Discover 2019

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Research with a global impact the people, discoveries and stories behind our research

Professor Liz Towns-Andrews, awarded the Queen’s Award for Enterprise Promotion in 2013

The University of Huddersfield’s researchers are committed to solving the problems and answering the questions posed by industry, science and society as a whole. Our magazine, Discover, tells the stories behind our research and highlights the impact this work has on the world we all live in. Join the discussions around our research: @WeLoveResearch #hudresearch PROFESSOR LIZ TOWNS-ANDREWS DIRECTOR OF RESEARCH AND ENTERPRISE 3M PROFESSOR OF INNOVATION

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Research with a



Discover 2019

Contents Research with a global impact 04 Holocaust Exhibition and Learning Centre provides new research opportunities

22 The seeds of life

08 Tackling jury bias in rape trials

26 Global success for Huddersfield Contemporary Records


24 Legacy of Ted Hughes lives on

Geophysicist joins €100 million Arctic exploration project See page 12

Modernising China’s villages

12 Geophysicist joins €100 million Arctic exploration project 14

The Dreaming of Trees


Cyber security means business

30 Immersing listeners in 3D sound 32 Seawater fuel discovery reduces demands on freshwater use 34 New research from the University of Huddersfield Press

18 Improving prospects for children of prisoners 20 Early warning system

Global success for Huddersfield Contemporary Article here? Records See See page page 26 ?

To find out more about our research and to keep up to date with the latest research news, visit: To find out more about the researchers featured in Discover visit The University of Huddersfield Research Portal: You can also get involved with discussions around our research by joining our online community: @weloveresearch #hudresearch

Holocaust Exhibition and Learning Centre provides new research opportunities For more information on the Holocaust Exhibition and Learning Centre email:

The Holocaust Exhibition and Learning Centre opened at the University of Huddersfield in September 2018 as a major educational and research destination, and the only one of its kind in the North of England. The Centre’s archive material has been collected by the Holocaust Survivors’ Friendship Association in Yorkshire, which focuses on the experience of Holocaust survivors and refugees from Nazi Germany and occupied Europe.

Holocaust-era research Housed at the University’s Heritage Quay archive service, the collection is yet to be catalogued and presents a new opportunity for Holocaust-era research. The collection contains two substantial family archives and the Centre is actively collating material from survivors in the region. Director of the Centre, Emma King hopes that the original archive will trigger new research, not least because the oral history material consists of interviews in English. “Our growing collection of testimony from survivors hasn’t been used for academic research so far. It’s waiting to be discovered. Another strength of the archive is the large number of photographs, images from pre-war Jewish life,” says Emma. Emma anticipates that themes raised at the Centre,

like the Kindertransport - which saw 10,000 Jewish children given refuge in the UK – will be relevant to contemporary debates and research such as the treatment of refugees, human rights and the rise of 21st century populism and fascism. There are further opportunities in pedagogical research, as the Centre runs learning workshops for school and community groups. “Much of the existing body of research about Holocaust education focuses on classroom practice. I’m interested in gaining a better understanding of how out of school learning in exhibitions like ours can contribute to students’ knowledge and understanding of the Holocaust, as well as its impact on attitudes and values,” explains Emma.

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Trude Silman, HSFA’s Life President

Exhibition artefacts The exhibition is a permanent home for the personal stories of survivors, as well as artefacts showing daily life in the Nazi concentration camps, items brought by refugees and Kindertransport children and records of Nazi persecution. The mechanics of the Holocaust are described and there are explorations of how the civilian populations of the Third Reich responded to the atrocity. Touchscreens enable visitors to see and hear refugee and survivor testimonies. Physical heritage includes survivors’ personal documents and possessions, such as a yellow star, and an original concentration camp prisoner uniform on loan from the concentration camp memorial site at Mittelbau-Dora in Germany.

Spotlight Emma King DIRECTOR OF THE HOLOCAUST EXHIBITION AND LEARNING CENTRE Director Emma King has degrees in archaeology and history and in museums studies, and has worked in the museum sector since the late 1990s, holding posts in Kirklees, Liverpool and Sheffield. Emma ran an independent consultancy business for 13 years before taking up her post at the Centre.

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An original concentration camp prisoner uniform on loan from the memorial site at Mittelbau-Dora in Germany

Museum Accreditation Next for the Centre is an application for Museum Accreditation, which would demonstrate its ability to meet nationally agreed standards for visitor services, education and the management and care of its collection. The Accreditation scheme could pave the way to new sources of funding.

About the Holocaust Exhibition and Learning Centre The Centre was created by the Holocaust Survivors’ Friendship Association (HSFA) a registered charity which was set up in 1996 by a group of Holocaust survivors – in partnership with the University.

Its funding includes more than £600,000 from the Heritage Lottery Fund with additional contributions from the University and major charities and individual donors, including the Pears Foundation, the Association of Jewish Refugees and the Toni Schiff Memorial Foundation. The Centre houses 300 square metres of exhibition space plus learning facilities, an auditorium and space for reflection. For more information visit

Tackling jury bias in rape trials

Simulated trials Simulated trial

Are the preconceptions that jurors hold about rape affecting the outcomes of trials? Groundbreaking research by Dr Dominic Willmott suggests that the answer to that question is ‘yes’ – and his work has led to discussions with the UK’s key law makers and law enforcers that could result in significant changes to how rape trials are run. The results of a series of mock trials, based on real cases and organised by Dr Willmott, plus survey work around them went towards the PhD he completed in 2017. It showed that attitudes towards rape mean that jurors are not as impartial as often thought, and that the decisions they came to were based on their previously held beliefs about rape – and not on trial evidence or deliberations. Because of the findings, the possibility that rape trials are held in front of only a judge rather than a jury is being discussed at a high level. The study has become known as ‘the Huddersfield Research’ in legal circles, and Dr Willmott has spoken about it with agencies including the Crown Prosecution Service, the Ministry of Justice and the Judicial Office. He also presented to an audience including Metropolitan Police Assistant Commissioner Martin Hewitt, national police lead for adult sexual offences, at New Scotland Yard in July 2018.

Simulated trials

Dr Willmott hit upon an innovative way to test his theories about jury bias. Helped by then supervisor Professor Daniel Boduszek, he arranged a series of simulated one-day trials held in the Law School’s Mock Courtroom and George Buckley lecture theatre at the University. Huddersfield students and residents were recruited as jurors to hear proceedings from a real trial, first on video, and later in more depth by using professional actors. Real-life barristers and judges also participated, and the jurors were surveyed on their attitudes towards rape before and after the trials. These findings were then assessed along with the verdicts, which were most frequently a ‘not guilty’ outcome. This screening showed that not guilty verdicts were commonly underpinned by the concept of ‘Rape Myth Acceptance’ – agreeing with commonly-held beliefs, such as that most rape victims are attacked by strangers. In fact, 90% of victims do know their attacker.

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Rape myths affecting verdicts “We found that Rape Myth Acceptance was significantly predictive of not guilty verdicts. This shows that assumptions we have about the impartiality of jurors is inaccurate,” declares Dr Willmott. “The evidence from these simulations was that the views held by the juror when they enter the courtroom explain their verdicts – regardless of the evidence and deliberation jurors undertake.” The simulated trials even included the judges instructing juries that their decisions should only be based on the evidence shown to them. “What we found is the judge’s direction had no effect whatsoever,” Dr Willmott adds. “Rape myths are constructed over long periods of time, from a young age. They are deep rooted, like racist attitudes, so any direction a judge gives, or a leaflet given pre-trial, is unlikely to change that. It won’t work.”

Spotlight Dr Dominic Willmott RESEARCH FELLOW, SCHOOL OF HUMAN & HEALTH SCIENCES Dr Willmott joined the University in 2017 as a Research Fellow within the None-in-Three Research Centre for GenderBased Violence, and previously held teaching and research posts at the University of Chester, Leeds Trinity University and the University of Essex. He is a member of the Quantitative Research Methods Training Unit (QRM-TU) with a specialism in Legal and Criminal Psychology. His research is focused upon the application of psychological principles within criminal justice domains. His primary area of expertise relates to jury decision making and the role of psychosocial factors within the courtroom.

The answer may be that rape cases be heard by a judge rather than in front of a jury. “Our research is the most realistic replication ever done in the UK, and from it there is a real opportunity for genuine policy change, meaning a greater number of rape victims may get the justice they deserve.”

For more information on the research in this article email:

Dr Dominic Willmott

Modernising China’s villages Research from academics at the University of Huddersfield’s Centre for Urban Design, Architecture and Sustainability is helping to modernise villages in China while preserving the important traditions of rural life. The Sustainable and Creative Village Research Network is advising academics, architects, planners, local administrators and villagers in Southwest China. Its work stems from the expansion of China’s cities in recent decades, which has seen large numbers of the rural population moving to urban areas, driven by the prospect of higher living standards.

An example of Dai house in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, built in a traditional style using new materials for the balcony and roof.

Consequently, the region has a large low-income rural population. China’s government made revitalising the area and its people a priority in 2005, and identified its large numbers of traditional villages for preservation and tourism.

Sustainable village modernisation An example of a new house in rural Southwest China. Some villagers prefer this modern style, but it reflects little of the area’s traditions or ethnic makeup.

Sustainable village modernisation The Network’s aim is to support village modernisation in a sustainable way. It is helping to understand the issues faced, developing better advice on solutions for building design and construction, and promoting heritage skills in rural villages. New buildings are improving living standards and generating better economic prospects for rural residents. Professor Adrian Pitts and Dr Yun Gao established the Research Network in 2017. Professor Pitts has a technical background in sustainability and urban development, including work assessing plans for the London Olympics of 2012. Dr Gao has been active in researching design issues in the villages of Southwest China. The research was pragmatic and locally based, starting around 10 years ago following study visits with students. Data on the needs of villagers was gathered and Dr Gao met with groups in the region ranging from architects to village elders. Their collaboration on research into improving buildings and facilities triggered a realisation that the principles of forward-thinking, sustainable urban development could also be applied to villages. This has been reported in academic papers and at conferences, and the award of a Research Network grant from the Arts and Humanities Research Council improved reach and significance. Consequently, a research centre has been established at Chongqing Jiaotong University in China and there are discussions about two more.

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Modern yet traditional Reflecting the ethnic and cultural diversity of China is vital to the Research Network. Many of China’s 56 ethnic groups are in the Southwest, a region that shares borders with Laos, Vietnam and Myanmar. The building design in the area has traditionally reflected the heritage of its residents. But earlier housing redevelopment had often failed to reflect inherited traditions because of the rapid adoption of new building materials and technologies.

Building for a sustainable future The Network is also advising local authorities and academics on designing shops and arts and crafts centres. With many men of working age having left for the cities, the remaining population has struggled to maintain the traditional reliance on agriculture. China’s government

sees potential in tourism, and the Network’s guidance is helping villages to meet this, as well as modernising their housing. Dr Gao and Professor Pitts used examples of redevelopment from close to Huddersfield to demonstrate what can be done. At a meeting at Guizhou Minzu University in early 2018, the industrial villages of Saltaire and Elsecar in Yorkshire were shown as examples of how a traditional area can be revitalised. The Research Network has also spread the work of the Chinese University of Hong Kong and Kunming University of Science and Technology in developing earthquakeresistant buildings.

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Spotlight Professor Adrian Pitts PROFESSOR OF SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE, SCHOOL OF ART, DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE Professor Pitts joined the University in 2012 and leads the Sustainable Environments and Practice research group within CUDAS (the Centre for Urban Design, Architecture and Sustainability) in the Department of Architecture and 3D Design. He has taught environmental and energy efficient design, supervised numerous research projects and research students and published widely over a period exceeding 25 years in three different universities.

Dr Yun Gao DEPARTMENTAL LEAD, TEACHING AND LEARNING, SCHOOL OF ART, DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE After receiving her PhD from the University of Edinburgh, Dr Gao worked with architectural practices in Bristol and became a RIBA (Royal Institute of British Architects) Chartered Architect and ARB (Architects Registration Board) Registered Architect before joining the University of Huddersfield in 2005. Dr Gao has held a Visiting Professorship at the Yunnan Arts University in China since 2010 and was awarded the title of Distinguished Professor in Chongqing Jiaotong University from 1 January 2017 to 30 December 2018.

Geophysicist joins €100 million Arctic exploration project

The University of Huddersfield’s Dr Phil Hwang is an accomplished Arctic researcher who has already made 15 voyages to the region, observing, recording and analysing seasonal changes in the ice. The data he gathers makes an important contribution to the scientific debate over climate change. When he next travels to the Arctic region, he will be participating in MOSAiC (Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate) - the biggest single Arctic research expedition ever planned - thanks to almost £300,000 in funding from the UK Government-backed Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). The project’s total cost will be over 100 million euros. MOSAiC is a global project which includes scientists from 16 countries and more than 60 institutions. “The results of MOSAiC will contribute to understanding the regional and global consequences of Arctic climate change and sea-ice loss,” explains Dr Hwang.

Arctic researcher Dr Phil Hwang

Arctic sea-ice decline The Arctic is the region where climate change is at its fastest, with sea-ice in rapid decline. There is an urgent need for new, improved methods of modelling and predicting these changes, which have an impact on weather patterns around the world. The new overall project, which Dr Hwang will join, will be co-ordinated by the AlfredWegener Institute. The plan is to allow the Polarstern, the 120m-long research vessel, to be frozen into the Arctic sea-ice in the winter of 2019 and then allow the ship to spend the next year drifting south with the ice for more than 700 miles, with teams of scientists on board. Dr Hwang stresses that the Polarstern will not move under its own power. It will be carried by the ice for an average distance of about six miles a day, with the speed of the flow being more rapid in the summer.

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Arctic survey Now that his proposal to take part in MOSAiC has received NERC backing, Dr Hwang is beginning to make preparations. “Setting out from a departure point in northern Europe or Russia, we will probably join the Polarstern in July 2020 and remain on board for two months, having been “ferried” to the research vessel by an icebreaker, although helicopter travel might also be necessary. We will all have polar bear protection and specialist training.” He will take with him some speciallydesigned and constructed buoys equipped with GPS devices that are capable of tracking the movement of ice with extreme precision. The goal of Dr Hwang and his coinvestigator Dr Jinchang Ren, of the University of Strathclyde, is to investigate what is known as the marginal ice zone and the patterns which increasingly see winter ice deforming and then breaking up in the spring and melting in the summer. It is believed that greater understanding of these seasonal ice floes can lead to better models for climate prediction. “We have satellite observation that can see what is happening alongside the ship. But if we want to measure how the individual ice is breaking up and melting, satellite cannot resolve that. In simple terms, we have to be there to go and measure it.”

Dr Phil Hwang

Spotlight Dr Byongjun (Phil) Hwang SENIOR LECTURER IN BIOLOGICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES, SCHOOL OF APPLIED SCIENCES Dr Hwang is a geophysicist and remote sensing specialist researching the dynamics and thermodynamics of snow and sea-ice in the Arctic. Since completing his PhD from the University of Manitoba, Canada in 2008, his Arctic research has attracted research grants from UK NERC & Royal Society, EU and the US Office of Naval Research.

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The Dreaming of Trees An indigenous community in Central America, living traditionally in one of the world’s richest biomes, is providing the inspiration for a truly experiential and contemplative theatre work project, aimed at highlighting the process of climate change and its worrying effects. ‘The Dreaming of Trees’ has been developed by lead researchers, Dr Deborah Middleton, Senior Lecturer in Drama at the University of Huddersfield, and Nicolás Núñez, Visiting Professor from UNAM, Mexico, through their work with the Guna community in remote Panama. The Guna has sustained an autonomous, traditional lifestyle in the comarca (indigenous province) of Guna Yala in Panama, living between forest and sea, and are noted for their traditional forest management techniques. They are also at the forefront of climate change, experiencing rising sea-levels that threaten their islands and their culture. As such, the population has a sophisticated understanding of ecology and our inter-relationship with the planet. In the tiny, traditional village of Armila, the project research team worked with the Guna community, gaining access to their traditional wisdom regarding the local trees and the opportunity to experience immersion in a jungle environment. Dr Middleton says the encounter with the Guna people and the place provided the basis for a “deeply experiential and contemplative” research project, combining several strands. Contemplative and psychophysical exercises as mechanisms for audience participation; performance text as guided contemplation; and training for contemplative and immersive theatre were all incorporated into the team’s work.

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Theatre in the woods The result was the creation of an ecological, immersive performance event, The Dreaming of Trees, combining the meditation-in-movement and ritual dynamics of Núñez with a contemplative performance text written by Dr Middleton. Taking place in woodland settings, the performance was shared as a work-inprogress in Armila, Panama in June 2017, and premiered in Mexico City in the forest park of Chapultepec the following month. “The Dreaming of Trees creates a channel of sensitive communication between Guna Yala and audiences in Mexico and the UK, mediated through a contemplative artistic process,” Dr Middleton explains. “The team had an extraordinary opportunity to learn from an indigenous community, living traditionally in one of the world’s richest biomes, and to use the encounter with the people and the place as the basis for a deeply experiential and contemplative theatre work.” The Dreaming of Trees builds on numerous prior collaborations between the various team members, but especially on Puentes Invisibles, a contemplative and participatory performance experience in the forest of Chapultepec, Mexico City in November 2016. Also involved in the project were Helena Guardia, Taller de Investigación Teatral, Mexico, Dr Domingo Adame, Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico, and Caroline Clay, Postgraduate Research student, Drama, University of Huddersfield.

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Spotlight Dr Deborah Middleton

1 Image 1: Nicolás Núñez (far left) and Deborah Middleton (second right), with members of the team, preparing for their contemplative training process in the jungle of Guna Yala, Panama. (Photo credit: Sofie Iversen) Image 2: The project team arriving in the remote village of Armila, in the Guna Yala comarca, Panama (from left: Domingo Adame, Nicolás Núñez, Deborah Middleton). (Photo credit: Caroline Clay)


SENIOR LECTURER IN DRAMA, SCHOOL OF MUSIC, HUMANITIES AND MEDIA An audio version of The Dreaming of Trees was cocreated with Julio d’Escrivan for the exhibition, Wild Within, curated by La Wayaka Current in London in July/August 2018. The audio and an illustrated, special edition publication of the texts have been published by Leonora Press under Middleton’s pen-name, Deborah Templeton. In 2019, a new contemplative audio version will be developed with Professor Monty Adkins; designed for headphone listening in the outdoors, this version will guide listeners into the creation of their own contemplative forest experience.

Cyber Security means business In a society increasingly reliant on digital communications and working practices, cyber security is a growing issue for UK individuals and businesses alike. The continual threat to cyber security is something the Government is taking increasingly seriously, and ministers are boosting investment and resources to help protect systems, networks and data from potential ‘cyber attacks’. For an academic at the University of Huddersfield, this real concern over risks to our online security has provided the opportunity to convert his interest in artificial intelligence and cyber security into a useable tool available on the marketplace. Through a government funded development programme aimed at helping find solutions to the issue, Dr Simon Parkinson has developed a piece of software, dubbed ‘Creeper’, to help companies fight the cyber threat by tackling ‘permissions creep’.

Creeper ‘Permissions creep’ happens when employees at an organisation accrue and retain increasing numbers of permissions to gain access to that organisation’s file systems and directories throughout their careers. Permissions no longer relevant to a person’s job might never be revoked, and this increases the vulnerability of computer networks. With the development of Creeper, Dr Parkinson has provided open source software available as a free to download app. It uses machine learning to autonomously detect whether a user’s permissions are consistent with those of other users, or if they warrant further investigation. Creeper is able to calculate a benchmark level of what it thinks is normal and look for outliers that do not match that.

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Spotlight Dr Simon Parkinson The Creeper project came out of a £25,000 three-month Researcher in Residence programme at the Bradford-based Digital Catapult Centre (DCC) Yorkshire, backed by Innovate UK, in 2017. Following his PhD, which focused on the use of Artificial Intelligence in the manufacturing industry, Dr Parkinson’s research now looks at developing intelligent and automated solutions in cyber security. He won his place (one of six) after submitting a bid which leveraged his previous research around identifying potential vulnerabilities in security permissions that may result in a cyber attack. The importance of managing permissions and privileges is one of the ‘10 Steps to Cyber Security’ issued by the Government to coincide with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) that replaced the Data Protection Act in May 2018. The GDPR could see increased fines for businesses failing to keep on top of data security. Something which makes the development of Creeper especially timely. “Commercial requirements are key to underpinning any paid-for research project, and the purpose of focusing on cyber security is prompted by its increasing profile among businesses who are looking for solutions on how to protect systems,” Dr Parkinson says.

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LECTURER IN INFORMATICS, SCHOOL OF COMPUTING AND ENGINEERING Dr Parkinson received a first class degree (hons) in Secure and Forensic Computing from the University of Huddersfield. Following this he gained a PhD entitled the Construction of Machine Tool Calibration Plans Using DomainIndependent Automated Planning also from the University of Huddersfield.

Future proof Also in 2016, the Government’s National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) was set up, with three key aims: to help protect critical services from cyber attacks, to manage major incidents and to improve internet security. Recent figures published by the NCSC indicate that small or mediumsized enterprises (SMEs) are, somewhat alarmingly, subject to a 1 in 2 chance of experiencing a cyber security breach. In keeping with this finding, Dr Parkinson says the key users of the Creeper app have indeed been SMEs. He now intends to examine how the app is being used in these businesses and in a variety of other businesses and settings.

Improving prospects for children of prisoners The effects of having a parent in prison can have devastating consequences for children, but the benefits of groundbreaking research into the subject from the University of Huddersfield are having an impact in the UK and around the world.

COPING’s findings included:

The COPING project – Children of Prisoners Interventions and Mitigations to Strengthen Mental Health - ran from 2010 to 2013. It examined the mental health, wellbeing and resilience of children with imprisoned parents. Its findings have generated further projects and initiatives.

• Being able to visit an incarcerated parent kept children resilient

Prior to the COPING project, evidence suggested that children of prisoners would have behavioural difficulties, educational problems and financial hardship. But there was a lack of hard evidence on the extent of these issues, their causes and what, if any, services were available to those affected. Academics from Huddersfield partnered with universities and NGOs (non-governmental organisations) from Sweden, Germany and Romania to survey around 250 children from each country who had a parent in prison.

• Children of prisoners were 25-50% more likely to have mental health issues than those who did not have a parent in jail • There was a lack of sympathy for children of prisoners, and a feeling of stigmatism

• Phone contact was important and valuable for both children and parent • Support from school or a sympathetic teacher was crucial in aiding children

Children’s input is vital “Hearing from children themselves was a vital part of COPING,” says Ben Raikes, Senior Lecturer in Social Work at the University of Huddersfield. “Projects involving children often tend to have adults reporting on their behalf. One of the aspects of COPING we are proudest of was when, through our ties with the Quaker United Nations Office, two young British people each with a parent in prison addressed a meeting of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. As far as we know this had never happened before. “It was the largest study of its kind, and the first of its kind to gather such a large volume of relevant information on the lived experience of these children into one place.”

Ben Raikes: “This drawing is by ‘Jake’ (a pseudonym), whose father was in prison. Jake was taunted at school about this, and his drawing depicts his belief that his father was sleeping in a bed with electric bars that would electrocute him if they were touched.”

COPING’s report was published online in 2013, and since then its findings have been used to influence policy and effect change in several countries. Prosecutors in Mexico have undergone training that draws on COPING findings to emphasise the effects on children if a parent is jailed. In Germany, Bavarian police carry cards containing information about sources of support for families that they hand

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For more information on the research in this article email:

out at the time when a parent is being arrested. This was inspired by COPING’s recommendations in relation to the importance of sensitive police practice at the time of arrest.

Ongoing global impact Francis Ssuubi established the ‘Wells of Hope’ charity after witnessing the effects of incarceration on both fellow prisoners and their children during a jail term of his own in his native Uganda. He contacted Professor Adele Jones, who led the COPING Project, after reading its report. Following visits to Uganda by Adele and Ben, Francis has addressed the UN about the impact of living on Death Row on prisoners and their families. Closer to home in the UK, COPING’s findings about how the arrest of a parent impacts upon a child have been used in training for officers in the Metropolitan Police. COPING’s worldwide impact has also seen the establishment of the International Coalition for Children of Incarcerated Parents (INCCIP). The University of Huddersfield will host INCCIP’s second conference in 2019.


Ben Raikes SENIOR LECTURER IN SOCIAL WORK, SCHOOL OF HUMAN AND HEALTH SCIENCES Ben became Senior Lecturer at Huddersfield in 2010, following roles in and around Manchester including probation officer, mediator and court welfare officer. His published work includes Unsung heroines for the Probation Journal, which looked at the role of the care provided by grandmothers for the children of imprisoned parents.

