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SLAUGHTER-FREE SUSHI

PADDY FERNANDEZ YEAR 5

UNIT

Y5 PF

MITSUBISHI MARICULTURE

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All work produced by Unit 14 Cover design by Maggie Lan www.bartlett.ucl.ac.uk/architecture Copyright 2018 The Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the publisher.

@unit14_ucl


PADDY FERNANDEZ YEAR 5 paddyf123@gmail.com

Y5 PF

@unit14_ucl

M I T S U B I S H I M A R I C U LT U R E Slaughter-Free Sushi Cellular Mariculture Facility & Fish Market Tokyo, Japan

R

esponding to urgent environmental issues & a rapidly expanding global market demand for low-cost high-volume belt sushi restaurants (40% growth in 7 years), the new Mitsubishi facility aims to create a paradigm shift in the way seafood products are produced, commodified, distributed & consumed. The proposal will situate Japan as the World Leader in sustainable Cellular Mariculture using natural biological processes to create edible marine products. The project, sited in the heart of Tokyo bay, speculates on a near-future where bluefin tuna has become commercially extinct. Mitsubishi Corp. a ÂŁ170Bn corporate giant has been stockpiling huge quantities of bluefin tuna and cryopreserving (freezing) them to sell later as stock numbers plummet toward extinction. The company decides to invest in the creation of a Cellular Mariculture facility to situate Japan as the world leader. Being first to market would be a huge advantage but perhaps most importantly the Japanese culture surrounding seafood and the extensive expertise in handling marine products would allow them to dominate this emerging global market. Bluefin tuna is grown within bio-reactors, stainless steel & strengthened glass in-vitro tanks, that regulate growth conditions and supply consumables such as serum and oxygen. These Invitro growth tanks navigate the building on stainless steel rails going between the subterranean growth chambers, diagnostic centers, bio-printing zones, cleaning bays, serum fill sectors and the above ground auction and market program. Harvesting bays with new ritualistic operations such as the seal-cutting and decanting ceremonies allow the 4 auction houses to decant their produce and prepare for the wholesale auctions. The proximity of the two

programmatic conditions, that of the meticulously clean sterile laboratories and that of the visceral raw fish market, creates a tension which is explored in the project. The integration between the ground plinth and the timber structural system was a primary design driver exploring the connection between the biotic and inorganic. The developed integral timber architectural system (no glue/nails/metal fastenings) is the result of a rigorous design exploration of traditional Japanese timber construction and digital fabrication technologies.The project is both informed and inspired by the nuance and sophistication of traditional practices, yet wholeheartedly embraces the new in a quintessentially Japanese way. Through the reordering of the fabrication process and by leveraging the laminate nature of LVL (laminated Veneer Lumber), complex undercut geometry could be created through relatively simple Basement Floor GA. machining operations. Mitsubishi Mariculture General Arrangement 1:750 A2 The basement area is devoted to the mariculture fabrication process. Workshops, control centres and offices are nestled amongst the network of the in-vitro growth tanks. The Program can be divided into 4 primary components. Cleaning, serum, storage & Diagnostic.

The proposal provocatively questions the sustainability of current ocean depleting tuna practices and suggests a future where the ancient rituals and rites of the tuna auction can live on and evolve.

01 CL-01 SR-01

02

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03 02 04 05

06

01

07

D-01

SR-02

SR-03

08

03 CL-01

09

10

11

05

04

Legend 01 02

Bio-Reactor spares Engineers Break room

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4


YR5 MArch Architecture Design Portfolio Paddy Fernandez Unit 14

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6


Contents. Mitsubishi Mariculture

Initial Research [Japan]

4

Topography.

5

Density.

6

Shinkansen & Rail.

7

Air Travel & Freight.

8

Paddy Fernandez Unit 14

Nuclear Power.

9

Nuclear Memory.

10

Cultural Expression.

11

Engineering Solutions.

12

Kaitenzushi. [Sushi 2.0]

13

Industrial Sushi Machines.

14

Initial Research

14

Rise of the Sushibots.

15

On Demand. [Sushi 3.0]

16

The Science of Low-Cost Sushi.

17

The Future of Kaitenzushi.

18

Global Fish Production.

19

The Market at the centre of the world

20

Commodification, Exhange & Consumption.

20

Market Components.

21

Organisation.

22

Tsukiji Market Section.

23

Levels of Trade.

24

Major Seafood Trade Categories.

25

‘Going Once....’

26

Spectacle of the Auction.

27

The Ferrari of the sea.

28

Bluefin Background.

29

Concept Design

30

The Mitsubishi Stockpile.

30

Finless Foods.

31

Defining the Brief.

32

Users/Actors.

33

Tokyo Bay.

34

Site Location.

35

Site Context.

36

Tectonic Abstraction.

37

Splicing Joints.

38

Japanese Precut Vernacular.

39

Joints Components.

40

Joint Surface Creation.

41

Horyu-ji Pagoda.

42

Roof Development.

43

Inhabitated Structure.

44

Plinth Integration.

45

Cyborg.

46

Perspective Section.

47

Design Development

48

Key Moves.

48

Programatic Components.

49

Perspective Section.

50

Auction Houses.

52

Post-Machining Lamination.

53

Snap-fit Saddle Node.

54

Splice Prototypes.

55

Structural Elements.

56

Construction Sequence.

57

First Encounter.

58

Structural Assembly.

59

Laboratory L-03.

60

Harvesting Bay H-04.

61

Auction Pit A-09.

62

The Tuna King.

63

The Sakura Terrace.

66

The Repository First Light

7


27% PLAINS & BASIN

HABITABLE

73% MOUNTAINOUS

& UNINHABITABLE

Hachinohe Lowland

Noshiro-Akita Plain

Kitakami Lowland

Nigata Plain

Kanto Plain

Noto Lowlands

Kanto Plain

Osaka Plain

0m 50m 150m 250m 500m 750m 1000m 2000m+

Topography. Mountainous with coastal lowlands. Island Nation Japan is an island nation consisting of a volcanic archipelago. There are 4 main islands and 6,852 smaller islands. Only 27% of the landscape is habitable which has let to the ultra densification of the major cities.

8


Most Populated World Cities

Japanese Cities

Tokyo

38.2m

Tokyo

Delhi

27.1m

Yokohama

3.5m

Shanghai

25.2m

Osaka-shi

2.5m

8.3m

Beijing

22.0m

Nagoya-shi

2.1m

Mumbai

21.6m

Sapporo

1.8m

Sao Paulo

21.5m

Kobe

1.5m

Mexico City

21.3m

Kyoto

1.4m

Osaka

20.4m

Fukuoka-shi

1.3m

Cairo

19.4m

Kawasaki

1.3m

Dhaka

18.8m

Saitama

1.1m

21x Indiana Most of the Japanese population lives on an area the size of Indiana USA. Indiana: 6 Million Japan 127 Million

POPULATION OF JAPAN [2017]

127,484,450 5. Sapporo 1,883,027

Population Density All primary and secondary regions of high population density lie on the coast; one-third of the population resides in and around Tokyo on the central plain (Kanto Plain) Urban population: 94.3% of total population (2017)

0-1 4-8 15-30 30-60 240-480 480-1000 1000+

10. Saitama 1,193,350 9. Kawasaki 1,306,785 7. Kyoto 1,459,640

6. Kobe 1,528,478 1. Tokyo 8,336,599

2. Yokohama 3,574,443

4. Nagoya 2,191,279

3. Osaka 2,592,413 8. Fukuoka 1,392,289

1/3 LIVE IN

TOKYO METROPOLITAN

TOKYO

[METROPOLITAN AREA]

Density. Initial Research Tokyo Metropolitan Area

0-1 4-8 15 - 30 30 - 60 240 - 480 480 - 1000 1000 +

38,241,000

People per Square/Km

The Greater Tokyo area is the highest populated metropolitan area in the world. It is a combined area of around 13,500 km2 / 5,200 mi2. With an average population density of 2,642 person/km2.

Tokyo Metropolitan Economy The area has the GDP (nominal) of approximately $2 trillion (ÂĽ165 trillion) making it the largest economic metropolitan in the world.

9


Shin-Hakodate-Hokuto Station

ANNUAL CUMULATIVE TOTAL PASSENGERS [SHINKANSEN 2017]

10,000,000,000 Kagoshima Station

Shinkansen & Rail. Initial Research Moving People The Shinkansen (known as the Bullet Train) is a network of highspeed railway lines in Japan. The network currently consists of 2,764.6 km of lines with max speeds of 240–320 km/h 150–200 mph.

10


Air Travel & Freight. Initial Research Domestic & International Due to deregulation of Japan’s airline industry and the ensuing competition from budget airlines, domestic air travel has become a viable and sometimes cheaper mode of transportation when compared to the shinkansen.

Wakkanai Airport CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

Rebun Airport CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

Regional Airport Distribution

Okhotsk-Monbetsu Airport CL ASSIFICAT IO N : S E CO N D - CLASS

Rishiri Airport

Memanbetsu Airport

CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

CLASS IF ICAT IO N : S E CO N D - CLASS

Hub/First Class/International. Sapporo Okadama Airport

Regional/Second Class

CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

Nakashibetsu Airport CLASS IF ICAT IO N : S E CO N D - CLASS

Jointuse/Third Class

Kushiro Airport

There are currently 98 airports in japan, 28 operated by the central government and 67 by local governements. There are 4 main catagories of airport:

CLASS IF ICAT IO N : S E CO N D - CLASS

Okushiri Airport CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

Tokachi-Obihiro Airport CLASS IF ICAT IO N : S E CO N D - CLASS

Hub/First Class/International.

Regional/Second Class

Jointuse/Third Class

Other Airports (that fall outside previous)

New Chitose Airport

Aomori Airport

CL ASSIFICATION: SECON D - CLASS

CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

Hakodate Airport

Odate-Noshiro Airport

CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

Akita Airport CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

Misawa Airport CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

Shonai Airport CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

Iwate Hanamaki Airport

Niigata Airport

Osaka International Airport

CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

C L ASS IFIC ATION: FIRST-C L ASS

Yamagata Airport

Sado Airport

Kansai International Airport

CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

C L ASS IFIC ATION: FIRST-C L ASS

Sendai Kokusai Airport

Noto Satoyama Airport

Kounotori Tajima Airport

CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

CLASS IFICAT ION: S ECOND-CL ASS

C LASSI F I CAT ION: FIRST-CLASS

Toyama Airport

Tottori Airport

CLASS IFICAT ION: S ECOND-CL ASS

Fukushima Airport

Komatsu Airport

C LASSI F I CAT ION: FIRST-CLASS

CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

CLASS IFICAT ION: S ECOND-CL ASS

Yonago Kitaro Airport

Shinsu-Matsumoto Airport

C LASSI F I C AT ION: S ECOND-CLASS

Okayama Airport

CL ASSIFICATION: FIR ST-CL ASS

C L ASS I F I C ATI O N: SECO ND- C LASS

Izumo Airport C L ASS I F IC ATI O N: SECO ND- C LASS

Kōnan Airport

Ibaraki Airport

C LASSI F I C ATI O N: SECO ND- CLASS

CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

Hiroshima Airport

Tachikawa Airport

C LASSI F I C ATI O N: SECO ND- CLASS

Tsushima Airport

CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

Hagi-Iwami Airport

Chofu Airport

C LASSI F I C ATI O N: S ECOND-CLASS

CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

C L ASS I F I C AT I O N : S E CO ND- C LASS

Yamaguchi Ube Airport

Iwakunikintaibashi Airport

Narita International Airport

C LASSI F I C ATION: S ECOND-CLASS

C L ASS I F I C AT I O N : S E CO ND- C LASS

CLASSI FI CATI O N: F IR ST-CLASS

Kitakyushu Airport

Haneda Airport

C L ASS I F I C AT I O N : S E CO ND- C LASS

Mt. Fuji Shizuoka Airport

Iki Airport

CLASSI FI CATI O N: F IRST-CLASS

CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

C L ASS I F I C AT I O N : S E CO ND- C LASS

Kobe Airport

CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

Yao Airport

Saga Airport

Niijima Airport

Nagoya Airport

CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

C L ASS I F I C AT I O N : S E CO ND- C LASS

Tokushima Awaodori Airport

Miyakejima Airport

CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

Takamatsu Airport

Nagasaki Airport

Chūbu Centrair International Airport

CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

C L ASS I F I C AT I O N : S E CO ND- C LASS

Amakusa Airport

CLASSI FI CATI O N: FI RST- CLASS

Kotchi Ryoma Airport

Oita Airport

C L ASS I F I C AT I O N: SECO ND- C LASS

Kozushima Airport

CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

CLASS IFICAT ION: S ECOND-CLASS

Matsuyama Airport CL ASSIFICATION: SECOND-CL ASS

Kumamoto Airport

Kagoshima Airport

CLASS IFICAT ION: S ECOND-CLASS

C L ASSI F I C ATI O N: SECO ND- C LASS

Miyazaki Airport CLASS IFICAT ION: S ECOND-CLASS

Tanegashima Airport CLASS IFICAT ION: S ECOND-CLASS

Yakushima Airport C L ASSI F I C ATI O N: SECO ND- C LASS

All Nippon Airways [ 1952 ]

Japan Airlines [ 1951 ]

Tokyo extraordinary pace of change. Design mindset of Japanese is the acknowledgment of replacement.

Tokyo extraordinary pace of change. Design mindset of Japanese is the acknowledgment of replacement.

Jetstar [ 2003 ]

Spring Airlines [ 2004 ]

Starflyer [ 2002 ]

Completely privatised [ 1987 ]

Solaseed Air [ 2002 ]

Skymark [ 1996 ]

Vanilla Air [ 2013 ]

Peach [ 2011 ]

Air Do [ 1988 ]

Ibex [ 1999 ]

FDA [ 2008 ]

1980

1990

1985 PARTIAL DEREGULATION

2000

2010

2020

1999 FULL DEREGULATION 1997 FURTHER DEREGULATION

11


Nuclear Power. Initial Research A National Strategic Priority

TOMARI

Japan has a tricky relationship with nuclear power. Nuclear energy was a national strategic priority in Japan, with plans to increase capacity. The country has very little of its own power resources aside from nuclear which was providing around a third of its energy requirements before the Fukushima disaster. Since the Fukushima disaster only 5 plants remain active.

"An earthquake-and-tsunami zone crowded with 127 milliotn people is an unwise place for 54 reactors".

TOHOKU

Amory Bloch Lovins ONAGAWA

KASHIWAZAKI KARIWA

SHIKA

TSURUGA

MIHAMA

OHI

TAKAHAMA 2012

FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI FUKUSHIMA DAINI

SHIMANE TOKAI

HAMAOKA

GENKAI

IKATA 2016

SENDAI 2015

Nuclear Reactor Distribution Power stations are located in multiple places across the coast. Japan has had a long history of seismic activity and earthquakes which can result in tsunamis.

80.0

70.0

60.0

50.0

40.0

30.0

20.0

10.0

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

1989

1988

1987

1986

1985

1984

1983

1982

1981

1980

1979

1978

1977

1976

1975

1974

1973

1972

1971

1970

1969

1968

1967

1966

1965

0.0

Total Nuclear Energy Production 1965 - Present

Consumption

Public Opinion

Japan suffers from having little resources for energy generation. Nuclear was providing a significant portion of their energy demands from the 90’s to the nuclear disaster in 2011.

Many of the Japanese population oppose the restart of nuclear reactors deeming them unsafe and a risk not worth taking. The Japanese economy has suffered greatly as a result.

29%

Nuclear

Nuclear

Renewable

Renewable

Oil

Oil Coal

Natural Gas

Natural Gas

Total Energy Consumption 2010

12

2%

Coal

Total Energy Consumption 2012


Nuclear Memory. 1940

1950

WO RL D WAR II

The impact of Nuclear technology has profoundly impacted the modern Japanese pysche. Potent themes of power, destruction & trauma have been revisisited within culture as part of the healing process, directly referencing the horrors of the past.

1939 - 1945

Initial Research

Hiroshima [1945] First city in history to be victim of nuclear weapon. United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) Dropped an atomic bomb in the heart of the urban area. Estimated 70,000 fatalities. 13kt explosion.

Godzilla 1954

Devastation in culture

Nagasaki [1945]

The carnage created by the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings combined with the destruction of the Tokyo fire bombings created deep scars in the minds of the Japanese people.

1960

The imagery of destruction has been revisited through literature, music, cinema & art as part of the healing process. The directors and artists who witnessed the bombings first hand were the leaders of this movement which continues to this day.

Second city in history to be victim of nuclear weapon. United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) Dropped an atomic bomb in the heart of the urban area. Estimated 39,000 fatalities. 21kt explosion.

Broken Arrow [1965] US navy aircraft carrying a nuclear weapon fell of the aircraft carrier Ticonderoga into the sea of japan. The bomb was never recovered. 1970

1980 [Gozilla destroying Tokyo.]

[Nuclear explosion in Neo-Tokyo. Akira.]

Tsuruga Over 100+ workers were exposed to doses of up to 155 millirem per day of radiation during the period repairs were being made to the nuclear power plant.

Akira 1988 1990

Shika plant Control rod malfunction: Workers accidentaly withdrew 3 control rods whilst installing 1 rod resulting in a 15 minute uncontrolled reaction at the number one reactor.

Ibaraki Prefecture 2000

[Explosion at the end of Akira engulfing Neo-Tokyo]

2010

Uranium exceeded the critical mass during ‘uranyl nitrate solution’ preparation. 3 Workers exposed to extreme radiation, 2 of which died. 116 otherworkers exposed to lesser doses.

Fukushima II Nuclear Power Plant Cooling systems damaged by the 2011 earthquake. All 4 reactors were shut down.

Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Earthquake and tsunami caused damage to cooling systems. Multiple meltdowns alongside core breaches and explosions.

Godzilla 1954

Akira 1988

Gozilla symbolises the nuclear holocaust. The destruction caused through the monsters actions become a direct metaphor for the damage of the bombing.

Within the opening sequence of Akira a nuclear explosion engulfs 1980’s Tokyo, a direct reference to the horrific bombings in the 40’s.

13


Manhattan Project

Cultural Expression.

U.S. government research project that researched and produced the worlds first atomic bombs.

Initial Research Rise of Management

Many of the scientists were unaware of the intended purpose of the technology they were developing, this is directly reference in Akira by Kei.

As postwar Japan grows into an economic superpower the country sees a unique mastery and fascination with modern technology. Culture provides a tool to which the malevolent capacity of technology can be explored.

“before there were these men that tried to harness such energy…

Culture provides a medium through which the malevolent capacity of technology can be explored.

they failed and the destruction of Tokyo was inevitable.” Kei [Akira]

Surrender

7 year US

Ce

ns

US occupation of Japan

After massively debilitating air raids and the use of 2 atomic bombs within the space of a few days japan surrendered to the United States. The US then proceeded to occupy japan.

n

occupatio

Although the numbers can never be fully known it is estimated 150,000 people at Hiroshima and 75,000 at Nagasaki lost their lives.

ors

hip

Culture as an outlet

The US created censorship policies against discussion of the bombings that occured in Japan at the end of WWII. Manga was not covered within the censorship policies.

Criticism of the attacks found outlets through culture such as art, literature, cinema, music, manga & anime. These expressions within culture share similar themes: distrust of government, skepticism of science & criticism of the military.

Cinema

Manga Japanese political culture elements can be traced through the story-lines of many manga comics through hidden messages that reference the atomic bombs effects on Japan.

Films such as ‘Godzilla’ explored the relationship that japan has with the sea and with unstoppable power (Nuclear). The skin of Godzilla was meant to be reminiscent of the burns victims of the atomic bombs suffered in WWII.

Corruption At the beginning of Akira Neo-Tokyo is being run as a facist state, enforced by militarised police. The political climate of the period that led up to the war in which the Showa regime seized control and distributed it amongst the military leaders is directly referenced in Akira.

Astro Boy Created by Osamu Tezuka and Machiko Hasegawa Sazae-san. Astro Boy was created in 1952 and is still popular today. The character is a robot built to replace a fathers son who died in a car accident. The tale explores mans ability to abuse technology for ill-intended purposes.

Akira Katsuhiro Ôtomo’s classic Anime ‘Akira’ is heavily critical towards militaristic control, skeptical about science and rife with corruption, set in a bleak post apocalyptic neo-tokyo.

Keloid Scars As Tetsuo’s power grows he develops tumors all over his skin that mutate. They are reminiscent of the keloid scars that victims suffered from radiation exposure. People with such scars were ostacised in society and mental decline and worsening relationships Tetsuo has with the other characters is a direct expression of this.

Little Boy [Atomic Bomb] Frequent references are made to young male leading characters with limitless un-harnessed power, direct hidden references to the ‘little boy bomb’ that was dropped on hiroshima.

Akira [Character] The character Akira a young boy recruited by the government for a secret project develops powers beyond his control. The boy destroys Tokyo which leads to WWIII. The boy has strong parralells with the manhattan project.

Key Motifs: • Skepticism tvowards science. • Distrust of government. • Criticism of Military. • Misuse of Technology

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Hybrid Assistive Limb [Left]

Vending Machines [Below]

HAL is a robot for autonous motion assistance, a powered exoskeleton suit developed by Japans’s Tsukuba University and robotics company Cyberdyne. The system picks up on small biosignals on the surface of the skin from the underlying motor neurons via skin sensors. These signals are use to amplify movement from the wearer assisting weak or physically disabled people. The suits have been design to aid disabled & elderly in daily tasks as well as supporting workers with physically demanding jobs.

Vending machines are a staple of the Japanese street, a 24-hr modern day shrine to convenience. Vending machines became popular in the 1950’s, currently there are 5.5 million vending machines in Japan, a testiment to the popularity and sucess of the invention. There are several reasons why vending machines are so popular, firstly the declining birthrate, aging population and lack of immigration has meant that labour is scarce and expensive. Vending machines require minimal labour apart from refilling every so often, this is refected in the low price of the goods. Land value & population density are extremely high in Japan, vending machines generate a lot more revenue for far less square meters than a traditional shop. Low crime is also a contributing factor, there is little to know vandalism or theft from vending machines. Japan is primarily a cash based society which also enables the cash based vending machines, although some machines are being updated to support contactless technology.

‘Japanese culture is obsessed with automation and robots, Japanese people have a high regard for, and trust in, automated systems’ Tsutomu Washizu - Japan Times

Natural increase/decrease of population (millions) Source: Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare WSJ.com

Japan 2017 Population Pyramid Source: US Census Bureau

Aging population (27% elderly, potentially 40% by 2050)

Adult diapers now outsell babies

Aversion to immigrant workers

Robotics and artificial intelligence seen as a solution

Engineering Solutions. Initial Research Rise of Management Japan is entering a unprecedented era, a very low birthrate has reduced the population by 10 million since the 90’s with an additional 20 million in coming decades. As a result some work sectors have been hit very hard and are struggling to find employees. The Japanese government is also pushing legislation to cut working hours, improve pay and ensure workers are taking their holidays. Combined with an adversion to mass immigrant workers the situation is looking bleak. Robotics & AI look to be the only solution, in a true Japanese fashion there is hope of engineering itself out of a biological problem.

15


£5.4 billion

Three out of four

industry (belt sushi) in

Japanese people say that when they eat sushi,

japan alone.

it’s from a conveyor belt.

Sushi must be thrown away if left too long on conveyor, the system can be quite wasteful. Classic Kaiten setup requires a lot of space, which is at a serious premium in Tokyo.

Conveyor-belt Boom of the 1970’s & 80’s

History of Belt-Sushi

During the Osaka World Exposition in 1970 a conveyor belt sushi stall was installed and was recieved with great curiousity from the expo attendees. Another boom occurred in 1980 when dining out became more popular. Additionally after the burst of the economic bubble in the late 1990’s inexpensive restaurants have become very popular.

Conveyor belt sushi was invented in 1958 by Yoshiaki Shiraishi, Shiriaishi faced with staffing problems at his small sushi restaurant which was solved with his invention. Yoshiaki was inspired by the conveyored production line of the popular beer brand Asahi. Initially customers were lined up along the side of the bar before the introduction of tables of up to 6 people.

Kaitenzushi. [Sushi 2.0] Initial Research Dinner at 8cm/s Kaitenzushi or (conveyor belt sushi) is incredibly popular in japan due to perceived value of the lowcost food. Automation and specification of lower quality of ingredients reduce costs combined with large economies of scale. This results in a lower quality but highly affordable dining experience for the customer, which has proved highly profitable in the post economic bubble years in Japan.

16

Traditional sushi is reminiscent of a bygone era of economic prosperity.


Industrial Sushi Machines. Initial Research Dinner at 8cm/s Industrial sushi machines have allowed high-volume sushi restaurants to turn a large profit despite the punishing economy. Stagnant wages and little economic growth has instilled fear within consumers and has dramatcially expanded the market for low-price high volume foodstuffs. The sushi robots also reduce the amount of workers needed, infact all that is needed are a few unskilled kitchen assistants to load the machines, the need for waiters to take orders and serve the food has been replaced by the inexpensive conveyor belt system.

17


Inari Sushi Robot Prepares Inari sushi. Blows air into the fried tofu on the transfer conveyor to prepare openings in the tofu.

Inari Sushi Robot Prepares Inari sushi. production capacity of up to 2,500 pieces per hour.

Rice Weight Measuring Machine Weighs out portions of pre-cooked rice. Serves up to 2,000 dishes/hour.

Automatic Sushi Roll Cutter Weighs out portions of pre-cooked rice. Serves up to 2,000 dishes/hour.

3,600 pieces per hour

2500 pieces per hour

2000 pieces per hour

4800 pieces per hour

Rice Ball Forming & Wrapping Machine Produces fluffy stuffed simple stuffed rice balls that are firmly packed on the outside and have air pockets inside.

Sheet Rice-ball Maker Produce up to 3,300 fluffy and soft rice balls per hour. Double-checks for filling both by camera and weight.

Hand-roll Sushi Wrapping Machine Production capacity of 2,000 rolls per hour. Creates uniform and even products at a level not possible by human hand. abels can be automatically attached inside the machine.

Continuous Sushi Roll Machine Produces a long unbroken maki roll. It is capable of making 4,000 rolls of 180mm length every hour.

1800 pieces per hour

3300 pieces per hour

2000 pieces per hour

720km maki roll per hour

Rice Sheet Machine

Sushi Roll Machine

Handmade-style Nigiri Maker

Compact Cooked Rice Mixer

Cooked Rice Mixer

Sushi Roll Machine

Automatic Sushi Cutter

Compact Sushi Machine (shari-tray)

Cooked Rice Mixer

Rice Cooker

Compact Wrapped Sushi Machine

Electric Auto Rice Cooker

Rice Cooker

New Compact Sushi Machine

Rice Washing Machine

Rice Washing Machine

Compact Sushi Machine

Rice Serving Machine

Suketto Nigiri Maker

‘Cheap sushi could not have happened without our machines’ Ikuya Oneda - President of Suzumo Machinery Co. Ltd

Typical Customers: Supermarkets Buffets Schools Sporting Venues Hospitals

Rise of the Sushibots. Initial Research Automation & Hyper-efficiency Suzumo is a Japanese company that produces a lineup of sushi making robotic machines for industry and small restaurants. The wide variety of machines fill a variety of roles within a typical sushi kitchen such as rice washing/ cooking/mixing/rollling into sheets and assembling into recognisable sushi pieces.

18


On Demand. [Sushi 3.0] Initial Research Just in time sushi manufacturing The introduction of touchscreen menus and food delivery in under 60 seconds has further pushed the relationship to food and technology. This new technology further reduces waste drawing from ‘Kaizen’ management methods that the Japanese deployed in the automotive production industry during the economic miracle.

19


‘‘You can’t operate low-price revolving sushi restaurants without databases and scientific management’’ - Akihiro Tsuji [Kura Manager]

Instore Monitoring.

Monitoring Centres.

Time Based Calculations

Even if the restaurant is completely full at maximum capacity the system will take into account the length of time customers have been in the restaurant and offset it against average time to guage how close each customer is to finishing their meal and thus how much additional sushi to be created and sent onto the conveyor. This hyper precise approach is fundemental in cost reduction through high efficiency.

Monitoring 300+ Outlets

Cooked Rice Mixer

Instore Cameras

Approved Order sent to customer

Kura has remote assistance that service its network of more than 300 restaurants. Cameras within the stores feed images to supervisors with laptops who move between various stores eliminating the need for permanent supervisors in every store. These management styless further reduce cost for the customer. The instore monitoring is also used for calculating how many guests are in the restaurant at any moment and how long they have been there. This information is fed to the instore management system for calculating orders for the conveyor belt.

84

Speed

customers in restaurant

Speed is of the essence and each plate is prepared and sent within 1 minute of ordering.

Rice Washing Machine

Table 01 Duration: 04mins

Visual Inspection

Order Placed

Quality Control

Cameras can inspect sushi to ensure that is prepared in exactly the right way and with a consistent aesthetic output.

Table 02 Duration: 22mins

Rice Sheet Machine

Table 03 Duration: 12mins

Sushi Roll Machine

Tracking

Kura has installed microchips into the plates which provide real-time data on what type of sushi is selling well and what is not. Additionally it allows the staff to keep track of sushi that has been on the belt for too long for removal.

Automatic Sushi Cutter

Conveyor Belt

Historical Data

Real-Time Data

Instore Management System

Data Driven Delivery

The instore system performs a series of complex calculations to determine which dishes to be sent out and when for maximum efficiency and minimum waste. The system utilises real-time data obtained by the instore tracking cameras and the microchips in the plates to calculate which dishes the kitchen staff should be preparing.

The Science of Low-Cost Sushi. Initial Research Effieciency through Automation The Low cost sushi chain Kura has taken extreme lengths to automate and reduce labour costs & waste within its restaurants. Using sophisticated software and hardware to track and predict orders the system is capable of titrating exactly the right amount of sushi (& the right kind of sushi) to the belt at a specific time in a specific day. This is of the upmost importance when dealing with perishable good with low margins.

20

Plate Return

The microchips also facilitate return by customer. The customer is rewarded by returning their plates by the opportunity to play an onscreen game to win a small toy. This incentive means that almost all customers return their plates (which are then washed automatically) which further reduces the need for additional staff and reduces costs resulting in low costs for the customer.


‘‘...that will create a domestic titan with global ambitions...’’

Akindo Sushiro

Genki Sushi

£1,042,610,850

£250,000,000

2017 Revenue

2017 Revenue

Combined 630 stores in Japan Control one third of the domestic conveyor belt sushi market Domestic conveyor belt sushi market grown >40% in 7 years [>£4Bn]

The Future of Kaitenzushi. Initial Research Rapid Growth The merger between to goliaths within the low-cost chain sushi market is a significant one. Together they will control one third of the dometic conveyor sushi belt market which is rapidly expanding. The new company has global expansion in mind due to the global appetite for sushi.

21


Global demand for seafood has doubled since the 1960’s & is showing no signs of slowing down.

Global Fish Production [Data & Projections] 1984-2030 Demand is skyrocketing, it has doubled since the 1960’s and shows no signs of slowing down. 200.0

180.0

160.0

140.0

Million Tons

120.0

100.0

80.0

60.0

Total (data) Total (projected) Capture (data) Capture (projected) Aquaculture (data) Aquaculture (Projected)

40.0

20.0

Problems with Sea Farmed Fish

Problems with Land Farmed Fish

Bio-accumulation of micro-plastics

Antibiotic usage

Land use

Large wild fish are high in mercury

Sea Lice & treatment chemicals

Water & Electricity Use

All of the accumulation of wild fish

Unsustainable feed requirements

Tsukiji Fish Market When demand outstrips supply Through aquaculture (the panacea for collapsing fish stocks) we are just about keeping up with global demand for seafood, however not for long. Industrial aquaculture has a whole host of environmental problems that are associated with it. Consumption has increased from 9.9kg average in the 1960’s to 16.4kg currently.

2030

2029

2028

2027

2026

2025

2024

2023

2022

2021

2020

2019

2018

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

Problems with Wild Fish

Global Fish Production.

22

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

1989

1988

1987

1986

1985

1984

0.0


ÂŁ14 Million of business every single day. 2,000 tons 56 x

Bluewhales Daily [ We i g h t E q u i va l e n t ]

‘Tsukiji is closely attuned to the subtleties of Japanese food and to the representations of national cultural identity that cloak cuisine, but this is also the market that drives the global fishing industry... a supplier of food & a repository of cultural heritage.’ Theodore Bestor - Harvard University anthropologist

2000

65,000

varieties of seafood

market workers

The market sells around 2000 variety of seafood throughou the duration of the year, no single stall stocks more than a few dozen at a time however. During each season a few hundred of the 2000 total are available, the market therefore is highly seasonal which is also reflected in Japanese cuisine.

Producers,consignors, consolidators, truckers, shippers, stevedores, auctioneers, intermediate wholesalers, autorized traders, trade buyers, loading dock agents, delivery workers & outer market dealers make up a few of the 65,000 key actors within Tsukiji.

Commodification, Exhange & Consumption. Tsukiji Fish Market Marketplace at the centre of the world The market is a local market of perishable goods for the harvest of the global fishing industry. Face to face transactions between trans-global corporations and small family run business (some in the 20th generation) all set against a highly specific technological scene of international jet transport of live sea creatures and high speed refrigerated road freight.

23


2. Outer Market

220,000m2

Total Area:

The outer market consists of a few blocks of small retail shops and restaurants crowded along narrow lanes.

1. Fruit & Vegatables Market Tsukiji also boasts a large fruit & vegatables market. This is less popular with tourists but still a hugely important part of the market ecosystem.

Tokyo’s Pantry Regulars to the market enjoy the down to earth feel of the place and the sense of authenticity. It is regarded as one of the few places that retains the shitamachi culture (originally an area of Edo where artisans and merchants lived). The Shitamachi area was known for its tightly packed narrow streets of wooden tennement houses.

0m

55 40

0m

3. Marine Products Market

1.

Open to the public after 9am. This is where the majority of the fish processing and trading happens.

1.

Farm products section [ 38,561m2 ]

2.

Shops and Restaurants [ 23,318m2 ]

3.

Fresh Fish Wholesale Area [ 5750m2 ]

4.

Wholesalers Offices [ 8895m2 ]

5.

Intermediate Wholesalers Shops [ 32,790m2 ]

6.

Loading Area [ 3022m2 ]

7.

Live Fish Wholesale Area [ 5176m2 ]

8.

Tuna Wholesalers Area [ 7088m2 ]

9.

Salted & Dried Fish Wholesale Area [ 6655m2 ]

2.

Fish Market The wholesale area consists of hundreds of small stands arranged around a curve under a large steel framed roof. The shape of the market is derived from the curving train-line that used to transport lots of the fish product, now refrigerated lorries fill the role of the trains. The docks on the riverside are mostly inactive, only 1 or 2 ships will moor there each day as shipments are usually offloaded at closer ports and then driven by refridgerated lorry to the market.

6. 4.

5.

3.

9.

7.

8.

Nihonbashi fish market During the Edo period, a shogun named Tokugawa Ieyasu invited fishermen from Osaka to provide fish for the Edo castle, Edo being the old name for Tokyo. But there was so much leftover fish that they decided to sell it at Nihonbashi fish market in 1590. Later, an earthquake in 1923 demolished Nihonbashi fish market, and it was relocated 3 km south to Tsukiji, where it became the Tsukiji fish market.

121,792m2 38,561m2

23,318m

2

23,318m2

Market Components. Tsukiji Fish Market History & Layout The market can be divided into 4 main sections; Outer Market, Fruit & Vegatables, Marine Products and Back of House (private areas). The market has evolved with time and can be seen as a reflection of the most prevelent means of delivery.

24


25m

n

Spa

Concrete footing Concrete feet support the steel truss frame and transfer the load into the foundations.

Stall Markers Territory is marked by steel caps set into the floor. Some wholesalers just have a couple some have uptto 20.

Territories

Different boundaries are represented by different colours. Boundaries are informal and further discussed amongst wholsalers.

ss

cce

in A

Ma

3m Span

c

bli

Pu ce

Ac

ck

ss

Ba of us

Ho e

b Pu lic ss

ce

Ac

ck

Ba of Ho us e

b Pu lic ce

Ac ss

c Ba

ss

k

cce

of

in A

e

Pu

us

Ho

Ma

c bli ss

ce

Ac

[Above] Market Plan with section shown

Organisation. Tsukiji Fish Market Grids & Rules The apparent disordered chaos of the market belies the strict grid and order of the structure and subdivisional systems. The grid provides a framework upon which further rules and territories are established.

25


Every 4 years... Full Market Re-distribution The location of the wholesalers stalls is of paramount importance to their business. As such every 4 years the market is completely disassembled and reconfigured in the name of fairness & equal opportunity.

11m

Skylights The skylights allow natural light to penetrate through the building. For a building of its age it is quite unusual.

Additional Structural Elements Steel beams span large distances allowing additional floors and servicing to be hung from them.

Servicing The permanent infrastructural frame carries the buildings servicing. Water, electricity, AC, and phone lines.

Storage The market traders have a great need for storage. Polystyrene boxes can be seen stacked all the way up to the roof trusses.

Hanging Pendant Lights The market is quite dark due to the inhabitation of the upper levels. Hanging lights are used to illuminate produce.

Drainaige Office Space Merchants construct thier own offices above thier trading areas. The space is dismantled and re-assembled when the market is redistributed every 4 years

Tsukiji Market Section. Tsukiji Fish Market Occupied Section The 2 sections illustrate the space utilsation of the wholesalers, much like a section through a submarine not an inch of precious space is wasted. The relocation system overcomes short-term inequalities created by physical location to ensure that all wholesalers have relatively equal opportunity over the long term.

26

The market is a inherently wet space, traders are running hoses, splashing buckets of water around and this needs a decent drainage system to prevent puddling/flooding.


Suppliers. 1.

Domestic & Foreign Producers

Shippers

Brokers

Trading Companies

Regional Markets

Fisheries Cooperatives

2.

3.

Seafood consigned or sold directly to auction houses

280kg Bluefin Tuna ÂŁ63,012

1.

Auction Houses. Chuo Gyorui

~50,000 producers (Shippers/Brokers/Fisheries)

Daito Gyorui

Toto Suisan

Tsukiji Uoichiba

Daiichi Suisan

Chiyoda Suisan

Sogo Shokuhin

2.

7 Auction Houses Seafood sold through negotiated sales

Seafood Sold at live auctions

1. 4.

5.

Tsukiji Market 900 Intermediate Wholesalers

22 Auction Pits

375 Authorised Traders 2.

122 Display areas

Brokers assemble catches from many separate producers into larger and larger flows of commodities of increasingly homogenous character for the auction at tsukiji and simiar wholesale markets

Much of the produce that ends up at Tsukiji is consolidated into shipments via refridgerated lorry. Fishing vessels unload to their nearest ports preventing wasted fishing time sailing to Tokyo.

Purchase seafood for use or resale outside Tsukiji

Purchase seafood for resale within Tsukiji

3. 6.

OuterMarket Dealers

3.

Consignment (iraku hanbai) is most typical for fresh seafood. The auction house purchases the goods outright from the supplier. Usually frozen, processed, or aquacultural products with a steady supply.

900 Intermediate Wholesalers

Large Scale Users.

Trade Buyers.

4.

BULKING & BREAKING

Food Processors

Sushi Chefs

1681 Wholesaler Stalls

Hospitals

5.

Restauranteurs

Intermediate wholesalers are licensed by TMG (Tokyo Metropolitan Government) to purchase seafood at daily auctions and re-sell the product at their stalls within the marketplace.

Authorised traders also purchase seafood daily but are forbidden from re-selling within the marketplace. Such buyers often represent large-scale users such as supermarket chains/hospitals/commissaries & food processors.

Schools

14,000 Retail Buyers (sushi chefs etc)

Retail Sales

Retail Fishmongers

Commissaries

256 Chaya [Loading Slots]

Number of sushi restaurants in Japan ~45,000

Number of sushi restaurants in Tokyo ~5,000

Retail Consumers

Supermarket Chains

Outer market dealers have shops in the outer market (jogai shijo). They supply retailers and restaurants just like the intermediate wholesalers however the key distinction is that they welcome retail shoppers unlike intermediate wholesalers.

Supermarket Chains

Public.

Outer Market

Fish Market.

6.

P

Retail Sellers

Restaurants

P

Restaurants

Jetty

P

Cafes

Outer-market goods

[Aimono Auction Pit] Semi processed but perishable fish

[Ehi Auction Pit] Shrimp

[Enkaimono Auction Pit] Fresh Fish from coastal waters P

[Enkangyo Auction Pit] Salted & Dried Fish

Fish Market Amenities [Dry].

P

[Enyomonoa Auction Pit] Pelagic Fish P

Sashimi Grade Bluefin Tuna (Maguro) [ÂŁ3.39 Per Serving]

Product Arrival.

Bank

Book Store

P

Post Office 01

Medical Clinic

P

Post Office 02

Dental Clinic

Barber Shop

Coffee Shop

Library

Cafeteria

Snack shop

Hotel

[Himono Auction Pit] Dried Smoked & Salted Fish

1681 Wholesaler Stalls

[Hokuyomono Auction Pit] Salmon, Roe, Crab (North Pacific)

[Ise ebi Auction Pit] Pacific Spiny Lobster

Truck Delivery docks

P

[Kani Auction Pit] Crab

Boat delivery docks

P

[Katsugyo Auction Pit] Live Fish P

Administration.

[Kinkaimono Auction Pit] Fresh Fish (from near Tokyo)

Product Departure.

Freight dispatch docks

P

TMG marketplace admin offices

P

Trade Group Offices

P

Tsukiji Bureaus

[Kujira Auction Pit] Whale

[Omono Auction Pit] Tuna & Swordfish

Tsukiji Fish Market Flow of trade at Tsukiji Tracing the path of a Bluefin Tuna through the various distribution channels of the market gives insight into the immense complexity of the market substructures. Companies and Individuals are show within dotted boxes, modes of transaction are shown outside. Information from: Bestor, T. (2008). Tsukiji. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.. The market operates as a series of networked flows of commodities, product arrival can be tracked through the auction pits to the wholesaler stalls where it is commidified into smaller products and then distributed to various freight dispatch docks for collection/delivery for the customer. Amenities supplement the main commodity flow..

Processing Workshops

Recycling Plant P

Levels of Trade.

Fish Market Amenities [Wet].

[Neriseihin Auction Pit] Fish Paste & pate products

[Reitohin Auction Pit] Frozen Products

Trade newspapers Bureau Ice Making Plants

P

[Same Auction Pit] Shark & fish for paste processing

Chuo Gyorui K.K. Office [Auction House]

Refrigeration Storage Warehouses

P

[Tako Auction Pit] Octopus

Daito Gyorui K.K. Office [Auction House] P

[Tansuigyo Auction Pit] Freshwater fish (mostly sold alive)

Toto Suisan K.K. Office [Auction House]

Transport.

P

[Tegurimono Auction Pit] Trawl catches (mackerel, sardines, saury)

Tsukiji Uoichiba K.K. Office [Auction House]

Delivery Cart Maintenance

Daiichi Suisan K.K. Office [Auction House]

Delivery Cart Parking

Chiyoda Suisan K.K. Office [Auction House]

Employee Parking

Sogo Shokuhin K.K. Office [Auction House]

Customer Parking

P

[Tokushumono Auction Pit] Top grades of fish (especially for sushi) P

[Tsukudani Auction Pit] Boiled & Pickled seafood products P

[Uni Auction Pit] Sea Urchin Roe

27


Aimono

Semiprocessed but perishable fish

Ehi

Shrimp

Enkaimono

Fresh Fish from costal waters

Enkangyo

Salted & Dried Fish

Enyomono

Pelagic Fish

Himono

Dried Smoked & Salted Fish

Hokuyomono

Salmon, Roe, Crab (North Pacific)

Ise ebi

Pacific Spiny Lobster

Kani

Crab

Katsugyo

Live Fish

Kinkaimono

Fresh Fish (from near Tokyo)

Kujira

Whale

Neriseihin

Fish Paste & pate products

Omono

Tuna & Swordfish

Reitohin

Frozen Products

Same

Shark & fish for paste processing

Tako

Octopus

Tansuigyo

Freshwater fish (mostly sold alive)

Tegurimono

Trawl catches (mackerel, sardines, saury)

Tokushumono

Top grades of fish (especially for sushi)

Tsukudani

Boiled & Pickled seafood products

Uni

Sea Urchin Roe

“Each auction house has its own separate display areas adjacent to the common auction pits for each major commodity category.’’

4 Full Range Auction Houses

D I S P L AY A R E A S ( 7 Auction Houses )

“...shipments to Tsukiji end up in one of more than a hundred distinct destinations...’’

Major Seafood Trade Categories. Tsukiji Fish Market Flow of trade at Tsukiji Tsukiji handles 22 culturally distinct commodity categories. Only 4 of the 7 auction houses deal in all 22. Even the smallest auction house deals in at least 6 of the commodity groups. Each commodity group has its own major auction pit. Within the auction pits each auction house has its own display areas adjacent to the auction pits. The shipments that arrive at Tsukiji are sent to their respective display area and are then sorted, graded and arranged before the ‘Shitami’ (inspection) that preceeds the morning auctions.

28


“the highly fragmented auction system creates a large number of destinations to which the arriving seafood must be directed” - Theodore Bestor

The distribution of the auction pits

Tsukiji’s 7 Seafood Auction Houses Following WW2 there were over 30 firms with licenses allowed to operate as auction houses. The economic turbulence of postwar recovery and the renewal of open trading left only a few auction houses in business by the late 50’s. Currently there are 7 auction houses in operation. Sogo Shokuhin k.k. (the smallest of the auction houses) lacks its own freezer warehouse storage and so chooses not to deal in very much froze goods.

Specialisation Due to the large distances between auction houses it is impossible for the bidders to attend multiple auctions as the narrow passageways are far to crowded to move quickly. As such a natural form of specialisation has occured at Tsukiji in combination with normal business strategies of specialisation. Coloured caps signify specialisation within a specific commodity category. Caps must be worn at all times within the auction areas.

Midday

Daiichi Suisan k.k. and Chiyoda Suisan k.k. do not deal in all products but are specialists within the salted/smoked/dried commodities. Quantity (Million KG)

Value (Billion

Chuo Gyorui K.K

128.99

125.29

Daito Gyorui K.K

134.66

111.71

Toto Suisan K.K.

117.61

112.12

Tsukiji Uoichiba K.K.

116.26

88.28

Daiichi Suisan K.K.

55.78

42.81

Chiyoda Suisan K.K.

73.84

44.86

Sogo Shokuhin K.K.

10.38

10.96

Full Range Auction Houses: Deal with full range of seafood in all froms: fresh, frozen & Processed.

24hr

6am

reinforces specialisation at Tsukiji.

Auction Styles The auctions styles vary in style from pit to pit. Most rely on open bidding using hand gestures. It is not uncommon for auction outs to be running auctions from up to 7 auction houses simultaneously in adjacent auction areas. In the live fish auctions multiple auction houses conduction auctions simultaneuously in the same wooden auction bleacher! Some of the most common style of auction are:

6pm

900 Intermediate Wholesalers 375 Authorised Traders

1. Small Pit Auction, typically on a small wooden bleacher, open hand bidding.

Product Arrival Sequence From around midnight at Tsukiji a caffiene fueled exercise in organisation and skill is underway. Trucks begin to unload their cargo, the auction koage’s collect to the products and transport them to one of 100 display areas within 22 auction pits. Midnight

1. Unboxing & Construction Products are unboxed and a temporary elevated floor is laid for the seafood to be rested on for inspection.

9.30pm

Trucks start to arrive from distant fishing ports & airports.

10pm

Some marketplace restaurants and bars open to cater to the drivers.

12pm

Auctioneers (serinin) supervise the organisation of fish for the following days auction.

3am

Buyers inspection (shitami)

5am

Auctions start.

6.30 am

Auctions end

7am

Customers start to arrive at marketplace

1pm

End of trading day at Tsukiji (Auction floors deserted)

1pm

Last delivery vans leave the chaya

2. Sorting and Grading

1.30pm

Sweepers pulling handcarts complete last rubbish collection of the day

The koage work under the watchful eyes of the auction houses who ensure that the grading and sequencing of the products is correct.

2pm

Fish peddlers clean and fillet fish in the loading docks

3.30pm

Last fish peddlers leave the loading docks

4pm

Back office operations close

5.30pm

Market admin finish work day

6pm

Market shuttered, closed and quiet

2. Walking Auction, most typical for tuna, bidders bid whilst simultaneously inspecting other nearby tuna.

3. Floor Auction, the auctioneer typically stands on a small box to see over the heads of the bidders. Bidders informally arrange themselves around the auctioneer.

Role of the ‘Koage’ Each of Tsukiji’s auction houses has a subsidiary (Koage) for unloading and arranging the fish for the morning auctions. The volume of seafood that the koage process on a daily basis is extremely large combined with the fact the seafood is highly delicate and perishable makes this a very challenging job. The crampt physical layout of the marketplace further add to the difficulty of performing the tasks of the koage.

3. Marking and Cleaning Finally the area is cleaned and the fish are assigned identifiction in the form of a wetted piece of paper that bonds onto the skin of the fish.

4. Large Pit Auction, held on a large wooden bleacher, parralell auctions are often occuring and the intermediate wholesalers can bid on both auctions.

‘Going Once....’ Tsukiji Fish Market Flow of trade at Tsukiji The Marketplace is a constant whir of motion for almost 24hrs of each day. The primary goal of the market place is to get the highly perishiable and fragile seafood to stores, restaurants & customers before lunch. This requires a simply outstanding feat of logistic dexterity and the total comitment of all involved to work around the clock to ensure this target is met.

29


Spectacle of the Auction. Initial Research Rituals & Traditions The highly ritualistic tuna auction at the Tsukiji fish market is steeped in tradition. The human hand plays a pivotal role in the process, the highly evolved process is a true craft with artisans learning thier skills from a lengthy and brutal aprenticeship process. The workers of this market have the reputation as being the most uncomprimising experts of quality.

30


Global fish trade is worth £108 Billion Global tuna trade £30 Billion

Bluefin Tuna (less than 1%) In 2013 222kg bluefin tuna sold for 155.4m yen around £1 million. This set a new record for a single fish at Tsukiji fish market.

Whole Tuna Industry $42bn

£25,000

£25,000

In 2013 222kg bluefin tuna sold for 155.4m yen around £1 million. This set a new record for a single fish at Tsukiji fish market.

40k 1 average 380 kg Bluefin Tuna £25,000

1 tonne of Skipjack Tuna (x127) £25,000

Total tuna landings by weight

40,000 metric tons of all bluefin species caught per year

80%

80% Of all bluefin tuna is eaten in Japan

4.0 m

£1.2 Million

Higest price paid at auction (2013)

3.0 m

2.0 m

679 kg 3.7 m

1.0 m

Largest Recorded Bluefin Specimin: caught off Nova Scotia, an area renowned for huge Atlantic bluefin, and weighed 679 kg (1,497 lb) and 3.7 m (12 ft) long..

The Ferrari of the sea. Tsukiji Fish Market The worlds most valuable wild animal Tuna constitutes almost 1/3 of the global fish trade monetarily. The king of the tunas is of course the bluefin tuna which Japan and its cuisine is world renown for. Japan consumes an astonishing 80% of all bluefin tuna caught globally.

31


‘‘“...I can’t imagine at all that sushi in the future will be made of the same materials we use today...’’ Jiro Ono - 3 Michelin-starred 89-year-old sushi master

Global Appetite for Sushi The world’s sushi appetite is a driving force for the high demand for bluefin tuna. The high price combined with the demand is responsible for fleets of fishermen decimating tuna stocks in the Pacific Ocean. As automated robotic technology has been able to democratise sushi and create low-priced highvolume chain restaurants the once prohibitively expensive foodstuff has found global appeal. The health benefits of sushi are definitely a contributing factor to its global uptake along with the gradual diversification of global palettes.

Endangered (Population decreasing) Bluefin are the largest tuna and can live up to 40 years old. They migrate across oceans and can dive more than 4,000 feet. Bluefin tuna are made for speed: built like torpedoes, have retractable fins and their eyes are set flush to their body. They are fiercely aggressive predators and start hunting the moment they hatch. The bluefin has fantastic eyesight thanks to its large eyes, on which they rely on for hunting. There are three species of bluefin: • • •

Atlantic (Largest & most endangered) Pacific Southern

Spawning Stock Biomass

97% Depleted

Worlds most valuable wild animal In 2013 222kg bluefin tuna sold for 155.4m yen around £1 million. This set a new record for a single fish at Tsukiji fish market making the bluefin tuna the most valuable wild animal in the world.

90% Caught Before they can reproduce Not allowing bluefins to reach maturity is crippling the spawning stock. A 2 year moratorium on bluefin fishing is greatly needed and has been suggested by environmentalists.

Median Spawning Stock Biomass

In 2009, the global quota was reduced because of the poor state of the biological stock. The global quota was reduced from 11 810 t in 2009 to 9449 t for two years (2010 and 2011).

Reported global catch of Southern Bluefin Tuna

£20

“...glistening fish fat surrounding remarkably red and lustrous flesh, which is itself shot through with delicate, sugary strings of fat...”

Bluefin Background. Tsukiji Fish Market Endangered & Overfished The Bluefin species is very close to extinction due to a insatiable global appetite and irresponsible fishing and management practices. Little action has been taken to ensure the survival of the species. A 2 year moratorium from fishing bluefin tuna has been suggested by conservation groups but has been widely ignored.

32


The Mitsubishi Stockpile. Tsukiji Fish Market The Mitsubishi Corporation & Fish Mitsubishi Corporation is the second largest Atlantic salmon farmer in the world. Additionally Mitsubishi has been stockpiling huge quantities of bluefin tuna and cryopreserving (freezing) bluefin tuna to sell later as stock numbers plummet toward extinction..

33


“Imagine a future where we can enjoy fresh, healthy, and nutritious fish without impacting the environment.”

‘‘Using stem cells harvested from living fish to produce real fish meat resulting in a stable supply of cost-effective, appetizing, heavy metal and platics free seafood.’’

1.

2.

Healthy wild Bluefin captured.

Muscle sample taken from bluefin.

3.

5.

Muscle stem cells isolated. Growth serum added.

4.

Bluefin tuna matrix bioprinted (fat distribution and vascular system).

6.

Cells grown out in large fermenter.

7. How to grow a tuna The process of cellular mariculture borrows heavily from medical bio-tech and stem cell technology. Stems cells which divide rapidly to form muscle tissue are extracted from a live wild tuna. A bioprinted matrix with the correct fat distribution and vascularity is inserted into a large fermenter. Growth serums are added and the fermeter is carefully monitored and kept in ideal growth conditions. After the growth period the fermenter is drained and the tuna is extracted ready for processing and consumption.

Finless Foods. Tsukiji Fish Market The Birth of Cellular Mariculture Clean meat technology has shifted from its cyberpunk sounding ‘test-tube burger’ costing $325,000 to companies bringing meat products to market within the next 12 month at comparable prices to farm raised animal products. The focus has been exclusively on meat and none on fish, until the founding of finless foods founded in 2017. They aim to bring bluefin tuna meat to market in 2019 with price parity.

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Lab grown tuna extracted.

8.

Fillet processed into sushi.


‘‘A key challenge, however, is that Japanese people are eating less fish and more meat these days as world prices rise due to strong demand in the United States and Europe. Procurement is getting tough’’ Takashi Hoshito - CEO Genki Sushi

Mitsubishi Group Umbrella Corporation

Akindo Sushiro

Bio-Reactor

Osmotic Pressure

Nutrients and oxygen need to be delivered close to each growing cell, on the scale of millimeters. In animals this job is handled by blood vessels. A bioreactor should emulate this function in an efficient manner. The usual approach is to create a sponge-like matrix in which the cells can grow and perfuse it with the growth medium.

Nutrients

Temperature

Humidity Ph Regulation Oxygen

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Air Reactor Tank Effluent Sensor Probes Agitation System System Monitor Growth Medium Insulated Glass

9. 10. 11. 12.

Axial Force Rods Bluefin Tuna Fillet Submerged Aeration Vents Medical Grade Stainless Steel Frame

£170bn

Mitsubishi empire Genki Sushi

TMG (Tokyo Gov.)

2nd Largest Salmon Farmer Globally. Stockpilling frozen tuna.

3.

Creation of a facility to

2.

1.

Situate Japan to become the World Leader in Cellular Mariculture creating a paradigm shift in the way seafood products are produced distributed & consumed.

7. 9. 4.

Price 5.

Growing tuna at scale would bring the price well below existing prices.

6.

10.

Axial force application

Supply & Procurement Provided raw material supply is consistent supply would be very reliable and non seasonal.

Sustainability Growing fish will allow fish stocks to return to normal without a break in the supply chain.

Heath Grown fish will be free from microplastics & antibiotics ‘clean-meat’. 8.

11.

12.

Durability Grown fish will contain far less bacteria and parasites meaning that the fish can be kept for longer before it spoils.

Defining the Brief. Mitsubishi Mariculture Facility Paradigm Shift The brief speculates that Mitsubishi Corp. a £170Bn corporate giant that has dealings with the marine trade, 2nd largest farmed salmon manufacturer, decides to invest in the creation of a Cellular Mariculture facility to situate Japan as the world leader. Being first to market would obviously be a huge advantage but additionally the Japanese culture surrounding seafood and the deep reverence towards marine products would allow them to dominate this emerging market.

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01. Market Worker The market worker fills a variety of roles. Primarily he spends his day breaking down large fish, packaging and negotiating deals. Buyer ID The buyer displays his unique ID number on his peaked cap for identification during the tuna auction.

Waterproof Apron

Tuna Spike

Protecting against splashes and fish guts. Apron covers clothing down to boot level.

Demand is skyrocketing, it has doubled since the 1960’s and shows no signs of slowing down.

Maguro Bocho “tuna cutter” Extremely long, highly specialized knife used to fillet tuna. The flexible blade can be curved to match the shape of the spine to minimize the amount of meat remaining on the tuna carcass.

Towel Towel is used to wipe down tools and clean hands when handling the fish.

Spotlight/Torch The neon lights in the auction house alter the colour of the tuna meat. A torch is used for an accurate representation of the colour, crucial for accurately assessing the tuna quality.

Rubber Boots Rubber boots protect against the moist environment of the fish market. Some wholesalers choose to carry their spotlights within their boots.

02. Buying Agent [Wholesaler] Prior to bidding the agents perform a complex diagnostic method on the tunas that is mastered only with years of practice.

03. Tissue Engineer [Lab] Tissue engineers use of a combination of cells, engineering and biochemical and physicochemical factors to grow biological tissues.

Protective Eyewear Protecting the eyes from chemical splashes and any airborne debris

Breathing Protection Protecting the engineer from inhaling noxious fumes and also from desterilizing the environment with his breath.

Haz-mat Suit

Selfie Stick Selfie stick can knock into workers and prevent people from passing. Market workers get annoyed at the presence of these.

Ensures the lab remains sterile, also prevents skin exposure to hazardous chemicals

Camera

Gloves

Taking photos is forbidden in the market as it is a dangerous place and requires full attention.

Disposable gloves ensure the lab remains sterile, also prevents skin exposure to hazardous chemicals

Bags Bags increasw the width the person occupies, this is an issue in the tight alleyways of the markets

Non Waterproof footwear Integrated Boot Covers

Tourists often get wet feet from the water being sprayed and sloshed about.

Boot covers prevent the transfer of bacteria into the sterile lab environment.

04. Tourists Tourists cause significant problems to the smooth operation of the market. The market is recognised as a major tourist attraction within Tokyo.

Users/Actors. Tsukiji Market Needs and Roles The market provides a complex interplay between various actors. The needs of the tourist can be counter to the operations of the market worker. Reducing these frictions is key in the design of a highly functional new market.

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Site Location [ Toyosu ]

T O K Y O

B A Y

Tokyo Bay. Tsukiji Fish Market 35°25’N 139°47’E Spanning the coasts of Tokyo, Kanagawa Prefecture, and Chiba Prefecture. Tokyo Bay is connected to the Pacific Ocean by the Uraga Channel. Its old name was Edo Bay. The Tokyo Bay region is both the most populous and largest industrialized area in Japan.

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Existing Fish Market [ Tsukiji ]

450m Proposed new location [ Toyosu ]

Project Site [ Mitsubishi Mariculture ]

100 X over safe levels of toxic benzine Ground Water contains Arsenic & Cyanide

Site Location. Tsukiji Fish Market ‘The Big Move’

Reasons for Move:

The move was originally scheduled for November 2016 in preparation for the 2020 Tokyo olympics, but then delayed indefinitely by the governor. It is now expected to happen in October 2018. The stated reason for the move was that the city needed an advanced new market to handle the growing demand in the consumption of fresh fish and produce in Tokyo metropolitan.

Buildings in bad repair

Space is cramped

Inconvenient location for moving millions of tons of

The site that the market is to move to ‘Toyosu Island’ is highly contentious. The 40-hectare man made island (1937) was once home to a gas plant which has left the site contamined with poisonous chemicals. According to experts 2m depth of soil needs to be removed and an additional 4.5m of soil to be laid ontop to cover across the entire site. This is expected to cost 85 billion yen approx (£553m). The estimated cost of the entire move is £2.8bn.

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seafood •

Land in the heart of business & entertainment district could be put to better use


Ginza District Ginza is a very upmarket district featuring prime shopping, dining and entertainment spots. It is has some of the most expensive land value in all of Japan. It is regarded as the glamorous modern heart of Tokyo. The area was marshland until the 16th century.

1. Kamiyacho 2. Shiba Park

Tsukishima District

3. Kokyo Gaien National Garden

Tsukishima island is a island formed of reclaimed land in 1892. A shipping

4. Akihabara

channel was dug and the resulting dredge was used to create the island.

5. Shiodome

Initially it was a place for Iron-working. Now it is a highly residental area

6. Hamarikyu Gardens

with a local speciality of Monjayaki (pan fried vegatables in batter).

7. Tsukiji Fish Market 8. Shibaura-futo 9. Rainbow Bridge 10. Toyomicho 11. Harumi 12. Harumi Wharf

Harumi District

13. Site Tsukiji is moving to

Also built on reclaimed land just before the start of World War II, Harumi

14. Ariake

island is a mainly residential area with residential towers that take advantage of the great views over tokyo bay. The Triton Square office development is perhaps what Harumi is best known for.

4

Toyosu District Also built on reclaimed land in 1937, the island has seen the initial relocation of Tsukiji fish market. However due to toxic contamination of the site (former gas and chemicals plant) the move has been postponed. There are plans to create a retail market there instead.

3

5

7

10

6

Site Boundary.

11

1 2

12 13

14

8

9

Site Context. Tsukiji Fish Market New Neighbours The unique site is surrounded by very different urban contexts. One side is the fashionable Ginza district which sits on the most expensive land in all of Japan, on the other side is a predominantly residential district of Harumi.

39


Tectonic Abstraction. Mitsubishi Mariculture ‘The sterile & the visceral An initial abstraction investigates the proximity of the two programmatic conditions, that of the meticulously clean sterile laboratories and that of the visceral fish market. The proximity of the the two elements creates a charged tension.

40


The Master Carpenter The Japanese word for carpenter, daiku, was originally the title of the official in charge of construction and first appears in Japan as a title in the 7th century. Together with one assistant, he directed all the craftsmen involved in the work, both during the planning stage and at the building site. Over the years, daiku came to designate the leader of individual building projects.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

1. Triple-faced halved rabbeted oblique scarf splice with key 2. Miyajima splice. 3. Quadruple-faced half rabbeted oblique splice. 4. Stepped dovetailed splice.

18.

5. Stepped gooseneck splice. 6. Rabbeted oblique scarf splice. 7. Mortised rabbeted oblique splice. 8. Blind stubbed, housed rabbeted oblique scarf splice 9. Cross shaped tenon and mortice splice. 10. Right angle tenon and mortice splice. 11. Housed tenon and mortice splice.

19.

12. Blind tenon and mortise splice. 13. Double-faced halved rabbeted oblique scarf splice. 14. Double-faced halved rabbeted oblique scarf splice with key 15. Blind Pin splice. 16. Pole tennon splice. 17. Four faces gooseneck splice. 18. Blind splice.

20.

19. Osaka Castle-Otemon Gate’s Pillar splice. 20. Single faced rabbeted oblique scarf splice.

Splicing Joints. Traditional Japanese Timber Construction Fundimentals Initial investigations into the precise mechanics of traditional Japanese joinery. An understanding of the basic principles of the traditional system allowed me to experiment and create my own specific joint components for my structural system. Japanese timber beam and post structures hide a world of advanced spatial and geometrical complexity within the joinery. Integral timber joints without the use of adhesives or metal fastenings were developed and iterated upon throughout the generations. As the evolution of Japanese joinery matured joints that had a very minimal and clean expression such as the blind splice became prefered.

41


[Above] Daiku (carpenter) constructing a pre-cut timber frame.

[Above] Pre-cut timber beams awaiting construction.

[Above] Design patent for CNC integral timber joint. [Above] Construction schematics for pre-cut timber house.

Japanese Precut Vernacular. Traditional Japanese Timber Construction 70% Residential timber construction Japan’s massive housing market exhibits a very unusual behaviour known as ‘scrap and build’. This is when houses rapidly depreciate upon completion, much like a new car. Within 15 years, a building typically has no value apart from the land it stands on. This is partly due to the low quality prefabricated housing that were constructed immediately after WWII, rapidly changing building codes and a cultural acceptance of destruction as part of life’s natural cycles. As a consequence,there is an abundance of residential construction within Japan - approximately 1,400,000 units per year (Iwamura, 2006). The detached house building market has seen some interesting innovations in recent decades. The market comprises of approximately 20% prefabricated, 10% imported North American platform construction, and 70% conventional timber construction (Matsumura 2006). One particularly interesting development

42

in the conventional timber market was the invention of precut machines in 1970. These machines use several angled circular saws to greatly reduce the cutting work of the carpenter in the creation of joints such as the dovetail stop lap. In 1976, Miyagawa Kouki developed a rotary spindle based machine that would cut simplified joint forms with a rounded profile (Matsumura 2006). These machines required workers to interpret the floor plans with the beam and joint locations, and mark precisely on the beams the location and type of each joint to be cut. In 1985, the process became automated with the introduction of CAD-CAM. This reduced the worker’s role to simply sorting the timber and running the machine code. Currently, around 800 companies provide Precut construction timbers to more than half of the conventional timber constructions in Japan (Woudhuysen and Abley, 2004).


Joints Components. CNC Timber Construction Digital Joint Iterations and experiments Collation of various tests and iterations of integral timber splices. In researching traditional Japanese Joinery I was struck by the spatial complexity of joint forms featuring undercut geometries and multiple precise planar orientations. This is contrasted with modern Precut CNC joinery which has drastically simplified joint forms into easily machined parts. I wanted to create a design and fabrication process that honours the beautiful functional complexity of the past with the convenience and expedience of modern machining practice.

43


ar Splice

[1] Osaka Castle Otemon Gate Pillar Splice with its eight undercut faces. Vertical infill shown for clarity.

[2] Splitting geometry across centre line. Split across x-axis.

[4] 4 joint components ready for filleting (shown in detail in the next section.

[3] Rotation of split geometry 180 to create mirrored pairs.

[6] Pairs are matched and laminated using high strength wood glue.

[5] Timber billets are CNC milled to the target geometry.

[7] Complete Joint is left to cure for 24 hours before testing.

Planar Surface.

Intersect.

[1] Joint edges were selected and ‘fillet edge’ command with a radius of 6mm was run.

[3] Trim planes created perpendicular to the inner corner of both triangular faces, all inner surfaces trimmed.

[2] Joint edges were selected and ‘fillet edge’ command with a radius of 6mm was run.

Project. Extrude.

[7] ‘Arc Blend’ command run to create a blended curve between curve 8 and 9.

[9] Results from arc blend 8 and 9 are projected onto the extruded surface and used to trim the surface.

[8] Curves 10,11 and 12 duplicated, joined and extruded 40mm.

Network Srf.

[13] Curves13 and 14 are joined to create 15 as network surfaces needs a 4 curve input.

[14] Curves 15, 16, 17 and 18 are used in ‘Network Surface’ Command. (edge matching assigned to ‘position’ with edge and interior tolerances increased to 0.001)

Network Srf.

[15] Process repeated for surface C.

Joint Surface Creation. CNC Timber Construction Digital joint iterations and experiments Due to the complexity of internal pocket filleting, Rhino struggled to produce a clean surface output for the fillet command. A custom surfacing solution was to be found. Using the curves offset along the surfaces, the base geometry could be trimmed to include all retained walls and faces. The exposed surface edges were then used to extract full and sub-curves for surface generation. Several surfacing methods were explored such as lofting/sweeping/patching and network surfacing.

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[4] Radiused edge corners duplicated and moved to the inner corner of both triangular faces. Loft command run between all pairs of radiused edge corners.

[5] ‘Arc Blend’ command run to create a blended curve between curve 1 and 2.

[6] Results from arc blend in combination with curves 3,4,5,6 and 7 used to define a planar surface.

[11] Surfaces a and b are split using the intersected planes.

[12] Curves are created using ‘Arc Blend’ between the intersected curves.

Trim.

[10] 2 vertical trim planes aligned to the x-axis are aligned with the edges of curve 11.

Network Srf. Join.

[16] Process repeated for surface D.

[17] Upper surfaces joined and faces merges to create single continuous face.

[18] Whole component is rejoined and checked.


01.

02.

Horyu-ji pagoda has been hit by magnitude 7.0 earthquakes 46 times in 1,300 years Bracket Assembly [Dougong] Dougong (cap & block) is a structural assembly of interlocking wooden brackets. The brackets are assembled without the use of any glues or fixtures. The dougong support beams transferring thier weight over a larger surface area and down to the column.

Typhoon wind load

Base Isolation

03.

Slip Joints

04.

Typhoon Bracing In the diagrams above if the central shinbashira is removed the pagoda will easily topple. The Shinbashira although non weight bearing is integral in the structural system during dynamic lateral loading such as during a typhoon. As the floors slide and collide with the shinbashira, some of the kinetic enerfy is transfered into the beam.

Shinbashira Snake Dance (Balancing Toy)

05.

Wide Eaves Carry rainwater away from the foundation preventing waterlogging the soil and causing the pagoda to sink.

06.

SORIN (Filial with sacred ornamental rings)

Free (Slip) Movement of Floors The diagram shows a simplified version of one of the main structural principles, the stacking of individual floor sections allowing lateral movement.

Post & Beam Frame

Friction Damper

TMD.

Shin-Bashira

Tuned Mass Damper

Lightning Strikes Fire-by-lightning-strike is the primary way pagodas are destroyed in Japan. The tall metal spire acts as a lightning rod, protecting the flamable structure.

Tapered Construction A wide footprint and narrow upper stories increases stability.

Heavy Eaves Act as giant stabilisers, huge amount of inertia that prevents swaying.

627 Movement brackets.

1300

GOJU (5th story)

SHIJU (4th story)

SANJU (3rd story)

Years old.

Loosely connected stories The junctions allow lateral forces to be transfered into heat and noise as the timbers slip against each other.

Shinbashira

NIJU (2nd story)

SHOJU (1st story)

Horyu-ji Pagoda. The world’s oldest wooden building Integral Timber Joints & Structural Logic Multi-story pagoda design was due to Chinese influence in the sixth century. Japanese pagodas however evolved due to a very specific set of climatic conditions. The pagoda hides a wealth of structural principles in the elegant sweeping eaves and joinery complexity. The pagodas were built solely on wood to wood joints without the use of metal fasteners or any glues.

45


Roof Development. Movement & Layering Surface to structure The roofscape was inspired by the complexity of traditional timber joint forms. The small fluctuations create apertures into the building that bring light into the heart of the floorplan. The local diversity yet global unity is a theme that was explored further in the development of the project.

46


[1]

[2]

[3]

[4] 1. Spine Creation of a delivery spine paralell to the distribution road.

2. Communities Auction pits and thier respective communities are distributed around the marketplace.

3. Connections The Auction pits are linked allowing efficient passage between auctions.

[5] [6]

4. Courtyards Courtyards bring natural light down into the marketplace, providing areas for relaxation.

5. Green Linkages The Greenspaces are linked to create a seamless flow of experience

6. Public Route A carefully curated route allows visitors to see the action firsthand whilst minimising disruption.

7. Laboratories A carefully curated route allows visitors to see the action firsthand whilst minimising disruption.

8. Wholesaler Stalls A carefully curated route allows visitors to see the action firsthand whilst minimising disruption.

Inhabitated Structure. Mitsubishi Mariculture Facility Cellular Mariculture & Fish Market 1. Ground floor layout sketch 2. Metabolist References 3. Mass timber sectional structure. 4. Key moves 5. References 6. Perspective roof plan sketch

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[Above] Sectional perspective sketch

Biotic.

[Above] Sketches exploring sectional and plan development.

Inorganic.

[Above] Sketches showing development of the roof structure.

Plinth Integration. Sketch Development Biotic & Inorganic The connection between the timber roof and the concrete plinth are emphasized and articulated throught the ground connection nodes. This expression of integration is a key design driver.

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[Above] Temple timber to stone connection


[Above] Perspective section showing the proximity of roof to plinth

[Above] Sketches showing development of the roof structure.

[Above] Sketches showing development of the roof structure.

[Above] Cyborg, half man/half machine

Cyborg. Man & Machine Development The concept of the cyborg which is predominant in Japanese manga and anime is referenced in the integration between the living roofscape and the inorganic ground plinth. The nesting of key programatic areas into the timber components of the plan became a key point of exploration that is explored further within the project. The connection between living and inorganic is also a reference to the building program as new life is created throught the biological engineering, there is a moment where the serum and cells are transformed into living tissue, this symbolic moment is celebrated in this tension between the two primary building materials.

49


Perspective Section. Mitsubishi Mariculture Section The section describes the variation in space and the relationship between the ground plinth and the timber roof structure. The roof encapsulates several intimate courtyard gardens and allows the penetration of natural light deep into the building.

50


51


ACCESS FOR CARTS

TOXIC SOIL EXCAVATED

1. Boundary Offset (cargo access)

2. Toxic Soil Removal

The site boundary is offset to allow access for the turret trucks (small 3-wheeled fish market vehicles). The offset also creates a space for the market workers to relax.

The former gas factory that was once located here has to be removed and the toxic contaminated soil must be removed. This creates an opportunity for the basement program.

WHOLESALE AUCTION HALL MARINE BIO-PRINTING

3. Basement Program

4. Extruded Max build Envelope

The Marine Bio-printing facility and wholesale auction hall are located in the excavated basement. The wholesale auction is a double height space.

The offset site footprint is extruded to create a large triangular shaped volume. The volume has road access on its north side.

AUCTION HOUSES SUNKEN COURTYARDS

VIEWS OF TOKYO BAY

5. Courtyard Creation

6. Auction House Perimeter

A large courtyard is created in the centre of the extruded volume, this defines the inner sunken courtyards. The courtyards are a place to escape the bussle of the market.

The auction house program is located around the perimeter of the site with views over tokyo bay.

DELIVERY & DISPATCH MARKET STALLS

7. Inner Market Crescent

8. Back of House

The market stalls define an inner crescent that frames the sunken courtyard gardens. The market stalls are located within easy reach of each other.

The large wholesale auction house is a double height space located on the northern edge of the site. Delivery and dispatch is via the wholesale auction house entry.

Key Moves. Program Strategy Ground Floor Massing The ground floor layout is highly pragmatic and defined by site conditions and market operations. The segregation of program into key strata allows for both proximity and serparation, key to the successful operation of the market.

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WHOLESALE AUCTION


04.

01.

04. 01.

03.

03.

02.

02. 01. Chuo Gyorui Auction House 02. Chiyoda Suisan Auction House

01. Chuo Gyorui Market 02. Chiyoda Suisan Market

03. Sogo Shokuhin Auction House 04. Daito Gyorui Auction House

03. Sogo Shokuhin Market 04. Daito Gyorui Market

1. Auction Houses

2. Market Stalls

Auction houses are located on the perimeter of the plan with waterfront access. Auction houses are further subdivided according to the specifications of the auction house operators.

The market stalls are adjacent to the auction houses and are a place where the fish produced in the auction houses are sent to be processed and sold. Each auction house has slightly different demands for size and operation.

3. Sunken gardens

4. Harvesting Sectors

The sunken gardens are a semi covered outdoor public space that unifies the separate elements of the program. The gardens provide a reprive from the intensitiy of the market.

The harvesting sectors decant the marine products from the bio-reactors by draining the growth-serum and discharging the various gases.

5. Wholesale Auction Hall The wholesale auction hall sells the lower grade market produce to large sale buyers such as schools/hospitals and food processors. The auctions are held in an amphiteatre.

6. Delivery & Dispatch Spine The delivery spine allows convieniet access for vehicles to deliver and collect consumables and market products, it is located next to the road on the north of the site.

Programatic Components. Design Development Market floor The groundfloor market program can be divided into 6 major zones. It is important for the functional operation of the market that these zones are separate for safety and efficiency.

53


Ground Floor GA. Mitsubishi Mariculture General Arrangement 1:600 A1 The ground floor plan fills the waterfronted site and is arranged around a central sunken courtyard garden. A wholesale market is located near the road which also provides delivery and dispatch. Market stalls are arranged in the inner crescent facing into the sunken courtyard garden.

04

04 B-21

A.01

A.02

A.32

A.29

AH-01

A.33

AH-04

A.34

A.30

A.31 DN

A.03

A.28

A.04

A.27

EX-02

A.05

EX-01

03

A.25

01

06

A.26

A.24

A.23

A.06

A.07

A.21

A.22

A.08

A.19

A.20

N

D

A.09

A.18

AH-02

A.10

A.11

AH-03

A.17

A.12

A.13

A.16

DN

A.14

A.15

02

05

Legend Auction Houses: AH-01 Auction House 01 AH-02 Auction House 02 AH-03 Auction House 03 AH-04 Auction House 04 External Areas: EX-01 Sakura Terrace EX-02 Sunken Courtyard Garden Notes: 01 02 03 04 05 06

Public Access From Ferry Public Access Point Public Access Point Goods Access Fisherman’s Wharf Rainbow Bridge Viewing Terrace

DN

Basement Access Tuna Tank (Auction Holding) Tuna Tank (Decanting) Tuna Tank (Overhead) Reactor Transport Route

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Pedestrian Gantry Routes

Reactor Transport Routes


Basement Floor GA. Mitsubishi Mariculture General Arrangement 1:750 A2 The basement area is devoted to the mariculture fabrication process. Workshops, control centres and offices are nestled amongst the network of the in-vitro growth tanks. The Program can be divided into 4 primary components. Cleaning, serum, storage & Diagnostic.

01 CL-01 SR-01

02

01

03 02 04 05

06

01

07

D-01

SR-02

SR-03

08

03 CL-01

09

10

11

05

04

Legend 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11

Bio-Reactor spares Engineers Break room Workshop Offices Control Centre Serum Filtration Unit Bio-Printing Lab Inspection & Testing Reactor Storage Reactor Maturation area Reactor Inspection & sorting

CL-01 SR-01 SR-02 SR-03 D-01

Cleaning Station 01 Serum Station 01 Serum Station 02 Serum Station 03 Diagnostic Centre

DN

Basement Access

Cleaning

Serum

Diagnostic & QC

Storage Tuna Tank (Auction Holding) Tuna Tank (Decanting)

Basement Overview

Tuna Tank (Overhead) Reactor Transport Route

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Wholesale Auction

In- house Auctions

01. Chuo Gyorui Auction House 02. Chiyoda Suisan Auction House 03. Sogo Shokuhin Auction House 04. Daito Gyorui Auction House

Senaka (Best part of red) Se-Kami (Red-fatty tuna) Se-Shimo (Mix of red & less fat) Hara-Shimo (Mix of fat & less red) Hara-Naka [Chu-Toro] (Fatty tuna) Hara-Kami [Ho-Toro] (Extra-fatty tuna)

01. Chuo Gyorui Auction House 02. Chiyoda Suisan Auction House 03. Sogo Shokuhin Auction House 04. Daito Gyorui Auction House

Grade, Seasonalitity & Research One of the key things the auction houses do is to research into the advancement of cellular mariculture. Replicating the extremely suble and imperceptable nuances of flavour quality and seasonality is of paramount importance for the widespread adoption of mariculture within Japan and globally. As such the auction houses are unique specialists whithin various grades and styles of tuna production. Each auction house has a specialitiy of which it is known and celebrated for. This type of research creates a lot of byproduct which is the reason for the inclusion of a wholesale auction house for the lower quality seafood which is not of a quality acceptable to the highly picky and sophisticated trade buyers.

Chuo Gyorui

Chiyoda Suisan

Sogo Shokuhin

Daito Gyorui

Auction House

Auction House

Auction House

Auction House

Trade Buyers.

Sushi Chefs

Restauranteurs

Food Processors

Hospitals

Retail Fishmongers

Supermarket Chains

Schools

Supermarket Chains

Auction Houses. Program Development The Local and the Global The market operates at several scales. Premium produce is created and sold in the local markets to trade buyers such as to sushi chefs & restauranteurs. Any product that does not meet the exacting standards of the auction houses is sent to the wholesale auction house where it packaged into larger quantities and sold in a auditorium style auction.

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Wholesale Auction House


57


Perspective Section. Mitsubishi Mariculture Long Section The section cuts from north to south through the building. The basement fabrication plant is visible alongside the market wholesale areas. The timber structural system provides great spatial diversity as the spans are adapted to the specific programatic function beneath each space.

MARKET TYPOLOGY

TEMPLE TYPOLOGY

MARICULTURE TYPOLOGY

Structural Concept The roof draws inspiration from both the rational pragmatism of a market hall as well as the structural layering of a traditional Japanese temple. The resulting structure is topologically optimised to reduce weight across the cantilevering roof elements.

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32Ëš

Vertical Circulation Vertical circulation is integrated directly into the structural diagonal members. The diagonal members are set at 32 degrees.

Adaptation

The structural system adapts to increa spanning capacity from 12m to 24m. T used in areas where height or or clear are needed.


ase its This is r spans

? 1. How to hold up a roof? The investigation began with thinking about how to suppor the large cantilevering roof planes.

3. Japanese sills Traditional Japanese structures use roof and ground sills to brace the structure, however these are not suited to a market typology.

2. Shear and rotation A simple post and beam structure lacks the requisite strength and structural elasticity to survive Japans seismic conditions.

4. Cross bracing By cross bracing the structure inherits stability but lacks porousity and elasticity.

5. V-bracing Using a V-bracing system the structure is provided with adequate structural rigidity and good elasticity.

Layering The system lends itself well to the layering of floor planes and roof scapes. The diagonal bracing columns continue through the cross nodes.

6. Shading The large cantiliver allows for large shaded areas which is essential to the fish market.

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Snap-fit Saddle Node. Fabrication Approach Design Research LVL timber node pre-assembly. Snap pins locate and prevent the joint from coming apart once assembled. Inspired by rapid injection moulding the joint design contains no ocluded or undercut geometry until it has been laminated.

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[Above] Exploded components post machining.

[Above] Completed nodes ready for assembly.

Post-Machining Lamination. Fabrication Approach Design Research Lamination process for creating main structural nodes. Lamination occurs after machining, allowing for complex undercut geometry. The three joints pictured are the largest nodes and are used where the structure develops into a double span such as the main production area.

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Splice Prototypes. Fabrication Approach Design Research Key details and tollerances in the fabrication of the LVL timber joints. Post machining lamination allowed for the creation of complex undercut geometry. Refinement in tooling strategy allowed for very small tolerances.

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Thesis. Integral: A case for modern timber joinery Integral timber connections Alongside the submission of the the thesis I created a CNC machined integral timber case to protect the thesis document. The case was locked in place with a simple acrylic locking pin that prevented the case from sliding open. The timber used was a beech LVL, the same as used as in all the experiments and investigations featured in the thesis.

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Structural Elements. Mitsubishi Mariculture Nodes & Frame Diagrams showing the configuration of the structural system. A series of key nodes have been chosen to show the diversity of joint expression within the system. The system follows a strict 12m x 12m grid with a 6m cantilevering overhang. The system is designed to be elastic enough to survive in japans seismically active context yet creates enough stiffness to support the floor plates and various program above. The structural system is very well suited to the cantilevering roofscape which is one of the key design drivers.

C-1

E-5

B-1

D-4

A-4

A-7

Node B-1

Node A-4

Connects perimeter beams to the main keel beams. Provides an interface between the diagonal tension beams and the compressive diagonal down beams.

Ground level node connecting diagonal brace beams to the cantilevering brace beams. Quite a complex node as there is an introduction of a 90 degree load.

Node C-1

Node A-7

Roof level node connecting keel beams to the diagonal brace beams and to the first perimeter tie beam. These are some of the smallest nodes within the building structure.

Complex node at roof level transfering forces from multiple directions. The node is comprised of many components and laminations.

Node D-4

Node E-5

Ground level beam that transfers the diagonal brace beams into the floor slab. Laminated from 3 LVL components. The node can also be used with an extension column beneath it.

Roof level beam that connects the keel beams to the diagonal brace beams. A variation of this node occures where the diagonal brace beams continue an additional story throught the floor.

[Above] Completed cantilevered node.

1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

2

3 5

4

Butterly locking pins Capping plate Upper chassis plate Inner perimeter beam Left tension beam outer perimeter beam Lower chassis assembly Right tension beam Splice locking wedge Lower haunch assembly Central diagonal brace

6

7

9

8

10

11

[Above] Exploded cantilivered node

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Construction Sequence. Mitsubishi Mariculture Perspective The structural system is designed to be lightweight but strong. Topological adaptation occurs to reduce the weight in the cantilevering roofline. A certain degree of elasticity is introduced into the structure, essential to surviving the frequent seismic activity. The structure gains its rigity from the cross bracing in various planes.

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1. Diagonal Cross Bracing

2. Keel Beam

Ground to roof level beam that transfers the diagonal forces into the floor slab. Laminated from 3 LVL components. The floor node can also be used with an extension column beneath it. Ground nodes connect the diagonal cross braces.

The perpendicular keel beam laterally stabilises the roof structure providing global rigidity to the structure. A key node translates the system by 90 degrees allowing the new orientation of the beams.

5. Cantilever Complex

6. Perimeter Ring Beams

The cantilever complex allows the roofscape to overhang the footing at the non directional edges. The cantilever complex works in tension and compression to transfer rotational forces create by loading into the floor slab.

Perimeter ring beams tie the structure together and distribute and equalise loading forces across the edge of the roof. The perimeter beams taper slighly to give the structure a light expression. .


3. Tie Beam

4. Lateral Bracing

Tie Beams connect to the top of the diagonal bracing beams acting like the top layer of a truss. The beam is primarily in tension due to the traction transfered by the diagonal bracing beams under loading.

The lateral bracing provides an alignment and squaring function ensuring that the roof complex is constructed accurately and perfectly square. The bracing arms act in tension and compression to prevent lateral movement or rotation.

6. Subfloor Bracing

8. Floor Assemblies

Subfloor bracing allows a significant improvement in the weight to strength ratio. Forces from the floor slab are transfered across this grid and into the various nodes and beams and then down into the floor slab.

Ground level beam that transfers the diagonal brace beams into the floor slab. Laminated from 3 LVL components. The node can also be used with an extension column beneath it. Floor finishes and membranes are then applied.

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First Encounter. Mitsubishi Mariculture Perspective The visitors first encounter with the growing chambers is after a walk through an increasing narrow space into the expanse of the main hall. The visitors are confronted face to face with the towering tanks infront of them.

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1

1

2

3

4

6

5

8 7

9

10

11

12

13

Structural Assembly.

14

Mitsubishi Mariculture Axonometric 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Tertiary joists. Secondary joists. Primary joists. Mid span solid blocking Continous tie beam Ceiling to floor node 3-B Mid span solid blocking to node Twin diagonal bracing beams Tertiary joist ends Ground node 2-C Complete joist complex Twin diagonal bracing beams Mid node 4-D LVL column

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L.01

L.02

Laboratory L-03. Mitsubishi Mariculture Axonometric

L.04

Cutaway showing the integration of the laboratory spaces into the primary structure. The servicing required for the laboratory is concealed in the cavity beneath the lab floor. Servicing can be easily added or amended via the maintainance access gangway.

L.03

A-1 A-2 A-3 A-4 A-5

C-1

Laboratory Space Brighly lit sterile space for experiments and research into cellular mariculture. The laboratory spaces are nested into the primary timber structure.

A-6 A-7 A-8 A-9 A-10 A-11

A-12 A-13 A-14 A-15 A-16

B-1 B-2 B-3

Maintainance Access Small corridor with access to the ducting and servicing that supplies the laboratory space. Keycard access only to authorised technicians.

B-4 B-5 C-6

Build-up & finishes

Servicing & Lab Systems

A-1

B-1 B-2

A-2 A-3 A-4 A-5 A-6 A-7 A-8 A-9 A-10 A-11 A-12 A-13 A-14 A-15 A-16

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Visual grade plywood, cedar finished face ` 15mm. Perma barrier breather membrane . OPTIM-R vacuum insulation panel 38mm Vapour control layer. 42mm LVL board cedar veneer to visual side. Annodised aluminium insulated panel with anti-microbial finish. Proprietary subsystem Vapour control membrane Sound block insulation DB150 Ground node 2-C Rigid PIR insulation board foil backed 150mm Anti slip ceramic tiles with anti-microbial finish Tile backer + tanking system OPTIM-R vacuum insulation panel 38mm Vapour control layer. Marine-ply (primed and bonded) 18mm

B-3 B-4 B-5 B-6 B-7 B-8 B-9 B-10 B-11 B-12 B-13 B-14 B-15 B-16

Primary tie beam. Annodised aluminium planel with vapour control layer. Redundancy oxygen tanks for bio-reactor. Galvanised perforated steel drainage grate. Drainage culvert. Secondary lattice truss services support system, aluminium. Aluminium servicing cassette. (RED) Manufacturing services (serum/oxygen/ CO2/helium/nitrogen) (GREY) Building services (HVAC) Aluminium monocoque shell. Serum hose, 35mm puncture resistant, Cooland hose, heat shielded 48mm Bio-Reactor, machined aluminium. Laminated Tempered Glass 20mm Lab grown tuna fillet. Bio-Reactor console unit.

C-7

Primary Structure C-1 C-2 C-3 C-4 C-5 C-6 C-7

Primary joists. Secondary joists. Tertiary joists. Mid span solid blocking Ceiling to floor node 3-B Twin diagonal bracing beams Mid node 4-D


C-5 B-13 B-14 B-15 B-16 Bio Reactor Research Station Each auction house has access to several laboratory spaces which contain full and part scale bio-reactors for reasearch into the improvement of their marine products. The bio-reactors can be connected to the servicing needed for the growth of the marine products such as growth serum and additional consumables. C-2

C-2

C-4

C-6

C-2 C-3 B-11 B-12

C-1

C-6

B-6 B-7 B-8 B-9 B-10

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H.01 L.02

L.04

L.03

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Auction Pit A-09. Mitsubishi Mariculture Perspective Interior Perspective showing the auction process in the Daito Gyoru sector of the market. Each auction house has their own auction process and in the Daito Gyoru house the tuna fillets are transported on autonomous transport platforms displaying the information about the processing and quality. The auction buyers look on expectantly.

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2018 Winner

342 kg

269 kg

486 kg

229 kg

181 kg

200kg

212kg

716kg

¥32.5 million

¥56.49 million

¥155.4 million

¥7.36 million

¥4.5 million

¥14m million

¥72 million

¥14.6 million

£222,009

£472,000

£1.09 million

£50,000

£30,000

£80,000

£461,000

£100,000

Bespoke Maguro bocho Knife Handcrafted by Sakai City wabocho craftsman Fujii Keiichi, this knife is custom made to tackle the extremely large fillets created in the mariculture process.

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Kiyoshi Kimura [The Tuna King] Kiyoshi Kimura, the owner of the sushi-chain restaurant Sushi Zanmai pictured with the first bluefin tuna fillet produced at the Misubishi Mariculture facility. Kiyoshi has won the first auction of the season at Tsukiji for 7 years in a row before being dethroned in 2018.

716kg Lab grown bluefin tuna fillet The first bluefin tuna fillet produced at the Mitsubishi Mariculture facility was sold to Kiyoshi Kimura on the 28th May 2018.

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First Light. Mitsubishi Mariculture Perspective The market springs into life in the early hours of the morning as the sun peeks above the horizon. Market workers are preparing the first of the days auctions. The openable timber shutters are partially open in one auction pit but closed in another, showing the adaptability of the facade system.

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The Sakura Terrace. Mitsubishi Mariculture Perspective Perspective looking towards the norther edge of the building. The sakura is in full bloom and the movements of the inner market workings are semi visible throught the LVL-slats, a dreamlike effect of figues gently appearing and dissolving from view.

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All work produced by Unit 14 Unit book design by Maggie Lan www.bartlett.ucl.ac.uk/architecture Copyright 2018 The Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmited in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any information storage and retreival system without permission in writing from the publisher.

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UNIT @unit14_ucl

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P I O N E E R I N G S E N T I M E N T

2018

At the centre of Unit 14’s academic exploration lies Buckminster Fuller’s ideal of the ‘The Comprehensive Designer’, a master-builder that follows Renaissance principles and a holistic approach. Fuller referred to this ideal of the designer as somebody who is capable of comprehending the ‘integrateable significance’ of specialised findings and is able to realise and coordinate the commonwealth potentials of these discoveries while not disappearing into a career of expertise. Like Fuller, we are opportunists in search of new ideas and their benefits via architectural synthesis. As such Unit 14 is a test bed for exploration and innovation, examining the role of the architect in an environment of continuous change. We are in search of the new, leveraging technologies, workflows and modes of production seen in disciplines outside our own. We test ideas systematically by means of digital as well as physical drawings, models and prototypes. Our work evolves around technological speculation with a research-driven core, generating momentum through astute synthesis. Our propositions are ultimately made through the design of buildings and through the in-depth consideration of structural formation and tectonic constituents. This, coupled with a strong research ethos, generates new and unprecedented, viable and spectacular proposals. They are beautiful because of their intelligence - extraordinary findings and the artful integration of those into architecture. This year’s UNIT 14 focus shifts onto examining moments of pioneering sentiment. We find out about how human endeavor, deep desire and visionary thought interrelate and advance cultural as well as technological means while driving civilisation as highly developed organisation. Supported by competent research we search for the depicted pioneering sentiment and amplify found nuclei into imaginative tales with architectural visions fuelled by speculation. The underlying principle and observation of our investigations is that futurist speculation inspires and ultimately brings about significant change. A prominent thinker is the Californian Syd Mead who envisages and has scripted a holistic vision of the future with his designs and paintings. As universal as our commitment and thoughts is our testbed and territory for our investigations and proposals. Possible sites are as such global or specific to our visits, as much as the individual investigations suggest and opportunities arrive. Unit 14 is supported by a working relationship with innovators across design. We engage specialists, but remain generalists, synthesising knowledge towards novel ways of thinking, making and communicating architecture.

UNIT 14 @unit14_ucl

All work produced by Unit 14 Unit book design by Maggie Lan www.bartlett.ucl.ac.uk/architecture Copyright 2018 The Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmited in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any information storage and retreival system without permission in writing from the publisher.

Profile for UNIT 14 | Bartlett School of Architecture

Paddy Fernandez_Y5 |Unit 14 | Bartlett School of Architecture  

UNIT 14_Pioneering Sentiment 2018 Dirk Krolikowski & Jakub Klaska

Paddy Fernandez_Y5 |Unit 14 | Bartlett School of Architecture  

UNIT 14_Pioneering Sentiment 2018 Dirk Krolikowski & Jakub Klaska

Profile for unit14
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