Page 1

African Development Bank Asian Development Bank Caribbean Development Bank European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Food and Agriculture Organization Inter-American Development Bank International Atomic Energy Agency International Civil Aviation Organization International Fund for Agricultural Development International Labour Organization International Maritime Organization International Monetary Fund International Telecommunication Union International Trade Centre United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs

Volume 1: Multilateral Services

2010

Volume 1 Multilateral Services

United Nations Development Programme United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific United Nations Economic Commission for Africa United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

United Nations Human Settlements Programme United Nations Industrial Development Organization United Nations Relief and Works Agency for the Palestine Refugees in the Near East World Bank Group World Health Organization World Intellectual Property Organization World Tourism Organization World Trade Organization

TRADE CAPACITIY BUILDING

United Nations Environment Programme

[Resource Guide]

United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

The information and the opinions herein are those of its authors, and do not necessarily reflect the official views or policies of the organizations and agencies cooperating with UNIDO in the preparation of this publication. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Organizations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of firm names or commercial products does not imply endorsement by any UN organization. This document has not been formally edited.


African Development Bank Asian Development Bank Caribbean Development Bank European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Food and Agriculture Organization Inter-American Development Bank International Atomic Energy Agency International Civil Aviation Organization International Fund for Agricultural Development International Labour Organization International Maritime Organization International Monetary Fund International Telecommunication Union International Trade Centre United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs

Volume 1: Multilateral Services

2010

Volume 1 Multilateral Services

United Nations Development Programme United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific United Nations Economic Commission for Africa United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

United Nations Human Settlements Programme United Nations Industrial Development Organization United Nations Relief and Works Agency for the Palestine Refugees in the Near East World Bank Group World Health Organization World Intellectual Property Organization World Tourism Organization World Trade Organization

TRADE CAPACITIY BUILDING

United Nations Environment Programme

[Resource Guide]

United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

The information and the opinions herein are those of its authors, and do not necessarily reflect the official views or policies of the organizations and agencies cooperating with UNIDO in the preparation of this publication. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Organizations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of firm names or commercial products does not imply endorsement by any UN organization. This document has not been formally edited.


UNI T ED NAT IONS S Y S T EM Chief Executive Board for Coordination High Level Committee on Programmes Working Group on Market Efficiency and Integration

T R ADE C APAC I T Y BUILDING

[ Resource Guide ] Vol ume 1 Mult ilateral Ser v ices

UNI TED NAT IONS Vienna, 2010


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This second edition of the Trade Capacity Building Resource Guide builds on and significantly expands the collaborative effort which made the first edition in 2008 such a success. Not only have the 21 UN agencies which contributed to the first edition renewed their participation, but a further four UN Agencies have joined them: IFAD, IMF, ITU and UNWTO. In addition, five regional development banks are now reflected in the Guide: the African Development Bank (AfDB), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Caribbean Development Bank (CDB), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The use of the mapping of UN System services in trade capacity building over a large variety of intervention areas has clearly shown the Guide’s value for UN Country Teams and for technical assistance programming exercises. The first edition of the Inter-agency TCB Resource Guide also raised interest far beyond the UN System. A great number of bilateral assistance providers and donors made use of the first edition of the Guide and expressed strong interest in participating in the endeavour. As a result, and with the decisive support of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC), this second edition now also includes a dedicated second volume comprising the profiles and services of all 24 DAC members. This compilation of major bilateral and multilateral technical assistance services is a significant step forward and will substantially increase the coverage and potential use of the Guide. Sheila Page, Senior Research Fellow at the Overseas Development Institute (ODI), London, again contributed greatly to the 2010 edition, in particular through her analytical work on the bilateral and multilateral providers, her support to the conceptualization of the volume on bilateral donors, her review of country profiles, and through her introductory sections for both volumes of the Guide. The bilateral profiles, references to Aid for Trade strategies, and the identification of the main technical assistance providers and programmes for all DAC members are the fruit of a high level of dedicated work by Amanda Sunassee Lam. UNIDO is particularly grateful to the following colleagues and resource persons in the participating multilateral agencies and development banks, and, from the bilateral development partners, both the OECD DAC representatives and resource persons in their respective national development agencies: AfDB: Louis Kasekende, Tonia Kandiero and Henri Minnaar; ADB: Ganeshan Wignaraja and Dorothea Lazaro; CDB: Denny Lewis-Bynoe and Patrick Kendall; EBRD: Rika Ishii; FAO: Annika Soder, Ramesh Sharma and Mariam Ahmed; IDB: Carolyn Robert and Antoni Estevadeordal; IAEA: Donatella Magliani, Eleanor Cody and Johannes C. Seybold; ICAO: Denys Wibaux, Teresa Cerone and Folasade Odutola; IFAD: Henock Kifle, Luis Jimenez-McInnis and Karen Zagor; ILO: Gerardina Gonzalez, Andrew Dale, David Lamotte and Marion Jansen; IMO: Teresa Martins de Oliveira, Andrea Garcia and Rouba Ruthnum; IMF: Harris Elliott, Brad McDonald, Sandrine Ourigou and Thomas Dorsey; ITU: Doreen Bogdan, Béatrice Pluchon and Paolo Rosa; ITC: Chris Horn, Juliana Knoll and Miguel Jimenez-Pont; UNCTAD: Taffere Tesfachew, Manuela Tortora, Maria-Sabina Yeterian-Parisi and Leticia Gennes Beltrán; UNDESA: Thomas Stelzer, Juwang Zhu, Ursula Germann and Diane Loughran; UNDP: Alison Drayton, David Luke, Douglas Passanisi, Paul Ladd, Luciana Mermet, Luisa Bernal and Emefa Attigah; UNESCAP: Xuan Zengpei, Marc Proksch, Masato Abe and Yann Duval; UNECA: Halima Noor Abdi; UNECE: Virginia Cram Martos and Zamira Eshmambetova; UNECLAC: Osvaldo Rosales and Mikio Kuwayama; UNEP: Juanita Castango, Vera Wick, Asad Naqvi, Benjamin Simmons, Sheng Fulai and Hussein Abaza; UN-HABITAT: Ananda Weliwita, Gulelat Kebede and Xing-Quang Zhang; UNRWA: Robert Stryk; UNWTO: Eugenio Yunis, Samiti Siv and Michel Julian; World Bank: Oscar A. Avalle, Gianni Zanini, John Panzer and Julia Nielson; WHO: Peter Mertens; WIPO: Orbola Fasehun and Victor Owade; WTO: Maarten Smeets and Muriel Salette; CEB Cluster: Manuela Tortora and Jean Philippe Rodde;

II


OECD/CRS: Frans Lammersen; GTAD: Maarten Smeets and Susan Harrison; EIF: Christiane Kraus; GFP: Alina M ­ onica Mustra; STDF: Melvin Spreij and Diana Korka; and AITIC: Esperanza Duran and Gayatri Kanth. Australia: Graham Andrews, Caitlin Wilson, Edward Archibald, Arnold Jorge and Callum Brindley; Austria: Anita Weiss-Gaenger and Reinhold Gruber; Belgium: Martinus Desmet and Ewout Stoefs; Canada: Karen Garner, Fauzya A. Moore, Ashleigh Searle, Nicole Gesnot and the Canadian International Development Agency; Denmark: Frode Neergaard and Niels Richter; European Commission: Giovanni Mastrogiacomo and Bryan Fornari; Finland: Sari Lehtiranta and Antti Piispanen; France: Laurence Dubois Destrizais; Germany: Renate von Boddien, Thomas Feidieker, Birgit Hofmann and Bettina Kellersmann; Greece: Vanessa Manavi and Spyros Kevels; Ireland: Michael OToole and Niall Morris; Italy: Nicoletti Stefano and Filippo Scammacca; Japan: Kuwabara Atsushi, Ueno Shuhei, Nanri Asuka and Kenji Matsuda; Korea (Republic of): Jin-kyu Jeong; Luxembourg: Luc Dockendorf and Daniel Feypel; Netherlands: Bert Van Geel and Jhp Smeets; New Zealand: Roger Cornforth and Vicki Plater; Norway: Kari Hauge Riisøen and Lie Tonje Liebich; Portugal: Ana Fernandes, Elisabeth Da Cruz, Manuela Ferreira, Margarida Ferreira and Carolina Estroia; Spain: Alicia Moral Revilla; Sweden: Katarina Rangnitt, Peter Cederblad and Cecilia Ekholm; Switzerland: Da­nielle Meuwly Monteleone, Hans-Peter Egler and Christian Sieber; United Kingdom: Mandeep Kaur-Grewal, Roland Fox, and Cathryn Law; United States of America: Dirk Dijkerman. The UNIDO team included Agerico Lacanlale and Richard Kennedy from the Office of the Director General, Lalith Goonatilake, Steffen Kaeser and Victor Cobby Baah from the Trade Capacity Building Branch, and Malachy Scullion, UNIDO consultant. Finally, UNIDO wishes to express its gratitude to Juan Somavia, Chairman of HLCP, and Eckhard Deutscher, Chair of OECD DAC, for their decisive leadership, which created the spirit of collaboration that has made this Guide a new and truly inclusive resource for trade capacity building.

III


TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 II

ACRONYMS

 VII

FOREWORD

 XI

PREFACE

XIII

OVERVIEW



PROGRAMMES, SERVICES AND ACTIVITIES BY AREA OF INTERVENTION

 17

global advocacy trade policy development legal and regulatory framework supply capacity compliance support infrastructure and services trade promotion capacity building market and trade information trade facilitation physical trade infrastructure trade-related financial services other trade-related activities

1

 19  35  57  77  99  107  111  123  135  143  153

INTER-AGENCY COOPERATION MECHANISMS cEB inter-agency cluster on trade and productive capacity OECD Creditor Reporting System (CRS): Measuring Aid for Trade wTO’s global technical assistance database (gtad) enhanced integrated framework (eif) global facilitation partnership for transportation and trade (gfp) standards and trade development facility (stdf) agency for international trade information and cooperation (aitic)

 159  161  164  165  167  169  172

AGENCY SUMMARIES african development bank (afdb) asian development bank (adb) caribbean development bank (cdb) European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) food and agriculture organization (fao) inter-american development bank (idb) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) international civil aviation organization (icao) international fund for agricultural development (ifad) International Labour Organization (ILO) international maritime organization (imo) international monetary fund (imf) international telecommunication union (itu) international trade centre (itc) united nations conference on trade and development (unctad) united nations department of economic and social affairs (undesa) united nations development programme (undp) united nations economic and social commission for asia and the pacific (unescap)

 175  179  182  184  187  190  194  197  198  200  203  204  206  208  210  215  216  218

V


united nations economic commission for africa (uneca) united nations economic commission for europe (unece) united nations economic commission for latin america and the caribbean (uneclac) united nations environment programme (unep) united nations human settlements programme (un-habitat) united nations industrial development organization (unido) united nations relief and works agency for the palestine refugees in the near east (unrwa) world bank group (wb) world health organization (who) World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) world tourism organization (unwto) world trade organization (wto)

VI

 221  223  228  231  234  236  241  242  245  247  249  251


Acronyms ACP ADB ADBI ADF ADI AfDB AFRA AfT AGOA AGS

African, Caribbean and Pacific countries Asian Development Bank Asian Development Bank Institute African Development Fund The African Development Institute African Development Bank African Regional Cooperative Agreement Aid for Trade African Growth and Opportunity Act Agro-industries Division

CIPIH

Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health

CIS

Commonwealth of Independent States

CITES

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

COMESA CPM CRS CSR CTD

Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa Commission on Phytosanitary Measures Creditor Reporting System Corporate Social Responsibility Common Technical Document

AITIC

Agency For International Trade Information And Cooperation

CTF

ALADI

Asociación Latinoamericana de Integración Latin American Integration Association

Consultative Task Force on Environmental Requirements and Market Access for Developing Countries

CTPL DDA DLI DMCs DMFAS DTIS

Canadian Centre for Trade Policy and Law Doha Development Agenda Distance Learning Initiatives Developing member countries Debt Management and Financial Analysis System Diagnostic Trade Integration Study

AMAD AMF APCI APEC

Agricultural Market Access Database Arab Monetary Fund Africa Productive Capacity Initiative Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

APTA

Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement

ARTNeT

Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade

E-TISNET

Electronic Trade and Investment Information Bulletin

ASEAN ASIT ASYCUDA ATB ATPC ATPSM AU AUC BDS BEST BMS CAFTA CAREC CARICOM CBD CBL CBOs

Association of Southeast Asian Nations Advisory Services on Investment and Training Automated System for Customs Data Air Transport Bureau African Trade Policy Centre Agriculture Trade Policy Simulation Model African Union African Union Commission Business Development Services Business Environment Strategic Toolkit Business Management System Central America Free Trade Agreement Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Caribbean Community and Common Market Convention on Biological Diversity Clusters and Business Linkages Unit Community-Based Organizations

EAC

East African Community East African Organic Product Standard

CBTF

Capacity Building Task Force on Trade, Environment and Development

CCA CDB CDM CEB

Common Country Assessment Caribbean Development Bank Clean Development Mechanism Chief Executives Board for Coordination

CECI

The UNECE Committee on Economic Cooperation and Integration

CEPAL

Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe - Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, ECLAC

CETIME

Centre Technique des Industries Mécaniques et Electriques

CFC

Common Fund for Commodities

CIMS

Communication and Information Management Service

EAOPS EBRD

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development

EC

European Commission

ECLAC

Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

ECOSOC ECOWAS EDI EGS EIF

Economic and Social Council Economic Community of West African States Electronic Data Interchange Environmental Goods and Services Enhanced Integrated Framework

ELSNIT

Euro-Latin Study Network on Integration and Trade

EMPRETEC

EMPREndedores (entrepreneurs) and TECnología (technology)

EPA ETCs

Economic Partnership Agreement Early Transition Countries

ETH

Department of Ethics, Equity, Trade and Human Rights

EU

European Union

FAL

Convention on Facilitation of International Maritime Traffic

FAO FDI FIT FTA FY GAP GATS GATT GEF GFP

Food and Agriculture Organization Foreign Direct Investment Financial Improvement Toolkit Free Trade Agreement Fiscal Year Good Agricultural Practice General Agreement on Trade in Services General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Global Environment Facility Global Facilitation Partnership

VII


ISO

International Organization for Standardization

ISPM

International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures

ITC ITF ITTC ITU

International Trade Centre International Task Force Institute for Training and Technical Cooperation International Telecommunications Union

JITAP

Joint Integrated Technical Assistance Programme

LAC LDC LED LEGN LLDC LPI

Latin America and the Caribbean Least Developed Country Local Economic Development Development Law Service Landlocked Developing Countries Logistics Perception Index

LV-LED

Lake Victoria Local Economic Development Initiative

MCCT MCH MDGs MEA MMP MoU MS MSs MTS NAMA

Measurement and Control-Chart Toolkit Maasai Cultural Heritage Foundation Millennium Development Goals Multilateral Environmental Agreement Microcredit and Microfinance Programme Memorandum of Understanding Mass Spectrometry Member States Multilateral Trading System Non-Agricultural Market Access Negotiations

NCE

Network of Centres of Excellence on Science and Technology

NDT NEPAD NETMIS NGO ODA

Non-Destructive Testing New Partnership for Africa's Development Network Management Information System Non-Governmental Organization Official development assistance

Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine

OECD

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

ILAC

International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation

OIE OSS

World Organization for Animal Health One-Stop-Shop

ILO IMF IMO

International Labour Organization International Monetary Fund International Maritime Organization

PARUL

Poverty Alleviation through Rural-Urban Linkages

Instituto para la Integraci贸n de Am茅rica Latina y el Caribe (part of IDB)

IOM IP IPA IPPC IPR IRU IRU BWTO

International Organization for Migration Integrated Programmes Investment Promotion Agency International Plant Protection Convention Investment Policy Review International Road Transport Union IRU Border Waiting Time Observatory

PCI PIFS PPC PQE

Policy Coherence Initiative

INTAL

Productivity/Quality & Enterprise Upgrading Unit

PRS PRSP PSD

Poverty Reduction Strategy Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Private Sector Development Branch

PTC

Programme Development and Technical Cooperation Division

ISAR

International Standards of Accounting and Reporting

IsDB

Islamic Development Bank

QUASAR R&D RBA REC

Quantitative Air Services Agreements Review Research and Development Receptor Binding Assay Regional Economic Communities

GHP GMP GMS GPTT GTAP GTLP

Good Hygiene Practice Good Manufacturing Practice Greater Mekong Sub-region Global Partnership for Transportation and Trade Global Trade Analysis Project Global Trade Liquidity Programme

GTZ

Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit

HAB HACCP

Harmful Algal Blooms Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points

HIV/AIDS

Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

HLCM HLCP IAEA IAF

High Level Committee on Management High Level Committee on Programmes International Atomic Energy Agency International Accreditation Forum

IBRD

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

ICAO

International Civil Aviation Organization

ICCWBO

International Chamber of Commerce - The World Business Organization

ICT IDA

Information and Communication Technologies International Development Association

IDATD

Integrated Database of Trade Disputes for Latin America and the Caribbean

IDB IDLO IDS IEC IF IFAD IFC IIA IIC

Inter-American Development Bank International Development Law Organization Institute of Development Studies International Electrotechnical Commission Integrated Framework International Fund for Agricultural Development International Finance Corporation International Investment Agreement Inter-Institutional Committee

IIDMM

VIII

Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat Public-Private Cooperation


RTA RULSUP RUPP S&T SAARC

Regional Trade Agreement Rural-Urban Linkages Support Programme Rural-Urban Partnership Programme Science and Technology/Sales and Trading

UNDAF

United Nations Development Assistance Framework

UNDESA

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation

SADC SAIW SCDP

Southern African Development Community Southern African Institute of Welding Supply Chain Development Programme

UNDG UNDP UNECA UNECE

United Nations Development Group United Nations Development Programme United Nations Economic Commission for Africa United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

SIECA

Secretaría de Integración Económica Centroamericana, Secretariat of Economic Integration of Central America

UNECLAC

United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

UNEP

United Nations Environment Programme

SIGCI

Sistema Interactivo Gráfico de Datos de Comercio Internacional - Interactive Graphic System of International Trade Data

UNESCAP

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

UNESCO

SIS SMEs SPC SPS SQMT SSATP STDF STIP

Sub-national Innovation Systems

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

UNESCWA

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia

UNICEF

United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund

UNIDO

United Nations Industrial Development Organization

UN NExT

STRATSHIP

Strategic Planning Workshop for Senior Shipping Management

United Nations Network of Experts for Paperless Trade in Asia and the Pacific

TASA TBT

Template Air Services Agreements Technical Barriers to Trade

UNODC UNOPS

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime United Nations Office for Project Services

UNRWA

TC TCB TCBDB THDU TID TIM TISNET TKC TPC TPR TPRM TRAINS

Technical Cooperation Trade Capacity Building Trade Capacity Building Database Trade and Human Development Unit Trade and Investment Division Trade Integration Mechanism Trade and Investment Information Bulletin Trans-Kalahari Corridor Trade Policy Course Trade Policy Review Trade Policy Review Mechanism Trade Analysis and Information System

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for the Palestine Refugees in the Near East

UNSD UNWTO USA UTEPI WAEMU

United Nations Statistics Division World Tourism Organization United States of America Unidad Técnica de Estudios para la Industria West African Economic and Monetary Union

WAIPA

World Association of Investment Promotion Agencies

TRIPS

Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

TRTA TSI TTF TTFSE

Trade-Related Technical Assistance Trade Support Institution Trade and Transport Facilitation

WB WBI WCO WHA WHO WIPO WITS WMO

World Bank World Bank Institute World Customs Organization World Health Assembly World Health Organization World Intellectual Property Organization World Integrated Trade Solution World Meteorological Organization

WPSDG

Working Party on the Social Dimension of Globalization

TVET

Technical and Vocational Education and Training

UEMOA

Union Economique et Monétaire Ouest Africaine/ West African Economic and Monetary Union

WSIS WTO

World Summit on the Information Society World Trade Organization

UN

United Nations

UNAPCAEM

United Nations Asia-Pacific Centre for Agriculture Machinery and Engineering

UNCTAD

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

Small and Medium-sized Enterprises São Paulo Consensus Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures Standards, Quality, Metrology and Testing Sub Saharan Africa Transport Policy Programme Standards and Trade Development Facility Science, Technology and Innovation Policy

Trade and Transport Facilitation in Southeast Europe

IX


FOREWORD This is the second edition of the Trade Capacity Building Inter-agency Resource Guide, a publication that has proven to be very successful since its first printing in 2008. More than 2,500 copies have been printed and distributed since then, in addition to numerous downloads from the UNIDO website. The genesis of the Resource Guide was the decision by the High-level Committee on Programmes of the United Nations System’s Chief Executives Board (CEB) to establish a task force of its member organizations to elaborate a common framework for coordinated action in the field of economic development. This task force agreed that the first step in this process should be to identify the wide range of UN System services related to trade capacity building that are available to developing countries, and to make this information widely available in a user-friendly publication. The Resource Guide was primarily targeted at the Resident Coordinators, the members of the UN Country Teams in each developing country, and public and private sector officials in the countries that the UN works in. It has become a major tool for the development of country and regional technical assistance programmes in the One UN Coherence efforts, including the United Nations Development Assistance Framework’s joint programmes. The Resource Guide has also proven useful for the UN agencies themselves, to show clearly in which areas of trade capacity building each agency works, the specific types of services provided, and sources of additional information about those services, making it easier to coordinate activities and avoid overlap. I am most pleased to see that the Resource Guide has attracted the interest of a wide range of development partners and actors, now reaching far beyond the UN System. The success of the first edition led to demands for the inclusion of other development partners, and the 2010 edition now includes four additional UN agencies, five regional development banks, the OECD, and 24 OECD DAC bilateral development partners. The process of developing the Resource Guide has also played a catalytic role in increasing the level of UN coordination of capacity building in the trade and productive sectors at the country level. UN agencies are now routinely coordinating country-level technical assistance programming and implementation activities, including in the “Delivering as One” pilot countries, with the support of the Trade and Productive Sectors Cluster, which is a recent CEB-mandated working group led by UNCTAD. I would like to thank all the contributing organizations and development partners for their efforts in making this publication such an essential tool for supporting trade capacity building. I especially thank UNIDO, which has coordinated the preparation and editing of both editions of the Resource Guide, as well as the Government of Sweden, which generously provided the funding for the 2010 ­edition.

Juan Somavia Chairman High Level Committee on Programmes (HLCP)

XI


PREFACE In 2008, the first edition of the Trade Capacity Building Inter-agency Resource Guide was launched under the aegis of the High Level Committee on Programmes of the United Nations System’s Chief Executives Board. UNIDO had been mandated to coordinate and manage this endeavour. I am pleased to say that we gained the support and participation of twenty-one organizations of the UN System, which shared their trade-related technical assistance experiences, capacities and services. In my Preface to the 2008 edition of the Resource Guide, I noted that the UN System was a rich source of expertise and experience in building and strengthening the capacity of developing countries to trade, but that we needed to be more strategic, focused, and coherent in our efforts. I expressed my hope that the Resource Guide would serve as a valuable, practical tool to help us accomplish this. The results to date from the publication of that first edition have fulfilled my hopes. Due to strong demand from developing countries, technical and donor agencies, researchers and others in the trade development arena, UNIDO distributed 2,500 hard copies of the Guide within six months, and many more copies have been distributed electronically. The impact of the Resource Guide is best reflected in the uses to which it is being put and the feedback we are receiving from development partners. For instance, the Guide is being used as a teaching tool in the training programmes that have been conducted for the Resident Coordinators who coordinate the UN’s programmes at the country level. Another indication of the relevance of the Resource Guide has been the many requests to expand the Guide to include more organizations, even beyond the UN System. The 2010 edition of the Resource Guide is a significant enrichment of the first edition in several ways. First, four new UN agencies have been added: the International Fund for Agricultural Development, the International Monetary Fund, the International Telecommunication Union, and the World Tourism Organization. Second, other multilateral development partners have been included: the African Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the Caribbean Development Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and the Inter-American Development Bank. Third, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and 24 OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) bilateral development partners have also become part of the Resource Guide. I would therefore like to extend a particular thanks to Mr. Eckhard Deutscher, the Chairman of the OECD DAC. He and his staff, in particular Mr. Frans Lammersen, Principal Administrator, Development Co-operation Directorate, OECD, have been key to the extension of the Resource Guide to all 24 DAC members, thereby allowing the Guide to become more inclusive and even more significant. Fourth, since 2008 we have witnessed the steady evolution of the WTO-led Aid for Trade (AfT) Initiative, which is becoming a very powerful, concrete mechanism for focusing development interest on trade, and for making trade-related technical assistance more available and more effective. At the same time, the UN System is gearing up for more coherence in its technical assistance delivery. The 2010 edition of the Resource Guide has taken note of these developments and strengthened its Aid for Trade focus, not only by positioning the UN System contribution towards this major Initiative, but also by including the main bilateral development partners and their Aid for Trade-related strategies and technical assistance. Finally, let me conclude by sincerely expressing our gratitude to the Government of Sweden for their kind financial contribution to the establishment of the 2010 edition. I hope that the 2010 edition of the Trade Capacity Building Resource Guide will provide even more useful support to the UN System, development partners at large and the developing countries that we serve in the area of trade capacity building, and will support economic growth and wealth creation. I am convinced that this 2010 edition will allow all the developing partners to further mainstream their trade-related activities into a powerful support for achieving the Millennium Development Goals and, in particular, for making a forceful contribution to poverty reduction in the world.

Kandeh K. Yumkella UNIDO Director-General XIII


Overview

OVERVIEW Introduction The first edition of this Trade Capacity Building Resource Guide in 2008 was designed to help developing countries and local UN country teams identify the most appropriate programmes to meet their needs for technical assistance for trade capacity building from the wide range of expertise available across the UN agencies. The response from users has been enthusiastic, not only from the target users but from other donor agencies and businesses and researchers involved in helping developing countries benefit more from participation in international trade. UN organizations have expertise and experience and can offer assistance to countries in many of the specific areas where they want to build up their trade capacity, and in helping them identify their priority needs. However, precisely because there are so many organizations offering assistance, some with a general mandate to assist development or trade, others with more specialized services, the governments of developing countries and the donors trying to assist them can find it difficult to know exactly what is available from which agencies, and with which eligibility rules. It therefore becomes difficult to know how to combine the services into an effective strategy for trade development. The Inter-Agency Resource Guide was designed to address this challenge, and to encourage agencies to use the information contained in it to improve their collaboration and to fill any gaps in provision. The principal observation about the 2008 Guide was that it did not include some international and regional agencies and bilateral donors. This second edition has now been extended to cover four more multilateral agencies, IFAD, the IMF, ITU and UNWTO, and the five regional development banks, AfDB, ADB, CDB, EBRD, and IDB. Most of the agencies already covered have taken the opportunity of expanding and revising their entries. It also now covers twenty-four bilateral programmes. (Some differences in coverage and presentation are explained in the introduction to Volume 2.) This Overview starts with a brief background on the role of trade in development, describing the contribution of capacity building to enabling countries to use trade effectively, especially in the current international economic crisis. It then discusses how the WTO Aid for Trade Initiative has emerged, the current structure for implementing it, and its strategic role in identifying needs for trade capacity building. It follows this with a systemic view of the agencies which are active in each area of trade capacity building, and concludes by identifying the types of assistance whose provision may still be relatively infrequent, and where there may be a need for new programmes or for more agencies to engage. Volume 1 of the Guide gives detailed information on each service that each agency can offer and describes each of the agencies’ responsibilities and methods of operation, and also describes the seven inter-agency collaboration mechanisms, while Volume 2 describes some of the trade capacity building contributions of twenty-four bilateral agencies. The findings of the two volumes suggest that, at least in the broad categories used here, the bilateral programmes tend to concentrate on different types of trade capacity building from those emphasized by the multilateral agencies, so that multilateral and bilateral assistance complement each other. Both volumes of the Resource Guide are available on CDs. There is also a matrix overview of Volume 1.

Trade and trade capacity building in the current economic environment The first edition of this Guide summarized the importance of trade as a part of development strategies. It enables countries to exploit their comparative advantages by putting their resources into those productive activities that provide the highest returns. Access to new and larger markets can lead to more jobs, higher incomes, and greater economic security. Trade capacity building services are therefore essential parts of any programme to assist countries to develop. The costs of the collapse of trade as a result of the economic crisis of 2008-2009 have demonstrated the role of trade and the importance of trade-related capacity building more effectively than any study. Trade volumes and prices fell more than domestic output and prices, and the countries particularly dependent on a small number of markets or commodities suffered most. One of the factors blamed for the fall was the lack of trade finance, particularly for trade among developing countries, as the financial system adjusted to an increase in perceived risks. As the world economy revives, some of the falls in trade are being reversed but with different countries leading the revival; countries will need the capacity to adapt to changes in the direction and composition of demand. Even in favourable conditions, however, for many developing countries providing opportunities to trade has not been enough to stimulate an increase in trade. In Least Developed Coun-

TCB Resource Guide Volume 1  1


Overview

tries (LDCs), in particular, the export base often remains narrow, and relies on one or a few commodities. Exporters trying to export new products and penetrate new markets need access to legal and commercial information services and to technical support in order to develop and produce their products and then to reach the markets. But poor countries with small export sectors lack such trading infrastructure, both physical, such as transport and communications, and institutional, such as organizations to implement international trade rules or offer efficient financial services. When economic growth revives, countries will need efficient and adaptable trade finance and transport infrastructure. They will need transferable skills in marketing and the ability to adjust production to new demands. They will need the capacity to meet different markets’ legal and quality standards. Their governments will need to adapt their trade policies to support trade under new international conditions. The types of trade capacity building services described in this Guide remain relevant to the new world environment, but countries and agencies may need to reconsider their priorities and adapt the programmes to current demands. The whole emphasis of most trade-related assistance is on building countries’ capacity to deal with changing markets, so all the programmes should strengthen countries’ resilience to the crisis. A few agencies report explicit changes in 2009. The IMF, the World Bank, regional development banks, and some bilateral donors have increased their total aid funds, although some bilateral donors have cut their total aid budgets. In response to what was feared to be a major collapse in trade finance, several have increased their assistance in this area. The World Bank, through the IFC (International Finance Corporation), established the Global Trade Liquidity Programme (GTLP). This doubled the supply of trade finance by the IFC and, through support by all the development finance organizations and some bilateral donors, greatly increased the funding available through commercial banks. The AfDB has established a liquidity facility, and the ADB and the IDB are increasing their trade finance. The IMF has doubled its loan access limit for low-income countries and increased the speed and flexibility of its response to adjustment needs. The EC has increased its compensatory funding for export fluctuations and its support for infrastructure. The World Bank and the ADB have also increased their support to infrastructure and SMEs as a response to crisis-related needs. Some bilateral donors have shifted support towards more social spending, but most donors expect to respond to the crisis by supporting both productive capacity and directly targeted poverty reduction (te Velde, Massa, 2009). Agencies cannot avoid some adjustments to the crisis, but must avoid disrupting medium-term support programmes.

The Aid for Trade Initiative The history of Aid for Trade in the WTO The costs of trading became an important issue in the Doha Round of WTO negotiations because developing countries were still facing costs from implementing the agreements of the previous, Uruguay Round, and they feared that the Doha Round would impose additional costs. The first concern was for implementation costs. The extension of international rules to new areas like intellectual property and the tightening of rules on areas like customs administration had led to complaints that these had high compliance costs for developing countries, often out of proportion to any benefit. There had been general statements in the agreements about potential technical assistance to help countries meet these costs, but no formal commitments, and countries did not consider that the aid had been sufficient. They would therefore not accept new obligations without guaranteed compensation. The second concern affected those countries which had exceptionally favourable preferential access, and which feared that multilateral liberalization would reduce their relative advantage or their terms of trade. As many of the countries affected under both categories were Least Developed Countries or low-income countries facing already low or zero tariffs, it was impossible to offer them compensation through trade measures, and any such policy would have been unacceptable to the countries gaining from liberalization. Starting in 2003, developing countries began suggesting special funding as a necessary part of settling some of the most difficult conflicts of interest (Page 2007). The assumptions behind the opening declaration of the Doha Round in 2001 had not envisaged any losses from trade liberalization, so did not consider whether such losses might need compensation. Indeed, the concept of a “development round” was based on the explicit belief by many commentators that liberalizing trade was sufficient on its own to provide significant benefits for all developing countries and that it could not be harmful. There had been some detailed studies of the Uruguay Round which had identified costs from implementation and preference erosion, but the mainstream analysis used models which did not allow for the costs of trading or include preferences. Therefore, putting the issue of costs into the Round required, first, convincing evidence that they existed and were significant and, second, the possibility that developing countries, even LDCs, could alter the WTO negotiating agenda.

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The LDCs began to argue in 2002 that they would suffer losses and needed compensation, but the first published calculations of losses were by analysts for the African countries and, separately, by the IMF for all LDCs in 2003 (ILEAP 2003, IMF 2003). Both found that, while the aggregate losses and the number of countries badly affected were small relative to the total gains then expected from the Round, for a few identifiable countries the costs were equivalent to more than 5 per cent of exports, and possibly more than 10 per cent. Other calculations followed in 2004-5 with different assumptions and different absolute numbers but the same policy implication: a Doha settlement which was beneficial for the world as a whole would impose serious costs for some countries. At the 2003 WTO Ministerial meeting, the IMF and World Bank offered new funding facilities to meet the problem. These agencies could not, however, offer the binding link to the trade agreement which countries sought, and the fears of losses were one of the reasons for the failure of the meeting. This increased the pressure to find a new solution linked to the WTO. The first result, in 2004, was an agreement in the negotiations on trade facilitation that countries which did not receive the “required support and assistance” would not be bound to implement the new rules, thus accepting the argument that an agreement could impose costs that a country should not have to meet itself. For the much higher costs of potential preference erosion, a series of official and semi-official working groups accepted that there was a need for a solution. These led to a consultation commissioned by the World Bank and the IMF, but carried out by the ambassadors to the WTO, in 2005, which identified three elements of a solution: • An Enhanced version of the Integrated Framework; • A multilateral fund to provide more predictable and credible financing for trade-related needs; • A separate “window” for specific adjustment issues affecting certain countries from Most Favoured Nation (MFN) liberalization (World Bank and IMF 2005). The IMF and World Bank accepted the first element, and this was implemented, but rejected the others, arguing that “existing mechanisms” would be sufficient. In response, the WTO members set up a working group before the 2005 Ministerial meeting and agreed to add a clause to the Ministerial Declaration mandating Aid for Trade (Hong Kong Ministerial Declaration, paragraph 57 WTO 2005): “We welcome the discussions of Finance and Development Ministers in various fora, including the Development Committee of the World Bank and IMF, that have taken place this year on expanding Aid for Trade. Aid for Trade should aim to help developing countries, particularly LDCs, to build the supply-side capacity and trade-related infrastructure that they need to assist them to implement and benefit from WTO agreements and, more broadly to expand their trade. Aid for Trade cannot be a substitute for the development benefits that will result from a successful conclusion to the DDA, particularly on market access. However, it can be a valuable complement to the DDA. We invite the Director-General to create a task force that shall provide recommendations on how to operationalize Aid for Trade. The Task Force will provide recommendations to the General Council by July 2006 on how Aid for Trade might contribute most effectively to the development dimension of the DDA. We also invite the Director-General to consult with Members as well as with the IMF and World Bank, relevant international organizations and the regional development banks with a view to reporting to the General Council on appropriate mechanisms to secure additional financial resources for Aid for Trade, where appropriate through grants and concessional loans”. The Task Force had to reconcile a range of different views among the WTO members as well as between them and the international financial institutions. It was composed of ambassadors representing the major individual members of the WTO, both developed and developing, plus representatives of the various informal groups of low-income developing countries and of the middle-income countries not represented by these. It worked by taking evidence, written and oral, from both WTO member countries and international or regional agencies, including the AfDB, the ADB, the IDB, the IMF, the ITC, UNCTAD, UNIDO and the World Bank (WTO 2006a). Three of the contributions came from organizations for whom trade is a central interest, and whose expertise and experience came from their extensive involvement in trade capacity building (as reported in this Guide). The ITC made a strong case that there was inadequate attention to trade because policy makers were not convinced of its importance and, in particular, there was insufficient attention to “developing entrepreneurial activity and trade-enabling environments”. It had detailed suggestions for involving the private sector. UNIDO looked particularly at the need to work on standards and to work with the private sector - what it called “the technical infrastructure”. It provided lists of what countries need, in contrast to the approach that says that donors should wait for countries to identify their needs. It thought it important to identify what could make developing country exports competitive. The IDB described its own experience of trade support and argued that there had been neglect of supply side capacity. It had set up a separate unit to deliver trade-related technical assistance and actively encouraged integrating trade into countries’ development programmes. It also argued that a lack of

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Overview

“grant funding for trade-related assistance to middle-income countries is a serious challenge”, and that what was available was made less valuable because it was budgeted annually, and so not predictable. It and others noted a lack of finance for regional needs. The World Bank and the IMF remained sceptical about any need for new funding arrangements. The OECD argued that there was already sufficient aid for trade, and that the problem was to make it more effective. It opposed any new institutional mechanism because this would separate trade from the “broader economic growth agenda”. The Task Force report (WTO 2006b) defined the scope of Aid for Trade as: • T rade policy and regulations, including: training of trade officials, analysis of proposals and positions and their impact, support for national stakeholders to articulate commercial interest and identify trade-offs, dispute issues, institutional and technical support to facilitate implementation of trade agreements and to adapt to and comply with rules and standards; • Trade development, including: investment promotion, analysis and institutional support for trade in services, business support services and institutions, public-private sector networking, e-commerce, trade finance, trade promotion, market analysis and development; • Trade-related infrastructure, including: physical infrastructure; • Building productive capacity; • Trade-related adjustment, including: supporting developing countries to put in place accompanying measures that assist them to benefit from liberalized trade; • Other trade-related needs. It did not recommend a new agency to administer Aid for Trade (AfT), but made clear its dissatisfaction with the existing mechanisms. It criticised donors for neglecting trade and failing to understand its needs. It argued that these failings had led to inadequate support for infrastructure and meeting the costs of adjustment, and inadequate attention to regional needs. It recommended better coordination mechanisms at country, regional, and multinational level. The principal role for the WTO would be to monitor the overall and country performance of other agencies. It did not deal in detail with either the quantity or the nature of financing, as these were (under the Hong Kong mandate) the responsibility of the WTO Director General, but it explicitly rejected the view that there was no need for more funds, saying that its recommendations were dependent on the provision of “substantial additional targeted resources”. The Hong Kong mandate implied a strong link between AfT and the Doha Round, but it also argued that AfT should aim to help developing countries “more broadly to expand their trade”, and, in spite of the suspension of negotiations, WTO members agreed that it should go ahead. In October 2006, the WTO General Council accepted the Task Force’s report, and endorsed the recommendations (WTO 2006c).

The gap in provision of trade capacity building The Aid for Trade Initiative emerged from the negotiations of the Doha Round, but its success in attracting support at a time when the negotiations were stalled and there were other pressures on aid budgets also stemmed from the growing identification of trade capacity building as a priority for aid budgets. Since the 1990s, there has been increasing awareness of the importance of a lack of trading capacity as an obstacle to developing countries’ trade. As some countries failed to expand their trade rapidly even when tariffs and other regulatory constraints on trade were reduced, research identified poor physical and institutional infrastructure as major barriers. The Least Developed Countries, and other low-income countries whose trade failed to expand, were often those with poor transport and poor efficiency of both private providers of transport and communications and public institutions such as customs and the regulatory structure. All these problems were at least doubled for land-locked countries, which helps to explain their poorer than average development performance, while the increasing stringency of regulations affecting traded goods, for example sanitary and phytosanitary standards (SPS) and quality requirements, led to a continuing rise in the barriers for all countries. On the other hand, aid programmes were increasingly focusing on poverty reduction goals, and this was often interpreted as requiring them to change allocations in favour of social programmes rather than support for the productive sectors. Aid to improve trade capacity fell as a proportion of total aid, and much of it went to countries with special problems (for example, destruction from wars) or to middle-income countries where poverty priorities were less binding but where the capacity barriers to trading were often smaller. The WTO initiative responded, therefore, to a real gap in aid provision.

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Any targeted assistance, mandated by international agreement, causes problems in normal aid terms. Some of the Aid for Trade categories have a clear role in trade capacity assistance: trade development, improving infrastructure, and building productive capacity. Others, such as implementing WTO agreements, may benefit a country or its trading partners but are not necessarily a country priority for a cash-constrained government, so under normal criteria only some might qualify for assistance. The costs that the erosion of preferences or other trade liberalization may impose on some countries do not fall under the normal criteria for trade assistance, although they may qualify for macroeconomic adjustment as exceptional external shocks.

Current structure of Aid for Trade Following the adoption of the Task Force’s recommendations in 2006, the WTO has established a system of reviewing and monitoring progress. In 2002, the WTO and OECD had set up a joint database for the monitoring of trade-related capacity building projects, separate from the OECD-DAC’s (Development Assistance Committee) existing creditor reporting system (CRS) because this did not allow identification of trade capacity building assistance. It was, however, incomplete because it was not part of the required reporting procedures, and was discontinued after the collection of the 2006 data. For subsequent years, the CRS codes most closely related to the Task Force definitions of trade policy and regulations, trade-related adjustment, trade-related economic infrastructure, and trade-related productive capacity (as described in the report on Measuring Aid for Trade) were identified and agreed with the WTO, and these have been used by the OECD to report on donors’ aggregate funding of Aid for Trade. In addition to compiling these data, the OECD and WTO jointly issued questionnaires in 2007 and 2008 to bilateral donors, recipient countries and some international agencies asking for information on their aid for trade strategies and what they fund or receive. Although there was only a limited response to the questionnaire in 2007, in 2008 almost 75 per cent of countries responded, suggesting a growing awareness of and interest in aid for trade. Information is thus now available at world and country level, although not by region. The WTO also includes monitoring aid for trade in its Trade Policy Reviews of both donor and recipient countries. As these take place only every two years for the major donors and at most every six years for the poorest countries, this process will take time to cover all countries. For the global reviews, the WTO works closely with the regional development banks. These have been particularly important in implementing aid for trade, and, in their reports in this guide, the IDB and ADB both stress that their trade-related activities are within the framework of aid for trade. During 2007, meetings were held in each of Latin America, Africa and Asia attended by representatives of the international and regional agencies, bilateral donors, and the trading regions and countries within each area. Following these, in November 2007, the WTO organized a global review, based both on these meetings and on data from the monitoring exercise with representation from international and regional agencies as well as the WTO member countries. This review adopted the principles for measuring aid for trade: a base period of 2002-5, i.e. before the WTO initiative, and definitions using the CRS system. During 2008 and early 2009, a second round of more focused regional and country meetings was held. In Asia a meeting was held of the ASEAN countries; in Africa there was a meeting of COMESA, EAC, and SADC which focused on the project for a North-South transport corridor; and in Latin America there were two national meetings in Peru and Honduras and one subregional meeting for the Caribbean followed by a regional meeting for America and the Caribbean. These became inputs into the Second Global Review in June 2009. The conclusions of the 2009 Global Review were that aid for trade had increased from the 2002-2005 period by 21 per cent by 2007 and was now being prioritized by donors and recipients, although its share in total aid had fallen slightly. Under the OECD CRS definitions, most aid for trade goes to infrastructure (over half), with most of the rest going to building productive capacity, leaving only about 3 per cent for assistance on trade policy and regulations. (Programmes in policy and regulations are, in general, much smaller than those for infrastructure and supply capacity; most countries do not yet distinguish aid for trade adjustment in their data.) The greater number of countries participating actively in the review was one sign of its increasing prominence, but there were also indications that more countries were discussing trade needs with donors and formulating trade development strategies and integrating these with their general development programmes. Some bilateral donors increased their commitments for the next three years relative to those for the previous three (made around the time the initiative was introduced), an important signal in a year when aid budgets were under pressure from the financial crisis. The WTO Director General, however, noted a need to “refine our monitoring in understanding how aid for trade is working in tandem with other financial instruments, in particular those offered by the international financial institutions”, suggesting an important role for this Resource Guide.

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The impact of the Aid for Trade Initiative on trade capacity building In some areas, the priorities emphasized by the Task Force, in particular its emphasis on regional interventions, reinforce the importance of the needs that had been identified in existing trade capacity programmes. Support for institutions that improve capacity to trade and for infrastructure and other measures to build countries’ ability to trade is needed at regional or global level as well as country level, but the country-based approach of most bilateral aid programmes has meant problems in getting support for multi-country projects. This can include regional facilities, such as ports, or bilateral arrangements, such as a road from a land-locked country to a port in another country. The grouping of a range of types of assistance together in order to provide a coherent approach to the problem of lack of trade capacity building across programmes and across donors was consistent with a more general concern about the lack of coordination of aid programmes and, in particular, with the “Delivering as One” UN coherence initiative. By accepting helping countries to trade as an explicit objective, bilateral donor countries which are members of the WTO added an international obligation to their existing objectives for their aid programmes. For those which had mandates explicitly directed at poverty reduction, this requires some modification or reinterpretation of their mandates. Many bilateral donors, including the EU and its members, report that they now have formal aid for trade strategies. It also implied a need for different types of expertise; in some cases this has been met by allocating more financing through multilateral or regional agencies; this is discussed and illustrated in Volume 2. The new priority for aid for trade appears to have increased the funding available for trade capacity building, and may give this funding some stability, even in the face of constraints on aid budgets. It has put new emphasis on the importance of the activities of the agencies directly engaged in supporting countries to trade because many of the bilateral donors have chosen to spend at least part of their increased commitments on trade through the multilateral agencies where they recognize that there is greater experience and expertise. Combined with the efforts to ensure that there is explicit discussion of the role of trade and trade capacity building in formulating national strategies, this may lead to a more coherent approach to trade capacity building needs. The origins of the WTO initiative, on the one hand in the need to reconcile different countries’ negotiating needs and, on the other, in the recognition of the importance of cross-border linkages, have led to better recognition and greater understanding of the need to plan trade support around regional and multilateral needs, and not just at the country level. The major role of the regional agencies in implementing aid for trade is one result. A more efficient coordination of trade capacity projects should become another. Bringing together the range of agencies involved in trade support, not just in the regional and multilateral reviews but in the consultations and preparations for them, has led to a wider recognition of the number of agencies with an involvement in trade support and of the need to be aware of the different types of expertise each can offer. This Guide is itself one response to that. The WTO has acquired a responsibility to monitor flows of aid for trade. The Global Review by the General Council and detailed monitoring of donors and recipients through the questionnaires and, potentially, in the Trade Policy Reviews give it the opportunity to criticise and propose reforms. But the reluctance of the WTO as an organization to challenge the traditional aid agencies has made the reviews more forums for the exchange of information than appraisal mechanisms. The agencies do not subject their decisions on projects to common criteria, and the lack of negotiations in which developing countries could demand changes to aid in return for trade concessions means that although there are increased flows of funds for trade-related purposes, there is no way to ensure that these purposes will be influenced by the priorities of the international trading system and no certainty that they will meet national trading priorities. An additional effect of the explicit inclusion of support for aid for productive sectors, and thus by implication aid to the private sector, in the WTO commitment on aid for trade, combined with the better analysis of what countries need in order to trade, is a greater recognition by all aid agencies of the central role of the private sector in trade. In general, assistance by the bilateral agencies has been more likely to be private-sector-related. Among the multilaterals, this new focus suggests a greater role for the specialist agencies with more experience in this area. The private sector has an important role to play in identifying the barriers that traders face and monitoring whether aid programmes actually remove these. While some of these barriers will need action on trade policy and legal frameworks, and therefore aid programmes targeting the public sector, barriers in, for example, transport, standards, and accreditation require aid which provides direct help to private sector organizations. The summaries below of the types of service different agencies provide show that some are becoming more aware of this need and moving beyond broad areas of trade policy.

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The contribution of the UN System and other development agencies to trade International trade is normally an activity of private sector actors, for private motives, directed ultimately at satisfying the desires of final consumers, and relying on the economic interests of producers, intermediaries, and buyers. As for any market, it depends on good public institutions and regulations. In developing countries, both public and private actors may benefit from assistance to reach international standards themselves and to provide the services and inputs which are not yet available in their own countries. International and bilateral agencies can provide such support through a range of types of assistance, including direct training or funding, building institutions, and advocating for an international environment that promotes development. The fact that trade is an activity that touches and is touched by almost all the private activities and official institutions in a country means that the range of capacity building activities that can help and the number of donor agencies that can offer such activities are both unusually large. Trade-related aid can come in a wide variety of forms. It can target any of the stages of a trade response, from recognition of a business opportunity through production, marketing, meeting standards, and using credit and infrastructure services. A country which faces many problems in trading may find it difficult to identify the most urgently needed types of assistance and the agencies that can deliver these most effectively. For this reason, countries, UN and other coordinating agencies within countries and the agencies themselves welcomed the first edition of this Guide to available services. The new Guide, by extending its coverage to more international and regional agencies and most bilateral programmes, will be more useful in helping countries identify where to turn for assistance. The Guides are also useful in helping agencies to identify new areas where coordination or joint programmes may be desirable and new potential partners, as well as allowing them to know where help is not available and new programmes are needed. The key areas for trade capacity building have been identified here as: • Global advocacy for trade as a tool for development; • Trade policy development, including competition policies; • Design and implementation of legal and regulatory frameworks that allow for the implementation of WTO and other international agreements, or facilitate accession to them; • Supply  capacity development, including the improvement of the business environment and the investment climate, the provision of business services and access to financing, and private sector development in general; • Compliance  infrastructure and services, in particular for standards, accreditation and certification bodies, testing and calibration laboratories, and inspection services; • Trade  promotion by the development of export promotion strategies and the strengthening of trade promotion institutions; • Market and trade information structures and services; • Trade  facilitation to assist import and export mechanisms and processes by the streamlining of customs procedures and border and transport management; • Physical trade-related infrastructure, such as ports, rail transport, roads, cool chains, and harbours; • Trade and export financing, international payments and other trade-related financing. Thirty multilateral agencies, seven cross-agency programmes and twenty-four OECD-DAC members are now included in the Resource Guide. They can be classified into three types: those for which trade-related capacity building in developing countries is the core of their work, in particular the ITC and UNCTAD; those concentrating on trade or some aspect of it which see assistance to developing countries as an essential part of promoting their responsibilities - these include FAO, IAEA, IMO, IMF, ITU, UNEP, UNIDO, WHO, UNWTO, WTO; and finally development agencies, both general and specialist, which recognize that improving countries’ capacity to trade must be part of any development strategy, such as UNDP, the UN Economic Commissions and Regional Development Banks, the World Bank, IFAD, UNHABITAT, UNRWA, and the twenty-four bilateral agencies. The following table summarizes the areas of trade intervention for each of the agencies and regional development banks. A summary narrative then gives examples of the services available for each area of intervention.

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Gl ob al Tra Adv oc de a L e Pol i c y cy ga D l Su and eve lo pp Re gu pm ly C l Co at en t mp apa or c yF i l ra Tra ianc t y me eS de wo u P rk Ma rom ppo rk r et ot io t n Tra & T ra de d Ph Fac i e In f l ys ic itat orm at Tra al T ion io de rad n e Ot Rela Inf ra he te d F str r u in an c tu c ia re lS er v ic es

Overview

Department and office

UNDESA ITC UNCTAD UNDP

Programmes and Funds

UNEP UN-HABITAT UNRWA UNESCAP

Regional Commissions

UNECA UNECE UNECLAC FAO ICAO IFAD ILO IMO IMF

Specialized Agencies

ITU UNIDO WB WHO WIPO UNWTO

Other Organizations

IAEA WTO AfDB

Regional Development Banks

ADB CDB EBRD IDB

• • • • • •

• • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • •

• •

• • •

• • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Table 1: Overview of UN-wide and regional development banks’ trade capacity building services

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Global Advocacy The global advocacy category covers services that are designed to promote the use of trade as a development tool and to encourage support for developing countries’ efforts to improve their trade capacity building. This includes analysis and dissemination of trade-related information, promoting understanding of the relationship between trade and development, and supporting policies. Some agencies provide information on and support for the interactions between their more specialized interests and trade. The WTO specifies development as one of the goals of the international trading system, and designated the current negotiating round as a “development round”. This association of trade negotiations and development was intended to have a strong influence on both developing and developed country policy. The WTO’s Annual Reports and its joint activities with parliamentarians and civil society are direct ways of influencing opinion. UNCTAD was founded to encourage trade policy-makers to recognize the link between trade and development. It continues to support this through annual reports, including those on trade and development, the LDCs, investment, information technology, and trade and the environment, as well as through its conferences, and other specialist publications and meetings. The World Bank advocates changes in the trading system to make it more supportive of development and of poor people, and supports this with a variety of publications and policy statements. The ITC encourages national export strategies and contributes to countries’ understanding of the detailed changes in policy necessary to improve competitiveness. It also provides analysis of trade flows and barriers in order to support international initiatives on trade. The IMF publishes regular analyses of macroeconomic and financial developments to identify their impact on development. It also promotes trade policy liberalization as a tool in helping development. UNDP’s Human Development Report has been a major advocacy tool in focusing attention on the relationships between trade and development, in the broadest sense, and it has a variety of more specific initiatives, including on commodity issues. UNDESA advocates the importance of trade through policy papers analysing the implications of macroeconomic policy for development and advisory work. At the regional level, UNECA supports African trading interests through research and advocacy, while UNECLAC promotes understanding of the links between trade and poverty and between trade and climate change. UNECE has focused on the development problems of the transition economies. AfDB, ADB and CDB provide scope for regional policy discussions as well as preparing economic reports and research on trade issues. IDB, in addition to its research and dialogue functions, puts particular emphasis on encouraging regional integration. Both ADB and IDB emphasize their roles in the WTO’s Aid for Trade Initiative. Among the specialized agencies, FAO supports using trade to contribute to eradicating food insecurity and poverty. It relies on analysis and workshops. IFAD’s research and advocacy are directed at strengthening the voice of the rural poor in trade policy. UNIDO puts emphasis on the impact of trade on development through industrial development, particularly in its Industrial Development Reports and other research. The UNWTO uses its analysis to demonstrate the growing importance of tourism in generating income for developing countries, especially the smallest. The ILO argues that trade is an important source of employment creation and aims at ensuring that this is a central concern of trade policies, as well as promoting recognition of the social dimension of trade. It works through case study analysis and meetings. UNEP researches the links between trade and climate change, both negative and positive, because trade can give developing countries access to environmentally sound technology and know how, and how environmental investment can contribute to economic growth. WHO advocates the need for coherence between trade and health policy. The ITU encourages governments and industry to understand the developmental role of non-discriminatory international standards.

Trade Policy Development Agencies’ assistance to trade policy development is generally provided in four areas: design and implementation of trade policy; specific developing country issues in trade (such as commodity exports and preferences); support in trade negotiations; and assistance in managing the interactions between trade and other policies. The agencies that have a particular mandate and expertise for helping countries toward better trade policies are UNCTAD and the World Bank. UNCTAD provides training at different levels for trade officials and for academics and others who will in turn train and advise. It has a strong focus on current issues and on providing early training for issues that are entering international negotiations (such as services and investment). The World Bank provides capacity building on specific topics in trade and also conducts diagnostic studies of trade needs (in non-LDCs, as well as the LDCs covered by the IF/EIF). UNDP also provides support to the EIF, which offers funding to help

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Overview

c­ountries identify their trade needs. UNDESA builds capacity for the analysis of macroeconomic shocks. The IMF uses both its research and its regular consultations with countries to assist them in formulating trade policies to promote poverty reduction. The WTO provides technical assistance and training for government officials on WTO commitments and, in the context of the Trade Policy Review Mechanism, on using national institutions effectively in trade policy. It also has a programme for increasing the capacity of developing country academic institutions to provide training. The ITC trains public sector and private sector decision-makers in trade policy and its implications for their other objectives. It emphasizes building the capacity to know how to access a wide range of trade-related information and how to use this information for policy decisions. UNIDO provides support to industry-related policy-makers and institutions to help define national quality policy to support exports and to build export capacity, and provides studies and data on trade and trade policy and on competitiveness. The ILO helps with relating trade policy to employment creation and the provision of decent work. In the regions, UNECLAC and IDB have programmes to provide information on multilateral and regional trade issues to trade officials and civil society. IDB also builds research and analytic capacity, and has programmes to support and train trade negotiators. UNECA uses conferences and advice to inform its members about trade. The ADB and AfDB provide capacity building and research on trade policy questions, focusing on regional as well as country issues. UNCTAD and UNDESA provide assistance in using preferences. UNCTAD offers advice and training to countries to assist them to reduce dependence on commodity exports and the consequent risks. FAO also takes a particular interest in assisting with commodity policy, and IFAD increasingly provides support for policy development. The WTO has long experience in building the skills of trade negotiators in multilateral negotiations. In the past the World Bank specifically targeted negotiations assistance at the Doha Round, and has now added regional negotiations to its programmes. The other agencies that offer assistance in negotiations now all include regional as well as multilateral negotiations. These include UNCTAD, especially for LDCs, and UNDP, which has special programmes for Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa and the Arab states that strengthen trade policy formulation and analysis from a human development perspective. UNESCAP has a range of regional networks and databases for the research and dissemination of information about trade, UNECLAC offers policy implementation assistance, and UNECA provides support to African countries in formulating trade policy. UNCTAD has added a programme on climate change that focuses on its links to trade, investment, and development, and that supports developing countries in taking advantage of the new opportunities created by climate change initiatives. It works through analysis and conferences of policy makers. From the environmental side, UNEP offers assistance on the relationship between environmental agreements and trade agreements, and has programmes to build the capacity to understand the implications of trade for biodiversity and wildlife conservation. WHO provides capacity building in analysing the relationships between trade and health objectives, ICAO on issues related to air transport, and UNWTO on planning tourism strategies.

Legal and Regulatory Framework Assistance under this category includes helping countries to bring their own regulations into conformity with international rules, more general help to improve their legal institutions, and training officials to deal with such rules. A number of the agencies specialize in particular areas, rather than trying to provide expertise on the legal rules in all sectors. For several, the aim is to balance trade-related obligations with other national (or international) interests. The WTO and some of the specialized and regional agencies concentrate on helping countries to comply with international regulations. Other agencies look in more depth at the way in which international regulations and national policies can be combined to produce the most favourable outcomes for development. Most of the WTO’s specific training and advice reflects its role in providing the principal legal framework for international trade, and much of it involves helping countries to comply with WTO rules, through advice, information, and training. It also provides advice to developing countries using the WTO dispute settlement system. The World Bank also provides general training in this area. Like the WTO, it offers training to countries acceding to the WTO. UNCTAD has a significant role in training on WTO issues and on preferences to WTO members and to acceding countries. It also provides capacity building in the area of competition law.

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UNIDO provides a range of support to governments on developing the framework to implement WTO agreements on technical barriers to trade (TBT) and sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures. It has a special focus on the development of standards and technical regulations, product testing, metrology, and enterprise certification and accreditation, combining such advice with developing related national institutional capacity. The ITC also provides information and training to help countries comply with WTO agreements, but with the specific aim of finding a way to comply which also promotes countries’ competitiveness. It promotes arbitration and mediation centres. WIPO has helped countries with the implementation of international obligations, and also provides advice on how to use the flexibilities available under the WTO. This differentiates its support from that of the WTO, which cannot provide advice to countries that goes beyond the legal rules. UNDP has a special programme to support capacity building to implement the WTO’s rules on Trade-Related Intellectual Property (TRIPS), including the flexibilities on access to HIV/AIDS drugs. FAO helps countries to conform to international obligations, including agricultural standards, through assistance in drafting and implementing laws. ICAO provides information and, where needed, technical support on air services agreements. The ILO provides advice on revising labour laws to make them conform to ILO conventions, and also trains officials and trade negotiators, and provides technical information to assist them. The World Bank offers training and advice on border procedures. The regional groups all have very specific areas of interest in this category. UNESCAP has a technical assistance programme for the Doha negotiations and for the Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA), including analysis of its country-specific impacts, and offers assistance to LDCs acceding to the WTO. UNECA supplements its specific assistance to African countries on negotiations (discussed under Trade Development) with institutional support to the African negotiating structures in Geneva, notably the African WTO Geneva Group. It assists with technical information and papers as well as by training negotiators. AfDB provides legal assistance to countries facing problems dealing with private sector creditors. UNECE focuses, in particular, on developing trade-related standards and infrastructure to reduce barriers to trade. In addition to technical advice and assistance on regulatory harmonization, it organizes regional consultations and networks of policy makers, business people, and academics. UNECLAC has developed a database of trade disputes for its region. IMO provides assistance on drafting maritime legislation to ensure that trade can develop safely. UNEP has a specific trade-related legal and regulatory focus on the fisheries sector, in particular on fisheries’ subsidies. WHO provides advice on health agreements and their relationship to WTO agreements on TBT, SPS, TRIPS, and GATS. ITU offers a Regulation Toolkit to assist in designing regulatory frameworks, including a new programme on cybersecurity, and a database on members’ policies, as well as training programmes.

Supply Capacity In line with the trade focus of this Guide, support activities to develop supply capacity are considered to be those that aim to increase the availability of goods and services for export. There is no easy distinction between this and building capacity to produce more generally, and this distinction is becoming less pertinent as borders open and competition in local markets from imports increases. Some agencies do not make this distinction in their projects. The EIF provides limited funding to encourage supply responses as “seed projects”. The ITC has programmes which specifically aim to transform producers into competitive exporters. These include training on management, specific advice on products and marketing, and assistance in developing links to buyers. UNIDO provides techno-economic assessments by sector to increase exports, with a special emphasis on agro-processing in areas such as food, horticulture, fisheries, textiles, and leather. Its supply-side assistance involves improving the business environment, including analysis of the investment climate, and building institutional capacity for enterprise and SME development. It supports technical sectoral advisory centres, export consortia, cluster development and value chain integration, food safety management, and cleaner production. It supports enterprises in upgrading production. For FAO, increasing agricultural productivity and therefore improving agricultural competitiveness is basic to its mission, and most of its activities fall under this heading. It has a specific programme to increase agricultural productivity by encouraging the application of existing knowledge about appropriate technology. The World Bank, through the IFC, supports agricultural trading companies and knowledge-transfer through investment. UNEP also supports agriculture, concentrating on the relationship between trade and sustainable agriculture. IFAD promotes production for local consumption and regional markets, and supports financial services for the rural poor.

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The ILO focuses on improving the productivity of labour through promoting decent work and by helping policymakers to analyse the stages of production and use this analysis to improve their productivity. UNWTO has training programmes for the tourism sector and supports countries in improving quality standards. UNCTAD also has a programme to support SMEs in tourism. The IAEA offers assistance to improve production and competitiveness in energy, and the ITU offers assistance in upgrading telecommunications technology. With the objective of helping countries become more competitive in trade, UNCTAD provides training for SMEs in management and accessing markets, and has a programme to link them to transnational companies. It also has a programme to stimulate trade and investment in biodiversity-related products and provides support to countries in encouraging and regulating foreign investment. At the regional level, UNESCAP and UNECLAC have programmes to improve the analysis of how best to improve production, while UNESCAP has specific projects to encourage innovation, to analyse technical barriers to trade, and to help SMEs move into new markets and value chains. EBRD supports agriculture and SMEs, especially in adapting to the market economy. ADB also supports SMEs. AfDB has programmes to build capacity in agriculture and finance. CDB provides assistance to sugar and banana producers in adjusting to their greatly changed trading regimes and to support industrial development. It can use equity participation as well as loans. IDB is developing programmes to assist the private sector in world markets.

Compliance Support Infrastructure and Services Assistance in this category is closely related to that under the Legal and Regulatory Framework, but places more emphasis on building the institutions in developing countries to implement such legal frameworks, and less on the details of compliance. It is an area where the specialized agencies again have the main role. The ITC provides information on the technical requirements for compliance through a number of publications and programmes on standards and compliance issues, specifically tailored to the needs of the business sector. UNIDO concentrates on institutional capacity building for standards bodies, product testing, and calibration/metrology laboratories, and product and enterprise certification and accreditation bodies. The World Bank provides information about standards and how to meet them, and loans to help countries to comply with them, including for developing national standards and compliance infrastructure and services. The Standards and Trade Development Facility (STDF) provides both public and private sector organizations with funding for identifying needs in standards and for capacity building. Among the specialized agencies: FAO focuses on providing assistance in the development of food and animal import/export inspection services; the IAEA has programmes to help countries develop expertise in meeting standards in the energy sector; ITU publishes standards and recommendations, and provides capacity building on developing and adopting these; and UNWTO has developed quality certification standards for tourism. At regional level, UNECE assists its members to develop quality standards and the institutional capacity for their implementation, for instance for perishable agricultural produce. UNECLAC prepares studies about TBT, SPS, standards and technical regulations.

Trade Promotion Capacity Building This category includes both direct support to exporters and the building of institutions in-country which will provide such support. It is different from many of the other categories in its direct relationship to the private sector. ITC offers both types of assistance, and has provided a wide range of expertise to exporters, including on strengthening trade support institutions, and on building private sector groups to use such institutions effectively. It offers policy advice and institutional capacity building. UNWTO has designed a handbook on e-marketing for tourism destinations to improve marketing skills. UNECLAC and UNECA have programmes to help trade associations within their regions with trade promotion. IDB is building the capacity of trade promotion organizations.

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Market and trade information Market information and trade information services are different in their focus and methods. Market information is about sub-sectors and products, while trade information focuses on the aggregate level, including data on trade flows, policies affecting trade, and trends in these. Market information is usually targeted at traders. Trade information is, broadly speaking, intended to be used by policy-makers. Market information The ITC provides market information and also helps countries to develop the capacity to set up their own market information systems. The information is intended for exporters and for national trade information institutions, and includes general surveys and specially designed studies. It provides databases of importers and other trade promotion organizations. There are special schemes for SMEs. UNCTAD’s database on trade and trade barriers provides a tool to analyse markets for both policy-makers and traders. FAO provides market information systems, databases and workshops to inform countries about commodity markets and trends in trade, and provides production-related analyses, for example of value chains. UNESCAP has databases of trade and investment organizations in its region and online information for exporters. Trade information The WTO provides data on world trade, including estimates of trade in services, and some analysis of recent data. UNCTAD provides a range of data on trade and market access conditions, with a particular emphasis on special trading conditions for developing countries. It also has a website on trade, the environment and development. It is a major source of data and analysis on foreign investment and trans-national companies. The World Bank does not provide new data because it depends on other agencies for its data, but produces analytic summaries and its own analysis of the information, and develops tools of measurement and analysis. It provides databases on trade, tariffs data, other border and behind-the-border barriers to trade in goods, and regulatory barriers to services; studies of indicators on doing business and logistics performance; and models and tools to analyse the impact of tariff changes. UNIDO offers a range of statistical products, including analysis of trade and production by sector and country, and industrial development indicators. UNWTO provides data on tourism, including on its employment effects, and tools to analyse these. UNESCAP, UNECLAC and AfDB offer regular information on trade trends relevant for their regions, and UNECLAC has specialized databases, including the one of trade disputes for its region. IDB and ADB have databases on regional trade agreements in their regions. UNECA provides briefing notes for African countries on trade issues.

Trade Facilitation This category covers the development, harmonization, and implementation of the rules and procedures which govern how goods cross borders. UNCTAD and the World Bank provide a broad range of services in this category. UNCTAD offers training to help countries develop the institutional capacity to implement the various aspects of trade facilitation and to participate in negotiations on these, as well as specific help in transport and trade logistics and customs. It helped to develop ASYCUDA, the Automated System for Customs Data, a major initiative to reduce the costs of customs administration in developing countries, and provides training in its use. The World Bank offers general advice on trade procedures, guidance on customs modernization, and dedicated financing for elements of trade facilitation, including customs reforms, and more specific help on reforming customs procedures. In the Global Facilitation Partnership (GFP) it provides, with the other partners, a network of information on trade facilitation and improving cross-border transport, and on financing for such projects. The IMF provides technical assistance for banking and other financial services, and also on customs reform. ITC provides services to improve the logistics of trade, including transport, storage facilities, and the links between the actors at different stages of trade. IMO tries to improve the policy framework for trade facilitation by encouraging a balance between measures to improve security and measures to facilitate maritime traffic, and encourages the application of information and communication technology to facilitate maritime traffic.

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At the regional level, UNECE helps countries in its region prepare for negotiations on trade facilitation in the WTO, and supports the development of the in-country institutions needed for trade facilitation strategies. It develops capacity building activities related to norms, standards, and recommendations for trade facilitation and electronic business. UNESCAP provides its Member States with information and knowledge-sharing on the adoption of international standards and improving coordination among agencies. It provides assistance in implementing more efficient customs procedures, and publishes guides on trade facilitation. It also promotes regional strategies for improving trade within the region, particularly for the land-locked countries. ADB and IDB have programmes for customs reform and other trade facilitation activities, with special emphasis on Central Asia and Mesoamerica, respectively. AfDB supports and builds capacity in regional organizations to improve the efficiency of regional trade. EBRD’s programmes are directed more at the eastern European countries’ trade with the rest of the world. It offers loan guarantees and other financial services.

Physical Trade Infrastructure Like support for supply capacity, this is a category where the boundary between trade support and more general support to production or development is not clearly defined. Some agencies, including the World Bank, try to allocate spending on individual projects partially to trade and partially to other purposes; others focus on the principal purpose of a project or a type of activity. The World Bank is a major provider of loans related to this category, with a particular interest in the physical infrastructure of transportation. UNCTAD provides support to the institutions needed to make transport systems work effectively, especially multi-modal transport, which is particularly important for small or land-locked countries. It also provides advice on managing transport services. In the air transport sector, ICAO provides advice, technical support and training aimed at making services more efficient. UNECE provides its region with assistance services related to transport, with an emphasis on the transportation of dangerous goods and the harmonization of road vehicle regulations. It has projects of subregional cooperation that aim at improving transport infrastructure networks. AfDB mainly supports roads, seeing lack of transport links as a major obstacle to African competitiveness. IDB and CDB have projects in roads and maritime transport. EBRD assists in all forms of transportation, including sea, but in particular with the development of the Trans-European Network.

Trade-Related Financial Services Trade finance is one of the areas where exporters from developing countries are most disadvantaged compared to those from developed countries because selling at a distance to purchasers who are not directly known within the country requires special skills and risk assessment from banks. Only when exports reach a sufficiently high level is it profitable for banks in a country to acquire these skills, so exporters, particularly SMEs, are hampered by difficulty in accessing export finance. Therefore both the cost and the availability of appropriate finance are problems. Some agencies offer support to build national capacity, while others try to fill the gap until such capacity is available. UNCTAD has a history of expertise in the areas of risk management and finance tools, and insurance, and provides advice on developing the necessary services in developing countries. The ITC provides training on risk analysis and credit scoring to providers of export credits, and to exporters on how to use export finance efficiently. The World Bank provides support to guarantee risks for individual trade transactions. ADB has a Trade Finance Facility to support banks in providing trade finance. EBRD and IDB provide guarantees for banks providing trade finance. In the early months of the financial crisis, trade credits were expected to be particularly badly affected. The World Bank responded with a programme to provide additional finance to banks involved in trade finance in developing countries. The IMF encouraged the expansion of trade finance. AfDB established an emergency liquidity facility, and ADB and IDB expanded their existing facilities.

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Other Trade-Related Activities Other types of assistance, although some of them may not be specifically targeted at trade, may affect trade. As noted above in the discussion of aid for trade, the IMF was the first multilateral agency to create a facility, the Trade Integration Mechanism (TIM), to help countries to meet balance of payments needs arising from multilateral trade liberalization. In response to the financial crisis, it expanded existing programmes and introduced new ones. The ILO and UNIDO provide large ranges of special support services for SMEs, since these are the enterprises that often find trading, and especially starting to trade, most difficult. UNRWA provides training for refugees to enable them to enter labour markets or to establish small business units which can target export markets. UNCTAD has a climate change programme which includes assistance to countries on using new trade opportunities from climate change, while its consumer and competition programmes and its building of scientific research capacity build competitiveness. EBRD has established a regional carbon credit fund. ICAO provides assistance with the objective of reducing the level or impact of aviation emissions. ITU is developing ways of integrating environmental considerations into its standards.

Inter-Agency Cooperation Mechanisms Volume 1 of this Guide also provides an overview of some major frameworks for inter-agency cooperation. Three of these have responsibilities covering all types of trade capacity building. The Chief Executives’ Board for Coordination (CEB) coordinates trade and development operations within the UN System at the national and regional levels. The OECD-DAC Creditor Reporting System (OECD CRS), discussed here under Measuring Aid for Trade, now has the responsibility of providing the data on trade-related aid according to the WTO Aid for Trade definition as part of the WTO’s monitoring function. The WTO’s Global Technical Assistance Database (GTAD) will identify planned TCB. The Enhanced Integrated Framework for trade-related technical assistance (EIF) focuses specifically on LDCs, offering support mainly for identifying needs for assistance in the categories of Trade Policy Development and Supply Capacity with limited pilot projects. AITIC assists LDCs and other WTO members without representation in Geneva to formulate their trade policies and to promote these through negotiation in the WTO. The Standards and Trade Development Facility (STDF) provides Compliance Services specifically on issues relating to food safety management and sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures. The Global Facilitation Partnership for Transportation and Trade (GFP) was established as a common platform for UN agencies involved in Trade Facilitation in these areas. In addition, almost all agencies have individual cooperation agreements with each other through Memoranda of Understanding. Such cooperation is described by each agency in the agency summaries section of this Guide.

Summary of provision of trade capacity building As Table 1 shows, some types of trade capacity building now seem to be well provided by a good range of multilateral donors. A comparison with what was reported in the previous edition of the Guide shows that, even among agencies covered then, the numbers for each category have increased, and the broader scope of this edition gives a better picture of what is provided. As Table 1 shows, the types of assistance provided most often by multilateral donors are in the categories of Global Advocacy, Trade Policy Development, Legal and Regulatory, and Supply Capacity support. In Volume 2, Table 2 shows how bilateral donors complement this coverage. While many are also active in the last three of these categories, only slightly more than half provide assistance in Global Advocacy, while they are much more frequently found in Compliance Support, Trade Facilitation, Physical Trade Infrastructure, and Trade Related Financial Services. Most of the multilateral agencies report some activities in the area of Global Advocacy and, as discussed above, the arguments for the importance of trade in development strategies and of Aid for Trade in assistance programmes are now well accepted. Trade Policy Development and Legal and Regulatory frameworks are also well covered, with a broad range of types of assistance, research and advice. A few agencies are extending the types of trade policy and regulation which they cover, for example to regional arrangements and to traderelated environmental conventions and negotiations. It is important that donors remain alert to changes in the type of issue considered part of “trade policy” and in the trading partners with whom countries are negotiating in order to ensure that their assistance remains appropriate. Regulatory questions are an area where the specialized agencies have an important role, and therefore where coordination

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among them and between them and the more general donors is particularly necessary. In Compliance Support, the specialized agencies are even more prominent than in the Legal and Regulatory category, with the regions less involved, probably reflecting the need for those assisting in this area to have direct experience. Most of the agencies are now involved in building Supply Capacity, and this is now clearly recognized as an important component of trade capacity building. In contrast, under a third of the agencies report assistance for Physical Trade Infrastructure. As noted above, the neglect of infrastructure investment in aid programmes in the last decade was one reason for the strong support for the Aid for Trade Initiative. Both supply and infrastructure aid projects overlap with more general assistance to trade. Therefore it is likely that some of the agencies not reporting activities in this area could in fact report some of their projects under this heading. It will be important to avoid reducing support in these categories during the current financial crisis, as both supply capacity and infrastructure will need sufficient support to allow countries to adapt to new trading patterns. Only five agencies provide support for Trade Promotion activities, and four for market information within the category of Market and Trade information, while a few more offer assistance with trade information. This may reflect the difficulties for some agencies in instituting programmes which deal closely with the private sector but, nevertheless, building capacity in trade promotion bodies which are normally official or providing information should be within the operating rules of most of the agencies. These activities are perhaps more removed from normal aid activities and it may therefore take time for agencies which are increasing their support for trade to move into them. There are slightly more agencies involved in Trade Facilitation; this is another type of activity which involves both public and private sector actors but, as many of the requirements are very specialized in customs procedures, logistics, etc., it is not surprising that under half the agencies are active here. There has been a large increase in the number of agencies offering assistance to Trade-related Finance (from only two in the 2008 Resource Guide). Almost all the financial institutions are now offering this, and some have greatly increased their interest in this area because of the current crisis.

References ILEAP (2003) Agricultural Products: Modalities. Negotiation Policy Brief, 2. International Monetary Fund (2003) Financing of Losses from Preference Erosion, Note on Issues raised by Developing Countries in the Doha Round, Communication to the WTO from the International Monetary Fund, No WT/TF/COH/14, 14 February. Page, Sheila (2007) The Potential Impact of the Aid for Trade Initiative, G24 Discussion Paper Series, No. 24, UNCTAD. Te Velde, Dirk Willem and Massa, Isabella (2009) “Donor Responses to the Global Financial Crisis”, unpublished report to SIDA. World Bank and International Monetary Fund (2005) Doha Development Agenda and Aid for Trade, DC2005-0016. September 2005. WTO (2005). Doha Work Programme, Ministerial Declaration in Hong Kong, WT/MIN(05)/W/3/Rev.2, December 18 WTO (2006a). WT/AFT/W/1-13, Submissions to the Aid for Trade Task Force by: IMF, International Trade Centre, OECD, UNCTAD, UNIDO, World Bank, African Development Bank, Asian Development Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, ACP Group, LDC Group, Small and Vulnerable Economies, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, the EU. WTO (2006b). Recommendations of the Task force on Aid for Trade, WT/AFT/1 WTO (2006c). Aid for Trade: Follow-up to the Aid-for-Trade Task Force Recommendations, JOB(06)/262, 12 December.

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[  Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention  ]


[ Global Advocacy ]


GLOBAL ADVOCACY African Development Bank

 nited Nations Department of U Economic and Social Affairs

Asian Development Bank

 nited Nations Development U Programme

Caribbean Development Bank

 nited Nations Economic U Commission for Africa

E uropean Bank for Reconstruction and Development

 nited Nations Economic U Commission for Europe

Food and Agriculture Organization

 nited Nations Economic U Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

Inter-American Development Bank

United Nations Environment Programme

I nternational Fund for Agricultural Development

 nited Nations Industrial U Development Organization

International Labour Organization

World Bank Group

International Monetary Fund

World Health Organization

International Telecommunication Union

World Tourism Organization

International Trade Centre

World Trade Organization

 nited Nations Conference on Trade U and Development


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

AfDB Trade advocacy AfDB actively addresses poverty reduction in its country strategy papers and sector projects and through regional integration strategy papers (RISPs). The RISPs will form part of the recently approved regional integration strategy which has focus areas on capacity building and trade. The Bank participates on a regular basis with the WTO, UNECA, regional economic communities (RECs) and donors to develop ways to advance the aid for trade agenda in Africa. The Bank renders strong support for the promotion of good governance as the key to meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Contact: The Head External Relations and Communications Unit (ERCU) Tel: +216 71 10 2116, +216 71 10 2916 Fax: +216 71 10 3752 E-mail: a.s.traore@afdb.org, a.batumubwira@afdb.org

Workshops and seminars The Bank organizes workshops and seminars to facilitate discussions amongst African bank supervisors, officials from other financial institutions and with international experts on financial and trade-related matters. These workshops are mostly organized in collaboration with other international organizations.

ADB ADB acts as a facilitator in trade and investment policy dialogue at regional and subregional forums and supports capacity building. In 2007, it played a leading role in the WTO’s Aid-for-Trade Initiative in the Asia and Pacific Region. ADB also supports various regional policy forums, such as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the People’s Republic of China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea (ASEAN+3), the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Asia-Europe Meeting, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), and the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC).

Contact: Ganeshan Wignaraja, Office of Regional Economic Integration Tel: +63 2 632 6116 Fax: +63 2 636 2183 E-mail: gwignaraja@adb.org

For more information: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Brochures/InBriefs/Regional-Cooperation-­ Integration.pdf

CDB Events CDB hosts a variety of trade-related seminars, conferences, forums and symposia. In 2008, together with the WB, the IMF, IDB and other members of the donor community, the Bank hosted a conference on agriculture in response to the escalation in import food prices internationally, seeking to identify ways in which the region could respond. The Bank also, in response to the global economic crisis, hosted in 2008, together with the international financial institutions (IFIs), a seminar to review the impact of the international financial and economic crisis on the Region, attempting to identify ways in which the region and the IFIs could respond, singly and/or collectively. These events indicate the Bank’s ability to foster extensive dialogue and consultations with its many development partners and stakeholders on critical global issues.

Contact: Caribbean Development Bank Tel: +246 431 1600 Fax: +246 228 9670, +246 426 7269 E-mail: info@caribank.org

For more information: http/www.caribank.org/titanweb/cdb/webcms.nsf/AllDoc/52E74171867E5D7F872573380052E954?OpenDo cument

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Global Advocacy

Policy advocacy


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

EBRD Conferences and events Contact: Communications Tel: +44 20 7338 6372 Fax: +44 20 7338 6102 E-mail: harrisob@ebrd.com

The EBRD organizes conferences which bring together key market players and civil society stakeholders, including NGOs, opinion makers, business circles, academics, think tanks, local authorities and government officials to analyse the latest challenges in the trade finance sector and identify the most lucrative ways to overcome them in the current economic environment. These events also serve as a platform for dialogue and information exchange on pertinent trade-related issues between the EBRD’s countries of operations and principal suppliers worldwide. These discussions help to create the institutional framework needed for market development.

Global Advocacy

FAO Contact: Mr. Alexander Sarris Director, Trade and Markets Division (EST) Tel: +39 06 570 54201 Fax. +39 06 570 54495 E-mail: alexander.sarris@fao.org

The aim of FAO is to raise the profile of the problems of hunger and food insecurity, and to try and ensure that trade contributes to the eradication of food insecurity and poverty. This requires, inter alia, ensuring that trade rules are supportive of development strategies and goals, and that developing countries participate effectively in a growing global trade. In terms of global advocacy, the services provided by FAO broadly relate to: (i) MDGs; (ii) PRSPs; and (iii) mainstreaming trade-related issues. Mainstreaming appropriate trade policies in national development plans. It is widely recognized that agricultural trade has considerable potential to contribute to reducing food insecurity, as well as to development in general. The challenge is not only to raise awareness of this potential and then mobilize the necessary resources for the development of agricultural trade, but also to ensure that appropriate agricultural trade policies and supportive measures are mainstreamed in national policy and strategy papers, such as PRSPs. In particular, this service contributes to the first MDG (reduce by half the proportion of poor and hungry people in the world by 2015), and also to the eighth (develop a global partnership for development), by further developing an open trading and financial system that is rule-based, predictable and non-discriminatory, and includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction—nationally and internationally. FAO’s general objective is to enable governments and civil society in developing countries and countries with economies in transition to acquire the necessary information, knowledge, and expertise for mainstreaming appropriate trade policies in national development plans and policies, and to ensure that adequate resources are invested. As far as information on and analysis of the role of agricultural trade in reducing hunger is concerned, all FAO member nations are potential beneficiaries. Assistance on mainstreaming appropriate trade policies can be utilized by all developing countries and countries with economies in transition; specific beneficiaries include agriculture and trade policy-makers, policy analysts, trade negotiators, producers’ associations, and industry and trade associations. The service is provided through global and regional studies, analysis, expert consultations and workshops. Targeted sectors include agriculture, fisheries and forestry. The service facilitates coordination with the capacity building activities of other agencies, such as the WTO, the World Bank, UNCTAD and UNIDO. For more information: Food security and MDGs: www.fao.org/es/esa, Trade capacity building: www.fao.org/trade/

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Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

IDB Inter-institutional cooperation on trade and integration At the international level, the IDB, through its Integration and Trade Sector, collaborates with international organizations, such as the WTO, OECD, the WCO, the World Bank, the United Nations, and other Regional Development Banks, such as the ADB, in areas related to trade and development, including aid for trade, customs, trade facilitation, trade agreements, etc., in order to analyze problems and solutions which will contribute to enhancing trade and integration and will support capacity building. The IDB has been taking a leading role in the Latin American and Caribbean regions in matters concerning implementation of the global Initiative on Aid for Trade, in close coordination with the WTO, the OECD and other regional and subregional organizations.

Contact: Antoni Estevadeordal Manager Integration and Trade Sector Tel: +1 202 623 2614 Fax: +1 202 623 2169 E-mail: vps-int@iadb.org

Regional Policy Dialogue on Trade and Integration As part of the IDB Regional Policy Dialogue Program, the Trade and Integration Network provides high-level Latin American and Caribbean policy makers responsible for global and regional integration policies with the opportunity to discuss policies and initiatives by exchanging ideas and best practices, analyzing common problems, and exploring the policy implications of research findings.

IFAD Rural poverty advocacy IFAD tackles poverty not only as a lender but also as an advocate for rural poor people. Its multilateral base provides a natural global platform to discuss important policy issues that influence the lives of rural poor people, as well as to draw attention to the centrality of rural development to meeting the Millennium Development Goals.

Contact: Henock Kifle Tel: +39 06 5459 2021 Fax: +39 06 5459 3021 E-mail: h.kifle@ifad.org

For more information: http://www.ifad.org/pub/brochure/corporate/e.pdf

ILO The ILO promotes dialogue at the global level between its own constituents - representatives of governments, employers and workers - on the potential employment effects of trade policies and on measures that maximize opportunities for employment and decent work. The ILO also engages with other agencies to promote policy coherence between trade policies, on the one hand, and labour market policies, on the other. This requires, inter alia, ensuring that the objective of advancing opportunities for women and men to obtain decent work is integrated into poverty reduction strategies (PRSs) at global and country levels.

Contact: Policy Integration and Statistical Department Tel: +41 22 799 6030 E-mail: integration@ilo.org

Policy Coherence Initiative (PCI) The PCI aims to achieve greater coherence between the policies of the UN and Bretton Woods Institutions that are concerned with growth (including trade policy), investment and employment. With respect to trade, the PCI is concerned with promoting greater coherence between trade policy and labour market policies, so that countries are able to realize the employment creation opportunities that may arise from the expansion

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For more information: http://www.iadb.org/int/


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

of trade. It aims to ensure that the objective of employment creation is a central concern of the economic and trade policies promoted by the Bretton Woods Institutions through PRSPs and other country work. The PCI involves regular meetings between the UN and the Bretton Woods Institutions, in which technical papers are exchanged and discussed. These meetings include consideration of case studies of different countries. The most recent PCI meeting, held in Paris in May 2007, focused on the relationship between trade and employment, as well as the consequences of the declining wage share in national incomes. A joint study on trade and employment undertaken by the ILO and WTO, as well as an analysis of wage shares by the IMF (and an ILO reaction to the latter), were presented to the PCI meeting. The PCI involves cooperation between the World Bank, IMF, UNDP, UNDESA, WTO, UNCTAD, FAO, UNIDO, IFAD and UNICEF. For more information: www.ilo.org/integration

Working Party on the Social Dimension of Globalization (WPSDG) The aim of the WPSDG is to provide a forum for the ILO’s Governing Body to discuss and formulate policies aimed at enhancing the social dimension of trade and related issues. The WPSDG is concerned with formulating policy orientations within the ILO to support the efforts of its constituents to adopt an integrated approach to, among other issues, trade and decent work. Such an approach ensures the simultaneous advancement of economic objectives, the creation of employment, the extension of social protection, the protection of workers’ rights, and social dialogue.

Global Advocacy

The WPSDG meets twice each year at the ILO Governing Body (composed of representatives of workers’ and employers’ organizations and governments from different parts of the world). Background papers are discussed and policy orientations are formulated for adoption. From time to time, other international organizations from either outside or within the UN System are invited to address the WPSDG. The WPSDG recently facilitated consensus between the ILO and the WTO on how the interaction between trade policies and labour market policies may either support the possibilities that exist to create employment or prevent these opportunities from being realized. This significantly advanced the mainstreaming of employment objectives and labour market policy in the international policy arena. For more information: www.ilo.org/integration

Contact: Dagmar Walter, Employment Sector CEPOL, Employment Policy Department Tel: +41 22 799 84 15 E-mail: walter@ilo.org

Integrating the decent work agenda in poverty reduction strategies This initiative aims at promoting employment and decent work as the crucial link between growth and poverty reduction within the framework of national PRSs. Since the initiative began in 2001, employment has come to the forefront in many PRSs and is now examined much more systematically, including in trade policies as far as these are connected to the PRS process. For example, in Madagascar the Integrated Framework (IF) on trade was developed alongside the PRSP. ILO technical assistance and capacity building helped national stakeholders to incorporate a detailed employment action plan, including its costing, in the PRS and its policy matrix. The support is primarily targeted at the country level, with interventions in more than 35 countries implementing PRSs, and aims to empower the constituents of labour, and employers’ and workers’ organizations, and to sensitize relevant key stakeholders to the need to incorporate employment and other decent work dimensions in the PRS. At the same time, it is important to influence and maintain a critical dialogue with bilateral and multilateral development partners at local, regional, and global levels. The evolving mindset amongst a broad spectrum of government agencies is, for example, reflected in the ECOSOC Ministerial Declaration on Employment and Decent Work, July 2006, and the Ministerial Statement by African Ministers of Finance, Planning and Economic Development on “Meeting the challenge of employment and poverty in Africa”, May 2006. Both reaffirm the centrality of decent employment in the second generation of PRSs. For more information: www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/strat/policies/areas.htm

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IMF Transparency and communication Transparency and communication have become central to the IMF’s mission. The IMF has greatly increased the transparency of its own policies and operations in recent years, the IMF’s external website being the primary vehicle for dissemination. Almost all country and policy papers are posted on the website. The IMF has increased its emphasis on effective communication as a factor in engendering national ownership of policy programmes and in enhancing the persuasiveness—vis-à-vis the public as well as officials—of the economic policy advice that the IMF provides. Nearly everyone associated with the IMF shares some responsibility for considering the communications implications of IMF policy decisions and policy advice to members.

Contact: Trade, Institutions, and Policy Review Division, Strategy, Policy, and Review Department, Tel: + 1 202 623 6223 Fax: + 1 202 623 4237

Twice a year the World Economic Outlook (WEO) presents the IMF staff’s analysis and projections of economic developments at the global level, including analysis of major economic policy issues. The IMF is a firm advocate of open trade as an engine for economic growth and poverty reduction. Concluding the Doha Round is a priority as liberalization would boost the growth potential of developed and developing countries alike; global trade would increase as a consequence while incentives to negotiate bilateral trade agreements, which encroach on the non-discrimination principle at the heart of the multilateral system, would be reduced. During the recent global economic crises, the IMF called on the global community to reject protectionism in trade and finance.

ITU Exhibitions and forums ITU organizes worldwide and regional exhibitions and forums, such as ITU TELECOM WORLD, which bring together government agencies – ministries, regulatory bodies and national statistical offices – international organizations, researchers, and others in the telecommunications and ICT industry to exchange ideas, knowledge and technology for the benefit of the global community and, in particular, the developing world.

Contact: ITU Telecom Tel: +41 22 730 6161 Fax: +41 22 730 6444 E-mail: itutelecom@itu.int

For more information: http://www.itu.int/WORLD2009/

Workshops and seminars ITU organizes a number of workshops and seminars to progress existing work areas and explore new ones. The events cover a wide array of topics in the ICT field and attract high-ranking experts as speakers, with attendees ranging from engineers to high-level management from all industry sectors. For more information: http://www.itu.int/

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For more information: www.imf.org


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

ITC Contact: Friedrich von Kirchbach, Director of the Bureau for Policy and Programmes Tel: +41 22 730 0111 E-mail: vonkirchbach@intracen.org

The aim of ITC’s global advocacy is to enable decision-makers from the private and public sectors to work in close collaboration to analyze markets and set priorities, and design and implement a conducive business environment and a coherent export development plan. Responding to specific needs at national and regional levels, ITC’s objective is to strengthen national capacities to design and implement consistent export strategies that meet national development objectives.

Strategies for export development and mainstreaming trade Export strategies are developed through national consultation mechanisms and public-private dialogue methodologies. They contribute to mainstreaming trade - as an engine of social and human development into national development policies. Export strategies provide a needs-based and demand-led blueprint for trade-related technical assistance. ITC coaches key stakeholders to undertake a comprehensive analysis of the market potential and the extent to which the current business environment supports and/or inhibits export and trade development at the national and sectoral levels. This analysis serves as a basis to define export development priorities and formulate a realistic action plan to enhance competitiveness and strengthen the linkages between exports and poverty reduction. The institutional dimension is also taken into account in order to enhance the coordination of different stakeholders and ensure the effective management and monitoring of the strategy’s implementation. Export strategy work covers all productive sectors, including agriculture, industry, and services.

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ITC contributes to building knowledge and raising awareness of export and development issues by demonstrating practical cases that make positive linkages between exports and poverty issues, with particular attention to the gender dimension. ITC organizes associations of poor community producers and formally integrates them into the value chains of existing export-oriented products and services. Practical experience creates a knowledge base that raises awareness and identifies replicable solutions among key decisionmakers and support-providers, and shows them how to use export development as an engine for poverty reduction and economic growth. Activities relating to gender and poverty concerns have been mainly focused on the promotion of agricultural commodities and fair trade in handicrafts and services, in particular community-based tourism. For more information: World Export Development Forum: http://www.intracen.org/wedf

UNCTAD Main reports: Contact: Manuela Tortora Chief, Technical C­ ooperation Service Tel: +41 229 17 5752 E-mail: manuela.tortora@unctad.org

UNCTAD, through its reports, policy reviews and programmes, encourages trade policy makers to recognize the link between trade and development.

The World Investment Report Since 1991, the World Investment Reports (WIRs) have provided up-to-date and comprehensive data on issues pertaining to foreign direct investment (FDI) and transnational corporations (TNCs), analysed trends and developments in FDI, examined the implications of activities by TNCs related to these trends, and assessed consequent international as well as national policy issues of relevance to developing countries. The WIR is a key instrument to help policymakers improve their understanding of emerging FDI-related issues and policy implications for development and thereby to enhance their ability to formulate FDI policies that will contribute to their development objectives. For more information: www.unctad.org/wir

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Trade and Development Report The Trade and Development Report (TDR), launched in 1981, is issued every year for the annual session of the UNCTAD Trade and Development Board. The report analyzes current economic trends and major policy issues of international concern, and makes suggestions for addressing these issues at various levels. For more information: http://www.unctad.org/Templates/Page.asp?intItemID=2508&lang=1

Economic Development in Africa Report The Economic Development in Africa Report analyses selected aspects of Africa’s development problems and major policy issues confronting African countries.

Contact: aldc@unctad.org, africadev@unctad.org

For more information: http://www.unctad.org/Templates/Page.asp?intItemID=2863&lang=1

Least Developed Countries Report (LDC) UNCTAD´s Least Developed Countries Report provides a comprehensive and authoritative source of socioeconomic analysis and data on the world’s most impoverished countries. Each report contains a statistical annex which provides basic data on the LDCs.

Contact: aldc@unctad.org

Information Economy Report (IER) and E-commerce and Development Report (ECDR) The Information Economy Report focuses on trends in information and communications technologies (ICT), such as e-commerce and e-business, and on national and international policy and strategy options for improving the development impact of these technologies in developing countries. It replaces the E-Commerce and Development Report published by UNCTAD from 2001 to 2004. For more information: http://www.unctad.org/Templates/StartPage.asp?intItemID=3589&lang=1

The Creative Economy Report 2008 The first UN policy-oriented report on the world’s creative economy was launched in April 2008. The “Creative Economy Report 2008: The challenge of assessing the creative economy towards informed policy making” is a multi-agency comprehensive study intended to facilitate a better understanding of the key issues underlying the emerging creative economy. For more information: www.unctad.org/creative-economy Policy reviews: Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Reviews - STIP Reviews The aim of STIP Reviews is to enable participating countries to analyse and assess the effectiveness of their science, technology and innovation (STI) policies, to enhance their technological capacity-building and encourage innovation, and to integrate these into the national drive for development. A typical STIP review includes an overall analysis of the country’s strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities and threats to development in the STI field. It identifies the different elements - legal instruments, policies, measures and practices - that make up their current STI framework, pinpoints systemic and structural weaknesses, evaluates the STI-related components of sectors of national priority, and provides options and recommendations. For more information: http://www.unctad.org/Templates/Page.asp?intItemID=3434&lang=1

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For more information: http://www.unctad.org/Templates/Page.asp?intItemID=3073&lang=1


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

ICT Policy Reviews (ICTPRs) The ICTPR assesses the implementation of the national ICT master plans by reviewing ICT indicators, examining how ICT and e-business development issues have been made operational in country development strategies, identifying policies, programmes and implementation mechanisms favouring the development of the information economy, and evaluating the telecommunications infrastructure, legal and regulatory issues, and related human resources. For more information: http://r0.unctad.org/ecommerce/ICT_Policyreview.html

Investment Policy Reviews (IPRs) IPRs are designed to improve a country’s investment environment. IPRs assess the policy, regulatory, institutional and operational framework for foreign direct investment. They help governments to integrate foreign investment into their national strategies and to maximize its benefits. Each review contains a strategic analysis of a country’s FDI needs, reference to comparative best practices and related action-oriented recommendations. For more information: www.unctad.org/ipr

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Contact: trade.environment@unctad.org

Trade and Environment Review (TER) The objective of the Trade and Environment Review is to enhance understanding of and promote dialogue on the development dimension of key trade and environment issues. For more information: http://www.unctad.org/trade_env/aboutTED.asp

Commodity Policy Reviews: this is an initiative under study and development. For more information: http://www.unctad.info/en/Special-Unit-on-Commodities/

Other related programmes: Development and Globalization: Facts and Figures (DGFF) With economic globalization challenging much of our traditional wisdom, this brief synopsis of data and information offers some explanations of new and emerging economic trends. For more information: http://www.unctad.org/Templates/StartPage.asp?intItemID=2874&lang=1

Best Practices in Investment for Development The objective of this programme is to provide a compendium of accessible and practical policy experiences that can help to guide policy making in developing and transitional economies. For more information: http://www.unctad.org/Templates/Page.asp?intItemID=4983&lang=1 http://www.unctad.org/Templates/Page.asp?intItemID=4986&lang=1

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The Creative Economy Programme: Within this Programme, UNCTAD provides research and policy-oriented analysis on creative economy issues, demand-driven policy advice and technical assistance to governments, networking through its E-Newsletter, and data on trade statistics for creative goods and services (http://stats.unctad.org/creative). The project “Strengthening the creative industries in five ACP countries through employment and trade expansion” is an ACP project funded by the EC and implemented jointly by UNCTAD, ILO and UNESCO. The pilot project is under implementation (2008-2011) in Fiji, Mozambique, Senegal, Trinidad and Tobago and Zambia. For more information: www.unctad.org/creative-programme

Contact: Edna dos Santos-Duisenberg Chief, Creative Economy & ­Industries Programme Trade Analysis Branch UNCTAD, Tel: +41 22 917 5735/5829 Fax: +41 22 917 0044 E-mail: edna.dos.santos@ unctad.org, creative.industries@unctad.org

UNDESA

Implications of macroeconomic policy, external shocks and social protection systems for poverty, inequality and social vulnerability in Latin America and the Caribbean

Contact: Diane Loughran ­­Senior Communications Officer, Office of the ­ Under-Secretary-General Tel: +1 212 963 1707 E-mail: loughran@un.org

Through this project, UNDESA analyses the impact of macroeconomic policies and external shocks on development achievements. This includes the effect of terms of trade shocks on the balance of payments and other economic and social indicators. It gives recommendations on how to mitigate these through appropriate economic policies, for example through tariff reductions. [executing agencies: ECLAC, UNDESA] For more information: http://www.un.org/esa/policy/

The World Economic and Social Survey (WESS) WESS provides objective analysis of pressing long-term social and economic development issues, and discusses the positive and negative impact of corresponding policies. The analyses are supported by analytical research and data included in the annex. The World Economic and Social Survey 2009 seeks to bridge this gap within the public policy debate. It argues that mitigation and adaptation efforts can move forward effectively only if they are part of a consistent development strategy built around a massive investment-led transformation along low-carbon, high-growth paths. While acknowledging that a variety of market and non-market institutional mechanisms will be needed if advances are to be made along those paths, the survey contends at the same time that a critical role must be played by developmental states able to mobilize public finance and build appropriate technological capacity.

Contact: Development Policy and Analysis Division Tel: + 1 212 963 549 Fax: + 1 212 963 1061 E-mail: dpad@un.org, wess@un.org

For more information: http://www.un.org/esa/policy/wess/

UNDP UNDP undertakes a variety of advocacy initiatives on trade and human development concerns and in support of MDG achievement at country, regional, and global levels.

Commodities Commodity prices have been relatively high in recent years but also volatile. Many developing countries, particularly the low-income countries in the ACP Group, depend on the export of commodities for a significant portion of their foreign trade revenues. UNDP is a partner in the Global Initiative on Commodities (GIC, co-

Contact: Luisa Bernal, Trade and Human Development Unit, Geneva Office Tel: +41 22 917 8551 Fax: +41 22 917 8001 E-mail : luisa.bernal@undp.org

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Through its capacity development activities, UNDESA assists countries, at their request, in global advocacy, including in macroeconomic and trade policy development, as part of broader national development strategies. In so doing, it collaborates with the regional commissions and UNCTAD, particularly through the UN Development Account and its projects.


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

sponsored by the ACP Group, CFC, UNCTAD, and others). This initiative is aimed at raising the profile, awareness and understanding of the commodities problématique through the sensitization of the international community, better coordination of various initiatives, including “fair trade” schemes, analysis of the utilization of revenues from commodities for improving livelihoods, value addition and retention in commodityproducing developing countries, and related support for robust industrial strategies and policies.

Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs) Since the trade-related challenges faced by LLDCs are not widely recognized, UNDP supports the efforts of LLDCs within the framework of the Almaty Programme of Action to develop both trade negotiation and substantive trade capacity in line with national priorities, including in specific areas of interest, such as trade facilitation. In this regard, UNDP also advocates on their behalf in global initiatives, such as the Enhanced Integrated Framework for Least Developed Countries and Aid for Trade.

UNECA

Global Advocacy

UNECA works to: Contact: Trade, Finance and Economic Development Division (TFED) Tel: +251 11 551 7200 E-mail: ecainfo@uneca.org

• Strengthen Africa’s position and participation in international trade negotiations; • Enhance the capacity of African countries to meet the aid for trade demand with supply and assess its effectiveness in order to optimize the supply side capacities necessary to realizing the potential gains from bilateral, regional and multilateral trade agreements.

Trade advocacy UNECA contributes to trade advocacy through: • An expert Group Meeting on Enhancing Africa’s Participation in the WTO Negotiation Process; • Substantive servicing of the African Ministers of Trade and Industry, covering issues in Economic Partnership Agreements, the WTO, Aid for Trade and AGOA; • A High Level Brainstorming Meeting on WTO Negotiations; • The organization of sub-regional reviews on aid for trade implementation and performance; • Building the capacity of Member States and regional economic communities to increase Africa’s share of international trade through the Africa Trade Policy Centre (ATPC) exploiting aid for trade. For more information: www.uneca.org

Trade-related technical assistance and capacity building ECA Geneva Inter-regional Advisory Services, in conjunction with the Trade, Finance, Economic and Development Division (TFED), provides trade-related technical assistance and capacity building, through advice, policy briefs, etc., to African countries to enable them to effectively participate in various trade negotiations, such as the WTO and the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs). Technical assistance and capacity building is provided through advice, policy briefs, etc., to African countries. Other activities include training courses on various areas of negotiations such as agriculture, special products and special safeguard mechanisms (SSM), mainstreaming trade into national development strategies, etc. In addition, UNECA gives African countries the opportunity to brainstorm and conduct dialogue and come up with common negotiating positions as well as opportunities for dialogue.

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UNECE Improving understanding of the needs of transition economies In its global advocacy, the UNECE focuses on the interests of transition economies. For example, its outreach activities (such as conferences, publications, and its own website) promote a better understanding of the challenges that confront the countries of South-Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia. Many of these economies are at a level of development that is on a par with lower middle-income countries and, in some cases, with LDCs. In addition, they started their transition to a market economy with very limited experience of international trade and markets, and also lacked institutional capacity. In some cases, infrastructure is non-existent in a number of key areas that are important if they are to participate effectively in global supply chains and international trade networks. These countries need special assistance in building human and infrastructural capacity.

Contact: Virginia Cram-Martos Trade and Timber Division Tel: +41 22 917 2745 Fax: +41 22 917 0037 E-mail: virginia.cram-martos@unece.org

For more information: www.unece.org,

UNECLAC ECLAC supports: • M  onitoring requirements for the international dissemination of information and for the main debates and possible actions that are ongoing in the U.S. and the EU; • Meetings with governments and academia aimed at raising regional awareness on these issues and seeking to build common positions to be taken to international forums.

Contact: Osvaldo Rosales, Director of International Trade and ­Integration Division Tel: +56 2 210 2677 E-mail: osvaldo.rosales@cepal.org

Currently ECLAC is conducting an analysis of the scope of the current debate about the link between climate change, trade and the multilateral trading system, and is carrying out studies of analysis techniques to enhance the search for a regional position on the issue.

Products and activities in 2009: • T he 12th Annual Conference on Global Economic Analysis (GTAP 2009): “Trade Integration and Sustainable Development: Looking for an Inclusive World”, jointly organized with the Division for Sustainable Development and Human Settlements. • E xamining the link between trade and climate change: What does it mean for Latin America in terms of trade compliance on the overall emission reduction (Copenhagen results)? • Monitoring the multilateral debate on the link between climate change and development on some sensitive issues from the perspective of development: intellectual property, trade in services, investment, etc. The focus was on the topics of carbon leakage, competitiveness and trade links with the supply of environmentally friendly products. For more information: www.eclac.cl/comercio/default.asp?idioma=IN

Diagnosis of updated guidelines on commercial regional experiences and levels of poverty and investigation of possible links between the two. Analysis by sub-regions: Mexico, Central America, Caribbean, A. South (Southern Cone and Andean region): • Preliminary examinations of variables linking trade and poverty; • Comparison with extra-regional experiences.

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Updated diagnostic activities and stronger links with the UN specialized agencies


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

Current activities: ECLAC’s International Trade and Integration Division is running the Core 4 Programme ECLAC AECID Policies and Tools for promoting growth in Latin America and the Caribbean II: “Poverty, trade policy and complementary policies.”

The Division’s activities and products in this area in 2008: • P ublication of the International Trade Series № 87, “Trade and poverty: a comparative analysis of the evidence for Latin America” (Reina and Zuluaga); • Since the project began in September 2008, the team has conducted the following activities: (i) prepared a call for research proposals, which was published on the website of ECLAC and was circulated in the academic community; and (ii) received six research proposals that are being evaluated by the project team. Products and activities planned in 2009:

Global Advocacy

• • • • •

Selection and recruitment of consultants to conduct studies; A study of the DCII synthesis and comparative analysis; Seminars for the presentation and discussion of results; A publication summarizing the results of studies and policy recommendations; A Round Table on “Trade and poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean: from analysis to policy options” at the 2009 meeting of GTAP.

UNEP Increasing understanding of the relationship between international trade, climate change and development Contact: Benjamin Simmons E-mail : benjamin.simmons@unep.ch UNEP-ETB E-mail: etb@unep.ch

The relationship between trade and climate change, like trade and the environment more generally, is complex. On the one hand, trade contributes directly to greenhouse gas emissions from the transport of goods, and trade liberalization may stimulate an expansion of economic activity that leads to more greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, trade liberalization has the potential to contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation by stimulating the development and diffusion of climate-friendly goods and services. UNEP aims to increase the understanding of these inter-linkages and encourage governments to implement trade and climate change policies that are mutually supportive. As part of this work, UNEP is providing a platform for experts and governments to identify emerging trends in climate and trade, and has released a joint report, Trade and Climate Change, with the World Trade Organization. UNEP has also initiated a number of research projects related to climate change and trade, including a joint study with the World Trade Organization. It is also working with a range of partners to assess the impact of trade barriers and patents on the transfer of climate-friendly technologies related to the energy supply sector.

Supporting the transition to a green economy In response to the financial and economic crises, UNEP launched the Green Economy Initiative (GEI) in 2008, aiming to increase global leaders’ and policy makers’ recognition of the contribution of environmental investment to economic growth, job creation and poverty reduction. Under this initiative, UNEP supports research and advocacy activities to mobilize and refocus the global economy towards investment in clean industries and technologies and natural infrastructure. As an immediate result of this initiative, UNEP is currently preparing a Green Economy Report aimed at making an economic case for investment in green sectors (including cities and buildings, transport, industry, energy, waste, tourism, agriculture, forests, water and fisheries). Trade policy and markets, however, can provide barriers as well as opportunities for the transition to a green economy. UNEP will lead a discussion on this aspect as part of the enabling conditions for a green economy. For more information: www.unep.ch/etb, http://www.unep.org/greeneconomy/

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UNIDO Industrial Development Reports UNIDO’s flagship publication, its Industrial Development Reports, provide decision-makers in government and the private sector, the development community and scholars, with updated information and analysis on key trends, challenges, and opportunities in the world economy pertaining to industry and industrial development. For more information: www.unido.org/idr

Cost-benefit analysis for conformity assessment infrastructure and services UNIDO advocates the development of a local conformity and compliance infrastructure by conducting cost benefit analyses on compliance services. These analyses compare the local and foreign costs of quality and safety compliance, and highlight the long-term advantages of investment in the establishment of a local/ regional conformity and compliance infrastructure.

Contact: Augusto Alcorta Silva Santisteban Director, Development Policy and Strategic Research Branch Tel: +43 1 26026 3719 Fax: +43 1 26026 6859 E-mail: research@unido.org, stat@unido.org Contact: Lalith Goonatilake, Director, Trade Capacity Building Branch Tel: +43 1 260 26 4781, E-mail: tcb@unido.org

For more information: www.unido.org/tcb

With the objective of advocating for more effective technical assistance, and the design and implementation of tailored action plans for countries and sub-regions in the area of compliance services and infrastructure, UNIDO undertakes regional analyses to assess the priority needs for quality infrastructure upgrading in this field. These analyses include data on quality infrastructure, in particular for African and Asian countries, and are used to advocate for the need for technical assistance in this area, both with developing countries and with donors. For more information: www.unido.org/tcb

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Assessing specific needs for quality infrastructure


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

WB Global dialogue on trade and development Contact: Bernard Hoekman, Director International Trade Department Tel: +1 202 473 4163 Fax: +1 202 522 7551 E-mail: bhoekman@worldbank.org

As noted earlier, the World Bank promotes changes in the world trading system to make it more supportive of development, particularly for the poorest countries and for poor people across the developing world. This includes collaborating with the WTO, other multilateral agencies, governments in developing countries and donors to support a “pro-development“ outcome in the Doha Round, while also working with partners to maximize the developmental impact of regional trading agreements. The Bank views aid for trade, especially in support of trade facilitation, as an essential complement of the Doha process and of North-South regional trading arrangements, such as CAFTA and the EPAs. For more information: www.worldbank.org\trade

Global Advocacy

Successful examples of WB advocacy being adopted A recent Independent Evaluation Group report reviewing the World Bank Economic and Sector Work and Technical Assistance (TA) found the Mauritius Aid for Trade TA (2006) to be a best practice example of TA: “Within two months of the government’s request to help define its reform program...a Bank mission provided analysis of possible reforms, including estimates of the adjustment costs of opening up, tax reforms, and strategies to lower the cost of key services. At the end of the two-week mission, the Bank team presented the government with a summary of the main elements of the reform options. After extensive internal debate, many of the mission’s recommendations were incorporated into the government’s reform program, which was supported by a follow-up Bank loan.” The World Bank continues to provide strategic guidance to the Government of Mauritius on the issues of non-tariff barriers to streamline trade regulations and facilitate trade and competitiveness. Staff delivered on-time policy advice and discussed international experiences. The work will continue to play a substantive role in support of trade and competitiveness in Mauritius and help inform further lending activities. World Bank recommendations in the Tunisia 2008 Global Integration Study translated into a presidential action plan on trade in health services. The plan aims to make Tunisia a pole of health service exports by 2016, with significant potential positive spill-over effects for the local population (e.g., promotion of foreign investment, development of public-private partnerships, and independent certification to meet international standards). In Indonesia, a low ranking in the World Bank Logistics Performance Indicators (LPI) on the competence of its local logistics industry triggered the Indonesian Government to set up a National Logistics Team and develop an action plan to facilitate national and regional trade. This has also developed into a World Bank technical assistance and capacity building program. The COMESA Secretariat has chosen to use the World Bank Tariff Reform Impact Simulation Tool (TRIST) to calculate the revenue losses from tariff and tax reforms by Member States. This will inform decisions regarding allocations to countries under the COMESA Fund. Bank staff provided support to the COMESA Secretariat team and the 16 Member States in the build-up and use of the framework with each country’s specific tariff reform scenarios. In Madagascar, the World Bank simulation of the impact of tariff changes on tariff revenue using TRIST helped to convince the Government to reduce tariffs on capital goods, which had previously been delayed because of concerns over revenue losses.

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WHO Policy coherence in trade and health for human development The WHO project, “Globalization, trade and health”, aims to achieve greater policy coherence between trade and health policy so that international trade and trade rules maximize health benefits and minimize health risks, especially for poor and vulnerable populations. It explores the intersection between the framing of national public health policies and the need to comply with international trade agreements, focusing on the opportunities to design policies that minimize possible conflicts between trade and health, and that maximize mutual benefits. This project is designed to improve understanding of how to develop trade and health policy coherence at national, regional, and international level.

Contact: Rüdiger Krech, Director, Department of Ethics, Equity, Trade and Human Rights (ETH) Tel: +41 22 791 3355 E-mail: krechr@who.int

For more information: www.who.int/trade/en/

UNWTO International tourism has become one of the major international trade categories, accounting for 6 per cent of total worldwide exports of services and goods. Today the export income generated by international tourism represents one third of all trade in services. For many developing countries, it is one of their main income sources and a key export category, creating much needed employment and opportunities for development. Developing countries have a huge potential for economic development through tourism if they can effectively use their competitive assets and attract investment under a liberalized regime. UNWTO aims at raising awareness among its members of the challenges that derive from the trade liberalization process and to provide assistance to Member States in their trade and investment negotiations.

Contact: John Kester Tel: +34 91 567 8100 Fax: +34 91 571 3733 E-mail: marketing@unwto.org, quality@unwto.org, calidad@unwto.org

WTO Activities for parliamentarians and civil society Outreach activities for parliamentarians and civil society are part of an overall WTO strategy to help legislators and civil society representatives to attain a better understanding of their rights and obligations as members of the WTO and to follow the Doha Development Agenda (DDA) negotiations. They are also a response to challenges in the Declaration for greater transparency in the WTO’s operations and improved dialogue with the public. Outreach activities are demand-driven, and consist of national workshops organized in response to requests from WTO members, and regional workshops organized jointly with partner institutions and conducted in selected regions. The objectives of the regional workshops are to:

Contact: Maarten Smeets, Institute for Training and Technical Cooperation Tel: + 41 22 739 5587 E-mail: maarten.smeets@wto.org

• Foster greater understanding of and interest in the multi-lateral trading system (MTS); • Inform parliamentarians and civil society representatives about the basic operations of the WTO, key issues on the international trade agenda, and the status of the DDA; • Discuss how parliamentarians can be better involved in the MTS and the work of the WTO; • Encourage dialogue and exchanges of views and ideas among parliamentarians and civil society representatives on trade-related and development-related issues of particular relevance to their regions.

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Global Advocacy

Advocate for trade liberalization


[ Trade Policy Development ]


TRADE POLICY DEVELOPMENT African Development Bank

 nited Nations Department of U Economic and Social Affairs

Asian Development Bank

 nited Nations Development U Programme

Food and Agriculture Organization

 nited Nations Economic U Commission for Asia and the Pacific

Inter-American Development Bank

 nited Nations Economic U Commission for Africa

International Civil Aviation Organization

 nited Nations Economic U Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

I nternational Fund for Agricultural Development

United Nations Environment Programme

International Labour Organization

 nited Nations Industrial U Development Organization

International Monetary Fund

World Bank Group

International Trade Centre

World Health Organization

 nited Nations Conference on Trade U and Development

World Trade Organization


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

AfDB The AfDB has recently approved its regional integration strategy, and trade has been included as a focus area. As part of this strategy, the Bank will continue to support the implementation of regional infrastructure and trade capacity building. The Bank has been doing country strategy papers for individual countries. However, to enhance regional integration, it is now in the process of developing Regional Integration Strategy Papers (RISPs) to enhance regional integration in the various sub-regions of the African continent. One of the main outputs of RISPs would also be to propose how to increase economic development by having more integrated economies that would include enhanced trade activities. The Bank is now in the process of working with partners to develop instruments to measure the development impact of trade enhancement on poverty reduction.

Contact: The Director NEPAD, Regional Integration and Trade Department (ONRI) Tel: +216 71 10 2825, +216 71 10 2156, +216 71 10 3477 Fax: +216 71 33 2694 E-mail: c.seka@afdb.org, m.mupotola@afdb.org, h.minnaar@afdb.org, c.lozano@afdb.org

Trade policy training

Contact: The Director African Development Institute (ADI) Office of the Chief Economist Tel: +216 71 10 3513, +216 71 10 2075, +216 71 10 2075 Fax: +216 71 83 3916 E-mail: s.benyahya@adfb.org, s.tapsoba@afdb.org, d.mbengue@afdb.org

The AfDB organizes training programmes for trade officials, which help governments implement trade agreements and strengthen institutions to comply with rules and standards. Since 2004, through the African Development Institute (ADI), it has provided funds for the trade policy training of officials from African countries. This course is offered in collaboration with the WTO.

ADB Training and seminars ADB and the Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI) provide institutional and technical capacity building in line with the changing trade policy landscape and the proliferation of free trade agreements (FTAs) in Asia. ADB and its Institute have provided regional, subregional and in-country courses and seminars on trade policy, FTAs, rules of origin, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, and trade facilitation and logistics. Around 500 middle to high-level officials and private sector representatives across Asia-Pacific have been trained since 2006.

Contact: Ganeshan Wignaraja, Office of Regional Economic Integration Tel: +63 2 632 6116 Fax: +63 2 636 2183 E-mail: gwignaraja@adb.org

Trade-related manuals ADB aims to provide effective manuals in various areas of trade which draw upon the Bank’s experience in regional trade policy capacity building for the Asia-Pacific region. Examples are: (i) How to Design, Negotiate, and Implement a Free Trade Agreement in Asia; (ii) Trade Facilitation Handbook: Bridging the Gap between Policy and Practice in Asia and the Pacific (jointly with UNESCAP); (iii) Risk Management Guide (jointly with the WCO); and GMS Cross-Border Trade Agreement Operations Manual.

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Trade Policy Development

Regional integration strategy


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

Research on trade and investment ADB and ADBI conduct research in several areas of trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific, including the Doha Round, FTAs, infrastructure and trade costs, and regional and subregional integration. Recent books include Brooks and Hummels (2009) Infrastructure’s Role In Lowering Asia’s Trade Costs: Building for Trade; Francois, Rana and Wignaraja (2009) Pan-Asian Integration: Linking East and South Asia; and ADB and ADBI (2009) Infrastructure for a Seamless Asia. There are also online working paper series which disseminate information and generate debate on the many facets of trade, including: • ADB Economics Working Paper (www.adb.org/economics/erd-working-papers.asp); • ADB Working Paper Series on Regional Economic Integration (www.aric.adb.org); • ADBI Working Paper Series (www.adbi.org).

Trade Policy Development

FAO Contact: Mr. Alexander Sarris Director, Trade and Markets Division (EST), Tel: +39 06 570 54201 E-mail: alexander.sarris@fao.org

FAO services relevant to this trade capacity building category are related to: (i) trade policy; (ii) country studies; and (iii) diagnostics and impact studies. The common aim is to contribute to member countries’ better formulation of agricultural commodity policies and trade strategies compatible with their overall development objectives. Assistance provided in the trade negotiations arena helps countries to participate more effectively in international policy-making.

Support for the multilateral trade negotiations By the provision of training, studies and analysis, FAO aims to help developing countries build human and institutional capacities in areas of regional and international trade policy. A key emphasis is on enabling countries to be well-informed and equal partners in regional and international trade agreements. Trade policy is one of the chief components of countries’ overall agricultural development and food security objectives. Capacity building in trade policy (including policies shaped on the basis of trading agreements) enables countries to formulate better negotiating positions. Ex-ante and ex-post impact studies provide guidance in assessing the impact of trade policies and contribute to informed decision-making. In those contexts in which poverty and food security are important issues, the need to understand the linkages with policies, and the far-reaching consequences of reforms, requires complex analytical tools. The organization’s services aim to tackle problems associated with the lack of resources and technical capacity that prevent developing countries from building well-founded and appropriate views and positions in regional and multilateral trade negotiations. The services also examine the relationship between international trade in fish and food security, analyzing economic and food security issues, and sustainability and resource management practices. The services entail the provision of statistics, information and analyses on issues related to trade policy and trade negotiations. These supports are delivered through a variety of means: dissemination of publications through the Internet; email; FAO offices; the organization of subregional and regional workshops; national seminars; and round-tables in Geneva aimed at trade negotiators. Inter-agency (UN) collaboration, mainly in the form of creating a common platform through seminars, workshops, etc., for the dissemination of analytical results, is an important component of the service.

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Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

The beneficiaries of the services include, but are not limited to, policy-makers, analysts, trade negotiators, research institutes, and the private sector and civil society in general in developing and transition countries. For more information: www.fao.org/trade

IDB Policy research and impact studies

The IDB Trade and Integration Sector is currently working on another analytical product Evaluation of the Impact of Export Promotion Institutions in LAC (2009), which examines the effectiveness of LAC export promotion agencies, a topic of particular relevance given the region’s pressing need to diversify its exports in an environment where government resources are increasingly scarce.

Contact: Mauricio Mesquita Moreira (Research on Trade and Integration) Principal Trade Economist Integration and Trade Sector E-mail: mauriciomm@iadb.org Carolyn Robert (Legal and Regulatory Framework, Support to negotiation and implementation of Trade and Investment Agreements) Senior International Trade Specialist, Integration and Trade Sector Tel: +1 202 623 2883 E-mail: carolynr@iadb.org

Another broad area of analytical product deals with non-policy trade costs, that is, trade costs other than tariffs and non-tariff barriers, such as transport costs and other trade facilitation costs, including the information cost of carrying out trade. IDB’s latest report, Unclogging the Arteries: The Impact of Transport Costs on Latin American and Caribbean Trade (2008), shows that these types of barriers are today the most important obstacles to trade in the region. Finally a new policy research report is also currently dealing with the economic impacts of increased migration across Latin America and the Caribbean and evaluating the best policies to maximize its benefits and minimize its risks. A broad aim of IDB policy research on trade policy development is to spark analysis, studies and debate on integration and trade issues across Latin America and the Caribbean. An important tool for this purpose is the Euro-Latin Study Network on Integration and Trade (ELSNIT). The objective of this network is to promote research on integration and trade issues relevant to Latin America and the Caribbean, drawing on the rich European experience and benefitting from the interaction between European and Latin American researchers. For more information: http://www.iadb.org/intal/detalle_articulo.asp?idioma=ENG&aid=322&cid=259&nivel

Trade policy notes The IDB Integration and Trade Sector prepares trade policy notes to assist individual countries in trade policy-making by providing a diagnosis of the country’s trade sector, highlighting the main challenges and opportunities that the country faces in the trade area, and presenting a set of recommendations for implementing such policies. The notes normally deal with specific country issues on trade, such as how to imple-

Contact: Paolo Giordano (Trade Capacity Building) Economist Integration and Trade Sector Tel: +1 202 623 3611 E-mail: paolog@iadb.org

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Trade Policy Development

The IDB prepares analytical products with the overall goal of assisting member countries in designing and implementing trade and integration policies that facilitate economic growth, development and poverty reduction. It aims to provide policy recommendations and analysis to IDB operations and stakeholders that are technically sound, relevant to countries’ current development goals and consistent with current theoretical knowledge and policy debate. The policy research has been built around various areas, from the design of optimal strategies for implementing existing agreements to promoting convergence and accumulation among the existing agreements. For example, this last topic is the focus of the report Bridging Trade Agreements in the Americas (2009). Other examples of policy analyses have been those on the trade and investment implications for the region of the emergence of Asia’s newest “tigers”: China and India. A comprehensive China and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) report was published in 2004, The Emergence of China. Opportunities and Challenges for Latin America and the Caribbean. This was followed by a report on India and Latin America, Is India the Next Big thing for Latin America? Opportunities and Challenges for Trade and Investment (2009).


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

ment the provisions of a trade agreement, promote exports and attract foreign investment, and achieve such objectives as minimizing the impact on vulnerable groups. Recent examples of policy notes are Guatemala: Inserción Internacional y Participación de los Pequeños Productores (2008) and Nicaragua: Inserción internacional en beneficio de la mayoría (2007).

Support for the negotiation and implementation of trade and investment agreements

Trade Policy Development

Over the last few years, the Latin American and Caribbean countries have signed a substantial number of trade and investment agreements. Given the increasingly complex web of agreements, it is critical that the public and private sectors involved in international trade and investment understand the implications of these deals. The Bank provides support to public and private sectors through grants, financial operations, and policy advice on the following areas: • Technical assistance in the negotiation of trade and investment agreements; • National legislation reform to comply with the requirements of the agreements in areas such as intellectual property, rules of origin, investment, government procurement, services, technical standards, antidumping, conflict resolution, environment, and sanitary and phytosanitary measures; • Evaluation of the economic and social impact of trade liberalization, and policy advice to minimize the impact of trade and investment agreements on the most vulnerable industries and social groups; • Comprehensive transition plans towards trade liberalization and economic integration. One example is a recently launched project, Implementation and Administration of Free Trade Agreements, which is intended to provide support to Latin American and Caribbean countries in solving key challenges and problems associated with the implementation and administration of recently adopted free trade agreements (FTAs), in order to enable countries to be better placed to comply with these agreements and to use their implementation as a building block for strengthening institutional capacity, the rule of law and the business climate, and for enhancing competitiveness.

Trade and Integration Capacity Building Program The IDB, jointly with the WTO, has developed a training programme for trade negotiators in the framework of the Memorandum of Understanding signed by these institutions in February 2002. The objective of the IDB/INTAL-WTO Training Programme is to strengthen the capacities of the regional governments for negotiating and implementing the multilateral trade agreements. The programme is directed to national government officials from Latin America and the Caribbean whose working responsibilities are closely related to the process of trade negotiation at a multilateral level. For more information see: http://www.iadb.org/int/ http://www.iadb.org/topics/trade/int/research.cfm http://www.iadb.org/INTAL/detalle_articulo.asp?idioma=ENG&aid=319&cid= 256&n*ivel=1 http://www.iadb.org/intal/calendario_articulo.asp?cid=266&tid=266

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Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

ICAO ICAO’s aim in this area is to exert a global leadership role in promoting air transport liberalization and assisting states to reap the benefits of liberalization without compromising safety and security.

Economic policy and infrastructure management (EPM) The objective is to foster cooperation with other international organizations to address issues of common interest in the air transport field and to enhance understanding by states and international organizations of ICAO’s constitutional role in this field, and of its policies and positions on trade in services issues.

Contact: Yuanzheng Wang Economic Policy and Infrastructure Management Section (EPM) Tel: +1 514 954 8056 E-mail: yzwang@icao.int

The present trends in the air transport industry and the evolution of the regulatory framework will increase the demand on ICAO’s leadership role in supporting states in the air transport liberalization process. As a result, ICAO will need to take a proactive approach in the promotion and implementation of its policy framework and practical guidance related to economic regulation and liberalization. The service is provided to:

Trade Policy Development

• Governments (Ministry of Transport, Ministry of Trade); • Airline associations and airport associations; • Civil aviation professionals, consultants, airlines, airports, and the travelling public. The service is provided by: • The provision of technical support on an as-required basis; • Attendance at meetings conducted by other international organizations; • D issemination of information through publications (documents, manuals and circulars) and meetings (workshops, seminars, symposia, and conferences). Inputs: Meetings (workshops, seminars, symposia, and conferences); panels of experts; individual expertise; databases access, CD-ROMs and printed material. ICAO contributed to the WTO’s Quantitative Air Services Agreements Review (QUASAR) (S/C/W/270, 2006, also published as a CD-ROM). This document relies significantly on the data provided by ICAO. For more information: www.icao.int/icao/en/atb/epm/index.html

IFAD IFAD is increasingly engaged in policy dialogue - working to influence policy in the interests of small-scale producers and the rural poor. In so doing, the Fund’s key aim is to increase awareness of the linkages between macro-level policies and programmes and the micro-level decisions made by millions of smallholders, rural entrepreneurs, peasants and rural workers. The Fund also seeks to influence policy in an effort to minimize the negative effects of global trends and maximize incentives and opportunities for the rural poor. It bases its efforts on its knowledge, acquired through experience, of the factors affecting rural poverty. In the policy area, with the active involvement of civil-society organizations, IFAD has given priority to combating desertification and to supporting agricultural research and rural financial services, decentralization policies and practices, and market-assisted agrarian reform.

Contact: Henock Kifle Tel: +39 06 5459 2021 Fax: +39 06 5459 3021 E-mail: h.kifle@ifad.org

For more information: http://www.ifad.org/operations/policy/policydocs.htm

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Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

Results-based Country Strategic Opportunities Programme (COSOP) A COSOP is a framework for making strategic choices about IFAD operations in a country, identifying opportunities for IFAD financing, and facilitating management for results. The central objective of a COSOP is to ensure that IFAD country operations produce a positive impact on poverty. The document reviews the specific rural poverty situation as the basis for determining geographic sites and related thematic areas where IFAD would operate and highlights the innovation it intends to promote in the country programme. For more information: http://www.ifad.org/operations/policy/cosop.htm

ILO Regional integration and employment policies

Trade Policy Development

Contact: Employment Sector, Eléonore d’Achon - CEPOL/EMP/ POLICY Tel: +41 22 799 6111 E-mail: ilo@ilo.org

Regional integration is one of the factors that are important in the creation of jobs. The service aims to reinforce regional capacities for analysis, social dialogue, and the design of strategies to address the impact of trade liberalization and regional integration on employment and decent work. The ILO is involved in supporting two principal activities in Central and West Africa. The first aims to assist the constituents (governments and workers’ and employers’ organizations) to identify accompanying measures that can ensure that the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) consider the social dimension and articulate the creation of decent work as an explicit objective. This involves carrying out impact assessment studies of EPAs on employment and decent work in Central and West Africa. The second aims to encourage the RECs of West Africa (ECOWAS and WAEMU) to focus on employment and decent work issues in the regional PRSP. The ILO is involved in sensitizing the RECs to the importance of employment creation in efforts to reduce poverty.

Contact: Employment Sector, Christoph Ernst, Tel: +41 22 799 7736, E-mail: ernst@ilo.org Susan Hayter, Tel: +41 22 799 6944, E-mail: hayter@ilo.org

Assessing and addressing the impact of trade policy on employment The service aims to assist countries to anticipate the likely impact of trade policies on employment, and to monitor progress in achieving decent work. Such analysis informs the design of policies and strategies to address the challenges arising from adjustment and to take advantage of potential opportunities for employment creation. The analysis forms the basis for social dialogue between governments and employers’ and workers’ organizations on the likely effects of trade policies. The inclusion in the country studies and in the social dialogue of ministries responsible for trade and social policies, together with business and labour, ensures the design of effective and coherent policies. The ILO supports countries’ efforts to implement these policies and strategies through technical assistance.

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Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

IMF The IMF encourages its members to liberalize their trade regimes in order to promote efficient resource allocation and enhance prospects for sustainable economic growth. Trade issues feature prominently in selected Article IV consultations, policy discussions surrounding IMF programmes, and research. This includes consultations under bilateral and multilateral surveillance that cover members’ own trade reforms, multilateral trade negotiations, trade policy spillovers from actions of other economies, and the appropriate adjustment of other policies to the trade policy environment.

Contact: Trade, Institutions, and Policy Review Division, Strategy, Policy, and Review Department, Tel: + 1 202 623 6223, Fax: + 1 202 623 4237

For more information: www.imf.org

Business in trade policy ITC’s objective is to enable policy-makers to integrate business dimensions in national trade policies and negotiations, and to promote an effective collaboration between public and private sectors. As a result, capacities are created to design and implement trade policies that reflect business needs. To deliver the above, ITC supports the work of decision-makers through the provision of information and training. It facilitates public-private dialogue to obtain sound and sustainable formulations and implementation of trade policies. Information is disseminated through in-country networks made up of public-private stakeholders. These in-country networks are supported with business-oriented analysis, with a view to enriching country-negotiating positions. Special emphasis is put on developing the business sector’s capacity to design and develop advocacy activities on trade negotiations.

Contact: Friedrich von Kirchbach, Director of the Bureau for Policy and Programmes Tel: +41 22 730 0111 E-mail: vonkirchbach@intracen.org

The main challenge in targeting the business sector is to use a business-friendly manner to provide information about that sector’s stakes in trade policy and negotiations. Support is delivered through a variety of means: • Databases on import tariffs and market access barriers; • Analytical inputs to support export policy formulation and related positioning in international and regional market access negotiations; • Publications targeted at increasing understanding of the implications of trade negotiations and policy for the business sector; • Structured mechanisms for informed dialogue between public and private stakeholders. ITC also promotes the sharing of experience among countries through a series of regional public-private dialogues, as well as at a global level. For more information: Business and the Multilateral Trading System: www.intracen.org/mts/ Databases on import tariffs and market access barriers: www.macmap.org/ Business and Negotiations in Services: www.intracen.org/servicexport/trade_ negotiation.htm

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Trade Policy Development

ITC


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

UNCTAD Policy advice on commodities

Trade Policy Development

Contact: International Arrangements Section Policy and Capacity Building Branch (PCBB), Division on Investment, Technology and Enterprise Development (DITE) Tel: +41 22 917 0194 E-mail: iia@unctad.org

UNCTAD’s work on commodities, conducted by the Special Unit on Commodities (SUC) created following UNCTAD XII, consists of a balanced mix of analysis, policy advice and direct assistance in response to the needs of the public and private sectors and civil society in commodity-dependent countries. A number of activities are carried out, including assisting developing countries to: • D  evelop national commodity strategies, including mainstreaming commodity policies into their national and regional development strategies; • Build supply-side capacity and attain competitiveness; • Move up value chains and diversify commodity sectors; • Comply with public and private international trade standards (sanitary and phytosanitary standards compliance, agrifood safety standards and quality requirements); • Access commodity information and databases through the web-based tools INFOCOMM/INFOSHARE; • Take advantage of export opportunities for commodities in emerging markets; • Build human and institutional capacities; • Promote and improve transparency and accountability in the public, private and corporate sectors in order to enable the countries concerned to maximize the benefits that accrue to them from the extractive industries, taking into account, where appropriate, the implementation of relevant initiatives on extractive industries; • E stablish effective marketing systems and support frameworks for small commodity producers, including economically viable safety-net programmes; • Develop commodity financing and risk management schemes (including commodity exchanges). Initiatives under development are the Commodity Policy Reviews and the Sustainable Claims Portal, which addresses, inter alia, the following issues: protection of ecosystems and biodiversity, waste management, managing scarce resources, ecological standards, soil protection, water, pollution reduction, transport, services and housing. For more information: www.unctad.org/commodities

Trade, environment and development UNCTAD is engaged in a broad programme of work on strengthening the capacities of developing countries, especially LDCs, to make trade and environmental policies mutually supportive and guided by a developmentoriented approach. The overarching long-term objective of UNCTAD’s programme on trade, environment and development is to enhance the capacities of developing countries to analyze those issues and address them at the national, regional and international levels in a manner consistent with their development priorities. In addition, UNCTAD promotes practical mechanisms aimed at addressing specific problems identified in its technical cooperation activities or intergovernmental work, and in the promotion of trade in environmentally friendly products. Technical cooperation and capacity building activities on trade, environment and development focus on a number of priority subjects and activities: • M  arket access issues, including environmental requirements and export competitiveness, as well as trading opportunities for environmentally-preferable products; • Trade liberalization in environmental goods and services (EGS); • Protection and sustainable use of biodiversity and traditional knowledge; • Various technical cooperation activities carried out under the UNEP-UNCTAD Capacity Building Task Force on Trade, Environment and Development (CBTF);

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Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

• A  ssisting developing countries in seizing the trade and investment opportunities of the emerging climate regime and carbon market; • Activities by the International Task Force on Harmonization and Equivalence in Organic Agriculture (ITF) launched by UNCTAD, FAO and the International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movements (IFOAM); • T he Consultative Task Force on Environmental Requirements and Market Access for Developing Countries (CTF); • Building capacity for improved policy-making and negotiation on key trade and environment issues; • Activities and partnerships carried out in the context of the BioTrade Initiative at national, regional and subregional level; • Activities and partnerships carried out in the context of the Climate Change Programme. For more information: www.unctad.org/trade_env

UNCTAD implements trade-related technical cooperation and capacity-building activities that assist in the beneficial integration of developing countries, especially LDCs, into the international trading system, international trade and trade negotiations so as to ensure development gains and poverty reduction. This includes activities aimed at monitoring and assessing the evolution of the trading system from a development perspective, formulating national trade policies and analyses in relation to poverty reduction, and developing trade and trade-related capacities. Key issues to be addressed include special and differential treatment, South-South trade, WTO accession, trade in services, TRIPS and development, development benchmarks (as in services), trade and poverty, and trade and gender. For more information: http://www.unctad.org/Templates/StartPage.asp?intItemID=1917&lang=1

UNDESA Capacity-building for graduation strategies for Least Developed Countries in Asia and Africa Through this project, DESA assists Least Developed Countries in strengthening their capacity to gain access to the advantages associated with least developed country status, including those related to preferential market access and special treatment regarding WTO-related obligations. (The executing agencies are UNDESA, UNCTAD, ESCAP, UNECA).

Contact: Diane Loughran: Senior Communications Officer, Office of the UnderSecretary-General Tel: +1 212 963 1707 E-mail: loughran@un.org

Building capacity in macroeconomic policy analysis in Central America and the Caribbean Through this project, UNDESA did training on macro-econometric models that - among other things - simulated the effects of external shocks (such as a change in terms of trade, a fall in US GDP or changes in the US interest rate) on the economy, including on the trade balance. (The executing agencies are UNDESA, ECLAC, and other non-UN agencies). Programme of capacity building through development account: http://www.un.org/esa/devaccount/

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Trade Policy Development

Trade negotiations and commercial diplomacy


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

UNDP Trade diagnostic and needs assessments Contact: Luisa Bernal, Trade and Human Development Unit, Geneva Office Tel: +41 22 917 8551 Fax: +41 22 917 8001 E-mail: luisa.bernal@undp.org

UNDP undertakes trade diagnostic assessments in the context of the Enhanced Integrated Framework (EIF) and trade needs assessments under the Aid for Trade (AfT) Initiative. Specific tools that have been developed to support this work include: • • • •

A guide, How to Conduct Trade Needs Assessments in Transition Economies; A guide, How to Conduct Trade Needs Assessments in Developing Countries; Capacity assessment for trade policy implementation; Human development impact assessment of trade policy (in preparation).

Trade Policy Development

UNDP coordinates its support to the EIF and AfT primarily through the UN Chief Executives Board (CEB) Interagency Cluster on Trade and Productive Capacity, and more generally through UN country assistance plans. UNDP prioritizes support to vulnerable country groupings, such as the Least Developed Countries (LDCs), land-locked developing countries (LLDCs) and small island developing states (SIDSs). This focus area envisages the design and development of joint CEB Trade and Productive Capacity Cluster inter-agency support programmes in as many as 60 countries, particularly in the vulnerable countries. For more information: www.undp.org/poverty/topics7_trade_capacity.shtml and www.undp.org/geneva/ trade.html For more information on the CEB Trade and Productive Capacity Cluster, please see: http://www.unsystemceb.org/

Contact: Biplove Choudhary, UNDP Regional Centre, Colombo Sri Lanka Tel: +94 11 45 2640, E-mail: biplove.choudhary@undp.org, asiapacific.trade@undp.org

Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Initiative (APTII) This initiative is specifically designed to strengthen policy analysis skills and capacity from a poverty reduction and human development perspective at country and regional levels. APTII’s mandate is to foster regional cooperation and integration for enhanced trade flows leading to increased employment and poverty reduction. The initiative involves most Asian developing countries, with a focus on LDCs, LLDCs and SIDSs, and has produced over 50 technical support documents in different sectoral/thematic areas. Current research and recent publications seek to address issues relating to the global financial and economic crisis and its impact on the Asia Pacific region, South-South regionalism and trade cooperation in the Asia Pacific, industrial policy, export diversification and trade competitiveness, services trade, and temporary labor mobility in the Pacific, the state of the textiles and clothing trade, and gender analysis of trade liberalization. For more information: http://www2.undprcc.lk/areas_of_work/trade_and_investment.php

Contact: Barbara Barungi, Regional Bureau for Africa, Headquarters, New York Tel: +1 212 906 5905 Fax: +1 906 5976 E-mail: barbara.barungi@undp.org

Regional Integration and Institutional Capacity Development for Trade Policy Formulation and Implementation The project aims to enhance the capacity of African countries to formulate appropriate trade policies and participate effectively in the global trading system. It serves to support the countries and the regional economic communities to improve their competitiveness and capacity building for trade through strengthening the capacity of trade institutions, research and analytical studies, and policy advice. It also focuses on working with beneficiary countries to mainstream trade into comprehensive national development frameworks and poverty reduction strategies so as to enable a more integrated approach to trade policy formulation and implementation with a view to improving the overall standard of living of the population. The countries that benefit from this project are: Burkina Faso, Lesotho, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Togo and Uganda. The regional economic communities (RECs) that participate in the project are ECOWAS (West Africa), UEMOA (West Africa), COMESA (East and Central Africa) and SADC (Southern Africa).

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Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

This programme aims to: • I ncrease the awareness of governments and civil society organizations of the potential national impact on human development and poverty reduction strategies of global and regional economic integration through multilateral and regional/bilateral trade agreements; • Identify pro-poor trade and industrial policies (including measures to address supply-side constraints) that would help Arab countries grasp the opportunities of globalization and regional integration, achieve sustainable human development, and reach the MDGs; • Enhance the trade negotiating capacities of Arab countries, with particular emphasis on countries seeking WTO membership and LDCs; • Strengthen common perspectives and positions among Arab Governments in regional and global trade and economic governance forums and institutions. These goals are being achieved through continued proactive advocacy and awareness-raising, policy-oriented and thematic case studies, training and capacity building, policy advisory services, policy dialogue, support to knowledge sharing (cross-fertilization of experiences and lessons learned), and networking. In addition, the programme undertakes sectoral studies focusing on the strategic sectors in Arab countries (e.g., textiles and clothing) to enhance the formulation of pro-poor trade and industrial policies, as well as activities aimed at raising awareness of the potential impacts, risks, challenges and opportunities of trade liberalization and regional and global integration.

Contact: Ahmed Moustafa, Arab Trade and Development Programme, Cairo, Egypt Tel: +20 2 277 0 2241 E-mail: ahmed.moustafa@undp.org

The flagship initiative of the programme is support for the establishment of sustainable systems of monitoring and evaluating the impact of deepening global integration on the macroeconomic framework, growth, poverty and employment.

Eastern Europe and CIS Trade Programme This programme aims to: • A  dvocate on the linkages between trade, human development and the MDGs, including policy-oriented research and discussions at the national level encompassing government officials, parliamentarians and stakeholders from civil society and the private sector; • Conduct trade and human development needs assessments in a participatory framework to identify country priorities, capacity gaps and technical assistance requirements; • Help governments, civil society and research institutes to build their capacity to assess the impact of the various trade agreements, including the WTO, and how to structure adjustment policies and foster the growth of a robust SME sector; • Promote, along with other UN agencies and development partners, the implementation of the aid for trade agenda in transition economies; • Develop toolkits for knowledge-sharing on trade capacity building and trade policy assessments (e.g., the guide, How to Conduct Trade Needs Assessments in Transition Economies).

Contact: Jacek Cukrowski, UNDP Regional Centre Bratislava, Slovak Republic Tel: +421 2 593 3 7313 E-mail: jacek.cukrowski@undp.org

These sponsored initiatives focus on providing support in the design and assessment of trade policies and in mainstreaming trade into national development strategies and private sector development strategies. For more information: http://europeandcis.undp.org/poverty/trade/

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Arab States Trade, Economic Governance and Human Development Programme


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

UNESCAP Contact: Ravi Ratnayake, Director, Trade and Investment Division Tel: 662 288 1902 E-mail: ratnayaker@un.org Contact: Mia Mikic Trade Policy Section, Trade and Investment Division Tel: +662 288 1902 E-mail: mikic@un.org, artnetontrade@un.org

UNESCAP is engaged in capacity development in trade research and trade policy analysis, dissemination and exchange of data, information and research outputs, and facilitation of interaction between researchers, policy-analysts and policy-makers, and government officials.

Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNeT) ARTNeT is a regional network of 20 national-level research institutions in the UNESCAP region. It aims to increase the amount and quality of “home-grown” trade and investment policy research in the region, so as to provide governments with a sound basis for policy decisions. UNESCAP, with the support of core ARTNeT partners, including the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) (Canada), the WTO, UNDP, and UNCTAD, provides the secretariat for the network and coordinates its activities. ARTNeT undertakes regional research projects, develops research dissemination mechanisms (policy brief and working paper series, regional trade publication database), increases interactions between policy-makers and researchers (regional consultative meetings), and organizes specific capacity building activities catering to researchers and research institutions from LDCs.

Trade Policy Development

For more information: www.artnetontrade.org or www.unescap.org/tid/artnet/

Macao regional knowledge hub (MARKHUB) MARKHUB was set up to develop capacity for evidence-based trade policy-making underpinned by a mutually supportive twinning process of generating home-grown research and convening regional policy dialogues. It is open to all members and associate members of UNESCAP but especially targets countries with poor research and analysis capacities. The two types of activities include: capacity building in research, delivery of research outputs and their dissemination through the MARKHUB Working Paper series in collaboration with ARTNeT, the WTO and other partners; and capacity building in the area of trade policy formulation, monitoring and evaluation through regional policy consultations. MARKHUB is set up as a clearing house for the exchange of research findings on, and good practices in, sustainable trade and development policies through working paper series, regional workshops and dialogues, and other activities. The service includes access to databases developed at UNESCAP, as well as analytical tools, reference materials, and other relevant literature.

Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Agreements Database (APTIAD) The Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Agreements Database (APTIAD) was set up as a resource for researchers and policymakers in the area of international trade and investment. It has three main components. The Trade Agreements Database component is designed to give researchers and policymakers both an overview of, and easy access to, all the regional and bilateral trade agreements entered into or under negotiation by the countries of the Asia and Pacific region. As of June 2008 there were over 130 such agreements, including those agreements that have not been notified to the WTO but for which there is official information readily available, and also those agreements under negotiation for which there has been at least a first formal negotiation round. The Interactive Trade Indicators component is designed to help policymakers calculate some of the most commonly used indicators related to the trade performance of national economies and/or trade agreements (examples of indicators: export/import value, export/import growth, export/import share, trade share, trade intensity). The third component is an extensive glossary of relevant terms. Further details on www.unescap.org/tid/aptiad

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Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

UNECA UNECA aims to strengthen the capacity of Member States to formulate and implement sound trade policies and increase Africa’s share of international trade.

African Trade Policy Centre (ATPC)

Contact: Trade, Finance and Economic Development Division (TFED) Tel: +251 11 551 7200 E-mail: ecainfo@uneca.org

• U  NECA has been extensively involved in issues of trade policy formulation and implementation in Africa. The mainstreaming of trade has been the subject of a number of conferences of ministers of trade and finance that it has organized, and trade policy development in Africa is among the core subjects of UNECA’s African Trade Policy Centre (ATPC). • UNECA provides substantive servicing of the African Ministers of Trade and Industry, covering issues in Economic Partnership Agreements, the WTO, Aid for Trade and the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA);

UNECLAC Policy-making and policy implementation assistance In order to assist in policy-making and policy implementation, UNECLAC provides information and disseminates knowledge among officials of member countries, experts, NGOs, students, members of the private sector and other civil society institutions on the current trade trends and their possible repercussions on Latin American and Caribbean countries. This service contributes to the analysis of the trade effects of different events in the areas of international economy, trade negotiations, and globalization of production, as well as the effects of the implementation of subregional agreements in Latin America and the negotiations at the WTO.

Contact: Osvaldo Rosales, Director of International Trade and Integration Division Tel: +56 2 210 2677 E-mail: osvaldo.rosales@cepal.org, comercio@eclac.cl

The service is provided through seminars, workshops and direct technical assistance. Inputs used are individual expertise, training, seminars, workshops, conferences, group discussions and any educational course delivered to a group (on-site or in-house), technical missions, expert consultations, specialized advice, investigations, analysis, diagnostic studies, surveys, access to databases, and reference guides. The service is provided in cooperation with the EU and the Andean Community. For more information: www.eclac/cl/comercio

Fair trade and free trade agreements: “Improving Access to Global Markets” As a component of the Germany – ECLAC cooperation programme, “Towards a Fair and Equitable Globalization”, this service aims to identify a roadmap for research and technical assistance in several key areas, such as: • A  ssessing the main issues and concrete needs within and between countries of the region for trade negotiations; • Enabling the implementation of capacity building initiatives; • Providing elements and methodologies for transparency, participation, and consensus-building in order to generate social cohesion in the negotiation and implementation of free trade agreements.

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For more information: www.uneca.org/atpc


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

This service is important and relevant because it will contribute to the strengthening of the capacities of Latin American and Caribbean countries to face the challenges of trade agreements at bilateral, regional, and multilateral level. This service addresses the need for: • T he creation of the political conditions at the national level for the successful negotiation and administration of trade agreements; • The strengthening of the negotiating capabilities of LAC countries; • The strengthening of administrative capacities –of both public and private sectors – for the sound implementation of agreements in LAC countries. Information is provided to SMEs, governments, NGOs, students and other civil society institutions. The service is provided through seminars, workshops and publications. Inputs used are interviews with experts, individual and group expertise, training, seminars, workshops, conferences, group discussions and any educational course delivered to a group (on-site or in-house), technical missions, analysis, diagnostic studies, surveys, expert consultations, etc. Documents are accessible online. The targeted sectors are governmental bodies, unions and the export sector. The service is provided with financing from GTZ and the cooperation of countries of the region.

Trade Policy Development

For more information: www.eclac.cl/comercio/

UNEP Strengthening the mutual supportiveness of trade and environment policies Contact: Asad Naqvi Tel: +41 22 917 8620 Fax: +41 22 917 8076 E-mail: asad.naqvi@unep.ch, Vera Weick Tel: +41 22 917 8151 E-mail: vera.weick@unep.ch, etb@unep.ch

Understanding the relationship between Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) and international trade is critical in ensuring mutual supportiveness between trade and environment policies at the international level, and facilitating policy coherence at the national level. The UNEP-UNCTAD CBTF fosters dialogue between trade and environment policy-makers to ensure that synergies between the two groups of actors are maximized and areas of potential tension are minimized. The CBTF convenes workshops back-to back with WTO seminars to discuss these issues, and supports country-level projects focused on promoting the mutual supportiveness of MEAs and international trade.

Assessing the impact of agricultural trade liberalization on biodiversity Since 2005, UNEP, in cooperation with the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD) Secretariat, has implemented an initiative to identify the potential impacts of agriculture trade liberalization on sustainable development, with a focus on biodiversity impacts, and to propose policy responses to mitigate negative and promote positive impacts. The initiative combines the development of a guidance document on how to incorporate biodiversity in trade policy assessments in the agricultural sector with practical application of the assessment in six African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries (Cameroon, Jamaica, Madagascar, Mauritius, Uganda, and Papua New Guinea). The overall aim of the initiative is to identify opportunities to maximize gains from trade-related policies in the agricultural sector while minimizing impacts on biodiversity. Specific attention is paid to biodiversity because of the global significance agricultural production has for biodiversity and eco-systems, the strong interdependence between biodiversity, food security and poverty reduction, and the impact that trade liberalization can have on driving changes in land use and agriculture practices.

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Case study on trade policy development: Over the last three years UNEP has supported six country projects in ACP countries, focusing on the impacts of agricultural trade liberalization on sustainable development with a particular focus on biodiversity. Overall, these case-studies have contributed to the integration of biodiversity aspects into trade policies and the promotion of more sustainable agricultural practices in the selected sectors, including sugar (Jamaica, Mauritius), cocoa (Cameroon), horticulture (Uganda), shrimp aquaculture (Madagascar), and local crops (Papua New Guinea). Through these case studies, designed and implemented entirely through national-level institutions, countries have had the opportunity to gain experience in undertaking an integrated assessment of a trade-related policy, identifying biodiversity challenges and opportunities, adjusting tools and techniques to country specific contexts, and establishing relevant institutional partnerships for the future. Positive results of the initiative can be seen at different levels:

Trade Policy Development

• E  stablishment of six developing country government-research institute partnerships in the area of trade, agriculture and biodiversity, and the development of a formalized process for stakeholder consultation; • Systematic review of trade-related policies, degrees and laws with the aim of ensuring the incorporation of biodiversity considerations; • Enhanced promotion in the selected sectors of farming systems that support the conservation and/or sustainable use of biodiversity (through training on sustainable management practices, the development of strategic sectoral plans or the development of sustainability standards); • Initiation of further training programmes on the integrated assessment of trade-related policies for policy makers at national level. By establishing a pool of experts at national, regional, and international levels working on issues at the interface of trade, agriculture and biodiversity, experience gained in these projects will be further disseminated and replicated to other sectors and countries. UNEP-ETB For more information: www.unep.ch/etb and http://www.unep.ch/etb/areas/biodivAgriSector.php

UNIDO Development of national quality policy and strategy This service builds the capacities of governments and industry-related institutions to improve their knowledge and the analytical skills required to formulate, implement and monitor export-oriented quality strategies and policies. The service helps to establish appropriate institutional arrangements within government structures to develop an SQMT infrastructure, policy measures, and support programmes. Such services build competence not only at national level but also within local authorities to enable them to devise coherent sectoral and local strategies for: • • • •

Contact: Lalith Goonatilake, Director, Trade Capacity Building Branch Tel: +43 1 260 26 4781 E-mail: tcb@unido.org

Policy-related economic analysis; