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Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih nacija Juni 2013. godine


Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

Autori:

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society.

Projektni odbor:

Svjetlana Radusin, Ministarstvo za prostorno uređenje, građevinarstvo i ekologiju Republike Srpske

can potentially refer ito any type ofodnosa ICT used by citizens, and involves everything Senad e-Accessibility Oprašić, Ministarstvo vanjske trgovine ekonomskih Bosne i Hercegovine from websites for e-government services, telephony support fori Hercegovine blind people to subtitling on Mehmed Cero, Federalno ministarstvo okoliša i to turizma Federacije Bosne television. Up to 15 percent of thedistrikta population across the European Union has a disability, such as a Isak Abdurahmanović, Vlada Brčko visual, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a Goran hearing, Vukmir, Razvojni program Ujedinjenih nacija, Bosne i Hercegovine similar or higher proportion.

Stručni tim za SNC: A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is Sanjin Avdić, legal šef Odsjeka za energiju i zaštitu životne sredine, Razvojni to program Ujedinjenih but nacija, the relevant context. No single EU directive is dedicated e-Accessibility, actions are Bosne i Hercegovine spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive Raduška Cupać, koordinatorica (for copyright exemptions), andprojekta the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility Martin Tais, vođa tima za izradu inventara stakleničkih plinova is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Nusret Drešković, vođa tima za ublažavanje klimatskih promjena Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. Goran Trbić, vođa tima za prilagođavanje na klimatske promjene Borislav Jakšić, There is UNFCCC at least asavjetnik five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: Andrea 1. Muharemović, AzrudininHusika, Bojan Rajčević, Bosiljka Stojanović, Čedomirto Crnogorac, Davorin It is worthwhile its own right to improve access to services people who areBajić, already Đorđe Stefanović, Đorđe It Vojinović, Arnautović Aksić, Emina marginalized. helps Dragana fulfil theStojisavljević, promise ofDragica the Information Society to Hadžić, reduceEsena rather than Kupusović, Goran Popović, Gordana Tica, Hamid Čustović, Kadira Močević, Mediha Voloder, Merima Karabegović, increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this Milan Mataruga, Milovan Nada Rudan, Predrag Ilić,groups. Radoslav Dekić, Rajko Gnjato, Ranka Radić, Sabina area is likely toKotur, further marginalize these Hodžić, Samir Đug, Sandra Popović, Slaviša Jelisić, Vladimir Đurđević, Željko Majstorović, Zijad Jagodić

2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner.

Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i Hercegovine u skladu sa Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih nacija je usvojen 3. Vijećа Improving e-Accessibility for the 08. marginalized also lead to improved access for od strane ministara Bosne i Hercegovine oktobra 2013.could g. 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

Sadržaj:

able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost.

Sažetak8

5. Pursuinguapproaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the 1. Okolnosti državi19 convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE icountries. 1.1. Struktura institucionalni okvir  19 1.1.1. Odgovornosti ministarstava i drugih organa za pitanja okoliša

1.1.2. Statistika okoliša  1.2. About this report 1.2. Geografske karakteristike 

20 21 22

1.3. Stanovništvo

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The specific goals of klime this report are: 1.4. Karakteristike

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1.5. Analiza sektora 

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1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal 1.5.1. Privreda i industrija 24 instruments and strategic level documents; 1.5.2. Energija  27 1.5.3. Transport

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1.5.5. Šumarstvo

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2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people 1.5.4. Poljoprivreda 31 with disabilities; 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 1.5.6. Upravljanje otpadom 34 4. to identify good practices in the region; 1.5.7. Upravljanje vodnim resursima  35 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: 1.5.8. Zdravstvo 36 address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; 1.5.9. Obrazovanje 37 comply with requirements for the UN and EU. 1.6. Izazovi dugoročnog razvoja - Milenijski razvojni ciljevi MRC 38 Proračun emisije stakleničkih plinova40 This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed40by 2.1. Metodologija the UNDP Country Office iinobrade Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by 41 the 2.2. Sistem prikupljanja podataka  UNDP’s Democratic Governance 2.2.1. Proračun emisijskih faktora Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region 42 in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the 2.2.2. Izvještavanje  43 regional action kvaliteta plan for(eng. Information Society development, and(eng. theQuality UNCRPD. The programmatic 2.2.3. Kontrola Quality Control) i osiguranje kvaliteta Assurance) 43 priorities of theCORINAIR project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. 2.3. Sistem 44 2.

2.4. Rezultati proračuna emisije stakleničkih plinova 1991-2001.

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2.4.4. Ključni izvori emisije

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The project being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative 2.4.1. Emisija CO2 poissektorima 48 Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering 2.4.1.1. Energetika 49 Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social 2.4.1.2. Industrijski procesi 50 Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely 2.4.1.3. Ponori - LUCF 50 with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP 2.4.2. Emisija metana (CH4) po sektorima 52 in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members 2.4.2.1. Poljoprivreda 52of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their 2.4.2.2. Čvrsti otpad  52 respective countries. 2.4.3. Emisija azotnog suboksida (N2O)53

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

2.4.5. Emisija indirektnih stakleničkih plinova

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2.5.

Procjena nesigurnosti proračuna

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2.5.1. Nesigurnost procjene emisije CO2

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2.6. Verificiranje proračuna

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1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

3. Ocjena ranjivosti sektora i prilagođavanje na izmijenjene klimatske uvjete61

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the 3.1. Osmotrene klimatske promjene u Bosni i Hercegovini 61 requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed 3.1.1. Promjene temperature 62 by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to 3.1.2. Promjene količine padavina 64 disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. 3.1.3. Klimatska varijabilnost i procjena ekstremnih događaja

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3.1.3.1. Procjena ekstremnih dnevnih padavina

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3.1.4. Analiza padavina i suša na teritoriji BiH na osnovu Standardiziranog indeksa padavina (SPI) 1.1. Why e-Accessibility? 3.2. Projekcije budućih klimatskih promjena

68 71

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others 3.2.1. A1B scenarij, 2001-2030.  71 such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information 3.2.2. A1B scenarij, 2071-2100. 72 Society. 3.2.3. A2 scenarij, 2071-2100. 73 3.2.4. Sumarni prikaz scenarija

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e-Accessibility can potentially to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything 3.3. Utjecaji klimatskih promjena porefer sektorima 75 from for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on 3.3.1.websites Poljoprivreda 75 television. Up to na 15 poljoprivredu percent of the acrossscenarija the European Union has a disability, such as75a 3.3.1.1. Utjecaji na population osnovu klimatskih 3.3.1.2. Socio-ekonomski utjecaj klimatskih promjena na poljoprivredu visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have77a 3.3.2. Vodni resursi 79 similar or higher proportion. 3.3.2.1. Utjecaji na vodne resurse na osnovu klimatskih scenarija

81

3.3.2.2. Socio-ekonomski utjecaj klimatskih promjena naagreements, vodne resurseregulations and guidelines cover 82 A perhaps surprising number of international 3.3.3. Zdravlje this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008,83 is 3.3.3.1. Utjecaji na zdravlje ljudi na osnovu klimatskih scenarija 83 the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are 3.3.4. Šumarstvo 84 spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive 3.3.4.1. Utjecaji na šumarstvo, osnovu klimatskih scenarija 84 (for copyright exemptions), andnathe Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility Socio-ekonomski utjecaji na sektor šumarstva 85 is3.3.4.2. also covered by policy, and klimatskih guidelinespromjena and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. 3.3.5. Biodiverzitet osjetljivi 87 Furthermore, movesi are afootekosistemi to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. 3.3.5.1. Utjecaji na biljne vrste prema klimatskim scenarija

87

3.3.5.2. Utjecaji na biljne zajednice prema klimatskim scenarijima

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3.3.5.3. Utjecaji na vodna staništa prema klimatskm scenarijima

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3.3.5.4. Utjecaji na faunu prema klimatskm scenarijima

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3.3.6. Regionalni razvoj

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There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility:

1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already 3.3.5.5. Utjecaji na faunu kraških prostora prema klimatskim scenarija 90 marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than 3.3.5.6. Utjecaji na zaštićena područja prema klimatskim scenarija 91 increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this 3.3.5.7. Utjecaji klimatskih promjena na obalske ekosisteme 91 area is likely to further marginalize these groups. Improving access to planiranje services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the 3.3.6.1. 2. Prostorno i urbanističko 91 population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil 3.3.6.2. Ruralno planiranje  92 remit in a costprilagođavanja effective manner. 3.4. their Pregled sposobnosti klimatskim promjenama 93 3.4.1. Opći okvir politika i politike prilagođavanja klimatskim promjenama 

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3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

3.4.2. Ekonomski podsticaji able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance 93 the 3.4.3. Teškoće i rizici sprovođenju predloženih prilagođavanja prospects forumigrating web services mjera onto new platforms such as mobile phones.

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3.4.4. Procjena sposobnosti prilagođavanja po sektorima

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3.4.4.2. Sposobnost prilagođavanja u sektoru voda

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4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of 3.4.4.1. Sposobnost prilagođavanja u poljoprivredi 95 e-Services and to lower the cost. 5. Pursuing approaches uthat follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in 96 the 3.4.4.3. Sposobnost prilagođavanja sektoru zdravstva of the development of the Information Society in the97 EU convergence of differentuaspects 3.4.4.4. Sposobnost prilagođavanja šumarstvu and SEE countries. 3.4.4.5. Sposobnost prilagođavanja u oblasti biodiverziteta i osjetljivih ekosistema

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3.5.

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Predložene mjere prilagođavanja na klimatske promjene

3.5.1 Potencijalne mjere po sektorima 1.2. About this report 3.5.2. Prijedlog projektnih ideja za prilagođavanje klimatskim promjenama

98 102

The goals potencijala of this report are: 4. specific Procjena za ublažavanje utjecaja klimatskih promjena 104 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal 4.1. Energetika 105 instruments and strategic level documents; 4.1.1. Elektroenergetika

105

4.1.1.1. Pregled postojećeg stanja u oblasti elektroenergetike

105

4.1.1.3. Smanjenje emisije metana iz rudnika uglja

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4.1.2.4. Sunčeva energija

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4.1.2.5. Geotermalna energija

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4.3.1.1. Stambene zgrade

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4.4.1.1. Cestovni saobraćaj

127

2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people 4.1.1.2. Scenariji smanjenja emisije stakleničkih plinova iz elektroenergetskog sektora  105 with disabilities; 3. to assess the current of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4.1.1.4. Mjere za smanjenje emisija level stakleničkih plinova iz elektroenergetskog sektora  108 4. to identify good practices in the region; 4.1.2. Obnovljivi izvori energije u BiH 109 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: 4.1.2.1. Hidroenergija 109 address 4.1.2.2. Vjetroenergija  the obstacles to e-Accessibility; 111 comply with requirements for the UN and EU. 4.1.2.3. Bioplin 113

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, 4.2. Daljinsko grijanje 118 that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed 4.2.1. Pregled postojećeg stanja u sektoru daljinskog grijanja 118by the UNDP Country Office emisije in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by gradskog DG/BDP NY, and funded by the 4.2.2. Scenariji smanjenja stakleničkih plinova iz različitih sistema UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region centralnog grijanja u BiH 120 in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the 4.2.3. Mjere za smanjenje emisija stakleničkih plinova iz sektora daljinskog grijanja 121 regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic 4.3. Zgradarstvo 122 priorities of thepostojećeg project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. 4.3.1. Pregled stanja u sektoru zgradarstva 122 The project is being implemented 4.3.1.2. Javne zgrade (komercijalne i uslužne) by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative 124 Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering 4.3.1.3. Industrijske zgrade 125 Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social 4.3.2. Scenariji smanjenja emisija stakleničkih plinova u sektoru zgradarstva 125 Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely 4.3.2.1. Stambene zgrade 125 with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP 4.3.2.2. Javne zgrade (komercijalne i uslužne) 126 in New York isunaprjeđenja providing expertise and playing an role. Government-appointed members 4.3.3. Mjere energetske efiaksnosti u uadvisory sektoru zgradarstva 126of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their 4.4. Saobraćaj  127 respective countries. 4.4.1. Pregled postojećeg stanja u sektoru saobraćaja 127

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

4.4.1.2. Željeznički saobraćaj 

129

4.4.1.3. Zračni saobraćaj 

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4.4.1.4. Vodni saobraćaj 

130

4.4.1.5. Poštanski saobraćaj 

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4.4.2. Scenariji smanjenja emisija stakleničkih plinova u sektoru saobraćaja 

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4.4.3. Mjere za smanjenje emisija stakleničkih plinova iz sektora saobraćaja

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4.5. Šumarstvo 

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4.5.4. Tresetišta

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4.6.

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1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the 4.5.1. Pregled postojećeg stanja u sektoru šumarstva u BiH 134 requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed 4.5.2. Scenariji za ublažavanje u sektoru šumarstva u BiH  136 by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to 4.5.3. Mjere ublažavanja klimatskih promjena u sektoru šumarstva 138 disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. Poljoprivreda

4.6.1. Pregled postojećeg stanja u sektoru poljoprivrede 1.1. Why e-Accessibility? 4.6.2. Scenariji za ublažavanje u poljoprivrednom sektoru

140 141

e-Accessibility is smanjenje about overcoming the rangeplinova of barriers that people with disabilities and others 4.6.3. Mjere za emisija stakleničkih u sektoru poljoprivrede 143 such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information 4.7. Otpad 144 Society. 4.7.1. Pregled postojećeg stanja u sektoru otpada  144 4.7.2. Scenariji ublažavanja klimatskih promjena u sektoru otpada u BiH 

145

e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT otpada  used by citizens, and involves everything 4.7.3. Mjere smanjenja emisije stakleničkih plinova u sektoru 147 from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling148 on 4.8. Ukupan potencijal smanjenja emisija stakleničkih plinova television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a 149 5. Ostale relevantne aktivnostI visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. 5.1.

Procjena tehnoloških potreba za ublažavanje i prilagođavanje

149

5.1.1. APristup Okvirnoj konvenciji UN-a klimatskim promjenama (UNFCCC) 149 perhaps surprising number ofointernational agreements, regulations and guidelines cover 5.1.1.1. Mehanizam čistoginternational razvoja this area. At the highest level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008,149 is 5.1.1.2. Strategija prilagođavanja na klimatske promjene i niskoemisionog razvoja 149 the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are 5.1.2. across Procjena tehnoloških za ublažavanje i prilagođavanje 150 spread areas such aspotreba Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive 5.1.3. Stanje prenosa tehnologija BiH 150 (for copyright exemptions), and theuTelecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility Pregled planova i programa za sistematsko  151 is5.2. also covered by policy, and guidelines and osmatranje benchmarking exist for programmatic support. 5.3. Obrazovanje, i jačanje svijesti 152 Furthermore, moves obuka are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. 5.3.1. Propusti i potrebe u obrazovanju i jačanju kapaciteta 

154

5.3.2 Jačanje svijesti

155

5.3.3. Ciljevi koje treba ispuniti u oblastima obrazovanja, obuke i podizanja svijesti 

155

5.4.

156

There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: Priprema operativnih programa za informiranje javnosti

1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already 5.4.1. Funkcioniranje klimatskog WEB portala i osnivanje integriranog informacionog sistema 158 marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than 5.5. Međunarodna suradnja 158 increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this 5.5.1. Međunarodna suradnja u okviru globalnih sporazuma o životnoj sredini 158 area is likely to further marginalize these groups. 5.5.2. Regionalna suradnja

159

2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; it can159 reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the 6. Ograničenja i nedostaci prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 6.1. Institucionalna ograničenja  6.2.

6.3. Ograničenja u ljudskim resursima 6.4.

159

4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of Financijska ograničenja 160 e-Services and to lower the cost. 160

5. Pursuing approaches follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in161 the Prevazilaženje ograničenja i that nedostataka

aspectsprevazilaženju of the development of the Information Society in the162 EU convergence/ bilateralni of different 6.5. Multilateralni doprinosi ograničenja and SEE countries. Lista grafikona 

Lista tabela 1.2. About this report Lista slika Lista skraćenica

163 165 167 168

The specific goals of this report are: Literatura171 Aneks 1 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal 177 Aneks 2 instruments and strategic level documents;

183

2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities; 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries.

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

Sažetak Okolnosti u državiCIRCUMSTANCES 1. NATIONAL Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) ima površinu od 51.209,2 km2, koja se sastoji od 51.197 km2 i 12,2 km2 mora. Od ukupne površine kopna, 5% su nizine, 24% brda, 42% ankopna overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the planine i 29% kraške oblasti. Graniči se sa Republikom Hrvatskom (931 km), requirements it sets in all Republikom aspects of Srbijom e-Accessibility how it is to beGorom implemented. (375 km) i and Republikom Crnom (249 km). This is followed

Geografske This section presents karakteristike:

by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to Varira od umjereno kontinentalne u sjevernom dijelu Panonske nizije duž rijeke Save i u disability particular. Klima: in general and e-Accessibility zoni podnožja, doin alpske klime u planinskim regijama, i mediteranske klime u priobalnom i području regije niske Hercegovine na jugu i jugoistoku.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? Institucionalni okvir:

Suverena država sa decentralizovanom političkom i administrativnom strukturom. Sastoji se od dva entiteta: Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine (FBiH) i Republike Srpska (RS) i Distrikta Brčko. Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine je podijeljena na 10 kantona. overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others Donošenje odluka uključuje Savjet ministara, dva entiteta i Distrikt Brčko.

e-Accessibility is about such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Procjena broja stanovnika BiH - 3.839.737. (2011) - oko 37% u Republici Srpskoj, 61% u Society. Stanovništvo: Federaciji Bosne i Hercegovine i 2% u Brčko distriktu

e-Accessibility canBDP potentially refer KM, to any of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything Privreda: 24.584 miliona BDPtype po glavi stanovnika 6.397 KM1 (2010) from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on Preovladava prerađivačka industrija 78,3% ukupne vrijednosti industrijskih television. Up to 15 percent of the population across thesaEuropean Union has aprodaje disability, such as a Industrija proizvoda (2011) visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a Energija Ukupna proizvodnja električne energije u BiH za 2011. godinu iznosila je 14 049 GWh similar or higher proportion. 22.744,30 km cestovne mreže; 1.031 km željezničkih pruga; 4 međunarodna aerodroma, Transport: A perhaps surprising number international agreements, and guidelines cover nema morske of luke, rijeka Sava glavni riječni plovniregulations put

this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is miliona ha (46% zemljišta) pogodno za poljoprivredu; udio u strukturibut BDP-a 6,25 %are the relevant legal context.2,3No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, actions Poljoprivreda: (2010), broj zaposlenih u poljprivrednoj djelatnosti prelazi 19% spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions),2,7 and the Telecoms Framework assistive miliona ha (53% zemljišta) pokrivaju(for šume i šumskatechnologies). zemljišta; oko 1,3e-Accessibility miliona ha Šumarstvo: ekonomske šume is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. Upravljanje 68% stanovnika uključeni u odvoz komunalnog otpada; prosječna količina poizvedenog otpadom:

komunalnog otpada 1,08 kg po stanovniku na dan (2010)

There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility:

Dva glavna riječna sliva: sliv rijeke Save (38.719 km2), prosječno godišnje oticanje 722 m3/s i sliv Jadranskog mora (12.410 km2).sa oticajem od 433 m3/s; ukupno zahvaćenih i količina m3 (2011) worthwhilepreuzetih in its own rightvode to 329.954.000 improve access to services to people who are already

Upravljanje vodnim resursima:

1. It is marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than Zdravstvo: Vodeći uzrok smrti oboljenja cirkulatornog sistema (2011) increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize groups. Ratificirane konvencije:these UNFCCC, Konvencija UN-a o biološkom diverzitetu, Konvencija Međunarodna 2. Improving suradnja:

Fusnota 1

UN-a za borbu protiv dezertifikacije zemljišta, Bečka konvencija o zaštiti ozonskog

access to services, public and private, to suchzraka a significant omotača, Konvencija o prekograničnom zagađivanju na velikim proportion udaljenostimaof the Potencijalni kandidat za članstvo u EU (SSP potpisan 2008. godine) population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner.

3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized 1 EUR=1,95583 KM, Centralna banka Bosne i Hercegovine, juni 2013 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the Izračunavanje emisija stakleničkih plinova prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. Inventar stakleničkih ovom Izvještaju obuhvata e-Accessibility desetogodišnji into period 1991-2001.of 4. The earlier action isplinova taken,uthe easier it is to integrate development Sastavljen je u skladu sa preporukama za izradu inventara Smjernice o izvještavanju UNFCCC-a e-Services and to lower the cost. prema Odluci 3/CP.5 i 17/CP.8 uključujući i zajednički format izvještavanja (CRF) i Revidirane smjernice IPCC-a zaapproaches nacionalnethat inventare stakleničkih iz 1996. koje daje specifikaciju 5. Pursuing follow EU guidelinesplinova and recommendations will assist in the obavezaconvergence za izvještavanje u skladu sa članovima 4 i 12 UNFCCC-a (Revidirane smjernice IPCC-a in theza EU of different aspects of the development of the Information Society nacionalni inventar stakleničkih plinova iz 1996. godine). Inventar je temeljen na CORINAIR (CORe and SEE countries. INventory of AIR emissions) sistemu koji kreira ETC/AE (Evropski tematski centar za emisije u vazduhu) .

1.2.Neophodno About this report je naglasiti povećanu nesigurnost podataka o emisijama proračunatim za ratni

period (1992. – 1996.), kao i period do 1998. godine, zbog nedostatka i/ili lošeg kvaliteta ulaznih podataka za goals izraduofinventara. The specific this report are: Ukupne emisije u inventornom periodu variraju od 4.010 GgCO2 eq 1993. godine (samo 12% 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal u odnosu na baznu 1990. godinu), nakon čega se bilježi rast emisija koje su 2000. godine dosegle instruments and strategic leveleq, documents; 15.249 GgCO eq, a 2001. 16.118 GgCO odnosno 47% emisija iz 1990. godine. 2 2 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people Najznačajanji izvor CO2 je svakako energetski sektor koji u ovom desetogodišnjem periodu with disabilities; pridonosi 72,3% cjelokupnih emisija CO2 eq, slijedi poljoprivreda sa 18,1%, otpad 6,2%, te industrijski procesi 3,5%. 3. to assesssa the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; - CO2 emisija comply requirements EU. CO2 emisija po sektorima 2000 Udio po with sektorima 1991-2001for the UN and Udio

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, 3% 6% 4% in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is6% that is being implemented a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the 18% 13% UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. 72%

78%

The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Poljoprivreda Poljoprivreda Enenrgetski sektorGovernance Enenrgetski sektor Inclusion/Democratic Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely Industrijski Otpad with the fellow UNDP Country Offices procesi in the region, whileOtpad the Office of Senior Industrijski ICT Advisorprocesi at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries. Udio CO emisija po sektorima (%) za period 1991-2001 i za 2000. godinu 2

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

Ocjena ranjivosti sektora i prilagođavanje na izmijenjene klimatske uslove

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES Osmotrene klimatske promjene

Na bazi komparativne analize za period 1981-2010. u odnosu na period 1961-1990. This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the utvrđeno je povećanje temperature zraka na godišnjem nivou u rasponu od 0,4 do 0,8°C, dok porast requirements in all aspects of e-Accessibility temperatureitusets vegetacionom period ide i do 1,0°C.and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to istom periodu nisu zabilježene znatne promjene padavina, ali smanjenjem broja disability U in general and e-Accessibility in particular. padavinskih dana većih od 1,0 mm i povećanjem broja dana sa intenzivnim padavinama poremećen je pluviometrijski režim. Izražena promjena godišnjeg rasporeda padavina uz povećanje temperature jedan je od ključnih faktora koji uslovljavaju češće i intenzivnije pojave suše i poplava na teritoriji Bosne i Hercegovine. e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others Tokom poslednjihexperience decenija when primjećena je topovećana klimatska tokom svih such as older populations seeking participate on equal varijabilnost terms in the Information godišnjih doba i na cijeloj teritoriji Bosne i Hercegovine: pet od posljednjih 12 godina su bile vema Society. suhe do ekstremno suhe, a četiri godine su bile obilježene ekstremnim poplavama. Posljednje

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

četiri godine (2009-2012) su sve imale obilježja ekstremnih vremenskih prilika: poplave 2009. i 2010. e-Accessibility godine, suša i can talas vreline 2011. godine, talas početkom 2012.everything i snažan potentially refer ito2012. any type of ICT usedhladnoća by citizens, and involves vjetar sredinom 2012. godine. from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a Projekcije budućih klimatskih promjena visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar orUhigher ovom proportion. izveštaju predstavljeni su rezultati regionalnog klimatskog modela EBU-POM iz

eksperimenata promjene buduće klime, dobijeni metodom dinamičkog skaliranja rezultata dva globalna klimatska modela atmosfere okeana SINTEX-G i ECHAM5. Fokusiraliand smo se na rezultate A perhaps surprising number ofiinternational agreements, regulations guidelines cover iz IPCC SRES scenarija A1B i A2. this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are Rezultati iz modela analizirani su za vremenske isječke 2001-2030 i 2071-2100. Izveštaj spread across such as dva Television Without Frontiersparametra: (for subtitling), the Copyright je usmjeren areas na promjene osnovna meteorološka temperature na 2 Directive metra i (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility akumulirane padavine. Promjene ovih parametara prikazane su u odnosu na srednje vrijednosti iz baznog (standardnog) 1961-1990. istzv. also covered by policy, perioda and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. Rezultati scenarija prema SINTEX-5 i ECHAM5 modelima ukazuju na trend povećanja temperature do 2030. godine u odnosu na bazni period 1961-1990, do 1,0°C na godišnjem nivou There is at least a five-fold justification for early action očekuje in the area e-Accessibility: na čitavoj teritoriji Bosne i Hercegovine. Najveće povećanje se of u ljetnom periodu (juniavgust), do 1,4°C. U periodu 2071-2100. godina prema scenariju A2 očekuje se rapidan porast temperature, i to do 4°C na godišnjem nivou, te do čak 4,8°Ctou services ljetnom periodu. 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than Modeli ukazuju na nejednake promjene količine padavina. U centralnim i planinskim increase the disadvantages certain populations Conversely, insufficient effort in this područjima očekuje se blago povećanje padavina, dok seface. na ostalim područjima očekuje smanjenje areaPrema is likely to further these groups. padavina. scenariju A2 marginalize u periodu 2071-2100. godina očekuje se smanjenje padavinama na čitavaoj teritotiji BiH. Najveći deficit padavina očekuje se u ljetnom periodu koji može iznositi i do 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the 50% u odnosu na bazni period 1961-1990. population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; A1B it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the A1B A2 A1B A1B A2 2001-2030 2071-2100 2071-2100 2001-2030 2071-2100 2071-2100 prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones.

DJF 0,6 – 0,9 2,4 2,4 –easier 3,6 DJF -15 – -5 -50into – -10 -5 – 30 of 4. The earlier action1,8 is–taken, the it is to integrate e-Accessibility development MAM 0,8 –and 0,9 e-Services JJA

1,1 – 1,4

2,4 – 2,6 3,4 – 3,8 to lower the cost. 3,4 – 3,6

4,6 – >4,8

SINTEX-5

SINTEX-5

-10 – 5

-15 – 0

-30 – 0

JJA

-5 – 15

-30 – 0

-50 – 0

A1B 2001-2030

A1B 2071-2100

A2 2071-2100

DJF

0 – 10

-15 – 5

-30 – 15

MAM

0 – 15

-5 – 15

-10 – 10

JJA

-10 – 10

-50 – -20

-50 – -20

GODINA

-5 – 10

-15 – -5

-20 – -5

5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the SON 0,5 – 0,9 2,0 – 2,4aspects 2,8 –of 3,2the development SON -10Information – 20 -50 – Society -15 -30 – 0 EU of the in the convergence of different GODINA – 1,0 2,4 – 2,8 3,4 – 3,8 GODINA -20 – 10 -30 – -10 -15 – 0 and SEE0,8 countries.

1.2. About this report DJF

A1B 2001-2030

A1B 2071-2100

A2 2071-2100

0,2 – 0,5

3 – 3,8

3,2 – 4

The specific are: 2,6 – 3,2 MAM goals< of 0,2this report 2,2 – 2,6 JJA

0,5 – 0,8

4 – 4,2

4,4 – 4,8

GODINA

0,4 – 0,6

3,2 – 3,6

3,6 – 4,0

ECHAM5

ECHAM5

MAM

1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal SON 0,9 – 1,1 3,4 – 3,8 3,8 – 4,2 SON -10 – 5 -30 – -5 -20 – 0 instruments and strategic level documents;

2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people Komparativni prikaz promjena temperature oC Komparativni prikaz promjena padavina u % with disabilities; 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identifyanaliza good practices in the region; Sektorska i prilagođavanjе klimatskim promjenama 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: Sektori koji su najranjiviji na klimatske promjene u Bosni i Hercegovini su: poljoprivreda, address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; vodni resursi, zdravlje ljudi, šumarstvo, biodiverzitet i osjetljivi ekosistemi. U tom smislu obavljene comply with requirements for the UN and EU. su detaljne analize dugoročnih klimatskih promjena u ovim sektorima na osnovu SRES klimatskih scenarija A1B i A2. This report is part of promjena a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, Utjecaj klimatskih po sektorima that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by U sektoru utjecaj klimatskih promjena smanjenje kao the UNDP Country poljoprivrede, Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supporteduključuje by DG/BDP NY, and prinosa funded by the posljedicu smanjenih količina padavina i povećane stope isparavanja, potencijalno smanjenje UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region produktivnosti domaćih životinja, učestaliju pojavu poljoprivrednih štetočina i oboljenja usjeva, te in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the povećanu nesigurnost hrane/namirnica. Pozitivni utjecaji se ogledaju u produženoj sezoni rasta regional actionpotencijalu plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic usjeva i većem za uzgoj mediteranskih kultura u Hercegovini. priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. U sektoru vodoprivrede, klimatske promjene donose češću pojava suša (u zapadnim dijelovima pad is riječnog vodostaja tokom ali i češću pojavuUNDP-funded poplava. TheBiH), project being implemented by ljeta, the Sarajevo-based e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Utjecaj klimatskih promjena na zdravlje ljudi uključuje povećanu učestalost i ozbiljnost Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social epidemija/pandemija tokom toplijih zima, povećan mortalitet povezan sa pojavom ‘toplotnih talasa’, Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. (Aedes The UNDP Countryi Office in Sarajevo is working closely moguće širenje azijskog tigrastog komarca albopictus), povećanje broja slučajeva oboljenja with fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor atutjecaji the BDP koje the prenosi krpelj (lajmska bolest i encefalitis uzrokovan ujedom krpelja). Mogući pozitivni podrazumijevaju manji broj smrtnih slučajeva nastalih usljed hladnoće. in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries.

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

U sektoru šumarstva evidentna je povećana učestalost i intenzitet šumskih požara, povećan rizik za rijetke i ugrožene šumske zajednice, sve veći broj štetočina kao što su potkornjak i gubar (North Atlantic Index [NAO] indeks), te povećan rizik od transformacije šumskog ekosistema koji bi rezultirao mortalitetom drveća velikih razmjera. Pozitivni utjecaji se ogledaju u bržoj stopi rasta i pojavi novih vrsta od ekonomskog značaja.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

U oblasti biodiverziteta i osjetljivih ekosistema, negativni utjecaji klimatskih promjena uključuju gubitak postojećih staništa, fragmentacija staništa, istrebljenje vrsta, i rapidne promjene This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the temperature i/ili količine padavina, koje utiču na funkcije ekosistema. S druge srane, prisutna je requirements sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed pojava novih itstaništa. by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

Sposobnost prilagođavanja klimatskim 1.1. Why e-Accessibility? promjenama

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others Sposobnost prilagođavanja klimatskim u on poljoprivrednom sektoru je na such as older populations experience when seekingprijetnjama to participate equal terms in the Information niskom nivou. Primjetan je nedostatak modelovanja usjeva i klimatskih podataka neophodnih za Society. sisteme ranog upozoravanja. Poljoprivrednim proizvođačima je neophodna obuka o manje radno intenzivnim poljoprivrednim metodama, tehnikama uzgoja bolje prilagođenih usjeva i tehnikama e-Accessibility potentially refer to anypromjena type of ICT used by citizens,u and involves everything protivgradne zaštite. can Uz to, pitanja klimatskih nisu integrisana politike o poljoprivredi i ruralnom razvoju. from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a Kad je u pitanju sposobnost prilagođavanja u sektoru voda, još uvijek postoji kritičan visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a nedostatak hidrološkog modelovanja, detaljna procjena ranjivosti, nedostatak mapa ranjivosti i similar or higher dijagrama rizikaproportion. od poplava. Mjere zaštite od poplava su na niskom nivou, a pitanja klimatskih

promjena nisu ugrađenа u sektorske zakone i programe. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover zdravstva, sposobnost na klimatske promjene je ograničena this area.UAtsektoru the highest international level, prilagođavanja the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is nedostatkom praćenja akutnih i hroničnih bolesti. Zdravstveni radnici i pacijenti nisu dovoljno the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are upoznati o odnosu između zdravstvenih tegoba i klimatskih promjena. Ne postoje finansijska spread across areas such mjere as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), Copyright Directive sredstva za zdravstvene prilagođavanja. Otežan pristup primarnojthe zdravstvenoj zaštiti u (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility ruralnim područjima otežava tretman pacijenata sa hroničnim i infektivnim oboljenjima na koja mogu utjecati klimatske promjene. is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. Sposobnost prilagođavanja u sektoru šumarstva je na veoma niskom nivou. Nisu definisana područja koja su najviše ugrožena klimatskim promjenama i ne postoji detaljna analiza utjecaja Therepromjena is at least za a five-fold for early action in the of e-Accessibility: klimatskih pojedinejustification šumske zajednice. Tehnika za area gašenje šumskih požara je nedovoljna i zastarjela. Kao i u drugim sektorima, primjetan je nedostatak integracije problema i pitanja1.klimatskih promjena u sektorske politike i strategije. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than Iako su već sada pojedine biljne i životinjske vrste veoma ugrožene usljed povećanja increase the disadvantages populations face.i najugroženije Conversely, insufficient innisu this temperature i smanjenja padavina,certain najosjetljivija područja vrste flore effort i faune area is likely further marginalize these groups. definisana, čime je tosposobnost prilagođavanja u oblasti biodiverziteta i osjetljivih ekosistema izuzetno umanjena. 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens opportunities, can help public services fulfil Za svaki sektor susignificant predloženemarket/sales mjere prilagođavanja koje suand identifikovane na osnovu stručnog their remit in a costsaeffective manner. stranama i analize relevantnih istraživanja. konsenzusa, konsultacija zainteresovanim 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of webklimatskih service development, Procjena potencijala za ublažavanje utjecaja promjena and enhance the prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. Oblast ublažavanja klimatskih promjena u Drugom nacionalnom izvještaju je fokusirana 4. The earlierjeaction is taken,najveći the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development na sektore u kojima identifikovan potencijal za smanjenje emisija stakleničkih plinova:of e-Services andenergije, to lower daljinsko the cost. grijanje, zgradarstvo, saobraćaj, otpad, te poljoprivreda proizvodnja električne i šumarstvo. Za svaki od sektora izrađeni su scenariji koji modeliraju moguće putanje emisija 5. Pursuing that followi EU guidelines andublažavanja recommendations will assist in the stakleničkih plinovaapproaches do 2025.godine,kao prijedlog mjera klimatskih promjena. of the Information Society in the EU convergence of kvantitativno-vremenskog different aspects of the development Konkretno modeliranje razvoja emisija stakleničkih plinova realizirano je prekoand tri SEE razvojna scenarija: S1 – osnovni (bez promjena), S2 sa djelimičnom primjenom countries. stimulativnih mjera i S3 – napredni scenario, sa primjenom cjelokupnog seta stimulativnih mjera. U razmatranjima pomenutih emisijskih scenarija inicijalni podaci su uzeti za 2010.g. dok su proračuni emisija urađeni po petogodištima, tj. za 2015.g., 2020.g. i 2025.g.

1.2. About this report The specific goals of this report are: Sektor energetike

Energetski sektor je odgovoran za prekoregarding 70% ukupnih emisija CO2, including samim timexisting i potencijal 1. to outline the international context e-Accessibility legal za smanjenje emisijaand stakleničkih u tom sektoru je najveći. instruments strategic plinova level documents; 2. to developsua tri comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people Analizirana scenarija smanjenja emisije stakleničkih plinova koji podrazumijevaju i povećanje energetske efikasnosti u skladu sa nacrtom NEEAP-a: with disabilities; to assess 1the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 3. Scenarij (S1) – podrazumijeva da emisija stakleničkih plinova raste proporcionalno

sa potrošnje energije. S obzirom 4. toporastom identify good practices in the region; da emisija stakleničkih plinova direktno zavisi od energije, ovo znači da se prema ovom scenariju isti udio pokrivenosti 5. toproizvodnje develop a set of recommendations for government and zadržava other stakeholders on how to: potreba za energijom iz domaćih izvora; address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; - Scenarij comply with–requirements the UN and EU.  2 (S2) podrazumijevafor implementaciju projekata izgradnje elektroenergetskih postrojenja u skladu sa relevantnim entitetskim strategijama i dobijenim podacima o planiranim aktivnostima; This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’,  Scenarij 3 (S3) – podrazumijeva intenzivno korištenje potencijala OIE i EE zbog ulaska BiH that is beinguimplemented in trgovanja the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a(EU regional project designed by Evropsku šemu emisijama stakleničkih plinova ETS), što podrazumijeva i the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the plaćanje emisionih dozvola za stakleničke plinove za elektroenergetski sektor. UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region Prema S1 i S2 of doći do porasta emisija ugljen iz elektroenergetskog sektora in the implementation theće Inclusive Information Societydioksida Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the u BiH u periodu od 2010. do 2025, za razliku od S3 prema kojem će doći do značajnog smanjenja regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic emisije, za preko 20% u odnosu na 2010. priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. The project is beinggrijanja implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Sektor daljinskog Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering U ovom sektoru razvijena tri and scenarija na nivou razvoja finalne potrošnje energije i sva Marginalised Groups in su e-Governance the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social tri predviđaju toplifikaciju daljih gradskih četvrti i širenje toplotnih mreža: Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP  S1 bez ulaganja u noverole. tehnologije i bez primjene dodatnih mjera;of in New York is –scenarij providingpotrošnje expertiseenergije and playing an advisory Government-appointed members the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act aspotrošnje government Focal Points for their  S2 –scenarij potrošnje energije s mjerama smanjenja energije; respective countries.  S3 – napredni scenarij potrošnje energije u uslovima intenzivnog ekonomskog razvoja i ulaganjima u nove tehnologije. 13

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

Kako napredni scenarijo podrazumjeva intenzivno širenje mreže, on predviđa i povećenje emisija iz ovog sektora 2025. godine za oko 10% u odnosu na 2010. godinu, dok scenarijo S2 2025. godine predviđa smanjenje od oko 5%.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES Sektor zgradarstva

Sektor zgradarstva ima najveći udio u krajnjoj potrošnji energije u Bosni i Hercegovini. Starost zgrada i njhovaan neadekvatna energetska efikasnost pruža velike and mogućnosti za uštedethe tj. This section presents overview of the UNCRPD, its significance main sections, smanjenje potrošnje energenata i smanjenje emisije CO2. requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to  S1 - blagi rast BDP i potrošnje energije – podrazumijeva porast stanovništva, izgradnju disability in general e-Accessibility zgrada and i potrošnju energije, in kojiparticular. će rasti skoro linearno, bez mjera energetske efikasnosti; 

S2 - srednje brzi rast BDP i potrošnje energije bez dodatnih mjera energetske efikasnosti;

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? S3 - srednje brzi rast BDP i sa provođenjem mjera energetske efikasnosti - podrazumijeva 

provođenje mjera energetske efikasnosti sa značajnim uštedama. e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Smanjenje emisija u sektoru zgradarstva se ogleda kroz smanjeno i/ili efikasnije korištenje Society. električne i toplotne energije. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything Sektor saobraćaja from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television.Osnova Up to 15 of the population across the European Union has audisability, such as a za percent izradu scenarija za smanjenje emisija stakleničkih plinova oblasti saobraćaja visual, hearing, speech,dacognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE cansaobraćajem, expect to have se bazira na činjenici cestovni saobraćaj u BiH, u poređenju sa countries željezničkim činia similar or higher proportion. 90% ukupne godišnje potrošnje energije (dizel i benzin) u ovom sektoru: A  perhaps surprising of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover S1- se bazira nanumber već utvrđenim trendovima povećanja broja cestovnih motornih vozila po this area. At the highestgodišnjoj international the ratified and coming intoparka force između in 2008,12 is prosječnoj stopi level, od oko 5,8UNCRPD, %, na prosječnoj starosti voznog do 15 context. godina, bez provođenja mjera homologacije sae-Accessibility, prosječnom godišnjom stopom the relevant legal No single EU directive is dedicatedi to but actions are povećanja potrošnje dizela i benzinskog goriva od(for 3,7subtitling), %; spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility  S2 –bysepolicy, baziraand na uvođenje dodatnih tehničkih mjera za for cestovna motorna vozila sa is also covered guidelines and benchmarking exist programmatic support. poboljšanja energetske these efikasnosti i smanjenja potrošnje goriva. Uz Furthermore,aspekta moves are afoot to strengthen and tomotora enact more legislation. stopu porasta broja cestovnih m/v kao u S1, s tim da je predviđeno poboljšanje kvaliteta kao iacestovna Theregoriva is at least five-foldinfrastruktura; justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: –se bazirainnaitspretpostavci će BiH access do 2025.godine postati članica EUare čime bi se 1. It isS3worthwhile own right todaimprove to services to people who already morale sprovoditi direktive koje su propisane za ovu oblast. marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than Scenarij S1 predviđa rasta emisija iz ovog sektora od oko 92%, a S2 od 57% u 2025. godini increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this u odnosu na 2010. godinu, dok scenarij S3 predviđa smanjenje od oko 8%. area is likely to further marginalize these groups. 2.Sektor Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the šumarstva population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil Ponorski šumske manner. površine u Bosni i Hercegovini za 2010.g. je procijenjen na their remitpotencijal in a cost effective 7327,5 Gg CO2. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; it can reduce the  S1- se bazira na utvrđenom trendu

cost of webpovršina servicepod development, and enhance the smanjenja šumsкim pokrivačem, koje su utvrđene u postratnom periodu, i ne uključuje nikakve dodatne mjere za promjenu prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. postojećeg trenda; 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of  S2– se bazira na primjeni određenih stimulativnih mjera za očuvanje postojećeg šumskog e-Services and to lower the cost. pokrivača; 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the  S3 – napredni scenario je zasnovan na pretpostavci da će BiH do 2025. godine postati convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU punopravna članica Evropske unije čime bi morala prihvatiti sve obaveze i direktive koje andsu SEE countries. propisane za sektor šumarstva. Prema S1 scenariju prosječni godišnji ponorski kapacitet šumskog pokrivača u BiH bi se 1.2. About this smanjio za oko 257 GgCO , dok bireport se prema S3 scenariju uvećao za oko 285 GgCO . 2

2

Sektor poljoprivrede The specific goals of this report are: Potencijali za ublažavanje utjecaja klimatskih promjena u oblasti poljoprivredne proizvodnje 1. mogu to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility u BiH se posmatrati sa dva aspekta: kao potencijali za poniranje including i kao izvorexisting emisijalegal za instruments stakleničke plinove. and strategic level documents; 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people S1- se zasniva na navedenom trendu poslijeratnog smanjenja obradivih poljoprivrednih withpovršina disabilities; i njihovog prevođenja u najčešće građevinsko zemljište i ne podrazumijeva

za njihovo 3. tododatne assess mjere the current leveločuvanje; of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. toS2 identify good practices inpozitivnih the region;  – je baziran na primjeni iskustava i dobre proizvodne prakse u oblasti poljopkojima se odlikuju privredno i poljoprivredno razvijene, evropske 5. torivredne developproizvodnje a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders onzemlje; how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility;  S3 – napredni scenario je, kao i kod većine ostalih sektora, baziran na očekivanjima da će - BiHcomply with requirements for the UN and EU. do 2025.godine postati članica Evropske Unije.

Prema prezentiranim pokazateljima ukupne emisije stakleničkih plinova, u sektoru poljoprivredne proizvodnje ćeaprema scenariju porasti naMarginalised gotovo dvostruku vrijednost u 2025.g. This report is part of larger S1 project, ‘Empowering Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by S2 predviđa neznatna smanjenja, koja će u 2025.g. u odnosu na 2010. iznositi svega the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the oko 5 %. S3 scenario pokazuje da su potencijali za ublažavanje utjecaja klimatskih promjena u UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern region sektoru poljoprivrede u BiH, uz striktnu primjenu najsavremenijih dostignuća u svim Europe segmentima in the implementation the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the proizvodnje, jako veliki:ofpreko 60% u odnosu na 2010. godinu. regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic Sektor priorities of the otpada project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. S obzirom emisija stakleničkih plinova, koji potiču izUNDP-funded sektora otpadae-SEE na nivou BiH The projectdaisudio being implemented by the Sarajevo-based Initiative iznosi oko 3 % od ukupnih emisija; ukupni direktni utjecaj za smanjenje emisija stakleničkih plinova Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering nije veliki. Međutim, smanjenje produkovanih količina otpada, njegovo recikliranje i proizvodnja Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social energije iz otpada, mogu značajno utjecati i na smanjenje općih emisija. Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely S1 -UNDP ovaj scenario u suštini bazira na while nepromijenjenoj postojećoj praksi u produkciji i with the fellow Country se Offices in the region, the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP prikupljanja i odlaganja otpada u dugoročnom periodumembers u BiH; of in New Yorkcjelokupnoj is providingorganizaciji expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their  S2 - bazira se na realizaciji postavljenih ciljeva i zadataka definiranih u Strategiji upravljanja respective countries. čvrstim otpadom BiH, iz 2000. godine;

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

S3 scenario - upravljanje otpadom prema ovom scenariju se zasniva na primjeni postojećih tehničkih dostignuća i legislative koja se primjenjuje u zemljama Evropske unije.

Dok S1 scenarij predviđa povećanje emisija CO2 iz sektora otpada u 2025. godini za 15%, S3 scenarij predviđa smanjenje od 20% u odnosu na 2010. godinu.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 godišnje percentemisije of the population across the European Union has asaobraćaja, disability, such as a Ukupne CO2eq iz sektora energetike, daljinskog grijanja, visual, hearing,poljoprivrede speech, cognitive, motor impairment, and SEE S1, countries can expect to have a i otpada uorBiH, za period 2010-2025, prema S2 i S3 scenariju similar or higher proportion. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive Procjena tehnoloških potreba za ublažavanje i prilagođavanje (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility Kao podršku aktivnostima ublažavanja klimatskih promjena, i Hercegovina je is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for Bosna programmatic support. uspostavila Ovlašteno tijelo (DNA) za implementaciju projekata Mehanizma čistog razvoja u okviru Furthermore, moves are konvencije afoot to strengthen these klime, and to ienact more Kjoto protokola Okvirne UN o promjeni do danas je legislation. ovo tijelo odobrilo četiri CDM

Ostale relevantne aktivnosti

projekta s procijenjenim smanjenjem emisija gasova koji izazivaju efekat staklene bašte (GHG) u iznosuThere od oko 3 miliona tona CO2justification ekvivalenta.for Mehanizmi Konvencije nisu jedini način transfera is at least a five-fold early action in the area of e-Accessibility: tehnologije, oni su samo inicijalni.

1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already Iako je Bosna i Hercegovina uglavnom završila proces vlasničke transformacije preduzeća, marginalized. It helps fulfil the promisedo of transfera the Information Society to reduce rather than kao i proces organizacionog restrukturiranja, tehnologija je došlo samo u velikim increase face. Conversely, effort in this preduzećima čijithe su disadvantages vlasnici postalicertain vlasnicipopulations multinacionalnih kompanija.insufficient Vrlo malo je urađeno u povećanju efikasnosti i u korišćenju obnovljive energije, a za trasfer tehnologija još areaenergetske is likely to further marginalize these groups. uvijek postoje brojne barijere: od neznanja do neadekvatne pravne regulative. 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, andnovih can help public services fulfil Prema INC za BiH predviđen je niz mjera koji uvođenjem tehnologija u različitim sektorima utjecajamanner. klimatskih promjena u Bosni i Hercegovini. Međutim, u their vode remitsmanjenju in a cost effective izvještajnom periodu vrlo malo je urađeno u implementaciji ovih mjera. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; itnema can reduce theizgrađenu cost of web service development, and enhance Bosna i Hercegovina posebno infrastrukturu za identifikaciju potrebathe i sakupljanje informacija o raspoloživim tehnologijama, niti poseban sistem podsticaja. Za uvoz prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. tehnologija u BiH ne postoje posebne povlastice, ali je moguće oslobađanje od carina i poreza 4. The earlier is taken, the easierOgraničenja it is to integrate into development ukoliko se knjiže kao action ulog stranog investitora. zboge-Accessibility nedostatka podsticaja bi trebaloof da budue-Services uzeta u obzir se rade andkada to lower themodeli cost. transfera tehnologije.. 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries. Aktivnosti na formiranju, otvaranju i osavremenjavanju mreže meteoroloških i hidroloških stanica na području BiH je neophodno za unapređenje meteorološkog monitoringa i klimatske baze. Pored osavremenjavanja, potrebno je i povezivanje meteoroloških stanica u sistem automatskog monitoringa zajedno s hidrološkim stanicama.

Sistemsko osmatranje

1.2. About this report

Obrazovanje, obuka i jačanje svijesti

The specific goals of this report are:

Dosadašnje aktivnosti u oblasti obrazovanja i u oblasti podizanja svijesti o klimatskim 1. to outline international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal promjenama nisu bilethe dobro organizirane i rezultati su dosta skromni. Tokom pripreme Drugog nacionalnog izvještaja i istraživanje instruments andurađeno strategicjelevel documents;javnosti Bosne i Hercegovine o klimatskim promjenama, prema kojem najveći broj ispitanika, 82,8%, vjeruje da zaista dolazi do globalne 2. klime, to develop comparative of e-Accessibility forda able-bodied people people promjene dok askoro polovica picture anketiranih, 44,9%, smatra je uglavnom maloversus informirano o klimatskim promjenama i njihovim mogućim posljedicama, dok 12,9% ne zna ništa o ovoj temi. with disabilities; 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility e-Accessibility stakeholders; Rezultati istraživanja nedvosmisleno idu u prilogand činjenici da obrazovanje, obuka i jačanje 4. to identify good practices in the region; svijesti javnosti u svim sferama koje se tiču klimatskih promjena, njihovim mogućim posljedicama, kao i mjerama za njihovo i prilagođavanje, jeste i treba ostatistakeholders jedan od prioriteta 5. to develop a set ublažavanje of recommendations for government and other on howza to: Bosnu i -Hercegovinu u narednom razdoblju. address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

Priprema operativnih programa za informiranje javnosti

Osnovne informacije koje moraju doći do svakoga su sljedeće: This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in thejecontext of the e-SEE promjene, Initiative. It is a regional project designed by 1. Bosna i Hercegovina ranjiva na klimatske the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the Postoje metode prilagođavanja već postojeće klimatske (mjereEurope adaptacije) i UNDP’s2. Democratic Governance Thematicna Trust Fund to support thepromjene South Eastern region mjere za suzbijanje emisija stakleničkih plinova (mjere ublažavanja klimatskih promjena), in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the 3. Razvijene zemlje su spremne i obavezale su se kroz međunarodne sporazume da pomognu regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic zemljama u razvoju pri adaptiranju na klimatske promjene. priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+.

Ograničenja i nedostaci

The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Osnovna ograničenja nedostaci koji utiču na provođenje obaveza UNFCCC-u, kao i Secretariat, capitalizing on i their existing knowledge, networks and prema resources. Empowering na provođenje aktivnosti u oblasti izrade inventara emisija stakleničkih plinova, suzbijanja emisija Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social stakleničkih plinova, te prilagođavanje na postojeće klimatske promjene su: Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the- Institucionalna: fellow UNDP Country Offices in ithe region, while the Officesuradnje of SenioriICT Advisor at između the BDP nedostatak vertikalne i horizontalne koordinacije in New Yorknadležnih is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of institucija; the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their - countries. Finansijska: nedovoljno korištenje ekonomskih instrumenata u zaštiti okoliša; respective - Ograničenja u ljudskim resursima: nedovoljan broj osoblja edukovanog u oblasti zaštite okoliša. 17

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Priprema Drugog nacionalnog izvještaja je služila kao sredstvo za razvoj vještina i izgradnju kapaciteta u ključnim sektorima. Cilj SNC projektnog tima je da se svi rezultati integrišu u proces dugoročnog razvoja i u razvojne planove sektora. Članovi ovog interdisciplinarnog tima su u stalnom kontaktu i predstavljaju podlogu za unapređenje rada institucija koje će vremenom dostići nivo potreban za uspješnu implementaciju aktivnosti predviđenih Izvještajem. Tokom izrade SNC-a takođe se radilo na izgradnji kapaciteta domaćih institucija, tako da mogu preuzeti aktivniju ulogu u pripremi narednih nacionalnih komunikacija.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups. 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost.

1. Okolnosti u državi

5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries.

1.1. Struktura i institucionalni okvir Bosna i Hercegovina je suverena država s decentraliziranom političkom i administrativnom 1.2. About this report strukturom. Sastoji se od dva entiteta: Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine (FBiH) i Republike Srpske

(RS) i Distrikta Brčko. The specific goals of this report are: Donošenje odluka uključuje Vijeće ministara, te vlade dva entiteta (Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine Republike i Brčkocontext distrikta.regarding Federacijae-Accessibility Bosne i Hercegovine je podijeljena na 1. to i outline theSrpske) international including existing legal 10 kantona. U sektoru okoliša u BiH, Ministarstvo vanjske trgovine i ekonomskih odnosa Bosne i instruments and strategic level documents; Hercegovine (MVTEO) je odgovorno za koordinaciju aktivnosti i u međunarodnim odnosima, ali su za pitanja u2.vezi s okolišem u BiH odgovorne vlade entiteta. Odgovarajući organi vlasti suversus Ministarstvo to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people people okoliša iwith turizma Federacije BiH, Ministarstvo za prostorno uređenje, građevinarstvo i ekologiju RS disabilities; (koje je Focal Point prema UNFCCC-u) i Odjeljenje za komunalne poslove Distrikta Brčko. Vijeće ministara je potpisnik određenog međunarodnih sporazuma i konvencija o okolišu i u 3. BiH to assess the current level ofbroja e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; potpunosti jeidentify predan good ispunjavanju uvjeta su propisani u ovim sporazumima. 4. to practices in thekoji region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: Bosna i Hercegovina je potencijalni kandidat za članstvo u EU. Sporazum o stabilizaciji i address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; pridruživanju (SSP) između Bosne i Hercegovine i EU potpisan je u junu 2008. godine. Privremeni comply with requirements for the and EU. sporazum, koji se uglavnom odnosi na trgovinskaUN pitanja SSP-a, na snazi je od jula 2008. godine. Me­đu­­tim, napredak u pogledu reformi koje se tiču EU je ograničen. Najvažniji sporazumi u oblasti zaštite okoliša uključuju sljedeće: This reportratificirani is part of međunarodni a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by Okvirna konvencija Ujedinjenih nacija o klimatskim promjenama (UNFCCC) the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’sBosna Democratic Governance ThematicUNFCCC Trust Fund to support South Eastern Europe region i Hercegovina je ratificirala 2000. godine. the Nakon ratificiranja UNFCCC-a, in thejeimplementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority institucionalne Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the BiH učinila niz nastojanja da uspostavi odgovarajuće političke, i pravne okvire kako bi ispunila obaveze Konvencije.Society Na osnovu zajedničkog sporazuma oba relevantna entiteta, regional action plan for iz Information development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic kontakt institucija BiH prema UNFCCC je Ministarstvo za prostorno uređenje, građevinarstvo i priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. ekologiju RS. Protokol iz Kjota također je ratificiran 16. aprila 2007. godine. The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative BiH je 2010. godine podnijela Sekretarijatu Konvencije Prvi nacionalni izvještaj u skladu s Secretariat, capitalizing their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Okvirnom Konvencijom UNono klimatskim promjenama. Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governancenacija Sector.o The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely Konvencija Ujedinjenih biološkom diverzitetu with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP Bosna i Hercegovina je ratificirala Konvenciju Ujedinjenih nacija o biološkom members diverzitetuof in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed 2002. godine. the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries.

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Ministarstvo okoliša i turizma Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine kao Focal Point Konvencije Ujedinjenih nacija o biološkom biodiverzitetu je u okviru svojih obaveza pripremilo i dalo na usvajanje entitetskim vladama Strategiju Bosne i Hercegovine s akcijskim planom za zaštitu biološke i pejzažne raznolikosti (2008-2015). Ovaj dokument sadrži suvremenu i cjelovitu procjenu stanja i stepena biološke raznolikosti, geografsku distribuciju bioloških resursa, te identificirane postojeće i potencijalne negativne tendencije.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

Konvencija nacija za UNCRPD, borbu protiv This section presentsUjedinjenih an overview of the its dezertifikacije significance andzemljišta main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed Bosna i Hercegovina je ratificirala Konvenciju Ujedinjenih nacija za borbu protiv bydezertifikacije a descriptionzemljišta of the major and actions at the European Union level relating to 2002. instruments godine. disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. Bečka konvencija o zaštiti ozonskog omotača Bosna i Hercegovina je postala strana Bečke konvencije za zaštitu ozonskog omotača i 1.1. Why e-Accessibility? Montrealskog protokola o materijama koje oštećuju ozonski omotač na osnovu sukcesije iz bivše

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range Pekinške of barriers that people disabilities and others Jugoslavije. Bosna i Hercegovina je ratificirala amandmane nawith Protokol iz Montreala, te se such as older populations experience when seeking to participate(HCFC) on equal terms in the Information pridružila odluci o globalnom ukidanju hlorofluorougljikovodika i hlorofluorougljika (CFC). Society.

Konvencija o prekograničnom zagađivanju zraka na velikim udaljenostima

e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything Bosna i Hercegovina je postala strana Konvencije o prekograničnom zagađivanju zraka from websites for e-government services, to telephony supportprograma for blindsuradnje people tozasubtitling oni na velikim udaljenostima i Protokola Konvencije o financiranju nadziranje television. to 15 percentzagađivanja of the population the udaljenostima European Union has a disability, such asnaa procjenu Up prekograničnog zraka across na velikim u Evropi (EMEP protokol) osnovu sukcesije iz bivše Jugoslavije. visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion.

1.1.1. Odgovornosti i drugih organa za cover A perhaps surprising numberministarstava of international agreements, regulations and guidelines this area. At the highest international pitanja okoliša level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is

the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are U skladu sa such Zakonom o ministarstvima, organ vlasti za pitanja okoliša Directive na drža­ spread across areas as Television Without relevantni Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright vnom nivou je Ministarstvo vanjske trgovine i ekonomskih odnosa (MVTEO). Tačnije, ovo ministarstvo (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility je odgovorno za vršenje dužnosti u vezi s definiranjem politika i osnovnih principa, koordiniranje is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. aktivnosti i harmoniziranje planova entitetskih vlasti i organa na međunarodnom nivou za zaštitu Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen okoliša, razvoj i upotrebu prirodnih resursa.these and to enact more legislation. There is at least a five-fold Republika Srpska (RS) justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility:

za prostorno građevinarstvo i ekologiju je odgovorno cjelo­ 1.Ministarstvo It is worthwhile in its ownuređenje, right to improve access to services RS to people who arezaalready kupni kvalitet zaštite okoliša i poboljšanja putem istraživanja, planiranja, mjera upravljanja i It helps fulfil theodpromise of the Information Societyi to reduce rather than zaštite,marginalized. uključujući zaštitu sredstava općeg interesa, prirodnih resursa prirodnog i kulturnog increase the disadvantages certain populations Conversely, effort in this naslijeđa. Republički hidrometeorološki zavod Republikeface. Srpske je vladinainsufficient organizacija odgovorna za nadziranje klimatskih promjena, razmjenu klimatskih area is likely to further marginalize these groups. podataka i upravljanje bazom podataka, primijenjena istraživanja i klimatska predviđanja u okviru različitih naučnih i tehničkih programa 2. meteorološke Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the Svjetske organizacije (WMO). population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodiedBosne people;i Hercegovine it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the Federacija (FBiH) prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. Ministarstvo okoliša i turizma FBiH je odgovorno za stručne i druge zadatke u vezi sa The earlier is taken,prirode, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development zaštitom4.zraka, vode iaction tla, zaštitom upravljanjem otpadom, razvojem politika i strategijaof e-Services to lower the cost. za zaštitu okoliša uand skladu s održivim razvojem, nadziranje okoliša i kontrolu zraka, vode i tla, izradu periodičnih izvještaja u vezi sa statusom okoliša. Federalni hidrometeorološki zavod FBiH je Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the neovisna5.agencija odgovorna za administrativne i profesionalne dužnosti u vezi s meteorologijom, aspects of the development of the kvaliteta Information Society in the EU convergence of different seizmologijom, hidrologijom i vodnim resursima, kao i za praćenje okoliša, uključujući kvalitet zraka, vode i tla. Štoviše, odgovoran je za sakupljanje, obradu i objavljivanje podataka u vezi and SEE countries. s ovim aktivnostima.

tijelo za zaštitu okoliša 1.2.Međuentitetsko About this report Odlukama Vlade Republike Srpske i Vlade Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine osnovano je The specific goals of this Međuentitetsko tijelo za report zaštitu are: okoliša.Ovo tijelo se bavi svim pitanjima iz oblasti okoliša koja zahtijevaju usaglašen pristup entiteta, kao i drugim pitanjima koja su prenesena na Međuentitetsko tijelo za1.zaštitu okoliša strane entiteta. U nadležnosti ovog Tijela je izrada međuentitetskog to outline theod international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal programa zaštite okoliša. instruments and strategic level documents; 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people

1.1.2. Statistika okoliša with disabilities;

Status razvojathe popisa emisija i Hercegovini je propisan zakonima o zaštiti 3. to assess current leveluofBosni e-Accessibility andprimarno e-Accessibility stakeholders; zraka za4.FBiH i RS koji su trenutno na snazi. U ovim zakonima bi trebalo istaknuti sljedeće: to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: − I Ministarstvo okoliša i turizma FBiH i Ministarstvo za prostorno uređenje, građevinarstvo - i ekologiju addressRS the obstacles to e-Accessibility; objavljuju Izvještaj o popisima emisija zagađivanja zraka za svoje entitete u svake godine za dvije prethodne godine. - januaru comply with requirements for the UN and EU. − Kantoni u FBiH objavljuju Izvještaj o popisima emisija zagađivanja zraka u aprilu svake iz prirodnih resursa) za dvije prethodne Thisgodine report (uključujući is part of a distribuciju larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groupsgodine. in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by − U Republici Srpskoj novim Zakonom o zaštiti zraka iz 2011. godine, inventar emisija izthe UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the rađuje Republički hidrometeorološki zavod RS-a. UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region − Izvještaji o popisima emisija moraju biti pripremljeni u skladu sa zahtjevima za izvještavanje in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the definiranim međunarodnim sporazumima, čija je članica Bosna i Hercegovina. Popisi regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic emisija moraju biti pripremljeni za sljedeće supstance: SO2, N2O, CO2, CO, NH3, NOx, priorities of CH the,project areCtherefore fully alignedpopisa with the targets of e-SEE NMVOCs, H , i PM10. Registar emisija održava se poAgenda+. oblastima aktivnosti. 4

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Procjene emisija vrše se u skladu s međunarodno odobrenim metodama i smjernicama. The Odgovornost project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative zagađivača, specijaliziranih institucija i ovlaštenih tijela je da ministarstvima Secretariat,dostave capitalizing onpotrebne their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering podatke za distribuciju, procjenu i/ili nadziranje. Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Iako nisu direktno uključeni,Sector. zavodi za statistiku na entitetskim i na državnom nivou također Inclusion/Democratic Governance The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely igraju ključnu ulogu u nadziranju stanja okoliša. with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries.

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1.2. Geografske karakteristike Bosna i Hercegovina ima ukupnu površinu od 51.209,2 km2, koja se sastoji od 51.197 km kopna i 12,2 km2 mora. Od ukupne površine kopna, 5% su nizine, 24% brda, 42% planine i 29% kraške oblasti. Prema svom geografskom položaju na Balkanskom poluotoku, BiH pripada jadranskom i crnomorskom slivu.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES 2

This section presents an overview UNCRPD,Hrvatskom its significance and Republikom main sections, the Bosna i Hercegovina graničiofs the Republikom (931 km), Srbijom requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility it is toBiH be implemented. This is followed (375 km) i Republikom Crnom Gorom (249 km).and Na how sjeveru, ima pristup rijeci Savi, a na Jadranskom (23,5instruments km morske and granice). Kopno je European većinom brdovito do planinsko, s byjugu a description of moru the major actions at the Union level relating to prosječnom nadmorskom visinom od 500 metara (0 metara na primorju i 2,387 metara na najvišem disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. vrhu, planini Maglić). Postoji sedam riječnih dolina (Una, Vrbas, Bosna, Drina, Sava, Neretva s Trebišnjicom i Cetina), od kojih 75,5% pripada slivu Crnog mora i 24,3% slivu Jadranskog mora. Bosna i Hercegovina je bogata u termalnim, mineralnim i termalno-mineralnim vodama.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. Slika 1. Karta Bosne i Hercegovine There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility:

1.3. Stanovništvo 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil stanovništva, the promise koji of the Information Societyukupan to reduce than Prema posljednjem popisu je urađen 1991. godine, brojrather stanovnika je bio 4.377.033 i BDP po glavi stanovnika je bio otprilike 2.500 USD, što stavlja BiH među srednje increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this razvijene zemlje. Prema procjenama Agencije za groups. statistiku BiH od 30.06.2011, stanovništvo BiH je area is likely to further marginalize these iznosilo 3.839.737. Prema preliminarnim procjenama entitetskih zavoda za statistiku u Republici Improving access to services, public and private, to such a2.338.270 significant proportionUrbano of the Srpskoj2.živi 1.429.668 stanovnika, a u Federaciji Bosne i Hercegovine stanovnika. stanovništvo se procjenjuje na 80% ukupnog stanovništva, što je rezultat migracija tokom population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and canmasovnih help public services fulfil rata iz their ruralnih u urbana područja. Uočen je rast u omjeru stanovnika u dobi od preko 64 godine (od remit in a cost effective manner. 6,4% do skoro 16,2% od ukupnog stanovništva u 2009. godini) i značajan pad broja aktivnog radnog stanovništva grupe starosne dobi odfor 20 the do 40 godina. 3. Improving e-Accessibility marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost. 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries.

1.2. About this report The specific goals of this report are: 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents; 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities;

Slika 2. Gustina naseljenosti Bosne i Hercegovine prema popisu stanovništva iz 1991. godine

U3. Bosni i Hercegovini 2010. godine rođenoand 33.528 beba; broj stakeholders; umrlih je 35.118, što to assess the currentjelevel of e-Accessibility e-Accessibility pokazuje da je povećan mortalitet u poređenju s ranijim godinama. Sljedeća tabela daje procjenu 4. to identify good practices in the region; stanovništva u BiH sredinom svake godine i prirodni priraštaj. 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles toŽivorođeni e-Accessibility; Umrli - Ukupno stanovništvo Prirodni priraštaj comply with requirements for the UN and EU. 2008

3.842

Ukupno

Muškarci

Ukupno

Muškarci

34.176

17.585

34.026

17.687

150

is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, 2009 This report 3.843 34.550 18.001 34.904 17.884 -354 that2010 is being implemented in the context e-SEE Initiative. regional project designed by 3.843 33.528 of the17.277 34.118 It is a17.900 -1.590 the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Thematic Trust Fund tosvake support thei prirodni South Eastern Tabela 1. Governance Procjena stanovništva u BiH sredinom godine priraštajEurope region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+.

1.4. Karakteristike klime

The project is being implemented the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded Initiative Bosna i Hercegovina ima umjerenubykontinentalnu klimu, koja je većinom e-SEE zastupljena u sjevernim i centralnim dijelovima podplaninskog i planinskog 1000 m), jadranski Secretariat, capitalizing on theirBiH, existing knowledge, networkstipa and(preko resources. Empowering (mediteranski) i izmijenjeni jadranski tip klime, predstavljen u primorju Neuma, koji također i Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the važi Social za nisku Hercegovinu. Iz gore spomenutih razloga, klima Bosne i Hercegovine varira od umjereno Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. nizije The UNDP Country Sarajevodo is alpske working closely kontinentalne u sjevernom dijelu Panonske duž rijeke SaveOffice i u zoniinpodnožja, klime u with the fellow UNDPi Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICTniske Advisor at the BDP planinskim regijama, mediteranske klime u priobalnom području i području regije Hercegovine naNew juguYork i jugoistoku. U sjevernom države, an prosječna zraka općenito varira izmeđuof in is providing expertisedijelu and playing advisorytemperatura role. Government-appointed members -1 i Regional -2°C u januaru i između Advisory 18 i 20°C Taskforce u julu. Na (REGATA) nadmorskim od preko 1000Points m, prosječna the e-Governance actvisinama as government Focal for their temperatura varira od -4 do -7°C u januaru, a od 9 do 14°C u julu. Na Jadranskom primorju i u niskoj respective countries. Hercegovini, temperatura zraka varira od 3 do 9°S u januaru, a od 22 do 25°C u julu (razdoblje 19611990). Evidentirane su i ekstremne temperature od -41,8°C (niska) i 42,2°C (visoka). 23

3


Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

Nizinske oblasti sjeverne Bosne i Hercegovine imaju srednju godišnju temperaturu između 10 i 12°C, a u oblastima iznad 500 m temperatura je ispod 10°C. Srednja godišnja temperatura zraka u priobalnom području iznosi između 12 i 17°C. U razdoblju 1981-2010. godine evidentirano je povećanje temperature na čitavom prostoru Bosne i Hercegovine. Najveće povećanje je tokom ljetnog i zimskog razdoblja i iznosi oko 1°C.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

Godišnje količine padavina variraju od 800 mm na sjeveru duž rijeke Save, do 2.000 mm u centralnim i jugoistočnim planinskim regijama (period 1961-1990). U kontinentalnom dijelu BiH, koji This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the pripada oblasti sliva rijeke Dunav, glavni dio godišnjih padavina se javlja u toplijoj polovici godine, requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility how its isbrojnim to be implemented. is followed dosežući maksimum u junu. Centralni i južni dioand države, planinama i This uskim obalnim bypodručjima, a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to karakterizira izmijenjeni sredozemni piuviometrijski režim pod utjecajem Jadranskog mora, tako da su mjesečne maksimalne padavina kasno ujesen i početkom zime, većinom disability in general and e-Accessibility in količine particular. u novembru i decembru. U razdoblju 1981-2010. na većem dijelu niske Hercegovine je evidentirano smanjenje padavina na godišnjem nivou, dok je na većini planinskih meteo-stanica zabilježen porast padavina. U odnosu na razdoblje 1961-1990, u ovom razdoblju je prisutna neravnomjernija raspodjela padavina tokom godine, što je jedan od glavnih faktora koji uvjetuju češću pojavu suša i poplava. e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others Trajanje sunčanih razdobljawhen smanjuje se toodparticipate primorja on prema i ka višim such as older populations experience seeking equalunutrašnjosti terms in the Information nadmorskim visinama. Godišnja suma trajanja sunčanih sati u centralnoj planinskoj oblasti iznosi Society. 1.700-1.900 sati, što je posljedica iznadprosječne oblačnosti - 60-70%. Zbog čestih magli tokom hladnog razdoblja godine, solarna iradijacija u unutrašnjosti je niža nego na istoj nadmorskoj visini e-Accessibility potentially refer to any typesunčanih of ICT used citizens, involves u primorju. U južnimcan regijama imamo 1.900-2.300 satiby(Mostar = and 2.285 sati). Ueverything sjevernoj Bosni i Hercegovini broj sunčanih sati iznosi 1.800-2.000, više u istočnom dijelu nego u zapadnom. from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on OblačnostUp setosmanjuje od zapada prema istoku. television. 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or padavina motor impairment, and1.250 SEE mm, countries expect Prosječna godišnja količina u BiH je oko što, scan obzirom natotohave da jea similar or BiH higher proportion. površina 51.209 km2, iznosi 64 x 109 m3 vode ili 2.030 m3/s. Otjecanje s teritorije BiH je 1.155 m3/s ili 57% ukupne količine padavina. Međutim, ove količine vode nisu jednako raspoređene, prostorno ili vremenski. Naprimjer, prosječno godišnje otjecanje iz doline rijeke Save, čija površinacover sliva A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and je guidelines 38.719 km2 (75,7%) u BiH, iznosi 722 m3/s ili 62,5%, dok otjecanje iz doline Jadranskog mora, koja this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is ima površinu od 12.410 km2 (24,3%) u BiH iznosi 433 m3/s ili 37,5%. the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and totekuća enact dešavanja more legislation. U narednom dijelu teksta ukratko su opisana i promjene u pojedinim sektorima u odnosu na Prvi nacionalni izvještaj, kao i osnovni parametri utjecaja ovih sektora na klimatske promjene i dešavanja ovoj oblastifor u Bosni i Hercegovini. Detaljniji opisi sektora, kao There is at least a five-foldujustification early action in the area of e-Accessibility: i mogući scenariji ublažavanja klimatskih promjena i prilagođavanja klimatskim promjenama, kao i popis predloženih mjera za ublažavanje i prilagođavanje klimatskim promjenama u Bosni i 1. It is predstavljeni worthwhile insuitsu own rightpoglavljima to improve access to services to people who are already Hercegovini, kasnijim ovog izvještaja. marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

1.5. Analiza sektora

1.5.1. Privreda i industrija

2.Pored Improving to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion the općih access nastojanja, tempo poslijeratnog privrednog oporavka je bio mnogo sporijiofnego što je očekivano. koje je uradila Agencija za statistiku and BiH can za 2010. pokazuju da populationProcjene, opens significant market/sales opportunities, help godinu, public services fulfil je vrijednost BDP-a iznosila 24.584 miliona KM, dok je prosječni BDP po glavi stanovnika iznosio their remit in a cost effective manner. 6.397 KM. U 2009. Godini, sastav BDP-a po sektorima je bio 10,2% poljoprivreda, 23,9% industrija 3. Improving for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for i 66% usluge (BHAS e-Accessibility 2009.) 2

24


SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the Indikatori 2004. 2006. prospects for migrating web services onto2005. new platforms such2007. as mobile2008. phones.2009. Nominalni BDPearlier (milijarde eura)is taken, the8,1 9,8 e-Accessibility 11,1 12,6 12,3 of 4. The action easier it is8,7 to integrate into development

and to lower the cost. BDP poe-Services stanovniku (eura) 2.101

2.279

2.562

2.896

3.287

3.192

Realna stopa rasta BDP 6,3 EU guidelines 3,9 6,1recommendations 6,2 5,7 -2,9 5. Pursuing approaches that follow and will assist in the

of the development of the Information Society in404 the EU convergence of different aspects258 Prosječna neto plata (eura) 275 300 322 385 and SEE countries.

Godišnja inflacija (%)

0,4

3,8

6,1

1,5

7,4

- 0,4

Godišnja stopa nezaposlenosti (%)

43,2

43,0

31,0

29,0

23,4

24,1

2.160

2.787

3.425

3.219

3.176

-3,68

-3,96

-3,41

-4,14

-4,82

-3,48

567

478

564

1,628

701

452

1.2. About this report Rezerve u stranoj valuti (milioni eura) 1.779 Trgovinski balans (milijarde eura)

The specific goals of this report are: Ukupni FDI (milion eura)

FDI doprinos BDP (%) 7,0 5,5 5,8 14,7including 5,6 existing 3,7legal 1. to za outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility

strategic level documents; Depozitinstruments domaćinstavaand u komercijalnim 1.273 1.629 bankama (milioni eura)

2.097

2.641

2.662

2.895

2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people Populacija milionima ) 3,84 3,84 3,84 3,84 3,84 3,84 with( udisabilities; 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; Tabela 2. Osnovni ekonomski pokazatelji za BiH u razdoblju 2004-20092 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

Federacija BiH

63,79

63,62

63,73

63,30

63,45

63,77

Republika 33,59 ‘Empowering 33,95 33,75 34,35 33,93 ThisSrpska report is part of a larger project, Marginalised Groups 34,26 in e-Governance’,

that is being of the e-SEE project Brčko Distriktimplemented in the context2,62 2,42 Initiative. 2,52It is a regional 2,35 2,29 designed 2,30 by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support Tabela 3. Učešće entiteta u BDP-u BiH uthe % South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic BDP po stanovniku u BiH, izražen u SKM (standardna kupovna moć) za 2010. iznosi 31% priorities of the are therefore fully aligned with uthe targets e-SEE Agenda+. prosjeka EU 27, project dok je potrošnja po stanovniku u SKM istoj godiniofiznosila 37% prosjeka EU 27.

U razdoblju 2008 - 2010, BDP po stanovniku u BiH, izražen u SKM je porastao sa 30% na 31% The being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative prosjeka EUproject 27. Općiis nivo cijena u BiH u 2010. iznosio je 50% prosjeka EU 27. U periodu 2008 – 2010. opći nivo cijena u BiH porastao sa 49% na 50% prosjeka EU 27 (BHAS 2012). Empowering Secretariat, capitalizing onje their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries. 2 Izvor: Agencija za unapređenje stranih investicija u BiH, 2010 25

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up Grafikon to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, 1. Pojedinačni doprinosi godišnjem rastu industrijske proizvodnje u BiH such as a 5,6% uimpairment, 2011. (BHAS and 2012)SEE countries can expect to have a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, orod motor similar or higher proportion. Proizvodnja i Snadbijevanje snabdijevanje vodom; uklanjanje A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover Vađenje ruda Prerađivačka električnom otpadnih voda, Ukupno this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified upravljanje and coming into force 2008, i kamena industrija energijom, otpadom (uin mil KM) is plinom, parom i i djelatnosti sanacije the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are klimatizacija okoliša

spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive 725,4 and the Telecoms 8011,9 Framework 1284,5 212,1 10233,9 (forBiH copyright exemptions), (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also exist for153,7 programmatic6756,5 support. FBiH covered by policy, 535,4 and guidelines 5215,4 and benchmarking 852 Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen to enact more legislation. RS 189,7 2519,5 these and 432,4 56,8 3198,4 Brčko distrikt

0,3

276,9

1,6

278,8

There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: Tabela 4. Vrijednost prodaje/isporuke industrijskih proizvoda u 2011.

1. It is worthwhile in own rightdjelatnosti to improve access to services poits područjima i entitetima (BHAS 2012)to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than U 2009. godini BiH je bila ucertain recesiji,populations s padom realnog BDP-a za 2,9% nakon povećanja od increase the disadvantages face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this 5,7% u 2008. godini. Ekonomska kriza je uglavnom uzrokovana padom domaće privatne potrošnje, is likelyi to further marginalize these groups. padomarea investicija smanjenjem vanjske potražnje. Trgovina je drastično usporena, građevinske aktivnosti i industrijska proizvodnja su se u 2009. nezaposlenost se povećala. 2. Improving access to services, public and godini private,smanjile, to such aa significant proportion of the Pošto u godinama prije krize nije stvoreno dovoljno fiskalnog prostora i pošto su visoki troškovi population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil prevladavali, javne financije su padom prihoda u 2009. godini, uzrokovanim ekonomskom recesijom, their remittako in a da cost manner. jako opterećene, sueffective vlasti BiH morale tražiti vanjsku podršku od međunarodne zajednice. Mjere fiskalnog prilagođavanja dogovorene s MMF-om i Svjetskom za budžete za 2009. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also bankom lead to improved access for

2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; can reduce the cost of web service andstrukturalne enhance the i 2010. godinu doprinijele suitkonsolidaciji javnih financija, dok su development, određene važne reformeprospects uznapredovale. U 2010. I 2011. godini mogu se zabilježiti određeni znakovi ekonomskog for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. oporavka, pošto je fizički obim industrijske proizvodnje u BiH, prema podacima BHAS-a za 2011. 4. The earlier action thena easier it is togodinu. integrate e-Accessibility into development of godinu zabilježio rast od 5,6%isutaken, odnosu prethodnu e-Services and to lower the cost. Vrijednost uvoza Bosne i Hercegovine u 2011. godini je 15,5 milijardi KM, što je za 14% više Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist u odnosu5.na 2010., dok se izvoz povećao za 15,9% i u 2011. godini je iznosio 8,2 milijarde KM. in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries. U hiljadama KM

2008

Izvoz robaAbout this6.711.690 1.2. report Promjena izvoza

13,05%

The specific are: Uvoz roba goals of this report16.286.056

2009

2010

2011

5.530.377

7.095.505

8.222.112

-17,6%

28,3 %

15,88%

12.348.466

13.616.204

15.525.428

Promjena uvoza

17,18 %

-24,18 %

10,27 %

14,02 %

Pokrivenost uvoza izvozom

41,21 %

44,79 %

52,11 %

52,96 %

1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal Trgovinski bilans -9.574.366 -6.818.089 -6.520.699 -7.303.316 instruments and strategic level documents; 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities; Tabela 5. Spoljnotrgovinski indikatori za 2008 – 2011 (BHAS)

3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify good practices in the region; Stopa nezaposlenosti u 2011. godini je iznosila 27.6 %. U julu 2012. godine broj registrovanih 5. to develop a set ofjerecommendations for government and other stakeholders how to: nezaposlenih u BiH iznosio 539 366, što je za oko 2% više u odnosu na isti period 2011.ongodine. address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; Udio ženske populacije u registrovanim nezaposlenima iznosi 50,9 procenata ili u apsolutnom iznosu 274 osoba ženskoga spola. Sveukupno - 775comply with requirements for the UNgledano, and EU.tržište rada je i dalje rascjepkano, a uvjeti su strogi. Na osnovu prosječnog kretanje indeksa potrošačkih cijena u Bosni i Hercegovini u 2011. This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, u odnosu na prosjek 2010. godine zaključujemo da je u tom periodu inflacija u prosjeku iznosila that being implemented in the context of kategorijama the e-SEE Initiative. It is ai regional 3,7%.isPovećanje cijena je zabilježeno u svim osim odjeće obuće, teproject sektoradesigned zdravstvaby the UNDP Country Officeinflacija in Bosnia and Herzegovina, DG/BDP -0,4%, NY, anddok funded by the i obrazovanja. Godišnja je u 2009. godini bilasupported negativnabyi dosegla je 20010. godine iznosila 2,1%.Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region UNDP’s Democratic in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the Postavke monetarne politike su nepromijenjene od maja 2009. nakon što su minimalne regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic obavezne rezerve smanjivane više puta od oktobra 2008. kako bi se povećala likvidnost bankarskog priorities the project are therefore fullyOštra aligned with the targets e-SEE Agenda+. sektora u of vrijeme financijskih kolebanja. ekonomska kriza u of 2009. godini otkrila je ranjivost

modela rasta BiH, koji se oslanja na potrošnju financiranu izvana, čime se stvara veliki vanjski debalans. Thegledano, project održivost is being makroekonomskih implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded Sveukupno politika je bila slaba zbog strukturnihe-SEE slabostiInitiative javnih financija, iakocapitalizing su se vanjskion debalansi popravili,knowledge, a financijskanetworks i monetarna stabilnost je očuvana. Secretariat, their existing and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of Ukupna proizvodnja električne energije u BiH za 2011. godinu iznosila je 14 049 GWh, što the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their predstavlja smanjenje od oko 13% u odnosu na isti period prethodne godine. Ovaj pad proizvodnje respective countries. je uzrokovan prvenstveno lošom hidrološkom situacijom u odnosu na prethodnu godinu, što je

1.5.2. Energija

rezultiralo smanjenjem proizvodnje električne energije u hidroelektranama.