Early warning system Countries around the Indian Ocean are benefitting from the experience and advice of Professors Dilanthi Amaratunga and Richard Haigh on how they best prepare to cope with a potentially disastrous tsunami. An estimated 270,000 people in the region of the Indian Ocean died as a result of the undersea earthquake that struck off the northern tip of Sumatra in Indonesia on 26 December 2004. The 9.1 magnitude quake set off a tsunami that devastated coastal regions in over 20 countries and reached as far away as Tanzania and South Africa. The lack of a region-wide monitoring and warning system that day undoubtedly contributed to the death toll. Since then, a network of buoys in the Indian Ocean has sent information on sea levels and seismic activity back to regional warning centres in the cities of Hyderabad, Jakarta and Perth. But how data from the system is interpreted and acted upon is vital if populations are to be warned in time.

Tsunami detection buoy

Professors Amaratunga and Haigh were international observers of the Indian Ocean Tsunami Wave Exercise held on 5 September 2018 in Sri Lanka.

Disaster Resilience Professors Amaratunga and Haigh, both Co-Directors of the University of Huddersfield’s Global Disaster Resilience Centre, are vastly experienced in working around disaster resilience and have deep knowledge of the region. In Professor Amaratunga’s case there is a personal aspect to their work – she was in her native Sri Lanka when the Boxing Day tsunami struck, killing an estimated 35,000 people in the country. “There was no warning system in the Indian Ocean before 2004, and on the day itself we knew next to nothing. The tsunami didn’t strike Sri Lanka until three hours after the earthquake,” she says. “The regional warning centres interpret the information and send it out to the 28 countries involved to tell them what the threat level is,” explains Professor Haigh. “It is up to the individual countries to decide what to do next – such as evacuate, put communities on warning, alert emergency services and so-on. “The challenge is that the countries we’re talking about are very different geographically, politically and culturally. Indonesia, for example, has many islands and a decentralised provincial structure, so a decision might be made by a local mayor. Sri Lanka is one island, with a smaller population and a centralised government structure.”

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Spotlight Professor Dilanthi Amaratunga GLOBAL DISASTER RESILIENCE CENTRE CO-DIRECTOR, SCHOOL OF ART, DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE Professor Dilanthi Amaratunga is a leading international expert in disaster resilience with an international reputation. Dilanthi’s vision has always been to be an international leader in disaster risk reduction and management with specific emphasis on the built environment and to champion the under representation of women in this key research area.

The two countries were studied in the Tsunami Interface project – the interface being the point where authorities decide what to do after receiving information and before informing at-risk areas what action to take. Professors Amaratunga and Haigh are the only international experts to be advising the Tsunami Early Warning Group of countries, and have discussed how Sri Lanka and Indonesia’s authorities are set up to cope with a potential tsunami with stakeholders in both countries. “They need a common understanding of what information is to be received and sent,” says Professor Haigh. “There was some misunderstanding about what was coming from their regional warning systems.” Even improving seemingly simple logistics were raised by the Professors when they worked as advisers during the Indian Ocean Wave tsunami exercise in September 2018. Each was in a different control room only a walking distance apart in Colombo, Sri Lanka, but communications between the two centres was almost non-existent apart from fax machines relying on a public line. Changes to the physical layout of the rooms in the Disaster Management Agency

Professor Richard Haigh GLOBAL DISASTER RESILIENCE CENTRE CO-DIRECTOR, SCHOOL OF ART, DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE Professor Richard Haigh joined the University of Huddersfield in 2014 as Co-Director of the Global Disaster Resilience Centre at the School of Art, Design and Architecture. This multidisciplinary Centre is committed to excellence in research and collaboration to improve the resilience of nations and communities to disasters.

For more information on the research in this article email: or

and Meteorology Agency formed part of the recommendations, as well as updating technology and procedures. Next on the agenda for the pair’s work on the project will be assessing responses to different types of earthquakes.

The seeds of life Results from an international research collaboration examining evidence from a pre-historic huntergatherer site in Libya, and involving the University of Huddersfield’s Dr Stefano Vanin, have shed a huge light on how people lived – and ate – as far back as the Holocene age. Dr Vanin, an entomologist and a Reader in Forensic Biology at Huddersfield, joined a team of researchers from Rome and Modena and Reggio Emilia universities in Italy to help establish that people in Saharan Africa were cultivating wild cereals as far back as 10,000 years ago.

Green Sahara Takarkori is an ancient rock shelter site in southwestern Libya. Although now desert, in the Holocene age it was part of the ‘green Sahara’ and wild cereals grew there. The archaeologists working there uncovered more than 200,000 seeds – arranged in small circular concentrations – apparently showing an early form of agriculture involving the harvesting and storage of crops. Dr Vanin was brought onto the project in 2013 to analyse samples from the site, now stored at the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, to help demonstrate that insects were not responsible for the seed concentrations, but rather human activity was. “I was asked to help “complete the story”, Dr Vanin explains. “The preservation of the material is exceptional, and it is organised in such a precise way. It is highly unusual to find this kind of material and more still for archaeologists to recognise it, but fortunately the team working on the field was composed by experienced bioarchaeologists and botanists.” Dr Vanin says the selection of seeds clearly indicates domestication in the way they were processed and farmed, which is different to the way we would have expected seeds to be farmed at the time, and different to the way we do this today. The Takarkori study confirms the first known evidence of storage and cultivation of cereal seeds in Africa, while also offering a wealth of evidence on the impact of climate change over the last 10,000 years. It was found to be covered in green grass and plenty of water sources, evidenced by the plant materials and also the insects found there.

Animals and insects Dr Vanin is currently supervising PhD student Jennifer Pradelli who continues to work on the project, and they now hope to be able to further describe the relationship between humans and animals at the site. They will especially look at parasites examined from burial sites - an often overlooked part of the puzzle which can offer huge insight into the way people lived their lives at the time, including the quality of life and sanitary conditions. The site has already yielded other “hugely interesting” outputs, including evidence of a basket woven from roots that could have been used to gather the seeds. While analysis of pottery demonstrates that cereal soup – seeds and vegetables boiled in water to create food – and cheese were being produced there. The findings are of such significance they have now been published in esteemed journal, Nature Plants. The recently published article, titled Plant behaviour from human imprints and the cultivation of wild cereals in Holocene Sahara, is co-authored by Anna Maria Mercuri, Rita Fornaciari, Marina Gallinaro, Savino di Lernia and Dr Vanin. And Dr Vanin says this multidisciplinary approach – combining research of archaeology, archaebotany and archaeoentomology – from the outset has been “fairly unique”. “It’s not common to preserve everything from a site – insects, animal remains, plants – as so much is normally discarded. It’s the multidisciplinary approach which has marked this project out as so significant in its field.”

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Dr Stefano Vanin


Dr Stefano Vanin READER IN FORENSIC BIOLOGY, SCHOOL OF APPLIED SCIENCES Dr Stefano Vanin is a leading entomologist in the forensic and archaeological fields. He has considerable teaching experience and in 2011 he became a Senior Lecturer in Forensic Biology in the School of Applied Sciences, where he lectures in Forensic Biology, Forensic Entomology, Epidemiology, Data Handling and Crime Scene Investigation. Stefano worked as forensic entomologist in several cases in Italy and he is involved in several projects where

the study of insects is useful to reconstruct past events: from the identification of the World War I soldiers found in the Italian Alps to the reconstruction of the funerary practices of animal mummies in the Peruvian archaeological sites and from the search of pathogens in fleas from Mediterranean archaeological contexts to the understanding of the human habits in North Africa 10,000 years ago.

Legacy of Ted Hughes lives on Public engagement The University of Huddersfield is helping to ensure that the legacy of Ted Hughes, one of Britain’s greatest poets, lives on to inspire new generations. The Ted Hughes Network has been established by Dr Steve Ely, Senior Lecturer in Creative Writing, and Dr James Underwood, Research Fellow in Modern and Contemporary Literature. Their goal is that the Network is not just a research centre, but a centre of excellence for Hughes-related research, teaching, creativity and public engagement. The Network is taking full advantage of the University’s location, right in the heart of the area that inspired so much of the former Poet Laureate’s work. Hughes was born in Mytholmroyd, 13 miles from the University, but moved to Mexborough in South Yorkshire aged eight. The rugged landscape around both places informed much of Hughes’ work, which often put the natural world at its heart. Twenty years after his death, Hughes is widely studied in schools and his reputation continues to grow. The Network’s remit is an ambitious one. According to Dr Ely they aim to put together “…the most comprehensive collection of Hughes’ limited editions and small press work that is publicly available.” With around 80 items now stored in the University’s archive at Heritage Quay, Dr Ely believes the Network has achieved that – but there is much more to what it does.

Key to the Network’s approach is that it is not just a static collection of artefacts and items just to be looked at. “We have a really strong emphasis on public engagement, which is why we are the Ted Hughes Network, not the ‘Ted Hughes Centre’ or similar,” says Dr Underwood. “We have done a lot of public engagement – one-off events for adults or Ted Hughes handwritten book of children, up to working bird poems (closed) with lots of partner organisations. We’ve worked with local charities, local community organisations, the Ted Hughes Society, and we’ve helped them work together in an academic and public-facing sense.” Some key documents and objects from the collection were on public display for several months in 2018 at Heritage Quay, in an exhibition planned and designed by third year English Literature students. The Network’s impact has been felt beyond the walls of the University in the relatively short period since it was set up in 2016. It has promoted creative writing in community groups and given communities a lead in organising their own festivals, work that Dr Ely, author of ‘Ted Hughes’ South Yorkshire’, says is “incredibly rewarding.” Dr Underwood adds that, “Typically, you acquire an archive, then it sits there and scholars then come to study it in a reading room. We want that to happen, but we are using the archive as a basis to engage with the public. For example, we used Hughes’ own prints and illustrations to spark creative projects with local children. It’s not just sitting on shelves – it is out there and being used.” The spin-offs from the Network are varied. Heather Clark, one of the leading scholars in the world on Hughes and his first wife Sylvia Plath, was a scholar-in-residence in 2017 and is now Visiting Professor in English Literature at the University. The Network is also bidding for Heritage Lottery funding to establish the Ted Hughes Trail in Yorkshire, an initiative that has the support of Hughes’ widow Carol.

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Spotlight Dr James Underwood

Dr Steve Ely SENIOR LECTURER IN CREATIVE WRITING AND DIRECTOR OF THE TED HUGHES NETWORK , SCHOOL OF MUSIC, HUMANITIES AND MEDIA Dr Ely is an award-winning poet, novelist and biographer. He joined the University in September 2015 after a twenty-year career in secondary education as a teacher, senior leader and headteacher. He has also worked as a freelance writer and educational consultant. Dr Ely is the chair of the Ted Hughes Project (South Yorkshire), a community-based organisation which seeks to develop the legacy of Ted Hughes in and around Hughes’ childhood home of Mexborough and which runs the annual Ted Hughes Poetry Festival.

RESEARCH FELLOW, SCHOOL OF MUSIC, HUMANITIES AND MEDIA Dr Underwood joined the University of Huddersfield in 2016 as Research Fellow in Modern and Contemporary Literature. He previously taught at the University of Hull, where he was awarded his PhD, and Bishop Grosseteste University.

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Ted Hughes handwritten book of bird poems (open)

Global success for Huddersfield Contemporary Records Huddersfield Contemporary Records – HCR – is taking the innovative work of the University’s Centre for Research in New Music (CeReNeM) onto the world stage. The HCR label was established in 2009 and has earned an excellent reputation in the field of contemporary classical and experimental music over the course of 18 albums to date. Integral to HCR’s philosophy is presenting the artistic research activity of academics or postgraduate researchers from CeReNeM, alongside contributions from international artists and partner organisations. Nearly all of HCR’s releases are world premiere recordings. "The idea was never to only feature the music of in-house staff or research students,” says Aaron Cassidy, CeReNeM’s Director and Professor of Composition. “There had to be some clear Huddersfield connection, but always contextualised with some significant international composers and performers. We are presenting recordings of work that we’re interested in and support, from outside as well as within, and that’s one of the main reasons why the label has been successful." HCR was created by former CeReNeM Director Professor Liza Lim and Professor Monty Adkins, and made its first steps by releasing CDs in partnership with the University Press. Extending the early successes from the first six years of releases, HCR entered into an exclusive distribution agreement with NMC Recordings, the UK’s premier contemporary music label, in 2015. This has helped make HCR’s eclectic output available to more listeners worldwide and has had an enormous impact on sales figures, with six times as many CD sales in 2017 compared to the first year of the agreement.

Concert image of Quatuor Bozzini and Philip Thomas (piano) performing Bryn Harrison’s Piano Quintet at hcmf//, St Paul’s Hall, University of Huddersfield, 21 November 2017. Photo credit: © 2017 Brian Slater

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Bozzini+ album cover

International impact The three albums scheduled for release in 2019 are good examples of the HCR ethos and the label’s global reputation. Australia’s ELISION Ensemble releases its fourth disc in collaboration with HCR, while the London-based Riot Ensemble makes its label debut with a project featuring new pieces from five female composers including Professor Lim and Professor Chaya Czernowin (Harvard University), followed by a second disc by Riot featuring the work of Patricia Alessandrini (Stanford University).

“Last year we made a commitment to reach a 50/50 gender balance across all the composers in our catalogue by 2022,” adds Professor Cassidy. “It was only 25/75 female/male, but we are a young label, and we knew this could be easily addressed.” To emphasise this, early 2019 sees the release of Coming Up for Air by flautist and current CeReNeM PhD student Kathryn Williams. It’s a collection of 40 to 50 short pieces, written for Kathryn, that can all be played in a single breath.

ELISION performs The wreck of former boundaries, Bendigo International Festival, Australia, 3 September 2016. Photo credit: Jason Tavener © 2016

Festival and HCR success linked The Huddersfield Contemporary Music Festival (hcmf//), which takes place in November each year, began at the University in 1978 and is an important annual date in the contemporary music calendar, having played a vital part in HCR’s success.

institutions for contemporary music. The network has facilitated exchanges and collaborative projects with staff at, for example, Harvard University, Columbia University, the University of Chicago, the University of Montréal, Monash, UCSD and Stanford.

HCR also benefits from collaborations established through Speculations in Sound, an international research network created and hosted by CeReNeM that includes many of the world’s leading

The label’s next wave of releases, planned into 2020, will feature compositions from academics in the network’s partner institutions as well as from CeReNeM’s many industry partner organisations.

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The Wreck of Former Boundaries CD cover

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Spotlight Professor Aaron Cassidy PROFESSOR, SCHOOL OF MUSIC, HUMANITIES AND MEDIA Aaron Cassidy is Professor of Composition and Director of the Centre for Research in New Music (CeReNeM). He oversees the Huddersfield Contemporary Records (HCR) label and the Divergence Press peer-reviewed journal. Prior to joining Huddersfield in 2007, he served as Lecturer of Composition at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, and as Visiting Assistant Professor of Music at Buffalo State College. Aaron completed a PhD in Composition in 2003 as a Presidential Fellowship recipient at the University at Buffalo (State University of New York) under the guidance of David Felder, where he was awarded a Dissertation Fellowship for advanced research.

Immersing listeners in 3D sound

Speakers can be arranged in many configurations in the Critical Listening Room to give the listener the feeling they are ‘inside’ the sound.

A close up of the microphone array, with the mics pointing in different directions to capture the ambiance of a room

Advances in recording technology mean that listeners have become used to sounds giving them the notion that they are ‘inside’ an experience. But theories and practical advances from the Applied Psychoacoustics Laboratory (APL) at the University of Huddersfield mean that music, games and films are becoming more immersive than ever. Dr Hyunkook Lee’s work is helping to add a crucial dimension to the soundscape – height. Reflections in venues like London’s Royal Albert Hall mean that the audience hears sound from above as well as around them. But recreating that experience via a recording, heard through loudspeakers or headphones, has been elusive until now.

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Three dimensional research

Virtual elevation effect

3D sound is beginning to give a more complete sound picture that places the listener within an event – whether it’s a recording of a concert, or a digitally-created environment in Virtual Reality (VR). “It’s tied to psychoacoustics – how we perceive sound,” says Dr Lee. “My research is three-dimensional sound recording and reproduction – recreating or representing the acoustics of a real space in reproduction.”

Recent research on the virtual elevation effect by Dr Lee has also led to the development of software that enables listeners to perceive auditory height without having speakers actually set higher up. This will have useful practical applications in home and headphone listening environments.

Dr Lee’s ideas are being translated into cuttingedge microphones that capture ambience as well as the source of sounds, and software that can recreate a truly immersive aural experience. Schoeps, one of the world’s leading microphone companies, took Dr Lee’s findings on board in producing the ORTF 3D, an innovative new microphone array. Four pairs of small microphones are arranged precisely so that one microphone per pair points upwards to capture the ambience from above, while the other points in the opposite direction to record source sound from floor level. Dr Lee’s research provided the theoretical basis for determining the correct angle and spacing between the microphones. It’s been used at a variety of high profile events, such as the French Open tennis championships, and at the BBC Proms to capture the famed ambience of the Royal Albert Hall. In both cases the sound from above gave a 3D depth to the listening experience. “In classical recording you capture the room, as well as the source,” Dr Lee declares. “It’s a purist approach.” VR and gaming have also benefitted from the technology, with the sound given by its wider ‘sweet spot’ making gamers feel they are really ‘there’ in the virtual world. In addition to his ideas being adopted for equipment, Dr Lee’s work in software that accurately represents a sound that envelops the listener from all directions is also making an impact. 5.1 surround sound has given cinema goers, or home cinema systems enthusiasts, the feeling that sound is around them for many years. But as Dr Lee points out, “Surround misses the height element. We are developing new algorithms to render surround sound with height.”

Vital to Dr Lee’s research is the Critical Listening Room, built in 2014 through a grant from the EPSRC and support from the School of Computing and Engineering. Up to 24 speakers can be set up to cover all currently available 3D sound formats, including Dolby Atmos, Auro-3D, DTS-X and 22.2. Some are near to ground level, and other speakers hang above the listener, who truly feels they are ‘inside’ the music when hearing, for example, a 3D recording of Bach’s ‘Toccata and fugue’ recorded on the 19th century organ in Huddersfield’s Town Hall.

Spotlight Dr Hyunkook Lee SENIOR LECTURER, SCHOOL OF COMPUTING AND ENGINEERING Dr Hyunkook Lee is a Senior Lecturer in Music Technology and Production and the leader of the Applied Psychoacoustics Lab (APL) at the University of Huddersfield. He joined Huddersfield in 2010, establishing the APL four years later. He graduated from the music and sound recording (Tonmeister) course at the University of Surrey in 2002. During the course he spent a placement year as an assistant engineer at Metropolis studios in London. He gained his PhD from Surrey in 2006 and his PhD research was concerned with the subjective effects and objective measurements of interchannel crosstalk in multichannel microphone techniques.

Seawater fuel discovery reduces demands on freshwater use Researchers from the University of Huddersfield have discovered that the use of seawater in the production of renewable energy source bioethanol significantly reduces its water footprint.

Climate-friendly fuel alternative

The study † – published in the journal Scientific Reports, investigates how a strain of marine yeast can be used with seawater and a substrate, such as maize or sugar, for a fermentation process that produces bioethanol.

The research demonstrates that seawater can be substituted for freshwater in bioethanol production without compromising production efficiency and that marine yeast is a potential candidate for use in the bioethanol industry, especially when using seawater or high salt-based fermentation media.

Current methods can have a water footprint of more than 1,000 litres of fresh water to produce a single litre of the fuel. Fresh water remains a precious resource in many parts of the world.

“The main purpose of marine fermentation is to introduce an alternative source of water and biomass for industrial biotechnology in order to reduce pressure on use of freshwater and arable land, allowing these resources to be dedicated to production of food and feeds and reducing production costs,” said Dr Du.

The research team of Dr Chenyu Du and Dr Abdelrahman Zaky conducted the initial experimental work at Nottingham University. Further analysis was then carried out at the University of Huddersfield, after Dr Du had taken up his post at the University and where Dr Zaky completed his PhD, titled Utilisation of novel marine yeast and seawater-based media for the production of bioethanol.

In the fight against global warming, bioethanol fuel is seen as a climate-friendly alternative to petrol and its adoption has been encouraged by many governments.

Dr Du and his team liken the quest for finding the marine yeast best suited to the process to prospecting for gold. The marine yeast strain ‘Saccharomyces cerevisiae AZ65’ yielded the best results. From this research, bioethanol plants could now adopt the use of this marine yeast, which has demonstrated high inhibitor tolerance, to produce a high concentration of ethanol.

Next phase The team are investigating methods to improve efficiencies and increase profitability within the bioethanol production process. The next step in the research is to develop the use of a marine substance – such as seaweed – as an alternative to the likes of maize or sugar cane in the bio-refining process. “This would mean we were able to produce bioethanol fully from the marine environment,” Dr Du explained. This approach is described in a paper published in Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry. Dr Chenyu Du

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Spotlight Dr Abdelrahman Zaky

Dr Chenyu Du READER IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, SCHOOL OF APPLIED SCIENCES Dr Chenyu Du has expertise in fermentation and bio-processes. His career has included research into chemical production from sustainable raw materials and the development of a new generation of biofuels. He was the academic supervisor for Dr Abdelrahman Zaky.

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY AT CAIRO UNIVERSITY Dr Abdelrahman Zaky is continuing his research in marine fermentation as a Research Fellow at the University of Edinburgh. His current research aims to involve the marine biomass in the seawater-ethanol fermentation system in order to achieve the concept of marine fermentation.

The article The establishment of a marine focused biorefinery for bioethanol production using seawater and a novel marine yeast strain is in the journal, Scientific Reports.


New research from the University of Huddersfield Press

Find out about new titles, plus events and giveaways by following the University of Huddersfield Press blog: and on Facebook and Twitter @HudUniPress

The University of Huddersfield Press was established in 2007 and has grown to become a primarily open access publisher of high quality research. The authors and editorial boards bring international research expertise and a strong orientation to practice and real-world application to their publications. The Press is keen to support emerging researchers and foster research communities by providing a platform for developing academic areas. By publishing innovative research as open access its aim is to improve access to scholarly work for the benefit of all.

Publications British Journal of Pharmacy The new issue of the British Journal of Pharmacy is available, in partnership with the Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences. It’s a special edition, featuring the proceedings of the 8th APS International PharmSci 2017.

Janeway University of Huddersfield Press is the first to launch with Janeway – a new open source publishing platform for open access research. All its publications are now available on the new platform, which offers a beautifully designed and highly intuitive reader and author experience, as well as improved discoverability and preservation for all research published through the Press.

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Journal of Creative Music Systems The latest volume of the Journal of Creative Music Systems includes articles covering a range of exciting research including dance-driven music, models using deep learning and creative computer systems. All the articles are open access so can be read for free online.

Crime, Security and Society Crime, Security and Society is an academic journal, housed within the Secure Societies Institute, which seeks a wide and diverse audience of academics and practitioners who strive to better understand and reduce both current and future crime and security threats experienced by many societies. It encourages collaborative thinking from disciplines as seemingly distinct as: computer science, precision engineering, forensic biology, linguistics, cognitive neuroscience and organic chemistry.

Soundings – Documentary Film and the Listening Experience Geoffrey Cox and John Corner explore the arts of sound, investigating the richness of what we hear as well as what we see in non-fiction films. The 13 essays cover films made from WWII to the present day in locations across Europe and the Americas, and in styles ranging from political propaganda, industrial promotion and educative exposition, to more aesthetically-driven films taking their bearings from avant-garde art.

Teaching in Lifelong Learning (TiLL) The latest issue of TiLL is now available to read open access and includes interesting research from researchers and practitioners. “Volume 8 Issue 2 of TiLL is somewhat different from previous ones, in that it is a special edition, publishing four papers by project teams who were involved in The Education & Training Foundation’s (ETF) funded Outstanding Teaching Learning and Assessment (OTLA) Phase 3 programme in the north-east and Cumbria. I had the privilege of being the evaluator for the programme and very early on I offered to publish papers in a special edition of TiLL, and I am delighted that five of the project teams accepted my invitation and submitted their papers for review,” David Powell, Editor of TiLL.

University of Huddersfield Queensgate Huddersfield West Yorkshire HD1 3DH UK Tel. 01484 422288 Email. @WeLoveResearch #hudresearch


HEA Global Teaching Excellence Award 2017


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