . “So there are no Pikes at Texas State.”

FROM FRONT COMMITTEE The organization planned to host a series of community work days to repair the damage to the house. Committee of Progressive Students organized the event through Facebook, which has been deleted. Schuster and Martinez saw their occupancy of the house as a refutation of fraternity culture. “I feel like now more than ever we have to fight back against white supremacy on a daily basis," Martinez said. “That can be small steps like taking over this house and having people walk by it and know that

The University Star


Tuesday, October 10, 2017 | 3 Katie Burrell Lifestyle Editor @KatieNicole96 @universitystar

FROM FRONT KNEE Everett Withers, Texas State’s head football coach, shared his views on the issue. “I do believe in First Amendment rights,” Withers said. “Disrespect is seen differently. I stand and place my right hand over my heart during the national anthem. Is it disrespectful when people don’t? (It’s) different for each individual.” Supporters of the movement believe players are well within their constitutional rights to express their political beliefs, almost deeming the act as patriotic. Others believe kneeling during the anthem is disrespectful to military

members and those who have died in the line of duty. Adrian Cooper, biology junior and vice president of the Texas State College Republicans chapter, said he personally believes the act of kneeling during the anthem is disrespectful, but players are still entitled to express political views under the First Amendment. “As far as the First Amendment goes, the NFL players have a constitutional right to do what they’re doing,” Cooper said. “Personally, I think politics should be left out of football.” In response to criticism surrounding the players, many veterans have taken to

social media to express their beliefs. Alejandro Cuevas, philosophy graduate student, said the topic of protest during the anthem is a divisive topic even among his veteran friends. CuevasCuevas served in the Marines. “As a veteran, I look at it as those are the beliefs that I thought I was protecting,” Cuevas said. “I don’t feel that it’s disrespectful. I think it’s an empowerment that makes this country great, that you have the opportunity to voice your opinion and say ‘hey, I’m against what the government is doing.’ Now it doesn’t mean that may I agree with what they’re saying and how they’re doing it,

but I think everyone is entitled to their own opinion.” Although the issue was blown over in the media due to the Secretary Tom Price resigning from Health and Human Services Department and Trump's tweets to Sen. Bob Corker, Vice President Mike Pence left a Colts football game on Sunday, Oct. 8. Trump has alluded to NFL owners making decisions against kneeling, however as of now there hasn't been any team that has come out with a policy against kneeling.


Wittliff hires curator for new Texas music collection By Leeann Cardwell Lifestyle Reporter The heart of Texas music has deep roots in the Texas Hill Country, which is why The Wittliff Collections decided to begin a collection centered on preserving the history of Texas music. Hector Saldaña has been named the Texas Music Curator at The Wittliff Collections, located on the seventh floor of the Alkek Library, and is tasked with growing and developing this new project. The position is the first of its kind. From an early age, Saldaña was drawn to the different styles of Texas music played on the radio. Although he grew up in Corpus Christi, Saldaña comes from a ranching family in Laredo. He was surrounded by border music and saw its influence on other Texas genres. Inspired by artists such as Willie Nelson, Buddy Holly, Stevie Ray Von and Barbara Lynn, Saldaña has an appreciation for all styles of Texas music. Saldaña is the founder, songwriter, singer and guitarist for The Krayolas. Saldaña said they have been described

as the ‘Tex-Mex Beatles’, meaning they are a rock 'n’ roll band with Texas influences. Started in the '70s and '80s as a teenage rock band, The Krayolas made a comeback about 10 years ago and have since produced critically-acclaimed albums. Saldaña had the opportunity to share the stage with many other musicians across the country. For over 23 years, Saldaña has written for the San Antonio Express-News as a music columnist, in addition to being a musician himself. In this capacity, he has been able to explore the lives of various musicians, discover their passions and tell their stories. David Coleman, The Wittliff Collections director, said he believes Saldaña’s experiences as a writer and musician have afforded him a rich knowledge of Texas music and an ability to speak the language of musicians, making him the perfect person to spearhead this new collection. The creation of a curator position will allow many more important music collections to be brought in to highlight the cultural dynamics of the American

Southwest. Gary Hartman, Center for Texas Music History director, said The Wittliff collect archives on Texas music for over 15 years and said that he is excited for this new position to have a place at The Wittliff. “Music has been an important way for people everywhere to articulate their experiences, beliefs, fears, hopes and values,” Hartman said. “The music of Texas tells the story of our state.” Saldaña said he looks forward to setting the tone and the agenda for the new collection. One of his first orders of business will be to bring out the materials the collection already has and to make them accessible to the public. The cultural history of Texas music is large and complex. Ensuring that the history of the music is recorded correctly and that it encompasses all types of Texas music is a top priority for Saldaña. “It is so important to preserve the history of Texas music so that it isn’t just nostalgia, but that it is living today,” Saldaña said. Saldaña plans to decorate his office

Hector Saldana has been chosen as the curator of the Texas music collection at the Wittliff in Alkek Library. PHOTO BY ROBERT BLACK

with an orange amplifier in the corner of the room with his electric guitar plugged into it as a reminder for himself and anyone that comes to his office that, at the end of the day, it is always about the music.