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a Grafikon 2. Proizvodnja električne energije u BiH u fizičkim jedinicama GWH similar or higher proportion. (Državna regulatorna komisija za električnu energiju BiH)

A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover Ukupna potrošnja električne energije u BiH tokom 2010. godine je iznosila 10 347 GWh, this area. godine At the highest international theu UNCRPD, and coming force inpotrošnji 2008, is a 2011. nastavila trend rastalevel, od 3% odnosu naratified prethodnu godinu. into U finalnoj the relevant energije legal context. singledomaćinstva EU directivesudjeluju is dedicated to e-Accessibility, actions are električne u 2010.Nogodini sa 43,9%, industrija sa but 35,7%, a ostali potrošači uključujući građevinarstvo, transport i poljoprivredu sudjeluju sa 20,4%. spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility Ukupna by proizvodnja toplotne energije Bosni i Hercegovini 2010. godini je 6.001 TJ, od is also covered policy, and guidelines andu benchmarking existufor programmatic support. čega je 3.791 TJ ili 63,2% proizvedeno u toplanama, 1.403 TJ ili 23,4% u termoelektranama, a 807 Furthermore, moves are afootu to strengthen these and to enact more potrošnji legislation. TJ ili 13,4% je proizvedeno industrijskim energanama. U finalnoj toplotne energije u 2010. godini najveće učešće imaju domaćinstva sa 74,6%, a industrija i ostali potrošači sa 25,4%. Sveobuhvatna postoji,justification a entiteti nisu svoje koje su preuzete There is strategija at least a ne five-fold for uskladili early action in planove. the areaObaveze of e-Accessibility: u okviru Ugovora o Energetskoj zajednici u pogledu promoviranja energije iz obnovljivih izvora i biogoriva nisu ispunjene. Kasni se s izradom akcijskog plana za energetsku efikasnost, čija je 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already izrada u toku, s ciljem da se ispune obaveze iz Ugovora o Energetskoj zajednici. marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the efikasnost disadvantages certain populationsi uface. Conversely, insufficient effort in this Energetska u Bosni i Hercegovini, smislu proizvodnje i transformacije, kao area potrošnje, is likely to niska further groups. privredama. Proizvodnja energije u BiH i u smislu jemarginalize u poređenjuthese s razvijenim se zasniva na tehnologijama razvijenim prije tridesetak godina, kada je izgrađen određeni broj access to U services, public andnovih private, to such iakod significant proportion of the blokova2.uImproving termoelektranama. slučaju izgradnje postrojenja velikih obnova postojećih, population significant gdje market/sales opportunities, andpotrebno can help je public services fulfil potrebno je uvesti opens nove tehnologije, god je to moguće. Općenito, povećati svjesnost o uštedama koje se povećanjem their remit in mogu a cost postići effective manner. energetske efikasnosti. Uštede energije zahtijevaju ulaganja, ali se ta ulaganja brzo isplate. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost kapacitet of web service development, and enhance the Obnovljivi izvori energije (osim za značajan hidroelektrana), u trenutnom nivou razvoja iprospects u postojećem udjelu ukupne potrošnje energije, mogli bi samo doprinijeti, a ne i zamijeniti for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. glavne pogone. Međutim, ove tehnologije se brzo razvijaju i njihova upotreba se povećava. 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost.

1.5.3. Transport

5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the Prema raspoloživim podacima od nadležnih institucija, Society ukupna indužina aspectsprikupljenim of the development of the Information the EU convergence of different cestovne mreže u Bosni i Hercegovini iznosi 22.740,20 km od čega je 72,60 km autocesta, 3.786,00 and SEE countries. km magistralnih, 4.681,60 km regionalnih, te oko 14.200 km lokalnih cesta.

1.2. About this report Kategorija ceste

FBiH

Autocesta 37,60 The specific goals of this report are: Magistralna cesta

2.005,00

Dužina (km) RS

Distrikt Brčko

Ukupno

35,00

-

72,60

1.781,00

**

3.786,00

1. tocesta outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal Regionalna 2.461,80 2.183,00 36,80 4.681,60 instruments and strategic level documents;

Lokalna cesta

**

**

170,66

14.200,00

2. to develop a comparative e-Accessibility 207,46* for able-bodied people versus people UKUPNO 4.504,40* picture of3.999,00* 22.740,20

withlokalnih disabilities; *podaci o dužini puteva na entitetskom nivou nisu dostavljeni

6. Ukupna cestovne mreže u Bosni i Hercegovini 3. to assess Tabela the current leveldužina of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify good practices in the region; U 2011. godini je registrirano ukupno 950.915 cestovna motorna vozila. Od ukupnog broja 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: registriranih cestovnih motornih vozila u 2010. godini 86% odnosi se na putnička vozila, 9% na theostale obstacles to e-Accessibility; teretna vozila, aaddress 5% na sve kategorije vozila. Od ukupnog broja registriranih motornih vozila comply with requirements for the UN andvozila EU. u 2010. godini. Posmatrano prema 6% se odnosi na prvi put registrirana cestovna motorna tipu pogonske energije, 57% vozila koristi dizel, 41% benzin, a 2 % vozila ostale vidove energije.

Obimreport cestovnog transporta u Bosni i Hercegovini je za 2011. godinu predstavljen preko dva This is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, pokazatelja: prevoz robe i prevoz putnika. Prema oba pokazatelja obim transporta je imao porast that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by u odnosu na 2010. god. za oko 3%. Detaljniji pokazatelji o obimu transporta prema pojedinačnoj the UNDPpredstavljeni Country Office Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the strukturi su in u sljedećoj tabeli. UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive of the e-SEE Agenda+, the Prevoz robe Information Society Priority Area 2010. 2011. regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic Pređeni kilometri vozila (u 000) 284.680 317.032 priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. Prevezeno tona robe (u 000)

4.837

4.857

project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based 2.038.731 UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Tonski The kilometri (u 000) 2.308.690 Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Prevoz putnika and the e-SEE Secretariat are 2010. 2011. Marginalised Groups in e-Governance positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Sector. The UNDP Country Office97.663 in Sarajevo is working Pređeni kilometri vozilaGovernance (u 000) 93.823 closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP Prevezeni putnici (u 000) 28.702 29.303 in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of Putnički kilometri (u 000) 1.864.471 1.926.212 the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries. Tabela 7. Obim transporta prema pojedinačnoj strukturi

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Mreža željeznica BiH se sastoji od 1.031 km željezničkih pruga, od kojih se 425 km nalazi u RS i 616 km u FBiH. Iako je gustoća željezničkog saobraćaja u BiH usporediva s državama zapadne Evrope, količina prevoza robe i putnika po kilometru željeznice je daleko ispod evropskog prosjeka. Postojeće stanje željezničke infrastrukture je takvo da je normalan saobraćaj onemogućen bez većih ulaganja, a postojeća količina prevoza je nedovoljna za stvaranje dovoljno prihoda za pokrivanje troškova.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

Obim željezničkog transporta u Bosni i Hercegovini je za baznu 2011. godinu predstavljen This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the poмоću dva pokazatelja: prevoz robe i prevoz putnika, sljedećom tabelom: requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. Prevoz robe

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? Tonski kilometri (u 000) Prevezeno tona robe (u 000)

2010.

2011.

12.882

14.224

1.232.034

1.298.294

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Prevoz putnika 2010. 2011. Society. Prevezeni putnici (u 000)

898

821

e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, everything Putnički kilometri (u 000) 58.559 and involves 54.811 from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on Tabelaof8.the Obim željezničkog transporta u Bosni i Union Hercegovini television. Up to 15 percent population across the European has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. Za razliku od cestovnog, obim željezničkog transporta je u oblasti prevoza putnika imao pad u odnosu na 2010. god. za oko 8,5%. Navedeni pokazatelj najbolje ilustrira postojeće trendove, A perhaps ublažavanja surprising number of transporta international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover ali i mogućnosti u oblasti u BiH. this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is Od 27 zvanično aerodroma u Bosni i Hercegovini, samo subutčetiri od njih the relevant legal context.registriranih No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, actions are (Sarajevo, Banja Luka, Mostar i Tuzla) registrirana za međunarodni saobraćaj (Ministarstvo spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive komunikacija i transporta BiH, 2005). Godišnji broj putnika je oko 570.000 za Sarajevski aerodrom, (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for veći assistive technologies). dok Banja Luka, Mostar i Tuzla imaju relativno nizak, ali sve broj putnika. U Bosnie-Accessibility i Hercegovini isne also covered by policy, guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic postoji unutrašnji zračniand saobraćaj i svi podaci se odnose na međunarodni saobraćaj. U I. support. kvartalu 2011. godine broj aerodromskih operacija pokazuje pad od 4,9% u odnosu na isti kvartal prethodne Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. godine. Broj prevezenih putnika je veći za 7,8 % u odnosu na isti kvartal prethodne godine. There is iat least a five-fold justification early obalu actionuinNeumu the area of e-Accessibility: Bosna Hercegovina ima veoma kratkufor morsku i nema reguliran adekvatan pristup međunarodnim vodama, i samim tim, nema reguliranu morsku luku. Međunarodna luka koja je1.najvažnija za privredu BiH right je luka Ploče u access Hrvatskoj, kapaciteta 5 miliona It is worthwhile in its own to improve to services to people whotona/godina are already (Ministarstvo komunikacija i transporta, 2005). marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this U BiH rijeka Sava je glavna plovna rijeka i njenih 333 km dužine u BiH također je i granica further marginalize these groups. izmeđuarea BiH,iss likely jedne to strane, i Hrvatske i Srbije, s druge. Zbog toga što je rijeka Sava pritoka Dunava,

vodni prevoz duž Saveaccess je povezan s Dunavom, kojiand se smatra Transevropskim transportnim koridorom 2. Improving to services, public private, to such a significant proportion of the VII. Osnovna obilježja stanja u riječnom prometu BiH su: zapušteni plovni putevi, nepostojanje population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil tehnološki moderne flote (tegljenje umjesto potiskivanja), tehnička i tehnološka zastarjelost, their remit in luka a costi effective manner. kao i devastiranost nedostatak brodogradilišta s navozom. Kao pozitivnu činjenicu treba napomenuti da riječna plovidba ima institucionalno jednak status kao i drugi saobraćajni vidovi. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the 1.5.4.able-bodied Poljoprivreda prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. Poljoprivreda predstavlja jednu od strateških grana privrednog razvoja BiH za koju je 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of vezan veliki udio ekonomskih aktivnosti zemlje, naročito u ruralnim područjima.Udio sektora e-Services to lower the cost. djelatnosti u strukturi BDP-a za 2010. godinu je iznosio poljoprivrede, lova iand pripadajućih uslužnih 6,25% (BHAS). Prema podacima Ankete o radnoj snazi za 2011. koju su sprovele statističke 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and godinu recommendations will assist in the institucije, broj zaposlenih u poljoprivredi iznosio je oko 160.000 što je više od 19% od ukupnog broja convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU zaposlenih u BiH. Od ukupne površine Bosne i Hercegovine oko 2,3 miliona ha ili 46% je pogodno and SEE od countries. za poljoprivredu kojih se samo 0,65% navodnjava. Od toga, oranice zauzimaju 1.009.000 ha ili 20,0% ukupnog zemljišta, od kojeg je 478.000 ha ili 47% trenutno neobrađeno. Po glavi stanovnika dolazi oko 0,56 ha poljoprivrednog zemljišta, od čega 0,36 ha čine oranice i vrtovi.

1.2. About this report

Četrdeset i pet posto poljoprivrednog zemljišta je brdovito (od 300 do 700 metara nadmorske visine), srednjeg kvaliteta i podesno za poluintenzivno stočarstvo. Planinska područja (preko 700 The specific goals of this report are: metara nadmorske visine) čine daljih 35% poljoprivrednog zemljišta. Međutim, velika nadmorska visina, nagib kao i neplodnost tla ograničava korištenje ovog zemljišta za ispašu stoke samo u 1. proljeća to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal razdoblju i ljeta. instruments and strategic level documents; Manje od 20% poljoprivrednog zemljišta (polovica od ukupnog obradivog zemljišta) pogodno 2. to develop a comparative picturese of nalazi e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people je za intenzivnu poljoprivredu, a uglavnom u nizinskim područjima na sjeveru zemlje iu with disabilities; dolinama rijeka. Prirodni vodni resursi su obilni, s mnogim nezagađenim rijekama i dostupnim podzemnim vodama. Usprkos obilju vode, snabdijevanje vodom je limitirajući faktor za proizvodnju 3. to assess the current of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; u mnogim oblastima. Oko 10.000level ha (0,1 procenat obradivog zemljišta) je navodnjavano prije rata. to identify good practicesje inznatno the region; Područje4.koje se danas navodnjava manje od ovoga zbog šteta izazvanih ratom, minskih polja, nedostatka održavanja, krađe, itd. 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; U nizinskim oblastima, prirodni uvjeti su pogodni za održivu poljoprivrednu proizvodnju comply with requirements for the UN and EU. i modernu tržišnu ekonomiju. Tla s najvišim kvalitetom mogu se naći u dolinama rijeka Save, Une, Sane, Vrbasa, Bosne i Drine. U visijama Bosne i Hercegovine nalazi se manje vrijedno poljoprivredno zemljište, pogodno za uzgoj stoke i komplementarnu poljoprivrednu proizvodnju, This report larger ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, zatim zdravu hranuis zapart ljudeofi ahranu zaproject, stoku, ječam za proizvodnju za pivare, proizvodnju krompira, itd. Poljoprivredno zemljišteinuthe mediteranskoj regiji pokriva teritoriju Dinarida i nizine regijeby that is being implemented context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is južnih a regional project designed Hercegovine. Kraška poljainu Bosnia ovom području pokrivaju oko 170.000by ha. Možda bi moglo biti moguće the UNDP Country Office and Herzegovina, supported DG/BDP NY, and funded by the organizirati intenzivne staklenike i poljoprivredni uzgoj na otvorenom, uzgoj vinove loze, masovan UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region uzgoj voća iz porodice citrusa i povrća, slatkovodni uzgoj ribe, i držanje pčela. in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regionalUaction plan forodInformation Society development, and the UNCRPD. programmatic BiH ima više 500.000 poljoprivrednih gazdinstava (procjena USAID The FARMA projekta). Prosječnaofveličina oko 50% gazdinstava dva ha,with dok the je veličina od 80% gazdinstava manja priorities the project are therefore fullyjealigned targetsviše of e-SEE Agenda+. od pet ha. Imajući u vidu da naši poljoprivrednici uglavnom na svom imanju, pa čak i na jednoj parceli The proizvode više i povrća, ozbiljniji poljoprivredne proizvodnjee-SEE se ne može ni project is vrsta beingvoća implemented by the razvoj Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded Initiative očekivati. Iako ima vidljivog napretka, još uvijek prevladava uglavnom ekstenzivna proizvodnja voća Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering i povrća što rezultira niskim prosječnim prinosima kultura, i dodatno poskupljuje proizvod i čini ga Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned withinzemljišnih the Social nekonkurentnim na domaćem, ali i na inozemnom tržištu. Nivo racionalnog korištenja Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The Country Officeposjeda. in Sarajevo is working closely resursa ima ključnu ulogu, kao i vlasništvo nad UNDP zemljištem i veličina with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP Erozije i poplave expertise obradivogand tla u BiH ugrožavaju žetve održivu upotrebu tla. Lijevče polje,of in New York is providing playing an advisory role.i Government-appointed members Semberija i plodno obradivo zemljište duž rijeka Drine, Bosne, Vrbasa, Sane, Une, Save i Neretve s the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their Trebišnjicom su dovedeni u opasnost. respective countries.

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Oranične površine prema načinu korištenja (2011)

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES 14%

1%

8%

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to 47% be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. 30%

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? 0% e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others žitarice ugari krmno bilje such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information rasadnici industrijsko bilje povrće Society. Grafikon 3. Oranične površine prema korištenja (BHAS 2011) e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type načinu of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on Politika u sektoru poljoprivrede, prehrane i ruralnog razvoja BiH posljednjih se godina television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a razvija u skladu s ciljevima i potrebama za pripremu i priključenje Evropskoj uniji. Iako je BiH visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, andi SEE canekonomske expect to have posljednjih godina ostvarila značajan ekonomski napredak, daljecountries su potrebne refo­a similar orbihigher proportion. rme da se stekli uvjeti za pridruživanje Evropskoj uniji. Prema dokumentu Evropske komisije o napretku Bosne i Hercegovine u 2010. godini ostvaren je mali napredak u usklađivanju s evro­ pskimAstandardima u oblasti poljoprivrede i ruralnog razvoja. Izrađeni su državni strateškicover plan perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines i operativni program za usklađivanje u sektoru poljoprivrede, prehrane i ruralnog razvoja. Ipak, this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is provođenje još uvijek nije započelo. Strateški plan ruralnog razvoja i Akcioni plan Republike the relevant context. No single EUzadirective is dedicated e-Accessibility, but actions are Srpske, kaolegal i Operativni program FBiH usklađivanje u oblastito poljoprivrede, prehrane i ruralnog spread areas such as sTelevision subtitling), Copyright Directive razvojaacross moraju se uskladiti državnim Without okvirom.Frontiers Usvojen (for je određeni brojthe propisa za provođenje Okvirnog zakona o poljoprivredi, prehrani i ruralnom razvoju, kao i za provođenje Zakona o duhanu. (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility nedostatak provedbenog zakonodavstva sprečava koordinaciju usklađenih strategija isSveukupni also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support.i zakonodavstva u ovoj oblasti u cijeloj zemlji. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation.

Robna razmjena u agroindustrijskom sektoru (Poljoprivredni proizvodi razvrstani u skladu is at least ua 2010. five-fold justification for zabilježila early action in the area ofu e-Accessibility: s WTOThere klasifikacijom) godini je u uvozu rast od 6,83% odnosu na prethodnu godinu, dok je izvoz iz BiH u istom razdoblju zabilježio rast od 30,29%. Uvoz poljoprivrednih proizvoda u ukupnom u BiH sudjeluje 18,81%, dok izvozaccess poljoprivrednih proizvoda u ukupnom izvozu 1. It isuvozu worthwhile in its owns right to improve to services to people who are already iz BiH sudjeluje s 8,65%. Pokrivenost uvoza izvozom poljoprivrednih proizvoda je u posmatranom marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than razdoblju iznosila 23,97%. increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this Prema podacima koji sumarginalize dostupni u Analizi vanjskotrgovinske razmjene Bosne i Hercegovine area is likely to further these groups. za 2011. godinu, koju je uradilo MVTEO, površine zasijane žitaricama su iznosile 303.000 ha, krmnim Improving access to78.000 services, and private, to such significant proportion of the biljem 2. 138.000 ha, povrćem ha public i industrijskim biljem 8.000a ha. Ostvarena proizvodnja u population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil 2011. godini je iznosila 1.077.387 t žitarica, 771.999 krmnog bilja, 676.109 t povrća, te 10.113 t industrijskih kultura. their remit in a cost effective manner. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; it zemljišni can reduceposjedi, the costslaba of web service development, enhance the Mali i fragmentirani tehnička opremljenost and poljoprivrednih gazdinstava, zastarjele tehnologije proizvodnje, niska upotreba inputa, simbolično korištenje prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. sistema za navodnjavanje, te još uvijek dominantna prisutnost ekstenzivnog i naturalnog načina 4. The earlier is faktora taken, the is skromnu to integrate e-Accessibility into development proizvodnje, samo su action neki od kojieasier utiču itna ukupnu poljoprivrednu proizvodnju.of Dodatno,e-Services ostvareni and niskitoprosječni lower theprinosi cost. kultura poskupljuju proizvod i čine ga nekonkurentnim na inozemnom, ali i domaćem tržištu. Izdvajanja za podršku poljoprivrednom sektoru u BiH nisu 5. Pursuing approaches follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist the bila dovoljna i iznosila su 26 KM that po stanovniku, 44 KM po ha poljoprivrednog zemljišta, 61 KMinpo of the development of the Information Society the EU convergence of different ha ekvivalentno obradivoj površini.aspects Iako budžetska podrška namijenjena ovom sektoru imainuzlazni trend u zadnjih nekoliko godina, treba јu harmonizirati i približiti mjerama sličnim u EU. and SEE countries.

1.2. this report 1.5.5. About Šumarstvo Bosna i Hercegovina ima The specific goals of this report are:posebno bogatu biološku raznolikost zbog svoje lokacije u tri različite geološke i klimatske regije: mediteranska regija, eurosibirsko-američka regija i alpsko-nordijska regija. BiH je jedna od zemalja u Evropi s najvećom raznolikošću vrsta biljaka 1. to outline thei international context including existingi oko legal i životinja. Floru Bosne Hercegovine čini oko regarding 4.500 višihe-Accessibility biljaka, 600 taksona mahovina instruments and2011). strategic level documents; 80 papratnjača (Brujić Trenutno se nalazi oko 250 vrsta šumskog drveća i grmlja. U šumama živi preko 200 vrsta faune. Čak se 30% od ukupne endemske flore Balkana (1.800 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people vrsta) nalazi u flori Bosne i Hercegovine. Popisi faune ukazuju da je životinjsko carstvo bogato with disabilities; i raznovrsno, posebno u poređenju s drugim državama na Balkanu i u Evropi, ali ova bogata biološka3.raznolikost je ugrožena. Bitno je da se napomene da je samo okostakeholders; 1% teritorije BiH pod to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility zaštićenim područjem, (tri nacionalna parka i dva parka prirode), što je poražavajuća činjenica 4. to goodbiodiverzitetom practices in thei region; s obzirom naidentify bogatstvo potencijale prirodnih resursa. S obzirom na područje to develop a set geoloških of recommendations for government andjeother on how to: države i 5. broj registriranih rariteta, Bosna i Hercegovina jednastakeholders od država s najvećom raznolikošću uaddress Evropi i the svijetu. obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU. Šume i šumsko zemljište zauzimaju površinu od oko 27.000 km2 ili oko 53% teritorije BiH: oko 23.000 km2 od toga su šume i oko 4.000 km2 šumsko zemljište. Godišnji porast šuma je relativno nizak zbog toga što tzv. ekonomske šume (šume kojima se može upravljati na privrednoj This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, osnovi) pokrivaju samo 13.000 km2 (otprilike 25% teritorije BiH) i čak i one imaju nizak nivo rezervi that is (toliko being implemented in the216 context of sthe e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project građe je nizak da iznosi m3/ha postepenim povećanjem građe skoro 5,5designed m3/ha odby 2 the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia andoko Herzegovina, supported17%) by DG/BDP and fundedšuma, by the polovice potencijala staništa). Postoji 9.000 km (otprilike niskih i NY, degradiranih 3 s veomaDemocratic niskim postepenim povećanjem 1 mto/ha) i bez the ekonomske vrijednosti s tačke UNDP’s Governance Thematic(otprilike Trust Fund support South Eastern Europe region 3 gledišta proizvodnje drvne građe. Na osnovu ovog porasta, oko 7miliona m /god se sjeklo u BiH in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the prije rata i ovaj potencijal bi trebao biti osnova za strateški razvoj drvno-prerađivačke industrije. regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. Zbog aktivnosti kao što su nelegalna sječa šuma, iskopavanje ruda, šumski požari i ostalo, is being implemented the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative oblasti The pod project šumskim pokrivačem se brzo by smanjuju, štoviše, značajan dio šumskog pokrivača je proglašen capitalizing miniranim (brojevi ukazuju na knowledge, otprilike 10%) i pretrpioand je vidnu štetu zbog ratnih Secretariat, on their existing networks resources. Empowering aktivnosti. Pored toga, postoji opsežno pitanje neriješenih imovinskih sporova i nezakonitog stjecanja Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social zemljišta, koji su u fazi čekanja rješenja zbog složenih pravnih mehanizama i administracije. Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with theOko fellow UNDP in the region, while the of Senior ICT Advisoru at the BDP 50% šumaCountry kojimaOffices upravljaju javne institucije imaOffice certifikat za upravljanje skladu s FSC standardima, a nekeexpertise su otišleand i korak daljeando ISO certifikata, kako bi moderniziralemembers svoj rad iof in New York is providing playing advisory role. Government-appointed pokazale posvećenost održivom upravljanju šumama. the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries. Pravni i institucionalni okvir koji pokriva šumarstvo je strukturiran preko dva entiteta.

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Ukupna proizvodnja šumskih sortimenata u Bosni i Hercegovini u 2011. manja je za 3,17% u odnosu na 2010. godinu (BHAS). Proizvodnja sortimenata četinarskih vrsta drveća bilježi mali porast od 0,16%, dok proizvodnja sortimenata lišćarskih vrsta u isto vrijeme bilježi značajniji pad od 5,74%. Najveće povećanje proizvodnje je u kategoriji tehničkog drveta četinara i to: rudničkog drveta za 16,20% i ostalog dugog drveta za 11,96%. Proizvodnja sortimenata lišćara bilježi pad u svim kategorijama, a najveći je u proizvodnji prostornog drveta, za 19,35%. Prodaja je ukupno gledano manja za 4,27% u poređenju sa 2010. godinom, dok prosječne zalihe iznose 351844 m³ sortimenata i manje su za 14,21% nego u 2010. godini. This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. Grafikon 4. Proizvodnja šumskih sortimenata u 1000 m³ u 2010. i 2011. godini (BHAS) A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and proizvedenog the Telecoms Framework assistive technologies). e-Accessibility Procijenjena količina komunalnog(for otpada za 2010. godinu iznosi 1.521.877 istona, alsoodnosno covered396 by kg policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist na fordan. programmatic support. po stanovniku godišnje, ili 1.08 kg po stanovniku U 2010. godini javnim odvozom je prikupljeno 1.499.023 tona komunalnog otpada, štomore je za legislation. 10% više u odnosu na 2009. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact godinu. Procenat stanovnika koji su uključeni u odvoz komunalnog otpada iznosi prosječno 68%. Ostatak populacije, koja ne koristi komunalne usluge, naseljava najvećim dijelom ruralna područja. There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: U ukupnoj količini prikupljenog otpada, miješani komunalni otpad sudjeluje s 92,4%, odvojeno prikupljeni komunalni otpad 6,0%, otpad iz vrtova i parkova 1,1% i ambalažni otpad s 0,4%. 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already Na odlagalištaItotpada je u 2010. godini odloženo 1.516.423 tona otpada, što je za 6,6%than više marginalized. helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather u odnosu na 2009. Podaci ocertain tokovima otpada koji je Conversely, dopremljen na odlagališta potvrđuju increase the godinu. disadvantages populations face. insufficient effort in this potpuno oslanjanje na trajno odlaganje komunalnog otpada na odlagališta. area is likely to further marginalize these groups.

1.5.6. Upravljanje otpadom

razvojnom strategijom lokacija zaproportion sanitarno of odla­ 2.Srednjoročnom Improving access to services, public se andpredviđa private,uvođenje to such a16significant the ganje čvrstog otpada: 10 u FBiH i 6 u RS. Posebno važno je što još uvijek nema postrojenja za tretman population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil medicinskog i drugog opasnog otpada, dok su rezultati recikliranja industrijskog i komunalnog remit in a costZbog effective otpadatheir i dalje ograničeni. togamanner. su poboljšanje tretmana industrijskog i medicinskog otpada, zbrinjavanje komunalnog otpada i recikliranje izazovi za koje se tek naziru napretka. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead znaci to improved access for 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the 1.5.7.able-bodied Upravljanje vodnim resursima prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. Teritorija BiH pokriva dva glavna riječna sliva: sliv rijeke Save (38.719 km ili 75.7% ukupne po­vrši­ 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of ne) i sliv Jadranskog mora (12.410 km ili 24.3% ukupne površine). Prosječno godišnje otjecanje iz sliva e-Services toililower the cost. rijeke Save iznosi 722and m3/s 62.5%, dok otjecanje iz sliva Jadranskog mora iznosi 433 m3/s ili 37,5%.

5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the Bosna i Hercegovina posjeduje znatne vodne resurse i u budućnosti voda bi mogla postati convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU jedan od osnova općeg ekonomskog razvoja u mnogim oblastima. Nepovoljna prostorna i vremenska and otjecanja SEE countries. distribucija vode zahtijeva izgradnju pogona za upravljanje vodama znatne veličine i složenosti, kako bi se omogućila racionalna eksploatacija voda, zaštita kvaliteta i kvantiteta voda, i zaštita od štetnih efekata voda.

1.2. About this report

Stanje postrojenja za kontrolu poplava je veoma loše, kao rezultat ratne štete, mnogih godina bez održavanja i minskih polja koja se nalaze pored nekih objekata. Ovo se posebno odnosi The specific goals of this report are: na gradove duž rijeke Save. Posljedice poplava su rezultat izuzetno visokih voda u ovoj oblasti, koje bi, ako se pojave, bile nemjerljive. 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents; 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities; 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trustdva Fund tousupport the South Eastern Europe region Slika 3. Karta sliva BiH in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the januaru 2008. u u FBiH su osnovane dvije agencije za vode: "Agencija za vodno regionalUaction plan for godine Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic područje rijeke Save" i "Agencija za vodno područje Jadranskog mora". U januaru 2013. priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. godine u RS je, umjesto agencija za vode oblasnog riječnog sliva Save i Trebišnjice formirana Javna ustanova "Vode Srpske“, nadležna za upravljanje vodama u RS. The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering U 2011. godini bilo on je 329.954.000 m3 ukupno zahvaćenih i preuzetih količina vode što je za Marginalised Groupsnain2010. e-Governance the e-SEE Secretariat positioned within Social 3% manje u odnosu godinu. Odand ukupne zahvaćene količineare vode iz podzemnih je the izvorišta zahvaćeno 45,9%, iz izvora 36,8%, iz vodotoka akumulacija iz jezera 1,3%. U closely 2011. Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The15,1%, UNDP izCountry Office 0,8%, in Sarajevo is working 3 godini količina ukupno isporučene vode iz javnog vodovoda je iznosila 150.834.000 m što jeBDP za with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the 8,4% manje u odnosu na prethodnu godinu. U strukturi potrošnje vode najveći su potrošač bila in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of domaćinstva, koja su utrošila 76,3% ukupno isporučene vode iz javnog vodovoda. the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries.ispusti otpadnih voda, pristup pitkoj vodi i upravljanje poplavama i dalje su Neprerađeni ključna pitanja. 35

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

1.5.8. Zdravstvo Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) je zemlja članica Svjetske zdravstvene organizacije (SZO), koja je prihvatila revidirane Međunarodne zdravstvene propise [IHR (2005)], koji su stupili na snagu 15. juna 2007. [IHR (2005) član 59]. Organizacija, financiranje i pružanje zdravstvene zaštite su u nadležnosti entiteta i Brčko distrikta, a reguliraju ih Federalno ministarstvo zdravstva, Ministarstvo zdravlja i socijalne zaštite Republike Srpske i Odjel za zdravstvo i ostale usluge Brčko distrikta. Na državnom Ministarstvo civilnih of poslova, kao odgovorno ministarstvoand u Vijeću This sectionnivou presents an overview the UNCRPD, its significance main ministara sections,BiH, the ima mandat da “obavlja poslove i izvršava zadatke koji su u nadležnosti Bosne i Hercegovine i koji requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed se odnose na utvrđivanje osnovnih načela koordiniranja aktivnosti, usklađivanja planova entitetskih by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to tijela vlasti i definiranje strategije na međunarodnom planu u oblasti zdravstva i socijalne zaštite” disability general and e-Accessibility in particular. (Zakon oinministarstvima i ostalim organima uprave BiH, 2003, član 15). Posmatrano s distance od

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

dvije godine u odnosu na prethodni izvještaj uočava se da su ukupni tekući troškovi na zdravstvo u BiH iznosili 10,3% BDP-a, što je iznad EU27 prosjeka od 9,2% BDP-a i da su viši za gotovo 3,0% u odnosu na podatak iznesen u prvom izvještaju (7,6% BDP). Međutim, ako se posmatraju po glavi stanovnika, onda su ovi troškovi sedam puta manji nego u Sloveniji, odnosno tri puta manji nego e-Accessibility u Hrvatskoj3. is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. Potrošnja domaćinstava na usluge zdravstvene zaštite, tzv. troškovi van-džepa (out-ofpocket expenditure) čine značajnu stavku potrošnje na zdravstvene usluge. U 2008. ovi troškovi su iznosili 42% ukupnih troškova i bili su znatno viši nego u zemljama članicama EU, 9,6% Slovenija; e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything 13,1% Njemačka, 22,3% Portugal. from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television.I dalje Up tose 15upercent of the population across the European a disability, such as a Bosni i Hercegovini kao vodeći uzrok smrtnostiUnion bilježehas oboljenja cirkulacijskog sistema s učešćem od 50,92%, u RS i 53,4% u FBiH, te neoplazme s učešćem od 20,48% u RS ai visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have 20,0% u FBiH u 2009. godini, tako da su skoro tri četvrtine svih uzroka smrti iz ove dvije grupe. similar or higher proportion. Među pet vodećih uzroka smrti stanovništva Federacije BiH svrstavaju se i oboljenja respiratornog sistema (3,4%), dok su u RS ona na šestom mjestu (7,8%). Sve navedeno je povezano s visokom A perhaps surprising of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover prevalencom faktora rizika,number te porastom učešća hroničnih bolesti u obolijevanju stanovništva. this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is Kaolegal i direktni tako indirektni utjecaji klimatskih na ljudskobutzdravlje the relevant context. Noi single EU directive is dedicatedpromjena to e-Accessibility, actionsnisu are kontinuirano praćeni u BiH. Iako određeni izvještaji sistematizirano govore o klimatskim spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive promjenama u BiH, još uvijek nema uspostavljenog sistema praćenja učestalosti javljanja (for copyrightobo­ exemptions), and the Telecoms assistive određenih ljenja na nekom području kojaFramework bi se mogla (for dovesti u vezutechnologies). s promjenamae-Accessibility pojedinačnih isklimatskih also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist Na for osnovu programmatic parametara i posljedično nastanka prirodnih nepogoda. podatakasupport. koji su prikupljeni na državnom nivou nije razvijena jasna metodologija za odgovor na krizna stanja Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. prouzrokovana klimatskim promjenama i preventivne mjere koje je neophodno provoditi s ciljem sprečavanja nastanka kriznih situacija, kao i mjere kako ublažiti posljedice prouzrokovane There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: klimatskim promjenama (smanjeni prinosi hrane zbog suše ili poplava; nestašica zdravstveno sigurne vode za piće...). U praksi u BiH još uvijek nije uspostavljen jasan model protoka informacija It is worthwhile its own to improve access to services to people who are already između1.različitih sektora,invrlo čestoright se nadležnosti isprepliću i nije jasno ko je kome odgovoran i ko odmarginalized. koga preuzima podatke, po kojoj metodologiji i na koji način vrši njihovo dostavljanje. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than Premaincrease tome ne raspolažemo adekvatnim stanjuConversely, okoliša, faktorima rizika iz okoliša the disadvantages certainizvještajima populationso face. insufficient effort in thisi njihovom utjecaju na klimatske promjene i zdravlje ljudi, iako je taj dio zakonski dobro reguliran u area is likely to further marginalize these groups. pogledu izvještavanja i usklađen sa zahtjevima OSTATA. Prema tome, možemo reći da je još uvijek prisutna visoka ranjivost ljudi. 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized also lead 3 EuropeAid/120971/C/SV/, Izvještaj Jačanje zdravstvenih sistema BiHcould za integraciju u EU to 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the 1.5.9.able-bodied Obrazovanje prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. U Bosni i Hercegovini je početkom školske 2010/2011. godine bilo 487,389 učenika (izvor 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of BHAS). U razrede 1.849 osnovnih škola upisano je 335.665 učenika, što je u odnosu na prethodnu andzai to lower školsku e-Services godinu manje 4,15%,the dokcost. 309 srednjih škola pohađa 151.724 učenika, što je u više za 3,3% odnosu na prethodnu školsku godinu. sedam javnih univerziteta sa 95 škola, te brojni 5. Pursuing approaches that followPostoji EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the privatni univerziteti s oko 105.000 redovnih studenata. convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries. Obrazovanje u BiH je pokriveno zakonodavstvom na različitim nivoima u FBiH i RS. U RS su

svi nivoi obrazovanja pokriveni zakonodavstvom na entitetskom nivou. Postoje posebni zakoni za svaki od gore navedena četiri nivoa obrazovanja. U FBiH obrazovanje se regulira na kantonalnom nivou. Svaki od deset kantona ima svoj zakon o predškolskom, osnovnom i srednjoškolskom obrazovanju, a kantoni koji imaju univerzitete također imaju zakone o visokom obrazovanju. Distrikt Brčko, kao posebna organizaciona jedinica u BiH, ima svoj zakon, koji pokriva svaki od četiri nivoa obrazovanja. The specific goals of this report are: Samim tim, postoji više od trideset zakona na različitim nivoima koji reguliraju ovu oblast.

1.2. About this report

1. to outlineu the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal Nadležnost oblasti visokog obrazovanja i nauke je na nivou entiteta Republike Srpske i Federacije BiH, a u Federaciji nivou kantona. Ministarstvo civilnih poslova BiH ima instruments and strategicBiH levelna documents; koordinirajuću ulogu na nivou zemlje, tj. koordinira aktivnosti nadležnih entitetskih organa vlasti 2. to develop comparative picture of e-Accessibility able-bodied versus people u ovoj oblasti i obavljaa međunarodnu suradnju. Kroz svoja dvafor sektora, Sektorpeople za nauku i kulturu, with za disabilities; kao i Sektor obrazovanje, ovo ministarstvo obavlja djelatnosti u pogledu koordiniranja i praćenja primjene međunarodnih sporazuma i strateških dokumenata u oblasti obrazovanja i nauke, učešća 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility e-Accessibility u radu međunarodnih organizacija u oblasti obrazovanjaand i nauke, učešće u stakeholders; programima Evropske 4. toCOST, identify good practices in thei region; unije (FP7, EKA, Erasmus Mundus dr.) te praćenje procesa evropskih integracija. 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: U Srpskoj visoko obrazovanje i sektor nauke regulirali su na nivou entiteta - Republici address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; Ministarstvo prosvjete i kulture RS i Ministarstva nauke i tehnologije RS. Ministarstvo nauke i tehno­ comply with requirements for the UN and EU. logije RS se bavi pitanjima nauke i tehnologije u okviru RS-a i aktivno sudjeluje u distribuiranju info­rmacija u vezi s istraživačkim fondovima (kao što je FP7) u oblasti nauke i tehnologije. Centar za upra­vljanje projektima je dio Ministarstva, a njegov osnovni cilj je podstaknuti istraživačke akti­ report is part of a larger project, Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, vnosti i This učešće RS univerziteta i privatnih firmi‘Empowering u istraživačkim programima (EU i domaćim). that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by U Federaciji Bosne i Hercegovine javne univerzitete osnivaju kantoni, the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, dok and Ministarstvo funded by the prosvjete i nauke Federacije BiH obavlja administrativne, stručne i druge poslove na nivou entiteta, UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region uključujući zaštitu autorskih prava i prava intelektualnog vlasništva, kao i koordinaciju naučnih in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Priorityreguliraju Area of the e-SEE obrazovanja Agenda+, the i istraživačkih aktivnosti. Kantonalna ministarstvaSociety u Federaciji politiku regional action for Information Society and thepolitiku UNCRPD. The programmatic i nauke za svojeplan kantone. Kantonalne vlade, development, također, nadgledaju sistema obrazovanja, financija iof nadgledaju i privatne fully institucije visokog obrazovanja. priorities the projectjavne are therefore aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. Brčko distrikt, posebna administrativna jedinica, takođerUNDP-funded ima ovlaštenjee-SEE za obrazovnu The project is kao being implemented by the Sarajevo-based Initiative iSecretariat, naučnu politiku. capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat positioned withinvlasništva the Social InstitutGroups za intelektualno vlasništvo BiH je nadležan za oblasti are prava intelektualnog Inclusion/Democratic u Bosni i Hercegovini. Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP Izvjestan napredak tokom and proteklih je napravljen u oblasti politike istraživanja in New York is providing expertise playinggodina an advisory role. Government-appointed members iof inovacija. Učešće u Sedmom okvirnom programu EU (FP7) se nešto povećalo. Započela je suradnja the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their s programima COST i EKA. Ministarstvo civilnih poslova je osiguralo financijsku pomoć za lica respective countries. koja pripremaju projekte za FP7, COST i EKA. Međutim, administrativni i istraživački kapaciteti su suviše slabi da bi se u potpunosti iskoristile prednosti pridruživanja FP7 i sredstva koja aktivno

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

stimuliraju naučnu zajednicu. Učešće i stopa uspjeha u aktivnostima po programu Marie Curie je slaba, kao i uključivanje privatnog sektora. Neki napori napravljeni su na integraciji u Evropski istraživački prostor (European Research Area – ERA) kao i doprinos Inovacijskoj uniji (Innovation Union – IU). Država se pridružila EURAXESS mreži u cilju mobilnosti istraživača. Krovna organizacija i koordinacija nacionalne EURAXESS mreže uspostavljena je na Univerzitetu u Banjoj Luci. Finansiranje se neznatno povećalo uglavnom za istraživače, a modernizacija infrastrukture, oprema i publikacije osobito ulaskom u This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the COBISS bibliotečko-informacioni sistem. Republika Srpska i drugi subjekti su povećali ulaganja u requirements sets inMeđutim, all aspects of e-Accessibility how it is tojebei dalje implemented. is followed istraživanja i itrazvoj. sveukupno, ulaganjeand u istraživanje na niskomThis nivou, osobito byu aprivatnom description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating sektoru. Kao i entiteti, i kantoni financiraju svoje zakone preko svojih budžeta, pa to je teško unaprijediti za istraživanje i izbjeći fragmentaciju, što je jedan od glavnih ciljeva disability in general regulative and e-Accessibility in particular. ERA-e. Nedostaje precizna statistika o nauci i tehnologiji.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

Sve u svemu, usklađivanje s evropskim standardima iz oblasti obrazovanja i kulture je 1.1. Why e-Accessibility? još uvijek u početnoj fazi. Strategije i okvirni zakoni treba implementirati. Strukture agencija za

obrazovanje i isosiguranje kvaliteta the na državnom nivou moraju biti operativne. Učešće države u e-Accessibility about overcoming range of barriers that people with disabilities and others Kulturnom doprinosi provođenju pravnihtotekovina EU.on U equal oblastiterms istraživanja i inovacija, such as olderprogramu populations experience when seeking participate in the Information pripreme za buduće integracije u ERA i Inovacijsku uniju su započele ali ozbiljni napori moraju tek Society. biti učinjeni, kao i potreba za pažljivim praćenjem. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion.

1.6. Izazovi dugoročnog razvoja - Milenijski razvojni ciljevi MRC

Ujedinjenе nacije su 2005. godine postavile Milenijumske razvojne ciljeve (MRC) koje su usvojile sve države članice. MRC definišu niz ciljeva agreements, u osam oblasti koji se trebaju dostići do 2015. A perhaps surprising number of international regulations and guidelines cover godine i predstavljaju vodič za budući razvoj.Budućnost Bosne i Hercegovine je u njenoj punoj this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is integraciji u glavne evropske strukture, a to direktno podrazumijeva tijesnu suradnju a zatim i the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are članstvo u EU. Evropske integracije zahtijevaju niz promjena u sferi mjera politike i zakonodavstva spread across areasssuch as Television Withouti Frontiers subtitling), thepod Copyright koje su povezane usvajanjem sporazuma konvencija(for Unije, poznatih nazivomDirective Acquis (for copyright exemptions), the Telecoms Framework (for e-Accessibility Communautaire. Radi se oand ogromnom korpusu zakona i bit ćeassistive potrebnotechnologies). mnogo rada na usklađivanju odredbi tehničkih u BiH sadašnjom praksom EU.programmatic Mišljenje UNDP-a je da iszakonskih also covered by ipolicy, andstandarda guidelines andsabenchmarking exist for support. put u Evropumoves treba biti više od sterilnog tehničkog procesa: to legislation. treba biti proces u kojem će Furthermore, arenešto afoot to strengthen these and to enact more građani BiH doći u poziciju da dobiju ista prava i obaveze kao i ostali Evropljani. Osim toga, reforme u procesu pristupanja EU, i to osobito reforme u ekonomskoj sferi, bit će vjerovatno teško postići There is at leastimati a five-fold justification early action in the Milenijski area of e-Accessibility: i one će potencijalno značajne negativnefor socijalne posljedice. razvojni ciljevi stoga imaju dvije uloge: prva ponuditi širu perspektivu prema kojoj će se mjeriti reforme, pri čemu će se u obzir socijalni aspekti i aspekti zaštite access okoliša;toteservices druga ponuditi instrument uz čiju 1. It uzimati is worthwhile in its own right to improve to people who are already pomoćmarginalized. građani moguItbiti uključeni a njihova podrška helps fulfil the promise of thesačuvana. Information Society to reduce rather than increase thecjelovit disadvantages populations face. Conversely, effort this MRC nude okvir za certain usmjeravanje dugoročnog razvoja BiHinsufficient i njenog puta kaintome area is likely to further marginalize thesedemokratska groups. da postane prosperitetna i suverena evropska zemlja. Izvještaj o realizaciji MRC-a krenuo je od prethodnog Nacionalnog izvještaja o humanom razvoju/MRC s ciljem poboljšanja 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the i daljeg prilagođavanja okviru za monitoring i evaluaciju. Ali, iako je mnogo toga postignuto, population opensosignificant opportunities, andtačku can help services fulfil evidentno je da izvještaj realizaciji market/sales MRC predstavlja samo polaznu a ne public i završetak procesa. their remit a cost effective manner. Ostvarivanje MRCinzahtijevat će značajne promjene u sferi mjera politike i ulaganje resursa, te imajući ovo u vidu naglašavamo sljedeće, trenutno prisutne izazove na koje treba odgovoriti: 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodiedi obrazovanje people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the Zdravstvo prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. Učinak BiH već zadovoljava minimalne evropske standarde u oblasti zdravstva i obrazovanja. The earlier action the easier it is to integrate into development Pa ipak,4.stope upisa koje suisutaken, opadanju i pogoršanje u pogledue-Accessibility dostupnosti zdravstvene zaštiteof e-Services anduzeti to lower cost.quo zdravo za gotovo, i bez ponovnog poklanjanja pažnje govore da ne možemo ovajthe status ovim pitanjima silazni trend i dispariteti u pružanju usluga bit će sve vidljiviji. Zemlja odmah mora 5. Pursuing that followizgledima EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the proaktivno poraditi naapproaches krhkim ekonomskim i nedovoljnim javnim prihodima provođenjem convergence different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU sveobuhvatne razvojneofstrategije. and SEE countries.

Centralni značaj dobre uprave za ostvarivanje MRC

uprava predstavlja za društveni i ekonomski napredak. U BiH su dovedena u 1.2.Dobra About this preduvjet report

pitanje sva obilježja dobre uprave: odgovornost, transparentnost, učešće građana, profesionalizam i efikasnost. Naprimjer, previsok i hendikepirajući nivo troškova javne uprave je pogoršao krizu u The specific goals of this report are: javnom sektoru u BiH. Kašnjenja u provođenju reformi dovest će do stagnacije, te do nepostizanja napretka u pravcu ostvarivanja MRC. Osim toga, dobra uprava se ne može postići bez zaštite i promocije prava. BiH kontekstu treba regarding podstaknutie-Accessibility davanje ovlaštenja lokalnim vladama, 1. ljudskih to outline the U international context including existing legal osobito instruments općnskim vlastima, pošto level je to documents; nivo vlasti koji je najbliži građanima i stoga u stanju da and strategic zagovara, a i ostvari, razvoj zasnovan na pravima. 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities; aranžmani za monitoring MRC Institucionalni 3. to assess svakog the current level of e-Accessibility andusklađenu e-Accessibility stakeholders; Ostvarivanje pojedinačnog MRC-a zahtijeva podršku u razvoju različitih 4. to good practices in the region; institucija naidentify nivou zemlje. Od specifičnog je značaja jačanje i koordinacija statističkih institucija u zemlji 5. s ciljem uspostave i koherentnog sistema zaand prikupljanje podataka. Još jedan to develop a set ofpouzdanog recommendations for government other stakeholders on how to: prioritet-predstavlja provođenje sveobuhvatnog popisa stanovništva u zemlji u aprilu 2013. godine. address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; Ove inicijative vezane za izgradnju institucija su od suštinskog značaja za osiguranje uspješnosti comply with requirements for the UN and EU. procesa monitoringa i evaluacije za MRC.

Učešće građana i civilnog društva kao pokretačka snaga

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the of the e-SEE pomoć Initiative. It is a regional designed Kao što je podvučeno u context Okviru za razvojnu Ujedinjenih nacijaproject (United Nationsby Development Assistance Framework - Herzegovina, UNDAF), aktivne organizacije civilnog i građani the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and supported by DG/BDP NY,društva and funded by the su od vitalnog značaja za efikasan monitoring i ostvarivanje MRC. Važno je uspostaviti veze, UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region osobito s onim organizacijama civilnog društva koje se bave određenim MRC-ovima. Da bi takva in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the opredijeljenost predstavljala nešto više od puke geste, potrebno je uložiti napore na informiranju i regional plan politike for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic edukaciji action o mjerama u vezi s MRC. priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+.

Postizanje komplementarnosti s procesom pristupanja EU

The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Kao što je rečeno na izvještaja o statusu MRC u BiH, and UNDP u Bosni i Hercegovini Secretariat, capitalizing on početku their existing knowledge, networks resources. Empowering na MRC proces u zemlji ne gleda kao na puku aktivnost izvještavanja i lobiranja, nego kao na Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social praktični instrument koji građanima omogućava ostvariti svoje pune potencijale i za sebe osigurati Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely isti prosperitet i prava koja uživaju i ostali Evropljani. Iako je jasno da Sporazum o stabilizaciji with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in theu region, the Office of Senior Advisor the BDP i pridruživanju predstavlja ključan korak pravcu while ispunjavanja kriterija za ICT proces kojiatprethodi in New York is providing andprilično playingusko an advisory Government-appointed members of članstvu u EU, mišljenje expertise je da on ima težište role. koje počiva na tehničkim i ekonomskim pitanjima. MRC nude dopunu tome jer, uvode socijalnu i razvojnu sferu približavanja Evropi,forčime the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points their pružaju instrument za snaženje podrške građana i opredijeljenosti vlasti za pristupanje EU. respective countries.

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES 2. Proračun emisije stakleničkih plinova

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

2.1. Metodologija

Kao i za izradu Prvog nacionalnog izvještaja za UNFCCC, i u ovom Drugom nacionalnom 1.1. Why izvještaju proračune-Accessibility? emisije stakleničkih plinova je jedan od osnovnih koraka u sistematskom

razmatranju i is rješavanju problema povezanih promjenama. Stečena znanja, pozitivna e-Accessibility about overcoming the rangesofklimatskim barriers that people with disabilities and others praksa i prikupljeni podaci, kao i proračuni emisije GHG za Prvi nacionalni izvještaj za UNFCCC, such populations experience seeking participate on equal terms in thenacionalnog Information bili as su older i dobra podloga za procjenu when emisije gasovatostaklene bašte u okviru Drugog Society. izvještaja za UNFCCC. U ovom izvještaju emisije GHG zaICT razdoblje e-Accessibility can potentially refersu to urađene any type of used by 1991-2001. citizens, andgodine. involvesNeophodno everything je naglasiti da su najdetaljnije analize urađene za 2001. godinu jer je bilo moguće prikupiti više from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on podataka nego za 2000. godinu. Za razliku od prethodnih, za 2001. godinu na raspolaganju su bili i television. to 15 percent of the population across theuraditi European Union has a disability, such as a određeni Up podaci o energetkom bilansu i moguće je bilo "referentni pristup“. Obavezne tabele visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, u orCRF motor impairment, and countries can expect to have za ostale godine su pripremljene (u excell formatu) naSEE osnovu raspoloživih podataka za tea godine.Imajući vidu činjenicu da je u BiH u razdoblju 1992-1996. godine bio rat, ulazni podaci za similar or higheruproportion. to razdoblje imaju veći stepen nesigurnosti, kao i podaci za 1997. i 1998. godinu, jer i za te godine institucionalno prikupljanje podataka nije obezbjeđivalo podatke za dobar proračun emisija GHG. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area.Za At potrebe the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is proračuna emisije u ovom izvještaju korištene su paralelno metodologija the relevant legal context. No single EU directive dedicated to e-Accessibility, but referentnog actions are Međuvladinog tijela za klimatske promjene (IPCC)is propisana Konvencijom, na osnovu priručnika Revidirane smjernice IPCC-a za nacionalne inventare emisija plina staklenih bašči iz spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive 1996. godineexemptions), (Revised IPCC for Framework National GHG i Smjernicee-Accessibility dobre prakse (for copyright andGuidelines the Telecoms (forInventories) assistive technologies). i upravljanje nesigurnostima u nacionalnim inventarima emisija plina staklenih bašči (Good is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management) i softveri COLLECTER i REPORTER za formiranje Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact faktora more legislation. baze podataka, uz pretežno korištenje preporučenih emisijskih IPCC-a, osim za energetski sektor gdje su korišteni i lokalni faktori emisije. Za proračun emisije iz poljoprivrede (Agriculture) i ponora CO2is(LUCF) korištene sujustification preporučene tabele, uz CRF table, također There at least a five-fold forIPCC earlyexcel action in thekoje areasu, of e-Accessibility: sastavni dio ovog izvještaja. 1.IPCC It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access services tonačelo peopletransparentnosti, who are already metodologija i pristup omogućavaju da se toobezbijedi marginalized. It helpsusporedivosti fulfil the promise of theproračuna. Information Society to reduce rather than potpunosti, konzistentnosti, i tačnosti Metodologija zahtijeva određenu procjenu nesigurnosti proračuna i certain verificiranje ulaznihface. podataka i rezultata, kako bieffort se povećali increase the disadvantages populations Conversely, insufficient in this kvalitet, tačnost i unaprijedila pouzdanost proračuna. Također, jedna od internih provjera proračuna area is likely to further marginalize these groups. unutar metodologije jest i proračun emisije CO2 zbog izgaranja goriva, na dva različita načina: 2. Improving to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the prvi, detaljniji način,access tzv. sektorski pristup (Sectoral Approach), i drugi, jednostavniji, tzv. referentni način (Reference population Approach). opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. Inventar stakleničkih plinova BiH za 1991. do 2001. godine sastavljen je u skladu s prepo­ rukama izradu inventara - Smjernice o izvještavanju UNFCCC-a Odluci 3/CP.5access i 17/CP.8, 3.za Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could alsoprema lead to improved for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost iofRevidirane web service development, the uključujući i zajednički format izvještavanja (CRF) smjernice IPCC-aand za enhance nacionalne inventare plina staklene bašče iz 1996. koje daje specifikaciju obaveza za izvještavanje u skladu prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. s članovima 4 i 12 UNFCCC-a (Revidirane smjernice IPCC-a za nacionalni inventar stakleničkih 4.1996. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of plinova iz godine). e-Services and to lower the cost. 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries. Inventar plinova staklene bašče u ovom izvještaju obuhvata desetogodišnji razdoblje 19912001. Kako na nivou Bosne i Hercegovine ne postoji institucija koja bi bila odgovorna za prikupljanja specifičnih “podataka o aktivnostima” (“activity data”) neophodnih za procjenu inventara emisije u skladu s UNFCCC-om za navedeni razdoblje, ove aktivnosti se obavljaju na nivou entiteta.

2.2. Sistem prikupljanja i obrade podataka

1.2. About this report

The specific goalsizrade of thisi ovog report are: U sklopu izvještaja, UNDP Bosne i Hercegovine je javnim konkursom izabrao stručnjake iz oba entiteta koji su prikupljali podatke u oblastima definiranim IPCC uputstvima: energetika, poljoprivreda, i ponori, te zajednički učestvovali u izradi 1. toindustrijski outline theprocesi, international context otpad regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal procjenainstruments pojedinačnih emisija po sektorima. Ovo poglavlje predstavlja sintezu pojedinačnih and strategic level documents; izvještaja radnih grupa uz korištenje baze podataka o emisijskim faktorima i pisanim informacijama o sagorijevanju fosilnih goriva u BiH. Intenzivna suradnja na podataka vođena je 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for prikupljanju able-bodied people versus people prvenstveno s Federalnim hidrometeorološkim zavodom FBiH i Republičkim hidrometeorološkim with disabilities; zavodom Republike Srpske, čiji su stručnjaci prikupili dio podataka o sagorijevanju fosilnih to assess the currenttelevel of e-Accessibility andplina e-Accessibility stakeholders; goriva i 3. industrijskih procesa, izvršili obračun emisije staklene bašče u skladu s IPCC metodologijom u sektorima energetike, otpada, 4. to identify good practices in the region;poljoprivrede i ponora. 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: Iako su i Agencija za statistiku BiH i entitetski zavodi za statistiku u funkciji, za ovo address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; razdoblje imaju samo veoma mali dio podataka potrebnih za procjenu inventara emisija. Velika - proizvodna comply with requirements for the UN and EU. vode evidenciju o potrošnji fosilnih energetska postrojenja, uglavnom termoelektrane, goriva. Neke termoelektrane imaju ugrađene sisteme za praćenje emisija, ali je održavanje ovih sistema neredovno i ovi se podaci mogu koristiti jedino za verificiranje proračuna emisija. Elektroprivrede obaisentiteta podacima o potrošnjiMarginalised fosilnih goriva u termoelektranama, i This report part of raspolažu a larger project, ‘Empowering Groups in e-Governance’, ti podaci se smatraju pouzdanim. Pored toga, veće energane i toplane u gradovima imaju podatke that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by o aktivnostima. Emisije ili podaci o aktivnostima iz mobilnih izvora mogu se dobiti preko entitetskih the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the zavoda za statistiku: Republičkog zavoda za statistiku Republike Srpske i Federalnog zavoda za UNDP’s Governance Fund to support the South izvora, Easternkao Europe region statistikuDemocratic FBiH. Određivanje vrstaThematic i starostiTrust pojedinih kategorija mobilnih i godišnja in the implementation of se theprocjenjivati Inclusive Information Society Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the potrošnja goriva, moraju i mislimo da to nijePriority veliki problem. regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic Međutim, problemi kada traže ukupne količine tečnih goripriorities of the project are nastaju therefore fullysealigned with thegodišnje targets potrošene of e-SEE Agenda+. va, bilo na nivou entiteta ili na državnom nivou. Tu je evidencija vrlo loša, jer su razlike iz proračuna u odnosu na podatke o potrošnji za poslijeratnо razdoblje neusporedivi. Problem je što se ne eviThe project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative dentiraju u statističkim izvještajima sva tečna goriva, koja se preko graničnih prelaza uvoze u BiH. Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within Social Problem su sigurno i podaci oand aktivnostima za industrijske procese, jer su tithe podaci neadekvatno zastupljeni u statističkim publikacijama zvaničnim informacijama. U working poslijeratnom Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP iCountry Office in Sarajevo is closely razdoblju industrija Bosne i Hercegovine ima smanjen kapacitet proizvodnje, što je uglavnom with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP posljedica ratom uništenih industrijskih postrojenja, ali i nepokretanja proizvodnje u postojećim, in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of ali zastarjelim tehnološkim postrojenjima. the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries. Slična je situacija s podacima o aktivnostima za poljoprivredu, promjenama na tlu i šumama nastalim zbog eksploatacije (Land Use Change and Forestry- LUCF) i otpadom. Nema 41

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jasnog opisa odgovornosti institucija koje su zadužene za prikupljanje podataka. Iako je za svaku oblast navedeno po nekoliko institucija koje se bave tim pitanjima, nisu jasne odgovornosti svake institucije pojedinačno, kao ni obim podataka koji svaka od njih treba sakupiti. Tu je problem što na entitetskim nivoima nema jasnih instrukcija za izvještavanje o podacima o aktivnostima. Stručnjaci Poljoprivrednog fakulteta i Hidrometeorološkog zavoda, koji su bili uključeni u navedenu radnu grupu, uradili su proračun emisija i ponora CO2, u skladu s uputstvom IPCC, uz korištenje excel tabela koje je preporučio IPCC.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the I dalje je aktuelan problem što većina institucija nedovoljno poznaje obaveze koje su u skladu requirements it sets in allprotokolom. aspects of e-Accessibility andsehow it is tobitne be implemented. This followed s UNFCCC-om i Kyoto Na ovom polju očekuju promjene, jer suisdoneseni byzakoni a description the major instrumentsizrade and actions the European Union level relating to uključili of i obaveze izvještavanja, popisa at i prikupljanja podataka o aktivnostima. Naravno,inključno je koliko se doneseni zakoni provode na svim nivoima. disability generalpitanje and e-Accessibility in particular. Kao ključni nedostaci u ovoj oblasti identificirani su: Neusuglašenost između postojećih podataka i podataka koji su potrebni prema IPCC 1.1. Why e-Accessibility? metodologiji, 

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others  Nepostojanje podataka, such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society.  Nedostatak zakonske regulative u vrsti i obimu podataka koje je potrebno prikupljati,  Nedovoljno znanje iz oblasti obaveza preuzetih sporazumima. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything CORINAIR i IPCC metodologija, kaoto i softver COPERT, korišteni su da bi se arhivirali podaci from websites for e-government services, telephony support for blind people to subtitling on u digitalnom obliku. Višegodišnja iskustva u radu, stečena korištenjem ove metodologije i softvera, television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a veoma su dragocjena i sigurno će biti od koristi u daljnjem radu na razvoju budućih nacionalnih visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a izvještaja za UNFCCC. similar or higher proportion.

A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover 2.2.1. Proračun emisijskih faktora this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. Nofaktora single (EF) EU directive e-Accessibility, but actions are Proračun emisijskih je jedan is oddedicated osnovnih to uvjeta za izradu dobrog inventara emisijeacross plina staklenika. spread areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility CORINAIR metodologija, zajedno s najnovijim softverom, omogućava inventar emisija ne is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. samo u svrhu LRTAP Konvencije, već također i za potrebe UNFCCC-a i IPCC-a. Poznato je da novi Furthermore, moves are afoot strengthen thesepotrebni and to enact more legislation. softver nudi mogućnost da se to veoma brzo dobiju tabelarni pregledi u formatu zajedničkog

izvještaja (Common Reporting Format – CRF). Za razdoblje (1991-2001) prikupljanje emisije plina There is at least izvještavanja a five-fold justification for early action inpodataka the area iofprocjene e-Accessibility: staklenika diskutabilno je za ratne godine, mada taj proces neće biti puno manje kompliciran ni za poslijeratno razdoblje. 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of thedobri Information to reduce than Što se tiče industrijskih procesa, ne postoje podaci Society o mjerenjima. Kaorather posljedica increasesethe disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient toga, predlaže upotreba faktora preporučenih u smjernicama i uputstvima IPCC-a.effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups. Za poljoprivredu su dovoljni standardni emisijski faktori navedeni u smjernicama IPCC-a. 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the Promjene opens šuma significant i tla zbogmarket/sales eksploatacijeopportunities, su problematičnije stvarnih population and canzbog help nedostatka public services fulfil ulaznihtheir podataka potrebnih za izračunavanja, te će se zbog toga koristiti preporučena metodologija remit in a cost effective manner. IPCC-a. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the 2.2.2. Izvještavanje prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. U smislu člana 12. Okvirne konvencije Ujedinjenih nacija o klimatskim promjenama, 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of odgovornost za izvještavanje ja na Ministarstvu za prostorno uređenje, građevinarstvo i ekologiju andbh. to lower theinstitucije. cost. RS, kojee-Services ima svojstvo kontakt U okviru entiteta izvještavanja vrše ministarstva u čijoj nadležnosti je zaštita okoliša, a u FBiH, pored entitetskog i to je nadležnost will i ministarstava 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations assist in the za okoliš na nivou kantona, što nesporno predstavlja kompliciran proces pravljenja inventaraconvergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU katastra emisije plina staklenika u Bosni i Hercegovini. U Republici Srpskoj inventar emisija SEE countries. izrađujeand Republički hidrometeorološki zavod RS-a.

teškoće vezane za izradu inventara u Bosni i Hercegovini su: 1.2.Osnovne About this report 

Nedostatak stalnih izvora financiranja,

The specific goals of this report are: akata za obavezu prikupljanja podataka,  Nedostatak podzakonskih o aktivnostima koje su neophodne za izvještavanje IPCC-u ilegal za 1. toNedostatak outline thepodataka international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing provođenje obaveza prema UNFCCC-u, instruments and strategic level documents;  Nedostatak osoblja s potrebnim iskustvom za pripremu podataka o industriji, poljoprivredi 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people i promjenama tla i šuma zbog eksploatacije (LUCF), with disabilities;  Nedostatak administrativnih kapaciteta za pripremu kvalitetne podzakonske regulative za 3. topodručje assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; prikupljanja podataka o aktivnostima, 4. to identify good practices in the region;  Nedostatak stručne pomoći za kvalitetno ispunjavanje obaveza iz UNFCCC-a. 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU. 

2.2.3. Kontrola kvaliteta (eng. Quality Control) i osiguranje kvaliteta (eng. Quality Assurance)

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, Preporuke UNFCCC-a IPCC-a stavljaju naglasak na kontrolu kvaliteta podataka. To designed je, u stvari,by that is being implemented in ithe context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project sistem određenih tehničkih aktivnosti, ocjena i kontrole kvaliteta inventara emisija. Kontrola kvaliteta the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the uključuje pažljivu provjeru tačnosti prikupljenih podataka, emisijskih faktora i procjene nesigurnosti. UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the uključuje Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of thekoje e-SEE Agenda+, the Osiguranje kvaliteta planirani sistem procedura pregleda obavlja osoblje regional action plan for Information Societyinventara.Bosna development, and the UNCRPD. programmatic koje nije direktno uključeno u proces razvoja i Hercegovina, kaoThe zemlja u razvoju, u skladu sofodlukama organa Konvencije, koristila mogućnost da međunarodna grupa eksperata, priorities the project are therefore fully alignedjewith the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. koju je formirao za ove svrhe Sekretarijat UNFCCC Konvencije, pregleda inventar, te procijeni nesigurnosti u vezi sis inventarom. Nažalost,bytothe sigurno nije dovoljnoUNDP-funded da se u potpunosti The project being implemented Sarajevo-based e-SEE provede Initiative osiguranje kvaliteta / kontrola kvaliteta u Bosni i Hercegovini, jer je glavni problem za osiguranje Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering kvaliteta kvalitet ulaznih podataka o aktivnostima. Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance izrade Sector.inventara The UNDP Country Officebašte in Sarajevo is working closely Preporuke za unapređenje plinova staklene su: with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP  Provođenje institucionalne odgovornosti za sistematsko sastavljanje inventara emisija in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of plinova staklenika; the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their  countries. Jačanje kapaciteta Agencije za statistiku, te entitetskih zavoda za statistiku za prikupljanje respective i statistiku podataka koji su neophodni za izradu inventara emisije plinova staklene bašte; 43

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Povećanje broja osoblja i financijskih sredstava za prikupljanje osnovnih podataka i podataka o emisijama; Obezbjeđivanje ažurnog objavljivanja statističkih podataka o emisijama;

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

Povećanje financijskih sredstava za obuku osoblja, proračun emisija i istraživanje emisijskih faktora, istraživanja i projekcije nacionalnih emisija plina staklenika, formiranje i provođenje sistema revizije nacionalnog inventara emisija plina staklenika koje bi obavljao This section nezavisni presentstim aneksperata, overview i of the UNCRPD, its za significance and main sections, the unapređenje kvaliteta arhiviranja podataka; requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed  Kontinuirano investiranje u hardver i obuku kadrova za prikupljanje podataka, mjerenja by a description of the major instruments and actions the European Unionvezanim level relating to i upravljanjе s ciljem da se poboljša kvalitet at podataka o emisijama za zemne disability in general e-Accessibility particular. plinove,and otpad i industrijske in procese; 

Izdavanje ovlaštenja za kreiranje pojedinačnih baza podataka o emisijama u odgovarajućim institucijama;

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

 Izgradnja javne svijesti o problemima u vezi sa zaštitom klime i potencijalnim posljedicama e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others klimatskih promjena. such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society.

2.3. Sistem CORINAIR e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on Inventar je zasnovan na CORINAIR (CORe INventory of AIR emissions) sistemu koji kreira television. Up to 15 percent the population across the European Union has evropske a disability, such as ETC/AE (Evropski tematskiofcentar za emisije u zraku). Kao i mnoge druge zemlje, BiHa visual, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, koristihearing, ovaj metod proračuna za kvantifikaciju emisija. and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. CORINAIR sistem je dizajniran za sakupljanje podataka o emisijama i izvještavanje zemalja o emisijama u zrak prema Evropskoj agenciji za okoliš (EEA) uz korištenje zajedničkog formata. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover Ova zajednička baza podataka širom Evrope može se primijeniti za pripremu određenih katastara u this area.saAtsmjernicama the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force 2008, is skladu UNECE/CLARTAP-a i UNFCCC-a. U nastavku se daje kratak opisinAE-DEM the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are programskog paketa: spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. CRLTAP (NFR) izvor emisije There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: izvor emisije

sakupljanje

Nacionalni

selektiranje

UNFCCC (CRF)

1. It is worthwhile in proračun its own right to improve services to people who are already inventaraccess toagregiranje arhiviranje preraspodjela marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than emisija izvor emisije EU directive increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this ReportER CollectER area is likelyEstimaterER to further marginalize these groups. 2. Improving of the itd. izvor emisije access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. Slika 4. Inventar emisija

3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; it can reduceprate the cost of web service development, enhance the Cilj je da se sakupljaju, održavaju, i objave informacije o emisijama uand zrak, i pošalju Evropskom katastru emisija i sistema baze podataka. Ovo podrazumijeva emisije u zrak iz svih prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. izvora koji su relevantni za okolinske probleme, klimatske promjene, zakiseljavanje, eutrofikacije, 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of troposferski ozon, kvalitet zraka i disperzije opasnih supstanci. e-Services and to lower the cost. S obzirom da je CORINAIR orijentiran ka izvoru, postoji jasna razlika između tačkastog 5. Pursuing that su follow EUstacionarni guidelines izvori and recommendations will assist in the i površinskog izvora.approaches Tačkasti izvori veliki emisije koji ispuštaju polutante aspects the development of the Information Societyda in bi thebili EU convergence of different u atmosferu. Postrojenja ili aktivnosti čiji of pojedinačni mali iznosi emisija nisu dovoljni klasificirani u tačkaste izvore, sabiru se i čine površinski izvor. Oni zajedno mogu znatno da and SEE countries. doprinesu ukupnim emisijama.

1.2. About this report 2.4. Rezultati proračuna emisije stakleničkih The specific goals of this report are: plinova 1991-2001.

1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal U nastavku seand dajustrategic rezultatilevel proračuna emisije stakleničkih plinova za Bosnu i Hercegovinu. instruments documents; Rezultati se daju prvo kao ukupna (agregirana) emisija svih stakleničkih plinova prema sektorima, 2. toemisija developpojedinih a comparative pictureplinova, of e-Accessibility for able-bodied a zatim kao stakleničkih također prema sektorima. people versus people with disabilities; Budući da pojedini staklenički plinovi imaju različita radijaciona svojstva, različito doprinose 3. to assess the bi current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; efektu staklenika. Kako se omogućilo međusobno zbrajanje i ukupni prikaz emisije, potrebno je da se emisija svakog good plinapractices pomnoži in s njegovim stakleničkim potencijalom (GWP-Global Warming 4. to identify the region; Potential). 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to:

address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; Staklenički potencijal je mjera utjecaja nekog plina na staklenički efekat u odnosu na - . U comply with requirements for theplinova UN and iskazuje EU. utjecaj CO tom slučaju emisija stakleničkih se jedinicom Gg CO2 eq (masa 2 ekvivalentnog CO2). U tabeli 9. issupart prikazani staklenički za Marginalised pojedine plinove, kojiin se odnose na This report of a larger project, potencijali ‘Empowering Groups e-Governance’, vremenski razdoblje od 100ingodina. that is being implemented the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the Staklenički UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Plin Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region potencijal in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the 1 Ugljendioksid (CO2) regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic ) 21 Metanare (CHtherefore priorities of the project fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. 4 Azotni oksid (N2O)

310

The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative 6.500 CF4 Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering 9.200 C2F6 Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social SF6 Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office23.900 Inclusion/Democratic in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP Tabela 9. Staklenički potencijal za pojedinačne plinove za razdoblje od 100 godina in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) actplinova, as government Points for their Ugljendioksid je jedan od najznačajnijih stakleničkih posebno Focal kada se razmatraju respective countries. posljedice ljudskih aktivnosti. Procjenjuje se da je odgovoran za oko 50 posto (izvor: IPCC) globalnog zagrijavanja. Gotovo svugdje u svijetu, a tako i u Bosni i Hercegovini, najznačajniji antropogeni izvori CO2 su izgaranje fosilnih goriva (za proizvodnju električne energije, industriju, saobraćaj, 45

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

grijanje, itd.), industrijske aktivnosti (proizvodnja čelika, cementa), promjene u korištenju zemljišta i aktivnosti u šumarstvu (u BiH zbog prirasta drvne mase postoji negativna emisija - ponor). U tabelama za izvještavanje (CRF), u slučaju da ne postoji odgovarajući podatak, koriste se odgovarajuće oznake za popunjavanje praznih polja i to kada do emisije ne dolazi (NO, not occurring), a kada emisija nije procijenjena (NE, not estimated).

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

This section presents an1991 overview the UNCRPD, significance and main the Godina 1992 of1993 1994 1995its 1996 1997 1998 1999 sections, 2000 2001 requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed emisija bez ponora 30.797 instruments 10.567 4.010 and 4.474 4.458 at 7.390 10.244 14.225 14.599 16.118 byUkupna a description of the major actions the European Union level15.249 relating to Gg CO2 eq disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. 1. Energija

23.282

6.406

2.393

2.615

2.304

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? A. Sagorjevanje goriva (sektorski pristup)

21.699

5.960

2.237

2.455

2.145

4.703

7.358

11.109

11.192

11.804

12.330

4.401

6.911

10.568

10.678

11.290

11.824

14.572 5.149 1.871 3.816 6.138 7.956 7.425 7.803 7.997 1. Energetika is about overcoming e-Accessibility the1.872 range2.092 of barriers that people with disabilities and others 685 NЕ when NE seeking NE to NE 37 42 58 the Information 77 95 Proizvodne industrije such2.as older populations experience participate on67equal terms in Society. 2.508 NЕ NE NE NE NE NE 1.704 2.038 2.123 2.500 3. Transport

4. Ostali sektori

3.934

811

365

363

275

548

706

866

1.157

1.287

1.232

e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE 5. Ostalo from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on 446 156 160 159 302 446 541 515 514 506 B. Fugitivne emisije iz goriva 1.583 television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a 1.583 446 156 160 159 302 541 514 506 1. Čvrsta goriva visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE 446 countries can515expect to have a NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE 2. Ulje i prirodni plin similar or higher proportion. 2. Industrijski procesi

2.500

42

NE

21

89

191

307

394

456

597

A perhaps surprising agreements, regulations cover 346number 42 of international NЕ NE 21 89 181 248 and 289guidelines 309 422 A. Mineralni proizvodi

this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is NЕ NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE B. Hemijska industrija the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are 2.154 NЕ NE NE NE NE 9 59 106 147 175 C. Proizvodnja metala spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE D. Ostala proizvodnja (for copyright exemptions), and theNE Telecoms Framework (for NE assistive technologies). e-Accessibility Proizvodnja is E.also covered by policy, NE and guidelines programmatic NE NE andNEbenchmarking NE NE exist NE for NE NE NE support. NE halokarbonata i SF6 Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. F. Potrošnja halokarbonata i SF6

NE

G. Ostalo

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE NE

3. Upotreba rastvarača i 1. It is worthwhile inNEits drugih proizvoda

NE right NEto improve NE NE NE NE NE already NE own access to services toNEpeopleNEwho are marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than 4.023 3.439 1.241 1.405 1.624 1.852 1.956 1.989 2.102 2.026 4. Poljoprivreda increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in2.203 this areafermentacije is likely to further 1.607 marginalize 1.719 461 these 514 groups. 633 710 775 789 814 777 777 A. Crijevne 493to B. Upravljanje gnojivimaaccess 2. Improving

157 48 67 82 such81a significant 81 83 77 services, public 54 and private, to proportion of80the population fulfil NO NO market/sales NO NO opportunities, NO NO and NOcan help NO public NO services NO NO C. Kultivacija riže opens significant their remit in a(2)cost effective 1.922 1.562 manner. 732 837 924 1.060 1.101 1.119 1.206 1.172 1.345 D. Poljoprivredna zemljišta

3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the Godina 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. E. Propisano paljenje 4. The earlier action the into NO is taken, NO NOeasier NOit is to NOintegrate NO e-Accessibility NO NO NO development NO NO of savana

e-Services and to lower the cost.

F. Terensko spaljivanje NE NE poljoprivrednih ostataka approaches that 5. Pursuing

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

-9.367

-8.483

-8.307

-7.297

-7.302

-7.212

follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the NE NE NE of the NE development NE NE of the NE Information NE NESociety NE in the NE EU G. Ostaloconvergence of different aspects and SEE countries. 5. Promjena namjene zemljišta i šumarstvo (ponori)

-7.689

-10.147 -10.568 -10.081 -10.240

1.2. About this report 6. Otpad

992

680

A. Odlaganje The specificčvrstog goals of this report are: 992 680 otpada na zemljištu

376

454

508

746

739

819

909

964

988

376

454

508

746

739

819

909

964

988

B. Rukovanje otpadnim 1. to outline vodama

the international contextNEregarding e-Accessibility existing legal NE NE NE NE NE NE NEincluding NE NE NE instruments and strategic level documents;

C. Spaljivanje otpada

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO

2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE D. Ostalo with disabilities; 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility e-Accessibility stakeholders; Tabela 10. Emisije Gg and CO2 eq 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: Prilikom analize ovih podataka (1991-2001) moraju se uzeti činjenice da je u Bosni i address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; Hercegovini od 1992. do 1996. godine bio rat i da podaci za to razdoblje, kao i za razdoblje do 1998. comply with requirements for the UN and EU. godine, imaju povećanu nesigurnost. U Tabeli 10. se nalazi dio podataka za ratno i poslijeratno razdoblje označenih s "NE“ (not This-report is part of a Ovo larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groupsuin e-Governance’, estimated) nije proračunato. je posebno interesantno za oblast transporta razdoblju 19921997,isjer je nesporno da se in saobraćaj odvijao, međutim zvaničnihItpodataka o broju voziladesigned nema, teby that being implemented the context of the e-SEE Initiative. is a regional project procjena emisija bez tog podatka nije bila moguća. Po procjeni učesnika radne grupe i rukovodioca the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the tima za proračun emisije GHG iz transporta, bilo kakva procjena bi imala preveliku nesigurnost, UNDP’s Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region koja ne biDemocratic zadovoljila Governance postavljene kriterije. in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the "NE“ znače da nije bilo "activity data“ zaand bilo the kakav korektanThe proračun emisije regionalOstale actionoznake plan for Information Society development, UNCRPD. programmatic GHG, s prihvatljivim nejasnoćama u proračunu. priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. Moraproject se imati u viduimplemented da za razdoblje 1991-2001 ne postoje oficijelni statistički podaci The is being by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative neophodni za proračun emisije. Tek od 2008. godine postoje određeni kvalitetni podaci Agencije Secretariat, on their existing knowledge, networks and podataka resources. Empowering za statistiku icapitalizing entitetskih zavoda za statistiku, koji uključuju prikupljanje o aktivnostima Marginalised Groups in e-Governance e-SEE Secretariat positioned within the Social neophodnim za proračun emisije GHGand po the određenim sektorima.are Naravno, postoje i podaci u navedenim statističkimGovernance izvještajimaSector. i prije 2008. godine,Country ali možeOffice se smatrati da je kvalitet podataka Inclusion/Democratic The UNDP in Sarajevo is working closely manje za proračune. with theiskoristiv fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of Još uvijek je problem evidencije uvoza tečnih goriva i proračuni emisije iz saobraćaja su the Regional e-Governance (REGATA) act as government Points for kao their rađeni softverom COPERT naAdvisory osnovu Taskforce broja vozila, čiji zvanični podaci od 1998.Focal godine postoje, respective i određenihcountries. informacija o uvozu tečnih goriva u BiH.

47

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

2.4.1. Emisija CO2 po sektorima Na Grafikonu 5. su grafički predstavljene emisije CO2 za razdoblje od 1990. do 2001. godine. Vidljivo je da analiza ovog grafikona odudara od grafikona većine država, jer umjesto norma­ lnog rasta emisije CO2 eq ovdje uočavamo pad emisije GHG u ratnom razdoblju (12% 1993. u odnosu na baznu 1990. godinu).

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. Grafikonnumber 5. Emisije CO2 za razdoblje od 1990. do 2001. godine. and guidelines cover A perhaps surprising of international agreements, regulations this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are Emisije CO eq - 1990-2001 spread across areas such as Television Without2 Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility 100% is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. 80% moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. Furthermore,

60%

There 40% is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: 20%

1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already 0% marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this Godina area is likely to further marginalize these groups. Otpad %

Industrija %

2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the Poljoprivreda % Energetika % population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. Grafikone-Accessibility 6. Emisije CO2 %for pothe sektorima za razdoblje od also 1990.lead do 2001. godine. access for 3. Improving marginalized could to improved 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; it can reduce thedo cost of web service development, and enhance the Od 1993. godine se bilježi blagi porast 2001. godine. Procenat učešća pojedinih sektora se tek od 1998. godine približava baznoj 1990. godini. Ukupna emisija 2001. je, zbog uništene prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. infrastrukture, iznosila samo 47% u odnosu na baznu 1990. godinu. 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost.

2.4.1.1. Energetika 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU Najznačajniji izvor CO2 je svakako energetski sektor koji pridonosi preko 70 posto ukupnoj and. SEE Ovaj countries. sektor pokriva sve aktivnosti koje uključuju potrošnju fosilnih goriva (izgaranje emisiji CO 2 goriva i neenergetsko korištenje goriva), te fugitivnu emisiju iz goriva (Comon Report Category – CRF 1.A. i 1.B. kategorije).

1.2. About this report

Fugitivna emisija nastaje tokom proizvodnje, prenosa, prerade, skladištenja i distribucije fosilnih goriva. Energetski sektorare: je glavni izvor antropogene emisije stakleničkih plinova. The specific goals of this report Emisije po godinama također su prikazane u na Tabeli 10. Proračun emisije se zasniva na 1. otopotrošnji outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility existing legal podacima fosilnih goriva koji su dobijeni na osnovu zvaničnih including pisanih informacija od energetskih subjekata. propisane IPCC i CORINAIR metodologije urađen je za razdoblje instruments andUnutar strategic level documents; 1991-2001. godine (tzv. Sectoral Approach). 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities; Također, provedena je i jednostavnija varijanta proračuna (tzv. Reference Approach), koja uzima u obzir samo ukupan bilans goriva, bez podsektorske analize. Poređenje rezultata obje 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; varijante proračuna (neka vrsta interne kontrole), dala je razlike oko 1% za 1990. godinu, a za 2001. 4. togodinu identify good practices in the region; godinu, kao s relativno najkompletnijim podacima u ispitivanom poslijeratnom razdoblju, 9%. 5. to develop set of recommendations government and other stakeholders on how to: Ovo potvrđuje naprijeda navedenu pretpostavku o for dostupnosti podataka u poslijeratnom razdoblju. address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP Grafikon 7. Emisije COregion, iz sektora energetike 1990-2001 2 in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of Energetski najintenzivniji podsektori pretvaranje energije (termoelektrane, the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforcesu(REGATA) act as government Focal Pointstoplane, for their saobraćaj) i izgaranje goriva u industriji. Većina emisije CO od pretvaranja energije dolazi od izgaranja 2 respective countries. goriva u termoelektranama. Naravno, pokazuje se da je emisija iz sektora energije dominantna i kreće se od 73% 1990. godine do 78% 1998. godine. Minimalni procenat je 52%, zabilježen 1995. godine. 49

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

Analiza ove tabele je puna nedosljednosti, ali ako uzmemo činjenicu na višegodišnju ratnu situaciju 1992. do 1995. godine, podaci su sasvim logični i razumljivi. Posebno treba naglasiti da su ukupne emisije iz saobraćaja približno iste za 1990. i 2001. godinu, kao i broj vozila cca 450.000, ali su ukupne emisije iz energetskog sektora daleko manje, tako da emisija iz cestovnog saobraćaja ima procentualno značajniju ulogu u odnosu na 1990. godinu.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the 2.4.1.2. Industrijski requirements it sets in all aspectsprocesi of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to Kao nusprodukt u različitim neenergetskim industrijskim procesima, u kojima se ulazna disability general hemijski and e-Accessibility in particular. materijainnajčešće transformira u finalni proizvod, dolazi do emisije stakleničkih plinova. Industrijski procesi kod kojih je doprinos emisiji CO2 identificiran kao značajan su: proizvodnja cementa, vapna, amonijaka, željeza i čelika, ferolegura, aluminija, kao i korištenje vapnenca i dehidratizirane sode u različitim industrijskim aktivnostima.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the rangeKonvencija, of barriers korištena that people with disabilities andizothers IPCC metodologija, koju preporučuje je za proračun emisija indu­ such as older populations experiencesmjernice when seeking to za participate oninventare equal terms in staklene the Information strijskih procesa (Izvor: Revidirane IPCC-a nacionalne plina bašte): Society. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. 8. Emisije CO2 –industrijski procesi- 1990-2001. There is at least aGrafikon five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility:

Na slici se jasno uočava trend emisije iz industrijskih procesa od 1990. do 2001. godine. It iseq. worthwhile in itsiznosila own right to improve who areove already Emisija1.CO 1990. godine je 3.554, a 2001.access svega to 597services Gg CO2 to eq.people Uspoređujući dvije 2 godinemarginalized. vidi se da emisija 2001.fulfil godine samo emisije 1990, koja to je bazna It helps theiznosi promise of 16.8% the Information Society reducegodina. rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups.

2.4.1.3. Ponori - LUCF 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the

population significant market/sales opportunities, and can helpplinova public services fulfil Kao što jeopens već prije spomenuto, kad dolazi do upijanja stakleničkih (npr. upijanje their remitdrvne in a cost effective manner. CO2 kod prirasta mase u šumama) onda se govori o ponoru stakleničkih plinova i iznos se prikazuje s negativnim predznakom. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; it can reduceu the costsegmenta of web service development, anduenhance the Ukupne emisije i ponori plinova okviru šumarstva i promjene korištenju zemljištaprospects za područje BiH su izračunate za 1991. do 2001. godine. Prema prikupljenim podacima, for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. rezultati proračuna ukazuju na činjenicu da šume u BiH predstavljaju značajan ponor CO2. 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of Šume u BiH,and prema raspoloživim podacima za baznu godinu, zauzimaju pokrivenost od 27.000 e-Services to lower the cost. km2. Omjer učešća vrsta obuhvata 68.8% lišćara (koji u većoj mjeri imaju sposobnost apsorpcije 5. Pursuing guidelines andpredstavlja recommendations willsaassist in the ugljenika), gdje bukvaapproaches dominira sathat 39%follow učešćaEU dok hrast kitnjak udio lišćara 18.9%. convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU Ukupno četinarskih vrsta iznosi 31.2%, te podrazumijeva značajan udio jele (12.8%), and SEEučešće countries. smrče (8.6%), crnog bora (7.2%), bijelog bora (2.5%) i neznatan omjer ostalih četinara (0.1%). U skladu s ovim pokazateljima i godišnjim prirastom koji iznosi 10.5 mil. ha (Gtz, 2001) određen je faktor godišnjeg prirasta u tonama suhe tvari po hektaru (2,375). Plemeniti lišćari te divlje voćarice su također uključeni u proračune.

1.2. About this report

The specific goals of this report predstavlja are: Ukupno učešće biomase iznos od 2.386,5 Gg suhe tvari, dok je neto godišnji unos ugljendioksida jednak 2.024,60 Gg, u skladu s proračunima izvedenim iz uputstava za promjene u šumskim drugim zalihama context drvne biomase. 1. sistemima to outline ithe international regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents; Koristeći IPCC određene vrijednosti učešća ugljenika u suhoj tvari, ukupni unos ugljenika je stoga 2. određen na 3217,85 Gg. U skladu ovim rezultatima for i proračunima otpuštanja/ to develop a comparative pictures of e-Accessibility able-bodiedgodišnjeg people versus people emisije ugljenika, konačno godišnje poniranje ugljendioksida u šumskim ekosistemima u BiH, za with disabilities; baznu godinu 1990, iznosi 7.423,53 Gg CO2, a za 2001. 7.212,2 Gg CO2. 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; Detaljni proračuni ponore in urađeni su u skladu s IPCC uputstvom iz 1996, a iz priloženih 4. to identify good za practices the region; IPCC CRF tabela se daju proračuni za svaku godinu. 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Grafikon 9. Ponori 1990-2001. Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP S obzirom na ratne aktivnosti u prošlosti i trenutnu preduzeća za upravljanje in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisorydecentralizaciju role. Government-appointed members of šumama te zakonskih okvira, podaciTaskforce za baznu, (REGATA) kao i za ostale prikupljeni iz različitih the Regional e-Governance Advisory act asgodine, government Focal su Points for their domaćih i međunarodnih studija, te tako pridonose određenoj mjernoj nesigurnosti za neke od respective countries. kategorija.

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

2.4.2. Emisija metana (CH4) po sektorima 2.4.2.1. Poljoprivreda

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

Emisija metana iz poljoprivrede je računata pomoću softvera COLLECTER. Ukupna emisija CH4 je za 2001. godinu u ovom sektoru iznosila 40.80 Gg CH4.

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the Metan se formira kao direktan proizvod metabolizma kod životinja biljojeda (unutrašnja requirements all aspectsorganskog of e-Accessibility andživotinjskog how it is to be implemented. Thisđubrivima). is followed fermentacija)it sets i kaoinposljedica raspada otpada (gazdovanje byPrema a description of the major instruments andmetana actionszaatsvaki the European relating to IPCC metodologiji određuje se emisija tip životinjaUnion (kravelevel muzare, ostale krave i bikovi, ovce, konji, svinje i perad). disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

2.4.2.2. Čvrsti otpad 1.1. Why e-Accessibility? e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of raširenog barriers that peoplejewith disabilities others Proračun emisije CH4 iz čvrstog otpada na zemlji također urađenand softverom COLLECTER. Ukupna količina otpada je seeking proračunata po glavi on stanovnika, a podaci su uzeti iz such as older populations experience when to participate equal terms in the Information Agencije za statistiku BiH, kao i iz entitetskih zavoda za statistiku. Society. Izračunata emisija CH4 za 2001. godinu iznosila je 47.05 Gg. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites formetana e-government services, to nastaje telephony support for blind people to subtitling on Emisija iz odlagališta otpada anaerobnom razgradnjom organskog otpada uz pomoćUp metanogenih bakterija. Količina metana tokom procesa television. to 15 percent of the population acrossemitirana the European Union has razgradnje a disability,direktno such asjea proporcionalna udjelu razgradivog organskog ugljenika (ROU), koji je definiran kao udio visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect ugljenika to have a u različitim vrstama organskog biorazgradivog otpada. Korišteni su za proračun IPCC emisijski similar or higher proportion. faktori za sve navedene sektore.

Gg CH4

A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover CHlevel, je 1990 - 2001 godina this area. At the highest international the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is 4 emisi 90 the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are 80 spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive 70 (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered60by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. 50 Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. 40

There is30 at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: 20 10 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already 0 marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize theseGodina groups. Crijevna fermentacija Čvrsta goriva 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the Gnojivo and can help public services fulfil Odlaganje čvrstog otpada population opens significant market/sales opportunities, their remit in a cost effective manner.

Grafikon 10. Ukupne emisije metana za razdoblje 1990-2001. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; emisiju it can reduce of web service development, and enhance the Grafikon 10 prikazuje metanathe (CHcost ) prema sektorima. U Bosni i Hercegovini su glavni 4 izvori metana: poljoprivreda (uzgoj stoke), fugitivna emisija iz rudnika uglja i odlaganje otpada. prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of

2.4.3. Emisija suboksida (N2O) e-Services and toazotnog lower the cost.

Najvažniji izvor N2O u Bosni i Hercegovini je poljoprivreda. Mnoge poljoprivredne aktivnosti 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the dodaju azot u tlo, te se na taj način povećava raspoloživi azot za nitrifikaciju i denitrifikaciju, što ima EU convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the utjecaja na količinu emisija N2O. and SEE countries. Korištena metodologija razlikuje tri izvora emisije N2O: direktna emisija iz poljoprivrednog tla, emisija zbog djelovanja životinja i indirektno uzrokovana emisija zbog poljoprivrednih aktivnosti. Među navedenim, najveća emisija dolazi direktno iz poljoprivrednog tla, obrađivanjem tla i uzgajanjem usjeva. To uključuje primjenu mineralnih đubriva, azot iz štalskog đubriva, uzgajanje mahunarki soje (fiksacija azota), azot iz ostataka poljoprivrednih usjeva i obradu tresetišta. The specifici goals of this report are:

1.2. About this report

U energetskom sektoru emisija je proračunata po osnovu potrošnje goriva i odgovarajućih 1. to outline context regarding including existing legal faktora emisije (IPCC),the a uinternational agrikulturi propisanim IPCC CRFe-Accessibility tabelama. instruments and strategic level documents; 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people Ukupne N2O emisije (Gg N2O) 1990 - 2001 with disabilities;

Gg N2O

12.00

3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 10.00 4. to identify good practices in the region; 8.00 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: 6.00 address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; 4.00 comply with requirements for the UN and EU. 2.00 0

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, Godina that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Trust N Fund support1990-2001. the South Eastern Europe region Grafikon 11.Thematic Ukupne emisije O zato razdoblje 2 in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+.

2.4.4. Ključni izvori emisije

Analiza ključnih izvora emisije za 2001. godinu

The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering KLJUČNI IZVOR - BOSNA I HERCEGOVINA 2001. GODINA Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office Gg CH4in Sarajevo COis2 workingNclosely O 2 with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP 1 Ukupno energija 25,26 11.580,53 0,62 in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of 1.АRegionalAktivnosti sagorijevanja goriva (sektorski pristup) act as government 0,71 11.580,53 the e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) Focal Points 0,62 for their respective countries. 1.А.1 Energetika 0,1 7.895,3 0,12

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

KLJUČNI IZVOR - BOSNA I HERCEGOVINA 2001. GODINA Gg

CH4

CO2

N2O

0,1

7.895,3

0,12

0

82,23

0,02

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES 1.А.1.а

Proizvodnja toplotne i električne energije

1.А.2

Sagorijevanje u proizvodnim industrijama i građevinarstvu

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the Sagorijevanje u proizvodnim industrijama i 1.А.2.а 82,23This is followed 0,02 requirements it sets in all aspects e-Accessibility and how it is to be0implemented. građevinarstvu: gvožđeofi čelik by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to 1.А.3 Saobraćaj 0,61 2.435 0,42 disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. 1.А.3.b

Cestovni saobraćaj

1.А.4 Drugi sektori 1.1. Why e-Accessibility? 1.А.4.а

Komercijalni / institucionalni

1.B.1

Fugitivne emisije iz čvrstih goriva

0,6133

2.435

0,42

1.168

0,06

392

24,55

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms776 in the Information 1.А.4.b Stambeni   Society. Fugitivne can emisije iz čvrstihrefer goriva: i e-Accessibility potentially to iskopavanje any type of ICT used by24,55 citizens, and involves everything     1.B.1.а rukovanje ugljem

from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on 2 industrijski procesi television. Up Ukupno to 15 percent of the population across the European0,0007 Union has a 596,62 disability, such as a visual, speech,proizvodnja cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a 2.А hearing, Mineralna   421,84   similar or higher proportion. 2.А.1

Proizvodnja cementa

350,87

surprising and guidelines cover 2.А.2 A perhaps Proizvodnja krečanumber of international agreements, regulations   70,97 this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is 2.C Proizvodnja metala 0,0007 174,79   the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are 2.C.1 acrossProizvodnja željeza i čelika       spread areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for2.C.2 copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility Proizvodnja fero legure 0,0007 2,64   is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. 2.C.3 Proizvodnja 172,15   Furthermore, moves are aluminijuma afoot to strengthen these and to enact more  legislation. 4 4.А 4.D 6.А

Ukupno poljoprivreda

40,8

4,34

There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: Crijevna fermentacija

40,8

1. It isPoljoprivredna worthwhile inzemljišta its own right to improve access to services to people who are already   4,34 marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than Odlaganje čvrstog otpada na zemljištu 47,05     increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups. Tabela 11. Ključni izvori emisija po CRF kategorijama

2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil Ukupno obuhvaćena emisija ključnih izvora u 2001. godini iznosi 16.090 GgCO2eq., što their remit in a cost effective manner. izraženo u procentima iznosi preko 99%. Najviše učestvuju proizvodnja električne energije i toplote (49% - 3. 1.A.1.a). Slijedi cestovni transport (15,1%-1.A.3.b), itd. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized 8,4%-4.D, could also6,1%-6.A lead to improved access for 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. CO2 emisije energetika i industrija 2001. godina (%)

4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost.

CRF categorija

2.A.2

1

5. Pursuing1approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the 1.A.2.a convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU 1 2.C.3 and SEE countries. 2.A.1

3

1.A.4.a 3 1.2. About this report 1.A.4.b

6

The specific goals of this report are: 1.A.3.b

19

1.A.1.a

64

1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal 0 and strategic 10 20documents; 30 40 50 60 70 instruments level % 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities;

3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; Grafikon 12. Emisije iz energetskog i industrijskog sektora po CRF kategorijama 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; Analize ključnih izvora emisije su slične i za baznu 1990. godinu, osim emisije iz industrijskih procesa,- koja jecomply bila druga procentualnom učešću. withpo requirements for the UN and EU. Zbog uništene industrijske proizvodnje u toku ratnih dejstava, emisija CO2 iz ovog sektora je cca 6,5 puta manja u 2001. godini u odnosu na baznu 1990. godinu. Za razdoblje 1998-2000. analize This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, ključnih izvora su slične onima koje su navedene za 2001. godinu. that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regionalKao action for Information and the UNCRPD. The programmatic što jeplan poznato, fotohemijskiSociety aktivni development, plinovi kao ugljenmonoksid (CO), azotni oksidi (NOx) i nemetanski hlapljivi organski spojevi (NMVOC-i), nisu indirektno doprinose priorities of the project are therefore fully alignediako with thestaklenički targets of plinovi, e-SEE Agenda+. stakleničkom efektu. Oni se obično nazivaju indirektni staklenički plinovi ili ozonski prethodnici jer utičuThe i učestvuju u procesu stvaranja i razgradnje ozona, koji je također jedan od stakleničkih project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative plinova. Za sumpordioksid (SO2) se vjeruje da, kao prethodnik sulfata i aerosola, negativno utiče na Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering staklenički efekat. Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. Thetrend UNDP Office in Sarajevo isgodina. working closely Emisija sumpordioksida (SO ) slijedi COCountry za razdoblje 1990-2001. Grafički 2 2 pregled 13) je dovoljno jasanini ne ga posebno objašnjavati. Trebaat naglasiti with the (Grafikon fellow UNDP Country Offices thetreba region, while thedetaljnije Office of Senior ICT Advisor the BDP da emisija 2001. godine iznosi (47.1%) u odnosu na baznu 1990. godinu. in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their Dominantan doprinos emisiji SO2 svakako je izgaranje u sektoru energije, koji za 1990. respective countries. godinu iznosi 97,3%, a za 2001. iznosi 99,1%. Ova razlika je posljedica smanjene emisije iz sektora "Industrijski procesi“ u 2001. godini.

2.4.5. Emisija indirektnih stakleničkih plinova

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvjeĹĄtaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support 1990-2001 for blind people to subtitling on Grafikon 13. Ukupne SO emisije za razdoblje 2 television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a SliÄ?na analiza i za emisije azotnih oksida (NO ), ugljenmonoksida (CO) i nemetanskih visual, hearing, speech,vrijedi cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a x hlapljivih organskih spojeva (NMVOC). similar or higher proportion. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups. 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. Grafikon 14. Ukupne NO emisije za razdoblje 1990-2001 x

3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost. 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries.

1.2. About this report The specific goals of this report are: 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents; 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities; 3. to assess theGrafikon current15. level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility Ukupne CO emisije za razdoblje 1990-2001. stakeholders; 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries. Grafikon 16. Ukupne NMVOC emisije za razdoblje 1990-2001. 57

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

2.5. Procjena nesigurnosti proračuna

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

Procjena nesigurnosti proračuna je jedan od bitnih elemenata nacionalnog inventara emisija. Informacija o nesigurnosti ne osporava valjanost proračuna, već pomaže pri utvrđivanju prioritetnih mjera za povećanje tačnosti proračuna, te pomaže pri izboru metodoloških opcija.

This section presents an overview of the emisije UNCRPD, its razlikuju significance and main sections, the Postoji više razloga zašto se stvarne i ponori od vrijednosti koje su dobijene proračunom.it Neki izvori nesigurnosti mogu generirati i lako karakterizirane requirements sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and howdobro it is todefinirane be implemented. This is followed procjene raspona potencijalne pogreške, za razliku od drugih koje je vrlo teško definirati. Ukupno by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to procijenjena nesigurnost emisije iz pojedinih izvora je kombinacija pojedinačnih nesigurnosti disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. elemenata procjene emisije, i to: 1)nesigurnost u vezi s faktorima emisije (literatura ili mjerenje) i 2) nesigurnost u vezi s podacima o aktivnostima.

1.1. Na Why osnovu e-Accessibility? urađene procjene nesigurnosti, podaci su podijeljeni u tri grupe:

e-Accessibility is about overcoming rangeizofenergetskog barriers thatsektora people (emisijski with disabilities others 1. Visoko pouzdani podaci:the podaci faktori and i podaci o such as olderaktivnostima), populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information te podaci o aktivnostima iz industrijskih procesa; Society. 2. Srednje pouzdani podaci: emisija iz industrijskih procesa – primjenjivost emisijskih faktora za BiH, emisija iz poljoprivrednog zemljišta, emisija iz sektora poljoprivrede, komunalnog e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything odlaganja otpada, proizvodnje hrane, te promjena sadržaja ugljenika u šumama; from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television.3. Nisku Up to 15 percent of the population theemisijama European izUnion has a disability, such nisu as a pouzdanost imaju podaci oacross ostalim sagorijevanja goriva (koje CO2speech, ), fugitivne emisije or iz rudnika uglja, sagorijevanje usjeva, te podaci visual, hearing, cognitive, motor impairment, and SEEostataka countries can expect to koji havesea odnose na metode i promjene upotrebe zemljišta. similar or higher proportion.

2.5.1. Nesigurnost procjene emisije COregulations A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, and guidelines cover 2

this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is Emisija CO2 nastala izgaranjem goriva zavisi od količine potrošenog goriva (državni the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are energetski bilans), ogrjevnoj vrijednosti (državni energetski bilans), faktoru emisije ugljenika spread across areasizsuch aspriručnika), Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright (tipična vrijednost IPCC udjelu oksidiranog ugljenika (tipična vrijednostDirective iz IPCC (for copyrightte, exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework assistive technologies). e-Accessibility priručnika) u slučaju neenergetske potrošnje goriva i(for udjelu pohranjenog ugljenika u proizvodu vrijednost IPCC priručnika). is(tipična also covered by iz policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. Energetski bilans zasniva se na podacima iz svih raspoloživih izvora. Korišteni su podaci iz entitetskih zavoda za statistiku o proizvodnji, upotrebi sirovina i potrošnji goriva. Zatim, korišteni su There is at least a five-fold justification foroearly action in the area i podaci o mjesečnoj potrošnji prirodnog plina, te godišnjoj potrošnji ugljaofu e-Accessibility: određenim sektorima. Podaci iz ovih i drugih izvora pohranjeni su u COLLECTER bazu. 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already Kao i u prethodnim slučajevima, moramoofdathe istaknemo da zaSociety ratno i to poslijeratno razdoblje marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise Information reduce rather than do 2001. godine ne postoji urađen energetski bilans na nivou Bosne i Hercegovine. Postojale increase the disadvantages populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this su procjene potrošnje u bilansimacertain entitetskih vlada i Distrikta Brčko. Također postoje podaci u areaenergetskog is likely to further marginalize groups. "Strategiji sektora BiH” koju these je uradio Energetski institut "Hrvoje Požar“. Uz gore navedene, koristili smo i podatke koje smo dobijali direktno od energetskih subjekata. 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil S obziromopens na navedene činjenice, odnosno slabiji kvalitet ulaznih podataka, procijenjena remit in apodataka cost effective manner. sektor se razlikuje u odnosu na ratne godine i prve ukupnatheir nesigurnost za energetski poslijeratne godine. Ova nesigurnost procjenjuje se na ±10%. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost web service development, and enhance the Za razdoblje 1999. godine do 2001. godine, koji of je obuhvaćen u Drugom nacionalnom izvještaju o klimatskim promjenama prema UNFCCC, nesigurnost je nešto manja i procjenjuje se na ±8%. prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 4. The podaci earlier action is taken, the easier is to integrate e-Accessibility development Ostali potrebni za proračun, kaoit npr: faktor emisije ugljenika,into udio oksidiranogof ugljenika, udio pohranjenog ugljenika preuzeti su iz IPCC priručnika (Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines e-Services and to lower the cost. for National GHG Inventories). Iako stručnjaci vjeruju da su u IPCC priručniku navedene vrijednosti 5. dobro Pursuing approaches that followuEU guidelines and recommendations willnesigurnost assist in the uglavnom određene, s nesigurnošću okviru ±5 posto, naša je procjena za ovu aspects of of thedeset Information Society in the EU convergence different nešto povećana i iznosiof±6% zbog činjenice dathe se udevelopment BiH koristi preko vrsta ugljeva s različitim i promjenljivim udjelima ugljenika.Također, pretpostavljene su i neefikasnosti u procesu izgaranja and SEE countries. što može rezultirati pepelom ili čađi koja duže vrijeme ostaje neoksidirana. Svi ovi faktori doprinose nesigurnosti u proračunavanju emisija CO2. Ukupna nesigurnost emisija CO2 iz fosilnih goriva procijenjena je na oko ±7 posto, a udio u nesigurnosti nacionalne emisije svih stakleničkih plinova za 2001. godinu je procijenjen na manje od 5% (Tabela 12). Za tekuća goriva nesigurnost podataka o aktivnosti su ±8%, a nesigurnost faktora emisije su korištene preporuke iz IPCC Uputstva ±5%. The specific goals of this report are: Za prirodni plin su korišteni IPCC procjene nesigurnosti i za podatke o aktivnostima i faktorima ±5%. 1. emisije to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal

1.2. About this report

instruments and strategic level documents;

Nesig.

Stakl. Nesig. faktora 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility people podatakafor o able-bodied people versus Ukupna IPCC kod plin emisije aktivnosti nesig. with disabilities; % % %

1A 1A 1A

3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 8 6 10,00 Izgaranje goriva - ugalj CO2 4. to identify good practices in the region; 8 5 9,64 Izgaranje goriva – tek. goriva CO2 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: 5 5 7,07 goriva the – prirodni plin to e-Accessibility; CO2 -Izgaranje address obstacles comply with requirements for the UN and EU. Tabela 12. Procijenjena nesigurnost proračuna emisije CO2 u 2001. godini

Naravno, treba imati vidu daproject, je emisija CO2 iz energetskog sektora (CRFinkategorija 1.A) This report is part of au larger ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups e-Governance’, preko 76% ukupnih emisija. that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic Proces verificiranja proračuna ima svrhu da ustanovi pouzdanost proračuna. Verificiranje priorities project are therefore fully slijediti aligned with theprikupljanja targets of e-SEE Agenda+. se odnosiofnathe procedure koje je potrebno u toku podataka, izrade inventara

2.6. Verificiranje proračuna

te nakon izrade inventara, kako bi se ustanovila pouzdanost proračuna. Verificiranjem uočeni Theproračuna project isukazuju being implemented bykoji thejeSarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative nedostaci na dio inventara potrebno unaprijediti, što indirektno dovodi do Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering podizanja nivoa kvaliteta inventara. Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social S ciljem da se podigne nivo Sector. kvalitetaThe proračuna, prilikom izrade Inclusion/Democratic Governance UNDP Country Office in inventara: Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP  Podatke o aktivnostima smo dobijali iz raznih izvora uz izvršene dodatne provjera podataka, in New Yorkkao is providing i dodatneexpertise analize. and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their  Faktori emisije su korišteni u skladu s IPCC Uputstvom iz 1996. godine. respective countries. 

Korištena je CORINAIR metodologija, dok su istovremeno provjere rađene IPCC metodologijom. 59

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

U okviru energetike, a u svrhu verificiranja državne procjene emisija ugljendioksida zbog izgaranja goriva, korišteni su i sektorski i referenti pristup. Razlika, izražena u procentima, je npr. za 2001. godinu iznosila 9% u korist referentnog pristupa. Razlika u procentima za ova dva pristupa iznosila je 1% za baznu 1990. godinu. Ovdje se mora napomenuti da su podaci za 1990. godinu, prije ratnih dejstava u BiH, bili dostupni u zvaničnim statistikama, energetskom bilansu BiH, kao i u direktnim kontaktima s potrošačima fosilnih goriva. Za 2001. godinu adekvatna razlika od 9% detaljnije je objašnjena ranije u procjenama nesigurnosti.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the Također je izvršeno uspoređivanje proračunatih podataka za 2001. (zadnju godinu inventara) requirements sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how to be implemented. is followed s podacima it Međunarodne energetske statistike (IEA), kaoit iisStudija energetskog This sektora u BiH. byPodaci a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to su dati u priloženoj Tabeli 13. disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. Total energija

- Referentni pristup BiH 2001. 1.1. WhyIEA e-Accessibility?

mil. tona CO2 13,2

- Referentni pristup 2001.of barriers that people with 12,5 e-Accessibility isSNC about overcoming theBiH range disabilities and others such as older populations experience whenBiH, seeking to participate terms in the Information Studija Energetskog sektora S2 – scenarij 2001* on equal 12,8 Society. *procjena izvršena na osnovu podataka za 2000. godinu Tabela 13. Usporedba proračunatih godinu e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type ofpodataka ICT usedzaby2001. citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on Razlike od -5% (u odnosu na IEA Referentni pristup BiH 2001), odnosno -2,4% (Studija television. Up tosektora 15 percent population across Europeantolerancije. Union has a disability, such as a Energetskog BiH, of S2the – scenarij .2001*) su uthe granicama visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion.

A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups. 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost.

3. Ocjena ranjivosti sektora i prilagođavanje na klimatske uvjete 1.2.izmijenjene About this report

5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries.

The specific goals of this report Zemlje u razvoju, u kojeare: se ubraja i Bosna i Hercegovina, pripadaju krugu onih koji su osjetljivi na neželjen utjecaj globalnih klimatskih promjena, što su potvrdila i dosadašnja istraživanja. Procjene1.ukazuju da će BiH biti izloženo utjecajima koji mogu imati posljedice po čitavo to outline thepodručje international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal društvo. Mogućnosti zaštite od tih utjecaja na lokalnom nivou dosta su ograničene, međutim brojne instruments and strategic level documents; su mogućnosti prilagođavanja na izmijenjene klimatske uvjete. Naznačena problematika globalnih klimatskih promjena i njihovog utjecaja pretpostavlja definiranje novih modela životne sredine, 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people strategija razvoja, sektorskog i integralnog, na svim nivoima: lokalnom, regionalnom, entitetskom with disabilities; i državnom, koji će imati obilježje održivog razvoja. 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; Ovo se sastoji od in petthe dijelova. 4. topoglavlje identify good practices region;Dio 3.1. koristeći podatke sa 22 meteorološke stanice, opisuje uočene klimatske promjene u Bosni i Hercegovini, uključujući promjene 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: temperature i padavina, kao i ekstremne vremenske prilike po oblastima i godišnjim dobima. Dio address obstacles klimatskog to e-Accessibility; 3.2. na osnovu rezultatathe regionalnog modela i dva IPCC scenarija, predstavlja buduće - promjene comply requirements for ithe UN and EU. klimatske zawith razdoblja 2001-2030 2071-2100. Dio 3.3. opisuje ranjivost na klimatske promjene i njihov utjecaj na pet ključnih oblasti: poljoprivreda, vodni resursi, zdravstvo, šumarstvo i biodiverzitet / osjetljivi ekosistemi, kao i na regionalni razvoj. Dio 3.4. analizira postojeći kapacitet za prilagođavanje. kraju, 3.5. daje pregled potencijalnih mjera prilagođavanja na klimatske This report Na is part of dio a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, promjene koje su identificirali eksperti, na osnovu postojećih nalaza i rezultata istraživanja, uz that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by saglasnost relevantnih institucija. the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+.

3.1. Osmotrene klimatske promjene u Bosni i Hercegovini

The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Ocjena osmotrenih klimatskih promjena je vršena na osnovu analize raspoloživih podataSecretariat, capitalizing their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering ka dobijenih od Federalnogonhidrometeorološkog zavoda Bosne i Hercegovine i Republičkog hidroMarginalised Groups e-Governance and e-SEE are positioned within the meteorološkog zavodainRepublike Srpske. Zathe analizu su Secretariat korišteni podaci s 22 meteorološke sta­Social nice koje su imale homogen niz osmatranja ili jeThe biloUNDP moguće uraditiOffice odgovarajuću aproksimaciju. DeInclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. Country in Sarajevo is working closely terminiranje promjene klime je utvrđeno na bazi analiza promjene temperature zraka i količine with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP padavina. Detaljno su analizirane: razlike srednjih godišnjih temperatura zraka i količine padavina in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of za razdoblje 1961-1990. i 1981-2010. godina, trendovi promjena temperature zraka i količina pathe Regional e-Governance (REGATA) act aszagovernment Focal Points for their davina, te njihovih ekstrema Advisory za BanjuTaskforce Luku, Sarajevo i Mostar razdoblje 1960-2010. respective countries.

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3.1.1. Promjene temperature Istraživanja promjena temperature za razdoblje 1961-2010. pokazuju da je prisutno povećanje temperature u svim dijelovima zemlje. Na bazi komparativne analize za razdoblje 19812010. u odnosu na razdoblje 1961-1990. utvrđeno je da je najveće prosječno povećanje temperature tokom ljetnog razdoblja zabilježeno u južnom dijelu, na teritoriji Hercegovine (Mostar 1,2°C) i u centralnim dijelovima (Sarajevo 0,8°S), dok je najveće povećanje u proljetnom i zimskom razdoblju evidentirano u sjevernim države (Banja Luka 0,7°C). Najmanje povećanjethe je This section presents ani centralnim overview ofdijelovima the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, tokom jeseni i kreće se u intervalu od 0,1 do 0,3°C (Slika 5.). requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to Povećanje temperature zraka na godišnjem nivou se kreće u rasponu od 0,4 do 1,0°C, disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. dok porast temperature u vegetacijskom razdoblju (april – septembar) ide i do 1,0°C. Međutim,

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

povećanja temperature tokom posljednje decenije još su više izražena (Tabela 14). Bitno je naglasiti da je povećanje temperature, pored povećanja emisija plinova staklene bašte, uvjetovano i povećanom insolacijom i povećanjem efekta gradskog otoka toplote.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: Slika 5. Promjene godišnjih temperatura zraka u Bosni i Hercegovini (poređenje razdoblja 1981-2010. u odnosu na 1961-1990.)

1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than Vegetaciono Godina Ljeto insufficient Jesen effort Zima increase the disadvantages certain populationsProljeće face. Conversely, in this razdoblje area is likely to further marginalize these groups.10,9 1961-1990. 10,6 16,9 19,7 10.9 0,8 2. Improving access to services, public a significant proportion1,5 of the 1981-2010. 11,4 17,9and private, 11,6to such21,0 11,5 Banjapopulation Luka opens significant market/sales opportunities, and0,3 can help public services fulfil odstupanje 0,8 1,0 0,7 0,6 0,7 their remit in a cost effective manner. 2001-2010.

11,9

18,4

12,3

21,7

11,8

2,2

3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the Vegetaciono Godina Proljeće Ljeto Jesen Zima razdoblje prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 1961-1990.

9,7

15,7

9,7

18,3

10,4

0,4

odstupanje

0,4

0,5

0,3

0,8

0,1

0,3

1981-2010.

15,2

21,2

14,3

24,7

15,5

6,2

0,7

1,2

0,2

0,3

14,9

25,3

15,5

6,5

4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of 1981-2010. 10,0 19,1 10,5 0,7 e-Services and to lower10,1 the cost. 16,2

Sarajevo

5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the 2001-2010. 10,4 10,5 19,6 10,6Society in 1,1the EU aspects of16,5 the development of the Information convergence of different 1961-1990. 14,6 20,3 13,6 23,5 15,3 5,9 and SEE countries.

odstupanje 0,9 1.2. About this0,6report Mostar

2001-2010.

15,5

21,8

The specific goals of this report are:

Tabela 14. Promjene temperature zraka (°C) u Banjoj Luci, Sarajevu i Mostaru, 1961-2010. god.

1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents;

Tsr(C °) Tsr(C °)able-bodied people versus people 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for with disabilities; 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

godišnja TsrGroups godišnjain e-Governance’, This report isTsr part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region Tsr(C°Information ) in the implementation of the Inclusive Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+.

The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP Tsradvisory godišnja role. Government-appointed members of in New York is providing expertise and playing an the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries. Grafikon 17. Promjene temperature zraka u Banjoj Luci, Sarajevu i Mostaru, razdoblje 1961-2010. godina

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

3.1.2. Promjene količine padavina U razdoblju 1961–2010. godina veći dio teritorije Bosne i Hercegovine karakterizira neznatno povećanje količine padavina na godišnjem nivou. Najveća pozitivna promjena godišnje količine padavina karakteristična je za centralne planinske prostore (Bjelašnica, Sokolac) i okolicu Doboja, dok je najveći deficit zabilježen na jugu zemlje (Mostar, Bileća). Najveće smanjenje padavina je tokom proljeća i ljeta, a najizraženije je na području Hercegovine (do 20%). U jesenjem razdoblju je osmotreno najveće povećanje padavina po UNCRPD, sezonama, its a najveći suficit jeand u sjevernim i centralnim This section presents an overview of the significance main sections, the dijelovima BiH. Iako nisu zabilježene signifikantne promjene količine padavina, u velikoj mjeri je requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed poremećen pluviometrijski režim, odnosno godišnja raspodjela. Broj dana s padavinama većim by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to od 1 mm smanjio se na gotovo čitavoj teritoriji, dok je procenat godišnjih količina padavina zbog disability in general andod e-Accessibility particular. pojave padavina većih 95-procentne in percentile izračunate za razdoblje 1961-2010. bio u porastu.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

Drugim riječima, iako na godišnjem nivou nisu zabilježene znatne promjene padavina, smanjenjem broja dana s padavinama većim od 1,0 mm i povećanjem broja dana s intenzivnim padavina je jako poremećen pluviometrijski režim. Izražena promjena godišnjeg rasporeda padavina uz povećanje temperature jedan je od ključnih faktora koji uvjetuju češće i intenzivnije pojave suše i poplava na e-Accessibility overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others teritoriji Bosneisi about Hercegovine. such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: Slika 6. Promjene godišnjih količina padavina u Bosni i Hercegovini

1. It is worthwhile in its own right to1981-2010. improve access tona services to people who are already (poređenje razdoblja u odnosu 1961-1990) marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than Vegetacijski increase the disadvantages certain populationsProljeće face. Conversely, in this Godina Ljeto insufficient Jesen effort Zima period area is likely to further marginalize these groups. 1961-1990.

1027

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2001-2010.

1078

546

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271

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2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the 1981-2010. 1034 540 258 270 278 227 opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil Banja population Luka +7,0 manner. -22,0 -4,0 -28,0 +32,0 +6,0 their remitodstupanje in a cost effective 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the Vegetacijski Godina Proljeće Jesenphones.Zima prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms Ljeto such as mobile period 1961-1990. 932 the easier 468 it is to integrate 226 242 241 223 4. The earlier action is taken, e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower936 the cost. 472 1981-2010. 221 236 266 213 Sarajevo odstupanje -5,0and recommendations -6,0 +25,0 will assist -10,0in the 5. Pursuing approaches+4,0 that follow+4,0 EU guidelines

aspects of514 the development of the Information the EU convergence of different 2001-2010. 1014 226 252 304 Society in 226 and SEE countries. 1961-1990. 1523 522 379 196 450 497 1981-2010.

1405

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1.2. About this-78,0report odstupanje -20,0 Mostar

2001-2010.

1514

534

335

173

458

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-58,0

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The specific goals of this report are:

Tabela 15. Promjene količine padavina (mm) u Banjoj Luci, Sarajevu i Mostaru, 1961-2010. god.

1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents; 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities; 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries. Grafikon 18. Promjene količine padavina u Banjoj Luci, Sarajevu i Mostaru, 1961-2010. godina 65

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

3.1.3. Klimatska varijabilnost i procjena ekstremnih događaja

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

Evidentan je trend povećanja tropskih dana (dani s maksimalnom dnevnom temperaturom zraka preko 30°C) na gotovo čitavoj teritoriji (Grafikon 19)4. Najviše ovakvih dana je zabilježeno na na sjeveru zemlje (Posavina), centralnim dijelovima i Podrinju (Višegrad). Na području niske Hercegovine (predstavnik Mostar) pisutan je blagiits trend povećanja and tropskih međutim This section presents an Grad overview of the UNCRPD, significance maindana, sections, the u poslednjih 5 godina (2007-2012) registrirane su ekstremno visoke temperature i preko 40°C. requirements it setsiako in allnije aspects of e-Accessibility how it is broja to be implemented. is followed Drugim riječima, prisutan izražen trendand povećanja tropskih danaThis zabilježeno je bypovećanje a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to učestalosti temperatura preko 40°C. disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups. 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. broj tropskih dana (tmax>30°C) Grafikon 19. Prosječan 3. Improving e-Accessibility the marginalized could also 4 Federalni hidrometeorološki zavod FBiH,for Republički hidrometeorološki zavod RS 2

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able-bodied people;ekstremnih it can reduce the cost of webpadavina service development, and enhance the 3.1.3.1. Procjena dnevnih prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. Najviše dnevne količine padavina u razdoblju 1961-2011. imaju sljedeće vrijednosti: u 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of Banjoj Luci 156 mm, Mostaru 127 mm i Sarajevu 118 mm. Prosječan maksimum padavina za e-Services and Luci to lower cost. istо razdoblje u Banjoj je 54the mm, Mostaru 79 mm i Sarajevu 50 mm. Povratno razdoblje za navedene iznose je oko 1.000 godina. Iako je mala vjerovatnoća da će doći do povećanja apsolutno 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the maksimalnih dnevnih količina padavina, povećanje broja dana s padavinama preko 10,0 mm of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU ukazuje convergence na ozbiljnost problema. and SEE countries.

1.2. About this report In(T) 8

Banja Luka

The specific 7 goals of this report are: 6

156 mm

1.5to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal 4 instruments and strategic level documents; 3

2.2to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people 1960-2011 with 1 disabilities; 3.0to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 40 good 50practices 60 70 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 4.-1to30identify in the 80 region; -2 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: -3 maksimum dnevnih padavina: mm/dan address theGodišnji obstacles to e-Accessibility; -4 --5 comply with requirements for the UN and EU. This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region Mostar 5 in theIn(T) implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the 4 regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic 3 the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. priorities of 2

1960-2011

1 project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative The 0 capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Secretariat, -1 30Groups 40 in e-Governance 50 60 70 the80e-SEE90Secretariat 100 110 120 140 130within Marginalised and are positioned the Social -2 Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely -3 Godišnji maksimum dnevnih padavina: mm/dan with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP -4 in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of -5 the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries.

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In(T) 6 5

Sarajevo

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES 4 3 2

1960-2011

1 presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the This section 0 it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed requirements -1 30 50 instruments 60 70 and80actions 90 at 100 110 120 140 by a description of 40 the major the European Union130 level relating to -2 disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. -3

Godišnji maksimum dnevnih padavina: mm/dan

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

Grafikon 20. Grafik empirijske funkcije raspodjele maksimalnih dnevnih padavina

e-Accessibility is about uovercoming range of barriers that people with disabilities and others Banjoj Luci, the Mostaru i Sarajevu za razdoblje 1961-2011. such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society.

3.1.4. Analiza padavina i suša na teritoriji BiH na osnovu e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything Standardiziranog indeksa padavina (SPI) from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television.Termin Up to 15 percent population across the European Unionispod has aprosjeka), disability,hidrološku such as a suša može of se the odnositi na meteorološku sušu (padavine visual, speech, icognitive, or motorpoljoprivrednu impairment, and SEE countries can to have ai sušu hearing, (mali protjecaji niski vodostaji), sušu (nedovoljno vlageexpect u zemljištu) predeonu sušu (kombinacija similar or higher proportion. prethodnih). Za potrebe SNC je analizirana meteorološka suša preko Standardiziranog indeksa padavina (SPI)5. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover Analizirani su podaci za mrežu od osam meteoroloških stanica, i to: Bihać, Banju Luku, this area. At the highest international level, theLivno, UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is Doboj i Bijeljinu u Peripanonskom obodu, Mostar i Bileću u Hercegovini i Sarajevo u the relevant legal context. No single directive is dedicated e-Accessibility, but actions are centralnom brdsko-planinskom dijeluEU Bosne i Hercegovine. Kaotoreferentno razdoblje za SPI uzet je isti across niz od 50 godina a Without u obraduFrontiers su uzete(for svesubtitling), sušne (SPI<=-1) i vlažne Directive (SPI=>1) spread areas such(1961-2010), as Television the Copyright vrijednosti vremenske (za Framework SPI1, SPI3 i (for SPI12). (for copyrightodređene exemptions), and thedužine Telecoms assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. U razdoblju od 1961. do 2010. na stanicama u Hercegovini (Livno, Mostar i Bileća) linearni Furthermore, are afoot to strengthen these and sušnosti), to enact more legislation. trend SPI12 moves je bio negativan (došlo je do povećanja ali promjene nisu bile statistički značajne. Na ostalim stanicama zabilježen je pozitivan linearni trend, ali je jedino u Bijeljini bio statistički značajan. Najveći prostor suša je zauzimala je sedam stanica There is at least a five-fold justification for early 2000. actioni 2003. in the godine, area of kada e-Accessibility: istovremeno pokazivalo vrijednosti SP12 niže ili jednako od -1. 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than 5 Pokazatelj Standardiziran indeks padavina (SPI) je populations razvijen za potrebe definiranja i osmatranja suše (McKee et al. increase the disadvantages certain face. Conversely, insufficient effort in1993). this Na osnovu dugoročnih osmatranja moguće je analizirati pojavu suše u određenom vremenskom intervalu (mjesec, area is likely further marginalize these groups. sezona, godina, itd.), ito te vrijednosti uspoređivati s vrijednostima bilo koje regije. Duži vremenski intervali se primjenjuju za analizu ekstremnih padavina. Početak suše se identificira tako što se posmatra "korak nazad“. Naime, pojava suše Improving access to javlja services, publicuand to suchSPI<=-1. a significant proportion of the ima 2. svoju potvrdu samo ako se kontinuirano serijiprivate, s vrijednostima Sušno razdoblje prestaje kad vrijednost SPI postane pozitivna. Svaka suša se karakterizira: a) vremenskim intervalom (1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24 mjeseca), tj. population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil brojem uzastopnih pojavljivanja vrijednosti SPI<=-1; b) trajanjem suše, što predstavlja vrijeme između početka i kraja remit in suše, a cost effective manner. suše;their c) kategorijom koja se određuje vrijednošću SPI indeksa; d) veličinom suše, koja se izračunava sumom indeksa SPI za svaki mjesec od početka do kraja sušnog razdoblja; e) intenzitetom suše, što predstavlja odnos između 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for veličine i trajanja pojave.

2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the prospects3,00 for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 2,00 action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of 4. The earlier e-Services and to lower the cost. 1,00

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5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the 0,00 convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU -1,00 and SEE countries. -2,00

1.2. About this report -3,00 The specific goals of this report are:

Grafikon 21. Međugodišnje promjene SPI12 na meteorološkoj stanici Bijeljina

1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal U prvom Nacionalnom izvještaju je inače konstatirano da se značajne promjene mogu and level documents; vidjeti u instruments Mostaru, gdje sustrategic prosječne količine padavina u razdoblju 1982-2007. znatno niže nego u razdoblju svim mjesecima, osim u septembru. for able-bodied people versus people 2. 1956-1981. to develop au comparative picture of e-Accessibility with disabilities; Analiza linearnog trenda za SPI3 za februar (meteorološka zima) pokazuje da je u posmatranom razdoblju na stanicama Hercegovini (Livno, Mostar i Bileća), kao i u Sarajevu i 3. to assess the current level ofue-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; Doboju, prisutan silazni trend SPI (došlo je do povećanja sušnosti), ali promjene nisu bile statistički 4. to identify good practices in the region; značajne. U Bihaću, Banjoj Luci i Bijeljini trend je nesignifikantno pozitivan. U zimskoj sezoni 5. tosu develop a set of recommendations for cirkulacije governmentNAO and iother stakeholders on how to: zabilježene najbolje korelacije s parametrima AO, pri čemu je koeficijent - ponovo address the najviše obstacles to e-Accessibility; korelacije dostigao vrijednosti između AO i SPI3 za Mostar od -0.73. comply with requirements for the UN and EU. Linearni trend SPI3 za maj (meteorološko proljeće) ni na jednoj stanici nije statistički značajan, a nema ni određene geografske pravilnosti u znaku trenda. Najveći prostor suša je zauzimala Togisproljeća je zabilježena na svih osam stanica, a čak na sedam je zabilježen This2003. report part of asuša larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, apsolutni minimum vrijednosti SPI, tako da se u svakom pogledu može smatrati ekstremnom. that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries. Slika 7. Prostorni raspored suše u jugoistočnoj Evropi (SPI3 za maj 2003) http://www.dmcsee.org/en/spi/?year=2003&month=May&TimeScale=3&DataType=GPCC

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Linearni trend SPI3 za august (meteorološko ljeto) je negativan na većini stanica (pet), dakle, došlo je do povećanja sušnosti pri čemu je za Bihać i Bileću trend statistički signifikantan. Najveći intenzitet suša je imala 2000. kada je na stanicama Banja Luka, Bijeljina, Sarajevo i Livno zabilježena apsolutno najniža vrijednost SPI.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on Slika 8. Prostorni raspored suše u jugoistočnoj Evropi (SPI3 za august 2000) television.http://www.dmcsee.org/en/spi/?year=2000&month= Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a Avg&TimeScale=3&DataType=GPCC visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. Na šest od osam stanica posljednja dekada figurira kao dekada s najvećim brojem sušnih ljeta, što nesumnjivo pokazuje da je u posljednjoj dekadi došlo do povećanja učestalosti ljetnih A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover suša. Međutim, ako se u razmatranje uzmu i vlažna ljeta, vidi se da na pet stanica posljednja this area.samostalno At the highest level, the sUNCRPD, coming force in 2008, is dekada ili sinternational još nekom čini dekadu najvećim ratified brojem and vlažnih ljeta.into Dakle, osim sušnih, the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated butdaactions are u posljednjoj dekadi se povećala i učestalost vlažnih ljeta, štotojee-Accessibility, doprinijelo tome je dekada 2001-2010. na šest stanica imala najveći broj ekstremnih ljeta u pogledu količine padavina. spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. 8 Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. 7 6 There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: 5

1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already 3 marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than 2 increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this 1 area is likely to further marginalize these groups. 4

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2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. 1961

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Grafikone-Accessibility 22. Međugodišnje broja meteoroloških stanica 3. Improving forpromjene the marginalized could also leadsatoSPI12<=-1 improved access for 2

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able-bodied can reduce the cost ofjesen) web service development, and enhance the Linearni trendpeople; SPI3 za itnovembar (meteorološka je pozitivnog znaka na svim stanicama, osim u Livnu, pri čemu je u Bijeljini i statistički signifikantan. I pored toga što je trend za čitavo posmaprospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. trano razdoblje bio pozitivan, jedina jesen kada su sve stanice bilježile sušu bila je pri kraju razdoblja, The earlier action taken,Luci the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility intovrijednost development i to 2006.4.godine, pri čemu je uisBanjoj i Doboju zabilježena apsolutno minimalna SPI. of e-Services and to lower the cost. 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the

3.2. Projekcije klimatskih promjena aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU convergence of differentbudućih

and SEE countries. Jedan od osnovnih zadataka u Drugoj nacionalnoj komunikaciji Bosne i Hercegovine prema UNFCCC je razvoj klimatskih modela i izbor adekvatnih scenarija promjene klime u budućnosti. U ovom izvještaju su predstavljeni rezultati regionalnog klimatskog modela EBUPOM iz eksperimenata promjene buduće klime, dobijeni metodom dinamičkog skaliranja rezultata dva globalna klimatska modela atmosfere i okeana SINTEX-G i ECHAM5. Fokusirali smo se na rezultate iz eksperimenata/scenarija The specific goals of this report are: A1B i A2. U odnosu na koncentraciju plinova staklene bašče A1B je okarakteriziran ako “srednji” a A2 kao “visoki” scenarij. Scenariji A1B i A2 su definirani specijalnim izvještajem IPCC-a o emisionim scenarijima (Nakicenovic and Swart, 2000) u okviru 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal kojega su date moguće buduće emisije plinova staklene bašte kao posljedice budućeg tehnološkog, instruments and strategic level documents; socijalnog i ekonomskog razvoja, zasnovanog na ljudskim aktivnostima.

1.2. About this report

2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people Vrijednosti koncentracije CO2, jednog od plinova staklene bašte, na kraju dvadeset prvog disabilities; vijeka zawith scenarij A1B kreću se oko 690 ppm, a za A2 scenarij oko 850 ppm. Rezultati iz modela analizirani su za vremenske isječke 2001-2030. i 2071-2100. Izvještaj je usmjeren na promjene dva 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; osnovna prizemna meteorološka parametra, temperature na dva metra i akumuliranih padavina. 4. to identify good practices in the region; Promjene ovih parametara su prikazane u odnosu na srednje vrijednosti iz tzv. baznog (standardnog) 5.1961-1990. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: razdoblja address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

3.2.1. A1B scenarij, 2001-2030.

Prema rezultatima srednje sezonske temperature tokom posmatranog This report is part ofmodela a largerpromjene project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, tridesetogodišnjeg razdoblja 2001-2030. kreću se u opsegu od +0,6 do +1,4°C, u zavisnosti od sezone i that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by oblasti Bosne i Hercegovine. Najveće promjene su tokom sezone JJA, s vrijednostima od +1,4 na sjeveru the UNDP Countrydijelovima. Office in Bosnia andDJF Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and ufunded by the i +1,1°C u južnim Za sezonu promjene su oko +0,7°C s maksimumom centralnim UNDP’s Governance Thematic toodnosu supportnathe South Eastern Europe region dijelovimaDemocratic BiH. Za sezonu MAM promjene suTrust neštoFund veće u DJF s vrijednostima od +0,8 do +0,9. SON je okarakterizirana promjenom od +0,6 do +0,8 idući od istoka ka zapadu zemlje. the in theSezona implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries. Slika 9. Promjena srednje godišnje temperature u °C (lijevo) i padavina u % (desno) 71

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Iz slika promjena padavina vidimo da rezultati modela pokazuju i negativne i pozitivne promjene ove veličine. Pozitivne promjene padavina, odnosno njihovo povećanje, može se vidjeti za sezonu MAM, i to za sjeverni i sjeveroistočni dio, +5%, i za JJA sezonu skoro na cijeloj teritoriji, s maksimumom od +15%, osim jugoistoka. Najveći deficit je duž jugozapadne granice BiH s maksi­ mumom od -20%.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

Na godišnjem nivou promjena temperature se kreće u granicama od 0,8 do 1°C s većim vrije­ dnostima na sjeveru i zapadu zemlje (Slika 9). UNCRPD, Promjena padavina na godišnjem negativnathe na This section presents an overview of the its significance and nivou main jesections, cijeloj teritoriji, od 0 do -10%, osim sjeveroistoka gdje je promjena pozitivna, i to do +5%. requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

3.2.2. A1B scenarij, 2071-2100.

Rezultati za scenarij A1B i razdoblje 2071-2100. pokazuju da je prostorna struktura 1.1. Why e-Accessibility? promjene odgovarajućih parametara, posebno temperature, slična kao za prethodno posmatrano

razdoblje 2001-2030, s većom magnitudom promjena. promjena temperature seothers kreće e-Accessibility is aboutaliovercoming the range of barriers Ovaj that put people with disabilities and u opsegu od +1,8 do +3,6°C. Najveće promjene od +3,6°C su ponovo za sezonu JJA. Tokom zimske such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information sezone (DJF) maksimum je opet u centralnim regijama, s vrijednostima do 2,4°C. Za MAM sezonu Society. ove promjene se kreću od 2,4 do 2,6°C, na cijeloj teritoriji. Konačno, za sezonu SON promjene su u

granicama od 2,0 do 2,4°C. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. Slika 10. Promjena srednje godišnje temperature u °C (lijevo) i padavina u % (desno)

There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: Tokom ovog razdoblja skoro da ne postoji sezona ili oblast koja je okarakterizirana pozitivnom 1. It ispadavina. worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to speople who are anomalijom Velike negativne anomalije imaju sezone DJF i SON promjenama odalready -15 do marginalized. helps fulfil the promise of theod Information Society to reduce rather than -50%. MAM sezona jeItokarakterizirana vrijednostima približno -10% na cijeloj teritoriji. Deficit tokom increase sezone JJA veći u južnim certain nego u populations sjevernim oblastima i kreće seinsufficient u granicama u opsegu thejedisadvantages face. Conversely, effort in this od -30area do 0%. is likely to further marginalize these groups. 2.Na Improving access services,temperature public and private, a significant of the godišnjem nivou to promjena se krećetousuch granicama od 2,4 proportion do 2,8°C s većim vrijednostima na jugu i zapadu zemlje (Slika 10). Promjena padavina nacan godišnjem nivouservices je negativna population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and help public fulfil na cijeloj teritoriji, od -30 do -10%. their remit in a cost effective manner. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the 3.2.3. A2 scenarij, 2071-2100. prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. Na osnovu scenarija A2 za razdoblje 2071-2100. se očekuje povećanje temperature na 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of čitavoj teritoriji BiH u granicama od 2,4 do 4,8°C. Najveće povećanje je tokom JJA sezone na sjeveru e-Services and4,8°C. to lower the cost. s vrijednostima preko Za sezonu DJF maksimalna promjena iznosi oko 3,6°C. Sezona MAM ima vrijednosti od 3,4 do 3,6°C. A tokom sezone SON promjene su opet veće na zapadu zemlje i 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the iznose između 2,8 i 3°C. Tokom svih sezona osim DJF za scenarij A2 imamo negativnu anomaliju u convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU polju akumuliranih padavina, preko cijele teritorije. Tokom sezone DJF imamo pozitivnu anomaliju SEE teritoriji countries. skoro naand cijeloj u opsegu od 0 do +30%, osim jugoistoka. Najveće promjene po ovom scenariju su za sezonu JJA s vrijednostima od -50%. Tokom sezona MAM i SON anomalije se kreću od -30 do 0%.

1.2. About this report

Na godišnjem nivou promjena temperature se kreće u granicama od 3,4 do 3,8°S (Slika 11). Promjena padavina na godišnjem nivou je negativna na cijeloj teritoriji, od -15 do 0%. The specific goals of this report are: 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents; 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities; 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, Slika 11. Promjenainsrednje godišnje u °C (lijevo) i padavina u %project (desno) designed by that is being implemented the context of temperature the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic Rezultati scenarija prema SINTEX-5 i ECHAM5 modelima ukazuju na trend povećanja priorities of the are therefore fully with the targets ofdo e-SEE temperature do project 2030. godine u odnosu naaligned bazni period 1961-1990, 1,0°CAgenda+. na godišnjem nivou

3.2.4. Sumarni prikaz scenarija

na čitavoj teritoriji Bosne i Hercegovine. Najveće povećanje očekuje se u ljetnom razdoblju (junibeing implemented by theprema Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative avgust),The do project 1,4°C. Uisperiodu 2071-2100. godina scenariju A2 očekuje se rapidan porast Secretariat, their existing networks and resources. Empowering temperature,capitalizing i to do 4°C naongodišnjem nivou, knowledge, te do čak 4,8°C u ljetnom razdoblju. Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Modeli ukazuju na nejednake promjene količine padavina. U centralnim i planinskim Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely područjima očekuje se blago povećanje padavina, dok se na ostalim područjima očekuje smanjenje with the fellow UNDP Country in the region, while theočekuje Office ofseSenior ICT Advisor at the BDP padavina. Prema scenariju A2 Offices u periodu 2071-2100. godina smanjenje padavinama na in New York is providing expertise and playing očekuje an advisory Government-appointed members čitavaoj teritotiji BiH. Najveći deficit padavina se urole. ljetnom periodu koji može iznositi i doof 50%Regional u odnosue-Governance na bazni period 1961-1990. the Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries.

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A1B 2001-2030.

A1B 2071-2100.

A2 2071-2100.

DJF

0,6 – 0,9

1,8 – 2,4

2,4 – 3,6

MAM

0,8 – 0,9

2,4 – 2,6

3,4 – 3,8

JJA

1,1 – 1,4

3,4 – 3,6

4,6 – >4,8

SON

0,5 – 0,9

2,0 – 2,4

2,8 – 3,2

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the GODINA 0,8 – 1,0 2,8be implemented. 3,4 – 3,8 requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how 2,4 it is–to This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to Tabela 16. Promjena temperature u °C SINTEX -5 model disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. A1B 2001-2030. A1B 2071-2100. 1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

A2 2071-2100.

DJF

0,2 – 0,5

3 – 3,8

3,2 – 4

SON

0,9 – 1,1

3,4 – 3,8

3,8 – 4,2

A1B 2001-2030

A1B 2071-2100

A2 2071-2100

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others MAM < 0,2 seeking to participate 2,2 – 2,6 3,2 such as older populations experience when on equal terms in 2,6 the–Information Society. JJA 0,5 – 0,8 4 – 4,2 4,4 – 4,8 e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything GODINA 0,4 – 0,6 3,2 – 3,6 3,6 – 4,0 from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the across thepo European Union has a disability, such as a Tabela 17. population Promjena temperature °C ECHAM5 model visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover -15 – -5 -50 – -10 -5 – 30 this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is MAM -10 – 5 -15 – 0 -30 – 0 the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are JJA across areas such as Television -5 – Without 15 -30 subtitling), –0 -50 – 0Directive spread Frontiers (for the Copyright (forSON copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms assistive e-Accessibility -10 – 20 Framework (for-50 – -15 technologies).-30 –0 is also covered by policy, and guidelines exist for programmatic GODINA -20 – 10 and benchmarking -30 – -10 -15 – 0 support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. DJF

Tabela 18. Promjena padavina u % po SINTEX -5 modelu

There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: A1B 2001-2030

A1B 2071-2100

A2 2071-2100

-10 – 10

-50 – -20

-50 – -20

1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already of the Information than DJF marginalized. It helps fulfil the 0 –promise 10 -15 – 5 Society to reduce -30 –rather 15 insufficient MAM increase the disadvantages certain 0 – 15 populations face.-5Conversely, – 15 -10effort – 10 in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups. JJA

and private, -30 to such SON 2. Improving access to services, -10 –public 5 – -5 a significant proportion -20 – 0 of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil GODINA -5 – 10 -15 – -5 -20 – -5 their remit in a cost effective manner. Tabela 19. Promjena u % po °C ECHAM5 3. Improving e-Accessibility for thepadavina marginalized could also modelu lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the 3.3. Utjecaji klimatskih promjena po prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 4.sektorima The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost. Sektori koji su najranjiviji na klimatske promjene u Bosni i Hercegovini su: poljoprivreda, 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines andekosistemi. recommendations will assist in the vodni resursi, zdravlje ljudi, šumarstvo, biodiverzitet i osjetljivi U tom smislu obavljene su detaljne analize dugoročnih klimatskih promjena u ovim sektorima. Procjene su zasnovane EU convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in thena SRES klimatskim scenarijima A1B i A2 koji su izrađeni za Bosnu i Hercegovinu za potrebe Drugog and SEE countries. nacionalnog izvještaja (SNC). Za svaki sektor identificirane su predložene mjere prilagođavanja na osnovu stručnog konsenzusa, konsultacija sa zainteresovanim stranama i analize relevantnih istraživanja.

1.2. About this report

U ovom poglavlju razmatra se i potencijalna finansijska i tehnološka podrška ovim mjerama, specific jer je ekonomska situacija Bosni i Hercegovini takva da će za realizaciju mnogih mjera priThe goals of this reportuare: lagođavanja biti neophodna spoljna pomoć. Bosna i Hercegovina je zemlja u razvoju, a njene emisije gasova s efektom staklenika (GHG) znatno su niže nego u referentnoj 1991. godini, uglavnom 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal zbog ratnog razdoblja 1992–1995. te oštećenja i restrukturiranja industrije. Međutim, iako je utjeinstruments andna strategic documents; caj Bosne i Hercegovine globalnelevel klimatske promjene zanemarljiv, njena je privreda pod veli­kim pritiskom klimatskih promjena. Zbog of takve situacije prilagođavanja na klimatske promjene, 2. usljed to develop a comparative picture e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people prije svega u prethodno pomenutim ključnim sektorima, treba da predstavljaju imperativ u bo­rbi with disabilities; protiv klimatskih promjena. Određivanje prioritetnih mjera identificiranih kroz analizu tro­škova i koristi, predviđena kaocurrent aktivnost u toku izrade Trećegand nacionalnog izvještaja. 3. to assessjethe level of e-Accessibility e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

3.3.1. Poljoprivreda

3.3.1.1. Utjecaji na poljoprivredu na osnovu klimatskih scenarija

Poljoprivreda je privredna grana koja je općenito najranjivija na klimatske promjene (Spasova This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, et all, 2007, Majstorovic, 2008, Trbic 2012) s obzirom na klimatsku osjetljivost ovog sektora, udio that is being implemented in the of theu e-SEE Initiative. a regional project designed poljoprivrede u ekonomiji BiH, brojcontext zaposlenih ovom sektoru, teIts is njim blisko povezana socijalno-by the UNDP Country in Bosnia and Herzegovina, ekonomska pitanja Office sigurnog snabdijevanja hranom. supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region Zbog raznolike of topografije i raznovrsnosti BiH, scenariji moraju u obzir preovlađujuće in the implementation the Inclusive Information Society Priority Areauzeti of the e-SEE Agenda+, the obrasce korištenja zemljišta u svakom od regiona u zemlji. Na primjer, prognozirano smanjenje regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic izuzetno hladnih zima i mrazeva koji se javljaju krajem proljeća i početkom jeseni pogodovalo bi priorities of uthe project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of znatno e-SEE smanjene Agenda+. u scenariju voćnjacima sjeverozapadnoj BiH. Navedene klimatske pojave bile bi

A1B (2001–2030). U scenariju A1B (2001–2030.) predviđa se produženje vegetacionog razdoblja project is being by the e-SEE Initiative (dana sThe temperaturom iznadimplemented 5°C) u nizijama sa Sarajevo-based 32 na 75 dana, UNDP-funded kao i produženje razdoblja s temperaturama iznad 20°Consatheir 38 naexisting 69 dana (Federalni hidrometeorološki zavod FBIH,Empowering Republički Secretariat, capitalizing knowledge, networks and resources. hidrometeorološki zavod RS), što može and pozitivno utjecati na visinu prinosa, kao i nawithin kvalitet Marginalised Groups in e-Governance the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned theusjeva Social uopće. Povećanje minimalne temperature, tj. broja dana s fiziološki aktivnim temperaturama, takođe Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely može omogućiti uzgoj kasnih usjeva, čime se obezbjeđuju veći prinosi i usjevi koji su pogodniji za with the fellow UNDPovog Country Offices in theukazuju region,na while the Office of Senior ICTkoje Advisor the BDP skladištenje. Nalazi scenarija takođe to da klimatske promjene utičuatna južni in is providing expertise and playing anmaksimizirati advisory role.poljoprivrednu Government-appointed members dioNew BiH,York odnosno na region Hercegovine, mogu proizvodnju i širenjeof mediteranskih sorti usjeva. Advisory Pošto poljoprivredni proizvodi act čineasznačajan dio aktuelnog uvoza, ovi the Regional e-Governance Taskforce (REGATA) government Focal Points for their preduslovi za izvoz bi u konačnici mogli smanjiti spoljnotrgovinski deficit. respective countries.

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Pozitivni utjecaji se mogu očekivati na voće iz potporodice Maloideae (prije svega jabuke i kruške) i, u izvjesnoj mjeri, na običnu vinovu lozu. Pozitivni utjecaji se mogu očekivati i kada su u pitanju baštenske kulture, naročito one koje se proizvode u staklenicima, gdje će u toku proi­ zvodnih ciklusa biti potrebno znatno manje toplotne energije. Povećani prinosi će takođe povećati konkurentnost u poređenju s kulturama koji se trenutno uvoze iz zemalja s toplijim klimatskim uslovima i nižim troškovima proizvodnje.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

U okviru ispitanih scenarija mogu se očekivati i negativni utjecaji. Dok produženje vege­ This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the tacionog razdoblja kod ratarskih kultura može utjecati na povećanje prinosa ozimih usjeva, requirements it sets in niskih all aspects of e-Accessibility how it strane, is to be implemented. This is followed odsustvo optimalnih temperatura (0–10°C),and s druge može imati negativan utjecaj bynaa proces description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to jarovizacije. Kada je, na primjer, u pitanju koštičavo voće, toplije zime mogu dovesti do smanjenja prinosa and zboge-Accessibility nedostatka optimalnog zimskog hlađenja. Ljetni usjevi mogu biti ugroženi disability in general in particular. višim temperaturama vazduha i ljetnim sušama. Pored toga, prema regionalnom scenariju klima­ tskih promjena A1B (2001–2030), očekuje se i povećanje učestalosti obilnih padavina praćenih olujama, što će biti propraćeno znatnim spiranjem površinskog sloja zemljišta i salinizacijom zemljišta, prvenstveno u južnim dijelovima BiH. Ove će promjene u datim regionima izazvati daljnje prorjeđivanje pašnjaka i smanjenje the prinosa stočne hrane,that što može do slabijegand kvaliteta e-Accessibility is about overcoming range of barriers peopledovesti with disabilities othersi smanjenja mlijeka, naročito when u malih preživara. such as olderprinosa populations experience seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. Ovi utjecaji će zahtijevati velike promjene u smislu poljoprivredne opreme i praksе, kao i dodatnog rada na odabiranju i uvođenju novih sorti prilagođenih novonastalim klimatskim uslovima. e-Accessibility can potentially referobaviti to anyitype of ICTispitivanja used by citizens, andse involves everything U dugoročnom razdoblju biće potrebno terenska sorti koje trenutno ne gaje ili se gaje samo u vrlo ograničenim područjima BiH. Jedan takav primjer je obični sirak (Sorghum from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on vulgare var. imapopulation veliku ekonomsku vrijednost kaoUnion energetski usjev (biogas) kaoa television. Up Sudanense), to 15 percentkoji of the across the European has a disability, suchi as stočna hrana za preživare. visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar orToplija higheri suvlja proportion. klima će sigurno smanjiti širenje fitopatogenih gljiva (kojima pogoduju česte padavine i visoka relativna vlažnost), što će olakšati suzbijanje određenih biljnih bolesti. Međutim, suvlja A klima će zahtijevati promjene poljoprivredne tehnologije, kaoand štoguidelines je intenziviranje perhaps surprising numberuofkorištenju international agreements, regulations cover navodnjavanja, što može povećati učestalost nekih fitopatogenih bakterija. Tretiranje ovih bakterija this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is može povećati troškove proizvodnje, a kada mjere suzbijanja uključuju i karantin (kao što je slučaj the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, actions are s Ralstonia solanacearum i Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus (Spiec. ibut Kot.), to može spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive prouzrokovati značajne finansijske gubitke. (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility Pored toga, blage zime doprinijeti rasprostranjenosti štetnih insekata (nasupport. primjer, is also covered by policy, andmogu guidelines andvećoj benchmarking exist for programmatic intenzivnija migracija jednog od najopasnijih štetočina za koštičavo voće, Capondis tenebrionsis, Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. iz južne BiH ka sjevernoj BiH), pa čak i pojavi novih štetočinskih vrsta koje bi mogle zahtijevati mjere za suzbijanje koje bi značajno povećale troškove proizvodnje ili čak oštetile višegodišnje is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the termofilnih area of e-Accessibility: biljke.There Na primjer, toplija klima može omogućiti širenje invazivnih korova kao što su Amorpha fructicosa, Ambrosia sp., Xanthim strumarium, Helianthus tuberosus i drugih, stvarajući tako znatne za suzbijanje 1. It istroškove worthwhile in its ownštetočina. right to improve access to services to people who are already

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than Ukupna količina, distribucija i intenzitet padavina od izuzetnog su značaja za obezbjeđivanje increase the disadvantages populations face. insufficient effort in this optimalnog retencijskog kapacitetacertain zemljišta za vodu. Ako seConversely, tokom razdoblja suše ne obezbijedi areanavodnjavanje is likely to further marginalize groups. adekvatno usjeva, smanjenithese prinosi ili čak potpuni gubitak prinosa biće neizbježni ukoliko suvo vrijeme pogodi usjeve tokom osjetljive fenofaze. Drugim riječima, izuzetno suvo Improving access može to services, public and private, to isuch a significant proportion the vrijeme2.tokom oprašivanja potpuno spriječiti oplodnju formiranje sjemena te omestiofrast significant can help public services fulfil usjeva.population U prošlosti,opens suše su pogađalemarket/sales BiH svakih triopportunities, do pet godina,and a u zavisnosti od njihovog trajanja i jačinetheir prinosi su uinprosjeku bili smanjeni za 30 do 95 posto. Suše su zabilježene 1992, 1995. i 1998. remit a cost effective manner. godine, dok je 2000, 2003, 2007, 2011. i 2012. u nekim regionima bilo proglašeno stanje elementarne 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of webmože service and enhanceali the nepogode. Smanjenje prinosa tokom sušnog razdoblja se development, ublažiti navodnjavanjem, količina prospects obradivog for zemljišta s instaliranim sustavima za navodnjavanje veoma je ograničena (oko migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 0,65%), pa bi stoga bilo potrebno preduzeti značajne mjere za proširenje područja s instaliranim 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of sustavima za navodnjavanje. e-Services and to lower the cost. Rast, ponašanje i zdravlje domaćih životinja zavisiće kako od nasljednih osobina tako i od 5. Pursuing approaches follow EU guidelines recommendations assistutiču in the spoljašnjih uslova. Klimatski uslovithat i klimatske promjene utičuand na apetit i zdravlje stokewill i direktno aspects of theutjecaj, development of the Information Society iinživotne the EU convergence of different na profitabilnost stočarstva. Direktan klimatski razmjena toplote između životinja sredine, and vezuje se za temperaturu i relativnu vlažnost vazduha, kao i za tempo cirkulacije vazdušnog SEE countries. strujanja i toplotnog zračenja. Ovi faktori imaju određeni utjecaj na zdravlje i dobrobit životinja, zavisno od vrste, rase i klase svakog pojedinačnog grla stoke. Zagrijavanje generalno podstiče širenje patogenih mikroorganizama i parazita. Indirektan utjecaj toplije klime ogleda se u povećanim prinosima i u kvaliteti pašnjaka, krmnog bilja i žitarica. Pošto su biljke autotrofni organizmi, one predstavljaju glavni izvor hrane za domaće preživare u lancu ishrane u ekosistemima širom svijeta. Pašnjaci obezbjeđuju The report are: a povišena koncentracija CO umnogome poboljšava stočnu više specific od 90% goals hraneof zathis divlje preživare, 2 hranu, za razliku od smanjenja azota, koje utiče na nisku proteinsku vrijednost stočne hrane.

1.2. About this report

1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents;

3.3.1.2. Socio-ekonomski utjecaj klimatskih promjena na 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus poljoprivredu with disabilities;

people

Udio lova, šumarstva i ribarstva u BDP-u BiH u 2010. godini iznosio je 7,11%, 3. to poljoprivrede, assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; što predstavlja blagi pad u odnosu na 2009. (7,4%) i 2008. (7,5%). Mnogo važnija je činjenica da 4. to identify good practices in the region; sektor poljoprivrede u Bosni i Hercegovini zapošljava najveći broj ljudi – oko 160.000 – naročito u 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: ruralnim područjima. U 2009. godini, ovaj sektor je zapošljavao 166.000 radnika. address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; - se tiče comply withukupna requirements for the UN and EU. iznosila je nešto više od 1,1 miliona Što usjeva, proizvodnja žitarica u 2010. tona, od čega su oko 77% činili kukuruz (više od 850.000 tona) i pšenica. U 2010. je došlo do naglog smanjenja proizvodnje žitarica, kada je u poređenju s 2009. godinom proizvedeno 11,4% manje kukuruza i 43,2% manje pšenice. Trendovi su slični i kada su Marginalised u pitanju drugiGroups poljoprivredni proizvodi This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering in e-Governance’, (raž, zob, ječam, sijeno, povrće, mlijeko itd). Klimatske promjene nesumnjivo imaju znatan utjecaj that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by na ukupne prinose. the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’sUDemocratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to supportpromjenama the South Eastern Europe region ovom trenutku, mjerama prilagođavanja klimatskim u poljoprivrednom sektoru BiH pridaje seofmarginalan TokomSociety izradePriority SNC-a,Area urađena pojednostavljena in the implementation the Inclusiveznačaj. Information of thejee-SEE Agenda+, the analiza potencijalnih šteta povezanih s klimatskim promjenama i mogućih prednosti prilagođavanja regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic klimatskim promjenama, koja ukazuje na potrebu daljnjih istraživanja i investicija u poljoprivredu priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. u cilju smanjenja osjetljivosti na ekstremne klimatske promjene. S obzirom na to da je prosječna cijena pšenice i kukuruza u 2010. bila oko 300 KM/t, pad proizvodnje od 15-20% izazvao bi štetu The project beingmiliona implemented Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE u vrijednosti od oko is45-60 KM. Akoby sethe uračuna i šteta po industrijsko bilje, voće, Initiative povrće Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering i druge usjeve, gubici mogu lako dostići 165 miliona KM – što je jednako ukupnom budžetu za poljoprivredu Groups u BiH (koji uključuje samo 90the miliona za direktnu farmama, se Marginalised in e-Governance and e-SEEKM Secretariat arepodršku positioned within pošto the Social 6 oko 60 miliona KM izdvaja za mjere ruralne politike) . Posljedice smanjene proizvodnje vidljive su Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely u rastu cijena poljoprivrednih proizvoda. with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise poljoprivrede and playing anjeste advisory role. Government-appointed members Ključni faktor u ranjivosti nedovoljna upotreba agrotehničkih mjera, aof the Regional e-Governance Advisory (REGATA) act as government Focalprouzrokovane Points for their naročito nerazvijeni i zastarjeli sustaviTaskforce za navodnjavanje i protivgradnu zaštitu. Štete respective countries. 6 1 EUR=1,95583 KM, Centralna banka Bosne i Hercegovine, juni 2013

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sušama, poplavama i gradom već neko vrijeme su stvarnost u Bosni i Hercegovini. Shodno tome, očekuje se da će poljoprivreda trpjeti najveće štete izazvane klimatskim promjenama i, ukoliko ne dođe do drastičnih poboljšanja, mogu se očekivati ekstremne temperature i padavine, u kombinaciji s drugim ekstremnim vremenskim uslovima i isparavanjima, koja će zajedno prouzročiti smanjenja ukupne poljoprivredne proizvodnje (Popović , 2008). Dakle, postojeća varijabilnost klime već značajno utiče na poljoprivredni sektor, što znači da su ekstremni vremenski uslovi u prosjeku doveli do gubitaka od najmanje 200 miliona KM na godišnjem nivou. Štete od klimatskih promjena su daleko veće od godišnjih podsticaja koji se isplaćuju poljoprivrednim proizvođačima. This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects how it is to be implemented. This is followed Ruralna područja u Bosniofi e-Accessibility Hercegovini suand zapostavljena, a strategije ruralnog razvoja su byusvojene a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to tek nedavno i predviđaju tek minimalne investicije. Ruralna područja su ranjivija zbog nedostatka infrastrukture i lošijih životnih uslova nego u urbanim sredinama. U ruralni razvoj se disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. godišnje ulaže samo oko 40 miliona dolara (60 miliona KM). U procesu pristupanja EU treba koristiti trgovinske pogodnosti predviđene ugovorom CEFTA, zajedno s drugim raspoloživim resursima EU kao što su Program za poljoprivredni i ruralni razvoj (ARDP), Instrument za pretpristupnu pomoć (IPA) i Instrument za tehničku pomoć i razmjenu informacija (TAIEX). Posebnu pažnju treba posvetitiisaspektu održivosti ruralnog razvoja, tj. zaštiti šumskih ekosistema, e-Accessibility about overcoming the range of barriers that voda, peoplešuma with idisabilities and others zaštićenim područjima biodiverziteta itd. Stanovnici ruralnih područja imaju niske prihode i najviše such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information su pogođeni negativnim efektima u gotovo svim sektorima. Oni su posebno ugroženi zbog visokih Society. troškova prilagođavanja, i s pravom očekuju aktivnosti i pomoć od državnih institucija.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

e-Accessibility can potentially to značajan any type ofutjecaj ICT used citizens, and involves everything Klimatske promjene takođerefer imaju na by proizvodnju i bezbjednost hrane. Evidentne su česte promjene klimatskih uslova te pojava novih patogena i biljnih bolesti (FAO, from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on 2007). Ove i druge promjene dovode do smanjenja proizvodnje zbog smanjenja prinosa i smanjivanja television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a obradivih površina, što dovodi do kratkoročne nestabilnosti cijena i dugoročnih povećanja cijena visual, cognitive, or motor and SEE countries can expectzbog to have hranehearing, u svijetu.speech, Izvještaji FAO-a ukazuju naimpairment, to da se globalne cijene hrane povećavaju lošiha similar or higher proportion. klimatskih uslova, rasta cijena energenata i sl. Prema podacima FAO-a iz 2007. godine (FAO, 2007), skoro 11% obradivog zemljišta u razvijenim zemljama bi se moglo naći pod negativnim utjecajem klimatskih promjena, što podrazumijeva smanjenje prinosa u 85 zemalja i smanjenje poljoprivredne A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover proizvodnje kao udjela u BDP-u u 16% zemalja. Prema ovom izvještaju, ključni socio-ekonomski this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is utjecaji su sljedeći: the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive  Smanjenje prinosa usjeva i poljoprivredne proizvodnje; (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility  Pad udjela poljoprivredne proizvodnje u BDP-u; is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support.  Nestabilnost cijenatona svjetskim tržištima; Furthermore, moves are afoot strengthen these and to enact more legislation.  Povećanje broja ljudi koji nemaju pristup dovoljnim količinama hrane; There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility:  Migracije i socijalni nemiri.

1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already Prema klimatskim scenarijima A1B i A2, sektori poljoprivrede, šumarstva i ribarstva marginalized. It helps fulfil the zemljišta promise of the ekstremnih Informationvremenskih Society to reduce rather than suočiće se s degradacijom i erozijom (zbog uslova), gubitkom increase the disadvantages populations face.čestih Conversely, insufficient in this obradivog zemljišta i smanjenjemcertain stočnog fonda (zbog slučajeva ugibanjaeffort stoke) itd. U izvještaju iz further 2008. godine (FAO, these 2008),groups. koji se temelji na projekcijama IPCC iz 2007, area isFAO-a likely to marginalize najveći pad prinosa u Evropi očekuje se na Mediteranu, jugozapadu Balkana i na jugu evropskog 2. Improving to services, public private, preraspodjele to such a significant proportion the dijela Rusije. Može access se očekivati da će doći do and geografske određenih kulturaof(npr. population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can public fulfil suncokret i kukuruz, koji će se uzgajati u sjevernijim oblastima). Ovahelp studija je services od posebnog interesa i značaja Bosnu i Hercegovinu their remit inza a cost effective manner. jer se ona nalazi u zoni rizika kada je u pitanju proizvodnja hrane. Opća situacija je pogoršana povećanjem cijena i tražnje na svjetskom 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of webfinansijskim service development, and enhance the tržištu hrane, rastom cijena energenata i učestalim krizama koje će stvoriti opću makroekonomsku nestabilnost i nesigurnost. Kao rezultat toga, došlo bi do pogoršanja prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. spoljnotrgovinskog deficita u razmjeni poljoprivrednih proizvoda. Pored toga, očekuje se da će The earlier action is the easier itpovećanja is to integrate e-Accessibility into development doći i do4.povećanja potreba zataken, navodnjavanjem, rizika od šumskih požara, povećanjaof "jalovih“e-Services zemljišta, and smanjena biodiverziteta itd. to lower the cost. 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries.

3.3.2. Vodni resursi

Prosječna godišnja količina padavina u BiH iznosi oko 1.250 l/m2, što – s obzirom na površinu BiH od 51.129 km2 – iznosi 64 x 109 m3 vode, odnosno 2.030 m3/s. Oticanje sa teritorije BiH je 1.155 m3/s, s prosječnim koeficijentom proticaja 0,577. Prosječno godišnje oticanje prema Dunavskom slivu, čija je površina u BiH 38.719 km2 (75,7%), iznosi 722 m3/s ili 62,5%, dok oticanje iz vodnog područja Jadranskog mora, čija je površina u BiH 12.410 km2 (24,3%), iznosi 433 m3/s ili 37,5%. The specific goals of this report are:

1.2. About this report

Površina

Dužina vodotoka

Prosječni

[km2]

[km]

[m3/s]

Una u BA

9.130

1.480,7

240

Neretva i Trebišnjica u BA

10.110

886,8

402

RIJEČNI BAZENI JADRANSKOG MORA

12.410

1.063,8

433

Sliv international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal 1. to outline the sliva dužih od 10 km protjecaj instruments and strategic level documents;

2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people 5.506 1.693,2 63 with disabilities;

Neposredni sliv Save u BA i Ukrina

3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; Vrbas 6.386 1.096,3 132 4. to identify good practices in the region; Bosna 10.457 2.321,9 163 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: Drina u -BA 7.240 1.355,6 124 address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; RIJEČNI- BAZENcomply DUNAVA 38.719 7.947,7 722 with requirements for the UN and EU.

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, Bosna i Hercegovina 51.129 that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is9.011,5 a regional project1.155 designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the Tabela 20. Karakteristični pokazatelji slivnihtoi support podslivnihthe područja BiH, UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund South uEastern Europe region Projekat IPA 2007 – Podrška politici voda u BiH, 2011 in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regionalMale action plan Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic vode na for slivnim i podslivnim područjima su veoma izražene. Vrijednosti minimalnih srednjih mjesečnih voda osiguranosti (s kojima setargets uglavnom barata kada se govori o priorities of the project are95% therefore fully aligned with the of e-SEE Agenda+. minimalnim vodama koje osiguravaju opstanak ekosistema u i oko voda) iznose oko 15% srednjih godišnjih proticaja. pokazatelj ukazuje na stanje u podslivuUNDP-funded rijeke Bosne. Nelinearnost je The project Ovaj is being implemented by loše the Sarajevo-based e-SEE Initiative još izraženija na vodnom području Jadranskog mora, gdje su pojedini vodotoci presušili. Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised in prostoru e-Governance and theue-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Velike Groups vode se na BiH pojavljuju vidu bujičnih režima, s kratkim poplavnim talasima 3 Inclusion/Democratic Governance UNDPpodručje Countryrijeke OfficeSave, in Sarajevo is odnos working closely i velikim modulima oticanja (1–1,5 mSector. /s/km2).The Za vodno prosječan srednjih godišnjih proticaja i velikih vodaOffices vjerovatnoće iznosi =18.5Q , štoICT znači da je ovo vodno with the fellow UNDP Country in the pojave region,1% while theQOffice of Senior Advisor at the BDP (1%) sr.g. područje nepovoljno po režimu malih i velikih voda s najvećom gustinom stanovništva i najizraženijim in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of potrebama za vodom (Projekat IPA 2007 – Podrška politici voda u BiH, 2011). the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries. 7 Projekat IPA 2007 – Podrška politici voda u BiH, 2011 79

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

Prethodne hidrološke analize u BiH suočile su se s problemom potpunog odsustva podataka o oticanju rijeka u BiH tokom 90-ih godina prošloga vijeka, a isti problem se javio i tokom izrade ove studije.8 Naime, zbog odsustva dovoljno obrađenih podataka o oticanju iz vodnog područja Jadranskog mora nije bilo moguće izvršiti pouzdanu analizu ovog veoma važnog vodnog područja u BiH.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

Analiza sliva rijeke Bosne ne pokazuje promjene u vrijednostima prosječnih mjesečnih oticanja tokom vremena. Analiza trendova mjesečnih padavina za razdoblje 1961–2011. (izračunatih This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the kao prosječna vrijednost mjesečnih padavina u meteorološkim stanicama u Sarajevu, Zenici i Tuzli) requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. Thisniisna followed 9 i prosječno mjesečno oticanje rijeke Bosne u Maglaju u istom razdoblju ne ukazuju kakve byznačajne a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to promjene. disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. Do istog zaključka se dolazi i kada se uporede statistički parametri sekvenci srednjih vrijednosti mjesečnog oticanja rijeke Bosne u Maglaju tokom razdoblja 1961–1990. i 1991–2010. sa statističkim parametrima mjesečnih padavina (izraženo kao prosječna vrijednost mjesečnih padavina u meteorološkoj stanici u Sarajevu i meteorološkoj stanici u Zenici), tokom istih razdoblja. e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility:

Grafikon 23. Serija srednjih mjesečnih protjecanja rijeke Bosne u Maglaju, s trendom, te prosječna vrijednost mjesečnih padavina (MS Sarajevo, MS Zenica, MS Tuzla) s trendom (razdoblje 1961-2010)

1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this 8 Ovaj increase problem je detaljnije obrađen u INC. area is likely rijeke to further these groups. za januar 1992. – decembar 2000. izračunatih na bazi višestruke 9 Vrijednosti proticaja Bosnemarginalize u Maglaju, Qsr.pr.

korelacije između vrijednosti Qsr.pr. za Bosnu u Maglaju u razdoblju januar 1961. – decembar 2010, sa sljedećim 2. Improving access toistog services, mjesečnim vrijednostima tokom perioda:public and private, to such a significant proportion of the • MS Sarajevo (ukupne mjesečne padavine, srednja mjesečna temperatura) population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil • MS Zenica (ukupne mjesečne padavine, srednja mjesečna temperatura) their remit in amjesečne cost effective • MS Tuzla (ukupne padavine,manner. srednja mjesečna temperatura). Višestruka korelacija izračunata po mjesecima (Višestruko R: 0.610220455-0.857194005; R Kvadrat: 0.3723690043. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 0.734781563). 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; it can mjesečna reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the Srednja protjecanja Mjesečne padavine Statistički prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such( MS as mobile phones. Bosna (Maglaj) prosjek Sarajevo, MS Zenica) parametar 1991-2010. 1961-90. 4. The earlier action1961-90. is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into1991-2010. development of Srednjae-Services vr. 123,28 and to lower the cost.

132,05

71,31

78,33

Mediana5. Pursuing approaches 108,78 68,98 that follow EU 111,73 guidelines and recommendations will71,70 assist in the Stand. dev. 79,94aspects of the85,12 36,95 40,43in the EU development of the Information Society convergence of different

and SEE countries. 6.389,69 Varijansa Spljoštenost

1,38

7.244,97

1.365,14

1.634,50

0,45

0,84

0,61

0,71

0,80

387,07

224,65

208,10

19,28

0,50

8,45

406,35

225,15

216,55

Iskošenost 1.2. About this1,12report 0,97 Rang- opseg

437,93

The specific goals of this report are: Minimum 16,29 Maksimum

454,22

1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal and strategic level documents; Tabela 21.instruments Statistički parametri nizova srednjih mjesečnih protjecanja rijeke Bosne u Maglaju, za razdoblje 1961-

90. i 1991-2010. godina, te statistički parametri mjesečnih padavina na MS Sarajevo i MS Zenica, za ista razdoblja

2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities; Treba naglasiti da su analizirane sekvence relativno kratke. Osjetljivost rezultata koji se 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; baziraju na kratkim sekvencama evidentna je iz rezultata analize trendova, koji pored trendova 4. to identify goodprikazuju practices iintrend the region; za razdoblje 1961–1990. jednačina za razdoblje 2001–2010, kao i 1991–2011. 5. to develop a set of recommendations for mogu government and otherutjecaj. stakeholders how to: Jednačine pokazuju da samo jedna ili dvije godine imati značajan U ovomon slučaju, izuzetno- vlažnaaddress 2010. ithe izuzetno suva 2011. godina imale su tako snažan utjecaj na srednje obstacles to e-Accessibility; vrijednosti mjesečnog proticaja da su dovele do UN promjene comply with requirements for the and EU.trenda iz pozitivnog (rastući trend) u negativan (opadajući trend). Izuzetno suvlja razdoblja u Bosni i Hercegovini manifestuju se kroz pojavu niskog vodostaja, This report is ipart of aproticaja larger project, Marginalised Groups inSrpskoj e-Governance’, odnosno, smanjenog malog na svim‘Empowering značajnijim vodotocima u Republici i Bosni that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed i Hercegovini. U RS javljaju se zimski (januar – februar) i ljetni (jul – avgust) razdoblja niskogby vodostaja. Većina rijeka u razdobljima niskog vodostaja snabdijeva iz podzemnih voda, by a to the UNDP Country Officese in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded the znatno smanjuje zalihe podzemnih voda u Bosni i Hercegovini. S obzirom na to da suša predstavlja UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region izrazito nepovoljnu vremensku pojavu, brojne istraživačke aktivnosti širom svijeta usmjerene su na in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the njeno sprečavanje ili ublažavanje njenih negativnih efekata. regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+.

3.3.2.1. Utjecaji na vodne resurse na osnovu klimatskih scenarija

The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, Generalno, oba scenarija za razdoblja 2001–2030. i networks 2071–2100.and (A1Bresources. 2001–2030;Empowering A1B 2071– 2100; A2 2071–2100.) porast temperature vazduha u BiH are u svim posmatranim Marginalised Groups predviđaju in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat positioned withingodišnjim the Social dobima tokom čitave godine. Istovremeno, sva tri modela prikazuju smanjene količine padavina. Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely Do promjena u režimu padavina će doći i u pogledu vremena pojavljivanja, učestalosti i intenziteta with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP ekstremnih događaja – poplava i suša. Najveći porast temperature vazduha predviđa se u vegetativnom in New York is providing expertise andblaži playing an advisory role. Government-appointed razdoblju (jun, jul i avgust), a nešto porast tokom marta, aprila i maja. To značimembers povećanuof the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as Points for sve their evapotranspiraciju i izraženije ekstremne minimume vodostaja nagovernment vodotocima.Focal S druge strane, učestalije padavine većeg intenziteta izazvaće iznenadna oticanja, često u obliku poplava. Za oticanje respective countries. vodotoka značajan je i utjecaj snježnih padavina, a predviđa se i znatno povećanje temperature 81

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

vazduha tokom zimske sezone – u decembru, januaru i februaru. Svi ovi rezultati podrazumijevaju različite scenarije koji dovode do još izraženije međugodišnje nelinearnosti oticanja voda u BiH. S jedne strane, doći će do općeg smanjenja dostupnosti vodnih resursa u vegetativnom razdoblju, kada su potrebe najveće, dok će, s druge strane, rizik od poplava biti sve izraženiji.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

Pored toga, projekcije ukazuju na još češće i intenzivnije pojave suša i poplava koje će biti rasprostranjenije i dugotrajnije. Može se zaključiti da su potrebna dodatna i kompleksnija istraživanja klimatskih promjena i njihovog utjecaja na vodne resurse, zajedno s razvojem sektorske strategije This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the prilagođavanja klimatskim promjenama s pratećim akcionim planom i konkretnim mjerama. requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility inutjecaj particular.klimatskih promjena  3.3.2.2. Socio-ekonomski

na vodne resurse

1.1. Iako Why e-Accessibility? je Bosna i Hercegovina bogata vodnim resursima, pritisci, problemi i nestašice su veoma

česti. Ogromne vode za pićethe se range i dalje of gube u distributivnim sustavima, što stvara e-Accessibility is količine about overcoming barriers that people with disabilities anddodatne others ogromne ekonomske gubitke. Iako ne postoje egzaktni pokazatelji kojima bi se kvantifikovali ovi such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information negativni utjecaji, sigurno je da ovi gubici iznose najmanje 50 miliona KM godišnje (na primjer, Society. procjenjuje se da Hrvatska, koja ima više stanovnika i bolju infrastrukturu, trpi godišnje gubitke

od oko 286 miliona evra). Pored toga, emisije gasova s efektom staklenika u stalnom su porastu zbog povećane potrošnje energije zarefer proizvodnju vode problem je i manjak vode u e-Accessibility can potentially to any type of za ICTpiće. usedDodatni by citizens, and involves everything poljoprivredi, naročito u rizičnim razdobljima kada su zemlji potrebne minimalne količine vlage. from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a Energetski sektor Bosne i Hercegovine je takođe potencijalno ranjiv, naročito zbog toga visual, speech, cognitive, or motor and SEE countries expect to have a što bi hearing, klimatske promjene mogle dovesti doimpairment, smanjenja riječnih tokova. Takvecan ekstremne situacije similar or higher proportion. bi mogle da dovedu do smanjenja proizvodnje hidroelektrične energije, što bi ugrozilo energetsku sigurnost i proizvodnju struje namijenjene izvozu. Suše su u ranijim razdobljima utjecale na nivo gubitaka u proizvodnji hidroelektrične energije. Smanjena proizvodnja hidroelektrične energije A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover usljed smanjenih riječnih tokova često mora biti nadomještena iz drugih domaćih izvora ili iz uvoza, this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is što je nepovoljno s aspekta povećanja emisija gasova s efektom staklenika (dodatna proizvodnja u the relevant legal No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility,deficita). but actions are elektranama), ali context. i s makroekonomskog aspekta (povećanje spoljnotrgovinskog spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive Svi ovi izazovi zajedno imaju negativan utjecaj (for na socio-ekonomski položaj stanovništva (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework assistive technologies). e-Accessibility svih covered ekonomskih akteraand jer guidelines nestabilnoand snabdijevanje električnom možesupport. dovesti isi also by policy, benchmarking exist for energijom programmatic do poskupljenja. Iako ne postoje egzaktni pokazatelji direktnih i indirektnih gubitaka nastalih Furthermore, are afoot to strengthen these anddato su enact more legislation. smanjenjem moves vodotoka, ipak bi se moglo zaključiti takvi gubici mnogo veći od gubitaka uzrokovanih neadekvatnom vodovodnom mrežom, tj. oni bi lako mogli premašiti iznos od 100 miliona KM (naThere primjer, vodotoci opadnu za 5–10%).for U svakom slučaju, prema Svjetske banke is atako least a five-fold justification early action in the areapodacima of e-Accessibility: (2008), planirane investicije u energetski sektor u BiH do 2020. iznose nešto više od 4 milijarde evra, pri čemu bi određena sredstva trebalo da budu preusmjerena na smanjenje ranjivosti u sektoru 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already hidroenergije. Mjere prilagođavanja se stoga moraju fokusirati na strategije i propise budući da marginalized. helps fulfil thenegativan promise utjecaj of the Information Society reduce rather than ekstre­m ne klimatskeItpromjene imaju na vodne cikluse, štotomože dovesti do suša increase thesektorima, disadvantages certain populationsi prirodnim face. Conversely, insufficient effort odluka in this i utje­caja u drugim naročito u poljoprivredi ekosistemima. Donosioci u BiH još uvijek u svojim strategijama i planovima upravljanja vodnim resursima nisu uzeli u obzir area is likely to further marginalize these groups. sve opasnosti klimatskih promjena. Istovremeno, potrebno je istražiti društveno-ekonomske efekte 2. Improving to services, publici and private, to suchrizike a significant proportion of the klimatskih promjenaaccess na zaštićena područja močvare i proučiti od poplava ili smanjenih opens significant and canuhelp services mje­ fulfil riječnihpopulation tokova. Osim toga, potrebnamarket/sales su i naučna opportunities, i stručna istraživanja vezi public s neophodnim rama prilagođavanja, analize rentabilnosti mjera, kao i u pogledu interakcija klimatskih their remit in auključujući cost effective manner. promjena, proizvodnje hidroenergije i snabdijevanja vodom za piće. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for

2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the 3.3.3. Zdravlje prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones.

4. The earlier action taken, the easier to integrate intoscenarija development of 3.3.3.1. Utjecaji naiszdravlje ljudiit isna osnovue-Accessibility klimatskih e-Services and to lower the cost. Vodeći uzroci morbiditeta i mortaliteta nisu se promijenili od objavljivanja Prvog nacionalnog Pursuing approaches that (kardiovaskularna, follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the izvještaja5. (INC): cirkulatorni sustav cerebrovaskularna oboljenja) i maligne neoplazme (tj. rak). Iako podaci iz literature ukazuju na određenu povezanost ovih oboljenja s convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU klimatskim and promjenama, SEE countries.to ne može da se tvrdi sa sigurnošću budući da u BiH do danas nisu sprovedena posebna istraživanja kojima bi se potvrdila veza između klimatskih promjena i njihovog utjecaja na ljudsko zdravlje.

1.2.UAbout this report BiH se kontinuirano ne prate ni direktni ni indirektni utjecaji klimatskih promjena na

zdravlje ljudi. Uprkos činjenici da se u pojedinim izvještajima sistematično analiziraju klimatske The specificu goals report promjene BiH, of jošthis uvijek neare: postoji uspostavljen sustav za praćenje učestalosti pojedinih bolesti u određenim regionima koje bi se mogle povezati s promjenama pojedinačnih klimatskih parametara, samimthe timinternational i s pojavom prirodnih nepogoda.e-Accessibility Podaci prikupljeni na državnom 1. to aoutline context regarding including existingnivou legal nisu upotrijebljeni za razvoj jasne metodologije za krizni odgovor na klimatske promjene, a nisu andmjere strategic level documents; usvojeneinstruments ni preventivne kojima bi se spriječila pojava kritičnih situacija ili ublažile posljedice izazvane2.klimatskim promjenama (smanjeni prinosi zbog suše ili poplava; people nestašice higijenski to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied versus people ispravne vode za piće...) with disabilities; Dvije godine the kasnije, očigledno da oba entiteta u Bosni i Hercegovini i dalje primjenjuju 3. to assess current level ofjee-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; Zakon o 4. statistici, odnosno usvajaju svoje programe statističkih istraživanja s jednakim vremenskim to identify good practices in the region; intervalima između dva ciklusa. Ovim programima definiše se okvir za prikupljanje podataka o to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: statusu 5. higijenske ispravnosti vode za piće, zdravstvenoj ispravnosti namirnica i predmeta opće - kao i address obstacles to na e-Accessibility; upotrebe, podatakathe koji se odnose opasnosti po životnu sredinu i njihov utjecaj na zdravlje ljudi. Zakonom o evidencijama i statističkim u oblasti zdravstvene zaštite RS bliže se comply with requirements foristraživanjima the UN and EU. definiše obim i način prikupljanja podataka i sprovođenje statističkih istraživanja, kao što je slučaj i u Federaciji BiH. U praksi, BiH još uvijek nema uspostavljen model za protok informacija između različitih sektora, čestoproject, preklapaju i nije uvijekMarginalised jasno ko odgovara kome, ko prikuplja This reportnadležnosti is part of ase larger ‘Empowering Groups in e-Governance’, podatke od koga i koja metodologija se koristi za rad s podacima. Kao posljedica toga, ne postoje that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by adekvatni izvještaji o zdravlju životne sredine, kao ni izvještaji o faktorima rizika i njihovom utjecaju the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia anduprkos Herzegovina, by DG/BDP NY, dobro and funded by the na klimatske promjene i zdravlje ljudi, činjenicisupported da je ova oblast zakonski regulisana UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the Southtome, Eastern Europe region i da je praksa izvještavanja usaglašena sa zahtjevima EUROSTAT-a. Shodno možemo reći da je the ranjivost ljudi i dalje of prisutna. in implementation the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic Iako ne postoje detaljna istraživanja, s prilično velikom sigurnošću se može reći da priorities the project are therefore aligned the targets of e-SEENesporno Agenda+.je da postoji klimatskeofpromjene snažno utiču na fully zdravlje ljudiwith u Bosni i Hercegovini.

velika briga društva za opće zdravlje stanovništva, ali učešće javnosti u ovim pitanjima od ključnog The za project is being implemented by u theokviru Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded Initiative je značaja definisanje efikasnih odgovora prilagođavanja klimatskime-SEE promjenama. Secretariat, their koja existing knowledge, and resources. Informirana icapitalizing obrazovana on javnost, je dobro upoznatanetworks s opasnostima ekstremnihEmpowering klimatskih uslova, može Groups smanjitiinsvoju ranjivost na utjecaje putem odgovarajućih mjera. Marginalised e-Governance andnegativne the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within theGlavni Social uzroci ozbiljnih zdravstvenih utjecaja izazvanih ekstremnim klimatskim promjenama su toplotni Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely udari, koji dovode do povećanog mortaliteta stanovništva BiH. Pogoršanje klimatskih uslova će with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP dovesti do češćih promjena i pogoršanja zdravstvenog stanja najtežih bolesnika. To uključuje in New York is providing expertise andalergijske playing anreakcije advisoryi druge role. Government-appointed members bolesti s kardiovaskularnim rizicima, akutne reakcije na visoke dnevneof the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce actbolesti as government Focal Points koje for their temperature, kao i druge zdravstvene probleme(REGATA) kao što su izazvane bakterijama se prenose vodom i hranom, bolesti koje prenose insekti, ptice itd. respective countries.

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3.3.4. Šumarstvo Šume u Bosni i Hercegovini pokrivaju 53% ukupne površine zemlje. Zbog svoje prirodne i raznovrsne strukture, kao i visoke stope prirodnog obnavljanja (oko 93%), šume u Bosni i Hercegovini predstavljaju jedan od ključnih prirodnih resursa. Oko 20% drvne mase je ugljenik, a pored ove činjenice, i ukupna šumska biomasa ima ulogu "skladišta ugljenika“. Na primjer, organske materije iz šumskog zemljišta – kao što je humus nastao kao produkt raspadanja biljnog materijala – takođe skladište ugljenik. Kao rezultat toga,UNCRPD, šume skladište ogromne količine ugljenika: prema This section presents an overview of the its significance and main sections, the jednom istraživanju FAO-a, dva puta više nego u atmosferi. Ugljen-dioksid kao "đubrivo“ može requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed pospješiti rast i razvoj biljaka, pa tako šume mogu rasti brže zbog povećanog nivoa CO2 u atmosferi. by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to Eksperimenti u laboratorijskim uslovima pokazuju da udvostručenje nivoa CO2 dovodi do početnog disability in general in particular. povećanja od 20 doand 120e-Accessibility posto, uz prosječno povećanje od 40% (Eamus i Jarvis, 1989). Međutim, u

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

nekim slučajevima povećanje nivoa ugljen-dioksida podstiče rast samo privremeno, dok daljnji porast koncentracije CO2 može čak i da ga smanji. Do smanjenja rasta može doći i zbog povećane koncentracije skroba u lišću i smanjene fotosinteze (Wullschleger i dr., 1990).

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

e-Accessibility is about overcoming of barriers that people with disabilities and others Bogatstvo diverziteta ogledathe se range u velikom broju biljnih i životinjskih vrsta u regionu, zbog such when seeking to participate equal terms in the Information čegaasseolder BiH populations kotira visokoexperience na listi najzanimljivijih zemalja u Evropi.onOva veoma značajna raznolikost daje šumskim ekosistemima bolju startnu poziciju za prilagođavanje klimatskim promjenama, ali Society. u isto vrijeme postoji opasnost od gubitka rijetkih, jedinstvenih vrsta. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything Šumski ekosistemi u BiH biće izloženi direktnim utjecajima iz sljedećih izvora: from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television.- Uppromjene to 15 percent of the population temperature i padavina;across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a povećana koncentracija atmosferskog CO2 (promjene u rastu drveća i upotrebi vode), i similar or- higher proportion. - promjene u pojavi šumskih požara, u zastupljenosti štetočina, i u drugim intenzivnim A perhaps surprising number(suša, of international agreements, regulations and guidelines prirodnim nepogodama iscrpljene zalihe podzemnih voda, rani mrazovi, jakecover kiše, smetovi, oluje itd). this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive 3.3.4.1. Utjecaji na the šumarstvo, na osnovu klimatskih scenarija (for copyright exemptions), and Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Na osnovu pretpostavljenih modela klimatskih promjena, izvršeno je poređenje s poznatim, Furthermore, moves are to strengthen these andzatopojedine enact more legislation. općim podacima kada suafoot u pitanju klimatski parametri šumske zajednice (Bertović, 1975). Prosječne temperature različitim šumskim ekosistemima u BiH trenutno se kreću u There is at least a five-foldu justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: rasponu od bukovih šuma u lancu Dinarida (s prosječnom godišnjom temperaturom od 7,2 do 7,7°C) do šuma hrasta medunca i graba (s prosječnom godišnjom temperaturom od 12,7 do 13,5°C). 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already Ovaj raspon pokazuje da bi scenario A2 za kraj ovog vijeka, s prognoziranim povećanjem prosječne marginalized. It helps promise of the Information Society to reduce za rather than temperature od 3,4 do 3,8°C,fulfil bio the blizu trenutno postojeće prosječne temperature izuzetno increase disadvantages certain populations Conversely, insufficient effort innathis različite šumskethe zajednice. Pretpostavljene promjene face. u šumskim ekosistemima upućuju to da bi se drastične promjene desile čak i u najblažem scenariju. Većina šuma karakterističnih za area is likely to further marginalize these groups. planinske (dinarske) regione evoluirala bi u šume planinske bukve. U scenariju A1B, na kraju ovog 2. Improving access to termofilnih services, public private, to such significant proportion of the vijeka očekuje se dominacija šumaand hrasta kitnjaka sa agrabom, hrastom meduncem i hrastom crnikom. Model A2 dovodi do potpuneopportunities, devastacije šumskih ekosistema i formiranja population opens significant market/sales and can help public services fulfil podmediteranskih šumskih zajednica. Uopćeno govoreći, predloženi scenario their remit ini amediteranskih cost effective manner. imao bi nesagledive (nezamislive) posljedice po šumske ekosisteme u BiH. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the Postoji mogućnost da klimatske promjene utiču na šumesuch u BiH načinphones. koji bi tokom prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms as na mobile vremena mogao transformisati cijele šumske sisteme kroz pomjeranje njihovog rasporeda i Thesaearlier action taken,društveno-ekonomskih the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development sastava.4.To sobom nosiis teret i ekoloških posljedica. Klimatskeof promjene koje su and se dogodile neće imati isti utjecaj na sve šumske ekosisteme u Bosni i e-Services to lower the cost. Hercegovini. U prilog ovoj tvrdnji ide činjenica da je opstanak šumskih zajednica povezan ne Pursuing approaches that follow EUtemperaturom guidelines andna recommendations will in the samo (ili5.isključivo) s prosječnom godišnjom području na kome seassist pojavljuje aspectsprosječne of the development of the Information Society the EU convergence of different data zajednica, što znači da povećanje godišnje temperature neće biti jediniinfaktor koji utiče na promjenu. Osim prosječne godišnje temperature, drugi važni elementi uključuju and SEE countries. distribuciju i intenzitet padavina, koje treba analizirati zajedno i u interakciji s povećanjem prosječne temperature, kao i s nizom drugih faktora koji se pojavljuju u nemjerljivim razdobljima i s nemjerljivim intenzitetom. Osnovna polazišna tačka bila je porast temperature u cijelom području u istom intervalu, što nije bio slučaj u predviđenom scenariju. Svaki region za koji su predviđene promjene treba analizirati pojedinačno. To znači da bi se moglo očekivati da The specific goals of this are: ne predviđaju i ne dođe do promjena u strukturi šumskih u regionima u kojima sereport promjene ekosistema. Neće sve zajednice (ili sorte) reagovati na isti način (neke se nalaze na većoj nadmorskoj neke manje osjetljive), što regarding znači da treba odvojeno analizirati reakciju svake 1. tovisini, outline thesu international context e-Accessibility including existing legal zajednice. Sorte koje se nalaze u centru staništa biće tolerantnije na klimatske promjene, dok instruments and strategic level documents; će one blizu ivica biti veoma ranjive. Pored toga, sukcesija sorti i promjena strukture zajednica vezane su zadevelop prirodnoa obnavljanje i određene su starošću stabala. Kodpeople nekih sorti (kao što 2. to comparativešuma picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied versus people su hrastovi) je više od 100 godina, a kod nekih sorti nerealno je očekivati promjene postojeće with to disabilities; vegetacije u razdoblju kraćem od jednog vijeka (osim u slučaju prirodnih katastrofa). Najposlije, kod svih3.promjena i pomjeranja šumskih zajednica mora se uzeti u obzir i čitav niz drugih to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; faktora 4. koji nagood promjene šumskih (promjene u strukturi zemljišta, promjene toutiču identify practices in theekosistema region; u genetičkim resursima i diverzitetu, prilagodljivost vrsta itd). 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the iobstacles e-Accessibility; Oštre temperature klimatskitouslovi, kao što su mraz i toplotni talasi, kao i promjene u comply with requirements for the UN and obliku, vremenu i količini padavina (na primjer, snijeg u EU. poređenju s kišom, suša u poređenju s poplavama) mogu utjecati na pojedine vrste drveća te na položaj i nivo šumskih sistema, zato što ove promjene mogu povećati osjetljivost na štetočine, patogene i oštre vremenske uslove (Schlyter i dr, 2006). Druga značajna prijetnja šumskim ekosistemima uzrokovana je povećanjem šumskih This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in broja e-Governance’, požara. U nekim dijelovima BiH očekuje se povećani rizik od šumskih požara izazvanih povećanjem that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by temperature i promjenama u obrascima padavina, što poziva na proširenje kapaciteta za zaštitu the UNDP Country Office in(vrijeme, Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP and vremenskog funded by the od požara. Svi ovi aspekti štetočine, patogeni, požari) mogu, tokomNY, dužeg UNDP’s Democratic Thematic Trust Fund to support the u South razdoblja, dovesti do Governance smanjenja produktivnosti i lošijeg zdravlja šuma BiH. Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic 3.3.4.2.of the Socio-ekonomski utjecaji klimatskih na  priorities project are therefore fully aligned with the targets ofpromjena e-SEE Agenda+.

1.2. About this report

sektor šumarstva

The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their uexisting knowledge, resources. Iako ne učestvuje značajnije društvenom proizvodu,networks šumarskaand i drvna industrijaEmpowering predstavlja važan ekonomski i, iznad svega, prirodniand resurs Hercegovine. Učešće šumarskog u Marginalised Groups in e-Governance the Bosne e-SEEi Secretariat are positioned withinsektora the Social ukupnoj zaposlenosti veće je od njegovog učešća u BDP-u (u RS 6,5%, a u FBiH 4,6% u 2008). Iako Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely je učešće šumarstva u BDP-u BiH u 2010. godini iznosilo tek 0,83%, ova privredna djelatnost ima with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP strateški značaj zbog svoje izvozne orijentacije i stvaranja novih radnih mjesta. Šumama upravljaju in Newpreduzeća York is providing expertise playing an kontrolom advisory role. Government-appointed javna na nivou entitetaand koja su pod nadležnih ministarstava i members entitetskihof the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforcedržave (REGATA) as government Focal Points for their parlamenata. Šume su pod punom kontrolom i nisuact privatizovane. respective countries.

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Kapaciteti mehaničke i hemijske prerade drveta premašuju domaću tražnju. Šumarstvo se suočava s različitim problemima: nepostojanje dugoročne strategije i politike razvoja, neefikasna organizacija, nepostojanje zakona te praksa koja nije usklađena s EU. Globalna situacija na tržištu drveta i situacija na tržištu BiH prouzrokuju ravnodušnost prema promjenama, prije svega zbog povećanja ponude i tehničkog napretka koji zajedno doprinose povećanju produktivnosti u eksploataciji šuma, kao i zbog kontinuiranog smanjenja količine drveta koje se koristi u industriji. To za posljedicu ima otežanu ekonomsku poziciju šumarstva, koja se ogleda u neadekvatnom uzgoju i zaštiti, biotičkoj i abiotičkoj ranjivosti, smanjenju šumskog zemljišta, gubicima u biodiverzitetu i This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the slabom pristupu šumama. Sve to ima sinergistički utjecaj na ranjivost šuma i šumskih sistema u requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed Bosni i Hercegovini. by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to upravljanja šumama treba da uključe mjere prilagođavanja klimatskim promjenama disability Modeli in general and e-Accessibility in particular. s ciljem smanjenja ranjivosti šuma. Sve aktivnosti moraju biti sinhronizovane na državnom i entitetskom nivou, kao i s općim i sektorskim politikama. Klimatske promjene su praćene dugoročnim povećanjem prosječne temperature i nižim prosječnim padavinama, što dovodi do smanjenja stope rasta drveća i niže efikasnosti eksploatacije. Ekstremne klimatske promjene usporavaju rast drveća,overcoming odnosno potrebno je of više vremena rast prije To može e-Accessibility is about the range barriers thatzapeople with sječe. disabilities and dovesti others do smanjenja količine sječenog drveta, lošije socijalno-ekonomske situacije, smanjenja izvoznih such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information aktivnosti i povećanja spoljnotrgovinskog deficita Bosne i Hercegovine. Negativne posljedice Society. ekstremnih klimatskih promjena u šumama i šumskim ekosistemima je teže identifikovati. Njihovo otkrivanje zahtijeva dugoročno istraživanje i praćenje. To je jedini način da se utvrde i identifikuju e-Accessibility can potentially refer toJednako any type of used by citizens, and involves everything kumulativni efekti temperature i padavina. suICT važne i lokacije na kojima se šume nalaze, tj. geografske i klimatske zone, te stepen variranja temperature i padavina, jer ako se šume nalaze from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on u zonama s temperaturom na gornjoj temperaturnoj granici za određene grupe drveća, a padavine television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a su na donjoj granici, to znači da su moguće prirodne migracije nekih vrsta, što predstavlja vrstu visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a prilagođavanja. similar or higher proportion. Dakle, nesporno je da produktivnost zavisi ne samo od vrste i lokacije šume, nego i od temperature i padavina. Gornje temperaturne graniceagreements, negativno utiču na produktivnost, jer radikalne A perhaps surprising number of international regulations and guidelines cover temperature ograničavaju rast. Pored toga, tu su i određeni složeni agenti stresa u šumama i this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is šumskim sistemima: insekti, bolesti, odvodnjavanje, neplanirana sječa, požari, utjecaj CO2 itd. Česti the relevant legal context. produktivnost No single EU udirective dedicated itodrvnoprerađivačkoj e-Accessibility, but actions are šumski požari smanjuju sektoruisšumarstva industriji, što spread across such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive direktno utičeareas na društveno-ekonomsku situaciju. Visoke temperature povećavaju ranjivost šuma nacopyright šumske požare, suše iand poplave, a to pakFramework utiče na unutrašnju i spoljnu konkurentnost. Bosna i (for exemptions), the Telecoms (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility Hercegovina mora da sprovede mjere kojima će se smanjiti ranjivost na klimatske promjene, kao is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. i mjere kojima će se poboljšati socio-ekonomski položaj sektora šumarstva i drvnoprerađivačke Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. industrije. Treba usvojiti odgovarajuće zakone zasnovane na praksi EU zajedno s programom dugoročnog razvoja šumarstva koji će biti usklađen s Ministarskom konferencijom o zaštiti šuma u is at To least a five-fold for early action in the upravljanje, area of e-Accessibility: EvropiThere (MCPFE). zahtijeva boljujustification inventuru šuma i baze podataka, praćenje i održivo finansiranje revitalizacije šuma i šumskih ekosistema, pošumljavanje, uzgoj i zaštitu. Poboljšanja društveno-ekonomske situacije mogu se postići kroz access upotrebu zawho lov, proizvodnju 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve to šumskih services resursa to people are already šumskih sporednih proizvoda i turizam, na način koji vrednuje zaštićene ekosisteme. marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certainedukacijom populationsi face. Conversely, effort šuma. in this Postoji potreba za kontinuiranom podizanjem javne insufficient svijesti o značaju areastanovništva is likely to further marginalize groups. Migracije iz regiona bogatih these šumom predstavlja značajan društveni i demografski problem, jer se primarna raspodjela i dalje vrši nauštrb manje razvijenih lokalnih zajednica s 2. stopom Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the visokom nezaposlenosti. population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the 3.3.5. Biodiverzitet i osjetljivi ekosistemi

prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. Jedna od najizraženijih posljedica globalnog zagrijavanja za biodiverzitet sigurno će biti kretanje 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of vodnih resursa i distribucija štetočina i bolesti. Prema scenarijima IPCC mediteranske države, koje već u e-Services and to lower thećecost. velikoj mjeri zavise od irigacije, imat u prosjeku 15 do 25% nižu vlažnost zemljišta tokom ljeta.

5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the Ukratko, dostupni podaci i istraživanja ukazuju da su klimatske promjene prijetnja za sve convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU tri makroregije u BiH (panonsku, planinsko-kotlinsku i mediteransku). Oblast Dinarida bit će pod andprijetnjom, SEE countries. posebnom kao veoma važan i bogat centar endemskih vrsta na Balkanu. Ovaj plani­ nski lanac je od izuzetnog biološkog i geomorfološkog značaja. Naročito mogu biti ugrožene rijeke kraškog područja i ekosistemi koji su na njima razvijeni. Analiza utjecaja klimatskih promjena na rasprostranjenost subasocijacija dinarske šume bukve i jele u BiH pokazuje da će se površina are­ ala dinarske šume bukve i jele bitno smanjiti.

1.2. About this report The specific goals of this report are:

3.3.5.1. Utjecaji na biljne vrste prema klimatskim scenarija 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents; Klimatske promjene utiču na fiziologiju i odnose među biljkama uzrokujući promjene njiho­ vog područja rasprostranjenosti – areala, u smislu povećanja ili smanjenja areala vrste ili zaje­dnice 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people i pomaku areala (horizontalna i vertikalna migracija). with disabilities; Značajne promjene se očekuju u rodovima koji planinska područja Bosne 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility andnastanjuju e-Accessibility stakeholders; i Hercegovine, naročito migraciju nekih drvenastih vrsta u smjeru pružanja Dinarida prema 4. to identify good practices in the region; sjeverozapadu, uz moguće lokalno osiromašenje flore. Može se očekivati smanjenje broja zeljastih 5. ekološke to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders how to: vrsta uske valence najviših planinskih područja koje neće moći prilagoditi svoj arealon dovoljno address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; brzo. U -ovu grupu spadaju vrste cirkumpolarnog, predalpskog i alpskog tipa rasprostranjenja. Prijetnje-koje ovako bogatom biljnom i životinjskom svijetu nameće široki spektar različitih ljudskih comply with requirements for the UN and EU. aktivnosti su mnogobrojne. Jedna od značajnih posljedica globalnog zagrijavanja po ekosisteme bit će svakako pomjeranje zaliha vode i distribucije poljoprivrednih štetočina i bolesti. IPCC u svom scenariju predviđa da će zemlje Mediterana, koje već uvelike zavise od navodnjavanja, imati 15 do This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, 25% manje vlažna tla ljeti (IPCC, AR4, 2007). that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office vrsta in Bosnia and će Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the Prodor alohtonih povećat se, a agresivnije iz prirodnih staništa mogu istisnuti autohtone vrste. Simulacije vršeneThematic pod pretpostavkom doći dothe porasta temperature UNDP’s Democratic Governance Trust Fundda toće support Southprosječne Eastern Europe region od 2°C ukazuju na značajne negativne posljedice po ovaj biom. Općenito se može smatrati da in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+,će the najviše biti pogođena visokoplaninska područja u Bosni i Hercegovini na nadmorskim visinama oko regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic 1.500 m, što odgovara granici subalpskog pojasa. priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. U testiranim scenarijima utjecaja klimatskih promjena (A1B scenarij, 2001-2030, A1B sceThe project being implemented the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative narij, 2071-2100. i A2isscenarij, 2071-2100) naby biološku raznolikost posmatrana je rasprostranjenost Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering vrsta i populacija. Uspoređujući sadašnje stanje s predviđenim u 2030. i 2100. godini, očekivano je da će doći do promjene kod većine vrsta. promjene seare mogu očekivatiwithin tokomthe sezone Marginalised Groups inareala e-Governance and theNajveće e-SEE Secretariat positioned Social JJA na sjeveru i u južnim dijelovima (A1B scenarij, 2001-2030), kada se javljaju u vrijednostima od Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely +1.4°C na sjeveru i +1.1°C u južnim dijelovima, te povećanje padavina od +5 do +15%. with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing and playing an advisory role.na Government-appointed members Slično kao i što expertise je predviđeno u Hrvatskoj, površine kojima je vrsta obilno prisutnaof povećavaju samo za nekeAdvisory vrste, kao npr. kopitnjak, Asarum L.,Focal dok npr. za likovac the Regionalsee-Governance Taskforce (REGATA) act aseuropaeum government Points for their (Daphne laureola L.) stagniraju, smanjuju se za gorčiku (Prenanthes purpurea L.) ili čak neke mogu respective countries. potpuno nestati. Zavisno od područja, padavine pokazuju i negativne i pozitivne promjene, što će imati različit utjecaj na biljni svijet. 87

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Trenutno nije moguće precizno predvidjeti uspješnost prilagođavanja na život u novim staništima, nastalim klimatskim promjenama. Idealni slučaj preživljavanja vrsta uz migracijsko pomje­ ranje samo je ponekad realno moguće zbog izoliranih ekoloških niša, prirodnih i vještačkih barijera. Antropogeni efekti na prostor, u prvom redu fragmentacija staništa i prekid migracijskih puteva, povećavaju rizik smanjivanja areala ili nestanka vrsta. Vrste izložene klimatskim promjenama mogu pokušati migrirati slijedeći svoj životni optimum, prilagoditi se novonastalim uvjetima ili izumrijeti (lokalno ili šire).

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed na biljne zajednice prema by3.3.5.2. Utjecaji a description of the major instruments and actions at theklimatskim European Unionscenarijima level relating to disability Na in general and e-Accessibility in particular. bazi Hopkinsonovog bioklimatskog zakona, po kojem porast temperature od 3°C,

a što se naročito odnosi na A2 scenarij, 2071-2100, odgovara visinskom pomaku vegetacije od 500 m nadmorske visine, predviđa se zamjena vegetacije u pretplaninskom području Dinarida vegetacijom umjerenog klimazonalnog pojasa. Najugroženije će biti cirkumpolarne, predalpske vrste i vrste alpske rasprostranjenosti. To su zeljaste vrste uske ekološke valence koje neće moći e-Accessibility aboutdovoljno overcoming range prilagođavanje of barriers thatmoguće people je with disabilities others prilagoditi svojisareal brzo. the Uspješno samo uz sporuand promjenu such asdo older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information klime 0,1°C/10 god. i apsolutnu promjenu klime nižu od 1°C. Eliminatorni ekološki faktor u višim područjima vjerovatno će biti temperatura, a u nizinskim kontinentalnim područjima, padavine. Society.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

Uz pomjeranje klimazonalnih vegetacijskih pojaseva može se očekivati nestanak e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything neprilagodljivih ili slabo prilagodljivih vrsta. Dinamika prodora neautohtonih vrsta može se povećati, from websites mogu for e-government services, toiztelephony blind people to subtitling on a agresivnije istisnuti autohtone vrste prirodnih support staništa.for Naročito ugrožena bit će bogata television. Upflora to 15(paleoendemi, percent of theneoendemi), population across the European Union hasnaročito a disability, suchsuassea endemična te tercijarni i glacijalni relikti, oni koji zadržali u refugiima zbog slabe mogućnosti migracije s obzirom na malu rasprostranjenost. visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. Očekuje se da će populacije mnogih vrsta, posebno na rubnim dijelovima areala, biti izložene fragmentaciji na manje subpopulacije. Populacije koje posjeduju velike i brojne subpopulacije i perhaps surprising number ofće international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover sporu Amigracijsku sposobnost izgubit najmanje genetske raznovrsnosti, i obratno. Vrste koje se this the genetski highest international level, the promjenama UNCRPD, ratified ne area. uspijuAtbrzo prilagoditi klimatskim nestatand će.coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive 3.3.5.3. Utjecaji na the vodna staništa prema klimatskm scenarijima (for copyright exemptions), and Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Pomjeranje zona u planinskim područjima smanjit će direktno područja pod snježnim Furthermore, to strengthen these and toteenact more ilegislation. pokrivačem imoves samimare timafoot količinu vode vezane u snijeg, će utjecati na količinu vode koja iz ovih izvora u proljeće otapanjem dopire do riječnih i drugih tokova. Vodena i močvarna staništa posebno su značajna naatnacionalnom i međunarodnom Obezbjeđuju i/ili učestvuju u nizu kritičnih There is least a five-fold justification fornivou. early action in the area of e-Accessibility: ekoloških funkcija, kao što su regulacija vodnog režima i stvaranje okruženja za niz stenovalentnih biljnih i životinjskih vrsta. Tipovi vodenih i močvarnih staništa bit će osjetljivi na promjene u količini 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already i raspodjeli padavina i vodni režim sa sekundarnim efektima na vezane vrste. Mogu se očekivati marginalized. helps fulfilvodostaja, the promise of the Information to reduce than promjene u godišnjimItritmovima te kvalitetu vode. Ovo ćeSociety vjerovatno utjecatirather na kvalitet increase the disadvantages certainilipopulations Conversely, insufficient effort in this podzemnih i nadzemnih voda, te direktno indirektno iface. na sastav pripadnih biocenoza. area is likely to further marginalize these groups. 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the

3.3.5.4. Utjecaji na faunu prema klimatskm scenarijima population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. Procesi vezani za promjene klime direktno su vezani za promjene ekoloških uvjeta na staništima, gdje su naročito pod utjecajem ekosistemi, kojitosuimproved značajnoaccess pogođeni. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the visokoplaninski marginalized could also lead for 2

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able-bodied people; it klimatskih can reduceuvjeta the cost of se webnestanak service development, and enhance the Kao posljedica promijenjenih javlja ugroženih, rijetkih ili ranjivih organizama, gubitak endemičnog genofonda, kao i gubitak biodiverziteta na genetskom, specijskom prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. i ekosistemskom nivou. Praćenje posljedica klimatskih promjena po prirodu i biodiverzitet vrši se The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of pomoću4. bioindikatora za klimatske promjene. e-Services and to lower the cost. Odrasle životinje, naročito viših taksonomskih grupa, mogu fiziološkim mehanizmima Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations assist in the ublažiti 5. utjecaj globalnog zagrijavanja (ponašanje, termoregulacija, hipotermija, will temperaturna aspects of znatno the development the Information Society in the EU convergence different kompenzacija i dr.). of Iako ovi mehanizmi povećavajuof otpornost, ne mogu eliminirati sekundarne efekte na animalnu biologiju, naročito mehanizme vezane uz razmnožavanje. U and SEE countries. ekološkom pogledu, globalno zagrijavanje može imati za posljedicu smanjenje broja vrsta faune u prirodnim staništima, te njihov utjecaj na prostorni i vremenski razmještaj. Uočeno je, npr., kako pojedine vrste leptira mijenjaju areal i kod promjena temperature sredine < 1°C. Naročito se može očekivati utjecaj na dnevne, sezonske i godišnje ritmove, aktivnost, te migracije posebno insekata, te na osjetljivu interakciju insekt-biljka. U grupi nematoda uočeno je da različite vrste The specific goals this report are: te da se može očekivati i smanjenje i povećanje broja vrsta, na zagrijavanje tla of reagiraju raznoliko, zavisno od grupe. Za razumijevanje veze populacione biologije kičmenjaka i klimatologije, još uvijek je nedovoljno podataka. se da će ptice morskih obalnih staništa osjetiti više negativnih učinaka 1. to outline theČini international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal od ostalog dijela ornitofaune. instruments and strategic level documents;

1.2. About this report

Klimatske promjene u BiHpicture utjecatofće na različite for grupe životinja.people Vjerovatno pod 2. to develop a comparative e-Accessibility able-bodied versusćepeople utjecajem najviše biti endemična fauna kraških područja. Uz pomicanje klimatskih zona može se with disabilities; očekivati poremećaj nepoznatih fizioloških i ekoloških uvjeta neophodnih za preživljavanje pojedinih stenoendemičnih rodova kraškihlevel i primorskih guštera. Posebno je osjetljivostakeholders; močvarno područje u 3. to assess the current of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility zoni parka blato kojeinsethe nalazi u submediteranskom pojasu i svrstano je u grupu 4. toprirode identifyHutovo good practices region; močvara od međunarodnog značaja, prema smjernicama Ramsarske konvencije. Promjena klime 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: poremetit će vremenski raspored migracija i dostupnost izvora hrane. Gubitak močvarnog područja address obstacles to e-Accessibility; kao što -je Hutovo blatothe moglo bi dovesti do nestanka populacija ptica i kornjača koje močvare comply with requirements for thesamo UN and EU. migracija. nastanjuju tokom cijele godine ili su tu prisutne u doba Promjena klime i pomjeranje vegetacije mogu također značajno poremetiti buduću di­stri­ buciju životinja, njihovu brojnost i opstanak. Brzina promjena, posebno u kombinaciji s prisu­stvom This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, vještačkih urbanih i poljoprivrednih barijera, može utjecati na sposobnost brojnih vrsta da se preseleby that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed u zone koje im klimatski i ekološki znatno više odgovaraju. Ugrožene ili rijetke vrste bit će posebno the UNDPnaCountry Office in aBosnia andako Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP and funded by the osjetljive brze promjene, posebno njihova distribucija bude prostornoNY, ograničena a širina UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund značajnu to supportprijetnju the South Eastern Europe region njihove niše sužena. Promjena klime stoga predstavlja biološkoj raznovrsnosti. in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the godina je zabilježen pomakdevelopment, u razdoblju mriještenja slatkovodnih riba od –0,11 regionalPrethodnih action plan for Information Society and the UNCRPD. The programmatic do +0,34 dana/god. Vrijeme povratka ptica selica sa zimovališta događa se ranije za 31% vrsta. priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. Slične promjene događaju se i u BiH. Kao i kod biljnih vrsta, populacije mnogih životinjskih vrsta, posebno na rubnim dijelovima areala, bit će izložene fragmentaciji na manje subpopulacije. Tom project is će being implemented by the velike Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative prilikomThe desit će se da populacije koje posjeduju i brojne subpopulacije i sporu migracijsku Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge,i networks and koje resources. Empowering sposobnost izgubiti najmanje genetske raznovrsnosti, obratno. Vrste se ne uspiju brzo genetski prilagoditi klimatskim promjenama izumrijet Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE će. Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely Neminovno je da će se dio beskičmenjaka široke rasprostranjenosti prilagoditi promjenama with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP kroz migracione procese. Povećanje temperature poremetit će razvojne cikluse vrsta prilagođenih in New York is providing playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of hladnijim uvjetima (npr. expertise planinskiand masivi). Prednost kičmenjaka je što imaju dobre migracijske the Regional(iako e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) iact as government Focal for their sposobnosti lokalno mogu biti usko rasprostranjeni) pomiču svoj areal brže odPoints vegetacijskih jedinica. Fauna intersticija uskog obalnog područja (zavisno od lokalnih topografskih obilježja) respective countries. može biti direktno izložena salinizaciji kao posljedici podizanja nivoa mora. Neposredno, a kao 89

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posljedica sudjelovanja pojedinih mikroorganizama i organizama u složenim ekološkim lancima, ukupni efekt na biodiverzitet bit će negativan.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES 3.3.5.5. Utjecaji na faunu kraških prostora prema klimatskim scenarija

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the Kraška područja predstavljaju jedinstvene fenomene koji ukazuju na specifične obrasce requirements it sets in all aspects ofmreže, e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is jedne followed razvoja Zemljine kore, hidrološke te biološke i ekološke raznovrsnosti. Remećenje od bynjih a description of na theostatak majorsistema instruments and actions iat the European Union relating to ima posljedice (Watson et al.,1997) kao posljedica toga kraškilevel geo-ekosistemi disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. su jako krhka područja koja prolaze kroz progresivnu degradaciju izazvanu ljudskim aktivnostima u mnogim dijelovima naše planete (Parise et al., 2009). Upravljanje kraškim terenima je veoma teško, posebno zbog suočavanja s ogromnom urbanizacijom i napretka poljoprivredne tehnologije.

1.1. Kraška Whypoljae-Accessibility? predstavljaju ekološki najinteresantnije fenomene u oblasti krša, za koja

e-Accessibility is about overcoming range of barriers that people with disabilities and others je karakteristično postojanje mrežethe podzemnih tokova, te poniranje površinskih rijeka i njihovo ponovno pojavljivanje na drugim područjima. Također, posebna karakteristika je pojava povremenih such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information tokova, koji postoje u određenom dijelu godine, a zatim nestaju. Ova područja predstavljaju staništa Society. brojnih biljnih i životinjskih vrsta, od kojih su mnoge endemične i karakteristične samo za ova područja, a istovremeno neke imaju i veoma uzak areal rasprostranjenja, odnosno susreću se can potentially referpodručja. to any type ICT used by citizens, involves everything samo e-Accessibility u nekim dijelovima ovih kraških Odofposebnog interesa suand endemične vrste riba from websites forjee-government services, todio telephony support ufor blind people to subtitling gaovice, za koje karakteristično da jedan godine provode podzemnim vodama, a onda,on s pojavom većih vode, na površinu. television. Up to količina 15 percent of izlaze the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a Prema ranije korištenoj sistematici radi se o vrstama: gatačka gaovica (Paraphoxinus similar or higher proportion. metohiensis, Steindachner, 1901), trebinjska gaovica (Paraphoxinus pstrossi Steindachner, 1882) i popovska gaovica (Paraphoxinus ghetaldii Steindachner, 1882), koje su zatim svrstane u rod A perhaps number of international agreements,(Steindachner, regulations and guidelines cover Phoxinellus, te susurprising nosile naučne nazive Phoxynellus metohiensis 1901), Phoxynellus pstrossi 1882), Phoxynellus (Steindachner, 1882). this area. (Steindachner, At the highest international level, ghetaldii the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are Prije izgradnje akumulacija i sistema kanala i tunela, gaovice su najveći godine provodile spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the dio Copyright Directive u podzemnim vodama. U površinskim vodama pojavljivale su se u proljeće, u razdoblju plavljenja (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility polja istočne Hercegovine podzemnim vodama. Kao i ostale vrste koje nastanjuju kraške vode isi also by policy, andgaovice guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. imajucovered sličan životni ciklus, se odlikuju specifičnim kompleksom fizioloških adaptivnih Furthermore, afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. mehanizamamoves koji imare omogućavaju takav način preživljavanja (Ivanc i sar. 1989; Lučić, 2009). Potrebno istaći da klimatske promjene kroz promjenu temperature i hidrološkog režima There is at je least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: predstavljaju također jedan od vidova pritisaka kojem je izložena fauna ovakvih područja. Pošto je životni ciklus ovih vrsta povezan s vremenom pojavljivanja poplava u ovim područjima, svaka pomjeranja takvih 1. Ituzrokovat is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people are already dešavanja će i promjene kod gaovica. Pri tome je potrebno naglasiti da se owho razmnožavanju, helpsi dalje fulfil nedovoljno the promise of Usporedo the Information Societypromjenama to reduce rather than biologijimarginalized. i ekologiji ovihItvrsta zna. s klimatskim i promjene hidrološkog režima do poremećaja, jer svaka promjena uobičajenih tokova variranja increase the dovode disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort inmože this dovestiarea do poremećaja koji u značajnoj mjeri mogu utjecati na populacije pojedinih vrsta. is likely to further marginalize these groups. 2.Pored Improving access vrsta to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the endemičnih riba močvarni predjeli kraških područja predstavljaju i staništa mnogihpopulation vrsta ptica, a istovremeno predstavljaju iopportunities, koridore migracijskih vrstapublic ptica services pri njihovom opens significant market/sales and can help fulfil sezonskom kretanju. U ovim područjima konstatirane su i globalno ugrožene vrste ptica, kao što their remit in a cost effective manner. su: Anthya nyroca, Aquila pomarina, Falco neumanni, Crex crex (IUCN Redlist), te njihovi ugroženi 3. Improving e-Accessibility for Bird the marginalized could also lead to improved for srodnici. Medu vrstama koje EU Wild Directive navodi kao vrste koje trebaju bitiaccess predmet 2

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able-bodied people; it cani reduce cost of za webnjihov service development, and enhance the specijalne zaštite koja uključuje staništathe značajna opstanak i reprodukciju, a koje stanište prospects nalaze nafor ovom prostoru, su: Gavia artica, Ixobrychus minutes, Nycticorax nycticorax, migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. Ardeola ralloides, Egretta alba, Egretta garzetta, Ardea purpurea, Platalea leucorodia, Plegadis 4. The earlierciconia action (Bosna is taken,i the easier it is Zemlja to integrate e-Accessibility into karakteristiku development of falcinellus, Ciconia Hercegovina, raznolikosti). Posebnu kraških e-Services predjela saand stanovišta čine i predstavnici koji žive u pećinama i špiljama kojih na to lowerfaune the cost. ovom području, zbog konfiguracije terena, ima u velikom broju. 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries. 3.3.5.6. Utjecaji na zaštićena područja prema klimatskim

scenarija

1.2.Primjena About this report u arealu pojedinih vrsta i zajednica imat će utjecaja na prostore pod zaštitom.

Ovo može dovesti do potrebe za izmjenom granica nacionalnih parkova: NP ‹›Tjentište›› (Foča), The specific goals of thisureport are: Srpskoj i NP ‹›Una›› (Bihać) u Federaciji BiH. “Olakšavajuća NP ‹›Kozara›› (Prijedor) Republici okolnost” može biti da granice ovih parkova nisu do danas postavljene precizno, a nisu postavljene ni u skladu biološkim No, context kako se regarding radi o dugoročnim procesima i mogućnosti se 1. tos outline thekriterijima. international e-Accessibility including existingdalegal isprave ovi nedostaci, i potencijalna potreba da se uvaže utjecaji promjene klime može utjecati da instruments and strategic level documents; se promijene granice . ‹›Otežavajuća je okolnost›› što je do sada tek oko 2% teritorije BiH svrstano u neku od kategorija područja. 2. to develop zaštićenih a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities; Na posebnom udaru naći će se rijeke dinarskog sliva, naročito Neretva i Trebišnjica. to assess thejecurrent levelbioloških of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; Područje3.rijeke Neretve zbog svojih karakteristika zaštićeno i uvršteno u spisak vrijednih močvarnih staništa konvenciji 4. to identifyprema good RAMSAR-skoj practices in the region; (Hutovo blato), jer su mogući negativni trendovi izrazito nepovoljni. 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: -

address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

3.3.5.7. Utjecaji klimatskih promjena na obalske ekosisteme Uz utjecaj promjena u režimu temperatura i padavina, na biodiverzitet obalskih ekosistema This report is partćeofi apromjena larger project, Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, jadranske obale djelovat u nivou‘Empowering mora. Za područje Mediterana je predviđen porast that beingod implemented the context of the e-SEE Initiative. is aizložene regionalovom project designedsuby nivoaismora 34 do 52 cm.inStaništa i biocenoze koje će direktnoIt biti djelovanju niska obalska područja, npr. slaništa i estuari. Moguby seDG/BDP očekivatiNY, promjene u fizičkim, the UNDP Country Office in obalski Bosnia pijesci, and Herzegovina, supported and funded by the hidrodinamičkim, biološkim i hemijskim pratećim i kvantitativnim UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematicparametrima Trust Fund tos support thekvalitativnim South Eastern Europe region promjenama u sastavu biocenoza. Ozbiljne posljedice po biocenoze slatkih voda može uzrokovati in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the zagrijavanje površinskog vodenog sloja i dublji prodor boćate vode u estuare. Može se očekivati regional action plan forpojedinih Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic oštećivanje ili nestanak vrijednih obalskih staništa erozivnim procesima. Smjer promjena priorities ofpojedine the project are therefore fullyjealigned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. i utjecaj na taksonomske grupe teško predvidljiv. The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely 3.3.6.1. Prostorno i urbanističko planiranje with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise andsistema playing an advisory role. Government-appointed Razvoj urbanih i peri-urbanih zahtijeva veći slobodni prostor i sve većumembers potrošnjuof mineralnih fosilnih goriva.Advisory Na taj način, urbanizacija i, act u sklopu nje, industrijalizacija the Regionali e-Governance Taskforce (REGATA) as government Focal Pointspostaju for their aktivni faktori životne sredine. Promjene u strukturi i načinu korištenja prostora postaju sve respective countries. značajniji faktor u promjeni atmosfere i urbane klime, koji u većoj ili manjoj mjeri utiče na opće globalne klimatske promjene. Konkretno, povećanje temperature prizemnog vazduha izaziva

3.3.6. Regionalni razvoj

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promjene klime i ekoloških uslova života. Povećanje obima proizvodnje u pojedinim aktivnostima hemijske i mašinske industrije narušava strukturu i funkciju ozonskog omotača i doprinosi jačem efektu direktnog sunčevog zračenja s različitim posljedicama po živi svet, ali i na tok klimatskih promjena. Urbani sustavi, različite morfologije, strukture, funkcije, veličine itd. predstavljaju važne faktore u klimatskim promjenama, kako na lokalnom tako i na globalnom nivou. Stoga, sustavi planiranja, naročito urbanog planiranja, kao i zone posebnih namjena u vidu odgovarajućih planskih dokumenata, imaju veću ulogu u sprečavanju klimatskih promjena i prilagođavanju na njih. This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to 3.3.6.2. Ruralno planiranje disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. Posmatrano kao faktor prilagođavanja klimatskim promjenama, ruralno planiranje je od neprocjenjive važnosti. Ono obuhvata korištenje zemljišta, vodnih resursa, šuma i šumskih potencijala, razvoj pojedinih privrednih djelatnosti koje imaju neposredan utjecaj na životnu sredinu i klimu, kao što su turizam, agrobiznis, prerada drveta, korištenje minerala i drugih sirovina, kao i razvoj saobraćajnih sustava. e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking participate on equal the Information Destruktivne snage u oblasti ruralnog razvojato u Bosni i Hercegovini su,terms više ili in manje, neminovna Society. pojava u svim društvenim sustavima i ukazuju na nedosljednosti između općeg, regionalnog i lokalnog razvoja, kao i nedosljednosti između općeg i sektorskog razvoja. Uprkos takvim preduslovima, ruralni razvoj e-Accessibility je opstao i ostao faktorrefer održivog Zatoused ruralno planiranje ruralni razvoj (kao canključni potentially to anyrazvoja. type of ICT by citizens, andi involves everything ključni segment zaštiteokoliša) danas imaju sve veći naučni, politički i praktični značaj. from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television.UUp toprevazilaženja 15 percent of problemā the population the Europeanrazlika, Union has a disability, as a cilju općegacross razvoja, regionalnih zastoja u razvojusuch ruralnih visual, hearing, speech, ruralnih cognitive, or motor and SEE countries canunija, expect to have a područja, revitalizacije područja itd,impairment, razvijene zemlje, naročito Evropska uspostavile su koncept integralnog ruralnog razvoja (IRD). Ovaj koncept podrazumijeva "sve oblike ljudske similar or higher proportion. djelatnosti zasnovane na lokalnim resursima, u cilju ekonomskog jačanja ruralnih ekonomija, integralne zaštite svih elemenata prostora, te integracije razvojnih i zaštitnih ciljeva u funkciji A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover dugoročnog održivog razvoja“. this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal model context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, actions koji are Evropski ruralnog planiranja, integralnog ruralnog razvoja i ruralnebut održivosti, je prihvatljiv za RS i FBiH, definiše odgovoran pristup vrednovanju razvojnih potencijala u ruralnim spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive sredinama. krajnjiand cilj je očuvanje okoliša i uspostavljanje održivog razvoja i održivih funkcija (for copyright Njegov exemptions), the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility s ciljem zadovoljenja potreba ove i budućih generacija. is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are razvoj afoot to strengthen these and to enact moreStoga, legislation. Održivi ruralni direktno zavisi od očuvanjaokoliša. on uključuje ekologiju voda, vazduha i zemljišta, te status biodiverziteta kao ključne pokazatelje očuvanja, mogućeg vrednovanja i neophodnih zaštitnih mjera. Zakoni i propisi o in zaštitiokoliša, na primjer, propisuju There is at least a five-fold justification for early action the area of e-Accessibility: proceduru za procjenu utjecaja na okoliš. Na taj način, zakoni imaju ulogu stimulativnog faktora u ruralnom razvoju, tj. održivi ruralni razvoj predstavlja ključni preduslov za održiv okoliš i sprečavanje 1. It is worthwhile in its own rightiztozakona improve services to who are klimatskih promjena. Pojedina pitanja o access okolišu to prenesena supeople na općine, kaoalready što su It helps fulfil izdavanje the promise of the Information izrada marginalized. ekoloških akcionih planova, ekoloških dozvola itd. Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this Prednost modela ruralnog planiranja koji se bazira na integralnom ruralnom razvoju i area is likely to further marginalize these groups. modelu održivosti jeste u tome što on podržava i klasičnu poljoprivredu i komplementarne aktivnosti Improving access public and private, to such a significant proportion of the "u i oko2.poljoprivrede“, čimeto seservices, omogućava adaptivni i preventivni pristup klimatskim promjenama. population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil Pri ruralnom their remit in aekonomskom cost effectiveplaniranju, manner. koje predstavlja ključni element ruralnog planiranja i integralnog ruralnog razvoja, prioritet treba dati razvojnoj politici usmjerenoj na prirodne resurse: 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also leadvode), to improved for poljoprivredno zemljište, vodni resursi (rijeke, jezera, termalne i mineralne zaštićenaaccess područja,

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

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it can reduce the cost of web service development, andmogu enhance the pejzažneable-bodied vrijednosti, people; eko-klimatske vrijednosti, biogene vrijednosti itd. Ovi resursi da se koriste kao osnova za poljoprivredu usmjerenu na proizvodnju bezbjedne, zdrave hrane; šumarstvo prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. usmjereno na uzgoj šuma i preradu drveta, prikupljanje i obradu šumskog voća, ljekovitog bilja itd; The earlier actiondaisobezbijedi taken, theposebne easier it mogućnosti is to integrate into development i seoski 4. turizam, koji može zae-Accessibility poboljšanje integralnog ruralnogof razvoja. e-Services and to lower the cost. 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries.

3.4. Pregled sposobnosti prilagođavanja klimatskim promjenama 1.2. About this report

Poglavlje koje slijedi bavi se sposobnostima prilagođavanja u pet oblasti (prilagođeno iz Smit 2006. i CARE 2013.): informacije, vještine i menadžment, ekonomski resursi, fizički kapaciteti, The specificigoals of U this report i institucije mreže. njemu seare: daje sažeti prikaz općeg političkog i administrativnog okvira za prilagođavanje klimatskim promjenama i finansijskog okruženja za investiranje u projekte koji direktno1.ili to indirektno podržavaju prilagođavanje, a zatim se razmatraju sposobnosti prilagođavanja outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal po sektorima. instruments and strategic level documents; 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities;

3.4.1. Opći okvir politika i politike prilagođavanja 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; klimatskim promjenama

4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders howza to: Na regionalnom nivou, Bosna i Hercegovina je podržala izradu Okvirnog akcionogon plana prilagođavanje klimatskim jugoistočnoj Evropi (SEE/CCFAP-A) pod pokroviteljstvom address thepromjenama obstacles to ue-Accessibility; Beogradske inicijative o klimatskim promjenama (SEE, 2007). Ovaj opći politički okvir i druge comply with requirements for the UN and EU. relevantne aktivnosti detaljno su opisani u Poglavlju 5.5 o međunarodnoj saradnji ovog izvještaja. Prilikom realizacije ovog okvira za prilagođavanje potrebno je razviti sustav indikatora koji je kompatibilan sa standardima EU, a koji će odgovarati specifičnim potrebama Bosne i Hercegovine. This reportklimatskih is part of apromjena larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised in e-Governance’, Praćenje utjecaja zahtijevaće izgradnju kapaciteta Groups za upravljanje razvojem that implemented the contextpotrebama. of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by koje is je being orijentisano ka oviminspecifičnim the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the državnomGovernance nivou izrađen je nacrt Strategije na klimatske promjene i UNDP’sNa Democratic Thematic Trust Fund toprilagođavanja support the South Eastern Europe region niskoemisionog razvoja za Bosnu i Hercegovinu. U ovoj strategiji identifikovane su oblasti koje je in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the potrebno ojačati u aktuelnom političkom okviru kako bi se podržalo efikasno prilagođavanje. regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+.

3.4.2. Ekonomski podsticaji The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, on their existingpromjenama knowledge, networks resources. Mjerecapitalizing prilagođavanja klimatskim nemoguće and je postići bez Empowering adekvatnih Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within thenivou. Social ekonomskih instrumenata. Najvažniji instrumenti i mjere su oni na državnom i entitetskom Zakonom o Fondu za zaštitu životneSector. sredineThe RSUNDP (2002.)Country i Zakonom o Fondu za zaštitu okoliša closely FBiH Inclusion/Democratic Governance Office in Sarajevo is working (2003.) osnovani su fondovi za prikupljanje i raspodjelu sredstava za zaštitu okoliša, ali to još uvijek with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP nije donijelo očekivane efekte. Novi Zakon o Fondu za zaštitu životne sredine i energetsku efikasnost in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of usvojen je u novembru 2011. u RS. Njime je definisan novi raspored za raspodjelu sredstava za the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforceje(REGATA) as government Focal Points their projekte energetske efikasnosti i promijenjeno ime fonda.act Izmjene zakona o fondovima za for zaštitu respective countries. okoliša u FBiH i Distriktu Brčko su u pripremi.

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Uprkos međunarodnim obavezama BiH, aktivnosti u oblastima ublažavanja klimatskih promjena i energetske efikasnosti daleko su od zadovoljavajućih. Sadašnje razdoblje ekonomskog razvoja obilježeno je smanjenom proizvodnjom u poljoprivredi, industriji i energetskom sektoru zbog poslijeratnog oporavka, strukturalnih pitanja naslijeđenih iz planske ekonomije iz 1980-ih, i utjecaja svjetske ekonomske krize. Kao rezultat toga, utjecaji na okoliš svedeni su na minimum. Međutim, budući razvoj BiH pretpostavlja oporavak i brži rast u tri pomenuta sektora, što će proizvesti veće izazove za održivost.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

U ovom trenutku moguće je pristupiti sredstvima za finansiranje projekata energetske This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the efikasnosti i obnovljivih izvora energije na Zapadnom Balkanu. Pored toga, ne treba potcjenjivati sredstva requirements it sets inzato all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This isČini followed privatnih investitora, što oni često tragaju za mogućnostima investiranja u ovaj sektor. se da bybiasedescription of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to kombinacijom sredstava iz javnog i privatnog kapitala mogla riješiti razna pitanja prilagođavanja klimatskim promjenama u Bosni i Hercegovini. To bi mogao biti jedan od osnovnih zadataka kako insti­ disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. tucija tako i donosioca odluka. Pošto još uvijek nema odgovarajućih strateških projekata, potrebno je unaprijed napraviti određene korake i kontinuirano izdvajati sredstva za: promociju projekata, izradu tehničkih uputstava, izradu dokumentacije u vezi s izvršenjem obaveza (due diligence), konkurisanje za sredstva (krediti ili fondovi), afirmaciju i druge vrste podsticaja. Na kraju, može se zaključiti da je finansiranje ključno za planiranje i sprovođenje za klimatske promjene. e-Accessibility is about overcoming the rangeplanova of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Kao što je slučaj i s drugim zemljama u razvoju, BiH je već pogođena klimatskim Society. promjenama, ali ne raspolaže neophodnim ljudskim i finansijskim resursima za prilagođavanje. Stoga se Bosna i Hercegovina obraća Evropskoj uniji, koja se zalaže za jačanje dijaloga o klimatskim e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of kandidatima ICT used by citizens, involves promjenama sa zemljama kandidatima i potencijalnim (trenutniand status BiH).everything Međutim, to takođe predstavlja generalnu poruku svih strategija koje se bave pitanjima proširenja, pa otuda from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on ne iznenađuje da su u nekoliko ključnih zajedničkih politika EU i budžeta EU i država članica television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a predviđena značajna sredstva za održivi razvoj (uključujući i direktne i indirektne investicije u visual, speech,klimatskih cognitive,promjena). or motor impairment, and SEEpokazuju countries expect promjene to have a mjerehearing, za ublažavanje Naučna istraživanja dacan klimatske similar higher utjecati proportion. mogu or značajno na vodne resurse, poljoprivredu, šume i šumske ekosisteme, stanje obala, turizam, energetiku, korištenje zemljišta i objekte, stanje saobraćajne infrastrukture, prirodne ekosisteme, zdravlje ljudi, socio-ekonomski status i demografske u zemljama Jugoistočne A perhaps surprising number of international agreements,trendove regulations and guidelines cover Evrope. Potencijalni izvori finansiranja za prilagođavanje klimatskim promjenama uključuju this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is Globalni fond za okoliš (Global Environmental Facility), Fond za prilagođavanje, Posebni fond za the relevantpromjene legal context. single EU directive dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions klimatske i fondNo "Green Climate“. Ostaliisdonatori su Svjetska banka, Evropska bankaare za spread such as Television Without Frontierspretpristupne (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive obnovuacross i razvojareas (EBRD) i FAO, Evropska unija (uključujući instrumente, Sedmi okvirni program EUexemptions), – FP7 i sredstva EIB), Program tehničke (for saradnje WMO, Jugoistočnae-Accessibility Inicijativa za (for copyright and the Telecoms Framework assistive technologies). pomoć u katastrofama i adaptaciju koji vodi Svjetska banka, te bilateralni donatori (Velika is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic Britanija, support. Španija, Švicarska, Švedska, i drugi). Postoje i potencijalna finansijska sredstva za prilagođavanje Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. klimatskim promjenama iz privatnih fondova i investitora, a takođe bi bilo moguće privući sredstva kroz postojeći Multilateralni sporazum o okolišu (MEA) koji bi mogao da obezbijedi sinergije s There is at least a five-fold justification for early action inotheokolišu area ofuključuju e-Accessibility: mjerama prilagođavanja. Relevantni Multilateralni sporazumi Konvenciju o biološkoj raznovrsnosti, Konvenciju Ujedinjenih nacija o borbi protiv dezertifikacije i Ramsarsku konvencija U drugim sposobnosti prilagođavanja mogu who se povećati kroz 1. It o ismočvarama. worthwhile in its own slučajevima, right to improve access to services to people are already tehničku pomoć koja stavlja naglasak na obrazovanje i saradnju u oblasti klimatskih promjena. marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

3.4.3. Teškoće i rizici u sprovođenju predloženih mjera 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the prilagođavanja population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. U sprovođenju predloženih mjera postoje mnogobrojni rizici, a biće potrebno prevazići i mnoge teškoće. Najznačajnija prepreka je nedostatak finansijskih sredstava potrebnih za 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for

2

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able-bodied people; it can Neke reduceodthe cost of web service development, and enhance the sprovođenje mjera prilagođavanja. predloženih mjera pretpostavljaju primjenu različitih vrsta istraživanja i razvoj sustava za praćenje klimatskih promjena, a za sve to će biti potrebna prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. finansijska sredstva. Dakle, obezbjeđivanje finansijskih sredstava predstavlja ključni prvi korak u 4. The earlier taken, the easierseit od is to integrate e-Accessibility into development implementaciji. Drugaaction grupaisprepreka sastoji nedostatka istraživačkih kapaciteta u oblastiof prilagođavanja klimatskim promjenama, e-Services and to lower the cost.nedovoljnih istraživanja o utjecajima klimatskih promjena i nejasno definiranih uloga različitih aktera. Istovremeno, neophodno je raditi na promoviranju Pursuingpromjena approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the značaja 5. klimatskih i jačanju postojećih kapaciteta. convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries.

3.4.4. Procjena sposobnosti prilagođavanja po sektorima

1.2. About this report 3.4.4.1. Sposobnost prilagođavanja u poljoprivredi

The specific goals ofprilagođavanja this report are: Sposobnost klimatskim prijetnjama u poljoprivrednom sektoru trenutno je na niskom nivou. U pogledu raspoloživih informacija i znanja, primjetan je nedostatak detaljne analize o regionalnim promjenama unutar BiHcontext kao i nedostatak modelovanja usjeva. Klimatski podaci 1. to outline the international regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal se ne unose u sustave ranog upozoravanja za poljoprivrednike, a poljoprivrednim proizvođačima instruments and strategic level documents; nedostaju informacije o adaptivnim tehnikama poljoprivredne proizvodnje, sjemena sorti i usjevi koji bi možda bili tolerantniji na promjene sezonskim obrascima temperatura i padavina. 2. to develop a comparative pictureu of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities; U pogledu vještina i upravljanja, postoji generalna potreba za obukom poljoprivrednih 3. to assess theradno current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; proizvođača o manje intenzivnim poljoprivrednim metodama, tehnikama uzgoja bolje prilagođenih usjeva igood tehnikama protivgradne zaštite. U privrednom sektoru, primjetan je opći 4. to identify practices in the region; manjak 5. investicija i nedostatak osiguranja ljetine, će s povećanjem vremenskih to develop a set of recommendations for što government and otherekstremnih stakeholders on how to: pojava u budućnosti sve više dobivati na značaju. address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; - pogledu comply with requirements for the UNjeand EU. U fizičkih kapaciteta, primjetan nedostatak modernih tehnologija (mnogi poljoprivredni proizvođači koriste zastarjelu poljoprivrednu opremu, a usljed nedostatka sredstava i zbog poljoprivredne proizvodnje malog obima nove tehnologije se usvajaju veoma sporo). Pored toga, primjetan je is i nedostatak infrastrukture koja bi mogla odgovoriti klimatskim prijetnjama, This report part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, kao što su sustavi i akumulacije za navodnjavanje te prikupljanje kišnice. Treba takođe pomenutiby that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed problem nepostojanja većeg izbora klimatski pogodnih sjemena i biljnih sorti. the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’sUDemocratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern region institucionalnom sektoru, primjetan je nedostatak integracije pitanjaEurope klimatskih in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Prioritykoordinacije Area of the ie-SEE the promjena u politike o poljoprivredi i ruralnom razvoju, nedostatak jasnih Agenda+, nadležnosti za poljoprivredne politike, kao i nedostatak programa za pružanje stručnih usluga u poljoprivredi. regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+.

3.4.4.2. Sposobnost prilagođavanja u sektoruUNDP-funded voda The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Kad je u pitanju sposobnost prilagođavanja u sektoru voda, malo toga se promijenilo od Prvog Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social nacionalnog izvještaja. Što se tiče informacija, još uvijek postoji kritičan nedostatak hidrološkog Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The potencijalnih UNDP Countryimplikacija Office in Sarajevo is working closely modelovanja, što veoma otežava određivanje klimatskih promjena na with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP upotrebu energije, vode za piće i navodnjavanja. Iako je urađena opća procjena ranjivosti sektora, nedostaje detaljna procjena ranjivosti. toga, potrebnorole. je procijeniti sposobnost prilagođavanja in New York is providing expertise andPored playing an advisory Government-appointed members of klimatskim promjenama za vodne resurse. the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries. Pored toga, primjetan je i nedostatak mapa ranjivosti i dijagrama rizika od poplava izrađenih pomoću GIS tehnika. Treba napomenuti i nedostatak sustava ranog upozoravanja za visoki 95

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vodostaj i poplave koji bi funkcionisao na osnovu sveobuhvatnih podataka u stvarnom vremenu. U ekonomskom smislu, ovaj nedostatak informacija proizlazi iz manjka finansiranja za sustave i institucije za monitoring. Šire gledano, nizak nivo investicija takođe utiče na sektor voda i vodovodna preduzeća, koja još uvijek ne raspolažu sredstvima za realizaciju važnih nadogradnji i efikasno održavanje sustava za distribuciju vode, pa stoga i dalje postoji potreba za velikim investicijama u ovom sektoru.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

Što se infrastrukture tiče, vodovodni sustavi su u cjelini u prilično lošem stanju. Popravke i This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the dugoročno održavanje su neadekvatni, a kao rezultat toga, zastarjeli vodovodni sustavi trpe velike requirements sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is znači followed gubitke vode.it U pojedinim vodovodima količina neobračunate vode premašuje 85%, što da bypreduzeća a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to koja upravljaju ovim vodovodima ne mogu ekonomski da posluju. Isplative tehnologije i prakse,inkao što suand efikasnije pumpe iinprogrami za otkrivanje curenja, koje bi ujedno doprinijele i disability general e-Accessibility particular. ublažavanju klimatskih promjena, nisu uobičajene. Stoga, smanjenje gubitaka predstavlja najvažniji "resurs“ za domaćinstva koji može znatno smanjiti ranjivost u ovom sektoru.

1.1. Mjere Why e-Accessibility? zaštite od poplava predstavljaju još jednu oblast u kojoj je sposobnost prilagođavanja

na niskom nivou. Kadaovercoming je riječ o institucijama i mrežama, i dalje postoji potreba za ugrađivanjem e-Accessibility is about the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others pitanja klimatskih promjena u sektorske zakone i programe i za usklađivanjem tih programa. such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society.

3.4.4.3. Sposobnost prilagođavanja u sektoru zdravstva e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites forpostoje e-government services, toutjecaja telephony supportpromjena for blind na people to subtitling on Iako ne precizni pokazatelji klimatskih zdravlje ljudi, moglo television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as i,a bi se pretpostaviti da je svaka investicija u prilagođavanje klimatskim promjenama i ekonomski prije svega, ljudski izvodljiva i isplativa. U tom smislu neophodno je mnogo više sredstava usmjeriti visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a na sprječavanje toplotnog udara, javno obrazovanje i informisanje, i primijenjena istraživanja. similar or higher proportion. U pogledu informacionih kapaciteta, primjetan je nedostatak praćenja akutnih i hroničnih A surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover bolesti, perhaps zbog čega je izuzetno teško formulisati efikasnu strategiju za praćenje zdravstvenih this area. Atizazvanih the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is problema klimatskim promjenama. U medicinskoj zajednici primjetan je i nedostatak informacija o klimatskim promjenama i zdravlju, posebno o zdravstvenim rizicima za određene the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are osjetljive grupe. Ovim grupama možda takođe nedostaju informacije o klimatskim događajima – spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive naročito o toplotnim šokovima – što može ugroziti njihovo zdravlje. (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered guidelines and za benchmarking existprilagođavanja, for programmatic Trenutnobynepolicy, postojeand finansijska sredstva zdravstvene mjere a ovaj support. problem je dodatno usložnjen da u sektoru nije more urađena analiza troškova i koristi Furthermore, moves arečinjenicom afoot to strengthen thesezdravstva and to enact legislation. za mjere prilagođavanja klimatskim promjenama. Ako bi se smrtnost u ekstremnim klimatskim uslovima, kao što su toplotni šokovi, smanjila za samo 10%, ulaganja u mjere prilagođavanja bi se There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: višestruko isplatila. 1.UItpogledu is worthwhile in its ownnajveće right toteškoće improvepostoje accessutonerazvijenim, services to people are already infrastrukture, manjimwho mjestima koja nemajumarginalized. adekvatne domove zdravlja. Nedostaci u primarnoj zdravstvenoj zaštiti mogu otežati It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than brzu identifikaciju i reagovanje na certain prijetnjepopulations zaraznih bolesti, a pacijenti insufficient s određenim hroničnim increase the disadvantages face. Conversely, effort in this zdravstvenim problemima (kao što su kardiovaskularne bolesti) su ranjiviji kada ti problemi nisu area is likely to further marginalize these groups. efikasno tretirani. 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the Što se tičeopens institucija i mreža, Institut za javno zdravlje bi and imaocan koristi jačanja kapaciteta population significant market/sales opportunities, helpod public services fulfil za rješavanje klimatskih prijetnji. Primjetan je i nedostatak efikasnih sustava upozoravanja i their remit cost effective manner.događaje koji mogu predstavljati opasnost po zdravlje preventivnih mjerainzaa ekstremne vremenske stanovništva u BiH. e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 3. Improving 2

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able-bodied people; itprilagođavanja can reduce the cost of service development, and enhance the 3.4.4.4. Sposobnost u web šumarstvu prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. Sposobnost prilagođavanja u sektoru šumarstva na promjene temperature i padavina, 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of povećane koncentracije CO2, te na druge elementarne nepogodne je na veoma niskom nivou. Iako e-Servicesda and to lower promjene the cost. dugoročno transformišu gotovo sve šumske ekosisteme postoji mogućnost klimatske pomjerajući raspored i sustav šumskih zajednica, nisu definirana područja koja su najviše ugrožena 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the klimatskim promjenama i ne postoji detaljnija analiza utjecaja klimatskih promjena za pojedine aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU of different šumske convergence zajednice, odnosno visinske zone na kojima su one rasprostranjene. and SEE countries. U pogledu fizičkh kapaciteta izdvajamo nedovoljnu i zastarjelu tehniku za gašenje šumskih požara. U Bosni i Hercegovini ne postoje trajne mjerne stanice u kojima se vrši monitoring i praćenje promjena i reakcije najznačajnijih šumskih ekosistema na klimatske promjene.

1.2. About this report

U institucionalnom okviru primjetan je nedostatak integracije problema i pitanja klimatskih The specific goals of this report are: promjena u politike i strategije o šumarstvu, te nedostatak koordinacije među upravljačima i korisnicima šumskih resursa. Klimatske promjene se ne spominju ni u redovnim i zakonom 1. toplanovima outline the context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal definisanim za international gazdovanje šumama. instruments and strategic level documents; 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus 3.4.4.5. Sposobnost prilagođavanja u oblasti biodiverziteta i with disabilities; osjetljivih ekosistema

people

3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; Drugim nacionalnim izvještajem je region; jasno precizirano da su već sada pojedine biljne i životi­ 4. to identify good practices in the njske vrste ugrože povećanja temperature i smanjenja padavina. Iako su promjene 5. toveoma develop a set usljed of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: granice arela i fragmentacija staništa već primjetni, najosjetljivija područja i najugroženije vrste address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; flore i faune nisu definisana. comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

Monitoring biodiverziteta i naučnih istraživanja je zbog nedostatka finansijskih sredstava na veoma niskom nivou. This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, U institucionalnom neophodno jačanje aktivnosti i kapaciteta bi omogućivale that is being implemented pogledu in the context of thejee-SEE Initiative. It is a regionalkoje project designed by proširenje zaštićenih područja. the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+.

3.5. Predložene mjere prilagođavanja na klimatske promjene

The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative U ovom poglavlju daje se spisak potencijalnih mjera prilagođavanja za BiH po sektorima i Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering spisak potencijalnih investicionih projekata koje bi podržali prilagođavanje. Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. Country Office is working closely Iz pratećeg istraživanja i analize u The ovomUNDP poglavlju jasno je dainjeSarajevo analiza troškova i koristi najvažniji korakUNDP koji treba preduzeti s predloženim mjerama navedenim u with the fellow Country Offices uinvezi the region, while the Office ofprilagođavanja Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP tabeli koja slijedi. Takođe je veoma važno da se obezbijedi tijesna isprepletenost pitanja klimatskih in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of promjena i razvoja politika: nalazi iz primijenjenih istraživanja treba da se koriste kao osnov za the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their sektorski razvoj i opće društveno-ekonomske razvojne politike, a ove politike pak moraju uzeti u respective countries. utjecaj na sposobnost BiH da se prilagodi klimatskim promjenama. obzir svoj potencijalni

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3.5.1 Potencijalne mjere po sektorima

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES Sektor

Potencijalne mjere

Razvoj modelā usjeva koji mogu pružiti informacije o rasporedu sadnje i pogodnim sortama usjeva

This section presents an Implementacija overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, i usvajanje godišnjih lista sorti usjeva i poboljšanja u smislu the većeg izbora sorti requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed Povećana svijest javnosti o utjecaju promjena na poljoprivredu i to by a description of the major instruments and actions atklimatskih the European Union level relating pružanje obrazovanja i obuke poljoprivrednim proizvođačima; disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. Izgradnja akumulacija i kolektora za vodu; prikupljanje kišnice (individualna domaćinstva, lokalni, regionalni, entitetski i državni nivo)

Povećana proizvodnja u staklenicima i drugim ekološki kontrolisanim područjima 1.1. Why e-Accessibility? Unapređenje i razvoj tehnika protivgradne zaštite

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others Širenje "dobre prakse“ u poljoprivrednoj proizvodnji such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Razvoj diversifikovane poljoprivrede Society. Promocija integralnog održivog razvoja i energetske efikasnosti u sektoru poljoprivrede e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything

Razvoj sektorske za prilagođavanje promjenama from websites for e-government services,strategije to telephony support forklimatskim blind people to subtitling on Donošenje dugoročnih strategija za razvoj poljoprivrede na državnom i television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a Poljoprivreda entitetskom nivou visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a Brže usklađivanje s evropskim standardima u oblasti poljoprivrede i održivog similar or higher proportion. razvoja. Bosna i Hercegovina i dalje ne može da koristi značajna sredstva iz strukturnih i kohezionih fondova, tako da je proces integracije neophodan za proizvodnje iagreements, zadovoljavajuće stope zaposlenosti u sektorucover A perhaps surprisingpostizanje number rasta of international regulations and guidelines

this area. At the highest international level, theegzotermnih UNCRPD, i/ili ratified and coming into force in 2008, is Intenziviranje uzgoja kserofitnih vrsta otpornih na više temperature i nižu vlažnost the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are Smanjenje rizika u proizvodnji, posebno male poljoprivredne proizvođače spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for za subtitling), the Copyright Directive (kako bi se očuvali mali poljoprivredni proizvođači)* (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility efekata kolebanja cijena poljoprivrednih roba* is also covered by policy, Ublažavanje and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Povećanje ulaganja u poljoprivredu, naročito u nova sjemena, poboljšano Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. upravljanje, te upravljanje zemljištem i navodnjavanjem*

Pružanje transparentnog i pouzdanog regulatornog okruženja za razvoj

There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: poljoprivrede koje će privući privatne investicije i povećati produktivnost* Smanjenje gubitaka u lancu snabdijevanja hranom (naročito u toku i poslije žetve)*

1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already Razvoj održivog upravljanja prirodnim resursima, posebno šuma, vodnih marginalized. It helps fulfil(uključujući the promise of thešto Information to bezbjednost reduce rather than resursa ribarstvo), je od velikogSociety značaja za hrane* increase the disadvantages certain ranjivosti populations face. sposobnosti Conversely,prilagođavanja insufficient effort in this Detaljna procjena i procjena klimatskim area is likely to further marginalize these groups. promjenama za vodne resurse mapa ranjivosti rizikato odsuch poplava izrađenih pomoću GIS tehnika 2. Improving accessIzrada to services, publici dijagrama and private, a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, andi can help public Izgradnja nekoliko funkcionalnih akumulacija regulacija rijeka**services fulfil their remit in a costPoboljšanje effective manner. u sustavima za hidrološko praćenje i mjerenje, i u sustavima za

Vode

rano upozoravanje visoki vodostaj 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the za marginalized could also lead to improved access for

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the Poboljšanje sustava za zaštitu od poplava prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. Razvoj sektorskog plana za prilagođavanje klimatskim promjenama

4. The earlier action is taken, problema the easierutjecaja it is toklimatskih integrate promjena e-Accessibility into development of Ugrađivanje u sektorske strategije i e-Services and to akcione lower the cost. planove Jačanje istraživačkih aktivnosti u pogledu utjecaja klimatskih promjena na Vode5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the vodne resurse i modelovanje hidroloških procesa

convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU Izgradnja kapaciteta nadležnih institucija i lokalnih zajednica, te podizanje and SEE countries.svijesti o utjecaju klimatskih promjena na vodne resurse i sposobnost prilagođavanja

Promocija integralnog održivog razvoja i efikasnog upravljanja vodama 1.2. About this report Sprovođenje detaljne procjene ranjivosti na klimatske promjene u sektoru zdravstva

The specific goals of this report are: i utvrđivanje utjecaja kritičnih temperatura na zdravlje ljudi Istraživanje Jačanje primarne zdravstvene zaštite u gradovima i ruralnim područjima

1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal Poboljšanje u istraživačkim aktivnostima u vezi s povezanošću i utjecajem instruments and strategic documents; klimatskihlevel promjena na zdravlje ljudi

Zdravstvo

Uključivanje klimatskih promjena u strategije zdravstvenog sektora 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities; Uspostavljanje praćenja prenosnika bolesti, zaraznih bolesti i infektivnih bolesti

Jačanjelevel kapaciteta Instituta za javno 3. to assess the current of e-Accessibility andzdravlje e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify good Jačanje practices in thei region; stručnih istraživačkih kapaciteta 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: Jačanje kapaciteta nadležnih institucija i programa kontrole address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; Sprovođenje detaljne procjene utjecaja klimatskih promjena na šumske comply withekosisteme requirements for the UN and EU. Poboljšanja u sustavima za zaštitu šuma od požara (jačanje kapaciteta za praćenje, ljudskih resursa, tehnika i tehnologije)

This report is part Povećanje of a largerpovršine project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, zaštićenih šuma (koje u ovom trenutku pokrivaju teritorije) uspostavljanje trajnog uzorkovanja zemljišta za praćenje that is being implemented1–2% in the contexti of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by klimatskih promjena the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the Razvoj sektorskog prilagođavanje UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic plana Trustza Fund to supportklimatskim the Southpromjenama Eastern Europe region Poboljšanja i aktivnostima praćenja za the in the implementation of the Inclusiveu istraživačkim Information aktivnostima Society Priority Area of the e-SEE(sustav Agenda+, Šumarstvo rano upozoravanje za šumske požare, sustav upozoravanja na štetočine itd.) regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic metoda i modela promjena u strukturi šumskih priorities of the project areRazvoj therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEEekosistema Agenda+. na osnovu klimatskih modela

Pošumljavanje The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing Detaljno on theirmapiranje existingstvarne knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering i potencijalne šumske vegetacije pomoću GIS-a Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Uključivanje pitanja klimatskih promjena u strategije i akcione planove Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. šumarskog sektoraThe UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Officeszaštita in thešuma region, theštetočina Office ofi bolesti Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP Poboljšana od while šumskih in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of Povećanje broja zaštićenih područja i unapređenje sustava za upravljanje the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their Biodiverzitet i ranjivi zaštićenim oblastima kako bi postigao samoodrživost respective countries. ekosistemi Podešavanje prostornih planova i planova upravljanja zaštićenim područjima u skladu s utjecajima klimatskih promjena

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Planiranje i prognoziranje promjena u granicama zaštićenih područja Eksperimentalna istraživanja o utjecajima klimatskih promjena, i studije o odgovorima ekosistema na ove vrste utjecaja

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

Očuvanje migracionih puteva i razvoj novih migracionih puteva i koridora različitih vrsta u oblastima narušenih biotopa Razvoj infrastrukture za naučne procjene, prognoziranje i praćenje promjena u zemljišnim ekosistemima i biološkoj raznovrsnosti

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the Podizanje svijesti o značaju klimatskih promjena za biodiverzitet i osjetljive ekosisteme requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed Biodiverzitet i ranjivi Podešavanje programa na at nivou ekosistemi of the major by a description instruments and zaštite actions thevrsta European Union level relating to Dodatna zaštita disability in general and e-Accessibility in određenih particular.ekosistema u oblastima kao što su Bardača i Hutovo Blato

Osnivanje banaka sjemena za očuvanje genetskog fonda endemskih i ranjivih vrsta flore i faune, za skladištenje prikupljenih biljnih sjemena i uzoraka životinjskih vrsta

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the rangemigracija of barriers that people withi faune disabilities and others Neophodna procjena invazivnih vrsta flore such as older populations experience when seeking to institucija participate on equal terms koje in the Jačanje kapaciteta nadležnih i naučnih zajednica seInformation bave biodiverzitetom Society. Prilagođavanje aktivnosti u i oko poljoprivrede u ruralnim područjima, kako bi se smanjila njihova podložnost budućim razvoj e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT usedklimatskim by citizens,promjenama; and involves everything poljoprivredne proizvodnje za unutrašnja tržišta u okviru ruralne ekonomije (npr. from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blindi people to subtitling prehrambeni proizvodi za potrebe planinskog, seoskog rekreativnog turizma i on autentičnih prehrambenih proizvoda u malim fabrikama) television. Up to 15 percent proizvodnja of the population across the European Union hasporodičnim a disability, such as a Prilagođavanje nepoljoprivrednih usluga potencijalnim visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, djelatnosti and SEE icountries can expectbudućim to have a klimatskim promjenama, kao što je razvoj banjskog ili primorskog turizma. similar or higher proportion. Planinski turizam treba intenzivirati, posebno na najatraktivnijim planinama, pošto će povećanja temperature učiniti ove destinacije idealnim za odmor budućnosti, ove oblasti bi mogle da postanu interesantne A perhaps surprisingi rekreaciju. number ofUinternational agreements, regulations and guidelinesi cover profitabilne za investitore van Bosne i Hercegovine this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is

ekonomske politike će obezbijediti dugoročni ekonomski rast, the relevant legal context. Usvajanje No single EU directive iskoja dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are smanjiti nezaposlenost, poboljšati životni standard i uvažiti potrebu za ublažavanjem spread across areas such as Television Frontiers subtitling), thepolitike Copyright Directive mogućih utjecajaWithout klimatskih promjena.(for Ekonomske razvojne i strategije (for copyright exemptions), and Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). trebathe prilagoditi u skladu s nalazima scenarija klimatskih promjena.e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, Sprovođenje and guidelines benchmarking exist for programmatic support. mjeraand zaštite za ljude i imovinu u područjima koja su podložna Regionalni razvoj požarima, poplavama, klizištima i bujicama. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation.

Integracija ublažavanja rizika od klimatskih promjena u politike zaštiteokoliša, energetske politike, vodoprivredne politike, politike upravljanja šumama i druge There is at least a five-fold justification fordruštveno-ekonomski early action in therazvoj. area Neophodno of e-Accessibility: dokumente od značaja za je usvojiti mjere prilagođavanja koje se odnose na neke opće aktivnosti (konkretne mjere su u strategije, politike,access razvojnetoprograme Odgovarajuće mjere 1. It is worthwhile inintegrisane its own right to improve servicesi planove). to people who are already treba da obuhvate osnovne socijalne politike kako bi se smanjili utjecaji klimatskih marginalized. It helps fulfil uthe promise the Information reduce rather than promjena socijalnoj sferiof (posebno u oblastima sSociety najvećimtorizicima)

increase the disadvantages certain populations Conversely, insufficient effort in this Primjena sljedećih kriterijuma zaface. investicione projekte: opravdanost u smislu area is likely to further marginalize utjecaja na životnuthese i radnugroups. sredinu, u smislu zapošljavanja i opravdanosti investicionih projekata u oblasti regionalnog i ruralnog razvoja

2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the Povećanje aktivnosti na edukaciji stanovništva i predstavnika institucija i population opens significant opportunities, can help public efektima, services fulfil privrede o market/sales utjecajima klimatskih promjena,and njihovim negativnim i rizicima i neophodnosti pravovremenog prilagođavanja ovim utjecajima their remit in a costkao effective manner. (posebno za širu javnost, naročito mlade, i donosioce odluka na državnom,

3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for entitetskom i lokalnom nivou) 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce thenacost of webspecifičnih service development, enhancei the Intenziviranje napora rješavanju problema u BiHand (deminiranje prospects for migrating web services ontolica, newizbjeglica platforms such as mobile phones. puna integracija raseljenih i povratnika) koji mogu predstavljati teret u sprovođenju strateških razvojnih planova i programa za ublažavanje

4. The earlier action is taken,utjecaja the easier it is topromjena integrate e-Accessibility into development of negativnih klimatskih e-Services and to Podsticanje lower the cost. i intenziviranje naučno-istraživačkog rada u oblasti klimatskih

promjena, uključujući studije rizika od negativnih utjecaja, kao i njihovih Regionalni razvoj approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the 5. Pursuing implikacija na društveno-ekonomski razvoj. Sadašnji obim i kvalitet naučnoaspects development the Information in the EU convergence of different istraživačkog radaof nethe zadovoljava potrebeofBosne i HercegovineSociety (ni interne potrebe ni zahtjeve procesa evro-integracija) and SEE countries. Sprovođenje popisa, kojim bi se obezbijedio temeljit pregled raspoloživih resursa i njihove geografske distribucije, te omogućilo da buduće strategije i planovi razvoja odražavaju realno stanje.

1.2. About this report Izbor stabilnog sustava za praćenje podataka o klimatskim promjenama, rezultata prilagođavanja i pokazatelja koji koriste međunarodno priznate

The specific goals of this report are: i praćenje promjena u održivom razvoju, čak i u atmosferi metodologije

nepovoljnih klimatskih promjena. Ovo se može proširiti i integrisati u postojeće sustave meteorološkog izvještavanja ili u redovne statističke 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal izvještaje entitetskih institucija i Agencije za statistiku BiH.

instruments and strategic level documents; Poboljšanja u postojećem sustavu meteoroloških osmatranja koja će omogućiti

praćenje klimatskih promjena i rezultatafor prilagođavanja, i sustave 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility able-bodieduključujući people versus people ranog upozoravanja. Razvoj kapaciteta za profesionalce treba integrisati u with disabilities; međunarodni osmatrački sustav (ovo treba da se razvije u poseban projekat,

kroz uspostavljanje sustava prilagođavanja na klimatske promjene). to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; Opća3.politika i Imenovanje profesionalnih i političkih tijela koja će voditi ekonomski razvoj u planiranje 4. to identify good practices in the region; nestabilnim klimatskim uslovima. Savjet ministara, entitetske vlade, ekonomski 5. to develop a seti of recommendations government and stakeholders onnivou how to: urbanistički organi vlasti for i druga stručna tijela naother državnom i entitetskom da buduto u stanju da sprovode mjere za sprečavanje nepovoljnih utjecaja address thetreba obstacles e-Accessibility; klimatskih promjena, pored svojih tradicionalnih uloga u klasičnom ekonomskom comply with requirements for the UN and EU. planiranju i budžetiranju u okviru parlamentarne strukture. Potrebno je utvrditi obaveze političkih institucija u Bosni i Hercegovini i njihove uloge i odgovornosti u vezi s održivim razvojem u kontekstu klimatskih promjena.

This report is part Gajenje of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups inozbiljnih e-Governance’, javnog raspoloženja koje bi išlo u prilog preduzimanju koraka klimatskih promjena, uključujući kako u materijalne that is being implementedzainrješavanje the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is ulaganja a regional project designed by tako i u ljudske resurse. Ključne inicijative, politike i mjere prilagođavanja su the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the na državnom nivou u okviru međunarodne saradnje. UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region * Predložene mjere označene zvjezdicom (*) preuzete su i prilagođene iz preporuka sadržanih u izvještaju FAO-a (FAO/IFAD/WFP 2011) in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the u kom se istražuju metodi za smanjenje gladi u svijetu. U izvještaju se ističu spekulacije na svjetskim tržištima hrane koje dovode do povećanja cijena, kao iplan uzrocifor globalne nesigurnosti Society u sektoru. development, Ovo stanje se naročito negativno odražava na najsiromašnije i zemlje u regional action Information and the UNCRPD. The programmatic razvoju. U ovom izvještaju, koji predstavlja nadogradnju na prethodne izvještaje, naglašavaju se sljedeće aktivnosti koje imaju za cilj priorities ofodrživosti the project are therefore aligned obezbjeđivanje i bezbjednosti u proizvodnjifully i ponudi hrane: with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+.

** Prema ranijim analizama, u BiH su sve izraženija neujednačena oticanja, a predviđa se da će efekti klimatskih promjena biti osjetniji u regionima u kojima je klimatska nelinearnost do sada bila najizraženija. Neravnomjerna raspodjela oticanja karakteristična je za The project is being implemented by jethe Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded Initiative kraški region u vodnom području Jadranskog mora u BiH, gdje mreža vodotoka prilično nerazvijena. Situacija je e-SEE naročito nepovoljna 3 /s) iscrpljeno postojećim u slivu rijeke Bosne, gdje je približno 82% kapaciteta podzemnih voda (što prema procjenama iznosi oko 5,9 m Secretariat,10 capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering vodozahvatima. Akumulacije omogućavaju da se postojeći uslovi iskoriste na takav način da se postigne optimalno upravljanje vodnim resursima. Pored proizvodnje energije, akumulacije mogu da pružeSecretariat zaštitu od poplava posluže za prikupljanje rezervi vode Marginalised Groups električne in e-Governance and the e-SEE arei dapositioned within the Social za razdoblje suše, vodosnabdijevanje, navodnjavanje, plovidbu, ribarstvo, rekreativne aktivnosti i druge potrebe. Do danas, BiH je izgradila Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. Thepovećanih UNDPekonomskih, Country Office Sarajevo is working ekološkihin i socijalnih troškova sve je teže closely izabrati višenamjenske akumulacije ukupne zapremine 3.851 hm3. Zbog lokacije za izgradnju brana i akumulacija. Međutim, kako bi se zadovoljila sve veća potražnja za vodom, treba razmotriti opciju with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor atproširenja the BDP ukupne zapremine akumulacija, bilo kroz izgradnju novih ili povećanje kapaciteta postojećih akumulacija.

in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of TabelaAdvisory 22. MjereTaskforce prilagođavanja klimatskim promjenama the Regional e-Governance (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries. 10 "Podrška vodnoj politici u BiH“; projekat je finansiran od strane EU IPA za 2007. godinu. 101

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3.5.2. Prijedlog projektnih ideja za prilagođavanje klimatskim promjenama

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

Analizom prioritetnih sektora, koja je sprovedena prilikom izrade BiH Strategije prilagođavanja na klimatske promjene i niskoemisiong razvoja, utvrđeno je da su poljoprivreda i vodni resursipresents najviše osjetljivi na klimatske promjene. Zbog toga je i fokus projekata This section an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance andprioritetnih main sections, the usmjeren upravo na navedene sektore. Realizacija projektnih aktivnosti je planirana u naredne tri requirements it sets in allusvoje aspects of e-Accessibility and how it 2013-2015). is to be implemented. Thisfinancijskih is followed godine, nakon što SNC nadležne institucije (očekivano Mogući izvori bysredstava a description of the major predloženih instrumentsprojekata and actions Unionbanka, level Zeleni relating to za implementaciju mogliatbithe biti:European GEF, Svjetska fond za klimatske promjene, IPA fondovi, Fond za zaštitu životne sredine i energetsku efikasnost RS, disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. Fond za zaštitu okoliša FBiH...

1.1. Prioritetni Why projekti: e-Accessibility? e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others 1. Prilagođavanje na sušu iwhen jačanje kapaciteta - obuhvata aktivnosti koje issuch as older populations experience seeking to participate onset equal terms in theuključuju Information traživanje suše na bazi klimatskih indeksa, determinisanje regionalnog rasporeda suše, Society. idejna rješenja i izvedbene projekte sa ciljem obezbjeđivanja nedostatka vode u sušnom periodu. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything 2. Agroklimatska rejonizacija prema klimatskimsupport scenarijima - podrazumijeva utvrđivanje from websites for e-government services, to telephony for blind people to subtitling on prostorne distribucije optimalnih agroklimatskih uslova za uzgoj pojedinih poljoprivrednih television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a kultura na teritoriji Bosne i Hercegovine na osnovu analiza temperature i padavina, kao visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a najvažnijih agroklimatskih elemenata. Analiza agroklimatskih uslova će seraditi za prosimilar or higher proportion. jektovane klimatske periode (do 2100). meteorološkog, hidrološkog i ekološkog monitoringa - podrazumijeva tehničko jačanA 3. Jačanje perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover je institucija koje vrše meteorološki, hidrološki i ekološki monitoring u Bosni i Hercegovini. this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No za single EU directive is dedicated -topodrazumijeva e-Accessibility, but actions are 4. Izgradnja sistema navodnjavanje i odvodnjavanje izgradnju višefunkspread across areas such as Television Frontiers (for subtitling), cionalnih akumulacija u cilju Without prilagođavanja na poplave i suše. the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility 5. Poboljšanje snabdijevanja stanovništva vodom – obuhvata ruralnih područja is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist istraživanje for programmatic support. u smislu optimalnog vodosnabdijevanja te tehničku realizaciju (kaptiranje izvora i izrada Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. lokalnih vodovoda) na identifikovanim lokacijama There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: 6. Ekonomski utjecaji klimatskih promjena u Bosni i Hercegovini – podrazumijeva istraživanje i procjenu ekonomskih utjecaja klimatskih promjena po sektorima (poljoprivreda, vodni biodiverzitet, šumarstvo dr) 1. It isresursi, worthwhile in its own right to iimprove access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than 7. Razvoj hidroloških modela prema klimatskim scenarijima - na bazi hidroloških modeincrease themoguće disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this la biće optimalnije planiranje za prilagođavanje vodnih resursa na klimatske area promjene is likely toufurther BiH. marginalize these groups. 2.8. Unapređenje Improving access services, public and private, such a significant proportion the webtostranice www.unfccc.ba (Izrada to interaktivnog atlasa klime Bosne of i Herpopulation opens significant opportunities, and can help public services fulfil cegovine) - ova mjera je market/sales u direktnoj funkciji jačanje kapaciteta, te promocije realizovanih informisanja na polju klimatskih promjena, their aktivnosti remit in ai cost effectivejavnosti manner. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; itstrategija can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the 9. Izrada sektorskih (planova) prilagođavanja klimatskim promjenama u sektorima u kojima su posljedice klimatskih promjena najizraženije (poljoprivreda, vodni resursi, prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. biodiverzitet, ljudsko zdravlje, turizam i šumarstvo i osjetljiva područja) 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of 10. Jačanje svijesti i edukacije o klimatskim promjena u obrazovnim institucijama (osnovnim, e-Services and to lower the cost. srednjim i visokoškolskim). 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries.

1.2. About this report The specific goals of this report are: 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents; 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities; 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries.

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1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES 4. Procjena potencijala za ublažavanje utjecaja klimatskih promjena

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. Realiziranje planiranih ciljeva i zadataka iz oblasti ublažavanja posljedica klimatskih

promjena, sadržanih u Drugom nacionalnom izvještaju Bosne i Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom 1.1. Why e-Accessibility? konvencijom Ujedinjenih nacija o klimatskim promjenama, zasniva se na rezultatima najnovijih

e-Accessibility is about overcoming of barriers that people with disabilities and others naučnih istraživanja koja se odnosethe na range emisijske scenarije, potencijale za ublažavanje klimatskih such as older populations experience when seekingna to međunarodnom participate on equal terms innivou. the Information promjena i mjere ublažavanja koje su postignute i državnom Society. Pored Odluke 17/CP.8 "Instrukcije za izradu nacionalnih izvještaja država članica koje nisu uključene u Aneks I Konvencije“, kao osnova za izradu ovog dijela Izvještaja korišten je i "Četvrti e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves izvještaj međuvladinog panela o klimatskim promjenama“.Osnovni dokument u kojem sueverything sadržane from websites formjere e-government telephony supportjefor blind people to subtitling on i interpretirane ublažavanjaservices, utjecaja to klimatskih promjena "Prvi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i Hercegovine skladu sa Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih nacija o klimatskim promjenama“. television. Up tou15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as Ua INC-u su identifikovani i opisani potencijali za ublažavanje klimatskih promjena, kao i preporuke visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have ai naredni koraci. similar or higher proportion. U SNC-u poglavlje posvećeno ublažavanju klimatskih promjena je prošireno opisom i A perhaps surprising number of international regulations andkoji guidelines cover analizom mjera po pojedinačnim sektorima u BiH, agreements, scenarijima za ublažavanje će modelirati moguće putanje emisija stakleničkihlevel, plinova do 2025. godine, prijedlog koji će this area. At the highest international the UNCRPD, ratified kao and icoming intoprojekata force in 2008, is doprinijeti ublažavanju. the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive Konkretno modeliranje kvantitativno-vremenskog razvoja emisija stakleničkih plinova (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms (for (bez assistive technologies). je realizirano preko tri razvojna scenarija:Framework S1 – osnovni promjena), S2 - sae-Accessibility djelimičnom isprimjenom also covered by policy, mjera and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. stimulativnih i i S3 – napredni (s primjenom cjelokupnog seta stimulativnih mjera). U razmatranjima spomenutih emisijskih scenarija inicijalni podaci su uzeti za 2010. godinu, Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. dok su proračuni emisija urađeni po petogodištima, tj. za 2015, 2020. i 2025. godina. Aktivnosti su dodatno podržane organiziranim prikupljanjem podataka i intenzivnijim uključivanjem nadležnih There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: državnih i entitetskih ministarstava, Distrikta Brčko kao i važnijih javnih agencija u cjelokupni rad. 1.Značajna It is worthwhile own right to improve access to korištenje services to softvera people who already novina in u its odnosu na INC BiH predstavlja za are istraživanje potencijala za ublažavanje klimatskih promjena po predmetnim sektorima u SNC-u BiH. Analizama marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than brojnih modela za politike ublažavanja utjecaja klimatskih promjena kao najadekvatniji (i ujedno increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this najviše korišten u svijetu) izabran je softver LEAP (Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning System). area is likely to further marginalize these groups. 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the 4.1. Energetika prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of 4.1.1. Elektroenergetika e-Services and to lower the cost.

5. Pursuing approaches that followstanja EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the 4.1.1.1. Pregled postojećeg u oblasti elektroenergetike convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU Prema resursnoj osnovi i dostignutom tehnološkom razvoju kao glavni izvori energije u Bosni and SEE countries. i Hercegovini mogu se izdvojiti ugalj i hidropotencijal. Oko 50% električne energije u BiH generira se u termoelektranama koje rade na domaći ugalj s relativno visokom specifičnom emisijom ugljendioksida (1,3 tCO2/MWh). Ostatak električne energije proizvodi se u velikim hidroelektranama, a jedan udio otpada i na male hidroelektrane. Značajan izvor energije su i fosilna goriva, odnosno prirodni plin i nafta.

1.2. About this report

Prema podacima iz INC-a, ukupna potrošnja energije u 2005. za BiH je bila: 45,3% ugalj i The specific goals of this report are: koks, 9,6% hidropotencijali, 21,1% tečna goriva, 5,6% prirodni plin i 20,5% drvo11. Prema korištenoj tehnologiji i vrsti goriva općenito se može konstatirati da BiH uveliko zavisi od uvoza, te da se 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal njen energetski sektor još vijek odlikuje malom energetskom efikasnošću, što rezultira visokom instruments andjedinici strategic level documents; potrošnjom energije po BDP. Posebno nepovoljan odnos i dalje postoji u oblasti potrošnje prirodnog što jeaposljedica neadekvatne i vremenske dinamike njegovog korištenja, i 2. plina, to develop comparative picture ofstrukture e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people što rezultira njegovim izrazito visokim cijenama. Dodatna nepovoljnost u korištenju prirodnog plina with disabilities; jeste što postoji samo jedan plinovod koji uzrokuje nestabilnost u snabdijevanju, posebno tokom zimske sezone, kadathe je potrošnja ovogofenergenta najveća. ovog razloga velik broj domaćinstava 3. to assess current level e-Accessibility andIze-Accessibility stakeholders; u BiH za proizvodnju toplotne energije koristi električnu mrežu. Međutim, bez obzira na navedene 4. to identify good practices in the region; činjenice danas u BiH postoji veći broj sistema daljinskog grijanja koji prirodni plin koriste kao to developZnačajan a set of recommendations for government and other on how to: primarni5.energent. izvor u BiH predstavlja drvna biomasa koja stakeholders se kao primarni izvor address the koristi obstacles to e-Accessibility; toplotne-energije još uvijek u manjim gradskim centrima i ruralnim područjima. comply with requirements for the UN and EU. Emisija CO2 iz elektroenergetskog sektora u BiH u 2010. god. je iznosila oko 12,432 mil. tona. This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, 4.1.1.2. Scenariji insmanjenja stakleničkih plinova that is being implemented the context of emisije the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional projectizdesigned by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, elektroenergetskog sektorasupported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region S ciljem analiziranja smanjenja emisije razdoblju do 2025. in the implementation of thepotencijala Inclusive Information Society plinova Prioritystaklenika Area of theu e-SEE Agenda+, the godine analizirana su tri scenarija smanjenja emisija. Sva tri scenarija podrazumijevaju i povećanje regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic energetske efikasnosti u skladu sa nacrtom NEEAP-a. priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. S1 scenarij. Ovaj scenarij podrazumijeva raste emisije stakleničkih plinova proporcionalno The is being implemented Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative s porastom project potrošnje energije. S obzirombydatheemisija stakleničkih plinova zavisi direktno od proizvodnje energije, ovo znači da seexisting prema ovom scenarijunetworks zadržava isti pokrivenosti potreba Secretariat, capitalizing on their knowledge, andudio resources. Empowering za energijom iz domaćih izvora. Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely S1 scenarij karakterizira relativno nizak stepen efikasnosti proizvodnje električne energije. with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in thena region, the Office ofhidroelektrane Senior ICT Advisor the BDP Pri tome, osnovni izvori su termoelektrane ugalj while (oko 60%) i velike (okoat 40%). Od in Newzastupljene York is providing and playing advisory role. Government-appointed members of (OIE), su maleexpertise hidroelektrane (MHE)an i nešto kapaciteta na solarnu energiju (fotonaponske ćelije). Pretpostavlja se da u S1 scenariju koeficijent ugljendioksida elektroenergetske mrežefor ostaje the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points their isti za čitav period. Prema scenariju s nižom potrošnjom energije iz Studije energetskog sektora u respective countries. BiH, proizvodnja električne energije u 2015. god. iznosit će 78,05 PJ, a u 2020. god. bit će 80,44 PJ. 11 INC, BiH, 2010:31 105

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

Proizvodnja u 2025. god. je izračunata prema istoj stopi godišnjeg rasta kao u periodu 2015-2020. Prema S1, emisija CO2 iz elektroenergetskog sektora u BiH u 2010. god. je iznosila oko 12,5 mil. tona. Zbog predviđenog porasta proizvodnje, emisija će u 2015. god. iznositi skoro 16 mil. tona, dok će na kraju posmatranog perioda emisije biti oko 16,7 mil. tona (Grafikon 24). Dakle, prema S1 scenariju povećanje emisije u posmatranom periodu je oko 34%.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

S2 scenarij. S2 scenarij se zasniva na implementaciji projekata izgradnje elektroenergetskih This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the postrojenja u skladu s relevantnim entitetskim strategijama i podacima o planiranim investicijama requirements it setsupitnika. in all aspects of e-Accessibility and FBiH how it13 isi onim to be implemented. This is followed 12 dobijenim putem Prema podacima iz SPP dobijenim od Elektroprivrede byBiH a description of the major and actions European Union level to i Elektroprivrede HZHB,instruments u posmatranom perioduatjethe planirana izgradnja oko relating 2.300 MW termoenergetskih postrojenja na ugalj, te vjetroelektrana ukupne snage 460 MW, velikih disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. hidroelektrana 254 MW i MHE 37 MW (Tabela 23). Paralelno s tim, predviđa se izlazak iz pogona nekih termoenergetskih blokova. Neki kapaciteti povećavaju efikasnost i/ili kapacitet prilikom revitalizacija. Tako je, npr., predviđeno povećanje kapaciteta HE "Rama“ sa 160 na 180 MW uz istu akumulaciju. e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Očekivana proizvodnja Energetski izvor Snaga (MW) Society. (GWh)

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? Vjetroelektrane

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e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything Velike hidroelektrane 254 1.017 from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on Male hidroelektrane television. Up to 15 percent of the population across 37 the European Union145 has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect Tabela 23. Planirana izgradnjaor nekarbonskih postrojenja za proizvodnju električne energijetou have a Federaciji BiH do 2025. od javnih elektroenergetskih preduzeća similar or higher proportion. A Prema perhaps surprising number of international regulations and novih guidelines cover Strategiji razvoja energetike RS-a iz agreements, 2012, planirana je izgradnja kapaciteta this area. snage At the 920 highest level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming force 2008, is ukupne MW international i očekivane proizvodnje od 4.550 GWh/a. Pored toga, into planira sein izgradnja MHE ukupne snage oko 160 i očekivane proizvodnje od oko GWh/a. Izgradnja navedenih the relevant legal context. NoMW single EU directive is dedicated to500 e-Accessibility, but actions are kapaciteta dovest će do povećanja koeficijenta ugljendioksida elektroenergetske mreže za oko spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive 10%, u periodu nakon 2015. Proizvodnja električne energije u 2015. je ista kao i u S1, a nakon (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility 2015. raste prema scenariju potrošnje energije iz Studije energetskog sektora u BiH, do 2020. isUalso covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking existenergije for programmatic support. 2025. godini pretpostavljeno je povećanje proizvodnje električne za 20% u odnosu na Furthermore, moves are to strengthen these and to enact legislation. 2015. Na Grafikonu 24. afoot prikazane su emisije ugljendioksida iz more elektroenergetskog sektora u BiH za period 2010–2025. godine za S2. Prema S2 scenariju emisije ugljendioksida u 2015. godini su iste kao i u S1. godine emisije rastu zbogaction povećanja električne energije There is atNakon least a2015. five-fold justification for early in theproizvodnje area of e-Accessibility: i povećanja koeficijenta ugljendioksida elektroenergetske mreže u BiH (Grafikon 24). Povećanje emisije ugljendioksida u periodu 2010-2025. prema S2 je oko 70%. 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise intenzivno of the Information Society to reduce ratherizvora than S3 scenarij. Ovaj scenarij podrazumijeva korištenje potencijala obnovljivih energije (OIE) i energetske efikasnosti (EE) zbog ulaska BiH u Evropsku šemu trgovanja emisijama increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this stakleničkih ETS),marginalize što podrazumijeva i plaćanje emisijskih dozvola (djelomično ili area isplinova likely to(EU further these groups. potpuno) za stakleničke plinove za elektroenergetski sektor. Ova mjera podstaknuće korištenje nekarbonskih izvoraaccess energije. su da će private, jedna emisiona (za emisiju 1 toneofCO ) 2. Improving to Predviđanja services, public and to such dozvola a significant proportion the 2 population opens significant opportunities, and can help public services fulfil 12 S ciljem prikupljanja ulaznih podataka market/sales za analizu potencijala smanjenja emisije stakleničkih plinova, odgovarajući upitnici su poslati institucijama i preduzećima u BiH. Popunjene upitnike su dostavila elektroenergetska their remit relevantnim in a cost effective manner. preduzeća Elektroprivreda BiH i Elektroprivreda HZHB. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved 13 Strateški plan i program razvoja elektroenergetskog sektora Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine. 2

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able-bodied people; it can1reduce the(približnog cost of web service and enhance the koštati oko 25 eura. Sagorijevanjem tone uglja sastava kaodevelopment, što su bosanskohercegovački ugljevi) nastaje oko 1,3 tone CO . To znači da će trošak proizvodnje električne energije, prema S3, prospects for migrating2 web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. porasti za preko 30 eura po toni potrošenog uglja.14 Zbog toga se u S3 scenariju podrazumijeva 4. The earlier action potencijala is taken, theOIE. easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development iskorištavanje ekonomskog Prema Prvom nacionalnom izvještaju o klimatskimof promjenama ekonomski MHE je 3.520 GWh/a, vjetroelektrana 1.950 GWh/a i drvne e-Services and topotencijal lower the za cost. biomase 1.200 GWh/a. Pored toga, S3 podrazumijeva korištenje i prirodnog plina za proizvodnju 5. Pursuing approaches that followemisije EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the električne energije zbog manje specifične ugljendioksida, a nema povećanja kapaciteta of the development of the Information Society plina in theza EU convergence different aspects postrojenja na ugalj. of Iskorištavanje ekonomskih potencijala OIE i korištenje prirodnog elektroenergetske mreže za oko dva puta. proizvodnju energije smanjit će koeficijent emisije CO and SEE countries. 2

1.2. About this report The specific goals of this report are: 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents; 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities; 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region Grafikon 24. Ukupne emisije CO2 iz elektroenergetskog sektora u BiH, in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the za period 2010–2025. premaSociety S1, S2 iPriority S3 scenariju regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic Proizvodnja električne energijefully prema S3 jewith ista kao prema of S2.e-SEE PremaAgenda+. S3 scenariju emisije priorities of the project are therefore aligned the itargets CO2 u 2015. godini su iste kao i u S2 i S3. Nakon 2015. godine emisije opadaju zbog povećanja učešća The nekarbonskih energije u ukupnoj kao i prirodnog plina e-SEE (Grafikon 24). project is izvora being implemented by theproizvodnji, Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded Initiative Smanjenje emisije ugljendioksida u periodu 2010– 2025. prema S3 je oko 24%. Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised e-Governance e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social PremaGroups S1 i S2inscenariju doći ćeand do the porasta emisija ugljendioksida iz elektroenergetskog Inclusion/Democratic Governance Theod UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely sektora u BiH u periodu 2010- 2025,Sector. za razliku S3 prema kojem će doći do značajnog smanjenja emisije, za preko 20%Country u odnosu na 2010. tri opisana scenarija i povećanje with the fellow UNDP Offices in theSva region, while the Office ofpodrazumijevaju Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP energetske efikasnosti u skladu s nacrtom NEEAP-a za BiH. in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries. 14 Ovo je slučaj plaćanja punog iznosa emisijskih dozvola. Nove članice Evropske unije će plaćati dio emisijskih dozvola jedan određeni period.

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4.1.1.3. Smanjenje emisije metana iz rudnika uglja U BiH postoje određeni potencijali za smanjenje emisije metana iz rudnika uglja. Razvijena je komercijalna tehnologija koja koristi ventilacijski zrak iz podzemnih rudnika uglja, ako je koncentracija metana u ventilacijskom zraku između 0,2 i 1,2%, za proizvodnju energije. Smjesa oksidira u hermetički zatvorenoj komori s keramičkom ispunom. Oslobođena se energija može upotrijebiti za proizvodnju toplote i/ili električne energije. Tokom procesa oksidacije metan se transformira u ugljendioksid i vodenu Ova tehnologija se potencijalno možesections, primijenitithe u This section presents an overview of paru. the UNCRPD, its significance and main rudnicima mrkog uglja u centralnom bosanskom bazenu (Zenica, Kakanj, Breza, Abid Lolić) kao i u requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed rudniku Kamengrad. Prema dostupnim podacima, upotrebom opisane tehnologije u rudniku mrkog by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to uglja u Zenici mogla bi se smanjiti emisija od oko 100.000 tona ekvivalentnog ugljendioksida godišnje, disability in general and particular. a u rudniku u Brezi doe-Accessibility 50.000 t CO2eqingodišnje (Studija izvodljivosti primjene VAM tehnologije u rudniku mrkog uglja Zenica, 2009). Procjene smanjenja emisije metana, izražene u ekvivalentnim tonama SO2, za spomenute rudnike, kao i vrijednost certificiranog smanjenja emisija (Certified Emission Reduction – CER), kredita i investicije potrebne za projekt prezentirane su u Tabeli 24.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking on equal terms in the Information Smanjenje emisije to participate CER kredit Vrijednost investicije Rudnik (GgCO2ekq/a) (u mil. eura) (u mil. eura) Society. Zenica

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e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything Breza 50 0,7 2,5 from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. to 15 percent of the emisije population across the European Union has a disability, such as a Tabela 24.Up Potencijalno smanjenje metana u rudnicima mrkog uglja u centralnoj Bosni, vrijednost visual, hearing, speech,certificiranog cognitive, or motor impairment, SEE countries smanjenja emisija i iznosand potrebnih investicija can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. Dakle, investicija po toni smanjene emisije CO2 za projekte smanjenja emisije metana iz A perhaps surprising numberbazenu, of international agreements, regulations and guidelines rudnika u centralnom bosanskom primjenom VAM tehnologije je oko 43,3 EUR/tCOcover . Uz 2 this area. Atcijenu the highest level,ovi the UNCRPD, force insamo 2008,i is očekivanu CER-ainternational od oko 20 eura, projekti bi seratified isplatiliand za coming dvije dointo tri godine u vrijednosti Dodatni projekte prodaja energije (toplotne i/ili električne). the relevant CER-ova. legal context. No prihod single za EUove directive is je dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility za and smanjenje emisija stakleničkih plinova iz support. is4.1.1.4. Mjere also covered by policy, guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen sektora these and to enact more legislation. elektroenergetskog Mjereisi at projekti emisije stakleničkih plinovainu the BiHarea trebaofrazmatrati u kontekstu There least asmanjenja five-fold justification for early action e-Accessibility: održivog razvoja BiH. S tim u vezi, prioritetni su oni projekti i mjere koje doprinose zapošljavanju u BiH i razvoju prioritetnih sektora kao što su rudarstvo, poljoprivreda itd. Nakon toga, prednost treba 1. It is worthwhile in its own right improve access toemisije. servicesKoristi to people who are already dati projektima koji koštaju najmanje potojedinici izbjegnute od implementiranja projekata smanjenja emisija plinovaofu the BiH Information po značaju su: marginalized. It helpsstakleničkih fulfil the promise Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to zaposlenosti; further marginalize these groups. 1. Povećanje 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the 2. Dovođenje stranih investicija; population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. 3. Transfer najboljih raspoloživih tehnologija (Best Available Technique - BAT); 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied it can reduce the cost service development, and enhance the 4. Povećanjepeople; energetske efikasnosti (EE) i naoftajweb način povećanje konkurentnosti; prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 5. Dodatni prihod od smanjenja emisije stakleničkih plinova, i 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of 6. Stjecanje iskustva o the dostupnim e-Services and to lower cost. opcijama za smanjenje emisije stakleničkih plinova u svrhu razvoja regulative o klimatskim promjenama. 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU Mjere za smanjenje and SEE countries. emisija stakleničkih plinova iz elektroenergetskog sektora: -

Povećanje energetske efikasnosti postojećih postrojenja za proizvodnju i distribuciju električne energije;

1.2. About this report

- Izgradnja postrojenja za korištenje obnovljivih izvora energije (OIE); The specific goals of this report are: - Zamjena postojećih - starih termoenergetskih postrojenja novim najboljim raspoloživim (BAT) i tehnologijama, što uključuje specifičnuincluding emisiju GHG; 1. totehnikama outline the international context regardingi manju e-Accessibility existing legal instruments and strategic level documents; - Korištenje biomase ili fosilnih goriva s manjom emisijom ugljendioksida po jedinici osloenergije; 2. tobođene develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities; - Korištenje metana iz podzemnih rudnika uglja za proizvodnju energije. 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; Treba naglasiti da primarni 4. to identify good practicescilj in navedenih the region;mjera, tj. projekata, nije samo smanjenje emisije stakleničkih plinova, već paralelno i ekonomski razvoj i konkurentnost privrede BiH. BiH za sada 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: nema obavezu reguliranja emisije stakleničkih plinova, tako da smanjenje emisije stakleničkih address the benefit obstacles torealiziranje e-Accessibility; plinova predstavlja dodatni kroz planiranih projekata. comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

4.1.2.ThisObnovljivi izvori energije u BiH report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is beingHidroenergija implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by 4.1.2.1. the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the hidroenergetskog u BiHFund čini njena riječnathe mreža. Ukupna dužina vodotoka UNDP’sOsnovu Democratic Governancepotencijala Thematic Trust to support South Eastern Europe region (koji pojedinačno duži km) iznosi oko 9.000Society km, od Priority čega naArea granične otpada oko in thesuimplementation of od the10 Inclusive Information of thevodotoke e-SEE Agenda+, the 930 km. Prosječna gustina riječne mreže u BiH iznosi oko 220 m/km2, pri čemu je prisutna izrazita regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic neravnomjernost za kontinentalni i mediteranski dio zemlje. Naime, prosječna gustina riječne mreže priorities of the project therefore aligned the targets ofdijelu e-SEEBiH Agenda+. 2 u kontinentalnom dijelu are iznosi oko 300fully m/km , dok with u mediteranskom iznosi manje od 30

m/km2. Značajne količine voda koje sudjeluju u slatkovodnom vodnom bilansu predstavljaju jezera u The project Vodosnabdjevenost is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE režima. Initiative Bosni i Hercegovini. vodotoka u BiH je direktna funkcija pluviometrijskog Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, andteoretski resources. Empowering Na osnovu rezultata provedenih istraživanja procijenjeno networks je da ukupni hidroenergetski potencijal u BiH iznosiin oko 99.256 GWh godišnje, tehničkiSecretariat hidropotencijal (oko 360 velikih HE Marginalised Groups e-Governance and the e-SEE are positioned withini malih the Social koje mogu da se izgrade) preko 23.500 GWh godišnje (Nikolić et al. 2009:10). Navedeni hidropotencijal Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely u suštini može se zasebno struktuirati na nivou hidroenergetskog potencijala velikih i malih vodotoka, with the fellow Country Officespodacima in the region, whileBiH theekonomski Office of Senior ICT Advisor potencijal at the BDP odnosno velikihUNDP i malih HE. Prema iz INC-a hidroenergetski in Newvodotoka York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role.on Government-appointed velikih u BiH iznosi oko 18.000 GWh godišnje, odnosno za male vodotoke iznosimembers oko 3.500of GWhRegional godišnje.e-Governance Sadašnji nivo korištenja tog potencijala je okoact 40% oko 7.182 GWh godišnje. the Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) asiligovernment Focal Points Stepen for their iskorištenja malih hidroelektrana je i dalje vrlo nizak i iznosi oko 4,4% raspoložive snage ili 5,7% respective countries. dostupne energije, iako se može konstatirati da su male hidroelektrane (HE) izvor obnovljive energije koji se ocjenjuje kao visoko perspektivan u BiH. 109

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1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything Slika 12.toRiječna mrežasupport u BiH for blind people to subtitling on from websites for e-government services, telephony television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a Mogućnosti korištenja hidroenergetskog potencijala u BiH je, međutim, znatno ograničen visual, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, SEE countries can expect to have a zbog hearing, nekontroliranog procesa urbanizacije, ekološkihand problema i ekonomskih ograničenja. similar or higher proportion. Rezultati istraživanja sadržanih u studijama energetskog razvoja ukazuju da, zbog navedenih razloga, iskoristivi dio ukupnog hidropotencijala iznosi oko 13.000 GWh godišnje ili oko 56,5 %. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover koji se odnose nalevel, korištenje hidroenergije u BiH this area.Scenariji At the highest international the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal No single EU oblasti directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, actions are Osnova zacontext. izradu scenarija u ovoj se zasniva na utvrđenim činjenicamabut o promjenama spread acrosstermičkom areas suchi as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), Copyright promjene Directive u godišnjem pluviometrijskom režimu, što praktično znači da the će klimatske utjecati na sve sisteme upravljanja vodama.Framework Nepovoljna(for činjenica vezana za integralnu procjenu (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms assistive technologies). e-Accessibility utjecaja klimatskih promjena na postojeće sisteme hidropotencijala odnosi se na nepostojanje is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. jedinstvene strategije koja se odnosi na sve parametre vodnog bilansa i njegovog optimalnog Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. iskorištavanja. Navedena činjenica se negativno odražava kako na sistem prikupljanja i obrade hidroloških podataka i njihove interpretacije, tako i s aspekta slijeda upravljanja i planiranja u There vodoprivrednoj is at least a five-fold justification for earlynaaction the area of e-Accessibility: cjelokupnoj i hidroenergetskoj oblasti nivouinentiteta. scenarij se bazira na utvrđenim promjenama u trendovima godišnjeg 1.S1It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people whotermičkog are alreadyi pluviometrijskog režima, prema kojima će u narednom periodu doći do smanjenja unutargodišnje marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than količine padavina. Navedeni bi se trend sasvim sigurno negativno odrazio na postojeći ukupni increase the disadvantages certain face. Conversely, insufficient effortkoličina in this godišnji vodni bilans, odnosno došlo bi dopopulations dodatnog opadanja postojećih akumuliranih is likelyi to further marginalize these groups. voda u area vodotocima postojećim hidroakumulacijama. S obzirom da u ovom scenariju nije planirano poduzimanje adekvatnih mjera u narednom periodu bi sasvim sigurno došlo i do smanjenja 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the ukupnih količina proizvedene električne energije. Kvantitativno određivanje smanjenja ukupnog populationuopens significant market/sales opportunities, and canscenarija, help publicaliservices fulfil hidropotencijala direktnoj je zavisnosti od primijenjenog klimatskog bi negativni their efekt remit svakako in a cost bio effective manner. energetski izražen, što će za posljedicu imati intenziviranje kompenzacijske proizvodnje iz neobnovljivih izvora energije, sa značajnim porastom učešća fosilnih goriva. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied can reduce the cost of web service development, andi entitetskim enhance the S2 scenarij sepeople; bazira naitprimjeni određenih mjera sadržanih u različitim državnim strategijama o vodosnabdijevanju, koje bi trebalo napraviti u nekoliko narednih godina. Svakako da prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. će sve strategije osim definiranog trenda smanjenja ukupnih unutargodišnjih količina padavina i 4. The earlier action isprema taken,različitim the easiergeografskim it is to integrate e-Accessibility development njihovu prostornu distribuciju regijama. To se, prijeinto svega, odnosi naof održivo upravljanje resursima po slivnim oblastima na entiteskom nivou, koje uključuje niz e-Services vodnim and to lower the cost. mjera za uravnoteženi rad hidroenergetskih postrojenja po karakterističnim hidrološkim sezonama. Pursuing that follow EU guidelines and recommendations assist in the Navedeni5. pristup bi approaches rezultirao blagim povećanjem postojećeg nivoa proizvodnjewill hidroenergije. aspects of the development of thevodnih Information Society in the EU convergence of nivo different Prema ovom scenariju energetskog iskorištavanja smanjenih potencijala raste i na osnovu povećanja energetske efikasnosti hidroenergetskih postrojenja rekonstrukcijom postojećih and SEE countries. i primjenom novih tehnologija za proizvodnju električne energije. Prema podacima iz INC-a za BiH za ovaj scenarij je planirani rast proizvodnje hidroenergije MHE na oko 2.205 GWh, što bi rezultiralo smanjenjem emisije stakleničkih plinova iz sektora energetike za oko 2.425 GgCO2eq.

1.2. About this report

S3 scenarij se zasniva na uključivanju Bosne i Hercegovine u Evropsku uniju tokom drugog The specific goals of this report dijela scenarijskog perioda, čimeare: bi se u potpunosti primijenile sve smjernice sadržane u Direktivi o vodama. To se, prije svega, odnosi na primjenu svih smjernica za integralno upravljanje vodama po slivovima, bi postojeće entitetske sisteme upravljanja oblasnim slivnim područjima integriralo u 1. što to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal jedinstveni upravljački sistem. Rezultat primjene smjernica bi se sasvim sigurno odrazio na značajno instruments and strategic level documents; unapređenje svih aspekata gazdovanja vodama, posebno na nivou uravnoteženog korištenja vodnih resursa 2. u postojećim hidroakumulacijama, kako za tako i za to develop ai planiranim comparative picture of e-Accessibility forproizvodnju able-bodiedhidroenergije people versus people vodosnabdijevanje. To posebno dolazi do izražaja u uvjetima recentnih klimatskih promjena i s tim with disabilities; u vezi sve učestalijih ekstremnih hidroloških događaja tako da potreba za organizacijom sigurnih sistema 3.vodosnabdijevanja i hidropotencijala sve više and rastu. Prema ovomstakeholders; scenariju integralno to assess the current level of e-Accessibility e-Accessibility upravljanje odrazit će se pozitivno na ukupni hidropotencijal i s tim u vezi na porast 4. tovodama identify good practices in the region; proizvodnje hidroenergije. Rezultat ovakvog pristupa bi bio povećanje proizvodnje hidroenergije na 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: nivou MHE na oko 3.600 GWh, odnosno ukupno smanjenje emisija od oko 3.960 GgCO2eq. address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for hidroenergetskog the UN and EU. potencijala Mjere za smanjenje emisija u oblasti - Izraditi integralne studije razvoja hidroenergetskih potencijala u BiH; This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, - Uraditi katastar in voda identificirati potencijalne that is being implemented the icontext of thezone e-SEE Initiative.opasnosti; It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported byutjecaja DG/BDPvodne NY, and funded the - Zaštititi od nekontrolirane eksploatacije i drugih štetnih resurse od by funUNDP’s Democratic Governance Fund to support thenjihovu South ranjivost, Eastern Europe region damentalnog značaja, Thematic kao što suTrust vodoizvorišta, definirati uključujući i izradu karata od utjecaja klimatskihSociety promjena; in the implementation of rizika the Inclusive Information Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic - Povećati efikasnost korištenja voda i uvesti sistem upravljanja potražnjom vode; priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. - Formirati institucije koje će biti nadležne za uspostavu suvremenog automatskog mjerThe no-upravljačkog project is beingsistema implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded Initiative za kontrolirano upravljanje vodnim resursimae-SEE i jedinstvenog Secretariat,sistema capitalizing on their existinginformacija knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering za razmjenu hidroloških između različitih institucija koje se bave vodnim resursima. Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP 4.1.2.2. Vjetroenergija in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their Jedan od vrlo izraženih energetskih potencijala Bosne i Hercegovine predstavlja vjetro­ respective countries. energija. Imajući u vidu teritorijalni položaj BiH, kao i konfiguraciju zemljišta, potencijal energije vjetra u BiH je razmatran u dvije geografske makroregije:

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 Mediteranska BiH, gdje se pod utjecajem ciklogenetskih aktivnosti na putanji Vc, kombinirano

s reljefnim predispozicijama terena, obrazuje intenzivna regionalna cirkulacija;

Planinsko-kotlinska regija Bosne i Hercegovine, gdje ortografski faktor pozitivno utiče na povećani intenzitet regionalne i lokalne cirkulacije.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

Obje regije pružaju povoljne preduvjete za proizvodnju vjetroenergije, iako je mediteranska makroregija s nešto izraženijim vjetropotencijalom. Jednu od reprezentativnih lokacija predstavlja This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the šire područje Podveležja, koje je svojim položajnim i reljefnim predispozicijama izuzetno pogodno requirements it sets in all aspects of and how it is to be implemented. is followed za instalaciju vjetroelektrana. Zae-Accessibility ozbiljnije analize vjetropotencijala na svimThis potencijalnim bylokacijama a description ofpotrebno the major instruments actionsvjetropotencijala at the European Union level relating to bit će provesti detaljnaand mjerenja kako bi se sa sigurnošću moglo investirati ovu e-Accessibility oblast. disability in generalu and in particular. U određenim studijama koje su urađene za ovu oblast procijenjen je ekonomski potencijal energije vjetra u BiH na oko 600 MW električne energije do 2020. god. Navedene procjene se baziraju na uvođenje najsavremenih tehnologija za iskorištavanje potencijala vjetra uz odgovarajuće prateće podsticajne za proizvodnju Prema podacima iz INC-aand za BiH, u e-Accessibility is aboutmjere overcoming the rangevjetroenergije. of barriers that people with disabilities others periodu 1999-2004. izvršeno je preliminarno istraživanje i selekcija lokacija za such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equalpotencijalnih terms in the Information proizvodnju vjetroenergije u BiH (ADEG projekat). Rezultatima projekta je identificirano 16 lokacija Society. pogodnih za rad vjetroelektrana, s procijenjenim ukupnim instaliranim kapacitetima od 720 do 950 MW, odnosno s procijenjenom godišnjom proizvodnjom od 1.440 do 1.950 GWh. S obzirom e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, andadekvatne involves everything na procijenjene instalirane kapacitete vjetronergetska postrojenja posjeduju uvjete za povezivanje u elektroenergetsku mrežu. from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a Bez obzira na navedene podatke u Bosni i Hercegovini, osim na nekoliko testnih lokacija, visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect have a trenutno ne postoji nijedna elektrana na vjetar koja je priključena na postojeću mrežutovisokog similar or higher napona. Prema proportion. dostupnim podacima postoji određeni broj manjih elektrana na vjetar koje su u funkciji proizvodnje električne energije za individualna domaćinstva, ali je njihov instalirani kapacitet zasigurno mali i nije dovoljno dobar pokatatelj za ocjenuregulations ukupnih vjetropotencijala BiH. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is Scenariji koji se odnose na korištenje vjetroenergije u BiH the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areasse such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive S1 scenarij zasniva na postojećem trendu iskorištenosti vjetroenergetskih potencijala u (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (forizassistive technologies). e-Accessibility BiH, što praktično znači da proizvodnja električne energije ovog energetskog izvora recentno ne S obzirom u S1 scenariju nije predviđena bilo kakva primjena mjera, efekti ispostoji. also covered by da policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist forstimulativnih programmatic support. ublažavanja klimatskih pod utjecajem BiH su ravne nuli. Furthermore, moves are promjena afoot to strengthen thesevjetroenergije and to enact umore legislation.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

S2 scenarij podrazumijeva primjenu određenih stimulativnih mjera kojima bi se pokrenuo There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in svega the area of e-Accessibility: proces iskorištavanja vjetropotencijala u BiH. Navedene mjere prije trebaju uključivati realiziranje projekata za istraživanje vjetropotencijala određenih lokacija koje su, prema njihovim geografskih karakteristikama, ranije ocijenjene potencijalno mjereto također stimulirati 1. It is worthwhile in its ownkao right to improveiskoristive. access toOve services peopletrebaju who are already kupovinu i izgradnju suvremenih vjetroelektrana koje mogu funkcionirati i na minimalnim brzinama marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than vjetra. Uz uvjet primjene navedenih mjera može se očekivati proizvodnja vjetroenergije na nivou od oko increase the što disadvantages populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this 1.600 GWh godišnje, bi rezultiralocertain kompenzacijskim smanjenjem korištenja neobnovljivih, posebno is likely to further marginalize groups. fosilniharea goriva, odnosno smanjenjem emisijathese od oko 1.760 GgCO eq. 2

2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the S3 scenarij uključuje primjenu standarda Evropske unije na nivou korištenja obnovljivih opportunities, andkojima can help public services fulfil izvora population energije. S opens tim u significant vezi u BiH market/sales bi bili dostupni brojni fondovi se financijski podržava theirtehničkih remit in akapaciteta cost effective manner. uspostava i ovog oblika proizvodnje energije. Prema rezultatima studije energetskog sektora BiH, do kraja scenarijskog perioda proizvodni kapaciteti vjetroenergije bi 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; can reduce cost of webdodatnim service development, enhance the mogli narasti do 2.400 GWhitgodišnje što the bi rezultiralo potencijalom and za ublažavanje klimatskih promjena iz energetskog sektora od oko 2.600 GgCO eq. prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 2 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of Mjere za podsticanje povećanog korištenja vjetroenergije

e-Services and to lower the cost. - Izrada studije vjetropotencijala na nivou dvije identificirane geografske makroregije u BiH 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the i s tim u vezi definiranje svih osnovnih pokazatelja po pojedinačnim izdvojenim lokacijama; convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries. - Legislativna i financijska stimulacija proizvodnje ekološki čistih oblika energije, među koje spada i vjetroenergija; Podrška projektima za cilj imaju nabavku najsuvremenijih vjetroelektrana i s tim u 1.2.- About thiskojireport vezi uspostavu vjetroparkova;

The specific goals ofprojektima this reportkoji are: - Podrška za cilj imaju educiranje i transfer znanja sa svih aspekata održivog

korištenja vjetroenergije; 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal - Legislativno prilagođavanje pravila priključenja na mrežu za obnovljive instruments andharmoniziranje strategic leveli documents; izvore energije. 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities;

4.1.2.3. Bioplin 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders;

4. toima identify good practices in za theuzgoj region; BiH odlične prirodne uvjete stočarstva i odličnu ekonomsku osnovu za korištenje toproizvodnju develop a set of recommendations for government other stakeholders on howod to: stajnjaka5.za bioplina. Mogućnost za korištenje tečnog i and čvrstog stajnjaka, koji je nastao registriranog stočnog fonda s farmi u BiH, da proizvodi bioplin, je način koji omogućava ublažavanje address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; klimatskih poljoprivredni potencijal biomase (20.100.000 m3) u BiH - promjena. complyEnergetski with requirements for the UN and dostupne EU. za proizvodnju bioplina iz stajnjaka na stočnim farmama je 0,508 PJ. Na osnovu podataka o stočnom fondu 2010. i 2011. god., izračunata je potencijalna proizvodnja bioplina u BiH 800.000 do 850.000 m3/dan. U BiH je urađeno (projektirano i izgrađeno) samo jedno bioplin-postrojenje. Instalirana This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, električna snaga spomenutog postrojenja je 35 kW, a toplotna 70 kW i na godišnjem nivou se očekuje that is being290.000 implemented in the context e-SEE is a regional project designed by proizvodnja kW električne energijeofi the 560.000 kWInitiative. toplotne It energije. the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the koji se odnoseThematic na korištenje bioplina u BiHthe South Eastern Europe region UNDP’sScenariji Democratic Governance Trust Fund to support in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the S1 scenarij je scenarij bez poduzimanja migracijskih mjera, što znači da se ne očekuje regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic povećanje korištenja energije iz modernih oblika biomase poput bioplina, jer su cijene energije priorities of the projectnekonkurentne are therefore fully aligned the targets e-SEEkonvencionalne Agenda+. iz tih izvora još uvijek u odnosu nawith tehnologije kojeofkoriste izvore

energije. Ovim scenarijem se ne podrazumijeva uvođenje bilo kakvih promjena u postojećim The project is being implemented by ithe Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative trendovima stope porasta broja životinja kao unosa azotnih đubriva na obradivim površinama. Secretariat, capitalizing on theirjeexisting knowledge, and resources. Značajno obilježje ovog scenarija i relativno nizak nivo networks zainteresiranosti i aktivnostiEmpowering državnih i entitetskih institucija energetskom Marginalised Groups uinovom e-Governance and podsektoru. the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely S2 scenarij se, s obzirom na vrlo mali postojeći udio bioplina, bazira na aktivnostima koje with the fellow na UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP su fokusirane implementiranje sistema za njegovo sakupljanje i sagorijevanje na farmama u in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members BiH. Najvažnije odlike ovog scenarija su: postepeno uvođenje novih tehnologija (orijentacija kaof OIE,Regional većoj primjeni OIE i bioplina), proizvodnje potrošnje energije naPoints farmama za the e-Governance Advisory planiranje Taskforce (REGATA) acti as government Focal for their zadovoljavanje potreba za grijanjem prostorija, sušenje sijena, žitarica, povrća itd., proizvodnja respective countries. bioplina u jednostavnim pogonima i korištenje bioplina za pokrivanje značajnog dijela energetskih potreba domaćinstava čak kod malog broja stoke (korištenje mini pogona). 113

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S3 scenarij je zasnovan na visokom stepenu aktivnosti za ublažavanje klimatskih promjena koji se sprovode na različitim nivoima vlasti – od državnih do entitetskih. Očekuje se intenzivnija upotreba bioplina za proizvodnju toplotne i električne energije, što će se pokazati kao vrlo isplativo zahvaljujući poboljšanju opreme koja se koristi u te svrhe. Bioplin iz poljoprivrede (stočarstvo) je značajan izvor energije u scenariju s mjerama S2 i S3. Radi se o kogeneracijama za koje se pretpostavlja efikasno lociranje (proizvodnja električne i korištenje toplote). Sva proizvodnja električne energije se predaje u mrežu, tako da se njen udio ne može podijeliti prema kategorijama nego ukupno. Toplota iz poljoprivrednih postrojenja se daje u područno grijanje ruralnih sredina. This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the Ukupno instalirane snage postrojenja kogeneracija na bioplin iz poljoprivrede (stočarstva) u RS requirements in all aspects e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This followed su definiraneit ssets dvostruko većim of snagama po petogodišnjim periodima. Po analogiji suisdefinirani byplanovi a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating na to i za Federaciju BiH, odnosno u narednoj Tabeli 25. su prezentirane ukupne vrijednosti nivou cijele BiH. and e-Accessibility in particular. disability in general

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

Proizvodnja 1.1. Why e-Accessibility? Instalirana BiH električne energije

Proizvodnja toplotne energije snaga (MW) e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers people with disabilities others (GWhthat /god) (PJ/god.) (GWh /god)and (PJ/god)

such as older populations experience when2,5 seeking to participate on equal terms in11,17 the Information Ukupno do 2015. 5,77 (0,02) (0,04) Society. Ukupno do 2020.

5

11,54 (0,04)

22,34 (0,08)

Ukupno do 2025.

7,5

17,31 (0,06)

33,51 (0,12)

e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on Tabela 25. Ukupno instalirane snage u poljoprivredi postrojenja kogeneracija na bioplin u BiH. television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar orMjere higherzaproportion. podsticanje povećanog korištenja bioplina u BiH mjere za podsticanje bioplina zahtijevaju da se ulaže poljoprivrednu A Osnovne perhaps surprising number of korištenja international agreements, regulations and uguidelines cover proizvodnju, kroz politiku ruralnog razvoja. Primjena ovakvih mjera rezultirat će energetskim this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is uštedama u ogrjevnom drvetu, električnoj energiji, toplotnoj energiji isporučenoj daljinskim the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are grijanjem i posebno u energiji fosilnih goriva. S druge strane, povećano je korištenje i biomase spread across areas such as Television (for energije. subtitling), the Copyright Directive (i bioplina) u kogeneracijskoj proizvodnjiWithout toplotneFrontiers i električne U industriji su spomenuta (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility poboljšanja predviđena kroz energetske mjere smanjenjem intenziteta potrošnje električne energije i korisne toplotne energije, povećanje stepena efikasnosti tehnologija za proizvodnju is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. toplotne energije, proizvodnji i električne energije, pri čemu je Furthermore, movespovećanje are afootkogeneracije to strengthenuthese and totoplotne enact more legislation. kao gorivo predviđena i biomasa (uključujući bioplin). Energetske uštede, kao rezultat primjene mjera u industriji, prikazane su u Tabeli 26. There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: 1. It(sisbioplinom) worthwhile in its own right2010. to improve access people who are already Biomasa 2015.to services to 2020. 2025. marginalized. It helps of the Information Society Uštede energije u industriji (PJ)fulfil the promise 0,049 0,608 1,114to reduce rather 0,506 than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area likely to further marginalize these groups.biomase (s bioplinom) za kogeneraciju Tabelais26. Energetske uštede u industriji korištenjem

2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil Prema scenariju s mjerama - S3, potrošnja finalne energije u industriji bi do 2025. godine remitnego in a cost manner.bi se potrošnja električne energije smanjila za oko 7%. bila za their 9% manja u S2.effective U istom periodu 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the 4.1.2.4. Sunčeva energija

prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. Rezultati istraživanja o mogućnosti korištenja Sunčeve energije za proizvodnju toplote – 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of pomoću solarnih kolektora za 15 gradova u BiH, kao i za proizvodnju električne energije, pokazuje e-Services and to lower thepodataka cost. opravdanost . Iz svih prikupljenih i provedenih analiza može se zaključiti kako postoji značajan potencijal primjene solarne energije na području BiH, koji iznosi 70,5 mil. GWh doznačene 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the energije ukupnog solarnog zračenja godišnje. Tehnički potencijal je 685 PJ, a to je oko tri puta aspectspotreba of the development of the Information Society in the EU convergence of different više od ukupnih primarnih energetskih u energetskom bilansu BiH. Prema rezultatima and mogućeg SEE countries. proračuna stepena pokrivanja toplotnih potreba za pripremu tople potrošne vode za prosječno domaćinstvo, oko 74% toplotnih potreba za pripremu tople potrošne vode u RS, odnosno 78% u BiH, može biti pokriveno iz solarnih kolektora]. Stepen pokrivanja potreba za grijanjem zavisi od toplotne izolacije objekta, ali u prosjeku se kreće oko 30%. Procjene su da bi solarna energija mogla podmiriti oko 5% potreba za energijom u BiH. Ljeti bi se moglo obezbijediti 80% potreba za toplom vodom, a zimi između 35 i 50%. Procjene su da u BiH trenutno ima oko 7.000 m2 The specific goals of this report are: instaliranih kolektora, a da je godišnje povećanje oko 28%.

1.2. About this report

1. to outline context regarding Scenariji kojithe se international odnose na korištenje solarne e-Accessibility energije u BiHincluding existing legal

instruments and strategic level documents; S1 scenarij ne podrazumijeva uvođenje značajnijih promjena vezano za sadašnji trend 2. to develop a comparative picture e-Accessibility for able-bodied people people korištenja solarne energije, odnosno stanjeofprema kojem solarna energija neće bitiversus korištena u with disabilities; većem stepenu. 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; S2 scenarij i S3 scenarij. U BiH je počela inicijativa za korištenje i proizvodnji opreme. Cijene 4. tona identify good practices region; zemalja i dalekog istoka. Ukoliko posmatramo se baziraju osnovu onih iz uvoza,inizthe zapadnih 2 5. tosistem develop of recommendations for government andseother stakeholders howdo to: standardni od a4 set m cijena kompletnog sistema s montažom procjenjuje na okoon 3.500 4.000 eura. se da solarnih kolektora do 2020. god. naraste na 50.000 - Očekuje address theinstalirana obstacles površina to e-Accessibility; 2 m2, što bi bilo oko 12,5 m na 1.000 stanovnika. Ukoliko se počnu comply with requirements for the UN and EU. primjenjivati mjere sufinanciranja s obzirom na postojeće potencijale, možemo očekivati do 2025. godine pokrivenost u iznosu oko 200.000 m2, tj. oko 42.000 domaćinstava, što iznosi oko 11% od ukupnog broja domaćinstava. Primjena ove tehnologije, posmatrajući njenu isplativost, je najpoželjnija u objektima koji se koriste This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, cijelu godinu u svim aspektima boravka tj. korištenja potrošne tople vode. Ukoliko govorimo o that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEEumirovljenika Initiative. It iste a regional javnim objektima to su, prije svega, bolnice, domovi sportski project objekti designed ukoliko seby koriste cijelu godinu. Kod privatnih to su porodične kuće koje imaju minimalno pet članova the UNDP Country Office in Bosniaobjekata and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the domaćinstva, bilo postojeći ili novi objekti. Kod višestambenih zgrada primjena ove tehnologije UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region isplativa je samo u slučaju centraliziranog sistema pripreme potrošne tople vode. Ukoliko postoji in the implementation the Inclusive Information Society Prioritystanu Area of the e-SEE Agenda+,ovu the pojedinačna priprema,ofnaknadni radovi i instalacija u svakom uvelike poskupljuju regional action plan for Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic tehnologiju što dovodi do Information njene neisplativosti. priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+.

Mjere za podsticanje povećanog korištenja solarne energije u BiH

The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative S obzirom da trenutno u BiHexisting ne postoje kapaciteti za proizvodnju energije, moguće Secretariat, capitalizing on their knowledge, networks andsolarne resources. Empowering je primjenom većeg broja različitih mjera pokrenuti njenu proizvodnju. Korištenje solarnih ćelija za Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social proizvodnju električne energije u BiH još uvijek nije primijenjeno. Sunčevi kolektori su analizirani za Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in iSarajevo is working closely sisteme centralnog grijanja na lož ulje, električnu energiju, UNP spremnik prirodni plin, gdje kolektor with the fellow UNDP Country Offices inenergiju the region, while theinvesticije Office of Senior ICTkolektore Advisor at the BDP zamjenjuje klasični bojler na električnu za PTV. Zbog u solarne dolazi do povećanja ukupnih godišnjih troškova posmatranog sistema,role. pri čemu je najveće povećanjemembers godišnjegof in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory Government-appointed troška (u kućama s centralnimAdvisory grijanjem u hladnoj (REGATA) zoni) imalaact kombinacija kotlovaFocal za centralno the Regional e-Governance Taskforce as government Pointsgrijanje for their i PTV na električnu energiju i kolektora (5,1%), slijedi prirodni plin i kolektor (5,0%), UNP spremnik respective countries. i kolektor (3,0%) i loživo ulje i kolektor (2,9%). Najveća ušteda je dobijena u kombinaciji kotlova za centralno grijanje i PTV na električnu energiju i kolektora (5,4%). Intenzivnijom izgradnjom solarnih 115

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ćelija može se očekivati da će do kraja 2025. godine instalirana snaga fotovoltičnih sistema po glavi stanovnika u BiH, odnosno ukupno 60 MW instalirane snage sistema. Tehnološki razvoj solarnih ćelija se kreće u dva smjera – razvoj solarnih ćelija visoke efikasnosti transformacije Sunčevog zračenja u električnu energiju i razvoj tzv. low-cost solarnih ćelija.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

Primjena navedenih mjera rezultira uštedama energije i to ogrjevnog drveta, električne energije, toplotne energije isporučene daljinskim grijanjem te fosilnih goriva. S druge strane povećano je korištenje Sunčeve energije (Tabela 27). Prema scenariju s mjerama - S3, potrošnja This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the finalne energije u industriji bi do 2025. godine bila za 9% manja nego u baznom scenariju – S1. U requirements it sets in all aspectselektrične of e-Accessibility how it za is to be7%. implemented. This is followed istom bi se razdoblju potrošnja energijeand smanjila oko Primjena solarne energije byu adomaćinstvima description ofdo the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to 2025. godine bi se trebala povećati za pet puta. disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? Sunčeva energija - u industriji 0,000 0,011 Uštede energije (PJ)

2010.

2015.

2020.

2025.

0,029

0,047

0,015

0,028

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others Sunčeva energija - u 0,000seeking to participate 0,009 0,056 0,103 such as older populations experience when on equal terms in the Information domaćinstvima Society. Sunčeva energija- u uslugama

0,001

0,002

e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything Tabela 27. Uštede energije u važnijim oblastima potrošnje, korištenjem solarne energije (u PJ) from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television.UUp to 15 na percent the population the European Union has azadisability, such as ua odnosu bazni of scenarij povećanoacross je i korištenje Sunčeve energije toplotne potrebe uslužnom sektoru, u iznosu od 2,8% korisnih potreba do 2025. godine. Također je pretpostavljeno visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a ubrzanije povećanje stepena djelovanja pretvaranja finalne energije u korisnu toplotnu energiju. similar or higher proportion. Rezultat predviđanja za usluge u scenariju s mjerama je smanjene finalne potrošnje do 2025. godine do 9%. Za električnu energiju je to oko 6%, a daljinsko grijanje i fosilna goriva za toplotne potrebe A perhaps number international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover bi se smanjila dosurprising 10%. U odnosu naofS1, korištenje Sunčeve energije bi se povećalo nešto više od this the highest international the UNCRPD, ratified comingzainto force in 2008, is dvaarea. puta.AtKorištenje Sunčeve energijelevel, u sektoru zgradarstva bi seand povećalo toplotne potrebe u ovom sektoru u iznosu od 5 % korisnih potreba do 2025. godine. Primjena SE u domaćinstvima do the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are 2025. godine bi se as povećati neštoWithout više od Frontiers tri puta. (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive spread across trebala areas such Television (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. 4.1.2.5. Geotermalna energija Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. Prema dosadašnjim istraživanjima ustanovljeno je da se oko 25% teritorije BiH smatra potencijalnim resursom trojakog for oblika: sistemi, geopresirane zone i Theregeotermalnim is at least a five-fold justification early hidrotermalni action in the area of e-Accessibility: tople suhe stijene. Ova područja pokrivaju uglavnom centralni i sjeverni dio BiH. Od spomenuta tri oblika resursa najveću pažnju privlače hidrotermalni sistemi, jer je njihova eksploatacija najrazvi1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already jenija i najjeftinija u odnosu na ostala dva oblika. Sabiranjem potencijala RS i FBiH izračunata je It helps fulfilgeotermalnih the promisepojava of the uInformation Society to reduce rather than ukupnamarginalized. toplotna snaga i energija Bosni i Hercegovini. increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this Ukupni mogući instalirani kapacitetthese geotermalnih area is likely to further marginalize groups. izvora na 42 lokacije je 9,25 MWt, ako se posmatra samo mogućnost grijanja prostora, odnosno 90,2 MWt ako se posmatra geotermalna 2. Improving to services, public and private, potrebe. to such aUz significant of the energija za grijanje access prostora i rekreativne i balneološke korištenjeproportion svih navedenih significant and can help public services fulfil izvora spopulation faktorom opens iskorištenja od 0,5market/sales moguće je daopportunities, se u jednoj godini proizvede 145,75 TJ energije samo za grijanje their remitprostora, in a cost odnosno effective ukupno manner.1.421,75 TJ energije ako se posmatra zajedno grijanje prostora i kupanje. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can na reduce the cost of web service development, Scenariji koji se odnose korištenje geotermalne energije u BiH and enhance the prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. Scenariji koji se odnose na korištenje geotermalne energije su uglavnom zasnovani na 4. The rezervama earlier action the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of procijenjenim kaoisi taken, tehnološkim mogućnostima za njenu eksploataciju. e-Services and to lower the cost. S1 scenarij se zasniva na postojećim trendovima potencijalnog korištenja geotermalne Pursuing approaches that followpotencijala EU guidelines recommendations assist in the energije5. bez posebnih dodatnih istraživanja i bezand promjene dosadašnjeg will odnosa prema aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU convergence of different ovom energentu (Tabela 28). and SEE countries. S1 scenarij

2010.

1.2. About this report 0,0

Geotermalna The specific goals of this report are: energija

0,0

2015.

2020.

2025.

Potrošnja GE (u PJ) 0,05

0,08

0,9

Udio GE u strukturi OIE (u %) 0,16

0,17

0,18

1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents; Tabela 28. Potrošnja GE u BiH u scenariju S1

2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people Najveći porast potrošnje geotermalne energije pretpostavlja se u S1 scenariju, u periodu with disabilities; 2015-2020. i iznosi oko 2,5%. 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; S2 i S3identify scenarij se baziraju na in uvođenju modela podrške, gdje su glavne aktivnosti fokusirane 4. to good practices the region; na implementiranju sistema na nivou cijele BiH. Uand obaother scenarija su dati pokazatelji 5. to develophidrotermalnih a set of recommendations for government stakeholders on how to: finalne potrošnje energije zajedno s prosječnim godišnjim stopama porasta odnosno smanjenja address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; u petogodišnji periodima i udjeli oblika energije u finalnoj potrošnji. U strukturi energenata za - električne comply energije with requirements for the UN and EU. proizvodnju u S2 i S3 nema geotermalne energije kao učesnika-energenta iako postoje uvjeti za to, odnosno na nekim lokacijama su ponuđeni i koncesionari (Tabele 29 i 30).

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that isS2 being implemented in 2010. the context of the e-SEE a regional project2025. designed by scenarij 2015. Initiative. It is 2020. the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the Potrošnja GE (u PJ) UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region 0,0 0,04Society Priority Area 0,06 of the e-SEE Agenda+, 0,06 inGeotermalna the implementation of the Inclusive Information the energija action plan for Information Society development, regional and OIE the (u UNCRPD. The programmatic Udio GE u strukturi %) priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned0,1 with the targets of0,2 e-SEE Agenda+. 0,2 0 Tabela 29. Struktura GE u BiH prema S2 scenariju

The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Scenarij ublažavanja S3 s primijenjenim mjerama je veomaare bitan s obzirom na predviđen Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat positioned within the Social program ulaska BiH u EU između 2015. i 2020. godine ili preuzimanje obaveza smanjenja Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is workingemisija closely GHG. Po S2 i S3 je pretpostavljena značajna zastupljenost korištenja geotermalnog resursa pomoću with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP toplotnih pumpi u sektoru domaćinstva. in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries.

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S3 scenarij

2010.

2015.

2020.

2025.

Potrošnja GE (u PJ)

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES Geotermalna energija

0,0

0,04

0,06

0,07

Udio GE u strukturi OIE (u %)

0,0

0,2

0,3

0,3

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed Tabela 30. Struktura GE u BiH prema S3 scenariju by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability Mjere in general and e-Accessibility in particular. za podsticanje povećanog korištenja geotermalne energije u BiH Bosna i Hercegovina sve više prepoznaje značaj svojih geotermalnih resursa. Za ozbiljniji

pristup ovom energentu bit će potrebni dodatni istražni radovi na svim bušotinama koja pokazuju 1.1. Why e-Accessibility? potencijal za energetsku proizvodnju. S obzirom da je specifična investicija u geotermalna

e-Accessibility is about overcoming barriers that energentima people with disabilities and others postrojenja u ovom trenutku visoka,the a darange je BiHofbogata drugim i oblicima energije, ne such as older populationselektrične experience when seeking to participate equal terms in the Information predviđa se proizvodnja energije iz geotermalnih izvoraon u narednom dvadesetogodišnjem periodu, iako je to još uvijek neizvjesno tvrditi, s obzirom na započete radove i uložene domaće i Society. strane investicije. Ipak, u slučaju donošenja zakonodavnog okvira kojim bi se podsticala proizvodnja električne energije iz ovog izvora postoji mogućnost da se poboljša ekonomska isplativost takvih e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any typetakvih of ICTpostrojenja. used by citizens, and involves everything projekata, a onda bi se mogla očekivati i izgradnja from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion.

4.2. Daljinsko grijanje

4.2.1. Pregled postojećeg stanja u sektoru A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is daljinskog grijanja

the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are Na teritoriji daljinskog grijanja uglavnom susubtitling), skoncentrirani u većim gradovima. spread across areas BiH suchsistemi as Television Without Frontiers (for the Copyright Directive Prema raspoloživim podacima, trenutno u BiH egzistira 25 poduzeća (12 u RS i 13 u FBiH) koja se (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility bave snabdijevanjem potrošača toplotnom energijom, odnosno 29 sistema daljinskog grijanja (s is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. obzirom da u okviru UNIS Energetika d.o.o. Sarajevo posluju tri sistema daljinskog grijanja u Sarajevu, Furthermore, movesTravniku). are afootPrema to strengthen these and togod. enact more legislation. Travniku i Novom podacima iz 2008. (ESSBiH, Modul 1B, 2008) daljinskim grijanjem je obuhvaćeno oko 12% domaćinstava u BiH. U međuvremenu su s radom započela dva nova poduzeća daljinskog grijanja justification u Gradačcu for i Livnu, s radom treba započeti i toplana u Novom There is at least a five-fold earlyaaction in the area of e-Accessibility: Travniku. Kako su instalirani toplotni kapaciteti novih toplana relativno mali u odnosu na one koji su već radili (manje od 3 %), smože se smatrati da se procenat domaćinstava obuhvaćenih daljinskim 1. Ituis worthwhile innije itsznačajnije own rightpromijenio. to improveNovije access to services peopledaljinskog who are already grijanjem međuvremenu analize stanja to sistema grijanja marginalized. It helps fulfil the Republike promise of the Information Society to i reduce ratherplanu than su navedene u Planu razvoja energetike Srpske do 2030. godine (2010) u Strateškom i programu razvoja sektora (2009). Međutim, navedeniinsufficient dokumenti effort su najvećim increase the energetskog disadvantages certainFBiH populations face. Conversely, in this dijelomarea samo konstatirali stanje koje je utvrđeno Studijom energetskog sektora BiH, Modul 9 – is likely to further marginalize these groups. Gradsko centralno grijanje iz 2008.god. Općenito, u većini poduzeća daljinskog grijanja, posebno u 2. Improving access to services, and private, such (npr. a significant of the RS-u, toplane i oprema koja im pripada supublic stari između 25 i 30togodina u Banjoj proportion Luci, kao drugom najvećem sistemu opens daljinskog grijanjamarket/sales u BiH, prosječna starost kotlova je oko godina) i nalaze se population significant opportunities, and can help35public services fulfil na kraju svog eksploatacijskog vijeka što uvjetuje da ovi sistemi rade s niskom efikasnošću, te u ovim their remit in a cost effective manner. sistemima postoje značajni gubici toplotne energije koji u pojedinim slučajevima dostižu vrijednost i Improving for the marginalized alsoalilead to improved access for do 60%.3.Poslije rata jee-Accessibility bilo nekoliko rekonstrukcija postojećihcould sistema, su značajnije izvedene samo 2

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able-bodied it cansistema reduce izvršene the cost samo of webnajnužnije service development, enhance the u Sarajevu, dok su u people; većini drugih rekonstrukcijeand s ciljem da se obezbijedi minimum funkcioniranja sistema daljinskog grijanja. Jedan od velikih problema je i naplata prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. računa za isporučenu toplotnu energiju, odnosno formiranje cijene te energije. Iako se nivo naplate 4. isporučenu The earlier toplotnu action is energiju taken, the easierposljednjih it is to integrate e-Accessibility development računa za povećao nekoliko godina, zboginto teške ekonomskeof situacijee-Services cijena isporučene toplotne and to lower theenergije cost. nije ekonomska a poslovanje velikog broja poduzeća se odvija uz općinske subvencije. Ovo onemogućava zadovoljavajuće održavanje postojećih sistema, a Pursuing approaches that follow EU iguidelines and sistema recommendations will assist in the posebno5.onemogućava investicije u nadogradnju modernizaciju daljinskog grijanja. convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU Studijom energetskog sektora u Republici Srpskoj iz 2010. god. je, pored ostalih, detaljno and SEE countries. analiziran razvoj sistema daljinskog grijanja u Republici Srpskoj do 2030. godine za sva tri emisiona scenarija. U skladu s preporukama iz Prostornog plana Republike Srpske do 2015. godine, predviđeno je veće učešće alternativnih izvora energije za grijanje gradova (drvni otpad, geotermalna energija, energija sunca i sl.), kao i rekonstrukcija većih toplifikacionih sistema uvođenjem kogeneracije ali i modernizacija postojećih sistema. S obzirom da za Federaciju BiH The specificnoviji goalsscenariji of this report are: ne postoje razvoja sistema daljinskog grijanja, osim onih prezentiranih u Studiji energetskog sektora BiH, Modul 9 – Gradsko centralno grijanje iz 2008. godine, oni su za Federaciju BiH razrađeni na osnovu o proizvodnji energije u Federaciji BiH (Federalni zavod 1. to outline the podataka international context toplotne regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal za statistiku, Statistički godišnjak 2011) u 2010. godini, kao i na osnovu podataka koje su dostavili instruments and strategic level documents; sistemi daljinskog grijanja u Gradačcu i Livnu (koji nisu bili obuhvaćeni tim izvještajem) i u skladu s tri scenarija razvojaafinalne potrošnje energije iz Republike Srpske. 2. to develop comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities; Svi scenariji predviđaju toplifikaciju daljnjih gradskih četvrti i širenje toplotnih mreža (Tabeli 31, Grafikon Ostale su: and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 3. to 25). assess thepojedinačne current levelkarakteristike of e-Accessibility 4. to identify good practices in the region; Sva tri scenarija su na nivou razvoja finalne potrošnje energije: 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: - scenarij address the obstacles e-Accessibility; S1 potrošnje energije jeto bez ulaganja u nove tehnologije i bez primjene dodatnih mjera; comply with requirements for the UN and EU. S2 scenarij potrošnje energije uključuje primjenu određenih mjera smanjenja potrošnje energije;

1.2. About this report

S3 scenarij energije u uvjetima intenzivnogGroups ekonomskog razvoja i This report isuključuje part of a potrošnju larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised in e-Governance’, ulaganjima u nove tehnologije. that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region ScenarijSociety S1 in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. Admin. jedinica 2010. 2015. 2020. The programmatic 2025. priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. Republika Srpska

1.753

2.240

2.580

2.885

Federacija 4.678 5.486 6.294 TheBiH project is being implemented3.926 by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Bosna i Hercegovina 5.680 9.180 Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, 6.918 networks and8.067 resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Scenarij S2 Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely Admin. 2015. 2020. with the jedinica fellow UNDP Country Offices in the2010. region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor2025. at the BDP inRepublika New YorkSrpska is providing expertise and playing an advisory2.152 role. Government-appointed members of 1.753 2.289 2.385 the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA)4.236 act as government Focal Points for their Federacija BiH 3.926 4.515 4.763 respective countries. Bosna i Hercegovina

5.680

6.388

6.802

7.147

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

Scenarij S3 Admin. jedinica

2010.

2015.

2020.

2025.

Republika Srpska

1.753

2.158

2.378

2.562

Federacija BiH

3.926

4.449

4.997

5.546

Bosna i Hercegovina

5.680

6.609

7.376

8.109

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed Tabela 31. Pregled scenarija razvoja sistema daljinskog grijanja (u PJ) by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability Prezentirani in general and e-Accessibility particular.da će se na nivou Bosne i Hercegovine sistem podaci upućuju nainzaključak daljinskog grijanja najintenzivnije razvijati prema S3 scenariju, koji podrazumijeva povećanu potrošnju energije u uvjetima intenziviranog ekonomskog razvoja.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society.

4.2.2. Scenariji smanjenja emisije stakleničkih plinova iz različitih sistema gradskog centralnog grijanja u BiH

Emisije CO2 za sva tri emisiona scenarija u periodu 2010-2025, određene su na osnovu e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything podataka o finalnoj potrošnji energije kako u Republici Srpskoj tako i Federaciji BiH (Tabela 32). from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a S1 visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar orjedinica higher proportion. Admin. 2010. 2015. 2020. 2025. Republika Srpska

132.275,9

155.385,5

142.265,5

156.939,2

Federacija BiH

236.750,5

196.916,4

211.617,8

226.096,6

A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover Federacija BiH 236.750,5 218.129,7 264.043,5 311.547,4 this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is i Hercegovina 369.026,4 373.515,2 406.309,0 theBosna relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but 468.486,6 actions are spread across areas such as Television Without S2 Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility Admin. jedinica 2010. 2015. 2020. 2025. is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Republika Srpska 132.275,9 120.738,8 123.593,2 Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to149.268,9 enact more legislation. is at least a five-fold justification for early346.185,284 action in the area of e-Accessibility: BosnaThere i Hercegovina 369.026,4 332.356,6 349.689,8 S3 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise Society to reduce rather Admin. jedinica 2010. of the Information 2015. 2020. 2025. than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this Republika Srpska 132.275,9 149.831,2 131.096,0 139.383,7 area is likely to further marginalize these groups. Federacija BiH

236.750,5

204.565,1

236.249,5

269.565,8

2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the Bosna i Hercegovina 369.026,4 354.396,3 367.345,5 408.949,5 population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective različitih sistema centralnog grijanja za sva tri scenarija (u t) Tabela 32. Pregled emisija CO iz manner. 2

3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the GgCO eq prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 500 2

S1

4. The480 earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of S2 460 e-Services and to lower the cost. 440

S3

5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the 420 convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU 400 and SEE 380 countries. 360

1.2. About this report 340 320 300 2010 The specific goals of this report are:

2015

2020

2025

Grafikon 25. Ukupne emisije CO2 izregarding sektora daljinskog grijanja uincluding BiH, 1. to outline the international context e-Accessibility existing legal za period 2010–2025. prema S1, S2 i S3 scenariju instruments and strategic level documents;

2. to develop aBiH comparative picture e-Accessibility forizable-bodied people versus Za Federaciju su navedene samoofvrijednosti emisija sistema daljinskog grijanjapeople koja imaju vlastita postrojenja za proizvodnju toplotne energije i industrijskih energana koje također with disabilities; sudjeluju u snabdijevanju toplotnom energijom (Grafikon 25). Emisije iz termoelektrana-toplana 3. to assesstoplotnom the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; koje snabdijevaju energijom Tuzlu, Lukavac i Kakanj su obuhvaćene emisijama iz elektroenergetskog Od 2015.ingod. toplotnom energijom grada Zenice trebalo 4. to identifysektora. good practices the snabdijevanje region; bi se vršiti plinske atermoelektrane toplane umjesto dosadašnje energane 5. toizdevelop set of recommendations for government andindustrijske other stakeholders onfabrike how to: "Acelor Mittal Zenica“ koja je koristila ugalj kao primarno gorivo. Slična situacija je i za Republiku address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; Srpsku, odnosno navedene su samo emisije CO2 iz sistema daljinskog grijanja koja imaju vlastita - za proizvodnju comply withtoplotne requirements for dok the će UNemisije and EU.iz budućih kogenerativnih postrojenja postrojenja energije, kao i iz termoelektrane Ugljevik biti obuhvaćene emisijama iz elektroenergetskog sektora. This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regionalMjere actions plan for Information Society development, and energije the UNCRPD. The programmatic aspekta proizvodnje i distribucije toplotne priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+.

4.2.3. Mjere za smanjenje emisija stakleničkih plinova iz sektora daljinskog grijanja

Općeproject mjere: is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative The Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering - Toplifikacija daljnjih gradskih četvrti i širenje toplotnih mreža, povećanje iskorištenosti Marginalised Groups in e-Governance the e-SEE Secretariat are eksploatacije. positioned within the Social postojećih kapaciteta, analizaand korištenja i optimiranje režima Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely Poboljšanje infrastrukture toplotnih mreža with the- fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of - Zahvati na cjevovodima: opća zamjena dotrajale vrelovodne i toplovodne cijevne mreže the Regionalu e-Governance Advisorypoboljšanje Taskforce (REGATA) as government Focalkanalskih Points forcijevi their kritičnim područjima, vrelovoda act i toplovoda zamjenom respective countries. predizoliranim cijevima, sanacija nadzemnog dijela parovoda, vrelovoda i toplovoda;

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-

Poboljšanje sistema prenosa, distribucije i snabdijevanja: mjere smanjenja gubitaka vode, povećanje kapaciteta cirkulacionih pumpi i opće mjere modernizacije sistema, ugradnja odgovarajućih regulacijskih ventila i uvođenje frekvencijske regulacije pumpi, uvođenje balansiranja cijevne mreže, zahvati u direktne podstanice, uvođenje kompaktnih podstanica.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES Agregati i regulacija

This section presents an overview of nadzora the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the Upravljanje i regulacija: sistemi i upravljanja daljinskog grijanja, regulacija tempe­ requirements it sets in all aspectsi of e-Accessibility and nadzor; how it is to be implemented. This is followed rature, upravljanje regulacijom mjerenjem, daljinski by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to na agregatima: revitalizacija i izgradnja kotlovnica, zahvati na izmjenjivačima, disability - Zahvati in general and e-Accessibility in particular. ugradnja kondenzacijskih kotlovnica kod zasebnih toplotnih mreža, uvođenje kogeneracije.

1.1. Mjere Why e-Accessibility? s aspekta potrošnje toplotne energije e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others - Individualno mjerenje potrošnje: uvođenje mjerenja toplotne energije prema stvarnoj such as olderpotrošnji: populations experience when seeking to participate equalkod terms in the Information ugradnja kumulativnih mjerača utroška on toplote potrošača, uvođenje Society. odgovarajuće naplate potrošnje. - Poboljšanje karakteristika regulacije e-Accessibility cantoplotnih potentially refer to anyzgrada: type of podsticanje ICT used byugradnje citizens, termostatske and involves everything kod potrošača, informiranje potrošača o mogućnostima uvođenja mjera i poboljšanja. from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion.

4.3. Zgradarstvo

A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover 4.3.1. Pregled postojećeg stanja u sektoru zgradarstva

this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are 4.3.1.1. Stambene zgrade spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive S obzirom da od 1991. godine u BiHFramework nije obavljen stanovništva postoje vrlo različite (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms (forpopis assistive technologies). e-Accessibility procjene o broju stanovnika. Na osnovu ankete koju je 2007. god. provela Agencija za statistiku is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. BiH pretpostavljeni broj stanovnika je 3.447.156, a broj domaćinstava 1.054.613. Prosječan broj Furthermore, moves are afootiznosi to strengthen and to enact more stanovnika po domaćinstvu 3,25 BiHthese (RS 3,29, FBiH 3,14, DBlegislation. 3,37), odnosno u urbanom

području navedeni prosjek je 3,16 a u ruralnom i poluurbanom 3,41 stanovnik. There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: Prema procjenama tokom proteklog rata je oštećeno 447.661 stambenih jedinica, a ne postoje tačni podaci o broju obnovljenih. Statistički se prati izgradnja stanova u stambenim 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already zgradama koje izvode poduzeća, dok se broj izgrađenih porodičnih kuća statistički ne prati. Imajući marginalized. It helps fulfil energetskog the promisesektora of the Information Society planove to reduce rathermože than u vidu podatke iz statistike i Studije BiH, kao i prostorne entiteta, increase da thepostoji disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, in this se pretpostaviti oko 1.200.000 stanova, čime se njihov broj skoroinsufficient izjednačio seffort predratnim brojemarea od 1.207.693 (prosječna površina 60,45 m²). Na osnovu dostupnih podataka mogu se kao is likely to further marginalize these groups. realni prihvatiti podaci iz Studije razvoja energetskog sektora BiH o tipologiji stambene izgradnje Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the (Tabela2.33). population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil Veličina tokom vremena (tendencija porasta veličine stanova s their remitstanova in a costmijenja effectivesemanner. povećanjem životnog standarda), a zavisi i od područja izgradnje (ruralno-urbano). 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for

2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the Porodične kuće Zgrade (u %) such as mobile phones. prospects for Administ. migratingjedinica web services onto new platforms (u %) FBiH 31 69 into development of 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility e-Services and to lower the cost. RS 29 71 BD 95 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines5 and recommendations will assist in the of the Information Society in the EU convergence of different aspects of the development BiH 29 71 and SEE countries. Tabela 33. Stambene jedinice prema tipu izgradnje

Podaci iz anketathis koje su provedene s ciljem da de izradi Studija energetskog sektora BiH 1.2. About report govore o značajnom povećanju prosječne površine stana u odnosu na veličinu koja je registrirana u popisu iz 1991. godine i koja je iznosila 60,45 m² (Tabela 34). The specific goals of this report are:

1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal Administ. jedinica Urbano (u m²) Ruralno (u m²) Prosjek (u m²) instruments and strategic level documents; FBiH RS BD

74,6

103,4

86,3

-

-

81,3

2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people 82,0 81,8 81,9 with disabilities;

3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; BiH 77,2 97,2 86,0 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: Tabela 34. Približna veličina stambene jedinice prema području address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with fonda requirements the UN and stambenog EU. Starost stambenog je velika,for tj. više od 80% fonda je starije od 30 godina, tj. izgrađeno je prije donošenja propisa o termičkoj zaštiti objekata. Jedan dio stambenog fonda veće starosti u toku rata je oštećen, te je prilikom obnove popravljen njihov kvalitet (Tabela 35). This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context 70. of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed 80. 90. Poslije 2000. by Administrativna jedinica (u %) (u %) (u %) (u %) the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the FBiH Democratic Governance Thematic 53Trust Fund to33 9 Eastern Europe 5 region UNDP’s support the South inRS the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society the 58 29Priority Area of 5 the e-SEE Agenda+, 8 regional action plan for Information Society The programmatic BD 61 development, 7 and the UNCRPD. 6 26 priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. BiH 59,2 26,6 7,5 6,7 The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Tabela 35. Starost stambenog fonda Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance anddecenije the e-SEE are positioned within izthe Social S obzirom da do skoro kraja prve 21. Secretariat vijeka nisu doneseni novi propisi oblasti toplotne zaštite zgradaGovernance građenje seSector. izvodiloThe prema starim JUSOffice standardima, kojiisdaleko zaostaju Inclusion/Democratic UNDP Country in Sarajevo working closely za suvremenim principima toplotne zaštite zgrada i maksimalno propisane potrošnje energije i with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP predstavljaju odličan resurs za povećanje energetske efikasnosti, tj. smanjenje potrošnje energije. in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of S obzirom na nizak standard građana grijane površine su uvijek manje od ukupne stambene the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act BiH as government FocalsPoints for their površine. Podaci predstavljeni u Studiji energetskog sektora moraju se uzeti rezervom, s respective obzirom nacountries. ekonomsku situaciju stanovništva. Ukoliko se prihvati da je prosječna grijana površina manja, u tom slučaju je i prosječna potrošnja energije po jedinici površine veća (Tabela 36). 123

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Prosječna grijana površina (u m²)

Centralno grijana površina (u m²)

Sobno grijanje (u m²)

Split sistem grijanja (u m²)

FBiH

57,84

74,01

45,90

34,13

RS

50,75

76,80

37,49

21,65

Administrativna jedinica

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

BDsection presents an overview of the 58,66UNCRPD, its 84,87 0,00 the This significance54,92 and main sections, BiH 55,72 75,15 43,85 29,25 requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to Tabela 36. Prosječna grijana površina i način grijanja disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

Načini grijanja:

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? 30% kuća ima centralno grijanje: gradsko centralno grijanje 12%, pojedinačni kotlovi ili 

peći centralno grijanje 6%. Tipovi goriva za domaćinstva koja e-Accessibility is 11%, aboutindividualno overcoming the range of barriers thatkorištenog people with disabilities and others ne koriste gradsko grijanje: ogrjevno drvo 32%, elektr. energija 6%, prirodni plin 25%, ložsuch as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information ulje 18%, ugalj 19%. Society.  70% kuća se grije sobnim pećima. Tipovi goriva su: ogrjevno drvo 77%, električna energija 12%, prirodni plin 2%, ugalj 9%. BiH,and 2008) e-Accessibility can potentially refer to(Studija any typeenergetskog of ICT used sektora by citizens, involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on Na osnovu anketa provedenih u svrhu izrade Studije energetskog sektora BiH, prosječna television. Up to 15 energije percent of the population across the European Union površine has a disability, as a godišnja količina potrošena za grijanje je 200 kWh/m² grijane (Tabelasuch 37). Ovaj visual, speech, cognitive, or BiH motor impairment, and klimatskim SEE countries can expect to have a broj jehearing, približan, tj. prosječan, jer se prostire u različitim zonama. similar or higher proportion. BiH

RS

FBiH

BD

A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover Prosječna energije za grijanje level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is this area. At količina the highest international 200 216 199 224 (u kWh/m²) the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are Prosječna grijana površina (u Television m²) 55,72Frontiers 50,75 spread across areas such as Without (for subtitling),57,84 the Copyright58,66 Directive potrošnja (forProsječna copyrightgodišnja exemptions), andenergije the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility za grijanje po domaćinstvu (u kWh/) 11.144 10.962exist for 11.510 is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking programmatic13.140 support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. Tabela 37. Potrebna energija za grijanje domaćinstava

There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility:

4.3.1.2. Javne zgrade (komercijalne i uslužne)

1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already Pretpostavka Itje helps da u fondu zgrada u ovom sektoru oko 5 m² po rezidentu u BiH imathan oko marginalized. fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather 19.000.000 m² javnih zgrada (komercijalne i usluge) (Studija energetskog BiH, 2008). increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups. Starost javnih zgrada je prilično velika, a struktura gradnje do 80. godina prošlog vijeka je sljedeća: usluge 64,5%, obrazovanje 92,3%, trgovina 74,4%, zdravstvo i uprava i administracija 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a82,6% significant proportion of the 78,5%.population Zgrade javnog sektora griju se sistemom centralnog grijanja u 85% slučajeva i samo 15% opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil koristi sobne peći. Upotreba rashladnih sistema je mala i samo mali broj zgrada ima instalirane their remit in a cost effective manner. sisteme hlađenja. Uređaji za klimatizaciju koriste se nešto više (Tabela 38). S obzirom na veliku starost3.zgrada, kao e-Accessibility i loše održavanje je velikacould potrošnja za grijanje i ona for se Improving forevidentna the marginalized also energije lead to improved access

2

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it can reduce the cost web serviceudevelopment, and enhance the kreće odable-bodied 220 kWh/m²people; u upravi i administraciji, pa doof572 kWh/m² zdravstvu. Potrošnja energije za hlađenje nije procjenjivana zbog malog broja rashladnih uređaja, a statistički podaci ne postoje. prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of BiH FBiH RS DB Podsektor e-Services and to lower the cost. u kWh/m² kWh/m² kWh/m² kWh/m² approaches that follow will assist Turizam5.i Pursuing ugostiteljstvo 392 EU guidelines 59and recommendations 79 108 in the of the development of the Information Society96 in the EU Školstvoconvergence of different aspects240 24 23 and SEE countries.

Trgovina

345

90

85

119

Zdravstvo

605

30

37

47

45

51

75

39

50

52

1.2. About this report Uprava i administracija 267 Ostalo

The specific goals of this report are:

302

Tabela 38. Ukupna potrošnje energije u sektoru usluga

1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal Iz podataka o and potrošnji energije podsektorima, kao i to da je potrošnja energije za grijanje instruments strategic leveludocuments; višestruko veća od potrošnje energije u ostale svrhe, vidljivo je da se najveće uštede u potrošnji to develop picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people energije2.mogu postićiaucomparative sistemima grijanja. with disabilities; 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders;

4.3.1.3. Industrijske zgrade 4. to identify good practices in the region;

5. to developzgrade a set ofnisu recommendations fortoga government and ne other stakeholders howje to: Industrijske analizirane zbog što o njima postoje podaci. Uontoku address to e-Accessibility; proces privatizacije, te jethe zaobstacles sada nemoguće dobiti pouzdane podatke o građevinskim objektima u industrijskom sektoru. comply with requirements for the UN and EU. ThisScenariji report is part of smanjenja a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups plinova in e-Governance’, 4.3.2. emisija stakleničkih u that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by sektoru zgradarstva the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region 4.3.2.1. Stambene zgrade in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regionalRazvoj actionsektora plan for Information Society energije development, the UNCRPD. The programmatic zgradarstva i potrošnje u njimaand možemo posmatrati kroz tri moguća priorities the project therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. scenarija,ofzasnovana naare podacima u sektoru iz 2010. god.: S1 scenarij blagi rast BDP i potrošnje energije. UNDP-funded Osnovna odlika e-SEE ovog scenarija The projectpodrazumijeva is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based Initiative je nastavak sadašnjih trendova, tj. porast stanovništva, izgradnja stanova i potrošnja energije, koji Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering će rasti skoro linearno. U ovom scenariju nisu predviđene nikakve mjere za smanjenje potrošnje Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social energije, jer je ekonomska moć država slaba, te nema sredstava za ulaganje u bilo kakve mjere. Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with theS2 fellow UNDPse Country in the region, Office Senior ICTmjera Advisor at the BDP scenarij baziraOffices na srednje brzom while rastuthe BDP bezof dodatnih energetske efikasnosti. Osnovne odlike ovog scenarija suan srednje brzrole. rastGovernment-appointed BDP i s njim povećanamembers potrošnjaof in New York is providing expertise and playing advisory energije bez provođenja ikakvih mjera energetske efikasnosti. S obzirom da se ne provode mjere the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their energetske efikasnosti potrošnja energije znatno raste, jer se gradi veći broj stambenih zgrada, a respective countries. istovremeno s jačanjem ekonomske moći stanovništva se povećava i potreba za energijom na nivou jednog domaćinstva (veća grijana površina, veći broj aparata u domaćinstvu i sl.). 125

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S3 scenarij uključuje srednje brzi rast BDP i provođenje mjera energetske efikasnosti. Ukoliko bi se ekonomski razvoj zemlje odvijao po scenariju srednje brzog razvoja i rasta BDP, porast potrošnje energije bi bio velik. Provođenjem mjera energetske efikasnosti trend rasta potrošnje energenata bi bio usporen. U tom bi se slučaju mogle postići značajne uštede, tj. smanjenje potrošnje energenata i emisije CO2

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES 4.3.2.2. Javne zgrade (komercijalne i uslužne)

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the U zgradama javne namjene najveće uštede je moguće postići unapređenjem sistema requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed centralnog grijanja i hlađenja, kao i sistema osvjetljenja, uz mjere energetske obnove omotača by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to zgrade. disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. Pošto se većina javnih zgrada grije pomoću centralnih sistema grijanja, tj. toplana, mogućnosti da se smanji potrošnja energenata, ali i emisije CO2, su znatne. S obzirom da se u ovom sektoru očekuje izgradnja velikog broja novih zgrada, efekat primjene novih propisa koji ograničavaju potrošnje energije za grijanje, ali i ukupnu potrošnju energije donijet će brze rezultate. e-Accessibility is abouttj.overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities othersi Energetska sanacija, primjena mjera energetske efikasnosti u sistemima grijanja,and hlađenja such as older populations experience when seeking to participate onće equal termsuštedom in the Information klimatizacije, kao i osvjetljenja, na postojećim zgradama rezultirat znatnom energijе. Society. S1 scenarij se bazira na jako blagom rastu BDP i potrošnje energije. Osnovna odlika ovog scenarija je nastavak sadašnjih trendova, tj. porast stanovništva i izgradnja javnih zgrada sadašnjim e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything tempom i potrošnja energije, koji će rasti skoro linearno. from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television.UUp to 15 percent nisu of thepredviđene populationnikakve across the European Union has a disability, suchjer asjea ovom scenariju mjere za smanjenje potrošnje energije, ekonomska moć država slaba, te nema sredstava za ulaganje u bilo kakve mjere. visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. S2 scenarij podrazumijeva srednje brzi rast BDP i bez ikakvih mjera energetske efikasnosti. Osnovne odlike ovog scenarija su brži rast BDP i s njim povećana potrošnja energije, ali bez A perhaps surprising number ofefikasnosti. international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover provođenja ikakvih mjera energetske this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is S3 scenarij uključuje rastEU BDP i provođenje mjera energetske efikasnosti, tj. mjeraare za the relevant legal context. Noveći single directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions smanjenje potrošnje. Osnovne odlike ovog scenarija su brži rast BDP i s njim povećana potrošnja spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive energije, koja će uz provođenje mjera energetske efikasnosti biti smanjena u odnosu na S2.4.3.3. (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (forzgradarstva assistive technologies). e-Accessibility Mjere za smanjenje emisija stakleničkih plinova iz sektora is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

4.3.3. Mjere unaprjeđenja energetske efiaksnosti u u There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: sektoru zgradarstva

1.- Uspostavljanje It is worthwhile inpravnog its ownokvira right to to services to people who are already za improve uvođenjeaccess energetske efikasnosti u zgradarstvu; marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than - Kampanje jačanja svijesticertain i edukacija korisnika i investitora; increase the disadvantages populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups. - Energetska obnova postojećih stambenih zgrada i završetak djelomično završenih kuća; 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the - Primjena energetski efikasnih tehnologija za opremanje zgrada. population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the 4.4. Saobraćaj prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of 4.4.1.4. Pregled postojećeg stanja u sektoru saobraćaja e-Services and to lower the cost.

5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the 4.4.1.1. Cestovni saobraćaj convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU Prema podacima koji su prikupljeni od nadležnih institucija, ukupna dužina cestovne mreže and SEE countries. u BiH iznosi 22.744,30 km od čega je 37,60 km autoput, 39,50 km puteva rezerviranih za saobraćaj motornih vozila, 3.785,70 km magistralnih, 4.681,50 km regionalnih, odnosno oko 14.200 km lokalnih puteva.

1.2. About this report

Gustina ukupne cestovne mreže u Bosni i Hercegovini iznosi 44 km na 100 km2, dok gustina magistralnih puteva 7,4 naare: 100 km2. U Federaciji BiH gustina magistralnih puteva iznosi 7,67 The specific goals ofiznosi this report km /100 km2, odnosno, u Republici Srpskoj - 7,17 km / 100 km2. U Bosni i Hercegovini, gustina cestovne mreže prema broju stanovnika iznosi 5,68 km puteva / 1.000 stanovnika, odnosno, 0,94 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal km magistralnih puteva / 1.000 stanovnika . instruments and strategic level documents; S2.obzirom da je u 2011. godinipicture u Bosni Hercegovini registrirano ukupno 1.026.254 motorna to develop a comparative ofi e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people vozila, na osnovu raspoloživih podataka možemo zaključiti da prosječno opterećenje puteva with disabilities; motornim vozilima iznosi oko 45.121 vozila / 1.000 km. Nedovoljna širina kolovoza, veliki nagibi, oštri radijusi krivina,the te brojni drugi faktori doprinose daand su operativne brzine na putevima u Bosni 3. to assess current level of e-Accessibility e-Accessibility stakeholders; i Hercegovini oko 50 km/h, kao i nizak nivo saobraćajne usluge, što za posljedicu ima veliki broj 4. to identify good practices in the region; saobraćajnih nezgoda, a samim tim i povećanje troškova. 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address motornih the obstacles to e-Accessibility; Broj cestovnih vozila registriranih u 2011. godini u odnosu na 2010. godinu (950.915-m/v) predstavlja povećanje od 57.611 vozila, comply with requirements for the UN odnosno and EU. za 6,07%. (Tabela 39).

Ukupan‘Empowering broj Ukupan broj GroupsRazlika u broju This report is part of a larger project, Marginalised in e-Governance’, registriranih vozila registriranih vozila registriranih vozila that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by u 2010. god. u 2011. god. (u %) the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the Federacija BiH 569.859 611.766 6,85 UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region Srpska 292.831 306.229 inRepublika the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE4,37 Agenda+, the Distrikt Brčko 30.614 32.920 7 regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+.6,07 Ukupno uofBiH 893.304 950.915 Administrativno-politička jedinica

The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Tabela 39. Ukupan broj registriranih cestovnih motornih vozila u BiH, u periodu 2010-2011. Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering (Izvori: http://bihamk.ba i MUP,RS) Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries.

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1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. Slika 13. Cestovna mreža u Bosni i Hercegovini

e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything Pregled motornih vozila u BiH pokazuje da je svako četvrto vozilo starosti do 8 godina, odnosno from websites for e-government for blindraditi people subtitling on 2/3 ukupno registriranih vozila je services, starije od to 15telephony godina, te support da nije isplativo bilotokakva tehnička television. Upkoja to 15bipercent of the efekte population across the European Union has a disability, as a poboljšanja imala znatne na okoliš, ergonomski, ekonomski i čak energetskisuch progres. Teretna vozila su također starija od godina, što utiče na javnu visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or10 motor impairment, and SEEsigurnost, countries efikasnost, can expectsmanjenje to have a udjela realiziranog prihoda, kao i na mogućnosti zapošljavanja u međunarodnom transportu. Ako se similar or higher proportion. uzme u obzir stvarna godišnja stopa promjene u broju cestovnih m/v (period 2003-2011), uz uvažavanje analognih promjena stope godišnjeg BDP, može se odrediti prosječna godišnja stopa porasta. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, and guidelines cover Konkretnije, očekivani ukupni broj cestovnih m/v u BiH u periodu regulations 2010-2025. rast će po prosječnoj this area. At theod highest level, the UNCRPD, and coming into 2008, is godišnjoj stopi oko 4%international odnosno, njihov očekivani ukupni ratified u 2025. god. iznosit će okoforce 1,83 in mil. the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive KATEGORIJA Broj (for vozila udio (u e-Accessibility %) (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework assistiveRelativni technologies). is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Mopedi, motocikli i četverocikli 3.515 6,10% Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. Putnička vozila

44.294

76,92%

ThereAutobusi is at least a five-fold justification for early 187 action in the area of0,33% e-Accessibility: Teretna vozila

4.429

7,69%

1. It Priključna is worthwhile people who are already vozilain its own right to improve access 2.984 to services to 5,18% marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than Radne mašine 383 0,66% increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this Traktori 2.061 3,58% area is likely to further marginalize these groups. UKUPNO

57.853

100%

2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population significant opportunities, can helpzapublic services fulfil Tabela 40.opens Struktura prvi put market/sales registriranih cestovnih motornihand vozila u BiH 2011. god. prema kategorijama their remit in a cost effective manner. (Izvor: www.ideea.gov.ba) 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce cost of webjeservice development, andpredstavljen enhance the Obim cestovnog transporta u Bosnithe i Hercegovini za baznu 2011. godinu preko dva pokazatelja: prevoz robe i prevoz putnika. Prema oba pokazatelja obim transporta je prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. imao porast u odnosu na 2010. god. za oko 3%. 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost.

4.4.1.2. Željeznički saobraćaj 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU Željeznički saobraćaj u Bosni i Hercegovini realiziraju dva operatera - javna poduzeća: andFederacije SEE countries. Željeznice BiH i Željeznica Republike Srpske. Pored osnovne djelatnosti, prevoza robe i putnika, željeznički operateri u BiH obavljaju i komplementarne djelatnosti kao što su: specijalni prevozi, skladištenje, kombinirani transport, pretovar itd. Robnotransportni centri za prihvat, pretovar ili skladištenje pojedinačnih, paletnih i grupnih pošiljki, već funkcioniraju ili se obnavljaju u svim većim industrijskim centrima u BiH (Ploče, Mostar, Sarajevo, Doboj, Banja Luka, Tuzla, Zenica, Brčkogoals distrikt, Bosanski Glavni korisnici usluga željezničkog prijevoza su: hemijska The specific of this reportŠamac). are: industrija u Tuzli, Željezara i BH Steel u Zenici, rudnici mrkog uglja u Zenici i Tuzli, Rudnik željezne rude u Prijedoru, Aluminijski kombinat u Mostaru, industrijski kompleks u Sarajevu, distributeri 1. to outline naftnih derivata i dr. the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents; Prema podacima iz 2010. god. ukupna dužina željezničkih pruga iznosi 1.031 km, od čega 2. to develop a comparative picture e-Accessibility for able-bodied people je u Federaciji BiH 608,495 km, čemu trebaofdodati i industrijske kolosijeke dopeople svakogversus značajnijeg with kapaciteta. disabilities;Od toga je 72% ili 440 km u FBiH elektrificiranih željezničkih pruga, a u RS proizvodnog je 79% ili 336 km. Ovo željezničkim operaterima daje neograničenu mogućnost direktnog pristupa 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; u preuzimanju i isporuci svih vrsta robe. Od toga, 87 km su pruge s dva kolosijeka. Postoje dva 4. to identify good practices in thesjever-jug region; (Šamac - Doboj - Sarajevo – Mostar - Čapljina glavna željeznička pravca: jedan je pravac develop a set of zapad-istok recommendations for government and –other on how to: – Ploče),5.a to drugi ide pravcem (Bosanski Novi / Novi Grad Dobojstakeholders – Tuzla – Zvornik). address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; Obim željezničkog transporta u Bosni i Hercegovini je za baznu 2011. godinu također comply with requirements for the UN and EU. predstavljen preko dva pokazatelja: prevoz robe i prevoz putnika. Za razliku od drumskog obim željezničkog transporta je u oblasti prevoza putnika imao pad u odnosu na 2010. god. za oko 8,5%. Navedeni pokazatelj najbolje ilustrira postojeće trendove, ali i mogućnosti ublažavanja u oblasti Thisureport transporta BiH. is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by Da Country bi mrežaOffice željezničkih pruga u BiH zadovoljila evropske by standarde the UNDP in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported DG/BDPi postala NY, andznačajniji funded bydio the mreže evropskih željeznica u budućnosti neophodno je da se, pored podizanja nivoa redovnog UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region održavanja postojećeg stanja, vrši poboljšanje investiranjem u nova vozila i infrastrukturne in the implementation of kojima the Inclusive Society of thepovećanje e-SEE Agenda+, the kapacitete na linijama na je obimInformation prometa izražen i naPriority kojima Area se očekuje prometa. regional actionbiplan for interesantna Information Society and the UNCRPD. The programmatic Na ovaj način postala i nudila development, kvalitetnije usluge drugim evropskim željezničkim operaterima. To project se prijeare svega odnosi na pruge kojewith se nalaze na Koridoru Vc,Agenda+. te pruge koje se vežu priorities of the therefore fully aligned the targets of e-SEE na taj koridor. Na ovu činjenicu upućuje rast prometa u putničkom saobraćaju u oba entiteta, koji je do 2007. iznosio 5,9%implemented nakon čega seby u 2010. i 2011. god. pojavila izvjesna razlika (povećanje Thegodine project is being the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative u ŽFBiH i smanjenje u ŽRS). Navedeno ukazuje da bi se, s prosječnim porastom od 4,7%, broj Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering putničkih km u narednih 18 godina (do 2030) povećao za oko 84,6% ili na cca 100 miliona putničkih Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social kilometara. U isto vrijeme, teretni saobraćaj bi u istom periodu mogao da poraste za 31%, tj. na 900 Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely miliona t/km. with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries.

1.2. About this report

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1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. Slika 14. Željeznička mreža u BiH

e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a 4.4.1.3. Zračni saobraćaj visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar orČetiri higher proportion. aerodroma (Sarajevo, Banja Luka, Mostar i Tuzla) registrirana za međunarodni zračni saobraćaj su u fazi dovođenja na nivo opisan za njihove kategorije u ICAO standardima. Također, ovi aerodromi su obnovljeni tokom poslijeratnog perioda. Ukupne donatorske investicije u renoviranje A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover aerodroma iznosile su oko 70 miliona KM. Troškovi opreme i instalacije koja je potrebna u skladu this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is s Ugovorom CEATS su procijenjena na 14 miliona eura, s drugim značajnim ulaganjima potrebnim the legal context. No single EU directiveputničkih is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions arei za relevant razvoj navedena četiri aerodroma (proširenje terminala, teretnih terminala, opreme spread across areaskorištenja such as Television Without Frontiers (for thesarajevski Copyrightaerodrom Directive pogona). S aspekta vlastitih aviona / letjelica, može sesubtitling), izdvojiti samo s četiri aviona (2 tipa ATR 72/212, te 2 Boing 737), dok ostali spomenuti aerodromi funkcioniraju na (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility i lokalnoj bazi. Ako poduzmu and određene državne mjere se poboljša funkcionalnost, isamaterskoj also covered by policy, and se guidelines benchmarking existdafor programmatic support. ukupan promet ovih aerodroma, s godišnjim porastom od 2%, dostići će maksimalnih 62.000 Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. putnika u narednih 18 godina. Porast broja putnika na sarajevskom aerodromu je relativno dobar u sadašnjim okolnostima, i to je godišnji porast od 8% u idućem periodu, a broj putnika narast će is at least a five-fold na okoThere 1.040.000 u 2030. godini. justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already

4.4.1.4. Vodni marginalized. Itsaobraćaj helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this Mreža plovnih puteva na unutrašnjim vodama i kratka jadranska obala, predstavljaju areazaisrazvoj likely to further marginalize theseugroups. potencijal i korištenje vodnih resursa saobraćajnom smislu. Mrežu plovnih puteva na

unutrašnjim vodamaaccess BiH čine prirodni tokovi Save - 333 km, aDrine - 15 km, Bosne - of 5 km, 2. Improving to services, publicrijeka and private, to such significant proportion the Vrbasa - 3 km, Une - 15 km, dio Neretve, te nekoliko prirodnih i vještačkih jezera. S obzirom da plovne population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil rijeke najvećim dijelom čine granicu sa susjednim državama, tokom rata je došlo do postavljanja their remit inna a cost effective manner. minskih prepreka plovnim putevima, zatim konstrukcijama porušenih mostova, nanosima, potonulim plovilima ie-Accessibility sl., što, uz neriješen status rijeke, plovidbu činito skoro nemogućom. 3. Improving for thepravni marginalized could also lead improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; itsecan reduce the costu of web service and enhance the Bosna i Hercegovina također uključila proces Savske development, inicijative. U decembru 2003. godine, prospects zemlje savskog sliva su potpisale Okvirni sporazum o slivu rijeke Save čiji sastavni dio for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. je i Protokol o režimu plovidbe. Ovim sporazumom, rijeka Sava je dobila status međunarodne The earlier action is taken, the easier is to integrate e-Accessibility into development rijeke, a4.Savska komisija je dobila ovlaštenje daitdjeluje na rehabilitiranju plovidbe. S obzirom daof je promet na unutrašnjim e-Services and to plovnim lower theputevima cost. u BiH dugo bio zanemaren, udio riječnog u ukupnom prometu u 2000. godini je iznosio ispod 1%. Osnovna obilježja stanja u riječnom prometu BiH su: 5. plovni Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines assist in the zapušteni putevi, nepostojanje tehnološki moderne and floterecommendations (tegljenje umjestowill potiskivanja), of the development of the Information Society in the EU different aspects tehničkaconvergence i tehnološka of zastarjelost, kao i devastirane luke i nedostatak brodogradilišta s navozom. Kao pozitivnu činjenicu treba napomenuti da riječna plovidba ima institucionalno jednak status and SEE countries. kao i drugi saobraćajni vidovi. Nakon rata je zapostavljen razvoj riječnog saobraćaja, jer nije bio riješen pravni status rijeke Save, a razvoj privrede u tom periodu ne bi opravdao značajnija ulaganja u oživljavanje riječne plovidbe. Plovni put rijeke Save (E-80-12) u BiH, od Jasenovca do granice sa Srbijom (od rkm 507 do rkm 225), odgovara zahtjevima III. klase plovnosti, dok na dijelu od rkm 225 (Brčko) do 165 (Rača) odgovara zahtjevima IV. klase plovnosti. The specific goals of this report are: Na rijeci Savi rade tri luke: Brčko, Bosanski Brod/Brod i Bosanski Šamac/Šamac. Bosna i Hercegovina nema morske luke, ali koristi jadranske lukee-Accessibility u Hrvatskoj, prvenstveno luku Ploče. 1. to outline the international context regarding including existing legal Da bi se koristila rijeka Sava, ključno je da se na njoj reguliraju vodni putevi kako bi se dostigla instruments and strategic level documents; prijeratna kategorija IV. U poslijeratnom periodu su urađene popravke postrojenja u luci Brčko. U obnovu vodnih puteva rijeke Save i lukaofBrčko i Bosanski uložena su samo 2. to develop a comparative picture e-Accessibility forŠamac/Šamac able-bodied people versus people ograničena sredstva. Oprema u luci Brčko dijelom je obnovljena iz donatorskih sredstava. with disabilities;

1.2. About this report

Analizirajući raspoložive kapacitete vodnog saobraćaja, kao i ekonomska kretanja u regiji, 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; može se4.pretpostaviti da bipractices on mogaoinporasti oko 20%, prije svega u luci Ploče, sa sadašnjih oko 3,4 to identify good the region; miliona tona na oko 11 miliona tona godišnje u narednih 18 godina (do 2030. god.), dok bi godišnji 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: saobraćaj od 0,7 miliona tona na Savi sa 2% porasta 2030. godine mogao dostići 0,952 miliona tona address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; godišnje.comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

4.4.1.5. Poštanski saobraćaj

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being in thesaobraćaj context ofuthe e-SEE Initiative.jeIt uređen is a regional project designed Pravniimplemented okvir za poštanski Bosni i Hercegovini Zakonom o poštama BiHby («Službeni glasnik BiH", 33/05),and kojim su uređeni supported uvjeti za jedinstveni i usuglašeni poštanski the UNDP Country Officebroj in Bosnia Herzegovina, by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the servis usluga na državnom nivou. Poštanski saobraćaj u BiH organiziran je s tri javna poštanska UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region operatera, od čega dva djeluju na području FBiH, a jedan na teritoriji RS, i to: in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional- action plan for Sarajevo, Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic JP BH Pošta priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. - Preduzeće za poštanski saobraćaj RS A.D. Banja Luka i The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative - Hrvatska poštaon d.o.o. Mostar. Secretariat, capitalizing their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Osim tri javna poštanska operatera, u BiH djeluje i sedam privatnih poštanskih operatera, Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working kao što su: DHL, International d.o.o, 24VIPThe d.o.o., FEDEX expres d.o.o., Intreuropa rtt d.o.o.closely i Ivia with fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICTusluge Advisor at the BDP d.o.o.the Rhea d.o.o. Osim klasičnih poštanskih usluga, poštanski operateri svoje baziraju na novim i to: tržištu prometa usluga. in Newtržištima, York is providing expertise andi tržištu playingbankarsko-financijskih an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries.

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4.4.2. Scenariji smanjenja emisija stakleničkih plinova u sektoru saobraćaja

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

Osnova za izradu 3 scenarija za ublažavanje u oblasti sektora saobraćaja bazira se na činjenici da cestovni saobraćaj u BiH, u poređenju sa željezničkim saobraćajem, čini 90% ukupne godišnje potrošnje energije (dizel i benzin) u ovom sektoru, što je, prema podacima za 2010. godinu, oko presents 923.500 tona Imajući naUNCRPD, umu da ćeits procijenjeni prosječni godišnji rast broja This section an goriva. overview of the significance and main sections, the motornih vozila iznositi oko 4%, treba očekivati da će prosječni porast godišnje potrošnje goriva requirements it sets in allšto aspects and howdizela it is toi be implemented. This is followed dostići najmanje 3,5%, govoriofdae-Accessibility će ukupna potrošnja benzina dostići 1.309.000 tona u by2030. a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to godini. Zato se vjeruje da postoje dobre mogućnosti za racionalniju i ekonomičniju potrošnju u ovoj oblasti. Ako and se ue-Accessibility obzir uzmu vozila mlađa od 10 godina, određeni proračuni pokazuju da su disability in general in particular. gubici energije i potrošnja goriva prosječno 10-20% veći, dok je kod vozila starijih od 15 godina, koja čine 64% vozila u ovoj regiji, taj procenat je 20-40% goriva više na 100 km. To posebno ukazuje na ogromne okolišne, energetske i ekonomske gubitke u podsektoru cestovnog saobraćaja, ali i mogućnosti velikih ušteda u oblasti cijelog saobraćajnog sektora. e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others S1 scenarij bazira se na većwhen utvrđenim povećanja cestovnih motornih such as older populations experience seekingtrendovima to participate on equalbroja terms in the Information vozila po prosječnoj godišnjoj stopi od oko 5,8%, na prosječnoj starosti voznog parka između 12 Society. do 15 godina, bez provođenja mjera homologacije i s prosječnom godišnjom stopom povećanja potrošnje dizela i benzinskog goriva od 3,7% (Grafikon 26). Prema iznesenim pokazateljima, broj e-Accessibility can potentially to any type of ICTstopi used od by oko citizens, andznači involves cestovnih motornih vozila rast će porefer prosječnoj godišnjoj 4%, što da everything će u 2025. god. njihov očekivani ukupni broj iznositi oko 1,83 mil., odnosno potrošnja fosilnih goriva porast on će from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling na oko 1,592 mil. Pri tome uzima da će emisija plinova koju proizvodesuch cestovna television. Up to 15tona. percent of thesepopulation across thestakleničkih European Union has a disability, as a motorna vozila proporcionalno rasti s porastom potrošnje energije fosilnih goriva. U odnosu na visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a starost voznog parka u BiH preračunato je da prosječna emisija CO2 iz cestovnih motornih vozila similar iznosi or okohigher 185 g proportion. CO2/km. Navedeni podatak odgovara prosječnoj potrošnji od 6,5 l/100 km za dizel i oko 7,0 l/100 km za benzinska vozila, za vremenski period 1998-2008. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover se u obzir uzmu prezentirani o obimuratified cestovnog transporta prema this area.Ako At the highest international level, podaci the UNCRPD, and coming intomogu force se, in 2008, is definiranom koeficijentu, izračunati vrijednosti emisije CO2. Konkretnije, vrijednost emisije za the relevant context. No motorna single EU directive dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are navedene baznu 2010.legal god. za cestovna vozila u BiHisiznosi oko 2,65 mil.t CO2. Uvažavajući spread across areas such Television Frontiers subtitling), the Copyright trendove u kretanju broja as cestovnih m/vWithout i potrošnje goriva(for emisiona vrijednost iznosit ćeDirective u 2025. god. oko 5.086 GGg CO2. and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility (for copyright exemptions), is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. S2 scenarij se bazira na uvođenje dodatnih tehničkih mjera za cestovna motorna vozila s Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. aspekta poboljšanja energetske efikasnosti motora i smanjenja potrošnje goriva. Prema ovom scenariju stopa porasta broja cestovnih m/v je identična kao u S1, s tim da je predviđeno da There is at least a five-fold justification early action in the area of(Grafikon e-Accessibility: se poboljša kvalitet goriva koje se koristi kaofori drumska infrastruktura 26). Značajan element ovog scenarija jeste i smanjenje prosječne starosti cestovnih m/v na 12 godina do 2025. god. Osnovni cilj ovog scenarija jeste smanjenje emisijskog koeficijenta sapeople 185 g CO /km iz bazne 2 are already 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to who godine na 150 g CO2/km u 2025. god. Rezultati ovog scenarija također ukazuju na pozitivan trend marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than kretanja emisije do 2025. god. uz napomenu da su vrijednosti prosječno za oko 20% manje u odnosu increasešto theupućuje disadvantages certain face. Conversely, insufficient na S1 scenarij, na zaključak dapopulations su mogućnosti smanjenja emisija velike. effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups. S3 scenarij se bazira na pretpostavci da će BiH do 2025. godine postati članica EU, pa bi 2. access tokoje services, public and private, to Konkretnije, such a significant proportion of the se moraleImproving provoditi direktive su propisane za ovu oblast. Uredbom EU 443/2009/ population opens market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil EZ o smanjivanju emisijasignificant CO2 iz lakih vozila propisane su standardne vrijednosti emisija za nova putnička motorna vozila. uredbom EU je postavila cilj da od 2012. godine smanjenje their remit in a costNavedenom effective manner. emisija novih vozila u prosjeku iznosi 130 g CO2/km. Planirano dodatno smanjenje od 10 g CO2/km 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

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able-bodied it can reduce dodatnih the cost of web service and enhance the (120 g CO /km) možepeople; se postići primjenom tehničkih mjeradevelopment, (kvalitetnije gume, kvalitetno 2 gorivo, i prospects sl.). Dugoročni cilj je da se do 2020. godine dostigne emisija od samo 95 g CO /km. Zahtjevi for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 2 za proizvođače cestovnih motornih vozila koje će se trebati primjenjivati su sljedeći: u 2012. godine The earlier is taken, the easier it is to integrate intogod. development 65% svih4.novih vozila action mora biti usklađeno s Uredbom, u 2013. e-Accessibility god. 75%, u 2014. 80%, dokof od 2015.e-Services god. svi novi nacost. tržištu morat će biti usklađeni sa zahtjevima Uredbe. Ovim andautomobili to lower the scenarijem je također planirana značajna promjena u strukturi prevoza putnika i roba, u smislu 5. Pursuing approaches that follow guidelines recommendations assistmjeri in the povećanja udjela željezničkog transporta naEU preko 50% doand 2025. god. Time bi se will u velikoj aspects of broja the development of (Grafikon the Information Society element in the EU differentstope utjecalo convergence na smanjenjeofgodišnje rasta cestovnih m/v 26). Značajan u smanjenju emisija po ovom scenariju predstavlja uvođenje novih propisa o uvozu cestovnih m/v, and SEE countries. poput homologacije vozila, kojima se značajno smanjuju emisijski koeficijenti.

1.2. About this report The specific goals of this report are: 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents; 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities; 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. Grafikon 26. Ukupne emisije CO2 iz saobraćajnog sektora u BiH,

za period 2010–2025. S1, S2 i S3 scenariju The project is being implemented by prema the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Rezultati scenarija ukazuju da bi se uz smanjenje konkretne vrijednosti emisijskog Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. Country Officeprestrukturiranje in Sarajevo is working closely koeficijenta na prihvatljivi nivo od oko 100 gThe COUNDP /, km uz adekvatno transportne 2 with the fellow UNDP Country Officesi vodeni in the region, while the Officeemisije of Senior ICT Advisor atsektora the BDP strukture s cestovnog na željeznički saobraćaj, vrijednosti iz saobraćajnog bi New se doYork 2025. god. snizile na prihvatljivih 2.431 . Izrole. podataka se također može uočiti da biof in is providing expertise and playing anGgCO advisory Government-appointed members 2 primjena navedenih mjera imala konkretne efekte tek 2020. god. s obzirom da bi tokom 2015. the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points forgod. their bilo prisutno neznatno povećanje, odnosno navedeni desetogodišnji period bi se mogao uzeti kao respective countries. svojevrsna faza stabilizacije emisije stakleničkih plinova u saobraćajnom sektoru.

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4.4.3. Mjere za smanjenje emisija stakleničkih plinova iz sektora saobraćaja

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

- Uspostavljanje efikasnog međunarodnog domaćeg i tranzitnog željezničkog saobraćaja čijim bi se povećanjem proporcionalno smanjivao udio cestovnog saobraćaja;

- Podizanje efikasnosti saobraćaja;and main sections, the This section presentsnivoa an overview ofi kapacitivnosti the UNCRPD,riječnog its significance requirements it setsintermodalnog in all aspects transporta of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. is followed - Razvoj kao ekološki najprihvatljivijeg i bezbjednogThis vida transporta; by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to voznog parka s energetski visokoefikasnim cestovnim vozilima; disability - Osuvremenjivanje in general and e-Accessibility in particular. - Zabrana proizvodnje i potrošnje olovnog benzina;

1.1. - Rekonstrukcija Why e-Accessibility? i osavremenjivanje saobraćajnica; e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others - Poreski podsticaji za kupovinu i korištenje energetskion visokoefikasnih vozila i such as older populations experience when seeking to participate equal terms inmotornih the Information uvećani poreski nameti za energetski niskoefikasna motorna vozila. Society. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything 4.5. Šumarstvo from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on

4.5.1. Pregled postojećeg stanja u sektoru šumarstva u BiH

television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a suproportion. jedan od najznačajnijih prirodnih resursa u Bosni i Hercegovini, koji posljednjih similar orŠume higher decenija dobija sve veći multifunkcionalni značaj, koji se kreće od proizvodnje toplotne energije do skladištenja stakleničkih plinova. Općenito se može konstatirati da šume u BiH najvećim dijelom A perhaps surprising number of international agreements,dijelova, regulations guidelines cover pripadaju evrosibirsko-sjevernoameričkoj regiji kontinentalnih dok and šume mediteranske this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming in 2008, is regije pripadaju mediteranskoj ili sredozemnoj regiji. Najviši planinski dijeloviinto koji force se nalaze iznad gornje granice šume pripadaju alpsko-visokonordijskoj regiji. to e-Accessibility, but actions are the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive Prostorni razmještaj glavnih vegetacijskih tipova podliježe zakonima horizontalne zonalnosti (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility i visinske pojasnosti. Najniže hipsometrijske nivoe zauzima pojas hrastovih šuma nizinskog i isbrdskog also covered by ilirske policy,i prelazne and guidelines and benchmarking exist foruprogrammatic support. područja ilirsko-mezijske provincije, na koji se visinskom i klimatskom Furthermore, moves gorski are afoot to strengthen these andbukve to enact more smislu nadovezuje pojas bukve, bukve i jele, i jele sa legislation. smrčom i subalpinski pojas bukve (reda fagetalia). Poseban pojas zauzima klekovina bora (krivulja) s vrlo izraženim pratećim visokoplaninskim florističkim diverzitetom kojifor seearly odlikuje brojnim i reliktnim vrstama. There is at least a five-fold justification action in theendemima area of e-Accessibility: Mediteranska regija je vegetacijsko izdiferencirana na manju eumediteransku zonu zimzelene vegetacije, zatim submediteransku zonu i mediteransko-montani pojas listopadne vegetacije. 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil BiH the (ha) promise of the Information to reduce rather than Federacija RepublikaSociety Srpska (ha) Ukupno increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort(ha) in this Državna Privatna Ukupno Državna Privatna Ukupno area is likely to further marginalize these groups. Šume

905.000

209.000

1.114.000

813.000

258.000

1.071.000

2.185.000

2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the Ostalo šumsko 301.000significant 69.000market/sales 370.000 opportunities, 160.000 19.000 549.000 population opens and can help179.000 public services fulfil zemljište their remit in a cost effective manner. Tabela 41. Površina šuma i ostalogfor šumskog zemljišta u Bosni i Hercegovini FRA 2010/026) 3. Improving e-Accessibility the marginalized could also lead (Izvor: to improved access for 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost. 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries.

1.2. About this report The specific goals of this report are: 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents; 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities; 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; Slika 15. Šumski pokrivač u BiH (Izvor: CLC2000) 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop set of recommendations for government anduother stakeholders on how to: Prema istom aizvoru, ukupna površina šumskog zemljišta Distriktu Brčko, iznosi oko - u čijoj address thedominiraju obstacles to e-Accessibility; 11.000 ha, strukturi šume u privatnom vlasništvu - 8.500 ha dok je oko 2.500 ha u državnom vlasništvu. U skladu sa prikazanim gotovo 400.000 ha (186.141 ha u FBiH i comply with requirements for thepodacima, UN and EU. 207.719 ha u RS) tretira se kao golet s produktivnom funkcijom i potencijalno može da bude uključena u programe pošumljavanja. Poseban doprinos u istraživanju šumskog kompleksa na nivou BiH su rezultati evropskog projekta CORINE Land Cover (ili CLC2000) koji predstavlja značajnu podršku u This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, aktivnostima vezanim za zaštitu ekosistema, zaustavljanje gubitka biodiverziteta, praćenje utjecaja that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is adirektive regionaloproject designed klimatskih promjena, procjenu razvoja poljoprivrede i primjenu Okvirne vodama. CLC2000by the UNDP Country Office in and Herzegovina, supported6.byOkolinskog DG/BDP NY, and funded by the je značajan set podataka za Bosnia implementaciju ključnih prioriteta akcionog programa EvropskeDemocratic zajednice. Navedeni projekat pokrivenosti zemljišta je imao da definira strukturu UNDP’s Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support thezadatak South Eastern Europe region korištenja biofizičkog pokrivača zemljine površine, među kojima je kao posebna tematska cjelina in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the uzet šumski pokrivač. CLCpodaci za BiH su dodatno dorađivani tokom 2006. godine na osnovu čega regional action plan korištenja for Information Society development, the UNCRPD. programmatic je izrađena GIS karta zemljišta sa pratećom bazomand podataka (Slika 15).The Šumski pokrivač priorities of theoznaku project3are therefore fully aligned with the of e-SEEsAgenda+. u CLC2000ima i u BiH je strukturno diferenciran natargets 6 subkategorija kodom trećeg nivoa. Provedenim GIS analizama dobijeni su kvantitativni podaci o površinskom razmještaju šumskog Theu BiH, project is being implemented by the pokrivača prema kojima on zauzima oko 53%Sarajevo-based državne teritorijeUNDP-funded (Tabela 42). e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Najzastupljenija subkategorija lišćarsko-listopadne šume kojewithin zauzimaju oko Marginalised Groups in šumska e-Governance and the su e-SEE Secretariat are positioned the Social 31,8% od ukupne površine BiH. Sve ostale kategorije šumskog pokrivača imaju značajno manje Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely površinsko rasprostranjenje: mješovite šume - 7,9%, tranzicijske šume i šikare - 5,5%, četinarske with fellowsklerofilna UNDP Country Offices in the dok region, while the Office of rasprostranjenost Senior ICT Advisorotpada at the BDP šumethe - 4,8%, vegetacija - 1,4%, najmanja površinska na in New York is providing expertise and Struktura playing annavedenih advisory role. Government-appointed members zone s oskudnom vegetacijom - 0,6%. subkategorija odgovara već navede­ nimof vegetacijskim tipovima visinske pojasnosti i horizontalne zonalnosti u BiH. U lišćarsko-listopa­ the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their dnim šumama dominiraju bukva sa oko 39% učešća, zatim hrast kitnjak sa oko 19% itd. U četina­ respective countries. rskim šumama dominiraju jela s oko 12,8%, smrča sa 8,6%, crni bor - 7,2%, bijeli bor – 2,5%, dok 0,1% čine sve ostale vrste. 135

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

KOD, KATEGORIJA 3.1.1. Lišćarsko listopadna šuma

P (ha) 1.627.688,16

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES 3.1.2. Četinarska šuma

243.805,59

3.1.3. Mješovita šuma

404.219,37

3.2.3. Sklerofilna vegetacija

711,00

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the šuma/šikara 278.891,92 requirements it sets 3.2.4. in all Tranzicijska aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed Zone sa oskudnom vegetacijom 43.296,87Union level relating to by a description of 3.3.3. the major instruments and actions at the European disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. Tabela 42. Struktura šumskog pokrivača u BiH

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

4.5.2. Scenariji za ublažavanje u sektoru šumarstva u BiH

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations seeking to participate on equal terms inogleda the Information Značaj šumskog experience pokrivača uwhen ublažavanju utjecaja klimatskih promjena se preko Society. njihovog kapaciteta da vežu i akumuliraju ugljenik. Prema procjenama IPCC, u svjetskim šumama je akumulirana ogromna količina ugljenika. Dok atmosfera sadrži oko 750 milijardi tona ugljenika u obliku CO2, svjetske sadržerefer okoto2000 mrd.oftona vezanog ugljenika. 500 mrd. e-Accessibility canšume potentially any type ICT used by citizens, and Približno involves everything tona ugljenika je akumulirano u drveću i žbunju i 1500 mrd. tona u tresetištima, zemljištima i from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on šumskoj prostirci. Od navedene količine, svake godine kruži atmosferom oko oko 100 milijardi television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European hasekosistema. a disability, such as a tona. Navedeni podaci na najbolji način ilustruju važnost očuvanjaUnion šumskih visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a osnovu dosadašnjih proučavanja o produkciji biomase prema određenim vrstama šuma, similar orNa higher proportion. dobijeni su sekvestracijski koeficijenti za šumski pokrov prema geografskim zonama. Konkretnije, za šumski pokrivač umjerenog klimatskog pojasa u BiH vrijednosti izračunatih sekvestracijskih A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover kapaciteta su prezentirani u Tabeli 43. this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are Sekvestracijski kapacitet (Mt C) Površina spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive Biom (Mil. ha) Vegetacija Tlo Ukupno (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility Šumecovered umjerenog pojasa BiH 2,7 benchmarking 153,65 exist for 260,67 is also byklimatskog policy, and guidelines and programmatic414,33 support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. Tabela 43. Sekvestracijski kapacitet šumskog pokrivača u BiH

There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: Navedeni podaci na najbolji način ilustruju značaj šumskog pokrivača u Bosni i Hercegovini, posebno kada se navedeni sekvestracijski kapacitet prezentira kroz sadržaj stakleničkih plinova, 1. Itoko is worthwhile ineq. its Također own rightjeto improve services tovrijednostima people who are already koji iznosi 1.515 Mt CO važno da seaccess naglasitoda se radi o koje imaju 2 ne samo nacionalni već i širi regionalni značaj. of the Information Society to reduce rather than marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this Osnova za izradu 3 scenarija za ublažavanje utjecaja klimatskih promjena u oblasti area is likely to further marginalize these groups. šumarstva u BiH bazira se na iznesenim podacima o stanju šumskog fonda, sadašnjim politikama gazdovanja i trendovima njegovog budućeg razvoja. skladutos proračunima izvedenim iz uputstava 2. Improving access to services, public and U private, such a significant proportion of the za promjene u šumskim sistemima i drugim zalihama drvne biomase proračunato ukupno učešće population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil biomase u BiH prosječno godišnje iznosi oko 2.386,5 Gg suhe tvari, dok proračunati neto godišnji their remit in a cost effective manner. unos CO2 ima vrijednost od 2.024,60 Gg. Na osnovu IPCC određenih vrijednosti učešća ugljenika u suvoj3.tvari, ukupnie-Accessibility godišnji unos ugljenika u šumskom pokrivaču BiH to za improved 1990. god.access iznosiofor je Improving for the marginalized could alsoulead 2

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people; can reduce ithe cost of webgodišnjeg service development, and enhance the 3.217,85able-bodied Gg. U skladu s ovimit rezultatima proračunima otpuštanja/emisije ugljenika, konačnoprospects godišnje poniranje CO u oblasti šumskih ekosistema u BiH iznosilo je 7.423,53 GgCO . U for migrating2 web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 2 odnosu na utvrđenu stopu prosječnog godišnjeg smanjenja šumskog zemljišta u BiH od oko 2.500 4. The earlier action is taken,ukupnog the easier it is to integrate ha dobijena je površinska vrijednost šumskog pokrivačae-Accessibility za baznu 2010.into god.development od 2.673.700of ha. Analogno navedenom šumske površine definirana je vrijednost godišnjeg poniranja e-Services and to smanjenju lower the cost. za 2010. god. od 7327,5 GgCO2. U navedenu vrijednost su inkorporirane emisije CO2koje nastaju 5. Pursuing approaches thatpostoji follow određena EU guidelines andnesigurnost recommendations will assist in the sagorijevanjem drvne biomase iako mjerna oko podataka za iznos development of thesječe Information Society in the EU convergence of different ogrjevnog drveta te učešće emisijaaspects vezanihofzathe kategoriju bespravne za sektor šumarstva. and SEE countries. S1 scenarij bazira se na utvrđenom trendu smanjenja površina pod šumskim pokrivačem, koje su utvrđene u postratnom periodu, i ne uključuje nikakve dodatne mjere za promjenu postojećeg trenda. Osnovni uzroci za navedeno stanje vuku korijene iz prethodnih ratnih događanja, kada su šume bespravno sječene zbog ogrevnog drveta i drugih osnovnih potreba ili kao izvor dodatnih prihoda. Poseban aspekat navedenog negativnog trenda predstavlja korištenje degradiranog The specific of svrhe, this report are: zemljišta koja su pogodna za pošumljavanje. Ovim scenarijem šumskog tla goals u druge posebno također nije predviđena značajnija promjena u korištenju drvne mase za proizvodnju toplotne energije1.ili to drvne industrije (Grafikon 27). Na osnovu prezentiranih podatakaincluding s Grafikona 27. jasno outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility existing legal može da se uoči navedeni negativni trend opadanja sekvestracijskih kapaciteta, koji su posljedica instruments and strategic level documents; gubljenja šumskog fonda po prosječnoj godišnjoj stopi od oko -0,8%. 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people S2 scenarij bazira se na primjeni određenih stimulativnih mjera za očuvanje postojećeg with disabilities; šumskog pokrivača. Osnovna mjera podrazumijeva povećanje kapaciteta ponora kroz praktične načine primjene određenih metoda u svrhu vezivanja ugljenika u drvnu 3. to assess the current level silvikulture of e-Accessibility andpovećanja e-Accessibility stakeholders; biomasu4.na šumskim površinama. Važna mjera predstavlja pošumljavanje goleti, što bi topostojećim identify good practices in the region; povećalo ukupni godišnji prirast biomase. Jedna od važnih mjera prema S2 scenariju predstavlja 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: unapređenje gazdovanja šumama, posebno s aspekata stalne kontrole i nadzora nad zdravljem address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; šuma, intenziviranje prorjeđivanja i čišćenja šuma i sadnja pionirskih vrsta drveća na degradiranoj comply with requirements for theodnosi UN andseEU. šumskoj zemlji. Još jedna veoma važna aktivnost na unapređenje protivpožarnih mjera, s ciljem prevencije i smanjenja broja šumskih požara, koji su posljednjih nekoliko decenija klimatski uzrokovani i višestruko učestali. Rezultat primjene navedenih mjera odrazio bi se na održanje sadašnjeg i blagog ponorskih kapaciteta šumskog pokrivača u BiH 27). Thisnivoa report is partpovećanja of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in (Grafikon e-Governance’,

1.2. About this report

that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by Prema S2 scenariju ponorski kapaciteti bi prosječno rasli po neznatnoj prosječnoj godišnjoj the UNDP Office Bosnia anduHerzegovina, DG/BDPkapaciteta NY, and funded by the stopi koja Country iznosi oko 5 GginCO . S tim vezi ukupno supported povećanje by ponorskih za šumski 2 UNDP’s theuvjete Southkoji Eastern Europe region pokrivačDemocratic u 2025. god.Governance bi iznosilo Thematic oko 62 GgTrust CO2 Fund što jetozasupport trenutne postoje u sektoru šumarstva u BiH, kakoofsthe aspekta zakonske legislative tako i s aspekta gazdovanja in the implementation Inclusive Information Society Priority Area ofkonkretnog the e-SEE Agenda+, the koja je šumama, realno ostvariv cilj. U navedeni scenarij su inkorporirani podaci o emisiji CO regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic 2 produkovana sagorijevanjem drvne biomase, s obzirom na to da se planovima gazdovanja vrši priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. planirana sječa i potrošnja ogrevnog drveta. Međutim, postoji određena mjerna nesigurnost oko podataka za količinu ogrevne drvne biomase, te učešće emisija vezanih za kategoriju bespravne The project is being thečega Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative sječe, jer podaci za 2010. god.implemented nisu oficijelni by zbog su u proračunima korištene samo procjene. Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering S3 scenarij zasnovan je na pretpostavci da ćeSecretariat BiH do 2025. postati punopravna Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE are godine positioned within the Social članica Evropske unije Governance čime bi morala da prihvati sve obaveze i direktive su propisane za sektor Inclusion/Democratic Sector. The UNDP Country Office inkoje Sarajevo is working closely šumarstva. To se prije svega odnosi na potpuno certificiranje cjelokupnog šumskog fonda u BiH u with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP svrhu unapređenja održivog upravljanja šumamskim kompleksima. Kako je već navedeno proces in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed certifikacije šuma doprinosi ublažavanju utjecaja klimatskih promjena povećanjem members godišnjegof the Regional Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Points for their prinosa drvnee-Governance biomase, očuvanja šumskog zemljišta i biodiverziteta, kao i Focal uopšte poboljšanja socioekonomskih funkcija šume (Grafikon 27). Jedna od posebnih mjera koju uvažava S3 scenarij respective countries. podrazumijeva kontinuirano pošumljavanje degradiranog šumskog pokrivača i pošumljavanje 137

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

i rehabilitacija šumskih goleti u svrhu održavanja i očuvanja postojećih i površinskog povećanja šumskih površina u narednom periodu. Ova mjera ima za cilj da se zaustavi negativni trend smanjenja šumskih površina, odnosno da značajnije poveća postojeću površinu pod šumskim pokrivačem. U tu svrhu vrlo važnu aktivnost prema ovom scenariju predstavlja potpuno deminiranje postojećih miniranih šumskih površina (oko 10 % od ukupnih šumskih površina), čime se dodatno otvara mogućnost da se povećava skladišni potencijal šuma u BiH za ugljenik.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a Grafikon 27. Neto prosječno godišnje poniranje CO2 iz sektora šumarstva u BiH, visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or2010-2025, motor impairment, and countries can expect to have a za period prema S1, S2 i S3SEE scenariju similar or higher proportion. skladusurprising s navedenim aktivnostima, procijenjena površina po S3 scenariju ublažavanja AU perhaps number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover povećala bi šumske površine za dodatnih 33.000 ha i time, uz primjenu svih predviđenih mjera, this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is uvećalo prosječni godišnji ponorski kapacitet šumskog pokrivača u BiH za oko 285 Gg CO2. the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation.

4.5.3. Mjere ublažavanja klimatskih promjena u sektoru šumarstva

- Održavanje postojećeg i povećanje budućeg prirasta gustine ugljenika po jedinici površine There(tC is at least five-fold justification early action in the area of e-Accessibility: / ha) na a bazi primjene određenihfor metoda silvikulture; pošumljavanje i rehabilitacija šumskih goleti 1.- Kontinuirano It is worthwhile in its own right /toponovno improve pošumljavanje access to services to people who are already u svrhu održavanja i očuvanja postojećih i površinskog povećanja šumskih površina u marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than narednom periodu; increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups. - Deminiranje postojećih miniranih šumskih površina koje imaju dodatnu mogućnost za povećavanje skladišnih potencijala za ugljenik; 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the - Unapređenje postojećeg protivpožarnog sistema za zaštitu šuma od šumskih požara, koji population opens significant market/salespraćenja opportunities, and can helpi efikasne public services fulfil uključuje mehanizme permanentnog i osmatranja i brze intervencije their uremit in a costnjihovog effective manner. slučajevima pojavljivanja; 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce thezacost of web service development, and enhance the - Uspostava efikasnih mehanizama sprečavanje svih nezakonitih aktivnosti u sektoru šumarstva u Bosni i Hercegovini, koje recentno imaju vrlo značajne negativne implikacije; prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 4. The earlier action is taken,šumskog the easier it is utoBiH integrate into development - Certifikacija cjelokupnog fonda u svrhue-Accessibility unapređenja održivog upravljanjaof šumskim kompleksima; e-Services and to lower the cost. 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the - Kontinuirani rast energije dobivene korištenjem drvne biomase, u svrhu adekvatne of the development of the efekat; Information Society in the EU convergence different zamjene zaofgoriva kojaaspects imaju visokoproduktivni staklenički - andPovećanje površine zaštićenih šumskih područja. SEE countries.

1.2. this report 4.5.4. About Tresetišta Tresetišta značajan The specific goalssu of posebno this report are: tip staništa koji je na globalnom nivou akumulirao ogromne količine ugljenika. Današnji rudnici uglja su nekada bili tresetišta. Bez ovih fosilnih tresetišta vjerovatno ne bi bilo Industrijske revolucije, niti antropogene emisije CO2, antropogenog globalnog 1. to aoutline regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal zagrijavanja, samimthe timinternational niti zanimanjacontext za tresetišta kao skladišta ugljenika. instruments and strategic level documents; Prema rezultatima brojnih istraživanja tresetišta sadrže više ugljenika i mogu da absorbuju 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people više ugljendioksida po hektaru na godišnjem nivou od svih tropskih kišnih šuma. Procjenjuje se with disabilities; da tresetišta sadrže u prosjeku 5.000 tona ugljenika po hektaru i absorbuju ugljenik iz zraka prosječnom stopom tona po hektaru godišnje (Gray). 3. to assess od the0,7 current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify goodhistosola practices in thetreseta) region;u Bosni i Hercegovini iznosi 9708.468 ha. Najveće Ukupna površina (niskih to develop set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders how to: površine5.nalaze se na apodručju Livanjskog polja (Veliki i Mali Ždralovac) pri čemu na ravno, on nizinsko, tresetno- kiseloaddress tlo na aluvijalnim pjeskovitim ilovačama otpada 2662,78 ha a na tresetno - gejno the obstacles to e-Accessibility; tlo 2049.33 jugozapadnom dijelu poljafor nathe području - ha. U comply with requirements UN andsela EU.Grborezi tresetno - gejno tlo zauzima površinu od 1027,55 ha, dok ravno, nizinsko, tresetno tlo na aluvijalnim pjeskovitim ilovačama zauzima površinu od 1047,83 ha. U zoni naselja Donji Kazanci ravno, nizinsko, tresetno tlo na aluvijalnim pjeskovitim ilovačama zauzima površinu od 326,59 ha. Ukupna površina tresetišta na This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, području Livanjskog polja je 7114,08 ha. Godišnje, u periodu juli - septembar, iskopa se oko 80.000 that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative.skladišni It is a regional project designed kubnih metara treseta na lokaciji Ždralovac, čime se smanjuje potencijal za ugljenik odby the Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the oko UNDP 376 tona. UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region Na području Glamočkog polja tresetno - gejno karbonatno zauzima od 801,54 in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority tlo Area of the površinu e-SEE Agenda+, the ha. Na području Hutovog blata ravno, nizinsko, tresetno tlo na aluvijalnim pjeskovitim ilovačama regional action plan for Information development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic zauzima površinu od 973,64 ha. U širojSociety zoni Gabele, prema granici s Republikom Hrvatskom, ravna priorities of thetla project are therefore alignedha. with targets e-SEE niska tresetna zauzimaju površinufully od 272,63 U the dolini rijekeofPlive naAgenda+. potezu od Šipova do Plivskih jezera ravno, nizinsko, tresetno tlo na aluvijalnim pjeskovitim ilovačama zauzima površinu The is being implemented by thetresetno Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative od 418,41 ha.project Na području Lončara ravno, nizinsko, tlo na aluvijalnim pjeskovitim ilovačama zauzima površinu od 33,02onha. U širem području Bihaća,networks pored naselja Orljani ravno, nizinsko, Secretariat, capitalizing their existing knowledge, and resources. Empowering tresetno bezkarbonatno tlo na aluvijalnim pjeskovitim ilovačama zauzima površinu od 28,33 ha. Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Na širem području Miljevine ravno, nizinsko, tresetno tlo na aluvijalnim pjeskovitim ilovačama Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely zauzima površinu od 3,45 ha with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP Na osnovu podataka o ponorskim kapacitetima različitih tipova bioma na Zemlji members moguće jeof in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed procijeniti zalihe C u tlu i vegetaciji u Taskforce tresetnim tlima u Bosni Hercegovini: the Regional e-Governance Advisory (REGATA) act ias government Focal Points for their respective countries.

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Tlo:

9708.47 ha x 642.90 t/ha C= 6.241.575,36 t C

Vegetacija:

9708.47 ha x 42.90 t/ha C=

416.493,36 t C

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

Na osnovu iznesenih pokazatelja dolazi se do podatka da je ukupna zaliha ugljika u tresetnim tlima Bosne i Hercegovine iznosi 6.658.068,72 t C, što je iznimno velika vrijednost u usporedbi sa sumarnim godišnjim vrijednostima iz svih sektora emisija.

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

4.6. Poljoprivreda

4.6.1. Pregled postojećeg stanja u sektoru poljoprivrede

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

Poljoprivreda predstavlja jednu od strateških grana privrednog razvoja BiH prvenstveno e-Accessibility is about overcoming thesektoru range (preko of barriers people with disabilities and others zbog velikog broja zaposlenih u ovom 19% that u 2011. godini). such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. Prema procjenama danas u BiH ima oko 515.000 poljoprivrednih gazdinstava. U okviru ovog broja pretpostavlja se da preko 50% ovih proizvodnih jedinica, odnosno oko 250.000, imaju veličinu manju od 2 ha, a da preko 80%, odnosno 400.000 njih, manje je od 5 ha. Tek nešto više od e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything 20.000 gazdinstava, ili 4% od ukupnog broja, ima površinu veću od 10 ha. Iz navedenih podataka from websites for su e-government services, to telephony support for(prosjek blind people to i subtitling jasno se vidi da poljoprivredna gazdinstva u BiH i dalje mala 3,3 ha) usitnjena,on u television. to 15 percent of manjih the population the European Union has a disability, as a prosjeku Up podijeljena na 7-9 parcela,across što uzrokuje nisku produktivnost i skromnusuch ukupnu ekonomsku efikasnost. Skorija istraživanja pokazuju daand su SEE gazdinstva kojacan mogu da zadovolje visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, countries expect to have a sopstvene potrebe, kao i gazdinstva djelomično orijentirana na tržišnu proizvodnju, ona koja similar or higher proportion. konzumiraju većinu svoje proizvodnje i koja proizvode malo u smislu viška pogodnog za prodaju, ostaju dominantni oblik strukture gazdinstava u BiH. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups. 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. Slika 16. Poljoprivredne površine ucould BiH (CLC2000) 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people;BiH it can reduce of web ha service development, and enhance the Od ukupne površine (51.129 km)the okocost 2,3 miliona ili 46% pogodno je za poljoprivredu, od kojih prospects se samo 0,65% navodnjava. Od ukupnog poljoprivrednog zemljišta u BiH 68% je obradivo for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. zemljište i 32% su livade. Plodne ravnice čine 16% poljoprivrednog zemljišta BiH, 62% su manje 4. The earlier action is taken, themediteranskog easier it is to integrate plodna brdsko-planinska područja, dok prostora e-Accessibility ima oko 22%. into development of e-Services and to lower the cost. U nizinskim područjima prirodni uvjeti su povoljni za održivu poljoprivrednu proizvodnju 5. Pursuing approachesNajbolji that follow EU tla guidelines and will Une, assistSane, in the i modernu tržišnu ekonomiju. kvalitet nalazi se u recommendations dolinama rijeka Save, aspects of thejedevelopment of theodržive Information Society the EU convergence Vrbasa, Bosne i Drine.ofUdifferent tim dolinama moguće da se organiziraju produkcije odin žitarica (pšenice,and ječma, soje, kukuruza), uzgoj stoke u stajama, masovan uzgoj voća i povrća, ljekovitog SEE countries. bilja i industrijska postrojenja. U planinama BiH ima manje vrijednog poljoprivrednog zemljišta. U tim područjima je moguće organizirati stočarstvo i dopunsku poljoprivrednu proizvodnju, zatim proizvodnja organske hrane i hrane za životinje, uzgoj ječma za pivo, krompir itd. Poljoprivrednog zemljišta u mediteransko regiji pokrivaju kraška polja koja u tom području zauzimaju oko 170.000 ha. Na tim lokacijama bi mogli da se organiziraju intenzivni staklenici, a na otvorenom The specific goals of this uzgoj reportagruma are: prostoru vinogradarstvo, i povrća, uzgoj slatkovodne ribe i pčelarstva. Više od 30% u submediteranskom području je pod pašnjacima, visoravnima, na kojima se može jako dobro organizirati proizvodnja (koze,context ovce, goveda). 1. tostočarska outline the international regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal

1.2. About this report

instruments and strategic level documents; 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people 4.6.2. Scenariji za ublažavanje u poljoprivrednom sektoru with disabilities;

Potencijali zathe ublažavanje utjecaja klimatskih promjena u oblasti poljoprivredne proizvodnje 3. to assess current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; u BiH mogu da se posmatraju s dva aspekta: kao potencijali za poniranje i kao izvor emisija 4. to identify goodPotencijali practices in region; stakleničkih plinova su definirani prostornim za stakleničke plinove. zathe poniranje 5. toi tipom develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders onBiH howsu to: obuhvatom poljoprivrednog zemljišta. Rezultati istraživanja ponorskih kapaciteta za predstavljeni u address narednojthe tabeli. obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU. Kategorija

Površina (000.ha)

Sekvestracijski kapacitet (Mt C) Vegetacija

Tlo

Ukupno

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, Oranice i bašče 1,94 that is being implemented in the context 1.018 of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a81,44 regional project83,38 designed by the UNDP Countryklimatskog Office in Bosnia supported by DG/BDP funded by the Livade umjerenog pojasa and Herzegovina, 1.160 8,35 273,76 NY, and 272,11 UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region Ukupno: 355,49 in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic Tabela 44. Sekvestracijski kapacitet poljoprivrednog zemljišta u BiH priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. Na osnovu prezentiranih podataka može se konstatirati da poljoprivredno zemljište u BiH, The being implemented the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative slično kao iproject šumskiispokrivač) ima iznimnobyveliki kapacitet skladištenja ugljenika. Konkretnije, postojeći ponorski kapacitet tipova poljoprivrednog zemljišta u BiH za glavne stakleničke Secretariat, capitalizing onnavedenih their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering plinove iznosi oko 1.305,3 Mt CO eq. Shodno navedenom podatku može se konstatirati da Social je s 2 Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the aspekta potencijala za ublažavanje klimatskih promjena značaj očuvanja postojeće odnosno Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely povećanja površine poljoprivrednog zemljišta iznimno velik i nema neku bližu alternativu. with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York providing expertisepotencijala and playingza anublažavanje advisory role. Government-appointed members Drugiisaspekt istraživanja utjecaja klimatskih promjena odnosiof se na godišnjee-Governance emisije stakleničkih plinova koje proizvodi proizvodnje. Prema the Regional Advisory Taskforce (REGATA)sektor act aspoljoprivredne government Focal Points for their iznesenim podacima u BiH u postratnom periodu postoji kontinuirani trend smanjenja obradivog respective countries. poljoprivrednog zemljišta, dok se tretman postojećih obradivih poljoprivrednih površina odvija uz primjenu zastarjele, tehnološki neadekvatne i energetski neefikasne mašinske i druge prateće 141

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tehnološke opreme. Također je indikativan trend neadekvatnog odlaganja i primjene štalskog đubriva, kao i upotrebe lošijih tipova mineralnog đubriva. Slična situacija postoji i u podsektoru stočarske proizvodnje gdje postojeći trendovi ukazuju na opadanje proizvodnih rezultata zbog nekvalitetne i nedovoljne stočne ishrane koja se nastoji kompenzirati povećanjem broja stočnih grla.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

S1 scenarij se bazira na navedenom trendu poslijeratnog smanjenja obradivih poljoprivrednih površina i njihovog prevođenja u najčešće građevinsko zemljište i ne podrazumijeva dodatne mjere za njihovo očuvanje. Prema ovom scenariju također je nepromijenjeno loše stanje s aspekta primjene This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the poljoprivredne mehanizacije i druge tehničke opreme kako s aspekta njihove proizvodnje tako i s requirements it sets inefikasnosti, all aspectsšto of e-Accessibility how it is to be implemented. is odnosno followed aspekta energetske nužno rezultiraand povećanom potrošnjom fosilnih This goriva byukupnih a description the major plinova. instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to emisija of stakleničkih Poljoprivredni stimulansi, posebno đubriva, uglavnom su na nivou niskokvalitetnih rezultira dodatnom povećanom emisijom, posebno azotnih oksida. Niska disability in general andšto e-Accessibility in particular. proizvodna produktivnost u podsektoru stočarske proizvodnje uz tendenciju kontinuiranog rasta broja stočnih grla s ciljem da se povećaju proizvodni rezultati također su obilježja S1 scenarija, što će rezultirati i rastućim trendom prosječne godišnje emisije samo iz ovog podsektora za oko 150 MgCO2eq. Ako se uzmu u obzir i emisije iz tla zbog intenziviranja upotrebe mineralnih đubriva moguće je procijeniti da u sektoru poljoprivredne generalni trend rasta e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers proizvodnje that peoplepostoji with disabilities and others stakleničkih plinova po prosječnoj iznositooko 0,25 GgCO eq/god. Prema prezentiranim such as older populations experiencestopi whenkoja seeking participate on 2equal terms in the Information pokazateljima ukupne emisije stakleničkih plinova u sektoru poljoprivredne proizvodnje će prema Society. S1 scenariju porasti na gotovo dvostruku vrijednost u 2025. god. (oko 180 % od vrijednosti emisije u baznoj godini). Također treba spomenuti da su prezentirane emisijske vrijednosti minimalne, e-Accessibility potentially any type ofprema ICT used by citizens, and involves everything posebno uzimajući u can obzir činjenicurefer da sutorealizirane preračunatim vrijednostima za 1990. god. a sasvim je sigurno da su one danas više s obzirom da je poljoprivreda jedno od strateških from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on opredjeljenja njenomofukupnom privrednom television. Up toBiH 15 upercent the population acrossrazvoju. the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motorpozitivnih impairment, and SEE countries can expect have a S2 scenarij baziran je na primjeni iskustava i dobre proizvodne prakse to u oblasti similar or higherproizvodnje proportion.kojima se odlikuju privredno i poljoprivredno razvijene evropske zemlje. poljoprivredne To se prije svega odnosi na primjeni savremenih tehnologija u svrhu unapređenja poljoprivredne proizvodnje u svim podsektorima. U international podsektoru agreements, uzgoja i proizvodnje poljoprivrednih kultura A perhaps surprising number of regulations and guidelines cover predviđena je upotreba adekvatnih tipova mineralnih đubriva koja imaju visoku stimulativnu this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is proizvodnu vrijednost i sa niskim emisijskim faktorima, čime bi se u velikoj mjeri utjecalo na the relevant emisija legal context. Noazotnih singleoksida. EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, actions are smanjenje posebno U podsektoru stočarske proizvodnje jebut posebno važno spread across produktivnosti areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for mjera subtitling), the Copyright Directivei unapređenje stočnih grla sa preduzimanjem na adekvatnom odlaganju primjeni štalskog đubriva.and Nathe ovaj način bi Framework se do određenog nivoa utjecalo na smanjenje emisija (for copyright exemptions), Telecoms (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility metana i drugih pratećih stakleničkih plinova. Rezultati provedenih analiza upućuju na zaključak da is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. će ukupne godišnje emisije stakleničkih plinova prema ovom scenariju imati neznatna smanjenja, Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. koja će u 2025. god. u odnosu na baznu iznositi svega oko 5% (Grafikon 28). Na osnovu toga može da se izvede generalni zaključak da primijenjene mjere u poljoprivrednom sektoru moraju da budu at leasti efikasnosti, a five-fold justification for early action inefekti. the area of e-Accessibility: znatnoThere šireg is spektra kako bi se dobili konkretniji

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

je, kaoini kod većine ostalih sektora, baziran očekivanjima da who će BiH 2025. 1.S3It scenarij is worthwhile its own right to improve access to na services to people aredo already godine postati članica Evropske unije. Shodno tome realno je očekivati prihvatanje i primjenu svih marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than direktiva i drugih obaveza koje su povezane s poljoprivrednom djelatnošću. Takve aktivnosti zasigurno increaseprimjenu the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this bi uključivale evropskih standarda u svim podsektorima poljoprivredne proizvodnje. U area is likelyi to further marginalize thesekultura groups.uzgajale bi se najadaptivnije i istovremeno podsektoru uzgoja proizvodnje poljoprivrednih najproduktivnije vrste, posebno na nivou organske poljoprivrede, čime bi se nivo njihovih prinosa 2. Improving to vještačkih services, public and private, to mineralnih such a significant of the višestruko povećao. access Primjena stimulansa, posebno đubriva,proportion bio bi ograničen population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil na ekološki najprihvatljivije tipove, što bi rezultiralo značajno smanjenim emisijama stakleničkih plinova.their Posebno remit značajan in a cost aspekt effectiveublažavanja manner. emisija bit će u oblasti primjene novih i energetski visokoučinkovitih tehnologija, kako na nivou poljoprivredne mehanizacije tako i kod svih drugih 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the costproizvodnom of web service development, enhance the segmenata primijenjene tehnologije u cjelokupnom procesu. Očekivaniand rezultati bit će posebnoprospects uočljivi kroz višestruko smanjenje količine upotrijebljenih fosilnih goriva kao i njihove znatno for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. unapređenije kvaliteta. U podsektoru stočarske proizvodnje se očekuje unapređenje rezultata kroz 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier to integrate into development uzgoj visokoproduktivnih stočnih grla, čime će se itsaisnjihovim istime-Accessibility ukupnim brojem nivo proizvodnjeof višestruko uvećati. and Također je važno da se istakne da će proizvodnja stočne hrane također biti e-Services to lower the cost. unaprijeđena, što će rezultirati ublažavanjem crijevne fermentacije kod preživara. Kod odlaganja Pursuing approaches that followrezervoari EU guidelines and recommendations assist in the štalskog5.đubriva bit će primijenjeni betonski zatvorenog tipa koji proizvodewill manje količine aspects of thenačin development the Information Societyupotrebu in the EU of different metana. convergence Također je za realno očekivati da će takav odlaganja of štalskog đubriva omogućiti metana za proizvodnju toplotne energije koja će se na proizvodnim farmama koristiti za različite svrhe. and SEE countries.

1.2. About this report The specific goals of this report are: 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents; 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities; 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, Grafikon 28. Ukupne emisije CO2eq iz sektora poljoprivrede u BiH, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by za period 2010-2025, prema S1, S2 i S3 scenariju the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’sJedna Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fundscenartiju to supportjeste the South Easterndegradiranog Europe region od očekivanih aktivnosti prema ovom i prevođenje poljoprivrednog zemljišta u oranične površine čime bi sePriority uvećaoArea sadašnji kapacitet. in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society of theponorski e-SEE Agenda+, the Prezentirani podaci upućuju na zaključak da su potencijali za ublažavanje utjecaja klimatskih regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic promjena u sektoru poljoprivrede u BiH, uz striktnu primjenu najsuvremenijih dostignuća u svim priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. segmentima proizvodnje, jako veliki. Međutim, za dobijanje egzaktnijih scenarijskih pokazatelja neophodni su precizni podaci koji mogu da se dobiju jedino zvaničnim popisom, kojeg u postratnom project is being implemented by procjene the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded Initiative perioduThe u BiH još uvijek nema, zbog čega su jedini oslonac za dobijanjee-SEE prezentiranih Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering izlaznih rezultata. Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries.i funkcionalno korištenje sadašnjih oraničnih površina i livada radi očuvanja - Održivo njihovih sekvestracijskih potencijala.

4.6.3. Mjere za smanjenje emisija stakleničkih plinova u sektoru poljoprivrede

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- Obnavljanje obrađenih tresetišta i degradiranog poljoprivrednog zemljišta. - Unapređenje tehnika za odlaganje, pripremu i upotrebu štalskog đubriva u svrhu stabilizacije i smanjenja emisije metana.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

- Uvođenje novih praksi gajenja i ishrane stoke na nivou promjene ishrane, selekcije i reprodukcije preživara u svrhu stabilizacije i smanjenja emisije metana.

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the - Smanjenje primjene nitratnih đubriva i unapređenje tehnika primjene drugih tipova requirementsmineralnih it sets in allđubriva aspectsu of e-Accessibility how it is emisije to be implemented. is followed svrhu stabilizacijeand i smanjenja N2O i drugih This azotnih oksida. by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to poljoprivrednih kultura za proizvodnju biogoriva u svrhu smanjenja disability - Intenzivni in general anduzgoj e-Accessibility in particular. upotrijebljenih količina fosilnih goriva energetske efikasnosti na svim nivoima u oblasti poljoprivredne proizvodnje. 1.1. - Unaprjeđenje Why e-Accessibility? - Primjena i drugih stakleničkih plinova za proizvodnju energije. e-Accessibility is aboutmetana overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society.

4.7. Otpad

e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, statističkim or motor impairment, SEEpodacima countriesAgencije can expect to have a U skladu s prikupljenim podacima iand prema za statistiku BiH, procijenjena količina proizvedenog komunalnog otpada za 2010. godinu iznosila je 1.521.877 similar or higher proportion. tona. Iz toga proizlazi da prosječna godišnja produkcija komunalnog otpada po jednom stalnom stanovniku BiH iznosi oko 389 kg ili 1.08 kg po stanovniku na dan. Procenat stanovnika koji su A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover uključeni u odvoz komunalnog otpada na nivou BiH iznosi prosječno oko 68%. Ostatak stanovništva this level, the UNCRPD, ratified coming into force in 2008, is od area. 32%, At kojithe nehighest koriste international komunalne usluge, najvećim dijelom suand locirani u ruralnim područjima. the context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, actions are U relevant strukturilegal prikupljenog otpada najveći udio ima miješani komunalni otpad sabut92,4%, zatim odvojeno prikupljeni komunalni otpad sa 6%, otpad iz vrtova i parkova 1,1% i ambalažni otpad spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive sacopyright 0,5%. Naexemptions), odlagališta otpada 2010. godini odloženo je 1.516.423 tona otpada. Prikupljeni (for and the uTelecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility podaci o tokovima otpada dopremljenog na odlagališta indiciraju na trajno odlaganje komunalnog is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. otpada na odlagališta. Prema trenutno dostupnim podacima, u BiH postoji preko 600 evidentiranih Furthermore, moves are afootMeđutim, to strengthen these and toda enact more ilegalnih odlagališta otpada. procjene ukazuju je ovaj brojlegislation. u značajnoj mjeri uvećan jer veliki broj ovakvih odlagališta nije zvanično evidentiran. S obzirom da su formirane na topografski neadekvatnim i nezaštićenim lokacijama, divlje deponije otpada ozbiljnu prijetnju There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in thepredstavljaju area of e-Accessibility: za okolinu i javno zdravlje u BiH i široj regiji. Posebno važno je što još uvijek nema postrojenja za tretman medicinskog i drugog opasnog otpada, dok su rezultati reciklaže industrijskog 1. It is worthwhile its own right to improve access to services to people who are alreadyi i komunalnog otpada i in dalje ograničeni. Zbog toga su poboljšanje tretmana industrijskog marginalized. helps fulfil the promise of the Information than medicinskog otpada, Itzbrinjavanje komunalnog otpada i reciklaža Society izazovi to za reduce koje serather tek naziru 15 znaci napretka. Konkretnije, u posljednjih nekoliko godina započete suinsufficient aktivnosti effort na izgradnji increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, in this regionalnih sanitarnih deponija, zatvoreno je oko 10-15 posto registriranih divljih deponija, a čine area is likely to further marginalize these groups. se i napori da se ukloni akumulirani opasni/hemijski otpad. Također su doneseni okvirni zakoni kao 2. Improvingprovedbenih access to services, publiczaand private, to such a iako significant of the i dio podzakonskih akata vezani upravljanje otpadom, je nivo proportion njhove praktične realizacije još uvijek veoma nizak. market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil population opens significant their remit in a cost effective manner.

4.7.1. Pregled postojećeg stanja u sektoru otpada

3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized 15 Federalni plan upravljanja otpadom za period 2012-2017. 2

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could also lead to improved access for


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able-bodiedse people; it can reduce themoguće cost of je web development, and enhance the Oslanjajući na iznesene podatke daservice se preračunaju promjene u količini otpada uprospects analiziranom periodu, 2010-2025. Polazna osnova za navedeni proračun jeste linearna for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. prosječna petogodišnja stopa porasta ukupnog otpada koja je procijenjena na 3% što je izvedeno 4. The earlier is taken, the easierkoličine it is to integrate e-Accessibility intotokom development na osnovu stope rastaaction populacije i proizvedene otpada po glavi stanovnika periodaof 1999-2009. Takođerand je uzeto da jethe u strukturi čvrstog otpada oko 50% biorazgradivi otpad, kao i da e-Services to lower cost. se u navedenom periodu neće bitnije mijenjati efikasnost u organizaciji prikupljanja i odlaganja 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines otpada. Rezultati analize su predstavljeni u narednoj tabeli.and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries. Produkcija i struktura komunalnog otpada (po entitetima i BiH, u tonama)

Godišnja količina 2010. god.

1.2. About this report Ukupna količina proizvedenog The specific goals of this report are: 392.891,00 komunalnog otpada u RS

Procijenjena godišnja količina 2015. god.

Procijenjena godišnja količina 2020. god.

Procijenjena godišnja količina 2025. god.

404.677,73

416.818,06

429.322,60

Procijenjena količina 1. to outline the international context regarding including214.661,30 existing legal 196.445,50 202.338,87e-Accessibility 208.409,03 biorazgradivog otpada

instruments and strategic level documents;

Ukupna količina proizvedenog 1.128.986,00 1.219.577,68 1.256.165,01 1.293.849,96 komunalnog otpada u aFBiH 2. to develop comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people

with disabilities; Procijenjena količina biorazgradivog otpada

561.766,00

514.852,71

530.298,29

546.207,24

3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; Ukupna4.količina to identify good practices in the region; proizvedenog komunalnog 1.521.877,00 1.624.255,41 1.672.983,07 1.723.172,56 to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: otpada 5. u BiH address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; Procijenjena količina 758.211,50 672.833,08 693.018,07 713.808,61 comply biorazgradivog otpada with requirements for the UN and EU.

Tabela 45. Promjene u godišnjim količinama proizvedenog ukupnog i biorazgradivog komunalnog otpada, This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groupsotpadom) in e-Governance’, na nivou entiteta i države (prema metodologiji iz Strategije upravljanja čvrstim

that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by Na Country osnovu Office prezentiranih podataka može da supported se zaključibydaDG/BDP postoji NY, trend kontinuiranog the UNDP in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and funded by the rasta sve tri analizirane kategorije, što rezultira ukupnim prosječnim porastom na kraju perioda UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region od oko 9%. in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+.

4.7.2. Scenariji ublažavanja klimatskih promjena u otpada u BiH The sektoru project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative

Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Emisije stakleničkih plinova vezanih za sektor otpada uglavnom su povezane s emisijama Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social metana (CH4) i djelomično CO2,CO i drugih plinova u tragovima, koji se oslobađaju prilikom Inclusion/Democratic Governanceuvjetima. Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely razgradnje otpada u anaerobnim Podaci o emisijama metana iz sanitarnih deponija u with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP BiH egzaktno mogu da se preračunaju na osnovu rezultata upravljanja regionalnom deponijom "Mošćanica“ Prema podacima sa ove deponije prosječna godišnja proizvodnja deponijskog in New York isZenica. providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of 3 dok mu toplotna vrijednost u plina iz 1 t neto odloženog komunalnog otpada iznosi oko 6 m the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Pointsiznosi for their 3 prosjeku 5 kWh/m . Shodno ovim i podacima o količinama neto odloženog biorazgradivog otpada na respective countries. deponijama, uz uvažavanje približne strukture deponijskog plina (55% - CH4 i 44% - CO2), moguće je da se odredi konkretna prosječna godišnja produkcija deponijskih plinova u BiH. Međutim, shodno 145

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primijenjenoj metodologiji u izračunu emisija stakleničkih plinova podaci za 2001. god. za ovaj sektor (koji su preuzeti iz GHG sektora SNC -a za BiH) poslužili su kao osnov za proračun emisije za 2010. god. Konkretnije, na osnovu prosječne međugodišnje stope rasta od oko 3% izračunata emisija za 2010. god. iznosi oko 1191,1 GgCO2eq.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

S1 scenarij se u suštini bazira na nepromijenjenoj postojećoj praksi u produkciji i cjelokupnoj organizaciji prikupljanja i odlaganja otpada u dugoročnom periodu u BiH. Postojeća praksa je da se veći dio otpada odlaže na općinskim (uglavnom neuređenim) deponijama, dok se drugi dio odlaže na This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the regionalnim deponijama u Sarajevu, Zenici, Banjoj Luci i Bijeljini, koje još uvijek nisu u potpunosti requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how veliki it is tobroj be implemented. followed sanitarne deponije. Poseban problem predstavlja još uvijek divljih deponijaThis (okois600), koje bysua također description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to značajan izvor emisija stakleničkih plinova. Upravljanje otpadom uglavnom se svodi na to da ih prikupljaju općinska komunalna disability in general and e-Accessibility inpreduzeća, particular.koje ga odvoze i odlažu na općinska odlagališta ili regionalne deponije. S obzirom da se otpad prikuplja i odlaže na tradicionalan način, dolazi se do zaključka da trenutno nema bilo kakvog značajnog pomaka u tretmanu biorazgradivog otpada i/ili tretmana bioplina koji nastaje njegovom razgradnjom (Grafikon 29). Shodno istaknutim podacima emisije stakleničkih plinova u BiH će, uz minimalnu redukciju, nastaviti da rastu u skladu s rastom količina deponovanog biorazgradivog Emisioni scenarij razvijen u and odnosu na e-Accessibility is about odnosno overcoming the range ofotpada. barriers that people withjedisabilities others pokazatelje o vremenskokvantitativnom razvoju to i formiranju deponijskih plinova izvještaju o such as older populations experience when seeking participate on equal terms in thei Information emisijama iz 2001. god. Iz tog razloga povećanja godišnjih stopa imaju kontinuirani rast tako da u Society. 2025. god. vrijednosti ukupnih emisija rastu na oko 1.339,8 GgCO2eq.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by icitizens, andkoji involves everything S2 scenarij bazira se na realizaciji postavljenih ciljeva zadataka su definirani u Strategiji upravljanja čvrstim otpadom BiH, iz 2000. godine. Napredni scenarij predviđa smanjenje from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on generiranog biorazgradivog koje će across se postići načina odvoza otpada television. Up to 15 percent of otpada, the population the promjenom European Union hasnaplate a disability, such as a koji treba sa prakse naplate po domaćinstvu, članu porodice ili kvadratnom metru stambenog i visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEEproizvedenog/odvezenog countries can expect tootpada. have a poslovnog prostora, da pređe na sistem naplate prema zapremini similar or highersmanjit proportion. Ove promjene će troškove odvoza otpada, dodatne emisije uslijed transporta, troškove deponovanja otpada i produžiti radni vijek trajanja deponija. Prema ovom scenariju također je predviđen nastavak izgradnje nekoliko novih od agreements, ukupno 16 planiranih regionalnih sanitarnih A perhaps surprising number of international regulations and guidelines cover deponija, s ugrađenim sistemima za prikupljanje i spaljivanje bioplina. S pretpostavkom da je 50% this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is otpada biorazgradivi otpad i uz lineranu prosječnu petogodišnju stopu proizvodnje otpada od oko the context. No single EU directive is dedicated tonjegovo e-Accessibility, are 3%relevant realno jelegal planirati izgradnju postrojenja za spaljivanje plina ili korištenjebut za actions proizvodnju spread across areas such što as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), theemisija Copyright Directive energije na deponijama, će rezultirati višestrukim efektom smanjivanja stakleničkih plinova. Prema ovom scenariju nijeTelecoms realno očekivati da će(for do 2015.god. doći do potpunog provođenja (for copyright exemptions), and the Framework assistive technologies). e-Accessibility novog načina upravljanja otpadom, odnosno osjetniji efekti primjene ovih mjera s aspekta is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmaticsmanjenja support. emisija nastupit će nakon 2020. god. (Grafikon 29). Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. Prema iznesenim numeričkim pokazateljima prema naprednom scenariju ukupno direktno Thereemisija is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area e-Accessibility: smanjenje stakleničkih plinova na završetku perioda iznosi oko 8%.ofSvakako da je navedena vrijednost još izraženija ako se uzmu indirektni benefiti kao što je na primjer proizvodnja energije koja se1.bazira na spaljivanju deponijskog plina, koja zamjenjuje energetski ekvivalent It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people whokorištenjem are already fosilnih goriva. Međutim, neophodno je istaknuti da ograničena financijska i drugih sredstava realno marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than predstavljaju ozbiljnu prepreku za realiziranje bilo koje navedene opcije u upravljanju otpadom, što increase the disadvantages populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this će definitivno utjecati na efikasnostcertain njihovog implementiranja. area is likely to further marginalize these groups. S3 scenarij se zasniva na primjeni postojećih tehničkih dostignuća i legislative koja se 2. Improving access to services, private, to suchda a significant proportion of the primjenjuje u zemljama Evropske unije.public To je and rezultat nastojanja BiH u analiziranom periodu population opens market/sales opportunities, and can koje help public servicesu fulfil postane članica EU što significant znači da će trebati intenzivirati sve aktivnosti su planirane ovoj oblasti.their Osnova zainovaj scenarij je izgradnja remit a cost effective manner.svih 16 planiranih sanitarnih regionalnih deponija do kraja 2025.god. U skladu s tim bit će značajno unaprijeđen inicijalni sistem za selektivno odlaganje 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied it can reducekorištenja the cost of service development, and enhance the i prikupljanje otpadapeople; i njegovog daljnjeg za web potrebe reciklaže ili proizvodnje energije. Pretpostavlja se da će stopa reciklaže (odnosno kompostiranja biorazgradivog otpada) do kraja prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 2020. god. iznositi oko 10% ukupno proizvedenog biorazgradivog komunalnog otpad,a odnosno Thekraja earlier action taken, the easier it isotpada, to integrate into spalio development oko 20%4.do 2025. god.is Dio biorazgradivog premae-Accessibility ovom scenariju, bi se uof spalionicama otpada uz to proizvodnju iskorištenje energije u kogenerativnim postrojenjima. Prema e-Services and lower the icost. Strategiji upravljanja čvrstim otpadom i INC-u za BiH realno je očekivati da će 20% čvrstog otpada 5. Pursuing that follow EU guidelines and recommendations willisti assist in the biti spaljeno do 2020.approaches god., odnosno 25% do 2025. god. Prema ovim podacima približno procenti aspects of the development the Information Society in može the EU convergence different biorazgradivog otpadaofbit će spaljen i u spalionicama otpada.ofEnergetski sadržaj otpada da budeand efikasnije iskorišten kroz termalne procese nego kroz produkciju bioplina, jer se tokom SEE countries. paljenja energija direktno dobija iz biomase (produkata papira, drveta, prirodnog tekstila, hrane) i izvora fosilnog karbona (plastika, sintetički tekstili). Ostatak biorazgradivog otpada,16 prema ovom scenariju, odlagat će se na regionalne deponije na kojima će biti izgrađeni sistemi za spaljivanje metana na baklji i/ili postrojenja za proizvodnju električne energije.

1.2. About this report The specific goals of this report are:

1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents; 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities; 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the Grafikon 29. Prosječne godišnje emisije CO2 eq iz sektora otpada u BiH, UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund the South Eastern Europe region za period 2010-2025, prema S1,to S2support i S3 scenariju in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the činjenice, očekivani iznos smanjena emisija stakleničkih plinova regionalUvažavajući action plansve foristaknute Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic u sektoru otpada na kraju perioda iznosit će oko 20% od početne emisije za baznu godinu. priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely količinaOffices biorazgradivog čvrstog komunalnog with the- Smanjenje fellow UNDP Country in the region, while the Officeotpada; of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of - Povećanje količina razvrstanog i recikliranog otpada u ukupnoj masi otpada; the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries. novih regionalnih sanitarnih deponija uz smanjenje broja divljih deponija; - Izgradnja

4.7.3. Mjere smanjenja emisije stakleničkih plinova u sektoru otpada

16 Predviđen je isti nivo efikasnosti prikupljanja otpada. 147

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- Spaljivanje deponijskog plina i proizvodnja energije; - Kosagorijevanje selektiranog komunalnog otpada u svrhu proizvodnje energije;

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

- Uklanjanje i čišćenje nelegalnih deponija otpada i rehabilitacija degradiranih područja; -

Povećanje broja stanovnika pokrivenih službom sakupljanja čvrstog komunalnog otpada;

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the - Uvođenje privatnih kompanija u prikupljanju i odlaganja otpada; requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the produkcije major instruments actions at the European Union level relating to - Smanjenje svih oblikaand komunalnog otpada; disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. - Unaprjeđenje postojeće legislative u oblasti upravljanja otpadom na nivou entiteta i BiH.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? 4.8. Ukupan potencijal smanjenja emisija e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. stakleničkih plinova Analogno istaknutim pokazateljima o sektorskim emisijama mogu da se donesu egzaktni e-Accessibility potentially refer to any type ofkoje ICT used by citizens, and involves everything zaključci o ukupnim can emisijama iz navedenih sektora za baznu 2010. god. iznose oko 21.249 GgCO eq (Grafikon 30). U navedenu vrijednost nisu inkorporirani ponorski kapaciteti koje ostvaruje from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on 2 sektor šumarstva koji iznose oko 7.327,5 GgCO eq. television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a 2 visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already Grafikon 30. Ukupne godišnje emisije eq iz sektora daljinskog saobraćaja, marginalized. It helps fulfil the CO promise of the energetike, Information Societygrijanja, to reduce rather than 2 poljoprivrede i otpada u BiH, za period 2010-2025, prema S1, S2 i S3 scenariju increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups. Na grafikonu 30. su također prezentirani emisijski scenariji kojima je za BiH modelirana kvantitativno-vremenska dinamika stakleničkih plinova za to period osnovu izgleda 2. Improving access to services, public and private, such 2010-2025. a significantNa proportion of the grafikona jasno je uočljivo da su scenariji S1 i S2 s izrazitim trendovima kontinuiranog porasta population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil emisija koje na kraju analiziranog perioda iznose 31.956 odnosno 31.077 GgCO2eq. S3 scenarij ima their remit in a cost effective manner. obilježja ublažavajućeg scenarija koji za rezultat ima smanjenje ukupnih emisija od oko 16.055 na kraju perioda. GgCO2eq 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost.

5. Ostale relevantne aktivnostI

5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries.

1.2.UAbout this report ovom poglavlju je dat pregled aktivnosti koje su ostvarene s ciljem da se ispune zadaci

i ciljevi - potrebe u odnosu na Prvi nacionalni izvještaj. Analizirano je stanje napretka i potreba The specific goals of this report are:za ublažavanje i prilagođavanje klimatskim promjenama, te za tehnološkim transferom u BiH stanje u oblasti istraživanja, praćenja i prognoziranja klime i sistematskih osmatranja i opisuje se unapređenje oblasti i hidrološkog sistema. Također se including razmatraju nedostaci, 1. to outline themeteorološkog international context regarding e-Accessibility existing legal potrebe i prioriteti u oblasti obrazovanja i jačanju svijesti javnosti, uključujući predložene aktivnosti instruments and strategic level documents; za provođenje u članu 6. Konvencije o obrazovanju, obuci i jačanju svijesti javnosti. 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities;

5.1. Procjena tehnoloških potreba za 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4.ublažavanje to identify good practices iin prilagođavanje the region;

5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

5.1.1. Pristup Okvirnoj konvenciji UN-a o klimatskim promjenama (UNFCCC)

5.1.1.1. Mehanizam čistog razvoja This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being in the of the2011. e-SEEgodine Initiative. It is a regional project Bosnaimplemented i Hercegovina je ucontext septembru formirala Ovlašteno tijelodesigned (DNA) zaby the UNDP Country Office Mehanizma in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported DG/BDPOkvirne NY, and funded byUN the implementaciju projekata čistog razvoja u okviru Kjotoby protokola konvencije o promjeni klime, i doGovernance danas je ovoThematic tijelo odobrilo projekta procijenjenim smanjenjem UNDP’s Democratic Trust četiri Fund CDM to support thesSouth Eastern Europe region emisija plinova koji izazivaju efekt staklene baščeSociety (GHG) Priority u iznosu od of oko miliona tona COthe in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Area the3e-SEE Agenda+, 2 ekvivalenta i vrijednosti stranih ulaganja u Bosnu i Hercegovinu u iznosu od oko 300 miliona eura. regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic Naravno, mehanizmi Konvencije nisu jedini način transfera tehnologije, oni su samo inicijalni. priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. Potrebno je da zemlja preduzme praktične korake ka postepenom usvajanju ciljeva za The project is being implemented thebiSarajevo-based e-SEE Initiative smanjenje/ograničenje stakleničkih plinova by kako mogla preuzeti UNDP-funded acquis, posebno program EU Secretariat, capitalizing on their networks and Empowering za trgovinu emisijama, te kako bi se existing pridružilaknowledge, naporima koje EU ulaže na resources. snižavanju emisija. Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely 5.1.1.2. na klimatske promjene with the fellowStrategija UNDP Countryprilagođavanja Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisori at the BDP in New York isniskoemisionog providing expertise andrazvoja playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their Na countries. osnovu klimatskih i scenarija za ublažavanje klimatskih promjena razvijenih tokom respective izrade SNC-a, pristupilo se izradi Strategije prilagođavanja na klimatske promjene i niskokarbonskog razvoja koja ima dva glavna cilja: 1) povećanje otpornosti na klimatske promjene i 149

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dostizanje vrha i 2) prestanak rasta godišnjih vrijednosti emisija stakleničkih plinova 2025. godine. Strategija jasno definiše rezultate i aktivnosti, kao i sredstava neophodna za njihovo provođenje, a sve u svrhu dostizanja održivog razvoja.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

5.1.2. Procjena tehnoloških potreba za ublažavanje i This section prilagođavanje presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections,

the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed Bosna i Hercegovina se ubraja u red evropskih zemalja koje su pod značajnom prijetnjom od byklimatskih a description of thekoje major instruments andza actions at the European Unioni koje levelsu relating to promjena, imaju malo resursa rješavanje pratećih problema relativno disability in general andmeđunarodne e-Accessibility in particular. nerazvijene u smislu suradnje u ovoj oblasti. Uzimajući u obzir da države koje nisu članice Aneksa I trpe najveće posljedice klimatskih promjena, vrlo je važno da one analiziraju scenarije razvoja i u skladu s tim definiraju politike održivog razvoja, koje će sadržavati mjere prilagođavanja i ublažavanja. Analizom karakteristika SRES scenarija razvoja koje su urađene za potrebe izrade ovog dokumenta, vidljivo je da svaki scenarij pruža određene razvojne mogućnosti. Te e-Accessibility is strategija about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilitiestihand others šanse zavise od razvoja pojedinih država i uklapanja, odnosno neuklapanja strategija u globalne razvoja. such as olderscenarije populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

5.1.3. Stanjecanprenosa tehnologija BiH e-Accessibility potentially refer to any type of ICTu used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on Bosna i Hercegovina je, kao zemlja u razdoblju tranzicije i obnove, uglavnom završila proces television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a vlasničke transformacije, kao i proces organizacijskog restrukturiranja kao rezultat postojanja visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, anddošlo SEE do countries can expect to have vlasnika poduzeća. Samo je u ograničenom broju slučajeva tehnološkog transfera: to sua similar or higher proportion. bila velika poduzeća čiji su većinski vlasnici postale velike multinacionalne kompanije. Ovo je bilo propraćeno i mjerama čiji je cilj bio smanjenje utjecaja na životnu sredinu. Vrlo malo je urađeno u povećanju energetske efikasnosti i uof korištenju obnovljive energije.regulations Preduzećima BiH je potrebna A perhaps surprising number international agreements, anduguidelines cover tehnološka tranzicija. Provođenje mjera smanjenja emisija plinova staklene bašče je zaista prava this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is prilika i šansa da se, uz međunarodnu stručnu i financijsku pomoć, pokrene tehnološka tranzicija. the relevantproblem legal context. No single EUbarijerama: directive isod dedicated e-Accessibility, butneadekvatne actions are Međutim, je u mnogobrojnim neznanjatoi nepovjerenja pa do spread areasStoga such as Without Frontiers (fornajboljih subtitling), the Copyright Directive pravneacross regulative. je Television pogodno izvršiti demonstraciju raspoloživih tehnika (BAT) i tehnologija u BiH, sa svim njihovim aspektima: tehničkim, ekonomskim, ekološkim, tržišnim, (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility i socijalnim. Veoma važno nakon implementacije uvođenja neke tehnologije ispravnim also covered by policy, andjeguidelines andpočetka benchmarking exist for programmatic support. ustanoviti praćenje, kako bi se pratili rezultati i uklanjale sve poteškoće kod novih projekata. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. Prema INC za BiH je predviđen niz mjera - tehnoloških potreba u različitim sektorima koji vode smanjenju klimatskih promjenafor u Bosni i Hercegovini. Oveofmjere su predstavljene There is atutjecaja least a five-fold justification early action in the area e-Accessibility: u prvom izvještaju, ali je u izvještajnom razdoblju vrlo malo urađeno u implementaciji ovih mjera. 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already Bosna i Hercegovina nema posebno izgrađenu infrastrukturu za identifikaciju potreba, marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to podsticaja. reduce rather than sakupljanje informacija o raspoloživim tehnologijama, niti poseban sistem Za uvoz increase the certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient in this tehnologija u BiH nedisadvantages postoje posebne povlastice, a jedino se može iskoristiti zakonskaeffort mogućnost da su strana u formi marginalize osnivačkog uloga carine i poreza na dodanu vrijednost, area isulaganja likely to further theseoslobođena groups. tj. tehnologija (znanje i oprema) su oslobođeni carina i poreza ukoliko se knjiže kao osnivački ulog Improving 17access to services, public and private, to such a significant of the stranog2.investitora. Ograničenja zbog nedostatka podsticaja bi trebala biti uzetaproportion u obzir kada se population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil rade modeli transfera tehnologije. their remit in a cost effective manner. 3. Improving the marginalized 17 Informacija dobijena ue-Accessibility FIPA-i 9. februarafor 2009. godine 2

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able-bodied people; izvora it canenergije reduce the cost of web service development, anddovest enhance the Upotreba obnovljivih i provođenje mjera energetske efikasnosti će do smanjenja energetske zavisnosti države i poboljšanja kvaliteta životne sredine, ali i do povećanja prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. konkurentnosti privrede BiH. Uz dobro osmišljen program te mjere će rezultirati razvojem privrede 4. The action dugogodišnja is taken, the easier it isproizvodnje to integrateopreme e-Accessibility into development uz naglasak daearlier u BiH postoji tradicija za termotehničke sisteme.of U posljednjih nekoliko više poduzeća u BiH usmjerava svoje aktivnosti na polje proizvodnje e-Services andgodina to lower the cost. opreme i sistema za korištenje obnovljivih izvora energije. 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the aspects of the development of the Information in the EU of different Uconvergence okviru podsticajnih mehanizama Konvencije UNFCCC-a, uz nedavnoSociety uspostavljeno državno and tijelo za primjenu mehanizama čistog razvoja, počele su aktivnosti na pripremi CDM SEE countries. projekata. Projekti se odnose na N2O (koksna industrija), CH4 (rudnici), SF6 (termoelektrane) i CO2 (male hidroelektrane). Projekat smanjenja emisija N2O u koksnoj industriji realiziran je u 2012. godini uvođenjem nove tehnologije smanjenja N2O, odnosno ugradnjom katalizatora za koji se očekuje se da će smanjiti između 80 i 90% trenutnih emisija N2O.

1.2. About this report

The specific goals of this reportefikasnosti, are: U pogledu energetske dodatno je odgođeno usvajanje Nacionalnog akcionog plana za energetsku efikasnost s ciljem da se ispune obaveza iz Ugovora o Energetskoj zajednici. Naime, tim je pripremio nacrt plana, regarding ali zbog administrativnih još uvijek 1. toeksperata outline the international context e-Accessibilityprocedura including on existing legal nije usvojen. instruments and strategic level documents; Postignut je a mali napredakpicture u pogledu obnovljive energije. Entiteti people su uveli podsticaje 2. to develop comparative of e-Accessibility for able-bodied versus people (zajamčene tarife) za proizvođače energije koji koriste obnovljive izvore. Međutim, oni nisu usklađeni. with disabilities; Ne postoji strateški pristup za promoviranje obnovljive energije. Složenost organizacijske strukture i sistema odluka ugrožava promoviranje obnovljive stakeholders; energije na državnom 3. donošenja to assess the current level ofučinkovito e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility nivou. Potrebno je više napora da se in stvori regulatorno okruženje koje će podsticati veću upotrebu 4. to identify good practices the region; izvora obnovljive energije u svim sektorima. Potrebno je da Bosna i Hercegovina uloži dalje napore 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: na unapređenju udjela obnovljive energije u potrošnji energije u zemlji. address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

5.2. Pregled planova i programa za This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, sistematsko osmatranje that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the Jedna od bitnih pretpostavki uspješne borbe protiv klimatskih promjena je i jačanje UNDP’s Democratic Thematic Trust Fundito support the South Eastern Europe region kapaciteta pod kojim Governance se podrazumijeva institucionalno kadrovsko osposobljavanje i usavršavanje, in implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the te the unapređenje meteorološkog praćenja. regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic Realizacijom aktivnosti na formiranju i otvaranju, tetargets osavremenjavanju i unapređenju rada priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the of e-SEE Agenda+. mreže meteoroloških stanica na području BiH (kako je to navedeno u INC), pored meteorološkog monitoringa značajno bi bilaimplemented unaprijeđenabyi klimatska baza, odnosno produženie-SEE mnogiInitiative nizovi The project is being the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded podataka koji postoje odranije, iz razdoblja prije 1992. godine. Posebno treba istaknuti potrebu da­ Secretariat, capitalizing their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering ljnje modernizacije mrežeon meteoroloških stanica uvođenjem automatskih meteoroloških stanica, Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social te njihovim povezivanjem u sistem automatskog monitoringa zajedno s hidrološkim stanicama, posebno u svrhu automatskog i softverske slivovima, te Inclusion/Democratic Governancemonitoringa Sector. The UNDP Countrykontrole Office insituacije Sarajevo na is working closely planiranja potrošnje vode za potrebe elektroprivrede, vodoprivrede, poljoprivrede, ostalih djelatno­ with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP sti i stanovništva. in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Taskforce (REGATA) as government Points for their Značajno je istaknutiAdvisory da su u izvještajnom razdobljuact urađeni prvi koraci Focal koji vode efikasnom respective ispunjenju countries. ovih planova. Oni uključuju nabavku nove opreme u hidrometeorološkim zavodima, obuku osoblja u ovim zavodima, izradu klimatskih scenarija itd. 151

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5.3. Obrazovanje, obuka i jačanje svijesti U skladu sa članom 6. UNFCCC-a, države članice se podstiču da izgrade sisteme za promociju i razvoj obrazovanja, podizanje svijesti i obuku o klimatskim promjenama. Ove aktivnosti mogu da pomognu u realizaciji dugoročnih strategija i politika u vezi s klimatskim promjenama. Veoma je važno da se organizuje koordinirana zajednička implementacija između različitih zainteresovanih strana, naročito vladinih institucija i civilnog društva. This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets inaktivnosti all aspects e-Accessibility and ihow it is to be implemented. is followed Dosadašnje u of oblasti obrazovanja u oblasti podizanja svijestiThis o klimatskim nisu dobro organizirane rezultati su at dosta Drugog bypromjenama a description of bile the major instruments iand actions the skromni. EuropeanTokom Unionpripreme level relating to nacionalnog izvještaja urađeno je i istraživanje javnosti Bosne i Hercegovine o klimatskim disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. promjenama, čiji dio rezultata je prikazan sljedećim grafikonima:

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups. 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost. 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries.

1.2. About this report Grafikoni 31. Rezultati istrživanja javnosti o klimatskim promjenama

The specific goals of this report are: Najveći broj ispitanika, 82,8%, vjeruje da zaista dolazi do globalne promjene klime, dok je 4,3% skeptično. Nesigurnost o ovom pitanju je izrazilo 13% ispitanika. S druge strane, skoro 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal polovica anketiranih, 44,9%, smatra da je uglavnom malo informirano o klimatskim promjenama instruments and strategic dok level12.9% documents; i njihovim mogućim posljedicama, ne zna ništa o ovoj temi. Većina ispitanika vjeruju da će klimatske promjene direktno utjecati naofpoljoprivredu (oko zatim na šumarstvo 2. to develop a comparative picture e-Accessibility for81%), able-bodied people versus (48%), people turizam (oko 16%), energetiku (15%) i industriju (10%). with disabilities; Možemo reći the da ispitanici imaju mišljenje kada se govoristakeholders; o aktivnostima koje bi 3. to assess current level ofpodijeljeno e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility trebalo poduzeti u narednom razdoblju. 35,1% ispitanika smatra da je potrebno poduzeti određene 4. to identify good practices in the region; mjere u toku narednih nekoliko godina, dok 34,3% smatra da je zbog ozbiljnosti problema potrebno to develop a set of recommendations for government other(21,9%) stakeholders how to: napraviti5.snažnija ograničenja u što skorijem periodu. Svaki peti and ispitanik ne znaon dovoljno address the iobstacles o klimatskim promjenama smatra datojee-Accessibility; potrebno nastaviti istraživanja, dok 7,2% ne bi poduzelo ništa. Da- tehnološki razvoj može doprinijeti promjena mišljenje je 53,3% comply with requirements forublažavanju the UN and klimatskih EU. ispitanika, pri čemu 24,6% smatra da je ovaj utjecaj moguć samo u izvjesnoj mjeri. Suprotno tome, 45% ispitanika sumnja u utjecaj tehnološkog razvoja na ublažavanje klimatskih promjena, a čak 30,5% smatra da može ostvariti suprotan efekat i da ga čak pogorša. Ispitanici informacije This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, o klimatskim promjenama dobijaju u najvećem broju od medija (76,7%), a u znatno manjem that being implemented in the context(6,3%), of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed brojuissituacija od istraživačkih instituta nevladinih organizacija (5,5%), pojedinaca (4,3%),by the UNDP Country univerziteta (3,1%) iOffice slično.in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region Jedna petina anketiranih nije upoznata s mjerama BiH poduzima pitanjuAgenda+, suočavanja in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Societykoje Priority Area of theu e-SEE the s klimatskim promjenama. Nešto manje od tri četvrtine, 72,6%, mišljenja je da BiH ne poduzima regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic dovoljno u ovom smislu, dok 7,9% smatra da čini dovoljno. priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. Prema rezultatima ankete, najvažnije ciljne grupe koja trebaju biti svjesne značaja i Theklimatskih project is promjena being implemented by theseSarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative posljedica na Zemlji, može uočiti da su to nadležni iz državnih institucija (oko 54%), šira javnost (okoon 30%), mladi (26%),knowledge, poslovni sektor (oko 19%), (oko 18%) i nevladin Secretariat, capitalizing their existing networks andmediji resources. Empowering sektor (oko 8%). Također, najviše ispitanika da bi ovim promjenama bili direktno Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and smatra the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within pogođeni the Social poljoprivreda (oko 81%), zatim šumarstvo (oko 48%), turizam (oko 16%), energetika (oko 15%) i Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely industrija (oko 10%). with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role.i Government-appointed Jedna polovica ispitanika vjeruje u snagu pojedinca aktivizam u zajednici, members pa smatraof da bi organizirane akcije pojedinaca mogle značajnije utjecaj klimatskih promjena. the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA)reducirati act as government Focal Points for their Optimistični u čak 37,4% slučajeva imaju konkretne prijedloge mjera koje pojedinci mogu poduzeti respective countries. s ciljem da se smanje klimatske promjene i globalno zagrijavanje, i one se u najvećem broju odnose na: programe kojima se podstiče očuvanje okoliša (4,8%) i jača eko svijest (4,3%), bezbjedno 153

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uklanjanje otpada (3,7%) i upotreba alternativnih izvora energije (2.3%). Broj ispitanika koji su se aktivno uključili u borbu za smanjenje utjecaja klimatskih promjena i ličnim primjerom pokazali kako pojedinac može dosta toga postići je isti kao i kod onih koji vjeruju u snagu aktivizma. Vrlo je vjerovatno da su upravo oni koji su pokazali optimizam i vjeru u udruženu akciju pojedinaca upravo i oni koji su motivirani da poduzmu nešto konkretno. S druge strane, 14,7% se nikako ne bi uključilo u aktivnosti ovog tipa, dok bi 40% razmislilo i možda participiralo ako bi akcija bila širih razmjera.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

Rezultati istraživanja nedvosmisleno idu u prilog činjenici da obrazovanje, obuka i jačanje This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the svijesti javnosti u svim sferama koje se tiču klimatskih promjena, njihovim mogućim posljedicama requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it isi to be implemented. This is followed kao i mjerama za njihovo ublažavanje i prilagođavanje, jeste treba ostati jedan od prioriteta za byBosnu a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to i Hercegovinu u narednom razdoblju. disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

5.3.1. Propusti i potrebe u obrazovanju i jačanju kapaciteta 1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

U sistemu obrazovanja u Bosni i Hercegovini, podjednako u oba entiteta, nije se vodilo e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others posebno računa o životnoj sredini a pogotovo ne o klimatskim promjenama, iako je u Ustavu to such as older when seeking to participate on equal terms in the pitanje jasnopopulations naznačeno.experience Strategije za obrazovanje iz oblasti životne sredine, kojima će Information se elementi Society. životne sredine, uključujući i klimatske promjene integrirati u nastavne planove i programe osnovnih, srednjih i stručnih škola, kao i univerziteta , još uvijek nisu donesene. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything Države u Jugoistočnoj Evropi dodjeljuju samo skromna sredstva po glavi stanovnika za from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on razvoj i primjenu znanja. Zbog toga se predlaže uspostavljanje određenih oblika naučne suradnje television. to 15 percent of therazvoja. population across the European Union has a disability, such as a u razvoju Up i provođenju održivog visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a za izgradnju kapaciteta u Bosni i Hercegovini su detaljno opisani u Prvom nacio­ similar orPrioriteti higher proportion. nalnom izvještaju i kao takvi ostali su nepromijenjeni i tokom izrade Drugog nacionalnog izvještaja. Postoji potreba da se ojačaju kapaciteti postojećeg kadra u sektoru zaštite životne sredine na svim A perhaps surprising international agreements, regulations guidelines cover administrativnim nivoima, tenumber je zbogof toga potrebno razvijati godišnji programeand obuke za kadar koji this At theživotne highest international level, the UNCRPD, and coming into force u insuradnji 2008, is radiarea. u oblasti sredine, na osnovi procjene potreba.ratified Obuka mora biti organizirana s jednom više stručnih su sposobne pružiti takve programe obuke. the relevantililegal context. institucija, No single koje EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive S druge strane, službenici iz oblasti okoliša bi trebali organizirati obuku za industrije u (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility oblike programa obuke s fokusom na prevenciju zagađivanja i koncept IPCC -a, Sistem okolinskog isupravljanja also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. (Environmental Management System - EMS) i uvođenje standarda s ciljem uspostavljanja Furthermore, moves are afoot tou strengthen and to enact more legislation. adekvatne i efikasne suradnja privrednomthese sektoru. Uvođenjem obrazovnih zaštite sredine i klimatskih There is at least a five-foldprograma justificationzaforaktivnosti early action in theživotne area of e-Accessibility: promjena na svim administrativnim nivoima na osnovu godišnjih programa, postojeće osoblje bi moglo povećati svoje vještine i novo bi osoblje bilo obučeno. Jačanje kapaciteta i obuku službenika, 1. It na is worthwhile in its radile own right to improve access to services to people who are already uglavnom lokalnom nivou, su međunarodne organizacije (UNDP, GIZ) prvenstveno kroz It helps fulfil the promise of thei akcionih Information Society to reduce rather than izradu marginalized. i praćenje lokalnih ekoloških akcionih planova planova za održivu energiju. increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups.

5.3.2 Jačanje svijesti 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the

population opens aktivnosti, significant bilo market/sales opportunities, andilican help public services fulfil Sve spomenute da se govori o formalnom neformalnom obrazovanju, their remit in a cost manner. medija kao najbržeg sredstva djelovanja na javno neophodno je provoditi uz effective stalnu prisutnost mišljenje. Jačanje svijesti je do sada poduzimano jedino od nadležnih ministarstava na nivou 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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people; it canraspravama, reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the entiteta,able-bodied u pojedinačnim javnim nekim neprofesionalnim informacijama koje su objavljene u medijima i pojedinačnim aktivnostima civilnog društva. prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 4. The taken,informacija the easier it to integrate e-Accessibility development Iako suearlier medijiaction glavniisizvori u is oblasti klimatskih promjena,into do sada je ulogaof medija ue-Services jačanju svijesti o klimatskim and to lower the cost.promjenama bila nedovoljno aktivna, te u tom pravcu treba uraditi određene pomake. Neophodan je veći broj dokumentarnih programa o klimatskim 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the promjenama, javnih rasprava i diskusija na državnim TV stanicama s političarima, predstavnicima aspects ofodnosno, the development of theodluka Information Societyrazvojnim in the EU convergence of different javnih poduzeća i privatnim poduzetnicima, donositeljima o strateškim ciljevimaand i projektima. Evidentna je potrebna da se jasno profilira dodatna obuka domaćih novinara i SEE countries. javnih radnika u kontekstu njihovog adekvatnog doprinosa održivom razvoju, što uključuje strategije niskokarbonskog razvoja i prilagođavanja rizicima od klimatskih promjena.

1.2.Potrebno About this report je, kada se govori o klimatskim promjenama i prilagođavanju, izbjegavati nega­

tivan žargon i zastrašivanje i stvoriti pozitivnu sliku o potrebama i mogućnostima uz odmjereno The specific goals of this Istraživanja report are: pokazuju da se ljudi bolje odazivaju na pozitivne poruke, koje prezentiranje posljedica. omogućavaju lokalno djelovanje te se preporučuje zajednički znak (logo) i slogan, koji bi bio oko­ snica kampanje i motiv prepoznavanja države u cjelini.e-Accessibility including existing legal 1. to outline the internationalstava context regarding instruments and strategic level documents; Iako se preko 100 nevladinih organizacija u BiH izjasnilo da su primarno orijentirani prema zaštiti životne sredine, kao i prema klimatskim promjenama, for Bosna i Hercegovina tek koncem 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility able-bodied peoplejeversus people maja 2012. godine otvorila svoj prvi Arhus centar. Putem Arhus centra promoviraju se razumijevanje with disabilities; i primjena Arhus konvencije, te suradnja između nadležnih vlasti, civilnog društva, pravosuđa, privatnog i šire level javnosti povodom pitanja životne sredine, te je ostvarena 3. sektora, to assessmedija the current of e-Accessibility andzaštite e-Accessibility stakeholders; značajna4.suradnja s good mnogim okolišnim nevladinim to identify practices in the region; organizacijama kojima je pružena podrška za uspostavu Zelene parlamentarne grupe u Parlamentarnoj skupštini Bosne i Hercegovine. 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

5.3.3. Ciljevi koje treba ispuniti u oblastima obrazovanja, obuke i podizanja svijesti

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, U oblastima obrazovanja, obuke iof podizanja svijesti u vezi s klimatskim promjenama kaoby that is being implemented in the context the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed prioritet su osmišljeni sljedeći ciljevi: the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region − Edukacija o efektima i uzrocima klimatskih promjena, kao i mjerama ublažavanja i priin the implementation the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area na of the lagođavanjaofklimatskim promjenama, trebala bi biti podignuta viši e-SEE nivo; Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic − Trebali bi seare održavati stručni skupovi with o potrebi uvođenja učenjaAgenda+. o klimatskim prompriorities of the project therefore fully aligned the targets of e-SEE jenama u nastavne programe svih nivoa formalnog obrazovanja (s najboljim praksama iz potrebno je da se odabere model za BiH; The okruženja) project is ibeing implemented by thenajbolji Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering − Obrazovne institucije bi trebale na svim nivoima usvojiti strategiju obrazovanja o klimatMarginalised Groups in e-Governance and obrazovanju; the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social skim promjenama u formalnom Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely Provesti državnih službenika, uključujući predstavnike ministarstava obrawith the− fellow UNDPedukaciju Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP zovanja o uzrocima i efektima klimatskih promjena i njihovoj integraciji u nastavne proin New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of grame i standarde; the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective − countries. Provesti edukaciju profesora i nastavnika o neophodnosti uvođenja u obrazovanje teme o klimatskim promjenama, kao i o metodama predavanja; 155

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− Potrebno je u formalnom obrazovanju i privrednom sektoru imenovati tim stručnjaka za obrazovanje o klimatskim promjenama;

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

− Potrebno je održati stručne skupove o povezivanju neformalnog obrazovanja i privatnih i javnih preduzeća s ciljem prilagođavanja klimatskim promjenama i ublažavanja njihovih posljedica;

− Političari, predstavnici medija trebaju biti educirani and o uzrocima i efektima kliThis section presentsprivrednici, an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance main sections, the posredstvom projekata razvojnim strategijama; requirementsmatskih it sets inpromjena all aspects of e-Accessibility andusklađenih how it is tosbe implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to − Političari, privrednici, predstavnici medija trebaju biti educirani o međunarodnim meha­ disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. nizmima financiranja projekata u oblasti ublažavanja i prilagođavanja na klimatske pro­ mjene, kao i o načinima podnošenja projekata;

1.1. − Why e-Accessibility? Pokrenuti kampanju o klimatskim promjenama i njenim posljedicama, te usvojiti zaštitni

znak i slogan kampanje za period. that people with disabilities and others e-Accessibility is about overcoming thekratkoročni range of barriers such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society.

5.4. Priprema operativnih programa za e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on informiranje javnosti

television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a Znanje speech, i svijest ocognitive, klimatskim u BiH suand na nedovoljnom nivou, je i potvrđeno visual, hearing, or promjenama motor impairment, SEE countries can što expect to have a rezultatima istraživanja koje je provedeno tokom izrade Drugog nacionalnog izvještaja. Koliko je similar or higher proportion. prostor BiH ranjiv na klimatske promjene i koliko će se to osjetiti u kvalitetu života i privređivanja, ni građani, ni privrednici, ni političari, izgleda, nisu u potpunosti svjesni. Stoga je prioritetan zadatak perhaps surprisinginformacija. number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover da svi A dođu do relevantnih this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal informacije context. Nokoje single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are Osnovne moraju doći do svakoga su sljedeće: spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive 1. Bosna i Hercegovina ranjiva naFramework klimatske promjene, (for copyright exemptions), and thejeTelecoms (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. 2. Postoje metode prilagođavanja klimatskim promjenama, i to prilagođavanje na promije­ Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. njene uvjete (podnošenje, djelomična ili potpuna adaptacija) i prilagođavanje uz primjenu mjera za smanjenje globalnih emisija (ublažavanje klimatskih promjena), There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: 3. Razvijene zemlje su spremne i obavezale su se kroz međunarodne sporazume da pomognu u razvoju pri adaptiranju na klimatske 1. It iszemljama worthwhile in its own right to improve accesspromjene. to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than Da bi se the programi prilagođavanja implementirali, potrebno da increase disadvantages certainklimatskim populationspromjenama face. Conversely, insufficient effort injethis informacije dospiju do svih nivoa, oblika i profila obrazovanja, svih građana, privrednih organizacija area is likely to further marginalize these groups. i do svih zaposlenih u organima vlasti. 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the Osnove koncepta za kompletan sistem informiranja ostaju u odnosufulfil na population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and nepromijenjene can help public services Prvi nacionalni izvještaj i trebali bismo uložiti dodane napore da predloženi koncept zaživi. their remit in a cost effective manner. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the 5.4.1. Funkcioniranje klimatskog WEB portala i osnivanje prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. integriranog informacionog sistema 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of Ue-Services razdoblju and između dva izvještaja to lower the cost. nastavljen je rad na funkcioniranju web-stranice www. unfccc.ba i informiranju javnosti o stanju klimatskih promjena u svijetu i u Bosni i Hercegovini. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelinessistem and recommendations will assist in the I pored 5. toga, potrebno je proširiti postojeći informativni u koji bi bili uključeni svi izvori ofi the development of thekao Information in the EU convergence ofmeteorološki different aspects informacija, prije svega zavodi istraživačke institucije, i korisniciSociety tih informacija. and SEE countries. Klimatski WEB portal bi pored postojećih trebao sadržavati i sljedeće informacije:

podatke i prognoze promjena u BiH, 1.2.− About thisklimatskih report − procjenu ranjivosti prostora BiH, ranjive prirodne resurse, kao i utjecaj na uvjete života, The specificsve goals of this report are: u vezi s klimatskim promjenama, − prilagođavanja klimatskim u BiH i u svijetu, 1. toprograme outline the international context promjenama regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents; − informacije o podsticajnim mehanizmima za provođenje mjera ublažavanja (domaćih i 2. tostranih), develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities; − informacije o CDM projektima i inicijativama u BiH, 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; − o "actvity data“ 4. toinformacije identify good practices in za theBiH. region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

5.5. Međunarodna suradnja

5.5.1. Međunarodna suradnja u okviru globalnih This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, sporazuma o životnoj sredini that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia andKonvencije Herzegovina, DG/BDP NY, and funded by the Potpisivanjem i ratifikacijom o supported klimatskimby promjenama UN-a, Bosna i Hercegovina je i zvanično započela međunarodnu suradnje u oblasti klimatskih promjena. Prva UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region zvanična BiH delegacija na konferenciji strana u Marakešu 2001. godine i nakon in the implementation of učestvovala the InclusivejeInformation Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the toga je redovno prisutna na svim konferencijama strana, kao i sastancima stručnih tijela u okviru regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic Sekretarijata UNFCCC-a. priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. Pored ovoga, potrebno je naglasiti suradnju koja je već nekoliko godina uspostavljena project is being implemented the Sarajevo-based e-SEE Potvrda Initiative između The zemalja Jugoistočne Evrope u sferi by zaštite životne sredine i UNDP-funded klimatskih promjena. ove vrste saradnje je i aktivno učešće BiH naknowledge, Konferencijinetworks u Beogradu, 2007. godine, o Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing and održane resources. Empowering regionalnim aktivnostima prilagođavanja klimatskim promjenama. Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely Bosna i Hercegovina je ratificirala Pekinške amandmane na Protokol iz Montreala Bečke with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, whileodluci the Office of Senior at the BDP konvencije o zaštiti ozonskog omotača, te se pridružila donesenoj naICT 22.Advisor sastanku strana in New York providing oexpertise andukidanju playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of Protokola iz isMontreala globalnom hlorofluorougljikovodonika (HCFC) i hlorofluorou­ gljenika (CFC). Ipak, potrebno je poduzeti dalje (REGATA) korake naact usklađivanju sa zakonodavstvom o the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce as government Focal Points forEU their supstancama koje osiromašuju ozonski omotač i fluoriziranim plinovima. Iako je pridružena Sporespective countries. razumu iz Kopenhagena, Bosna i Hercegovina još uvijek nema planove za formuliranje zahtjeve za smanjenje emisije stakleničkih plinova. 157

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Komplementarne aktivnosti između tri UN Konvencije - klimatske promjene, biodiverzitet i desertifikacija - jesu sigurno neophodne za harmonizaciju aktivnosti u BiH, ali i izuzetna mogućnost međunarodne suradnje, koja bi pomagala BiH u realiziranju svoga održivog razvoja.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES 5.5.2. Regionalna suradnja

This section presents ansuradnjom overview smatra of the se UNCRPD, and main sections, the Pod regionalnom suradnjaits kojasignificance se odvija u okviru Jugoistočne Evrope ili Zapadnog itBalkana (opis ne uključuje dvije zemlje EU - Bugarska i Rumunija). requirements sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility andkoje how su it isčlanice to be implemented. This is followed Regionalizam je strateški način prilagođavanja globalnim promjenama, budući da sve veći broj by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to zemalja nema kapaciteta i resursa za samostalno nošenje s izazovima koje te promjene nameću. disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. Stvaranjem regionalnih mreža i struktura povećavaju se izgledi za ostvarivanje ekonomske stabilnost i uspostavljanje otvorenijeg i podsticajnijeg poslovnog okruženja. Stvaranje regionalnog privrednog prostora doprinosi otklanjanju nepovoljnih investicionih prepreka i omogućava lakše rješavanje konfliktnih interesa u poslovnom domenu (SEE-FAP, 2008).

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others Općenito, regionalna suradnja olakšava obezbjeđivanje "javnih dobara", kao što su voda, such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms inmnoga the Information energija, transportne veze ili sloboda kretanja. Regionalna suradnja obuhvaća područja Society. ekonomskog i socijalnog života, političke strukture, unutrašnju sigurnost, zaštitu životne sredine, kulturu, itd. Radi se, dakle, o kompleksnom i višeslojnom procesu građenja veza unutar regije, koji ne podrazumijeva samo između nacionalnih administracija nego i između mnogih e-Accessibility canodnose potentially referdržava to any itype of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything drugih društvenih aktera kao što su poslovna zajednica ili civilno društvo. from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television.Regionalna Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union dio has procesa a disability, such as a suradnja i dobrosusjedski odnosi čine suštinski približavanja visual, speech, cognitive, or motor and SEE aktivno countries can expect to have a Bosnehearing, i Hercegovine Evropskoj uniji. Bosnaimpairment, i Hercegovina i dalje sudjeluje u regionalnim inicijativama, uključujući i Proces suradnje u jugoistočnoj Evropi (SEECP), Regionalno vijeće za similar or higher proportion. suradnju (RCC), Centralnoevropski sporazum o slobodnoj trgovini (CEFTA), Sporazum o energetskoj zajednici, Beogradska inicijativa za klimatske promjene, Igmanska inicijativa, Strategija EU A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations guidelines cover za dunavsku regiju i Evropski sporazum o zajedničkom zračnom prostoru.and Država je domaćin this area. At theRCC-a, highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is Sekretarijata koji je organizirao mnogo regionalnih aktivnosti. the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are Najvažniji u proteklom razdoblju: the Ugovor o zajedničkom spread across areasprocesi such asregionalne Televisionsuradnje Without Frontiers (for subtitling), Copyright Directive energetskom tržištu JI Evrope, Savjet za regionalnu saradnju, Beogradska inicijativa za klimatske (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility promjene te Igmanska inicijativa su detaljno opisani tokom izrade Prvog nacionalnog izvještaja. is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, are afoot to strengthen these and toje enact more legislation. Poredmoves navedenih, u proteklom razdoblju potrebno spomenuti i učešće Bosne i Hercegovine u RENA (Regional Environmental Network for Accession) projektu koje intenzivirano tokom 2011. godineThere i u kojem Bosna i Hercegovina uzelafor aktivno tokom 2012.ofgodine. is at je least a five-fold justification earlyučešće action in the area e-Accessibility: Isto tako, pažnje je vrijedna još jedna veoma uspješna mreža koja je u konstantnom razvoju 1. It isnačelnika/gradonačelnika worthwhile in its own right to improve access toSporazum services to people who are already – Sporazum (Covenant of Mayors). načelnika/gradonačelnika marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of theglavni Information to reduce rather than je pokrenula 2008. godine Evropska komisija i njegov zadatakSociety jeste podržati lokalne vlasti u implementaciji politika održive energije. Lokalne vlasti igraju značajnu ulogu u smanjenju emisije increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this Sporazuma imaju za cilj dostignuti koje je definirala Evropska unija, smanjiti za CO2. Potpisnici area is likely to further marginalize these ciljeve groups. 20% emisiju CO2 do 2020. godine, a ovi ciljevi poznatiji su kao Agenda 20-20-20. U proteklom razdoblju su sljedeći bosanskohercegovački gradovi Sporazum načelnika/gradonačelnika: 2. Improving access to services, publicveć andpotpisali private, to such a significant proportion of the Banja Luka, Bihać,opens Bijeljina, Gradiška, Kakanj, Laktaši, Livno, Prijedor, Sarajevo, Travnik, Trebinje, population significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil Tuzla, Zenica i Zvornik, koji su u proteklom razdoblju predali svoje akcione planove. Sporazum je their remit in a cost effective manner. izuzetan primjer modela uspješne samouprave. Potpisnici ovog sporazuma ozbiljno shvaćaju svoju odgovornost prema svojim stanovnicima i teže ka poboljšanju njihovih uvjeta život. access for 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead toza improved 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost.

6. Ograničenja i nedostaci

5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the Uconvergence ovom poglavlju je dat pregled ograničenja i preprekaof u the vezi Information s institucionalnim, aspects of the development Societypravnim, in the EU of different financijskim i tehničkim kapacitetima, kao i kapacitetima u ljudstvu u BiH koji utiču na provođenje and SEE countries. obaveza pod Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih nacija o klimatskim promjenama (UNFCCC).

Informacije o ovim preprekama i ograničenjima su zasnovane na prethodnim studijama i 1.2. About this report projektima u BiH, kao i na rezultatima analiza sektora u prethodnim poglavljima. Nekegoals od predloženih The specific of this reportmjera are: podrazumijevaju provođenje različitih oblika istraživanja i izgradnju sistema praćenja utjecaja klimatskih promjena, te je za njihovu realizaciju neophodna i odgovarajuća podrška. S tim u vezi obezbjeđivanje izvora financiranja predstavlja jedan od prvih to outlinemjera. the international regarding e-Accessibility includingistraživačkim existing legal koraka u1.provođenju Drugi pravaccontext poteškoća se ogleda u nedovoljno razvijenim instruments level documents; kapacitetima koji se and bavestrategic problematikom prilagođavanja klimatskim promjenama i nedovoljnom istraženošću utjecaja klimatskih promjena, kao i u definiranju uloga različitih aktera koji se bave 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people ovim pitanjima. Usporedo s razvijanjem istraživačkih kapaciteta potrebno je raditi i na promoviranju disabilities; značaja with klimatskih promjena, a poseban zadatak predstavlja očuvanje uspostavljenog sistema i kapaciteta, kao i jačanje njihovih level vrijednosti. 3. to assess the current of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU. U skladu s Dejtonskim sporazumom, implementacija politike o životnoj sredini u BiH je u nadležnosti entiteta, dok je u Distriktu Brčko nadležna vlada Distrikta. Međuentitetsko tijelo za životnu sredinu/okoliš BiH osnovano je odlukama entitetskih vlada, a na osnovu usvojenih zakona, čiji zadaThis report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, tak je usklađivanje i koordinacija politike o životnoj sredini na nivou Bosne i Hercegovine. Ministarstvo that is being implemented in odnosa the context of ithe e-SEE Initiative. It is a zajedno regionals project designed vanjske trgovine i ekonomskih Bosne Hercegovine je odgovorno, entitetskim minis-by the UNDP za Country Office inobaveze BosniaBiH anduHerzegovina, by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the tarstvima, međunarodne oblasti zaštitesupported životne sredine, dok odgovornost za obaveze prema UNFCCC-u i razvoj nacionalnih izvještaja ležiFund na Nacionalnoj instituciji BiH premaregion UNUNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust to supportkontakt the South Eastern Europe FCCC-u, odnosno Ministarstvu za prostorno planiranje, građevinarstvo i ekologiju Republike Srpske. in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the

6.1. Institucionalna ograničenja

regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic Nadležnost državne uprave u pitanjima životne sredine je prilično ograničena i smanjena priorities of koje the project are therefore fully aligned with suradnju the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. na funkcije su uglavnom vezane za međunarodnu i neophodnu koordinaciju. Postoji

očigledan nedostatak i vertikalne i horizontalne suradnje i koordinacije između kompetentnih Theaproject is being by the za Sarajevo-based e-SEE Initiative institucija, ti mehanizmi su implemented od posebnog značaja međunarodne UNDP-funded aktivnosti. Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering U skladu s važećim zakonima, potrebna priprema brojnih strategija i planova. Provođenje Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the jee-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social mjera koje su predviđene ranije pripremljenim dokumentima je jednako nisko, dok se drugi brojni Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely dokumenti strategija i politika još uvijek nalaze na čekanju iako je njihovo usvajanje potrebno u with thesfellow UNDP zakonima. Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP skladu relevantnim in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of U sprovođenju politika zaštiteTaskforce okoliša u(REGATA) BiH nedovoljno se koriste ekonomski i fiskalni the Regional e-Governance Advisory act as government Focal Points for their resursi. Politika za uvođenje novih ekonomskih instrumenata i korištenje postojećih mora biti respective countries. ojačana kako bi zaista promijenila ponašanje ljudi i institucija ka boljem podržavanju zaštiteokoliša, obezbjeđenju podsticaja za smanjenje zagađenja i iznalaženju sredstava za investicije i poboljšanje 159

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kvaliteta okoliša.Trenutno neki postojeći ekonomski instrumenti ne funkcioniraju kako bi trebalo, dok drugi instrumenti nisu u funkciji uopće: naprimjer, nema naplate naknade od kompanija koje emitiraju zagađivače zraka, niti se nadzire njihov rad. Ukratko, institucionalni kapaciteti za provođenje efikasnih i jakih politika ostaju slabi.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

U BiH ne postoji sveobuhvatno nadziranje okoliša i sistema prikupljanja podataka, što rezultira nedostatkom sistema informacija o zaštiti životne sredine. Za sada različite podatke prikupljaju različite institucije bez dovoljno razvijene koordinacije i jedinstvene baze podataka. This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the Nedovoljno je razvijena razmjena podataka i komunikacija između institucija koje prikupljaju requirements it setsagencija, in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is be implemented. This is followed podatke i vladinih a nema ni razmjene informacija o to postojećim podacima. Iako postoje byneki a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to podaci o stanjuokoliša, oni su ili zastarjeli ili nekompletni i neupotrebljivi. Postojeći podaci o okolišu, kao i opći statistički podaci,inteško se ili se uopće ne razmjenjuju između entiteta, što disability in general and e-Accessibility particular. otežava stvaranje kompletne slike o vezi između razvojnih aktivnosti i stanja životne sredine, ili indikatorima koji podržavaju proces odlučivanja na nivou države.

1.1. Priprema Why Prvog e-Accessibility? i Drugog nacionalnog izvještaja uključivala je pregled svih dostupnih

dokumenata razvijenih za BiH i entitete s financijskom inostranstva (UN, Svjetska e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers podrškom that peopleiz with disabilities and others banka, donatori ES) ili iz budžeta entiteta. Ovi dokumenti su važni jer sadrže informacije neophodne such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information za pripremu nacionalnog izvještaja, ali mnogi od njih nisu odobreni u standardnim bh. političkim Society. procedurama, pa se ne mogu smatrati zvaničnim državnim dokumentima. Poseban problem su statistički podaci, koji su nepotpuni i prikupljani na nivou entiteta (na primjer, broj stanovnika je e-Accessibility can potentially referOvo to any ICT usedkoji by citizens, andstalna involves everythingi posljednji put ustanovljen 1991. godine). su type velikiofproblemi zahtijevaju poboljšanja ažuriranja, uz angažman entitetskih vlada i Savjeta ministara. from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion.

6.2. Financijska ograničenja

sektoru zaštite okoliša nedostatak transparentnosti. Oskudni su podaci o AU perhaps surprising number postoji of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover administrativnim troškovima u sektoru zaštiteokoliša. su administrativne u ovoj this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD,Kako ratified and coming intoaktivnosti force in 2008, is oblasti veoma raširene i uglavnom su samo dio većih jedinica koje su primarno odgovorne za druge the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are sektore, vrlo je teško odvojeno izračunati troškove sektora zaštiteokoliša. spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Framework (for assistive technologies). U Bosni i Hercegovini su Telecoms aktivni Fond za zaštitu živote sredine Republike e-Accessibility Srpske (2002) i Fond za zaštitu okoliša FBiH (2003), kao financijske institucije za prikupljanje i distribuciju is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. sredstava za zaštitu životne sredine/okoliša, ali oni u primjeni još uvijek ne daju efekte koji se Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. od njih očekuju. U Republici Srpskoj novi Zakon o Fondu za zaštitu životne sredine i energetsku efikasnost je usvojen u novembru 2011. i uveo je novinu da se iz ovog Fonda izdvajaju i sredstva za There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the areajeofpreimenovan e-Accessibility: podršku realiziranju projekata iz oblasti energetske efikasnosti, a Fond u Fond za zaštitu životne sredine i energetsku efikasnost Republike Srpske. Izmjene zakona o fondovima u FBiH i 1. Distriktu Brčko su in u toku. It is worthwhile its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups.

6.3. Ograničenja u ljudskim resursima

2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the Administrativni kapaciteti u sektoru okoliša su i dalje slabi. Organi koji se bave pitanjima opens significant market/sales opportunities, andna can help public services fulfil okolišapopulation nemaju kapacitete da primijene i provedu zakonodavstvo entitetskom, kantonalnom their remit a cost effective manner. administrativnih kapaciteta za rješavanje pitanja i lokalnom nivou. inNije došlo do unapređenja klimatskih promjena, za koja ne postoje ni kadrovi niti dodijeljena sredstva. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the 6.4. Prevazilaženje ograničenja i nedostataka prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. Nedovoljno razvijen BiHeasier za primjenu mjera s e-Accessibility ciljem adaptiranja na klimatskeof 4. The earlier action kapacitet is taken, the it is to integrate into development promjene posljedica je nedostatka znanja i svijesti o rizicima klimatskih promjena za BiH. Imajući e-Services and to lower the cost. na umu različitost klime u BiH, prilagođavanje klimatskim promjenama se mora osloniti na specifične karakteristike klime u that pojedinačnim 5. Pursuing approaches follow EUregijama. guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU U provođenju okvira za prilagođavanja klimatskim promjenama neophodno je razvijati and SEE countries. sistem indikatora kompatibilan sa standardima Evropske unije, ali koji će odgovarati specifičnostima i potrebama Bosne i Hercegovine. Izgradnja kapaciteta za praćenje efekata klimatskih promjena predstavlja prioritet, za što je potrebno preduzeti mjere izgradnje kapaciteta za upravljanje razvojem u ambijentu klimatskih promjena:

1.2. About this report

1. Potrebno je odabrati stabilan sistem statističkih podataka o klimatskim promjenama, The specific goals of this report are: rezultate prilagođavanja tim promjenama i indikatore koji obezbjeđuju primjenu međuna­ rodno priznatih metodologija analiza, kao i praćenje pojava koje podržavaju održivi razvoj, 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal čak i u atmosferi nepovoljnih klimatskih promjena. Navedene komponente su u određenoj instruments and strategic level mjeri uključene, a mogu se documents; dodatno proširiti i integrirati u postojeće sisteme meteo­ roloških informacija, ili u sisteme redovnih statističkih izvještaja entitetskih institucija i 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people Agencije za statistiku BiH. with disabilities; 2. je poboljšati postojeći sistem meteoroloških osmatranjastakeholders; – posmatranje klima­ 3. toPotrebno assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility tskih promjena i rezultata prilagođavanja klimatskim promjenama, uključujući sistem 4. to identify good practices in the region; ranog upozorenja. Razvoj profesionalnih kapaciteta treba integrirati u međunarodni sistem 5. toosmatranja develop a set recommendations for government and other Sistema stakeholders on how to: (ovooftreba razvijati u poseban projekat, uspostavom prilagođavanja - klimatskim address promjenama). the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU. 3. Potrebno je imenovati profesionalna i politička tijela, nadležna za upravljanje razvojem u nestabilnom klimatskom okruženju. Stručni organi državnog i entitetskog nivoa (osim klasičnog planiranja i predlaganja ekonomskih mjera u parlamentarnim strukturama), This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, trebaju biti osposobljeni i za involviranje mjera sprečavanja posljedica od nepovoljnih klithat is beingmatskih implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative.vlade, It is a institucije regional project designed promjena (Savjet ministara BiH, entitetske nadležne za eko­by the UNDP Country in Bosnia and Herzegovina, by DG/BDP NY, and fundedcivilna by the nomskoOffice i prostorno planiranje, agencije zasupported vodna područja, privredni subjekti, zaštita i dr.). Neophodno je utvrditi obaveza političkih u Bosni i Hercegovini za UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to supportorgana the South Eastern Europe region političku odgovornost za brigu o održivom razvoju u promjenljivim klimatskim uvjetima. in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic 4. Stvarati uvjerenje u najširoj javnosti o potrebi da se društvo mora ozbiljnije baviti pro­ priorities of blemima the project are therefore fully te aligned the targets of materijalne e-SEE Agenda+. klimatskih promjena, da je with neophodno ulagati i ljudske resurse za implementaciju mjera održivog razvoja, da bi promjene klime bile podnošljive, a razvoj The stabilan. project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Ipak, ključne inicijative, politike i mjere prilagođavanja se nalaze na entitetskom nivou, u okvirima međunarodne suradnje. Secretariat,i državnom capitalizing on odnosno their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Paralelno s tim, preferirane mjere ublažavanja trebaju biti zasnovane na smanjenju postojećeg Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely trenda rasta emisija stakleničkih plinova i očuvanju postojećih ponorskih zona (sekvestracija); with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing andsu playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members Primarne mjere expertise ublažavanja bazirane na smanjenju postojećeg trenda rasta emisijaof GHG, koje uključuju: povećanje energetske efikasnosti u svim proizvodnje; primjenu the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act sektorima as government Focal Points for sutheir vremenih tehnologija u svim oblastima proizvodnje; snabdijevanje električnom energijom iz obno­ respective countries. vljivih izvora energije; stimuliranje zapošljavanja u proizvodnim sektorima u kojima se implementiraju mjere ublažavanje klimatskih promjena i dr. 161

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Dodatne mjere ublažavanja su bazirane na očuvanju glavnih ponorskih kapaciteta, među kojima su najvažniji: treseti (histosoli); šume i šumsko zemljište; oranice i livade. Sektori koji su najugroženiji klimatskim promjenama u Bosni i Hercegovini su: poljoprivreda, vodni resursi, ljudsko zdravlje, šumarstvo i biodiverzitet, te osjetljivi ekosistemi. S tim u vezi u SNC su vršene i detaljnije analize dugoročne promjene klime na navedene sektore. Procjene su vršene na bazi klimatskih scenarija A1B i A2 koji su razvijeni za potrebe Drugog nacionalnog izvještaja (SNC). Bosna i Hercegovina je zemlja u razvoju i njene GHG emisije su znatno niže u This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the odnosu na referentnu 1991. zbog ratnih dejstava u razdoblju 1992-1995. i devastacije industrije. requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility how it isjako to be implemented. This trpi is followed Međutim, iako je utjecaj BiH na globalne klimatskeand promjene mali, njena privreda znatan bypritisak a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to uvjetovan klimatskim promjena. Zbog toga prilagođavanje prije svega u gore navedenim sektorima, treba biti imperativ u borbi protiv klimatskih promjena. Ekonomija Bosne i Hercegovine disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. je na dosta niskom nivou i za realizaciju prilagođavanja klimatskim promjenama neophodna je međunarodna pomoć u vidu financija, tehnologija, znanja i dobre prakse.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others 6.5. Multilateralni / seeking bilateralni such as older populations experience when to participate ondoprinosi equal terms in the Information Society. prevazilaženju ograničenja

e-Accessibility potentially refer to any type of ICTOkvirnu used by konvenciju citizens, andUjedinjenih involves everything Od momentacan kada je BiH potpisala i ratificirala nacija o klimatskim i odredila operativnu Kontakt-instituciju, inicirano je to osnivanje tijela from websitespromjenama for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people subtitling on koje može harmonizirati sve aktivnosti u oblasti zaštite okoliša, uključujući klimatske promjene. television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a Izborom Kontakt-institucije prema Okvirnoj konvenciji Ujedinjenih nacija o klimatskim promjenama visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a (Ministarstvo za prostorno uređenje, građevinarstvo i ekologiju Republike Srpske), ove aktivnosti similar or higher su fokusirane naproportion. organizaciju aktivnosti koje bi omogućile BiH da postane aktivan član UNFCCC-a

što je moguće prije, kao "strana koja nije obuhvaćena Aneksom I››. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover praktično dovoljnolevel, razvijene profesionalne i naučne institucije this area.BiH At the highestnema international the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into koje forcebiinpreuzele 2008, is ulogu organizovanja izrade kompletnog Drugog nacionalnog izvještaja ili čak i njegovih dijelova. S the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are ciljem prevazilaženja uočenih problema i s punom podrškom vlada entiteta i države, kao i GEF-a i spread across areas such as Television Frontiers subtitling), Copyrightizvještaja. Directive Sekretarijata UNFCCC-a, UNDP BiH je Without organizirao rad na(for pripremi Prvogthe nacionalnog (for copyright exemptions), andjethe Telecoms Framework (fornacionalni assistive technologies). e-Accessibility Posao na pripremi Izvještaja počeo tek 2008. godine i Prvi izvještaj je završen i podnijet Sekretarijatu Konvencije 2010. godine. Čvrsto se držeći instrukcije 17/CP8, uz tehničku podršku is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. i koordinacijumoves UNDP-a izvještaj je and pripremalo od legislation. 45 domaćih stručnjaka. INC Furthermore, are Prvi afootnacionalni to strengthen these to enactviše more su usvojile entitetske vlade i Vijeće ministara, te ga je UNFCCC-u sekretarijatu predala UNFCCC kontakt institucija Ministarstva za prostorno uređenje, građevinarstvo i ekologiju Republike Srpske. is at a five-fold justification for early action in izvještaja. the area of e-Accessibility: OvakavThere pristup je least zadržan i prilikom izrade Drugog nacionalnog Drugog nacionalnog je rađenaaccess po sličnom principu. priprema služila 1.Izrada It is worthwhile in its ownizvještaja right to improve to services toSama people who arejealready kao sredstvo za razvoj i izgradnju kapaciteta ključnim sektorima. SNCrather projektnog marginalized. It vještina helps fulfil the promise of the uInformation Society toCilj reduce than tima je da se svi rezultati integrišu u proces dugoročnog razvoja i u razvojne planove sektora.Članovi increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this sadašnje interdisciplinarne ekspertske grupe su u stalnom kontaktu, i grupa predstavlja sjeme area is likelykoje to further marginalize these budućih institucija će vremenom dostići nivogroups. potreban za uspješnu implementaciju aktivnosti predviđenih Izvještajem. Tokom izrade SNC-a takođe se radilo na izgradnji kapaciteta domaćih 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the institucija, tako da mogu preuzeti aktivniju ulogu u pripremi narednih nacionalnih komunikacijao population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil klimatskim promjenama. their remit in a cost effective manner. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the Lista grafikona prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of Grafikone-Services 1. Pojedinačni doprinosi godišnjem rastu industrijske proizvodnje u BiH od 5,6% u 2011. and to lower the cost. Grafikon5.2.Pursuing Proizvodnja električnethat energije BiHguidelines u fizičkim and jedinicama GWh approaches followu EU recommendations will assist in the aspects of korištenja the development of the Information Society in the EU of different Grafikonconvergence 3. Oranične površine prema načinu and SEE countries. Grafikon 4. Proizvodnja šumskih sortimenata u 1000 m³ u 2010. i 2011. godini Grafikon 5. Emisije CO za razdoblje od 1990. do 2001. godine. 1.2. About this report 2

Grafikon 6. Emisije CO2 % po sektorima za razdoblje od 1990. do 2001. godine.

Grafikon 7. Emisije iz report sektoraare: energetike 1990-2001 The specific goals ofCO this 2 Grafikon 8. Emisije CO2 –industrijski procesi- 1990-2001 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal Grafikoninstruments 9. Ponori 1990-2001 and strategic level documents; Grafikon2.10. metanapicture za razdoblje 1990-2001. for able-bodied people versus people to Ukupne develop emisije a comparative of e-Accessibility disabilities; Grafikonwith 11. Ukupne emisije N2O za razdoblje 1990-2001. to Emisije assess the current level of e-Accessibility andpo e-Accessibility stakeholders; Grafikon3.12. iz energetskog i industrijskog sektora CRF kategorijama 4. to identify good practices in the region; Grafikon 13. Ukupne SO2 emisije za razdoblje 1990-2001 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: Grafikon- 14. Ukupne NOthe emisije za razdoblje 1990-2001 x address obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements the UN and EU. Grafikon- 15. Ukupne CO emisije za period for 1990-2001 Grafikon 16. Ukupne NMVOC emisije za period 1990-2001 is part of a largerzraka project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, GrafikonThis 17. report Promjene temperature u Banjoj Luci, Sarajevu i Mostaru, razdoblje 1961-2010. godina that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP18. Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, DG/BDP NY, and funded Grafikon Promjene količine padavina u Banjoj Luci,supported Sarajevu iby Mostaru, 1961-2010. godinaby the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region Grafikon 19. Prosječan broj tropskih dana (tmax>30°C) in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the Grafikon action 20. Grafik funkcije raspodjele maksimalnih dnevnih padavina Banjoj Luci, regional planempirijske for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. Theuprogrammatic Mostaru i Sarajevu za razdoblje 1961-2011. priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. Grafikon 21. Međugodišnje promjene SPI12 na meteorološkoj stanici Bijeljina The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Grafikon 22. Međugodišnje promjene broja meteoroloških sa SPI12<=-1 Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, stanica networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE are positioned within the Social Grafikon 23. Serija srednjih mjesečnih protjecanja rijekeSecretariat Bosne u Maglaju, s trendom, te prosječna vrijednost mjesečnih padavina (MS Sector. Sarajevo, MSUNDP Zenica, MS Tuzla) s trendom is(razdoblje Inclusion/Democratic Governance The Country Office in Sarajevo working closely 1961-2010) with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York providing expertise playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members Grafikon 24. is Ukupne emisije CO2 izand elektroenergetskog sektora u BiH, za period 2010–2025. premaof S1, S2 i S3 scenariju the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries. Grafikon 25. Ukupne emisije CO iz sektora daljinskog grijanja u BiH, za period 2010–2025. prema S1, S2 i S3 scenariju

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Grafikon 26. Ukupne emisije CO2 iz saobraćajnog sektora u BiH, za period 2010–2025. prema S1, S2 i S3 scenariju Grafikon 27. Neto prosječno godišnje poniranje CO2 iz sektora šumarstva u BiH, za period 20102025, prema S1, S2 i S3 scenariju

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

Grafikon 28. Ukupne emisije CO2eq iz sektora poljoprivrede u BiH, za period 2010-2025, prema S1, S2 i S3 scenariju This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the Grafikon 29. Prosječne godišnje emisije CO2 eq iz sektora otpada u BiH, za period 2010-2025, prema requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed S1, S2 i S3 scenariju by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to Grafikon 30. Ukupne godišnje emisije CO eq iz sektora energetike, daljinskog grijanja, saobraćaja, disability in general and e-Accessibility in 2particular. poljoprivrede i otpada u BiH, za period 2010-2025, prema S1, S2 i S3 scenariju Grafikon 31. Rezultati istrživanja javnosti o klimatskim promjenama

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups. 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the Lista tabela prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of Tabela 1.e-Services Procjena stanovništva BiH sredinom svake godine i prirodni priraštaj and to loweruthe cost. Tabela 2.5.Osnovni ekonomski pokazatelji za BiH u razdobljuand 2004-2009 Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU Tabela 3.Učešće entiteta u BDP-u BiH u % and SEE countries. Tabela 4. Vrijednost prodaje/isporuke industrijskih proizvoda u 2011. po područjima djelatnosti i entitetima Tabela 5. Spoljnotrgovinski indikatori za 2008 – 2011 1.2. About this report

Tabela 6. Ukupna dužina cestovne mreže u Bosni i Hercegovini

The specific goals of this report are: Tabela7. Obimu transporta prema pojedinačnoj strukturi Tabela 8. Obim željezničkog transporta u Bosni i Hercegovini 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal Tabela 9.instruments Staklenički and potencijal za pojedinačne plinove za razdoblje od 100 godina strategic level documents; eq Tabela 10. Emisije GgaCO 2. to develop comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people 2 with disabilities; Tabela 11. Ključni izvori emisija po CRF kategorijama 3. to assess the nesigurnost current levelproračuna of e-Accessibility andue-Accessibility 2001. godini stakeholders; Tabela 12. Procijenjena emisije CO 2 4. to identify good practices in the region; Tabela 13. Usporedba podataka za for 2001. godinu 5. to develop aproračunatih set of recommendations government and other stakeholders on how to: - Promjene address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; Tabela 14. temperature zraka (°C) u Banjoj Luci, Sarajevu i Mostaru, 1961-2010. god. comply with requirements for the UN and EU. Tabela 15. Promjene količine padavina (mm) u Banjoj Luci, Sarajevu i Mostaru, 1961-2010. god. Tabela 16. Promjena temperature u °C SINTEX -5 model This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, Tabela 17. Promjena temperature po °C ECHAM5 model that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by Tabela 18. Promjena padavina u % po SINTEX -5 modelu the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region Tabela 19. Promjena Governance padavina u %Thematic po °C ECHAM5 modelu in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the Tabela 20. Karakteristični pokazatelji slivnih i podslivnih područja u BiH regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic Tabela 21.ofStatistički nizova protjecanja rijeke Bosne u Maglaju, priorities the projectparametri are therefore fullysrednjih alignedmjesečnih with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. za razdoblje 1961-90. i 1991-2010. godina, te statistički parametri mjesečnih padavina na MS Sarajevo i MS Zenica, ista razdoblja The project is za being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing promjenama knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Tabela 22. Mjere prilagođavanja klimatskim Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Tabela 23. Planirana izgradnja nekarbonskih postrojenja za proizvodnju električne energije u Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely Federaciji BiH do 2025. od javnih elektroenergetskih preduzeća with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP Tabela 24. Potencijalno smanjenjeand emisije metana u rudnicima mrkog uglja u centralnoj Bosni,of in New York is providing expertise playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members vrijednost certificiranog smanjenja emisija i iznos potrebnih investicija the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries. Tabela 25. Ukupno instalirane snage u poljoprivredi postrojenja kogeneracija na biogas u BiH. Tabela 26. Energetske uštede u industriji korištenjem biomase (s biogasom) za kogeneraciju 165

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Tabela 27. Uštede energije u važnijim oblastima potrošnje, korištenjem solarne energije (u PJ) Tabela 28. Potrošnja GE u BiH u scenariju S1

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES Tabela 29. Struktura GE u BiH prema S2 scenariju Tabela 30. Struktura GE u BiH prema S3 scenariju

Tabela 31. Pregled scenarija razvoja sistema daljinskog grijanja (u PJ) This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the Tabela 32. Pregled emisija CO2 iz različitih sistema centralnog grijanja za sva tri scenarija (u t) requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed byTabela a description of thejedinice major prema instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to 33. Stambene tipu izgradnje disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. Tabela 34. Približna veličina stambene jedinice prema području Tabela 35. Starost stambenog fonda

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? Tabela 36. Prosječna grijana površina i način grijanja e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others Tabela 37. Potrebna energija za grijanje domaćinstava such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Tabela 38. Ukupna potrošnje energije u sektoru usluga Society. Tabela 39. Ukupan broj registrovanih drumskih motornih vozila u BiH, u periodu 2010-2011. can refer to any motornih type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything Tabelae-Accessibility 40. Struktura prvi putpotentially registrovanih cestovnih vozila u BiH za 2011. god. prema kategorijama from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on Tabela 41.Up Površina šuma iofostalog šumskogacross zemljišta Bosni i Hercegovini television. to 15 percent the population the uEuropean Union has a disability, such as a visual, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a Tabelahearing, 42. Struktura šumskog pokrivača u BiH similar or higher proportion. Tabela 43. Sekvestracijski kapacitet šumskog pokrivača u BiH TabelaA44. Sekvestracijski poljoprivrednog zemljišta u BiH perhaps surprisingkapacitet number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area.45. AtPromjene the highest international level, theproizvedenog UNCRPD, ratified andi coming into force in 2008, is Tabela u godišnjim količinama ukupnog biorazgradivog komunalnog otpada, na nivou države (prema metodologiji iz Strategije upravljanja čvrstim otpadom) the relevant legal entiteta context.i No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups. 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the Lista slika prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of Slika 1. Karta Bosneand i Hercegovine e-Services to lower the cost. Slika 2. Gustina naseljenosti Bosne prema popisu stanovništva iz 1991. 5. Pursuing approaches thati Hercegovine follow EU guidelines and recommendations willgodine assist in the aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU convergence Slika 3. Karta dva slivaofudifferent BiH and SEE countries. Slika 4. Nacionalni inventar emisija Slika 5. Promjene godišnjih temperatura zraka u Bosni i Hercegovini 1.2. About this report (poređenje razdoblja 1981-2010. u odnosu na 1961-1990.

Slikaspecific 6. Promjene količina The goals godišnjih of this report are:padavina u Bosni i Hercegovini (poređenje razdoblja 1981-2010. u odnosu na 1961-1990) 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal Slika 7. Prostorni raspored suše u jugoistočnoj Evropi (SPI3 za maj 2003) instruments and strategic level documents; Slika 8. Prostorni raspored suše u jugoistočnoj Evropi (SPI3 zafor august 2000) people versus people 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility able-bodied with disabilities; Slika 9. Promjena srednje godišnje temperature u °C (lijevo) i padavina u % (desno) to assesssrednje the current leveltemperature of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility Slika 10.3.Promjena godišnje u °C (lijevo) i padavina u %stakeholders; (desno) 4. to identify good practices in the region; Slika 11. Promjena srednje godišnje temperature u °C (lijevo) i padavina u % (desno) 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: Slika 12.- Riječna mrežathe u BiH address obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU. Slika 13.- Cestovna mreža u Bosni i Hercegovini Slika 14. Željeznička mreža u BiH report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, Slika 15.This Šumski pokrivač u BiH that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by Slika 16. Poljoprivredne površine u BiH the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries.

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Lista skraćenica

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES BDP

Bruto domaći proizvod

BiH

Bosna i Hercegovina

This section presents an overviewBosne of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the BHAS Agencija za statistiku i Hercegovine requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed CDM Mehanizam čistog razvoja by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. CER Certificirano smanjenje emisije COP Konferencija strana Okvirne konvencije Ujedinjenih nacija za klimatske promjene (UNFCCC)

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? CORINAIR Metodologija izrade inventara emisija u zrak (CORE Inventory of Air Emissions)

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others CRF Unificirani obrazac za izvještavanje such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information DNA Ovlašteno državno tijelo za CDM projekte Society. EBRD Evropska banka za obnovu i razvoj

e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything

EC Evropska komisija services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on from websites for e-government

television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a EE Energetska efikasnost visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a EEA Evropska agencije za zaštitu okoliša similar or higher proportion. EEC Evropska energetska zajednica

A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover

EU Evropska unija this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is

the legal context. No single EU directive is unije dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are EUrelevant ETS Sistem za trgovanje emisijama Evropske spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive FBiH Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility isFDI Strane also covered by policy, andinvesticije guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. direktne Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. FEPEE

Fond za zaštitu okoliša i energetsku efikasnost

There is at least a five-fold GCF Zeleni klimatski fondjustification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: GEF Globalni fond okoliša 1. It is worthwhile in za itszaštitu own right to improve access to services to people who are already

marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than GHG Staklenički plinovi increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this

INC Prvi nacionalni o klimatskim promjenama area is likely to furtherizvještaj marginalize these groups.

IPA Instrument pretpristupne unija) 2. Improving access to services,pomoći public(Evropska and private, to such a significant proportion of the

population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner.

IPCC Međudržavni panel o klimatskim promjenama

IPPC Integrisano sprečavanje i reguliranje zagađivanja

3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for

2

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KM Konvertibilna able-bodied people;marka it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the LCPD

prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. Direktiva o velikim postrojenjima za sagorijevanje

4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost.

LEAP Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning System

M&E 5. Pursuing Praćenje i procjena (monitoring evaluacija) approaches that follow iEU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the

aspects convergence of different MMF Međunarodni monetarni fond of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries.

MRC Milenijumski razvojni ciljevi MRV Mjerenje, izvještavanje i verificiranje 1.2. About this report NAO Sjevernoatlantska oscilacija

The specific goals of this report are:

NEAP Akcijski plan za zaštitu okoliša NEEAP Akcijski planinternational za energetskucontext efikasnost 1. to outline the regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal

instruments and strategic level documents;

NVO Nevladina organizacija

2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities;

OECD Organizacija za ekonomsku suradnju i razvoj

OIE Obnovljivi energije 3. to assess the izvori current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders;

good practices in the region; PET 4. to identify Potencijalna evapotranspiracija

5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to:

PPA Agencija javne nabavketo e-Accessibility; address za the obstacles

comply with requirements for the UN and EU. QC Kontrola kvaliteta QA Osiguranje kvaliteta

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by REC Regionalni za okoliš Centralnu i Istočnu Evropu) the UNDP Country Officecentar in Bosnia and (za Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region REEEP Partnerstvo za obnovljivu energiju i energetsku efikasnost in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the RS Republika regional action plan for Srpska Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. R&D Istraživanje i razvoj

SEAP Akcijski plan energetski održivog razvoja

The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative SEE Jugoistočna Evropa Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering SHPP Mala hidroelektrana Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely SMEs Mala i srednja preduzeća with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP SNC Drugi nacionalni izvještaj o klimatskim promjenama in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their SPI Standardni indeks padavina respective countries. SRES

Poseban izvještaj o scenarijima emisija

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SSP Sporazum o stabilizaciji i pridruživanju UN Ujedinjene nacije

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES UNDAF Okvir razvojne pomoći Ujedinjenih nacija UNDP Razvojni program Ujedinjenih nacija

UNFCCC Okvirna Ujedinjenih za klimatske promjene and main sections, the This section presents konvencija an overview of the nacija UNCRPD, its significance requirements it sets in allmeteorološka aspects of e-Accessibility WMO Svjetska organizacija and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups. 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the Literatura prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost. UNFCCC: Odluka 17/CP.8: Smjernice za izradu nacionalnih komunikacija za države koje nisu članice Aneksa I Konvencije 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU Prvi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i Hercegovine u skladu sa Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih nacija and SEE countries. o klimatskim promjenama. Banja Luka, oktobar 2009. godine. REPORTING ON CLIMATE CHANGE user manual for the guidelines on national communications 1.2. About this report from non-Annex I Parties, Bon, novembar 2003

The specific goals of this report are: B&H Komitet za klimatske promjene, 2002: Dugoročni program BiH aktivnosti o implementaciji UNFCCC za period 2002-2006. 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents; Energetska efikasnost i obnovljivi izvori energije na Balkanu, Grupa za nadgledanje Pakta o stabilnosti, godina. 2. to2005 develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities; Pregled stanja životne sredine – Bosna i Hercegovina. UN Ekonomska komisija za Evropu. 2004. 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; www.unece.org/env/epr/countriesreviewed.htm 4. to identify good practices in the region; to develop a set of recommendations fori Hercegovine government and other stakeholders on how to: Zakoni o5.zaštiti životne sredine u Federaciji Bosne i Republike Srpske address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; - izvještaj comply withi procjena requirements for thestanja UN and EU. “Tehnički – Opis postojećeg monitoring životne sredine“ – EU CARDS RANSMO, maj 2005. report is part of apodataka: larger project, Groups inodboru“, e-Governance’, EIONETThis Tokovi prioritetnih Šesti‘Empowering izvještaj o Marginalised progresu Upravnom EEA, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by Kopenhagen 2003. the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Fundenergije to support the South Eastern Europe region Okvirni uslovi energetske politike Thematic za tržišta Trust električne i obnovljive izvore energije: Analiza 21the države. Dio Bosna-Hercegovina. GTZ, jun 2004. Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the in implementation of the Inclusive Information regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic Evropska of agencija za životnu sredinu,fully 2004: Utjecaji evropskih klimatskih promjena, priorities the project are therefore aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+.EEA Izvještaj br. 2/2004, Danska. The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Evropska komisija, CARDSon 83816_2040836, usluga br. 2004/83816 RegionalniEmpowering energetski Secretariat, capitalizing their existingNabavka knowledge, networks and resources. pristup na zapadnom - okolišno oslobađanje, izvještaj, 2004. Marginalised Groups Balkanu in e-Governance and the e-SEE Finalni Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely Geotermalni izvori na Country Balkanu;Offices Liz Battocletti, Bobwhile Lawrence & Associates, april 2001. with the fellow UNDP in the region, the Office of Senior inc.; ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of IPCC, 2001: Treći izvještaj o procjeni međuvladinog panela o klimatskim promjenama, Cambridge the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their University Press, Velika Britanija. respective countries.

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IPCC, 2001: Dobre praksa i Upravljanje nesigurnostima u nacionalnom inventaru gasova sa efektom staklene bašte, Cambridge University Press, Velika Britanija.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

IPCC, 2003: Vodič dobre prakse za upotrebu zemljišta, Promjene namjene upotrebe zemljišta i šuma. Institut za globalne strategije zaštite životne sredine, Havana, Kanagva, Japan.

Kyoto Protokol za Okvirnu konvenciju o klimatskim promjenama Ujedinjenih nacija. http://unfccc. This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the int/resource/docs/convkp/kpeng.pdf, requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed byMinistarstvo a description of the major instruments and actions at theRepublike EuropeanSrpske: Union 2001 level Okrugli relatingsto to prostornog uređenja, građevinarstva i ekologije disability general konvencija and e-Accessibility in particular. na temuin"Okvirna o klimatskim promjenama i Kyoto Protokol – Prava i obaveze Bosne i Hercegovine kao člana Konvencije“: Zbornik radova, Urbanistički zavod Republike Srpske, 2001, Bosna i Hercegovina.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

Nacionalni akcioni planovercoming zaštite životne Bosna Hercegovina e-Accessibility is about the sredine range of(NEAP), barriers that ipeople with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Nacionalni akcioni plan za energetsku efikasnost (NEEAP), Bosna i Hercegovina, nacrt 2012 Society. REC: Istraživanje o kapacitetima za izradu inventara gasova sa efektom staklene bašte – Bosna i e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything Hercegovina. Izvještaj pripremljen za Regionalni centar za zaštitu životne okoline za Centralnu i from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on Istočnu Evropu. Bosna i Hercegovina, mart 2004. Martin Tais i Danica Spasova. television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a UNFCCC: Odluka 2/CP.7: Okvir zaor izgradnju kapaciteta zemalja u razvoju similar or higher proportion. Na putu za Montreal 2005: Međuvladin sastanak pod UNFCCC (COP 11) i Kyoto Protokol (COP/MOP A perhaps surprising number 1) – Izvještaj o procjeni države Bosnaofi international Hercegovina. agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are Izvještaj o stanju okoliša uNo Bosni i Hercegovini 2012, Ministarstvo vanjske trgovine i ekonomskih odnosa, Fond areas za dostizanje ciljeva, Sarajevo, 2012 spread across such asmilenijskih Television razvojnih Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility za statistiku Bosne i Hercegovine, Tematski bilteni i saopštenja različite oblasti, www. isAgencija also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for za programmatic support. bhas.ba Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. Ministarstvo vanjske trgovine i ekonomskih odnosa, Bosna i Hercegovina, Analiza vanjskotrgovinske There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: razmjene Bosne i Hercegovine za 2010. godinu, Sarajevo, 2010; 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already Evropska Komisjia, Izvještaj o napretku Bosne i Hercegovine u 2010. godini, Strategija proširenja i marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than ključni izazovi, Brisel, 2010; increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely Izvještaj to further marginalize these groups. Evropska komisjia, o napretku Bosne i Hercegovine u 2011. godini, Strategija proširenja i ključni2.izazovi 2011.-2012 , Brisel, Improving access{COM(2011)666} to services, public and 2011; private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil Evropska komisija, Hercegovina 2012 izvještaj o napretku, Proširenje strategije i vodeći their remit inBosna a cost ieffective manner. izazovi 2012-2013 {COM(2012) 600}, Brisel, 2012 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, andMinistarstvo enhance the Napredak u realizaciji Milenijumskih razvojnih ciljeva u Bosni i Hercegovini 2010, trezora iprospects finansija BiH, UN tim u BiH, Sarajevo, 2010 for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of Ministarstvo vanjske trgovine i ekonomskih odnosa, Bosna i Hercegovina, Izvještaj iz oblasti e-Services and to lower the cost. poljoprivrede za Bosnu i Hercegovinu za 2010. godinu , Sarajevo, 2011; 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the Ministarstvo vanjske of trgovine i ekonomskih odnosa, Bosna iofHercegovina, Izvještaj aspects of the development the Information Societyizinoblasti the EU convergence different poljoprivrede za Bosnu i Hercegovinu za 2011. godinu , Sarajevo, 2012; and SEE countries. Ministarstvo vanjske trgovine i ekonomskih odnosa, Bosna i Hercegovina, Strateški plan BiH za harmonizaciju poljoprivrede, prehrane i ruralnog razvoja (2008-2011.);

1.2. About this report

Prvi specific nacionalni izvještaj i Hercegovine za Konvenciju o biološkoj raznolikosti, Federalno The goals of this Bosne report are: Ministarstvo okoliša i turizma, Sarajevo, 2008; 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal Godišnji izvještaj Generalnog sekretara Savjeta regionalne saradnje o regionalnoj saradnji u instruments and strategic level documents; Jugoistočnoj Evropi, 2011-2012, Sarajevo, maj 2012 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people disabilities; Doprinoswith Radnoj grupi III za Četvrti izvještaj o procjeni Međuvladinog panela o klimatskim promjenama. Bert Metz (kopredsjednik Radne grupe III, Holandska Agencija za procjenu životne 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; okoline), Ogunlade Davidson (kopredsjenik Radne grupe III, Univerzitet u Siera Leone) (2007): 4. to identify good practices in the region; Klimatske promjene 2007 – ublažavanje klimtskih promjena. 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; Međudržavni panel o klimatskim promjenama (IPCC). Radna grupa III: Ublažavanje klimatskih - Sektorski complyekonomski with requirements the UN and EU. promjena: troškovi for i beneficije ublažavanja emisija gasova staklene bašte Eisenach, Njemačka, 14-15 February 2000. This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, Međudržavni panel o klimatskim promjenama (IPCC). Izvještaj o Zajedničkom IPCC sastanku that is being implemented the context e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by eksperata Radne grupe II iinRadne grupe of IIIthe o integracijiprilagođavanja klimatskim promjenama, the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the ublažavanja i održivog razvoja u 4-ti IPCC Izvještaj o procjeni. St Denis, Reunion Island, Francuska, UNDP’s Democratic februar 16 – 18, 2005.Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society (IPCC). development, andizthe UNCRPD. The programmatic Međudržavni panel o klimatskim promjenama Sporazumi Kankuna. Ublažavanje. Zvanična priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. klimatskih objava Kompilacije informacija o državno prihvatljivim aktivnostima za ublažavanje promjena koje će biti primjenjene u zemljama u razvoju. 18.03.2011.: Kompilacija informacija o project isaktivnostima being implemented by theklimatskih Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative državnoThe prihvatljivim za ublažavaje promjena koje će primjeniti članice Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering koje nisu uključene u Aneks I Konvencije. Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Međudržavni panel o Governance klimatskim promjenama (IPCC). RadnaOffice grupainIII: Ublažavanje klimatskih Inclusion/Democratic Sector. The UNDP Country Sarajevo is working closely promjena: Ekonomski utjecaj Offices mjera za ublažavanje: Zbornik radova IPCC sastanka eksperata o with the fellow UNDP Country in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP ekonomskom za ublažavanje. Hague, Holandija, 27-28 May, 1999. members of in New York is utjecaju providingmjera expertise and playingThe an advisory role. Government-appointed the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their Ublažavanje klimatskih promjena u zemljama u razvoju: Brazil, Kina, Indija, Meksiko, Južna Afrika respective countries. i Turska. Pripremljeno za Pew Centar za globalne klimatske promjene. 3. oktobar 2002. 173

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Okvirna konvencija o klimatskim promjenama. Ad Hoc Radna grupa o dugoročnoj zajedničkoj aktivnosti pod Konvnecijom kompilacije informacija o državno prihvatljivim aktivnostima za ublažavaje klimatskih promjena koje će primjeniti članice koje nisu uključene u Aneks I Konvencije.18. mart 2011.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

Okvirna konvencija o klimatskim promjenama Ujedinjenih nacija. Utjecaji, ranjivosti i prilagođavanje u zemljama u razvoju.

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the Okvirna konvencija o klimatskim promjenama Ujedinjenih nacija. Ad Hoc Radna grupa o dugoročnoj requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed zajedničkoj aktivnosti pod Konvnecijom. Pogledi na evaluaciju različitih pristupa u unapređenju byisplativosti a description of thenamajor instruments and actions ati the European Union relating to aktivnosti ublažavanju klimatskih promjena njihova promocija. 21 level mart 2011. disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. Okvirna konvencija o klimatskim promjenama Ujedinjenih nacija. Ad Hoc Radna grupa o dugoročnoj zajedničkoj aktivnosti pod Konvnecijom. Pogledi na elaboraciju tržišno zasnovanih i netržišno zasnovanih mehanizama i evaluacija različitih pristupa u unapređenju isplativosti aktivnosti na ublažavanju klimatskih promjena i njihova promocija. 21 mart e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that 2011. people with disabilities and others

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Razvojni program Ujedinjenih nacija (UNDP): Izvještaj o humanom razvoju 2007/2008. Borba protiv Society. klimatskih promjena: Ljudska solidarnost u podijeljenom svijetu. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything Program Ujedinjenih nacija za razvoj (UNDP) u Hrvatskoj. Izvješče o društvenom razvoju, Hrvatska from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on 2008.: Dobra klima za dobre promjene – Klimatske promjene i njihove posljedice na društvo i television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a gospodarstvo Hrvatske. Zagreb, 2009. visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. Prvi izvještaj Republike Srbije prema Okvirnoj konvenciji Ujedinjenih nacija o promeni klime. A perhaps surprising number of international and guidelines cover Sažetak za donositelje politike službeno odobren naagreements, 10. sjednici regulations 1. radne skupine IPCC-a, Pariz, this area. 2007. At thePromjene highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified andPavelić coming intoOctopus, force in 2008, is februar klime 2007.: Fizička osnova. Prijevod: Andrea Čajić; Zagreb. the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are Sažetak za donositelje politike službenoWithout odobren na 10. sjednici 1. radne the skupine IPCC-a, Pariz, spread across areas such as Television Frontiers (for subtitling), Copyright Directive februar 2007. Promjene klime 2007.: Utjecaji, Prilagodba i Ranjivost. Doprinos 2. radne skupine (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility izvješću procjeni Međuvladine o promjenama klime. Andreasupport. Pavelić isČetvrtom also covered by opolicy, and guidelines komisije and benchmarking exist for Prijevod: programmatic Čajić; Octopus, Zagreb. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. Strategija upravljanja vodama FBiH, FMPVŠ, Sarajevo, 2009 There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: Okvirni plan razvoja vodoprivrede RS, MPŠV RS, Bijeljina, 2006 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than Prostorni plan FBiH, Federalno ministarstvo prostornog uređenja, Sarajevo/Mostar, 2011 increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this is likely to further these groups. Okvirnaarea vodoprivredna osnova marginalize BiH, JVP Vodopriovreda BiH, Sarajevo, 1994. 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the Amelung. B., Viner. D (in Amelung.market/sales B., Blazejczyk. K., Matzarakis. A). help ‘Ranjivost klimatske population opens significant opportunities, and can public na services fulfil promjene Mediterana kao turističke destinacije: Klimatske promjene i turzam – procjena i strategije their remit in a cost effective manner. prevazilaženja’, 2007. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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people; can reduceu the cost of webatmosferi service development, and enhance the Đurđevicable-bodied V and Rajković B: itVerifikacija kombinovanoj – okeanski model koristeći satelitsko posmatranje preko Jadranskog mora , Annales Geophysicae, 26/7 (2008), 1935-1954, prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. doi: 10.5194/angeo-26-1935-2008. 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost. Đurđević V and Rajković B: Development of the EBU-POM coupled regional climate model and results from climate changeapproaches experiments, Advances in Environmental Modeling and Measurements 5. Pursuing thatinfollow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the (Environmental Research Advances) eds. Mihajlovic T D and Lalic B, Nova Science Publishers Inc, EU convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the Ch. 3, (2010) ISBN: 978-1-60876-599-7 and SEE countries. Krzic A, Tosic I, Đurđević V, Veljovic K, Rajković B: Promjene klimatskih indeksa za Srbiju u skladu sa SRES-A1B i SRES-A2 scenarijima Climate Research, 49/1 (2011), 73-86, doi: 10.3354/cr01008

1.2. About this report

The specific goals of this report are: Đurđević V i Rajković B: Opis EBU-POM spojenih regionalnih modela i rezultati iz vremenski isparčanih eksperimenata o klimatskimcontext promjenama za region Mediterana.including existing legal 1. to outline the international regarding e-Accessibility instruments and strategic level documents; ESF-MedCLIVAR radni seminar «Modeliranje klimatskih promjena za region Mediterana «, Trieste, 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people Italij (2008). with disabilities; Hansen, Sato, and Reudy, ‘Percepcija klimatskih promjena: Upravljanje rizicima ekstremnih 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; događaja i katastrofa za napredno prilagođavanje klimatskim promjenama’, IPCC, 2012. 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: McKee T. B., Doesken N. J., Kleist. (1993): Frekventnost i trajanje suše u odnosu na vremenski period, address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; Osma konferencija o primjenjenoj klimatologiji , 17-22 januay 1993, Anaheim, California, 1-6. comply with requirements for the UN and EU. Smit et al., ‘Prilagođavanje, kapaciteti za prilagođavanje i ranjivost“ , Global Environmental Change vol 16, 2006. This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that implemented in the context ofpromjena the e-SEE It is a regional project designed TrbicisG.being (2008): Direktni utjecaj klimatskih naInitiative. usluge biodiverziteta i ekosistema u Bosniby the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the i Hercegovini, Evropski centar za konzervaciju prirode,supported Tilburg, Holandija, 31-35. UNDP’s Governance Thematic Trustpromjene Fund to support South Eastern Europe region Trbić G, Democratic Ducić V, Rudan N (2009): Regionalne količinathe padavina u Republici Srpskoj, in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the Herald br. 13, Geografsko društvo RS, Banja Luka, 71-78. regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the therefore promjene fully aligned with the targets of Trbic G et all. project (2010): are Regionalne količina padavina u e-SEE Bosni Agenda+. i Hercegovini, 6-ta Međunarodna naučna konferencija posvećena Međunarodnom danu plantete Zemlje, april 2010, The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Sofia, Bugarska. Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and thepromjena e-SEE Secretariat are hrane positioned within the Social Trbić, G, Vojinović, Dj. (2011): Utjecaj klimatskih na proizvodnju u Bosni i Hercegovini, Poglavlje knjige: Utjecaji klimatskihSector. promjena proizvodnju Zapadnog Balkana, Inclusion/Democratic Governance Thena UNDP Countryhrane Officeuinregionu Sarajevo is working closely Regionalni centar za životnu Hungary. 2011. 24-42. with the fellow UNDP Countryokolinu OfficesBudapest, in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of Spasova D., Trbic G., Trkulja V., Majstorovic (2007): Studija za procjenu Focal utjecaja klimatskih the Regional e-Governance Advisory TaskforceZ.(REGATA) act as government Points for their promjena na poljoprivredu i razvoj strategija za prilagođavanje u Bosni i Hercegovini, Unapređenje respective countries. regionalne saradnje JIE u oblasti klimatske politike, Banja Luka, 1-36. 175

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Okvirni plan aktivnosti za prilagođavanje klimatskim promjenama Jugoistočne Evrope, JIE Subregionalni virtuelni centar za klimatske promjene u Republičkom hidrometeorološkom zavodu Srbije, Regionalni centar zaživotnu okolinu za Centralnu i Istočnu Evropu, novembar 2008.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch3s3-4-3.html

http://www.dmcsee.org/en/spi_vasclimo/?year=1983&month=Dec&TimeScale=12 This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed http://www.dmcsee.org/en/spi/?year=2003&month=Dec&TimeScale=12 by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups. 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost. 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries.

1.2. About this report The specific goals of this report are: 1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents;

Aneks 1

2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities; 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

Multilateralni ugovori u oblasti životne sredine

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries.

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups. 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; it can reduce оkoliša the cost koje of web development, and enhance the Multilateralni ugovori u oblasti je service BiH ratificirala sukcesijom prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 4.MULTILATERALNI The earlier action is taken, to integrate e-Accessibility development of UGOVORI U the easier it is MJESTO I GODINA DATUMinto RATIFICIRANJA OBLASTI OKOLIŠA USVAJANJA (sukcesijom) e-Services and to lower the cost. Konvencija o barskim i močvarnim područjima 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the od međunarodnog značaja, posebno staništima Ramsar, 1971. 1. mart 1992. convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU vodotokova

andoSEE countries.prekograničnom Konvencija dalekosežnom zagađenju zraka

Protokol o dugoročnom financiranju programa 1.2. About this report suradnje za praćenje i procjenu dalekosežne transmisije zagađivača vazduha u Evropi (EMER)

The specifico goals of this report are: Konvencija međunarodnoj pomorskoj organizaciji

Ženeva, 1979.

1. septembar 1993.

Ženeva, 1984.

1. septembar 1993.

Ženeva, 1948.

16. jula 1993.

1. to outline the international Konvencija o međunarodnoj civilnoj avijaciji,context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal Čikago, 1944. 13. januar 1993. aneks 16instruments - avionska buka and strategic level documents; Konvencija o zaštiti ozonskog omotača

Beč, 1985. 1. septembar 1993. 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people Protokolwith o supstancama koje oštećuju ozonski disabilities; Montreal, 1987. 1. septembar 1993. omotač

3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders;

Amandmani Montrealskom protokolu prema 4.Ugovornih to identifystrana good spractices in the region; dogovoru drugog sastanka

London, 1990.

11. avgust 2003.

5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to:

Amandmani na Montrealski protokol prema Kopenhagen, 1992. - Ugovornih address thes četvrtog obstacles to e-Accessibility; dogovoru strana sastanka

11. avgust 2003.

withprotokol requirements Amandmani na comply Montrealski prema for the UN and EU. Montreal, 1997. dogovoru Ugovornih strana s devetog sastanka

11. avgust 2003.

Amandmani na Montrealski protokol prema This report is part sofjedanaestog a larger project, ‘Empowering Groups e-Governance’, dogovoru Ugovornih strana Peking, Marginalised 1999. Nijeinusvojeno sastanka that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by

the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded Konvencija UN-a o pravu mora Zaliv Montego, 1982. 12. januar 1994. by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region Konvencija o zaštiti Sredozemnog mora od 1976. Area of the1.e-SEE mart 1992. inzagađenja the implementation of the Inclusive Information Barselona, Society Priority Agenda+, the regional plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic Protokolaction o sprečavanju zagađenja Sredozemnog Barselona, 1976. 1. mart 1992. priorities of the project therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. mora potapanjem otpadaare iz brodova i aviona Protokol o saradnji u borbi protiv zagađivanja The project is being implemented UNDP-funded e-SEE Sredozemnog mora naftom i ostalim štetnim by the Sarajevo-based Kuvajt, 1978. 1. mart 1992. Initiative materijama u capitalizing slučaju nesreće Secretariat, on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering

Marginalised Groups in e-Governance Protokol o zaštiti Sredozemnog mora od and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Atina, 1980. 22. oktobar 1994. zagađenja iz kopnenih izvora (LSB) Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely Inclusion/Democratic Governance with the fellow UNDP Countrypodručjima Offices in ithe region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP Protokol o posebno zaštićenim Ženeva, 1982. 22. oktobar 1994. raznovrsnosti Sredozemnog mora inbiološkoj New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their Protokol o posebno zaštićenimAdvisory područjima i biološkoj raznovrsnosti Sredozemnog mora Barselona, 1995. 12. decembar 1999. respective countries. Mediterana

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MULTILATERALNI UGOVORI U OBLASTI OKOLIŠA

MJESTO I GODINA USVAJANJA

DATUM RATIFICIRANJA (sukcesijom)

Konvencija o zaštiti svjetske kulturne i prirodne baštine

Pariz, 1972.

12. juli 1993.

Konvencija o korišćenju bijelog olova u bojama

Ženeva, 1921.

2. juni 1993.

Ženeva, 1957.

1. septembar 1993.

Beč, 1979.

30. juni 1998.

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES Evropski sporazum o međunarodnom prevozu

opasne robe presents cestom (ADP) This section an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it setsčlana in all (14) aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed Protokol o izmjeni Evropskog o međunarodnom opasne and actions Njujork, 1975. 1. septembar 1993. to by sporazuma a description of the majorprevozu instruments at the European Union level relating robe cestom (ADP) disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. Konvencija o fizičkoj zaštiti nuklearnog materijala

Konvencija o ribolovu i o očuvanju bioloških 1.1. Why e-Accessibility? Ženeva, 1958. bogatstava otvorenog mora

12. januar 1994.

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others Konvencija o teritorijalnom moru i spoljašnjem 1958.on equal terms 1. septembar 1993. such as older populations experience when seeking to Ženeva, participate in the Information pojasu Society. Konvencija o kontinentalnom grebenu

Ženeva, 1958.

12. januar 1994.

Konvencija o otvorenom Ženeva, 1958. 1. septembar 1993. e-Accessibility canmoru potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything Konvencija o zaštiti radnika od profesionalnih from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on rizika u radnom okruženju uzrokovanih Ženeva, 1977. 2. juni 1993. television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a zagađenjem zraka, bukom i vibracijama visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a Ugovor o zabrani smještaja nuklearnog oružja London, Moskva, similar or higher proportion. i ostalog oružja za masovno uništenje na dno 15. avgust 1994. mora i okeana i u njihovo podzemlje

Vašington D.C., 1971.

A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, guidelines Ugovor o neprofilaciji nuklearnog oružja Njujork, 1968. regulations and 15. avgust 1994. cover

this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is Konvencija o ranoj dojavi nuklearne nesreće Beč, 1986. 30. juni 1998. the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are Konvencija o pomoći u slučaju nuklearne spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers Directive Beč, (for 1986.subtitling), the Copyright 30. juni 1998. nesreće ili radiološkog opasnosti (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility Konvencija o zabrani razvoja, proizvodnje London, Moskva, is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. i skladištenja bakteriološkog (biološkog) i 15. avgust 1994. Vašington D.C., 1972. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. toksičnog oružja i njihovo uništenju There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility:

1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups. 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

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able-bodied people; it can reduce okoliša the cost koji of web development, Multilateralni ugovori u oblasti su service ratificirani u BiH and enhance the prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. UGOVORI U the easier it is MJESTO I GODINA DATUM 4.MULTILATERALNI The earlier action is taken, to integrate e-Accessibility into development of OBLASTI OKOLIŠA USVAJANJA RATIFICIRANJA u BiH e-Services and to lower the cost.

Okvirna konvencija UN o klimatskim Rio de Žaneiro, 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and 1992. recommendations 2000 will assist in the promjenama

of the Information Society in the EU convergence of different aspects of the development Kjoto, 1997. 2007 and SEE countries.

Kjoto protokol

Međunarodna konvencija za zaštitu biljaka

Konvencija o kontroli prekograničnog kretanja opasnog otpada i njegovog odlaganja

1.2. About this report Konvencija UN o biološkoj raznovrsnosti

The specific goals of this reportbezbjednosti are: Protokol iz Kartagine o biološkoj

Rim,1951.

2003

Bazel, 1989.

2001

Rio de Žaneiro, 1992.

2002

Kartagina, 2000.

2009

Konvencija UN o borbi protiv dezertifikacije u 1. stovelikim outline the international context regarding including existing legal zemljama sušama i/ili dezertifikacijom, Pariz, e-Accessibility 1994. 2002 posebnoinstruments u Africi and strategic level documents; Konvencija o saradnji radi zaštite i održivog Sofija, 1994. 2005 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people korištenja rijeke Dunav

with disabilities;

Konvencija o uspostavljanju evropske i Pariz, 1955. 2005 sredozemne zaštitulevel biljaka 3. to organizacije assess the za current of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders;

4. toUNECE-a identify ogood practices in the region; Konvencija pristupu informacijama, učešću 5. javnosti u procesu odlučivanja i pristupu Arhus, 1998.and other stakeholders 2008 on how to: to develop a set of recommendations for government pravosudnim organima iz oblasti okoliša address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; Protokol- o registru zagađivača i dometu comply with requirements for the UN and EU. Kijev, 2003. zagađenja (PRTR)

2003

Konvencija o persistentnim organskim Stokholm, 2001. 2010 polutantima This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, Konvencija međunarodnoj trgovini ugroženim that is beingo implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project Vašington D.C., 1973. 2009 designed by vrstama divlje flore i faune (CITES) the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the Konvencija o procjeni Governance prekograničnog utjecaja Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region UNDP’s Democratic Thematic ESRO, 1991. 2009 na okoliš in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the Protokol action o strateškoj okoliša Society development, Kijev, 2003. 2003 regional planprocjeni for Information and the UNCRPD. The programmatic Konvencija očuvanju evropskih prirodnih vrsta priorities ofothe project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. i prirodnih staništa

Bern, 1979.

2008

project is being by theKranjska Sarajevo-based e-SEE Initiative OkvirniThe sporazum o slivu rijeke implemented Save gora, 2002.UNDP-funded2003 Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Konvencija o zaštiti i korišćenju prekograničnih Helsinki, 1992. are positioned within 2009 the Social Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat vodotoka i međunarodnih jezera Inclusion/Democratic Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely Izmjene članova 25 i 26 Governance Konvencija o zaštiti with the fellow UNDP Country Offices the2003. Office of Senior ICT Advisor i korištenju prekograničnih vodotoka i in the region, while Madrid, 2010 at the BDP međunarodnih jezera in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of Konvencija the Regionalo prekograničnim e-Governance utjecajima Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their Helsinki, 1992. Nije usvojen industrijskih incidenata respective countries.

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MULTILATERALNI UGOVORI U OBLASTI OKOLIŠA

MJESTO I GODINA USVAJANJA

DATUM RATIFICIRANJA u BiH

Protokol o građanskoj odgovornosti i kompenzaciji za štetu uzrokovanu prekograničnim utjecajima industrijskih nesreća na prekogranične vode, Konvenciji iz 1992. o zaštiti i korištenju Kijev, 2003. 2003 prekograničnih vodotoka i međunarodnih jezera i Konvenciji 1992. o prekograničnim utjecajima This sectioniz presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the industrijskih incidenata

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed konvencija Evrope o vrijednosti and actions at the European Union level relating to byOkvirna a description of Savjeta the major instruments Faro, 2005. 2009 kulturne baštine za društvo disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular. Ugovor o energetskoj povelji

Lisabon, 1994.

2001

Lisabon, 1994. efikasnosti i pripadajućim aspektima okoliša 1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

2001

Energetska povelja - Protokol o energetskoj

Konvencija o bezbjednosti i zdravlju u rudnicima Ženeva, 1995. 2010 and others e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities Konvencija bezbjednosti iexperience zdravlju u when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information such as oldero populations Ženeva, 2001. 2010 poljoprivredi Society. Konvencija o radu u sektoru ribarstva

Ženeva, 2007.

2010

e-Accessibility canvelikih potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything Konvencija o sprečavanju industrijskih Ženeva, 1993. 2010 nesreća from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on Evropska Up konvencija o krajoliku Firenca, 2000. across the Firenca, 2000. Union has a disability, 2010 such as a television. to 15 percent of the population European visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a Konvencija o zabrani korišćenja, skladištenja, proizvodnje i prevozu protivpješadijskih mina i o Oslo 1997 1998 similar or higher proportion. njihovom uništenju

Konvencija o prethodno informisanoj saglasnosti A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover procedura za određene opasne hemikalije i Roterdam, 1998 2007 this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is pesticide u međunarodnom saobraćaju

the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are Konvencija o međunarodnoj trgovini ugroženim Vašington(for DC, subtitling), 1973 2009 Directive spread across such . as Television Without Frontiers the Copyright vrstama divlje areas flore i faune (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility I Amandman Konvencije o međunarodnoj is trgovini also covered by vrstama policy, divlje and flore guidelines ugroženim i faune and benchmarking Bon, 1979 exist for programmatic 2009 support. (član XI) Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. Evropski okvir konvencije o prekograničnoj saradnji između i Madrid, 1980 2008 There is ati 1980 leastteritorijalnih a five-fold zajednica justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: vlasti

Konvencija 1. It oismeđunarodnom worthwhile in prevozu its own robe right to improve access to services to people who Bern, 1980. 1996 are already željeznicom

marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this Izvor: Program UN-a za zaštitu životne sredine, Pregled pravnog i institucionalnog area is likely to further marginalize these groups. okvira za zaštitu okoliša u BiH, 2011. 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for

2

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SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost. 5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries.

1.2. About this report The specific goals of this report are:

Aneks 2

1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents; 2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities; 3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

Zbirne godišnje tabele (1991-2001) inventara gasova staklene bašte

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+. The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries.

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Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

1.1. Why e-Accessibility? e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society. e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation. There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility: 1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups. 2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner. 3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for 2

184


SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

4,23

0,00

393,75

393,75

397,98

SO2

able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,59

0,00

23,17

23,17

23,76

NMVOC

4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost. NE NE

NE

NE NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

11,72 0,35

0,00

NE

NE

A

NE

The specific goals of this report are:

NE

NE

P

NE

SF6

A

NE

1.2. About this report

NE

76,80

0,00

126,76

126,76 76,80

138,48 77,15

(Gg)

 

CO

NOx

IZVJEŠTAJ 1.B SAŽET IZVJEŠTAJ INVENTARA STAKLENIČKIH PLINOVA (IPCC TABELA 7B) BOSNA I HERCEGOVINA - Godina 1991.

5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries.

NE

NE

NE

CO2 ekvivalent (Gg)

P

PFCs

1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents;

HFCs

NE

NE

NE

A

2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities;

NE NE

NE

NE NE

NE

NE

NE

0,00 0,00

0,00 47,26

0,00 0,00

7,30 83,79

NE

NE

NE

0,00

0,00 0,00

0,52

75,36

1,09

1,09 75,88

8,39 206,93

CH4

N2O

P

NE

3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

NE

NE

NE

NE

0.00

0.00 6. Otpad

0.00

-7.689,00 0.00

0.00 4. Poljoprivreda

5. Promjena namjene zemljišta i šumarstvo

NE

2.499,85

0.00

21.350,45

NE

21.350,45

0.00

-7.689,00 23.850,30

(Gg)

ponori emisije

3. Upotreba rastvarača i drugih proizvoda

IZVORI I PONORI STAKLENIČKIH PLINOVA

CO2

CO2

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+.

CO2 emisije iz biomase

Multilateralne aktivnosti

Mornarica

Avijacija

Međunarodna spremišta

Ostale stavke:

7. Ostalo

2. Industrijski procesi

B. Fugitivne emisije iz goriva

Sektorski pristup

A. Sagorijevanje goriva Referentni pristup

1. Energija

Ukupne emisije, uključujući ponore

KATEGORIJE

The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries.

185

3


NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE

NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

0,00

0,00 0,00

61,55

0,00

9,32

9,32 61,55

9,32 61,55

(Gg)

 

CO

IZVJEŠTAJ 1.B SAŽET IZVJEŠTAJ INVENTARA STAKLENIČKIH PLINOVA (IPCC TABELA 7B) BOSNA I HERCEGOVINA - Godina 1992.

NMVOC

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,03

0,00

124,77

124,77

124,80

SO2

Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,00

0,00

27,43

27,43

27,43 NE

NE

NE

NE

SF6

A

NOx

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

NE

NE

A

NE

P

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE NE

CO2 ekvivalent (Gg)

A

P

PFCs

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society.

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE 0,00

0,00

0,00

5,04

NE

0,00

0,00

0,11

0,11

NE

NE 5,15 144,62

N2O

P

HFCs

e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0.00

0.00

0.00

NE

0,00

32,40

0,00 -10.147,00

0.00 0.00

NE

42.04

0.00

5.891,28

NE

5.891,28

0.00

89,34

0,00

21,24

1,64

22,88

-10.147,00 5.933,32

(Gg)

ponori emisije

CO2

CO2

CH4

A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation.

5. Promjena namjene zemljišta i šumarstvo

3. Upotreba rastvarača i drugih proizvoda

Sektorski pristup

A. Sagorijevanje goriva Referentni pristup

IZVORI I PONORI STAKLENIČKIH PLINOVA

There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility:

CO2 emisije iz biomase

Multilateralne aktivnosti

Međunarodna spremišta

2. Industrijski procesi

B. Fugitivne emisije iz goriva

Ukupne emisije, uključujući ponore

1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups.

Mornarica

Avijacija

Ostale stavke:

7. Ostalo

6. Otpad

4. Poljoprivreda

1. Energija

KATEGORIJE

2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner.

2

186

3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for


SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,00

0,00

29,19

29,19

29,19

SO2

able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,00

0,00

0,48

0,48

0,48

NMVOC

4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost. NE NE

NE

NE NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

0,00 0,00

0,00

NE

NE

A

NE

The specific goals of this report are:

NE

NE

P

NE

SF6

A

NE

1.2. About this report

NE

6,00

0,00

0,67

0,67 6,00

0,67 6,00

(Gg)

 

CO

NOx

IZVJEŠTAJ 1.B SAŽET IZVJEŠTAJ INVENTARA STAKLENIČKIH PLINOVA (IPCC TABELA 7B) BOSNA I HERCEGOVINA - Godina 1993.

5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries.

NE

NE

NE

CO2 ekvivalent (Gg)

P

PFCs

1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents;

HFCs

NE

NE

NE

A

2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities;

NE NE

NE

NE NE

NE

NE

NE

0,00 0,00

0,00 17,90

0,00 0,00

2,36 24,24

NE

NE

NE

0,00

0,00 0,00

0,60

7,45

0,05

0,05 8,05

2,41 50,19

CH4

N2O

P

NE

3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,00

0,00 6. Otpad

0.00

-10.568,00 0,00

0,00 4. Poljoprivreda

5. Promjena namjene zemljišta i šumarstvo

NE

0,00

0,00

2.208,48

NE

2.208,48

0.00

-10.568,00 2.208,48

(Gg)

ponori emisije

3. Upotreba rastvarača i drugih proizvoda

IZVORI I PONORI STAKLENIČKIH PLINOVA

CO2

CO2

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+.

CO2 emisije iz biomase

Multilateralne aktivnosti

Mornarica

Avijacija

Međunarodna spremišta

Ostale stavke:

7. Ostalo

2. Industrijski procesi

B. Fugitivne emisije iz goriva

Sektorski pristup

A. Sagorijevanje goriva Referentni pristup

1. Energija

Ukupne emisije, uključujući ponore

KATEGORIJE

The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries.

187

3


NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

0,00

0,00 0,00

0,65

0,00

0,52

0,52 0,65

0,52 0,65

(Gg)

 

CO

IZVJEŠTAJ 1.B SAŽET IZVJEŠTAJ INVENTARA STAKLENIČKIH PLINOVA (IPCC TABELA 7B) BOSNA I HERCEGOVINA - Godina 1994.

NMVOC

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,00

0,00

31,66

31,66

31,66

SO2

Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,00

0,00

6,57

6,57

6,57 NE

NE

NE

NE

SF6

A

NOx

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

NE

NE

A

NE

P

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE NE

CO2 ekvivalent (Gg)

A

P

PFCs

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society.

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE 0,00

0,00

0,00

2,70

NE

0,00

0,00

0,05

0,05

NE

NE 2,75

N2O

P

HFCs

e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,00

0,00

0.00

NE

0,00

21,60

0,00 -10.081,00

0.00 0,00

NE

0,00

0,00

2.426,14

NE

2.426,14

0,00

27,04

0,00

7,63

0,64

8,27

-10.081,00 2.426,14

(Gg)

ponori emisije

CO2

CO2

CH4

56,91

A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation.

5. Promjena namjene zemljišta i šumarstvo

3. Upotreba rastvarača i drugih proizvoda

Sektorski pristup

A. Sagorijevanje goriva Referentni pristup

IZVORI I PONORI STAKLENIČKIH PLINOVA

There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility:

CO2 emisije iz biomase

Multilateralne aktivnosti

Međunarodna spremišta

2. Industrijski procesi

B. Fugitivne emisije iz goriva

Ukupne emisije, uključujući ponore

1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups.

Mornarica

Avijacija

Ostale stavke:

7. Ostalo

6. Otpad

4. Poljoprivreda

1. Energija

KATEGORIJE

2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner.

2

188

3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for


SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,01

0,00

33,71

33,71

33,72

SO2

able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,00

0,00

0,51

0,51

0,51

NMVOC

4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost. NE NE

NE

NE NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

0,00 0,00

0,00

NE

NE

A

NE

The specific goals of this report are:

NE

NE

P

NE

SF6

A

NE

1.2. About this report

NE

5,80

0,00

0,58

0,58 5,80

0,58 5,80

(Gg)

 

CO

NOx

IZVJEŠTAJ 1.B SAŽET IZVJEŠTAJ INVENTARA STAKLENIČKIH PLINOVA (IPCC TABELA 7B) BOSNA I HERCEGOVINA - Godina 1995.

5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries.

NE

NE

NE

CO2 ekvivalent (Gg)

P

PFCs

1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents;

HFCs

NE

NE

NE

A

2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities;

NE NE

NE

NE NE

NE

NE

NE

0,00 0,00

0,00 24,20

0,00 0,00

2,98 33,35

NE

NE

NE

0,00

0,00 0,00

0,64

7,56

0,04

0,04 8,20

3,02 65,75

CH4

N2O

P

NE

3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,00

0,00 6. Otpad

0.00

-10.240,00 0,00

0,00 4. Poljoprivreda

5. Promjena namjene zemljišta i šumarstvo

NE

21,06

0,00

2.119,50

NE

2.119,50

0.00

-10.240,00 2.140,56

(Gg)

ponori emisije

3. Upotreba rastvarača i drugih proizvoda

IZVORI I PONORI STAKLENIČKIH PLINOVA

CO2

CO2

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+.

CO2 emisije iz biomase

Multilateralne aktivnosti

Mornarica

Avijacija

Međunarodna spremišta

Ostale stavke:

7. Ostalo

2. Industrijski procesi

B. Fugitivne emisije iz goriva

Sektorski pristup

A. Sagorijevanje goriva Referentni pristup

1. Energija

Ukupne emisije, uključujući ponore

KATEGORIJE

The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries.

189

3


NE NE

NE

NE NE

NE

NE

NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

0,00

0,01 0,02

1,21

0,00

1,00

1,00 1,21

1,01 1,23

(Gg)

 

CO

IZVJEŠTAJ 1.B SAŽET IZVJEŠTAJ INVENTARA STAKLENIČKIH PLINOVA (IPCC TABELA 7B) BOSNA I HERCEGOVINA - Godina 1996.

NMVOC

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,05

0,00

126,06

126,06

126,11

SO2

Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,01

0,00

12,03

12,03

12,04 NE

NE

NE

NE

SF6

A

NOx

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

NE

NE

A

NE

P

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE NE

CO2 ekvivalent (Gg)

A

P

PFCs

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society.

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE 0,00

0,00

0,00

3,42

NE

0,00

0,00

0,11

0,11

NE

NE 3,53

N2O

P

HFCs

e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,00

0,00

0.00

NE

0,00

35,50

0,00 -9.367,00

0.00 0,00

NE

88,98

0,00

4.340,64

NE

4.340,64

0,00

37,71

0,00

14,38

1,25

15,63

-9.367,00 4.429,62

(Gg)

ponori emisije

CO2

CO2

CH4

88,84

A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation.

5. Promjena namjene zemljišta i šumarstvo

3. Upotreba rastvarača i drugih proizvoda

Sektorski pristup

A. Sagorijevanje goriva Referentni pristup

IZVORI I PONORI STAKLENIČKIH PLINOVA

There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility:

CO2 emisije iz biomase

Multilateralne aktivnosti

Međunarodna spremišta

2. Industrijski procesi

B. Fugitivne emisije iz goriva

Ukupne emisije, uključujući ponore

1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups.

Mornarica

Avijacija

Ostale stavke:

7. Ostalo

6. Otpad

4. Poljoprivreda

1. Energija

KATEGORIJE

2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner.

2

190

3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for


SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,19

0,00

177,98

177,98

178,17

SO2

able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,03

0,00

1,53

1,53

1,56

NMVOC

4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost. NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

0,84 0,02

0,00

NE

NE

A

NE

The specific goals of this report are:

NE

NE

P

NE

SF6

A

NE

1.2. About this report

NE

19,64

0,00

1,94

1,94 19,64

2,78 19,66

(Gg)

 

CO

NOx

IZVJEŠTAJ 1.B SAŽET IZVJEŠTAJ INVENTARA STAKLENIČKIH PLINOVA (IPCC TABELA 7B) BOSNA I HERCEGOVINA - Godina 1997.

5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries.

NE

NE

NE

CO2 ekvivalent (Gg)

P

PFCs

1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents;

HFCs

NE

NE

NE

A

2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities;

NE NE

NE NE

NE

NE NE

NE

NE 0,00 0,00

0,00 35,20

0,00 0,00

3,55 40,74

NE

NE

0,00

0,00 0,00

1,86

21,26

0,13

0,13 23,12

3,68 99,06

CH4

N2O

P

NE

3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,00

0,00 6. Otpad

0.00

-8.483,00 0,00

0,00 4. Poljoprivreda

5. Promjena namjene zemljišta i šumarstvo

NE

190,61

0,00

6.831,88

NE

6.831,88

0.00

-8.483,00

7.022,49

(Gg)

ponori emisije

3. Upotreba rastvarača i drugih proizvoda

IZVORI I PONORI STAKLENIČKIH PLINOVA

CO2

CO2

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+.

CO2 emisije iz biomase

Multilateralne aktivnosti

Mornarica

Avijacija

Međunarodna spremišta

Ostale stavke:

7. Ostalo

2. Industrijski procesi

B. Fugitivne emisije iz goriva

Sektorski pristup

A. Sagorijevanje goriva Referentni pristup

1. Energija

Ukupne emisije, uključujući ponore

KATEGORIJE

The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries.

191

3


NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

0,00

0,03 5,18

92,86

0,00

13,99

13,99 92,86

14,02 98,04

(Gg)

 

CO

IZVJEŠTAJ 1.B SAŽET IZVJEŠTAJ INVENTARA STAKLENIČKIH PLINOVA (IPCC TABELA 7B) BOSNA I HERCEGOVINA - Godina 1998.

NMVOC

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,69

0,00

230,22

230,22

230,91

SO2

Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,09 NE

0,00

38,37

38,37

38,46 NE

NE

NE

NE

SF6

A

NOx

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

NE

NE

A

NE

P

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE NE

CO2 ekvivalent (Gg)

A

P

PFCs

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society.

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,00

0,00

0,00

3,61

NE

NE

NE 0,00

0,00

0,16

0,16

NE 3,77 108,52

N2O

P

HFCs

e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,00

0,00

0.00

NE

0,00

39,00

0,00 -8.307,00

0.00 0,00

NE

307,27

0,00

10.469,65

NE

10.469,65

0,00

41,43

0,00

25,76

2,33

28,09

-8.307,00 10.776,92

(Gg)

ponori emisije

CO2

CO2

CH4

A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation.

5. Promjena namjene zemljišta i šumarstvo

3. Upotreba rastvarača i drugih proizvoda

Sektorski pristup

A. Sagorijevanje goriva Referentni pristup

IZVORI I PONORI STAKLENIČKIH PLINOVA

There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility:

CO2 emisije iz biomase

Multilateralne aktivnosti

Međunarodna spremišta

2. Industrijski procesi

B. Fugitivne emisije iz goriva

Ukupne emisije, uključujući ponore

1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups.

Mornarica

Avijacija

Ostale stavke:

7. Ostalo

6. Otpad

4. Poljoprivreda

1. Energija

KATEGORIJE

2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner.

2

192

3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for


SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

1,15

0,00

235,13

235,13

236,28

SO2

able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,03

0,00

14,62

14,62

14,65

NMVOC

4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost. NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

9,28 0,16

0,00

A

NE

NE

NE

The specific goals of this report are:

NE

P

NE

NE

SF6

A

NE

1.2. About this report

NE

37,76

0,00

117,42

117,42 37,76

126,70 37,92

(Gg)

 

CO

NOx

IZVJEŠTAJ 1.B SAŽET IZVJEŠTAJ INVENTARA STAKLENIČKIH PLINOVA (IPCC TABELA 7B) BOSNA I HERCEGOVINA - Godina 1999.

5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries.

NE

NE

NE

CO2 ekvivalent (Gg)

P

PFCs

1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents;

HFCs

NE

NE

NE

A

2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities;

NE NE

NE NE

NE

NE NE

NE

NE 0,00 0,00

0,00 43,30

0,00 0,00

3,89 42,69

NE

0,00 0,00

0,00 24,51

0,18 2,30

26,81

112,80

0,18

NE 4,07

P

CH4

N2O

NE

3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,00

0,00 6. Otpad

0.00

-7.297,00 0,00

0,00 4. Poljoprivreda

5. Promjena namjene zemljišta i šumarstvo

NE

394,49

0,00

10.573,51

NE

10.573,51

0.00

-7.297,00 10.968,00

(Gg)

ponori emisije

3. Upotreba rastvarača i drugih proizvoda

IZVORI I PONORI STAKLENIČKIH PLINOVA

CO2

CO2

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+.

CO2 emisije iz biomase

Multilateralne aktivnosti

Mornarica

Avijacija

Međunarodna spremišta

Ostale stavke:

7. Ostalo

2. Industrijski procesi

B. Fugitivne emisije iz goriva

Sektorski pristup

A. Sagorijevanje goriva Referentni pristup

1. Energija

Ukupne emisije, uključujući ponore

KATEGORIJE

The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries.

193

3


NE NE

NE

NE NE

NE

NE

NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

0,00

0,05 12,86

115,22

0,00

14,37

14,37 115,22

14,42 128,08

(Gg)

 

CO

IZVJEŠTAJ 1.B SAŽET IZVJEŠTAJ INVENTARA STAKLENIČKIH PLINOVA (IPCC TABELA 7B) BOSNA I HERCEGOVINA - Godina 2000.

NMVOC

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

1,55

0,00

221,82

221,82

223,37

SO2

Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,22 NE

0,00

39,10

39,10

39,32 NE

NE

NE

NE

SF6

A

NOx

This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it is to be implemented. This is followed by a description of the major instruments and actions at the European Union level relating to disability in general and e-Accessibility in particular.

NE

NE

A

NE

P

1.1. Why e-Accessibility?

NE NE

NE NE

NE NE

CO2 ekvivalent (Gg)

A

P

PFCs

e-Accessibility is about overcoming the range of barriers that people with disabilities and others such as older populations experience when seeking to participate on equal terms in the Information Society.

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE 0,00

0,00

0,00

3,78

NE

NE 0,00

0,00

0,20

0,20

NE 3,98 113,45

N2O

P

HFCs

e-Accessibility can potentially refer to any type of ICT used by citizens, and involves everything from websites for e-government services, to telephony support for blind people to subtitling on television. Up to 15 percent of the population across the European Union has a disability, such as a visual, hearing, speech, cognitive, or motor impairment, and SEE countries can expect to have a similar or higher proportion. NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

0,00

0,00

0.00

NE

0,00

45,90

0,00 -7.302,00

0.00 0,00

NE

455,65

0,00

11.177,58

NE

11.177,58

0,00

40,68

0,00

24,48

2,39

26,87

-7.302,00 11.633,23

(Gg)

ponori emisije

CO2

CO2

CH4

A perhaps surprising number of international agreements, regulations and guidelines cover this area. At the highest international level, the UNCRPD, ratified and coming into force in 2008, is the relevant legal context. No single EU directive is dedicated to e-Accessibility, but actions are spread across areas such as Television Without Frontiers (for subtitling), the Copyright Directive (for copyright exemptions), and the Telecoms Framework (for assistive technologies). e-Accessibility is also covered by policy, and guidelines and benchmarking exist for programmatic support. Furthermore, moves are afoot to strengthen these and to enact more legislation.

5. Promjena namjene zemljišta i šumarstvo

3. Upotreba rastvarača i drugih proizvoda

Sektorski pristup

A. Sagorijevanje goriva Referentni pristup

IZVORI I PONORI STAKLENIČKIH PLINOVA

There is at least a five-fold justification for early action in the area of e-Accessibility:

CO2 emisije iz biomase

Multilateralne aktivnosti

Međunarodna spremišta

2. Industrijski procesi

B. Fugitivne emisije iz goriva

Ukupne emisije, uključujući ponore

1. It is worthwhile in its own right to improve access to services to people who are already marginalized. It helps fulfil the promise of the Information Society to reduce rather than increase the disadvantages certain populations face. Conversely, insufficient effort in this area is likely to further marginalize these groups.

Mornarica

Avijacija

Ostale stavke:

7. Ostalo

6. Otpad

4. Poljoprivreda

1. Energija

KATEGORIJE

2. Improving access to services, public and private, to such a significant proportion of the population opens significant market/sales opportunities, and can help public services fulfil their remit in a cost effective manner.

2

194

3. Improving e-Accessibility for the marginalized could also lead to improved access for


SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATEnacija CHANGE Drugi nacionalni izvještaj Bosne i UNDER Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom konvencijom Ujedinjenih

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

1,58

0,00

212,16

212,16

213,74

SO2

able-bodied people; it can reduce the cost of web service development, and enhance the prospects for migrating web services onto new platforms such as mobile phones. 0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,41

0,00

14,94

14,94

15,35

NMVOC

4. The earlier action is taken, the easier it is to integrate e-Accessibility into development of e-Services and to lower the cost. 0,00 0,00

0,00 0,00

0,00 0,00

0,00 0,00

0,00 0,00

0,00

0,00 0,00

0,00 0,00

0,00 0,00

13,02

0,00 0,00

0,00 0,00

0,00

0,00

The specific goals of this report are: A

0,24

0,00

0,00

P

0,00

SF6

A

0,00

1.2. About this report

0,00

39,83

0,00

121,52

121,52 39,83

134,54 40,07

(Gg)

 

CO

NOx

IZVJEŠTAJ 1.B SAŽET IZVJEŠTAJ INVENTARA STAKLENIČKIH PLINOVA (IPCC TABELA 7B) BOSNA I HERCEGOVINA - Godina 2001.

5. Pursuing approaches that follow EU guidelines and recommendations will assist in the convergence of different aspects of the development of the Information Society in the EU and SEE countries.

0,00

0,00

0,00

CO2 ekvivalent (Gg)

P

PFCs

1. to outline the international context regarding e-Accessibility including existing legal instruments and strategic level documents;

HFCs

0,00

0,00

0,00

A

2. to develop a comparative picture of e-Accessibility for able-bodied people versus people with disabilities;

0,00 0,00

0,00

0,00 0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00 0,00 0,00

0,00 47,07

0,00 0,00

4,34 40,83

0,00

0,00 0,00

0,00 24,08

0,37 3,20

27,28

115,18

0,37

0,00 4,71

P

CH4

N2O

0,00

3. to assess the current level of e-Accessibility and e-Accessibility stakeholders; 4. to identify good practices in the region; 5. to develop a set of recommendations for government and other stakeholders on how to: address the obstacles to e-Accessibility; comply with requirements for the UN and EU.

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00 6. Otpad

0.00

-7.212,00 0,00

0,00 4. Poljoprivreda

5. Promjena namjene zemljišta i šumarstvo

0,00

596,63

0,00

11.642,95

12.526,71

11.642,95

0.00

-7.212,00 12.239,58

(Gg)

ponori emisije

3. Upotreba rastvarača i drugih proizvoda

IZVORI I PONORI STAKLENIČKIH PLINOVA

CO2

CO2

This report is part of a larger project, ‘Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance’, that is being implemented in the context of the e-SEE Initiative. It is a regional project designed by the UNDP Country Office in Bosnia and Herzegovina, supported by DG/BDP NY, and funded by the UNDP’s Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund to support the South Eastern Europe region in the implementation of the Inclusive Information Society Priority Area of the e-SEE Agenda+, the regional action plan for Information Society development, and the UNCRPD. The programmatic priorities of the project are therefore fully aligned with the targets of e-SEE Agenda+.

CO2 emisije iz biomase

Multilateralne aktivnosti

Mornarica

Avijacija

Međunarodna spremišta

Ostale stavke:

7. Ostalo

2. Industrijski procesi

B. Fugitivne emisije iz goriva

Sektorski pristup

A. Sagorijevanje goriva Referentni pristup

1. Energija

Ukupne emisije, uključujući ponore

KATEGORIJE

The project is being implemented by the Sarajevo-based UNDP-funded e-SEE Initiative Secretariat, capitalizing on their existing knowledge, networks and resources. Empowering Marginalised Groups in e-Governance and the e-SEE Secretariat are positioned within the Social Inclusion/Democratic Governance Sector. The UNDP Country Office in Sarajevo is working closely with the fellow UNDP Country Offices in the region, while the Office of Senior ICT Advisor at the BDP in New York is providing expertise and playing an advisory role. Government-appointed members of the Regional e-Governance Advisory Taskforce (REGATA) act as government Focal Points for their respective countries.

195

3


Drugi NATIONAL nacionalni izvještaj Bosne Hercegovine u skladu s Okvirnom Ujedinjenih nacija SECOND COMMUNICATION OFi BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNDER THEkonvencijom UNITED NATION FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

1. NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES This section presents an overview of the UNCRPD, its significance and main sections, the requirements it sets in all aspects of e-Accessibility and how it