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TUCSON 2050 ONE WATER


TUCSON 2050 ONE WATER

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WHO WE ARE

11

DEFINITIONS + PRINCIPLES

23

PRECEDENTS

45

QUESTIONS FOR 2050

157

INFRASTRUCTURE 2050

199

SUBDISTRICTS 2050

261

CITATIONS


WHO WE ARE

1


WHO WE ARE COURTNEY CROSSON DESIGN STUDIO PROFESSOR

2

KITTITASH CHAIKUNPON

From Gainesville, Florida, Courtney is invested in creating sustainable solutions for some of our greatest urban challenges.

ARCHITECTURE STUDENT GRAPHICS TEAM Raised in the Northern part ofThailand, Kitt believes that design is a tool to help improve quality of life. He is interested in using recyclable materials.

LIZZV GUEVARA

ADDISON HARDEN

ARCHITECTURE STUDENT GRAPHICS TEAM Born inLAandraised inTucson, she is a true desert dweller. Lizzy loves exploring the intersection between art and architecture.

ARCHITECTURE STUDENT MODEL TEAM From Tampa, Florida, Addison is interested in the relationship between human behavior and the built enviromnent.

JULIANA SEYMOUR

EVAN SWANSON

ARCHITECTURE STUDENT DATA TEAM From Seattle, Washington, u Jliana is interested in water harvesting design and creating simple sustainable options for the future.

ARCHITECTURE STUDENT MODEL TEAM Raised in Phoenix, Arizona, Evan designs for the long term abilities of the built enviromnent.


PAMELA DAVILA ROBLEDO

ALLISON GARBINI

ARCHITECTURE STUDENT DATA TEAM Raised in San Luis Potosi, Mexico, Pamela is interested in how our built and natural environment shapes behavior.

ARCHITECTURE STUDENT GRAPHICS TEAM A Tucson native, Allison expresses curiosity in adaptive reuse and the design of urban planning.

SARAH LENTSCH

AMIE MAXWELL

ARCHITECTURE STUDENT MODEL TEAM From Minneapolis, Minnesota, Sarah believes that biophilic design can have a positive impact on the built environment and the community.

ARCHITECTURE STUDENT GRAPHICS TEAM Raised in Phoenix, Arizona, Amie is invested in studying spaces that can influence the health and well-being of the community.

WYATT SWINGLE ARCHITECTURE STUDENT DATA TEAM

b

Raised in Phoenix, Arizona, Wyatt is drawn to design that is sustainable and inclusive to everyone. 3


COMMUNITY MENTORS

4

EVAN CANFIELD

JASON LAROS

COMMUNITY MENTOR Civil Engineer Manager Pima County

COMMUNITY MENTOR Proctor Engineering Program Manager Tucson Electric

ERIC WIEDUWILT

HENRY JOHNSTONE

COMMUNITY MENTOR Deputy Director Pima County Wastewater Reclamation

COMMUNITY MENTOR President and Dh'ector of Mechanical Engineering, GLI-IN Architects and Engineers

'


CANDICE RUPPRECHT

DICK THOMPSON

COMMUNITY MENTOR Conservation Manager Tucson Water

COMMUNITY MENTOR Lead Hydrologist Tucson Water

NANCY POLLOCK-EllWAND

ROBERT MILLER

DEAN

DIRECTOR Director ofthe School of Architecture at CAPLA

Dean of the College of Architecture, Planning, and Landscape Architecture (CAPLA)

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6


DEFINITIONS + PRINCIPLES

7


PERFORMANCE METRICS QUANTITATIVE GOALS NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

In 2050, the naturaJ environment will be revitalized in support of complete stormwater retention and aquifer recharge. The Santa Cruz River will be restored and flowing to provide an active ecological corridor.

3

ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

In 2050, Downtown Tucson will have a thriving economy compromised of small- and large-scale businesses. It will have experienced a 2% compounding growth in square-footage from 2015 to 2030, and a 3% compounding growth from 2030 to 2050.

2 4

SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

In 2050, Tucson will be an equitable and diverse city that focuses on maximizing areas for comm1mity engagement by establishing a prosperous downtown and offering areas for recreation and social events

BUILT ENVIRONMENT

In 2050, Downtown Tucson will live sustainability w:ithin itslocal resources. It will be Net Zero Carbon, Net Zero Energy, and Water Independent through retrofitting existing buildings and technology for new builds.

PLAN TUCSON Plan Tucson is a general and sustainability plan developed for the City of Tucson in November of 2013 that replaced the General Plan established for Tucson in 2001. The Plan's purpose is to help guide long term decisions regarding Tucson's future. It focuses on elements such as housing, jobs, land use, transportation, water, and energy resources to aid in creating a more prosperous and sustainable city. Plan Tucson was used as a long-term policy document informing the decisions that shape Tucson's future. There are four categories and over 70 goals in Plan Tucson that address how to move the development of the city forward in a positive way. This team has used these four environments as a foundation, structuring our goals based on them and referencing their specific aspirations in our metrics. 8


DESIGN GOALS ADAPT

Downtown Tucson will be responsive to the opportunities of a changing environment and new technologies.

4

THRIVE

Downtown Tucson will enhance livability and sustainability while providing a safe and u beautifl environment.

2 5

ENGAGE

The Tucson community will play a vital role in the advancement of achieving water independence.

BELONG

The improvements in the built environment will strengthen the already unique culture, climate, and community of Tucson.

3 6

CONNECT

Downtown Tucson will support a network of social spaces for a diverse and equitable community.

PROTECT

The built environment vvill engage vvitb and provide support to the robust natural resources creating a cohesive Downtown.

PIMA PROSPERS Pima Prospers is the Comprehensive Plan of Pima County and has been updated as of 2015. The document incorporates many county services and recognizes the importance of the county's role in the region. It seeks to associate the county's annual budget, capital improvement program, land use, and future bonding programs with the goals established and outlined in its plan. Pima Prospers is a living document that is updated every year and focuses on five main categories, land use, physical infrastructure, hwnan infrastructure, economic development, and the cost of development. This team has used Pima Prospers as the groundwork for the establishment of our own goals and research. 9


WATER TYPES GROUNDWATER The water found underground in the cracks and spaces in soil, sand and rock. It 1s stored in and moves slowly through geologic formations of soil, sand and rocks called aquifers. STORMWATER The water that drains off a land area from rainfall. This includes rain that faJls on rooftops, directed through gutters and downpipes onto land or into drains, as well as rain falling on ground surface areas such as roads, driveways, footpaths, gardens and lawns.

0

RAINWATER The water that falls on the roof from rain, which can be harvested into a storage tank prior to contact with the ground. Rainwater quality is much higher, since water that hits the ground generally contains many more contaminants. GRAY WATER All wastewater generated in households or office buildings from streams without fecal contamination, i.e. all streams except for the wastewater from toilets. Sources of gray water include, sinks, showers, baths, clothes washing machines or dish washers. RECLAIMED WATER Reclaimed or recycled water is the process of converting wastewater into water that can be reused for other purposes.

MORE COMMON WATER TYPES: BLACK WATER /WASTEWATER The mixture of urine, feces and flush water along with anal cleansing water and/or dry cleansing materials. POTABLE WATER Water that is fit for consumption by humans and animals, it can come from a variety of sources and filtered, a1so known as "ddnking water". 10


GENERAL DEFINITIONS AQUIFER An aquifer is a geological formation of underground sand, gravel, or saturate rock where water collects. The Tucson Aquifer is actively recharged with water from the Colorado River. AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES A self-driving car that uses a variety of sensors, such as radar and GPS, to navigate an appropriate path of journey without human input. People act as passengers rather than drivers. COMMUNITY COLLECTIVE A great combination of museums, eduction, and health care with flexible interior and exterior spatial organization continue activities and existing museums to bring in more programs and to increase the amount of visiting. COMPOSTING TOILET A type of toilet that treats human excreta by a biological process called composting. This process leads to two byproducts: leachate and a decomposition of organic matter and turns human excreta into compost. Contemporary urban installations are designed to have no smell. The largest installation is in a 7 story office building in Seattle. CURB CUT A break in the curb that helps to collect excess storm water.