Student studies abroad in Thailand helping animals in need

Presley Miller poses next to elephant in Thailand during study abroad program. COURTESY PHOTO OF lOOP ABROAD

By Lauren Rexroad Lifestyle Reporter One Bobcat traveled to Thailand to volunteer with elephants, dogs, cats and marine life through the Loop Abroad program. Presley Miller, agriculture junior with a pre-veterinarian specialization, went to Thailand for three weeks over the summer with the Loop Abroad program. Miller visited three different areas of Thailand over the course of her trip. The Loop Abroad program is not affiliated with Texas State, but helps veterinary students study abroad in countries including Thailand and Australia to work with animals. Miller chose to study with Loop Abroad instead of with Texas State because it allowed her to go on a much shorter trip and still get the experience she needed. During Miller’s first week abroad, she visited the Elephant Nature Park in Chiang Mai, Thailand. While there, Miller cared for rescued elephants that were victims of illegal logging or elephant trafficking. The elephants that were trafficked were typically used for riding. Many of the elephants she cared for were injured, including loss of eyesight. Miller’s second week consisted of taking care of abandoned dogs at an animal rescue named Arch. While there she helped the dogs with vaccinations, blood draws, and observed dogs being spayed and neutered. Throughout Miller’s final week, she visited an island off the coast of Thailand called Koh Tao. Her last week was

spent working with marine life. She was able to rehabilitate and rebuild coral reefs, monitor the fish life in the area and learned about sea turtles and sharks. Miller knew she wanted to become a veterinarian when her friend’s dog got cancer and was euthanized. Miller went with her friend for emotional support, and from then on she knew she wanted to help animals who were in pain. “The whole experience just hit me, that that’s what I want to do,” Miller said. "I want to make sure that animals aren’t in pain anymore, and do whatever I can to do that even if it is the harder choice of having to put them down." Elizabeth Benavides, professor of agriculture and pre-veterinarian advisor, played a role in Miller’s choice to study abroad. She recommends for her students to do more than just volunteer at local animal shelters, but to also volunteer with the animals they plan to work with in the future. “I have a lot of students that are interested in what Presley has done, students that are interested in exotic animal medicine," Benavides said. "I always encourage them to work in zoos and other places where exotic animals are routinely treated." According to the Loop Abroad website, the organization has several different summer programs students who plan to become veterinarians can sign up for. These trips include visiting Thailand, Australia and South Africa. The trips allow students to work directly with exotic and domestic animals. Loop Abroad allows students to obtain class credit.








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The University Star Katie Burrell Lifestyle Editor @KatieNicole96 @universitystar


FIVE GRAD FACTS Everything Bobcats need to know about graduate school

By Lauren Rexroad Lifestyle Reporter

Faculty members in the graduate college give helpful advice to undergraduate students on how to apply for graduate school.

GPA Maureen Keeley, professor and director of graduate studies in communication studies, advises future graduate applicants to have at least a 3.0 GPA when applying to grad school. The higher a student’s GPA the easier it is for them to get accepted into the graduate college of their choosing. “If they have a 3.5 or better they will have an easier time getting into whatever program they want,” Keeley said. Although the GRE is not required for admission to the graduate college at Texas State, it can be beneficial to a student who has a GPA lower than a 3.0. Taking the GRE exam does not guarantee that a student will get accepted.

PERSONAL STATEMENT A personal statement is an essay required as part of admissions for Texas State's graduate college. The personal statement explains to the college why a student wants to attend that specific

graduate program. According to the communication studies graduate website the “statement of purpose” should have 500 to 700 words, and should include what the student is interested in studying and why did the student choose that master’s degree. It should also include what the student plans to do after graduating with their master’s degree and how their academic background will assist them in graduate school. “If they can be specific about looking at what their faculty in each department is doing and the kinds of classes we teach then they can address that ‘I’m really interested in so and so’s research and I’m interested in these areas that are being taught’” Keeley said. “Being explicit that we are a good fit for them also."

KNOW THE PROGRAM Students should research the program they plan to apply for and make sure it is the correct department. According to Keeley, some students have gotten the communication studies department confused with the school of Journalism and Mass Communications. “Make sure we are the right department that they are applying to, and if they need to, go call that graduate director or go call two of them,” Keeley said.

CONFIDENCE Amanda Martindale, graduate assistant with Student Involvement, is in her second year of studying student affairs in higher education. Martindale obtained her undergraduate degree at Texas A&M, but then came to Texas State for her master’s degree. Although Martindale did not have the highest GPA for her undergraduate degree, she showed graduate admissions that she knew what she wanted to do with her masters, and that her GPA did not define her. “There were so many reasons if you looked at it academically, I wasn’t supposed to go to grad school or be here," Martindale said. "I knew what I wanted to do and I was able to at least say that to people enough or explain why enough that they saw that I belonged somewhere."

LETTERS OF RECOMMENDATION Keeley recommends students to have at least 3 letters of recommendation. These letters should include professors with a Ph.D. as well as letters professional acquaintances that can attest to the students knowledge in their field. “There should be letters from faculty, preferably those who have a Ph.D. and those who teach in the master’s program," Keeley said.

(Top Left) The Graduate College offers over 100 Professional Degrees, which consists of 91 Master's and 13 Doctoral Degree. (Bottom Right) Every year, the Graduate College serves over 4,000 graduate students. (Far Right) Students can visit the Graduate College in room 208 in the JCK Building. PHOTOS BY RICARDO MARTIN


Fun day-trip spots

for a student budget By Diana Furman Lifestyle Reporter San Marcos is located right between a variety of towns and parks which offer a plethora of activities.

Gruene Historic District The town of Gruene is a 20 minute drive outside of San Marcos and is a great place to shop and explore. Gruene is a historic district in Texas with many of its buildings dating back to the 1800s. Gruene is home to Texas’ oldest dance hall, Gruene Hall, which hosts live music and dancing almost every night. Crystal Kinman, Gruene Historic District's marketing manager, said Gruene Hall and the Guadalupe River are major attractions for college students. Along with the fun activities, Gruene also holds a history and beauty that makes it a hidden gem among small towns. “The landscaping is so beautiful and lush and the buildings are just so historic and unique,” Kinman said.

Downtown Fredericksburg A little farther away is Fredericksburg. Founded in 1846, Fredericksburg has numerous historic sites to see. Aside from museums, shopping and food, the town is known for the Enchanted Rock State Natural Area. Enchanted Rock, where people have camped for 12,000 years, is 18 miles

north of Fredericksburg. Many mystical myths and legends surround the beautiful area, and it continues to fascinate geologists today. “It makes you realize how large the world is and how small you really are,” Espinoza said. Zach Espinoza, political science sophomore, a frequent visitor said it is breathtaking to experience something so large and ancient in person. The massive pink granite dome can be hiked and explored for only seven dollars. Once at the top, it offers beautiful views of the Texas Hill Country. With nearly 11 miles of hiking trail, visitors can stay the day and get their money’s worth.

Walking in Wimberley Wimberley hosts many attractions such as shopping, visiting the theater and sightseeing. Because of its location in the Texas Hill Country on the Blanco River and Cypress Creek, the town is perfect for outdoor activities. Picking lavender at Rough Creek Lavender Fields and exploring Jacob’s Well are outdoor activities visitors can enjoy. Rough Creek Lavender Fields is the largest lavender farm in Wimberley. Located by the Blanco River, it sets a peaceful stage to pick your own lavender or stop by an on-site store and relax among the fresh scents. The Emilyann Theatre located on Ranch Road 12, features play from Shakespeare to literary based plays. The theater also serves as a military memorial and incorporates students from Hays County. Visitors can enjoy a river side view at multiple waterhole restaurants such as Ino'z Brew and Chew, The Wimber-

Located 18 miles north of Fredericksburg , Enchanted Rock offers an 11-mile hiking trail with a nice view at the top. PHOTO BY TYLER JACKSON

ley Pie Company and Wimberley cafe. Alongside, there are multiple wineries to enjoy as well.

Guadalupe River State Park At only a $7 entry fee, the Guadalupe River State Park is an affordable option for college students. Centered around the Guadalupe River in Spring Branch, the park offers a variety of activities to choose from. While students are familiar with days spent by the river, the Guadalupe River is different. It’s a host to many more ac-

tivities such as mountain biking, camping, horse riding and bird watching. The abundance of trees and rocky scenery sets it apart. Sarah Mueller, exploratory sophomore, has visited the park numerous times with her family. They usually pack a lunch and stay for a full day. Mueller typically enjoys hiking, swimming and walking her dog. The scenery provides a perfect backdrop for peaceful fun. “It’s so relaxing and refreshing to experience nature like that,” Mueller said. She loves to unwind beside the rush of the river and listen to the sound of wind rustling leaves. Mueller said her favorite time of year to go is in mid-November because of the cooler weather. The greenery is something to be enjoyed, and a fall day is perfect to enable visitors to soak it in.

The University Star

Tuesday, October 10, 2017 | 5


May Olvera Opinions Editor @yungfollowill @universitystar



HEADLINES Addressing the whitewashing of centuries of violence in America By May Olvera, Rudy Martinez and Carrington Tatum Opinions Editor and Opinions Columnists Last week, The University Star erroneously classified the mass shooting in Las Vegas, which resulted in the death of 59 people, as the “Deadliest Massacre in U.S. History”. We printed this headline exactly a week before a “holiday” that celebrates the murderous patron saint of gentrification and globalization, Christopher Columbus. As embarrassing as this situation seems, Indigenous People’s Day, which provides us an opportunity to correct the glorification of a man who inspired and encouraged

centuries of genocide, also provides us an opportunity to correct a headline that so fatally ignored history. The headline failed to highlight historic massacres committed against people of color within our stolen borders, and like Columbus Day, erased the suffering of marginalized communities. Rather than focusing on the struggles and triumphs of peoples whose ancestors were brutalized, our front page this week will highlight Austin City Limits, an overpriced music festival whose current iteration is a pillar of a white-dominated, largely-appropriative, classist hipster culture. We feel that the best way to move forward is to dedicate an entire page of our opinions section to

educating those, like ourselves, who saw nothing wrong with the incorrect headline. As journalists, it is important for us to engage in self-criticism and hold ourselves accountable to best serve every community we aim to inform. In the days following the release of the headline, members of our Texas State and San Marcos communities expressed their concerns and brought to our attention specific massacres on U.S. soil that were effectively over-looked by the headline in question. Though this is not a list of every massacre that has ever occurred on American soil, these are ones dedicated readers rightfully called on us to mention:

The Colfax, Louisiana Massacre of 1873 Cited by the Smithsonian as, “one of the worst incidents of racial violence after the Civil War,” the Colfax Massacre stands as a testament to the brutality of the Reconstruction era. At a time when the Grant Parish regional government was almost equally represented by black and white citizens, Southern Democrats threatened to seize all control from black representatives. In response, an allblack militia took control of the local Colfax courthouse. Former Confederate soldiers, the terroristic Ku Klux Klan and an insurgent army called the “White League” formed a mob of more than 150 white men and fired a cannon into the courthouse, commencing a battle between the two groups. When the black militia surrendered, the white mob continued attacking, killing three white men and as many as 150 black men.

Gathering the dead after the Colfax massacre, published in Harper's Weekly, May 10, 1873.

Black Wall Street Massacre of 1921 (Tulsa, Oklahoma) Though seldom mentioned when discussing Jim Crow-era America, Tulsa, Oklahoma was once home to one of America’s wealthiest black communities. Black Wall Street, the nickname granted to the neighborhood, housed black doctors, lawyers and small-business owners in a town that proved black citizens could thrive independently of white America. This all changed within a matter of two days in the Spring of 1921, when white mobs continuously bombed and burned the community, killing upwards of 300 people and injuring over 1,000. COURTESY OF OKLAHOMA HISTORICAL SOCIETY

The Ongoing Massacre of Indigenous Peoples (1492-Present) The arrival of Christopher Columbus, a failed sailor who thought he had arrived in India, marked the beginning of globalization and the systematic erasure of an entire people in what we now call the Americas. Not only did the unsanitary practices of the European colonizers bring viciously vile diseases to the people they deemed “savages,” but entire civilizations were brutalized and executed all in the name of establishing a “New World.” According to, more than 10 million Native Americans inhabited the land that is now the United States when European imperialists arrived in the late-15th century. By 1900, after centuries of torture at the hands of genocidal white people, only about 300,000 Native Americans remained. Though we like to think we live in a post-colonial world, colonialist violence continues to plague indigenous communities. A recent example of this is the forced development of the Dakota Access Pipeline on sacred native burial grounds. The United States government has brutally repressed the tribes actively fighting against this injustice, those of which include the Meskwaki and several Sioux tribal nations. Additionally, our own foreign trade policies continue to encroach on and pillage indigenous communities in Latin America. Since 1994, the Zapatistas, a Mexican left-wing revolutionary group made up mostly of rural indigenous people, have actively pushed back against neoliberal trade agreements like the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

What’s left of Big Foot’s Band. Taken near Deadwood, South Dakota in 1891. (This was after the Massacre of Wounded Knee on December 29, 1890. This was all that remained of Big Foot’s Band.) J.C.H. Grabill/Library of Congress

... As we write this, people continue to celebrate over 500 years of oppression by honoring Christopher Columbus and his blood-stained legacy. Instead, we should be celebrating the triumphs of indigenous communities in the face of obstacles set in place by a white supremacist regime. To all of the marginalized peoples that continue to persevere, we leave you with the words of Che Guevara, who died fighting colonialism 50 years ago this Oct. 9: “¡Hasta la victoria siempre!”

6 | Tuesday, October 10, 2017


The University Star May Olvera Opinions Editor @yungfollowill @universitystar


Don’t West Virginia my Texas Oil workers in west Texas risk meeting the same fate as West Virginia miners ILLUSTRATION BY KENNEDY SWIFT

By Bradley Crowder Opinions Columnist West Virginia is in crisis. The once proud and mighty United Mine Workers of America is now a shadow of itself, these days raging less against the boss and more against federal regulations designed to protect its communities. It has the highest rate of opioid-related deaths in the nation, and 17.9 percent of its population lives below the poverty line. In West Virginia, there is no need to fear a bleak dystopia; for many, it has already arrived. If West Texas oil field workers do not organize themselves to demand a fair transition from an extractive energy model to a renewable one, West Virginia could be a look into their future. The story of West Virginia coal miners is an American tragedy. Suffering under brutal exploitation by unaccount-

able mine owners, the West Virginia coal miners began to organize themselves into the United Mine Workers union in 1920. The repression these workers faced was so acute that it sparked what came to be known as The Battle of Blair Mountain, the largest armed uprising on U.S. soil outside the Civil War. These heroic workers faced down 3,000 armed company goons, and the uprising only ended when the U.S. Army was forced to intervene. Still, the workers persevered to secure unionization in 1933, creating one of the strongest forces for workers' rights in U.S. history. Yet the leadership of the UMWA became conservative over time, fighting to maintain an industry that was clearly unsustainable. Unstoppable twin forces have eroded and ultimately destroyed a once proud institution. On one hand, increased automation has decimated West Virginia’s working class, producing

more coal than ever with only a fraction of the labor necessary. On the other, renewable energy has exploded, particularly in China, who is leading the way on renewable investments, beginning to cut into the market share for fossil fuels. The petroleum industry has not yet been hit as hard as coal, but the same forces that crushed the proud coal miners will do the same to oil workers if they stand idly by. The Casper Star-Tribune reported in June 2017 “the long-term trend in the [petroleum] industry, and in most industries, is toward reduced manpower as technology improves and the cost to deploy new methods becomes cheaper.” Business journals are already discussing the important environmental benefits of a shift toward renewable energy. Oilfield workers who stick their heads in the sand over this will only be hurting themselves and their families.

However, there is hope. A study by Harvard Business Review found that the “growth of solar-related employment could benefit coal workers, by easily absorbing the coal-industry layoffs over the next 15 years and offering full-time careers.” According to Forbes, the renewable energy market is booming. All energy workers facing displacement could have well-paying jobs. One thing all oilfield workers know, however, is no one is going to come and do it for them. If you want something done, and done well, you have to work hard, make sacrifices and earn it. Multibillion dollar oil executives are not going to save you. Politicians are not going to save you. If oilfield workers want their children to have a future, it’s time to buckle down, get organized and fight for an energy transition that will save not just West Texas but the world.


Texas State should offer a scholarship for video games By Carrington Tatum Opinions Columnist Sports and entertainment have a history of being one-track, get-rich-quick opportunities. Electronic sports or “eSports” is the competitive variant of the ubiquitous pastime of video games. While its prevalence is slowly climbing with the potential to be a prime-time sport, eSports also has the potential to be another avenue out of poverty. Take LeBron James, Kendrick Lamar, JK Rowling, Justin Bieber or Oprah Winfrey for example. Each of these individuals lived a low-income lifestyle prior to being some of the biggest entities in their respective fields. However, the one similarity between each of their successes is that they are based in sports or entertainment. The reason behind why most of the greatest come up stories are based in athletics or the arts has to do with accessibility. It is no secret that when you are born into a low-income life, it is very difficult to escape the vicious cycle of poverty due to various systemic factors. Oftentimes, it becomes a struggle between securing their family's next meal and distracting themselves from the physical and emotional pain that comes with poverty. However, rather than turning to drugs or crime, occasionally individuals will choose to hone a craft that they can access. That is what makes football, basketball and the arts so potent. Footballs and basketballs can be cheaply made and the sports do not require expensive equipment for someone to become

highly skilled. eSports is no different, it too has a low cost of entry; with about 80 percent of households already owning a gaming console. The culture of eSports is predominantly middle to upper-class white males attempting to dethrone the few Koreans who dominate most games. However, this culture serves as an opportunity for impoverished communities in the U.S. because shortcomings of the league, in regards to its entertainment value, are likely linked directly to its shortcomings in diversity. eSports is also a young industry fueled primarily by tech companies buying teams for the ad space. There is plenty of room for commercial growth with merchandising and syndication. However, even without utilizing everything eSports leagues have to offer, the sport is still a multimillion-dollar spectacle. This year’s prize pool for the most popular and longest running competitive game DOTA 2 is $24 million dollars, and the winnings have increased every year since the tournament began. It is clear that there are opportunities to obtain worthy compensations in eSports. Therefore, colleges and high schools should respect it as a serious form of competition and create opportunities around them. There are plenty of kids who already spend much of their time playing video games. If colleges establish scholarships for eSports players it allows impoverished students another avenue to afford college, whilst allowing schools to tap into a multimillion-dollar industry. Society could continue to perpetuate the faux classism surrounding gaming


and geek culture as they scoff at the idea of video games being a sport, or we could recognize the win-win opportunity at hand and encourage the youth to get good at video games. The same way we encourage basketball players to be good at their sport. There is no difference between the cerebral tenacity required to play a video game at an intellectual level to that of any other mainstream sport. In

fact, hand-eye coordination and reaction times are integral to video games the same way football and basketball require. Neither sports nor entertainment are by any means a solution to poverty. However, while we work to uproot the systematic issues that perpetuate poverty in certain communities, it is good to create avenues that can help at least a few individuals escape such hardships.



The University Star


Tuesday, October 10, 2017 | 7 Lisette Lopez Sports Editor @lisette_1023 @universitystar


The Sun Belt Conference keeps growing By Andrew Zimmel Sports Reporter Texas State has been a member of the Sun Belt Conference since 2013, but in the last five years, the conference has grown. With growth comes stronger opponents and better competition. This is especially true when it comes to the conference's football division, with six teams gaining eligibility for bowl games last season. "If you look at post-season bowl success as a measurement," Karl Benson, commissioner of the Sun Belt Conference, said. "Last year for the first time in history, we had six teams go to bowl games, and four of those teams won bowl games, which was better than our peer conferences." Benson, who took over as commissioner around the same time Texas State joined the conference, has seen progress. "The Sun Belt has improved as a football playing conference in those five years," Benson said. South Alabama's Head Football Coach, Joey Jones, the longest tenured Sun Belt coach, shared similar feelings as Benson about last season's success carrying over into 2017. "I think this league is as good as it’s ever been," Jones said. "We’ve got a bunch of teams that have got to the point where they can compete with the other peer conferences. There used to be two teams that dominated the conference, now you have a bunch of teams that have been able to catch up with those guys." Benson discussed the differences between Power 5 conferences that have two top teams and the SBC that has many different teams all fighting for the top spot "We’ve had six bowl-eligible teams. Last year is a demonstration that we have depth in our conference membership," Benson said. "That’s a fact. We

Damian Williams, graduate quarterback, stretches for a touchdown Sept. 2 against Houston Baptist University. PHOTO BY VICTOR RODRIGUEZ | ASSISTANT MULTIMEDIA EDITOR

had a team last year for the first (time) in history break into the (AP) Top 25. It didn’t last very long, unfortunately, but Troy jumped into that top 25 ranking for the first time. Those are probably the measurements you could use." Coach Jones got his start with the team in 2009, and continued as the team's head coach as the school transitioned from Division I FCS to a Division I FBS school in 2012. Since then, Jones had a 49-46 overall record, which could be a testament to how quickly the competition in the conference is increasing. “I think it’s the universities that have put in the money and the effort to become great," Jones said. "You've got

people putting their money where their mouth is when it comes to spending money to be competitive. That’s why they have competitive teams. That’s why the league has become much better.” One of the reasons some Sun Belt teams have been able to recruit better players is a number of conference games teams have played and who they've played. Recently, the Sun Belt Conference has been able to compete with teams from bigger conferences. "I think that the only way that a team from the Sun Belt Conference is going to get on a New Year’s Eve bowl by being almost undefeated or being 11-1--that’s the only way to get into a New Year’s Bowl," Jones said.

Commissioner Benson agrees with Coach Jones, and said anyone who beats a Power 5 team gets the recognition that comes with it. "I’ve said many times that it’s just as important to win those games against our peer conferences as it is to win those games against the Power 5," Benson said. "It’s a combination of those wins against the Power 5s and the wins against the group of five conferences." Benson said he would like to see the team improve this year. "(In five years) I’d like to see us be the highest-ranked conference among our peer, and I’d like to see our champion the highest-ranked champion in the nation," Benson said.

8 | Tuesday, October 10 , 2017


The University Star Lisette Lopez Sports Editor @lisette_1023 @universitystar

FOOTBALL A.J. Krawczyk, junior safety guard, lines up before the snap Sept. 2 against Houston Baptist University at Bobcat Stadium.




By Brooke Phillips Assistant Sports Editor Playing football at the collegiate level is an achievement young athletes dream about. However, getting to that level is not a guarantee. A.J. Krawczyk, junior safety, began his college football career at Texas State as a walk-on his freshman year. Krawczyk was not guaranteed a spot on the team, and he sat out as a redshirt. Although he began as a running back and wide receiver, it was not long until Krawczyk switched to the safety position.

“The transition wasn’t too bad,” Krawczyk said. “I have great coaches that allow me to work into what I need to. If it weren’t for the coaches, it would’ve probably been harder to transition.” In his second year, Krawczyk played in four games. It was not until last season that he saw more playing time. Krawczyk earned a scholarship before the 2016 season began, and played in 10 games that season. “It was huge,” Krawczyk said. “I’ve always been working toward that and to finally reach that goal is pretty big.” Since earning his scholarship, Krawc-


zyk has started in all of the games in the current 2017 season. “It’s pretty big,” Krawczyk said. “Just to have coaches trust me like that is pretty big. It’s a big responsibility even if you only touch the field for one play.” Getting to the level where he now was not easy for Krawczyk. “Working with coach A.B. in the summer has been the biggest part,” Krawczyk said. “He’s been pushing us over the summer in those hot days. That’s pretty much what’s worked us up until now in the season.” Although Texas State was the only Division I school that accepted Kraw-

czyk to walk-on to a team to play football, being a Bobcat is a choice he will always be grateful for. “My favorite part about playing football at Texas State is getting to be a part of a family and getting to meet new people,” Krawczyk said. “These people are going to be my best friends and family for the rest of my life so it’s just an add-on to my family.” In addition to his coaches, his teammates have also had a major impact on him. “The morality of the team keeps me positive and people pushing me on both sides; my family and my teammates,” Krawczyk said. “My coaches are really good about that, too. Both of my parents come to my games too so it’s pretty cool.” Being a part of the team has helped Krawczyk become the athlete he is today. “I would say my teammates keep (me) positive,” Krawczyk said. “Our coaches say 'fight on,' which is just: fight on and drive on. The next play is the most important. The most important part of the season is the next game.” As an upperclassman, Krawczyk tries to embody humility and be a role model for the underclassmen. “I hope to influence the people on the field under me to do it right and do it right all the time,” Krawczyk said. “I would say everyone on the team is a role model. Even if you have the smallest part on the field, you still influence everybody else just as much as the next person.” The 2017 season is almost halfway over and Krawczyk continues to focus on one game at a time.


Senior soccer player takes game to next level in final year By Anthony Flores Sports Reporter

Amy Pflughaupt, sophomore outside hitter, spikes the ball Sept. 24 against Troy University. PHOTO BY VICTOR RODRIGUEZ | ASSISTANT MULTIMEDIA EDITOR

Volleyball player takes alternate route to Texas State By Melea Polk Sports Reporter Although sophomore outside hitter Amy Pflughaupt has taken a long road to get to the Texas State volleyball court, she plans to finish her last three years here. The story of how Pflughaupt began her volleyball career is by no means a fairy tale. “I started in junior high and began to really like it a lot,” Pflughaupt said. “I decided to continue playing all the way through high school.” Pflughaupt was a highly decorated volleyball player at El Campo High School. She was an all-district first team honoree all four years, Newcomer of the Year her freshman year and a first team all-region selection her senior year. In addition to volleyball, Pflughaupt was a stand out in basketball, softball and track. She was a two-time all-region selection and district MVP her junior year in basketball and a two-time all-district center fielder in softball. Pflughaupt was also selected to play for Texstar, a select club volleyball team out of Weimar, Texas. With such a major presence on the volleyball court, Pflughaupt decided to take her talents back to basketball after graduation in 2015. She decided to sign with the Association Free Lutheran Bible School in Plymouth, Minnesota. “I decided to take a year off from volleyball to play basketball,” Pflughaupt said. “I chose AFLBS mostly because my brothers went there and it was connected to my church.” After a year in Minnesota, Pflughaupt came to the conclusion that she missed volleyball and wanted to play again. In 2016, she transferred to Wharton County Junior College to

play for the Pioneers. “After that year, I really started to miss volleyball so I decided to come back,” Pflughaupt said. “Wharton was really cool. It was a step up from high school because it was competitive.” Pflughaupt competed in all 33 matches at WCJC and led the team with 398 kills and 480 points. At the end of the season, Pflughaupt earned Newcomer of the Year and was named to the all-conference first team. “It was an honor to receive these awards, but I was not playing for them,” Pflughaupt said. “I was just doing my part to help the team and they came with it.” After her lone season at WCJC, Pflughaupt transferred to Texas State. Pflughaupt’s choice to move to San Marcos was based on the coaching staff and how others portrayed the school as a whole. “I kept asking how (good) the coaching staff (was). It was important to me that the coaches were personable and broke everything down for me," Pflughaupt said. "Here, they do all of that and more. Plus, it is an honor to play for the legendary coach Chisum.” Finding a place in her new San Marcos family was easy for Pflughaupt. She credits that to the fact that everyone is so friendly and goofy. “I would definitely say our team is probably the goofiest and competitive team out there," Pflughaupt said. "We are always laughing and having a good time, but we play to win.” Although Pflughaupt is only a few hours away from home, she does miss her parents, Gary and Bonnie, and her brothers, Travis, Daniel and Timothy. “I am kind of a homebody,” Pflughaupt said. “I do miss my family sometimes, but I am still excited to be out here on my own.”

Often in sports when an athlete reaches the end of their career, they refuse to leave the sport they’ve dedicated much of their lives to without leaving a lasting impression. Kassi Hormuth looks to do just that in her final season with the women’s soccer team. “I give it my all in every game, but especially this year because it is the very end,” Hormuth said. “We have six conference games left. You've got to give it everything while you’re out there, take it all in.” Ten games into the 2017 season, Hormuth has already matched her 2016 goal total, at three goals in the season so far and picked up an impressive game-winning header off a corner kick against Arkansas State on Sept. 24. From Cedar Park, Texas, the senior forward has been playing soccer since she was four. Along with her brother and sister, Hormuth was raised in a sports-oriented family. In high school, she sampled multiple sports before finally choosing soccer. “My brother played football and baseball growing up," Hormuth said. "My sister is playing soccer now. She’s in seventh grade (and has) been playing since she was 4 also.” Hormuth has received several accolades in her time at Texas State. She made the Sun Belt Conference Commissioner’s list back-to-back and was named Texas State’s 2016 Offensive MVP. Aside from the soccer program, it was a combination of factors that helped the senior forward choose Texas State as her home for four years. “I’ve always had an interest in education, and I knew Texas State was a really good education prep school,” Hormuth said. “My mom came here and she loved it. I love the river and being outdoors.” As the end of her collegiate sports career looms and with just one more year left, Hormuth has begun looking at what path she’ll take after college. The wear and tear of playing soccer for so long

and the desire for new experiences play a major part in the senior’s decision. “Within the last year I’ve been looking into going into the Peace Corps, teaching wherever they place me overseas for two years,” Hormuth said. “But I also thought about playing after. I’m not sure though, it depends on how my legs feel.” Hormuth sees the Peace Corps as a great opportunity to experience the world outside of her own bubble and to help those in need. “I’ve always been wanting to go to new places and that it’s a great way to give back,” Hormuth said. It was a conversation with a former coach that showed Hormuth what continuing to play soccer may have to offer after her time with Texas State reaches its conclusion. “I ran into one of my old club coaches the other day,” Hormuth said. “He said some of his old girls had gone to play in Iceland so that sparked my interest, too.” Of all the memories Hormuth has collected over her four years, the memory of her first collegiate goal and the feeling that came with it still resonates strongly with the senior. “My freshman year, our very first game, I scored my very first collegiate goal against Houston Baptist University,” Hormuth said. “The first collegiate goal, first game. It was an unreal start to this college journey.” Hormuth credits her time playing soccer as an important influence in preparing her for the next phase of her life and her potential teaching career. “Working and being with the team for so long teaches you how to work with people and understand different points of view,” Hormuth said. “Being a captain this year, learning to lead, I think

Kassi Hormuth, senior forward, scores one of three goals during their 3-0 win over University of Louisiana at Lafayette Oct. 8 at the Bobcat Soccer Complex. PHOTO BY KIRBY CRUMPLER

that would carry over into the classroom. It’s given me a lot of life skills over the years.”

October 10, 2017  
October 10, 2017