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Academic Studies Section

Key Factors in Lesson Planning

Mr. Ali Maskari Head of Academic Studies ADNOC ATI (Abu Dhabi)

http://www.slideshare.net/douaa03/keys-factors-for-lesson-planning/downlo 1


A teacher who is attempting to teach without inspiring the pupil with a desire to learn is hammering on a cold iron. Horace Mann

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ATI PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS The MODEL and EXPECTATION •

Acquiring basic principles and components of course and lesson planning.

Planning instruction based on students’ needs, prior knowledge and developmental progress.

Selection of appropriate resources and materials for presenting and practising the target language.

Relating instructional planning with evaluation /assessment.

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Components that Constitute ATI (PDS)

To produce the desired behavioral change in the learner, the teache should consider the following components: 1. Language Proficiency: 2. Subject Matter Knowledge: 3. Knowledge of Students: 4. Conceptual Knowledge of Language & Language Learning: 5. Pedagogy -- Instructional Planning: 6 Level of commitment 7. And ways of measuring impact . An effective teacher should equip oneself fully and create situations all the above components are interlinked.

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Focus on Domain 5 Standard 5. Teachers understand instructional planning, design long and short-term plans based upon knowledge of subject matter, students, and curriculum goals, and employ a variety of appropriate strategies in order to promote performance skills of all students.

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Knowledge: Teachers know and understand:

 5.1 The principles of lesson and course planning.  5.2 The components of a lesson and course plan.  5.3 The relationship between curriculum goals and lesson objectives.  5.4 The links between lesson/course plans and assessment.  5.5 The relationship between teaching goals and learning outcomes.

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Aptitude: Teachers know and are able to: 5.6

Plan instruction based on students’ needs, prior knowledge and developmental progress.

5.7

Plan instruction based on curriculum objectives.

5.8

Select appropriate resources and materials for instructional planning.

5.9

Modify instructional methods, materials and the environment to help all students learn.

5.10 Use various educational technologies to promote learning. 5.11 Identify and design instruction appropriate to students’ stage of development, learning styles, strengths and needs.

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Aptitude: Teachers know and are able to:

5.12

Plan instruction based on knowledge of the classroom, company requirements and culture.

5.13

Evaluate teaching resources and curriculum materials for their relevance, accuracy, appropria and usefulness of their content.

5.14

Select strategies to create learning experiences that make subject matter meaningful for stud

address a variety of learning styles, encourage students to pursue their own interests and inq and help students connect their learning to personal goals. 5.15

Plan and develop effective lessons by organizing instructional activities and materials, incorp

a wide range of community and technology resources, to promote achievement of lesson obje 5.16

Select formal and informal methods of assessment, information about students, pedagogical

knowledge, and research as sources for active reflection, evaluation and revision of practice. 5.17

Create interdisciplinary learning experiences that allow students to integrate knowledge, skill methods of inquiry from other subject areas.

5.18

Anticipate students’ learning difficulties.

5.19

Prepare different alternatives to remedy unexpected breakdowns/problems.

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Lesson Plan Defined I f you do not plan, the students will plan for you. Harry and Rosemary A lesson plan may be

defined as a systematic design for the delivering of effective instruction . It provides the teacher the opportunity to anticipate instructional and learning needs and make plans to the components of lesson design and planning. Lesson plans usually document lesson outcomes, appropriate learning activities sequenced in a logical order, assessment tasks and lesson evaluation criteria

(McCutcheon, 1980). 9


Historical Background 

Based on the Herbartian 1892 concept of the mind as an

appreciative mass, his students developed a five-step less plan appropriate for all teachers. It included: 

1.

Preparation

2.

Presentation

3.

Association

4.

Generalization

5.

Application 10


Historical Background 

During the 1940's and 1950's, another lesson planning technique came into vogue structured around a four step system which included: 

Aim

Material

Method

Evaluation

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Historical Background

During 1960 and 1970 , Clinical Supervision was evolved primarily to draw attention to the emphasis placed on classroom observation, analysis of in class events, and the focus on teachers and students in class behavior. Lessons Plans included  Specifications of outcomes  Anticipated problems of instructions  Instructional materials  Prohibition of feedback  evaluation 12


Historical Background 

In the early 1980's Madeline Hunter's proposed the seven-step lesson pla

Teachers in the U.S.A were even evaluated on their use of the seven step

and some veteran teachers were required to be retrained in the seven ste that include: 

1.

Anticipatory set

2.

Objectives and purpose

3.

Input

4.

Check for understanding

5.

Modeling, Guided Practices

6.

Independent Practices

7.

Closure 13


Historical Background

Madeline Hunter's education model is a "teacher decision-making mode

A brief list of instructional and curricular decisions an English teacher m make in preparing for class are: 1. What can the students do as a result of this class?

2. What skills or information will the students need for attaining what they ne learn?

3. What learning behaviors can the teacher facilitate in the students which w result in the highest probability of being satisfying and successful? and

4. How will the teacher artistically use research and intuition to make studen satisfying achievement more probable"

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Academic Studies Section

Pre planning Concerns: Adapted from: Graham Butt’s Lesson Planning, pp. 3-4.

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The greater the structure of a lesson and the more precise the directions on what is to be accomplished, the higher the achievement rate.

Harry Wong, The First Days of Teaching

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OVERVIEW Of a Lesson Plan

Language Policy Language Philosophy

Curriculum Overview

Lesson Planning unit instructional Planner

Outlines main aspects of each lesson

INDIVIDUAL LESSON PLAN

INDIVIDUAL LESSON 1

EVALUATION

Instructional Objectives English Mathematicl Tech English

INDIVIDUAL LESSON 2

INDIVIDUAL LESSON 3

INDIVIDUAL LESSON 4

EVALUATION

EVALUATION

EVALUATION 17


What to include in your lesson plan

Instructional Objectives

Instructional procedure

Evaluation

Reflection

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Instructional Objectives

The Three Types of Learning Domains 

Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge)

Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude)

Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills)

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ABCD's of objectives 

Heinich and his colleagues (2002) suggest that well written objective have four parts. They call these parts the ABCD's of instructional objectives.

The A stands for Audience,

the B represents Behavior,

the C stands for Condition and

the D for Degree of Accuracy. Each instructional objective is written i sentence format and should contain the A, B, C and D. Let's take a closer look at each of these.

NOTE: The Heinich book has been revised by S. Smaldino, D. Lowther & 20


ABCD's of objectives 

The Audience - Who? Who is this aimed at?

Behavior - What? What do you expect them to be able to do? This should be an overt, observable behavior, even if the actual behavior is covert or mental in nature. If you can't see it, hear it, touch it, taste it, or smell it, you can't be sure your audience really learned it.

Condition - How? Under what circumstances will the learning occur? What will the student be given or already be expected to know to accomplish the learning?

Degree - How much? Must a specific set of criteria be met? Do you want total mastery (100%), do you want them to respond correctly 80% of the time, etc. A common (and totally non-scientific) setting is 80% of the time.

This is often called the, a nice mnemonic aid!

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Specific Consideration in Writing Instructional Objectives: Instructional Objectives Should be

:

Specific

Outcome based

measurable.

describe student behavior http://edtech.tennessee.edu/~bobannon/objectives.htm

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How to write instructional Objectives Consider the following Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

Categories in the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001) 23


Bloom’s Taxonomy Categories in the Cognitive Domain: (with Outcome-Illustrating Verbs) 

Knowledge of terminology; Knowledge is (here) defined as the remembering (recalling) of appropriate, previously learned information. —defines; describes; enumerates; identifies; labels; lists; matches; names; reads; records; reproduces; selects; states; views; writes;. Comprehension: Grasping (understanding) the meaning of informational materials. classifies; cites; converts; describes;

discusses; estimates; explains; generalizes; gives examples; illustrates; makes sense out of; paraphrases; restates (in own words); summarizes; traces; understands. 

Application: The use of previously learned information in new and concrete situations to solve problems that have single or best answers. —acts; administers; applies; articulates; assesses; charts; collects; computes; constructs; contributes; controls; demonstrates; determines; develops; discovers; establishes; extends; implements; includes; informs; instructs; operationalizes; participates; predicts; prepares; preserves; produces; projects; provides; relates; reports; shows; solves; teaches; transfers; uses; utilizes. 24


Bloom’s Taxonomy 

Analysis: The breaking down of informational materials into their component parts, examining (and trying to understand the organizational structure of) such information to develop divergent conclusions by identifying motives or causes, making inferences, and/or finding evidence to support generalizations. analyzes; breaks down;

categorizes; compares; contrasts; correlates; diagrams; differentiates; discriminates; distinguishes; focuses; illustrates; infers; limits; outlines; points out; prioritizes; recognizes; separates; subdivides. 

Synthesis: Creatively or divergently applying prior knowledge and skills to produce a new or original whole. adapts; anticipates; collaborates; combines;

communicates; compiles; composes; creates; designs; develops; devises; expresses; facilitates; formulates; generates; hypothesizes; incorporates; individualizes; initiates; integrates; intervenes; invents; models; modifies; negotiates; plans; progresses; rearranges; reconstructs; reinforces; reorganizes; revises; structures; substitutes; validates 

Evaluation: Judging the value of material based on personal values/opinions, resulting in an end product, with a given purpose, without real right or wrong answers. appraises

compares & contrasts; concludes; criticizes; critiques; decides; defends; interprets; judges; justifies; reframes; supports. 25


What to avoid in writing instructional objectives. 

Vague, unverifiable statements such as:

Students will learn about the passive voice.

Students will practice some listening exercises.

Students will do the reading selection.

Students will discuss the homework assignment.

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Instructional Procedures It may include the following: 

an opening statement or activity as a warm-up materials and resources,

anticipatory set or entry,

instructional input,

guided practice,

independent practice,

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Instructional Procedures Variety, Sequencing, Pacing, and Timing you need to look at how the lesson holds together as a whole. Four considerations come into play here:

Variety sufficient variety in techniques to keep the lesson lively and

sequencing Building a lesson logically and progressively toward

Pacing activities are neither too long nor too short. You should

Timing The most difficult aspects of lesson planning to control .

interesting.

accomplishing your objectives.

anticipate how well your various techniques" flow" together smoothly

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Instructional Procedures Gauging Difficulty 

Gauging Difficulty takes a good deal of cognitive empathy to put yourself in your students' shoes and anticipate their problem areas. The sources of difficulties: Difficulties caused by tasks themselves

Another source of difficulty, of course, is linguistic. Adopting the i+1 principle.

Anticipated problems

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Instructional Procedures Individual Differences Your lesson plan should also take into account the variation of ability in your students. 

a. Design techniques that have easy and difficult aspects or items.

b. Solicit responses to easier items from students who are below the norm and to harder items from those above the norm.

c. Try to design techniques that will involve all students actively.

d. Use judicious selection to assign members of small groups so that each g

either (i) a deliberately heterogeneous range of ability or (ii) a homoge-ne range (to encourage equal participation). 

e. Use small-group and pair work time to circulate and give extra attention t below or above the norm 30


Evaluation / Assessment 

Evaluation is an assessment, formal or informal, that you make afte students have sufficient opportunities for learning, and without this component you have no means for (a) assessing the success of your students or (b) making adjustments in your lesson plan for the next day.

If your lesson has no evaluation component , then you simply making assumptions that are not informed by careful observation o measurement.

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Reflective Practice 

What went well in the lesson?

What problems did I experience?

Are there things I could have done differently?

How can I build on this lesson to make future lessons succ

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Approaches to collaborative planning • Learning to plan lessons carefully through being involved in joint planning with an experienced teaching. • Learning scientific skills of classroom teaching theory and having responsibility for a specified component at the lessons, while

identifying with the whole lesson and recognizing the relationship o the part to the whole. • Giving access to the “the teachers” craft knowledge through

observation, informed by a thorough knowledge of the planning and probably through discussion of the lesson afterwards, with the 33

lightened awareness of having joint responsibility the lesson. Burn (P.for 134)


Thank you

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Key Factors in Lesson Planning