DECENTRALIZED TREATMENT PLANT An independent source of water treatment for the community that functions separately from the centralized main facility. DETENTION BASINS A low impact development practice consisting of vegetated depressions made to detain and release storm,,vater runoff. DRY WELLS An underground system that aids in water collection through a porous wall that allows water to slowly dissipate into the ground and recharge the aquifer. DUAL PLUMBING A plumbing system that separates discharged waste and gray water, which allows for the reuse of gray water. FILTRATION STOP A transit stop serving buses and streetcars that helps filter and clean stormwater. The stop has a series of containers that filter the water before it is released into adjacent soil. GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE Green Infrastructure techniques use soils and vegetation to infiltrate, evapotranspiration, and/ or recycle stormwater runoff to enhance overall environmental quality.

11


GENERAL DEFINITIONS CONTINUED GREEN WALLS A green wall, also known as a Jiving wall or vertical garden, is a wall that is partially or completely covered with plants growing out of a medium such as soil, water, or a substrate. Most green walls include an integrated water delivery system. HEAT ISLAND EFFECT An urban area that is significantly warmer due to large amounts of asphalt and concrete infrastructure due to absorption and retention of heat. This can lead to higher electricity costs, air pollution and heat related illnesses.

LIVING INFRASTRUCTURE This refers to all interconnected ecosystems that perform services for the urban environment. LIVING MACHINE Microbes attached to the roots of plants to treat wastewater to potable quality through biofiltration. The treated water is returned to the potable system or to the Santa Cruz River. MULTI-MODAL The use of multiple methods of transportation to arrive at a destination.

HOT DESKS Rent-able office spaces and desks that allow small businesses and startups to grow their business and network with others in the same position in a shared space.

MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR The combination of a membrane process like micro-filtration or ultra-filtration v1rith a biological wastewater treatment process that treats wastewater to a potable quality.

HYDROPONICS The process of grm,ving plants, primarily food producing ones, in liquid or sand with added nutrients rather than soil.

MICRO WATER RECHARGE BASIN Artificial station in which water is collected into a storage cistern and directly pumped back into the aquifer and/or cleaned to then be pumped back out for gray water usage.

INFILTRATION TRENCHES/BIO-SWALES An earthen depression utilized to collect and infiltrate larger amounts of stormwater, serving to support vegetation and recharge groundwater. IMPERMEABLE SURFACES Any material surface that does not allow water to flow through, such as roofs, streets, and sidewalks. 12

NET ZERO BUILDING A building that has net zero energy and water consumption, meaning that the total annual amount of water or energy used by the building is equivalent to the amount of energy or water collected on the site of the building.


NEXUS

SOLAR CANOPY

OPEN SPACE

SOLAR PATH

A building that acts as a hub for producing and storing solar energy and reclaimed water, and is a point for refuge and data sharing.

Vegetated and landscaped areas throughout the urban environment.

PASSIVE RAINWATER HARVESTING BUFFER

An area that separates land from water courses desjgnated to filter and capture pollutants from stormwater.

PERMEABLE SURFACES

A permeable surface js a porous surface. Permeable paving is often seen in the form of sidewalks, that allows storm water to run through the surface, reducing stormwater runoff while trapping and :filtering pollutants.

RETENTION BASINS

A low impact development practice consisting of vegetated depressions made to collect, store, and infiltrate stormwater runoff.

RETROFIT (ADAPTIVE REUSE)

To adapt a building or piece of infrastructure to a new use or furnish with new technology and adaptations.

A canopy made of photo voltaic (solar) panels that collect water and solar energyfor community purposes.

A linear joining of photo voltaic (solar) panels to provide shade for pedestrians and collect energy and water for community use.

SEWER MINING PLANT

Wastewater treatment technology that siphons water from the underground sewer and takes jt through a membrane bioreactor treatment process, bringing it to a potable quality.

THERMAL COMFORT

The condition that expresses human satisfaction with the thermal environment.

WATER POD

A station in which rainwater is collected, filtered and treated to potable quality, through a water fountain. These support human comfort in more severe weather conditions where the risk of heat exhaustion and stroke is high.

XERISCAPING

Drought-tolerant landscaping that includes endemic and native vegetation that requires little or no irrigation.

13


WORK FLOW

• _t_

Water Types

JANUARY

FEBRUARY

MARCH

Categories

Sub-Categories

Prototypes

Sarah Lentsch

Small Scale Economy

Wyatt Swingle

Large ScaleEconomy

Lizzy Guevara

Non-Mot:orized Transportation

Kittitash Chaikunpon

Motorized Transportation

Juliana Seymour Housing

Addison Harden

Arts, Culture+ Education

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WATf

tt

Allison Garbini Historic

Pamela Davila Robledo Energy

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Amie Maxwell Public Health

Evan Swanson

Open Space

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APRIL

MAY

Scenarios

Final Master Plan

Congress - The Rising Aquifer

Mercado - A City of Rain

fl,,,...�,•,11• �t: � I G TCC - Direct Potable Paradise

15


DICK THOMPSON

EVAN CANFIELD

16

SARAH LENTSCH

SMALL SCALE ECONOMY

WYATT SWINGLE

LARGE SCALE ECONOMY

LIZZY GUEVARA

NON-MOTORIZED TRANSPORTATION

KITTITASH CHAIKUNPON

MOTORIZED TRANSPORTATION


FOOD Locally ow11ed restaurants and grocery stores.

E) BANK Banks with more than fifty employees serving the community.

PRIMARY ROAD Alarge arterial road with heavy traffic, typically fom or more lanes separated by a median.

TRAIN Freight and passenger train that runs past Tucson separate Eroru other transit.

RETAIL Locally 0W11ed stores selling non perishable goods with employment nnder50people.

SERVICES Locally owned businesses providing services and assistance to the community.

0

0

BUSINESS+ OFFICE Domestic and foreign companies that reside in Tucson.

SECONDARY ROAD A medium, four lane road often having bike lanes and sidewalks with consistent through traffic.

BUS Motorized pubUc transportation that travels roads Uke cars with or separate from traffic.

HOTEL Atype of business that provides temporary arrangements for Uving.

TERTIARY ROAD Asmallerroad with light local traffic often lacking sidewalks or bike lanes.

STREET CAR Modern streetcar that runs in specific tracks in the street with or separate from other traffic.

0

GOVERNMENT Abuilding that houses a branch of goverlllilent.

0

PEDESTRIAN ONLY Awalkable urban path independent from roads.

-

BICYCLE ROUTE Aroad for bikes separated or independent from vehicular roads.

0

CAR Autonomous and regular car travel on roads with or without other traffic.

17


CANDICE RUPPRECHT

JASON LAROS

18

JULIANA SEYMOUR

HOUSING

ADDISON HARDEN

ARTS, CULTURE + EDUCATION

ALLISON GARBIN!

HISTORIC

PAMELA DAVILA ROBLEDO

ENERGY


SINGLE FAMILY lnclividual dwelling units designed to be occupied by onefamily. Units are often freestanding.

MULTI FAMILY Multiple dwellii1g units grouped together. Units often share walls,asin a duplex or condomillium.

HOUSING COMPLEX Many dwelling units grouped togetlier. Units often share walls aml are stacked, as in apartment buildings.

0

G

aJ

MUSEUM+ GALLERY .Museums and galleries provide art and cul tmal influence to Downtown Tucson.

The education subcategory is composed of all educational institutions.

EDUCATION

LIBRARY Educational buildings which house various collections of books, and easyaccess to resources.

0

0

0

ďż˝ CULTURAL CENTER Cultm'al buildings that provide a wide range of learning and recreational opportunities.

a

CULTURE

GOVERNMENT+ CIVIL

COMMERCIAL

RESIDENTIAL

Bu.ilding that provide space for the expansion and enl1ancementof cultm'al expression.

Buildings that serve the municipali tyof the city and also the monitoring of the utility systems.

Bu.ilding that is dedicated commerce and the engagement ofbusiness interactions.

Spaces dedicated to living within the downtown fabric.

DATA An open platform that provides the comnnmity with resource tracking and emergency notices.

ON-SITE SOURCES Renewable energy from localized rooftop solar panels that feed into a small or sub-district storage unit.

OFF-SITE SOURCES Large-scale renewable energyfarms and storage that respond to increased dema:nd.

0

CHURCH Religious buildings in which people congregate for worship.

Š MIXED USE

Urban development that combines multiple programs within one building.

0

FILM+ THEATER Artistic buildings in whlch people are able to experience the local culture of Tucson.

-

VACANT LOT

Space that is not dedicated for any specific use or existing condition.

19


ERIC WIEDUWILT

20

AMIE MAXWELL

PUBLIC HEALTH

EVAN SWANSON

OPEN SPACE


fl)

e

ADVISORY Focuses on organizations that provide safety and protection in Downtown 'Tucson.

RECREATION Organizations that promote physical activity and health in Downtown Tucson.

0

0

ECOLOGICAL CORRIDOR Areas of region-specific vegetation that form wildlife corridors throughout dow11tow11.

PLAZA Mid-scale open areas tbat supportadjacentlocal economies.

8

MEDICAL Buildings that offer health related services which including mental and physical health organizations.

C)

MUNICIPAL Large-scale vegetated areas that are used for recreation, events, and community outreach.

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OUTREACH Organizations and efforts that focus on educating the public 011 different opportunities for medical care.

a,

PARKlET Small-scale parks throughout the downtown area that provide refuge from tbe cityscape.

C) PROFESSIONAL RESOURCES Businesses that support the growth and development of medical professionals.

-

LIVING INFRASTRUCTURE A collection of community a!ld private gardens that generate local produce.

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22


3

PRECEDENTS

23


CHICAGO, ILLINOIS ON TO 2050 2

SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

BUILT ENVIRONMENT

NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

This comprehensive plan wants to create social and racial equity. The paln also seeks to increase opportunties and access for marginalized groups including but not limited to affordable housing, access to jobs, and additional community centers.1

This comprehensive plan wants create resources to encourage continueing education in order to increase the amount of jobs available. The plan also wants to increase wages to create equal opportunity and stabalize the economy. 1

This comprehensive plan wants to showcase the benefits of city investments that directly effect the public, protect rural areas from heavy development by concentrating on growth in urban villages, and develop transportation otpions to decrease vehicle reliance. 1

This comprehensive plan wants to protect and rejuvenate the existing green spaces which help reduce carbon emissions and promote physical activity. The city has a goal to be carbon enutral by 2050. 1

24


GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

DAILY WATER USE PER RESIDENT

120

80

100

Gallons of Water

MMTCO2e

80 60

70

40 20 0

2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050

2015 2050

MAP OF CHICAGO

2025

60

2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050

2015 2050

2025

CHICAGO’S WATER INFRASTRUCTURE Seattle’s water journey starts at the watershed, 100,00 acres of protected land, that then travels to treatment plants. After the water is treated, the water then travels through 1,800 miles of piping to be delivered to Seattle homes. Currenlty, unused water is stored in reservoirs throughout the city and state. It takes roughly 650 workers to keep the water clean, flowing, and readily available.2 roughly 650 workers to keep the water clean, flowing, and readily available1

ON TO 2050 SUSTAINABILITY PLAN

KEY

Open Space

Seattle’s 2035 Sustainability Plan is part of an overall projection for Washington. It was created in 1994 and has been modified every year since. The Plan is broken into several subsections some of which include land use, transportation, housing, and environmental effects. Each section explains the goals and measurable success indicators. The overall plan goal is to develop a plan of action to create a future that will be able to sustain and grow with its’ citizens. 1

25


COPENHAGEN, DENMARK CPH2025 1

The city leans towards providing a high quality of life, focusing in educating its citizens and visitors in sustainability.7 Copenhagen combines sustainable solutions with quality of life, this combinations also has been reflected towards a higher quality of life.8

26

Copenhagen is recognized as a leader in the global green economy. The city is considered the 39th largest export economy, while being the 35th largest importer.3 Some of the leading industries in Copenhagen include life sciences, green industries, Maritine, food and ICT.4

The city has a variety of efficient infrastructure. Copenhagen has invested towards a more sustainable approach in the built enviroment by reducing energy usage, while also developing 375 km of cycle tracks, becoming a lead in cycle transportation. 2

The city of Copenhagen has a main goal to become carbon neutral by 2025 and reduce energy consumption, while increasing energy production with wind turbines.9 Turbines will be located in the outskirts of the city and energy will also be retrieved from wind turbines from other cities.10


COPENHAGEN WATER DEVELOPMENT

COPENHAGEN ENERGY USES

50

5

40

4

30

3

20

2

10

1

0

2000

2005

2010

2014

Water use m3/person/Annum

0

2015

2025

Million metric tons

Copenhagen water Development in water usage.5

Copenhagen energy usage in milion metric tons 6

COPENHAGEN’S WATER INFRASTRUCTURE

The city invested in water infastructure to: redirect wastewater, create underground water storage and build overflow barriers. The city also focused in providing public awareness while prividing water meters and set minimun standards for eco design, which include the use of more efficient appliances to reduce energy and water. While grey water has not has major conservation policies in the city. Water reuse has been implemented through wastewater treatments.

CPH2025 PLAN STRUCTURE

Sewer main Stormwater Wastewater

Treated wastewater Pumping station Treatment plants

Published in 2009,The plan is structured in the road to 2025, which is then divided in: energy consumption, energy production, green mobility, city administration initiatives economy and investments. The plan has major goals for energy consumption, where the plan establishes that by 2025 there will be a 20% reduction in heat consumption, and 20% reduction in power consumption in commercial companies, among other things. Whereas it also has a part for energy production, where the main thing is for district heating becoming carbon neutral.

27


LAS VEGAS, NEVADA 2045 Sustainability Plan 5

SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

BUILT ENVIRONMENT

NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

This comprehensive plan wants to create further fields that will help to sustain the city within low economic times. The plan aims to create new jobs and buildings that will help to draw in other people from different backgrounds. The plan wants to create a stronger marketablity.2

This comprehensive wants to focus more support on the gaming and tourism aspect of its economy. This aspect plays a heavy role in both Las Vegas’ existence and success as a city. It plans to create a stronger infrastructue and then expand the allowable zoning for hotels and gaming districts.2

This comprehensive plan aims to expland the current focus of transportation in Vegas. The goal is to add a more accessible public transportation line that will help to further support the gaming and tourism within the Las Vegas strip. The plan shifts focus from the resident to the tourist. 2

This comprehensive plan wants to utilize the desert regions surrounding and to impliment a more aware plan of using landscaping that are more natural to the orgional landscape. With the addition of incentives to replace turf yards with astroturf or rock is one way Vegas plans to reduce.2

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PATH TO WATER INDEPENDENCE

commercial

residental outdoor

I-95

hotels government/ schools industrial

residental indoor

non-residental irrigation

I-95

N

Dry Well Average water usage in Las Vegas2 /3

Location of dry wells in Las Vegas4

LAS VEGAS’ WATER INFRASTRUCTURE Las Vegas’ water journey startsa t Lake Mead. 90% of the water supply comes from the lake that is formed from the Hoover Dam. This water is then sent west through 7 pumping stations and 4,600 meters long. The water is pumped at a steady 3mph and meeting only one water treatment plant before it is brought to downtown Las Vegas. As of recently Las Vegas has been under pressure to reduce its wateru se due to the quickly lowering levels of lake mead.

2045 SUSTAINABILITY PLAN

KEY

Flat Ground Highways Lake Meed

Mountain Ranges Surface Streets Waterw Wayfair

Las Vegas’ currentc omprehensive plan structure is mainly focused on gaming and creating a stronger econimic standing. The plan is to create a 2050 plan that is better rooted in an enviornmental standing. The tourism in Las Vegas saved the city from a total crash during the recession in 2008. This is why the plan focuses heavily on it, to hopefully sustan the future of the city.

29


LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA pLAn 1

Santa Fe railroad brought people from the Midwest and South to LA and expanded the population growth with a strong economy.2 The Hollywood industry has attracted many creative people and new immigrants to diversify the city and has turned LA into a cultural hub.3

30

Manufacturing is a main source of income in LA economy. Computer, electronic products, and fabricated metal are distributed both domestically and nationally, which allow LA to be one of the world trade and financial center. Tourism and entertainment are also important to the city.4

Los Angeles is a highly dense city that has population 8,535 people per square mile. The most densely populated neighborhoods are Koreatown, Westlake, and East Hollywood.5 Most people do not own a house6 and prefer to drive alone to work more than using public transportation.7

A majority of energy and water used in LA are imported from other states. Coal plants in Utah feeds electricity to the city8 while the Colorado river and nearby water sources provide water9. However, the city is rich with natural gas and ground water basins that are locally usable resources. 8,9


LOS ANGELES MAIN SOURCE OF WATER SUPPLY

LOS ANGELES WATER CONSUMPTION 120

thousand acre feet

gallon/day (GPD) /capita

90

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2025

2035

Metropolitan Water District of Southern California LA Aqueduct Local Ground Water 10,11

MAP OF LOS ANGELES

15

43

30

0

2015

2025

2035

Water Consumption / Capita 11,12

LOS ANGELES’ WATER INFRASTRUCTURE

24

Los Angeles contains two mains water infrastructure: aqueducts and wells, as the city relies on both local and imported water sources. For local water, active wells are placed around the city to pump up ground water from the basins and then deliver to Department of Water and Power (LADWP) before the water is distributed to household. Aqueducts and canals spread imported water to different parts of the city, so that the water demand can be satisfied. Waste water will be treated via treatment plants. 13-16

12

18 11

60

73

24

3

SUSTAINABILITY pLAn

5 17 18

KEY 13 # Number of Active Wells in that Area Groundwater Basin Boundaries 15 Aqueducts, Canals, and Rivers 16

Treatment Plant 14 Watersheds 16 WaterMainsandFeeders16

The plan is structured in 3 main parts: environment, economy, and equity to transform Los Angeles to be a greener city. For water, the city has a goal to reduce amount of imported water by 50% in 2025 while maximizing the use of local water source by 50% in 2035. Also, the water consumed by a person will be reduced by 25% in 2035. Stormwater will be another water source that the city plans to capture up to 150,000 acre-feet/year by 2035. The city will replace all public transportation to electric vehicles and provide more options for users. 11 31


NEW YORK, NY plaNYC, oneNYC 1

SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

BUILT ENVIRONMENT

NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

This comprehensive plan strives to make New York more equitable and inclusive, providing opportunities for everyone. With priorities such as affordable housing in all boroughs, and creating over 100,000 well-paying jobs, poverty rates have declined significantly and continue to.4

With a historic population growth and a prosperous economy, unemployment rate has hit a record low in 2018. The city continues to expand its economic development strategies, enhance its support for small businesses, and expand its workforce development programs. 5

OneNYC highlights the need to continue to improve the city’s infrastructure systems, one of the most complex in the world, keeping up with the needs of a growing population. Funding for housing construction has doubled and hundreds of afforable units are being constructed in one-vacant lots. 5

In 2015, New York committed to becoming the most sustainable bity city in the world and a global leader fighting against climate change. With $340 million invested into parks and streets and over 1 million new trees planted so far, New York is well on its way to achieving these goals. 6

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1600

6000

$100

1480

5000

$80

1360 1240 1120 1000

4000

$60

3000 $40

2000

$20

1000 1960

‘70

‘80 year

‘90

Millions of gallons

0 ‘00

pirce per square foot

LAND AND HOUSING SUPPLY & DEMAND2

parcels of land

millions of gallons per day

NEW YORK’S DAILY WATER CONSUMPTION2

$0 1955 ‘60

‘70

‘80 year

Vacant parcels

‘90

‘00

‘10

Cost of land

NEW YORK’S WATER INFRASTRUCTURE New York City water is collected in upstate New York and held in three reservoir systems containing a total of 19 resevoirs and three lakes. These hold approximately 580 billion gallons of water at any given time. 95% of the water supply is gravity fed by aqueducts in to the city limits, reducing energy use and operating costs. Once the water reaches the city limits, 3 tunnels deliver the water to the 5 New York City Boroughs at 500 to 800 feet below ground. 2,3

plaNYC + oneNYC

KEY

Water tunnel Aqueduct

Reservoir

New York City’s “oneNYC” comprehensive plan is divided into 4 general visions, “our growing, thriving city”, “our just & equitable city”, “our sustainable city” and “our resilient city”. Each of these is further divided into 6-8 visions, each with strong goals attached. These visions accurately represent New York’s significant challenges and the plans and details for tackling these challenges head on. “The four OneNYC visions and their corresponding goals and initiatives will ensure that as our city grows, it also becomes stronger, fairer, and more capable.” 7 33


PHOENIX, ARIZONA Plan PHX 6

SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

BUILT ENVIRONMENT

NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

Two of the biggest tourist attractions to phoenix are the golf and five star resorts. Phoenix and its neighbors rank in the top in the nation for five star resorts. Phoenix is also home to more than 200,000 golf courses and several PGA tournaments which attract lots of people each year. 13.,14

Originally the economy of Phoenix was primarily focused on agriculture and natural resources with a dependence on the five “c”s. Today the city’s economy is built around housing and real estate and is boosted by high technology manufacturers, bioscience research and business services.7,8,9

Phoenix metropolitan area is the 11th largest by population in the US, with approximately 4.73 million people as of 2007. Although the city is large, it has a low-density and is considered polycentric. Phoenix is made up of a cluster of urban villages that make up the greater Phoenix area.10,11

The city of Phoenix has two major goals to improve the natural environment. The first is to add 150 miles of paths, green-ways and bike ways through out the city. The second is to reduce the urban heat-island through green infrastructure as well as by doubling the current tree canopy to 25% by 2030.12

34


WATER USAGE PROJECTIONS

CARBON FOOTPRINT PROJECTIONS

2.500

600

1.875

450

1.250

300

0.625

150

0.000

2006

2025

Millions of gallons of water

0

2015

2025

Metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions

Phoenix water usage is projected to increase 25% by 2025. 4

Phoenix carbon footprint is projected to decrease 30% by 2025. 3,5

PHOENIX’S WATER INFRASTRUCTURE The majority of Phoenix’s water comes from either ground water or the Central Arizona Project. Currently Phoenix is a net-positive contributor to groundwater using only 2/3 of its allocation from the Colorado River and diverting the other 1/3 toward groundwater recharge. Additionally the city recycles 89% of its wastewater for uses, such as irrigation and cooling for the Palo Verde Nuclear Plant.1

PLAN PHX STRUCTURE

KEY

Lakes16 Rivers16 CAP Canal17

Dry Well15 Designated Recharge Project15

The plan is structured by department: transportation, waste, water stewardship, building and land use, parks, preserves and open space, clean air, local food systems, and resilience. The City of Phoenix Sustainability Plan was adopted on April 16, 2016 and appears to only have one copy. However, The General Plan for the City of Phoenix was updated in 2015 and was first adopted in 2002.1,2

35


PORTLAND, OREGON 2035 Sustainability Plan 2

SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

BUILT ENVIRONMENT

NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

Portland is located in the Willamette Valley. It grew out of its proximity to the Columbia River and Willamette River. It is a beacon of DIY culture, coffee and good food. The city prides itself on the walkability .and ease of movement throughout the various neighborhoods.

Currently, Portland is a big hub for athletic companies with Adidas and Nike headquartered in the city. Coffee and breweries also have a stake in the local economy often setting trends globally with ingredients or marketing tactics.

Portland is a highly urban environment. with 14 distinct neighborhoods defined by the coordinance of the city. Along the river is the historic core of Portland which was once the center of industry for the city. The city is known for its easy to use transportation and bike/ pedestrian friendly streets.

The city of Portland seeks to be committed to the natural landscape that draws people to the city. The Willamette River and the bridges divide the city creating a waterfront zone once used mainly for the mining and logging industries now mainly caters to tourism now.

36


PATH TO WATER INDEPENDENCE

Tree Canopy Coverage

Nature In Neighborhoods

MAP OF PORtLAND

Healthy River/Riverfront

PORTLAND’S WATER INFRASTRUCTURE Portland is seeking to update its stormwater catchment systems. Portland is privy to flooding causes problems with commuters interrupting traffic patterns. The city is seeking to replace old culverts and wetland and habitat restoration areas. Many of the highways and major boulevards will be getting stormwater retrofits “addressing deficient stormwater outfall This will benefit many creeks including Tryon Creek and Fanno Creek as they will see better management in their stormwater systems.dvsd

Columbia Slough

2035 SUSTAINABILITY PLAN STRUCTURE

Willamette River

Fanno Creek

KEY

Decrease In Carbon Emissions

Johnson Creek T

River Revitalized Creek

Portland’s 2035 measure is very comprehensive, including aspects of urban design, public health and sustainability. The city hopes to bring prosperity to the city though high quality jobs in the Green Sector, create a strong civic infrastructure, as well as develop a large green belt for recreation in the city. Portland recognizes the power of a healthy and happy community and looking for growth and stability in all goal areas.

37


ROTTERDAM, NETHERLANDS Action Plan 1

SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

BUILT ENVIRONMENT

NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

Rotterdam’s social goals are to decrease the unemployment rate, and create a healthier environment, community, and culture for the generations to come. This means making sure that people living here in the future will not run out of resources, and have a non-toxic environment to live. 2

Rotterdam’s chase to find methods of creating renewable energy sources for the future health of the city will help to bring the port of this city a better reputation as well. The port’s reputation will directly affect the welfare of this city overall, especially with trade. 2

Eighty percent of homes within the city of Rotterdam are rented. Rotterdam is focused on reducing the amount of energy consumption, and building with intention, to help reduce carbon emissions in the future. By reducing carbon emissions, the hope is to slow down climate change. 2

The environmental goal in Rotterdam is to save energy and produce renewable energy. This is driven by climate change, caused by the emission of carbon. The Adopt Clinton Climate Initiative was set in place to reduce carbon emissions by fifty percent in 2025 compared to 1997. 2

38


CARBON AND WATER USE 3,4

BENTHEMPLIEN WATERSQUARE 5

Carbon Emission Current: 40 million metric tons Carbon Emission 2030: (goal to decrease 49%) 20 million metric tons Water Use Current: 1,188,774 million gallons Water Use 2050:

Wet season ŢĥŗěěĂẅắţěŗşřǔắŗěş!Ă–ºļļěđ-

1,822,787 million gallons

Carbon

Water

Dry season ŢĥŗěěĂẅắţěŗşř ǔắŗěş!Ă–ŗěţắĭňĭňǧĂẅắţěŗĂǵŗôńĂẅěţĂşěắşôň-

WATERSQUARE The watersquare was implemented in Rotterdam to collect rainwater through a permeable surface into a cistern below. These helped with flooding in the city and also added a mass amount of rainwater storage for use during drought periods. 5

MAP OF ROTTERDAM

ROTTERDAM’S WATER INFRASTRUCTURE Rotterdam has some issues with flooding due to the fact that the climate is changing and sea levels are rising. To combat this, specifically with rainwater, Rotterdam has started to building large basins in which water is captured during rainfall and used during dryer times. These pieces of water infrastructure are called watersquares. Rotterdam also encourages for paving to be replaced with vegetation or water features (like green roofs) to somehow slowly get the water back to the ground, this will reduce negative run-off. 2

ACTION PLAN FOR THE CITY OF ROTTERDAM

KEY

Water ways Flooding hot spots

Watersquare

The plan for Rotterdam is set up as follows: 1 Energy Savings, 2 Renewable energy sources, 3 Rising cooling demand, 4 Situation Analysis, 5 Importance of energy savings and renewable energy production, 6 Economy , 7 Ownership Structure, 8 Regulations , 9 Other arrangements, 10 Guidance on a national level, 11 Measures and Actions , 12 Communication campaigns. This plan focuses on decreasing energy consumption in order to try to decrease the affect they have on the climate. This plan talks a lot about how we can make the water situation better in Rotterdam indirectly. This plan was published 2/29/2016. 2

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SEATTLE, WASHINGTON 2035 Sustainability Plan 2

ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

BUILT ENVIRONMENT

NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

This comprehensive plan wants to create social and racial equity. The plan also seeks to increase opportunties and access for marginalized groups including but not limited to affordable housing, access to jobs, and creating additional community centers.1

This comprehensive plan wants provide resources that encourage continuing education, increase the amount of jobs available, and increase overall wages for everyone. The idea is that if equal opportunity is created, the economy will become stabale. 1

This comprehensive plan wants to showcase the benefits of city investments that directly effect the public, protect rural areas from heavy development by concentrating on growth in urban villages, and develop transportation otpions to decrease vehicle reliance. 1

This comprehensive plan wants to protect and rejuvenate the existing green spaces throughout the city. Creating a more friendly, walkable environment will help reduce carbon emissions and promote physical activity. The city has a goal to be carbon neutral by 2050. 1

40

SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT


COMMERCIAL & MULTIFAMILY BILLED WATER CONSUMPTION2

SLANTED SlantedTO roofing to ROOFING GUIDE guideRAINWATER rainwater

120

Public space

PUBLIC SPACES

Permeable PERMEABLE PAVING pavingMATERIALS material

90 Gallons Per Day

POTENTIAL WATER CONSERVATION TECHNIQUE IN SEATTLE3

Rainwater feeds

RAINWATER FEEDS vegetation VEGETATION

60

30

0

1990

1995

2000

2005

Year

DIAGRAM OF POTENTIAL WATER COLLECTION TUCSON

Underground cistern UNDERGROUND CISTERN

MAP OF SEATTLE

SEATTLE’S WATER INFRASTRUCTURE

Lake Washington

Seattle’s water journey starts at the watershed, 100,00 acres of protected land, that then travels to treatment plants. After the water is treated, the water then travels through 1,800 miles of piping to be delivered to Seattle homes. Currenlty, unused water is stored in reservoirs throughout the city and state. It takes roughly 650 workers to keep the water clean, flowing, and readily available.2 roughly 650 workers to keep the water clean, flowing, and readily available1

Elliot Bay

2035 SUSTAINABILITY PLAN

KEY

Sanitary Lines City Border Open Streams

Large Bodies of Water Watershed Boundary

Seattle’s 2035 Sustainability Plan is part of an overall projection for Washington. It was created in 1994 and has been modified every year since. The Plan is broken into several subsections some of which include land use, transportation, housing, and environmental effects. Each section explains the goals and measurable success indicators. The overall plan goal is to develop a plan of action to create a future that will be able to sustain and grow with its’ citizens. 1

41


SINGAPORE Sustainable Singapore Blueprint

The Singapore population is divided into four categories: Chinese, Malay, Indian, and Other, while there is a great diversity of ethnic groups that make up the population. The quality of life has improved with a focus bring that citizens have a pro-active thinking with secure lives for the population.2 42

Singapore has a highly developed and successful free-market economy. There is a low unemployment rate with higher GDP (gross domestic product) per capita than other countries. Both agricultural production and the industrial production of goods thrives in Singapore’s economy. 3

Singapore is comprised of a dense built environment with a lot of high-rise sky scrapers with adjacent pockets of green infrastructure and landscaping. The developed infrastructure is matched with modern and convenient transportation to be able to get around the city. 2

Natural resources of Singapore include fishing and deepwater ports, which allows for natural resources including mining of petroleum and other chemicals. The island is growing to be a modern and unique skyline that shows the use of the waterfront of Singapore. 3


SINGAPORES WATER SOURCE DISTRIBUTION5

NEWater TREATMENT PROCESS5

treated used water water reclamation plant

NEWater treatment cycle NEWater

Imported - 40% NEWater - 30%

Local Catchment - 20% Desalinated Water - 10%

SINGAPORE WATER INFRASTRUCTURE 7

Microfiltration (filtering out particles and bacteria), Reverse Osmosis (removal of undesireable contaminates) , Ultraviolet Disinfection (UV light treatment to finalize a potable quality). 5

NEWater SINGAPORE NEWater recycles treated used water into ultra-clean, highgrade reclaimed water, providing a cushion for Singapore for dry weather seasons. It was launched in 2003. This water is used mainly for industrial and air-con cooling purposes at fabrication plants, industrial estates, and commercial buildings. During dry periods, the water is added to reservoirs to blend with raw water, which is then treated at the waterworks, and provided to consumers as potable water use. 5

SUSTAINABLE SINGAPORE BLUEPRINT

KEY

Water Catchment Reservoir

Water Tunnel NEWater Factory

This plan has five goals: Creating An Active & Gracious Community, A Zero Waste Nation, creating “Eco Smart” Endearing Towns, “ A Leading Green Economy, and having a “Car-Lite” Singapore. Each of the goals in the SSB plan, there are six target areas that each goal will aim how Singapore will achieve practicing sustainable development. Targets include: Green & Blue Spaces, Mobility, Resource Sustainability, Air Quality, Drainage, and Community Stewardship. 6

43


44


4

QUESTIONS

45


156


5

INFRASTRUCTURE

157


6

SUBDISTRICTS 2050

199


260


7

CITATIONS

261


CITATIONS CHICAGO

LAS VEGAS

1. “Chicago.” Wikipedia. April 15, 2019. https://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Chicago#cite_note-176.

1. https://www.salini-impregilo.com/en/projects/completed/ dams-hydroelectric-plants/lake-mead-intake-hydraulictunnel-las-vegas.html

2. “Greenhouse Gas Emissions.” CMAP. https://www.cmap.illinois. gov/2050/indicators/greenhouse-gas-emissions. 3. “Water Demand.” CMAP. https://www.cmap.illinois.gov/2050/ indicators/water-demand.

2. https://www.lasvegasnevada.gov/Government/Initiatives https://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/cgi/viewcontent. cgi?article=1010&context=cola_ug_research_anthropology

4. “Figure 2f From: Irimia R, Gottschling M (2016) Taxonomic Revision of Rochefortia Sw. (Ehretiaceae, Boraginales). Biodiversity Data Journal 4: E7720. Https://doi.org/10.3897/ BDJ.4.e7720.” doi:10.3897/bdj.4.e7720.figure2f.

3. https://lasvegasgmp.com/wells-groundwater/

5. “Navigation.” CMAP. https://www.cmap.illinois.gov/about/2040.

LOS ANGELES

COPENHAGEN

1. “Downtown Los Angeles Skyline Day.” Emeric’s Timelapse. Accessed February 3, 2019. https://www.emerictimelapse. com/los-angeles/4k-downtown-los-angeles-skyline-day.

1. Eco-Business. “A Mutual Vision for Smart Cities.” Eco. https:// www.eco-business.com/news/a-mutual-vision-for-smart-cities/. 2. https://www.visitdenmark.com/.../activities/copenhagen-twowheels-0 3. Sousa, Gregory. “The Economy Of Denmark.” WorldAtlas. January 12, 2017. https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/theeconomy-of-denmark.html. 4. “Key Industries.” Copenhagencvb. https://www.copenhagencvb. com/copenhagen/key-industries 5. https://www.danva.dk/media/4664/water_in_figures_2015.pdf 6. Gerdes, Justin. “Copenhagen’s Ambitious Push to Be Carbonneutral by 2025.” The Guardian. April 12, 2013. https://www. theguardian.com/environment/2013/apr/12/copenhagen-pushcarbon-neutral-2025 6. https://stateofgreen.com/files/download/1901

4. https://www.travelpulse.com/news/impacting-travel/lasvegas-avoids-casino-resort-strikes.html

2. “History of Los Angeles.” Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/History_of_Los_Angeles. 3. “Los Angeles - Discover the Arts, Culture and History of LA.” The Los Angeles Film School. https://www.lafilm.edu/ campus-life/discover-la/. 4. “Los Angeles: Economy.” Los Angeles: Economy Major Industries and Commercial Activity, Incentive ProgramsNew and Existing Companies. http://www.citydata.com/us-cities/The-West/Los-Angeles-Economy.html. 5. “Los Angeles, California Population 2019.” Los Angeles, California Population 2019 (Demographics, Maps, Graphs). http://worldpopulationreview.com/us-cities/los-angelespopulation/. 6.”U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Los Angeles City, California; UNITED STATES.” Census Bureau QuickFacts. https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/ losangelescitycalifornia,US/HSG495217#HSG495217. 7. “Los Angeles, CA.” Data USA. https://datausa.io/profile/geo/ los-angeles-ca/. 8. http://www.clui.org/content/sources-power-0 9. The Center for Land Use Interpretation. http://www.clui. org/content/sources-power-0.

262


10. “Historical LADWP Water Supply | Los Angeles - Open Data Portal.” City of Los Angeles. https://data.lacity.org/ALivable-and-Sustainable-City/Historical-LADWP-WaterSupply/tyen-gy62.

PHOENIX

11. pLAn. https://www.dropbox.com/s/e768n31r3k379w7/theplan.pdf?dl=0

2. https://www.phoenix.gov/pddsite/Documents/hp/pdd_hp_ pdf_00185.pdf 3. https://www.phoenix.gov/oepsite/Documents/2015%20 City%20of%20 Phoenix%20GHG%20Summary%20Report.pdf

12.Ladwp.com. https://www.ladwp.com/ladwp/faces/. 13. “DISCLAIMER.” Groundwater Wells. http://dpw.lacounty. gov/general/wells/#.

1. “Sustainability Water.” City of Phoenix. www.phoenix.gov/ sustainability/water.

4. http://www.azwater.gov/AzDWR/WaterManagement/ Assessments/documents/

14. pLAn. https://www.dropbox.com/s/e768n31r3k379w7/ the-plan.pdf?dl=0

5. “Climate Change.” City of Phoenix. http://www.phoenix.gov/ oep/environment/climate .

15. L.A. Water Hub: Groundwater. Accessed February 15, 2019. http://waterhub.ucla.edu/groundwater.html.

6. “Census Shows Arizona Is 4th Fastest-growing State in United States.” Azcentral. December 20, 2018. https://www.azcentral. com/story/news/local/arizona/2018/12/20/arizona-4th-fastestgrowing-state-united-states/2381538002/.

16. “Visualizing Water Infrastructure with Sankey Maps: A Case Study of Mapping the Los Angeles Aqueduct, California.” Taylor & Francis. https://www.tandfonline.com/ doi/full/10.1080/17445647.2018.1473815.

NEW YORK 1. New York City Guide. In Architectural Digest. http://media. architecturaldigest.com/photos/5699802bc6772b7614567435/ master/pass/new-york-city-guide.jpg.

7. VanderMeer, Philip. Desert Visions and the Making of Phoenix, 1860-2009. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2010. 8. Talton, Jon. “Seattle and Phoenix, Two Tales of Growth.” The Seattle Times. June 01, 2017. https://www.seattletimes.com/ business/economy/seattle-and-phoenix-two-tales-of-growth/. 9. “Intel in Arizona.” Intel. https://www.intel.com/content/www/ us/en/corporate-responsibility/intel-in-arizona.html.

2. History of New York City’s Water Supply System. https:// www1.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/drinking_water/history.shtml.

10. “Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017”. United States Census Bureau.

3. City Water Tunnel No. 3. https://www1.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/ dep_projects/cp_city_water_tunnel3.shtml.

11. “County and City Data Book: 2007” (PDF) (14 ed.). U.S. Census Bureau. 2007. p. 712. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 20, 2016.

4. “Our Just and Equitable City.” OneNYC. https://onenyc. cityofnewyork.us/visions/equity/. 5. “Our Growing, Thriving City.” OneNYC. https://onenyc. cityofnewyork.us/visions/growth/.

12. “Sustainability Land Use.” City of Phoenix. https://www. phoenix.gov/sustainability/land.

6. “Our Sustainable City.” OneNYC. https://onenyc. cityofnewyork.us/visions/sustainability/. 7. “Executive Summary.” OneNYC. https://onenyc.cityofnewyork. us/executive-summary/.

263


CITATIONS CONTINUED PORTLAND

SEATTLE

1. Gn, David. “Portland Oregon Downtown Cityscape in the Fall - HDR.” Flickr. June 21, 2011. https://www.flickr.com/photos/ davidgn/5857451114.

1. https://www.seattle.gov/dpd/cs/groups/pan/@pan/documents/ web_informational/dpdd016610.pdf

2.”Stormwater Solutions.” Drugs and Vice Division RSS. https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bes/31870. 3.”ENN-7.03 - Stormwater Management Using Onsite Surface Vegetated Facilities.” Drugs and Vice Division RSS. October 14, 2010. https://www.portlandoregon.gov/citycode/article/192303. 4. “2035 Comprehensive Plan.” Drugs and Vice Division RSS. https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/57352.

ROTTERDAM 1. “Neueste Bilder Download 227912 Fotos Für Den Desktop. Schöne Kostenlose Fotos Für Den Desktop.” Fotos & Bilder Für Den Desktop. http://www.1zoom.me/. 2. Rooyen, Roland Van. “Action Plan for the City of Rotterdam.” Promotion of Smart and Integrated NZEB Renovation Measures in the European Renovation Market, February 29, 2016. http://www.nezer-project.eu/ download/18.7e136029152c7d48c206c8/1457619283323/ NZEBR Action plan for the City of Rotterdam.pdf. 3. Hellemans, Alexander. “The Netherlands Confronts a Carbon Dilemma: Sequester or Recycle?” IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, and Science News. December 26, 2017. https://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/fossil-fuels/ the-netherlands-confronts-a-carbon-dilemma-sequester-orrecycle. 4. “McKinsey & Company.” McKinsey & Company. https://www. mckinsey.com/~/media/mckinsey/dotcom/client_service/ sustainability/pdfs/charting%20our%20water%20future/ charting_our_water_future_full_report_.ashx. 5. “Works - PublicSpace.” PUBLIC SPACE. https://www. publicspace.org/works/-/project/h034-water-square-inbenthemplein.

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2. “Chart of Water Consumption in King County.” King County. https://www.kingcounty.gov/depts/executive/ performance-strategy-budget/regional-planning/benchmarkprogram/Environment/EN14_WaterConsumption/ WaterConsumptionChart.aspx

SINGAPORE 1. “Singapore Panorama.” Discover and Share the World’s Best Photos / 500px. https://500px.com/photo/154841255/ singapore-panorama-by-simongr-photography?utm_ campaign=nativeshare&utm_co. 2. “Quality of Life in Singapore.” GuideMeSingapore. https:// www.guidemesingapore.com/business-guides/immigration/getto-know-singapore/quality-of-life-in-singapore. 3. “The World Factbook: Singapore.” Central Intelligence Agency. February 01, 2018. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/theworld-factbook/geos/sn.html. 4. Pub. “Four National Taps.” PUB, Singapore’s National Water Agency. https://www.pub.gov.sg/watersupply/fournationaltaps. 5. Pub. “NEWater.” PUB, Singapore’s National Water Agency. https://www.pub.gov.sg/watersupply/fournationaltaps/newater. 6. “Our Home, Our Environment, Our Future.” Sustainable Singapore Blueprint. https://www.mewr.gov.sg/ssb/home. 7. Pub. “Water from Local Catchment.” PUB, Singapore’s National Water Agency. https://www.pub.gov.sg/watersupply/ fournationaltaps/localcatchmentwater.


QUESTION 1 - GROUNDWATER 1. https://www.ag.arizona.edu/swes/tucwater1/ian.htm 2. http://www.azwater.gov/AzDWR/Arizonas_Strategic_ Vision/documents/AppendixI-TimelineofArizonaWaterMan agementHistory.pdf 3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodore_Roosevelt_Dam 4. https://www.tucsonaz.gov/water/cavsarp (Recharge) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Arizona_cap_canal.jpg 5. https://www.tucsonaz.gov/water/about-us-2 6. https://tucsonfoodie.com/2015/07/24/eat-exploremercado-san-agustin/ 7. https://www.usbr.gov/lc/phoenix/AZ100/1970/ photogallery.html 8. https://tucson.com/business/tucson/bank-of-americavacating-downtown-tucson-tower/article_07dd77a9-149a5adf-b976-ecd3b855daca.html 9. https://www.expedia.com/Tucson-Hotels-AC-Hotel-ByMarriott-Tucson-Downtown.h19218413.Hotel-Information 10. https://www.tripadvisor.com/Attraction_Reviewg60950-d524691-Reviews-Pima_County_CourthouseTucson_Arizona.html lp.com/biz/empire-pizza-and-pub-tucson 12. https://tucsonfoodie.com/2015/07/24/eat-exploremercado-san-agustin/

QUESTION 2 - STORMWATER 1 Poupeau, Franck, Hoshin Gupta, Aleix Serrat-Capdevila, Maria A. Sans-Fuentes, Susan Harris, and László G. Hayde. Water Bankruptcy in the Land of Plenty. CRC Press, 2017. 2. https://www.azdot.gov/docs/media/read-arizona’stransportation-history-in-its-entirety-.pdf pic:http://www.tucsonsentinel.com/sports/report/052312_ soccer-notes/its-not-monsoon-season-but-i-10-rivalry-startswed/ 3. “History of Watershed Management Group.” Watershed Management Group. July 07, 2015. https://watershedmg.org/ history-of-watershed-management-group.

4. “Stormwater.” Legal Defender - Pima County. Accessed February 27, 2019. http://webcms.pima.gov/cms/one. aspx?portalId=169&pageId=62831. 5. “Managing Stormwater with Low Impact Development Practices ...” April 2009. Accessed February 27, 2019. https:// www3.epa.gov/region1/npdes/stormwater/assets/pdfs/ AddressingBarrier2LID.pdf. 6.http://www.library.arizona.edu/exhibits/swetc/barr/ body.1_div.2.html 7.https://www.azcentral.com/story/news/local/arizonacontributor/2016/11/08/who-tucsons-ronstadt-transitcenter-named-after-s-not-exactly-who-you-think/93458542/ 8.http://webcms.pima.gov/UserFiles/Servers/Server_6/File/ Government/Flood%20Control/Floodplain%20Management/ Low%20Impact%20Development/LID%20Working%20 Group/lid-case-studies-201501.pdf 9.https://www.downtowntucson.org/2012/07/tucsonamtrack-is-now-more-convenient/amtrak-2 https://www.azdot.gov/docs/media/read-arizona’stransportation-history-in-its-entirety-.pdf 10. https://southernarizonaguide.com/bicycle-path-the-loop/

QUESTION 3 - RAINWATER 1. “Quarterly Drought Status.”Arizona Department of Water Resources. https://new.azwater.gov/drought/droughtstatus#quarterlyStatus. 2. Service, NOAAs National Weather. “Yearly Monsoon Statistics for Tucson.” NOAA National Weather Service. March 15, 2013. https://www.wrh.noaa.gov/twc/monsoon/ monsoon.php. 3. “Emergency Water Conservation - Ordinance 8461.” Official Website of the City of Tucson. September 19, 2014. https://www.tucsonaz.gov/water/ord-8461. 4. https://www.tucsonaz.gov/files/transportation/ stormwater/2006WaterHarvesting.pdf 5. https://www.tucsonaz.gov/files/pdsd/projects/ cms1_033871.pdf 6. https://www.tucsonaz.gov/files/pdsd/projects/ cms1_033871.pdf

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CITATIONS CONTINUED 7. “Santa Cruz River.” SouthernArizonaGuide.com. July 09, 2016. https://southernarizonaguide.com/where-does-thesanta-cruz-river-start-end/. 8. “Drought.” Drought | Ready.gov. https://www.ready.gov/ drought. 9. “Rainwater Catchment: Is Rainwater Harvesting Worth It?” Ygrene. February 10, 2018. https://ygrene.com/blog/isharvesting-rainwater-worth-it. 10. “Commercial Rainwater Harvesting Systems.” http:// use-rainwater.com/rainwater-harvesting/commercialrainwater-harvesting-systems/. 11. “Tucson Water.” Official Website of the City of Tucson. https://www.tucsonaz.gov/water. 12. “Joel D. Valdez Main Library.” Pima County Public Library. https://www.library.pima.gov/content/joel-d-valdezmain-library/. 13. Labriola, N. (2013, January 13). Cheyney House (Photograph). 14. About the Presidio Museum | Tucson Presidio Trust For Historic Preservation. http://www.tucsonpresidio.com/ about. 15. Addison Harden Jan 28th 16. “Rialto: A History.” The Rialto Theatre. https://www. rialtotheatre.com/history/. 17. Wuelpern, T. (2014, July 2). The Mercado District (Photograph). 18. Urbanists, Architects &. “Moule & Polyzoides.” Mercado District, Rio Nuevo | Moule & Polyzoides. http://www. mparchitects.com/site/projects/mercado-district-rio-nuevo 19. http://www.wevaweb.com, WevaWeb Design Agency -. “Tucson Museum of Art.” North American Reciprocal Museum (NARM) Association™. https://narmassociation.org/ tucson-museum-of-art/. 20. “Mission & History.” Tucson Museum of Art. https:// tucsonmuseumofart.org/mission-history/. 21. Cyprus Civil Development. (2015, July 3). One East Tucson (Photograph). 22. “Downtown Luxury @ 1E!” One East Tucson. http://www. oneeasttucson.com/. 266

QUESTION 4 - GRAY WATER 1. “Casa Del Agua.” Center for the Study of the Built Environment. http://www.csbe.org/creating-landscapes-inwater-scarce-environmrents-1/. 2.”Home Use of Graywater, Rainwater Conserves Water--and May Save Money.” WRRC. January 01, 1993. https://wrrc. arizona.edu/publications/arroyo-newsletter/home-usegraywater-rainwater-conserves-water-and-may-save-money. 3.”Read “Using Graywater and Stormwater to Enhance Local Water Supplies: An Assessment of Risks, Costs, and Benefits” at NAP.edu.” National Academies Press: OpenBook. https://www.nap.edu/read/21866/chapter/10#149 . 4.”Graywater History.” History of Gray Water Policy and Innovation. http://oasisdesign.net/greywater/law/ history/#upc. 5. ”Casa Del Agua.” Center for the Study of the Built Environment. http://www.csbe.org/creating-landscapes-inwater-scarce-environmrents-1/ 6. ”Home Use of Graywater, Rainwater Conserves Water-and May Save Money.” WRRC. January 01, 1993. https://wrrc. arizona.edu/publications/arroyo-newsletter/home-usegraywater-rainwater-conserves-water-and-may-save-money. 7. ”Graywater History.” History of Gray Water Policy and Innovation. http://oasisdesign.net/greywater/law/history/. 8. ”Read “Using Graywater and Stormwater to Enhance Local Water Supplies: An Assessment of Risks, Costs, and Benefits” at NAP.edu.” National Academies Press: OpenBook. https://www.nap.edu/read/21866/chapter/10#146. 9.”Graywater History.” History of Gray Water Policy and Innovation. http://oasisdesign.net/greywater/law/history/. 10.”Conservation Learning Center Open, Reid Park Zoo.” Reid Park Zoo. August 16, 2009. https://reidparkzoo.org/blog/ conservation-center-open/. 11. https://www.tucsonaz.gov/files/water/docs/Gray_Water_ Information_Guide.pdf 12. An Example Of Grey Water. Accessed February 15, 2019. http://fabymartin.com/alberta/an-example-of-grey-water. php#.


13.”Construction Documents.” Fitzgeraldstudiosblog. December 09, 2011. Accessed February 15, 2019. https:// fitzgeraldstudiosblog.wordpress.com/2011/12/09/ construction-documents/.

5. Foster, Bud. “When Is a Sewage Treatment Plant a Park?” Http://www.kold.com. February 06, 2013. Accessed April 17, 2019. http://www.tucsonnewsnow.com/story/6834751/whenis-a-sewage-treatment-plant-a-park/.

14. Headquarters... - Tucson Electric Power Office Photo.” Glassdoor. Accessed March 14, 2019. https://www.glassdoor. com/Photos/Tucson-Electric-Power-Office-PhotosIMG251713.htm.

6. “Summary of the Clean Water Act.” EPA. March 11, 2019. https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-cleanwater-act.

15. “A Century in the Making: A Brief History of Tucson’s Historic Rialto Theatre.” Downtown Tucson Partnership. October 22, 2015. https://www.downtowntucson. org/2015/10/century-making-brief-history-tucsons-historicrialto-theatre/. 16. “Tucson City Solar Installations.” Official Website of the City of Tucson. April 18, 2017. https://www.tucsonaz.gov/gs/ tucson-city-solar-installations 17. “Copper Room at Hotel Congress.” Downtown Tucson Partnership. https://www.downtowntucson.org/locations/ copper-room-at-hotel-congress/. 18. Alderton, Matt. “Plans Announced for First Hotel at Tucson Convention Center.” Successful Meetings. January 18, 2018. http://www.successfulmeetings.com/News/ Destinations/West/Tucson-Convention-Center-Hotel-Plans/. 19. “The Chicago Store.” Peach Properties. November 19, 2015. http://peachprops.com/news/the-chicago-store/.

7. “Summary of the Clean Water Act.” EPA. March 11, 2019. https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-cleanwater-act. 8. Rusten, and Westrum. “A New Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor - Applications and Results.” Water Science and Technology. October 01, 1994. https://iwaponline.com/wst/article/29/1011/157/4369/A-new-moving-bed-biofilm-reactor-applicationsand. 9. Johkasou MBBR. Accessed April 17, 2019. http://fudeso.vn/ ct-sp/13/johkasou-mbbr?lang=eng. 10. “Figure 2f From: Irimia R, Gottschling M (2016) Taxonomic Revision of Rochefortia Sw. (Ehretiaceae, Boraginales). Biodiversity Data Journal 4: E7720. Https:// doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e7720.” doi:10.3897/bdj.4.e7720. figure2f. 11. Otis, R.j. “Boundary Design: A Strategy For Subsurface Wastewater Infiltration System Design And Rehabilitation.” On-Site Wastewater Treatment. doi:10.13031/2013.6033.

QUESTION 5 - RECLAIMED WATER 1. Pima County WWM: Tracing Our Roots. Ahttps://www. sewerhistory.org/chrono_pc/part2.htm. 2. Michigan Technological University - Michigan Environmental Education Curriculum. Wastewater Secondary Treatment: Activated Sludge. http://techalive. mtu.edu/meec/module21/WhattoRemove-WW.htm. 3. “History of Tres Rios.” City of Phoenix. Accessed April 17, 2019. https://www.phoenix.gov/waterservices/tresrios/ wetlandsinfo. 4. “Roger Road Wastewater Treatment Facility Solar Plant – Barker Contracting, Inc.” Barker Contracting Inc. https:// barkerone.com/project/roger-road-wastewater/.

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TUCSON 2050 ONE WATER

University of Arizona College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture Architecture 451A - Spring 2019 Downtown Tucson 2050 Design Studio Professor: Courtney Crosson Graphics Team: Amie Maxwell Lizzy Guevara Kittitash Chaikunpon Allison Garbini Data Team: Juliana Seymour Pamela Davila Robledo Wyatt Swingle Model Team: Evan Swanson Sarah Lentsch Addison Harden

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Profile for University of Arizona, School of Architecture

One Water Vision: Downtown Tucson  

One Water Vision: Downtown Tucson  

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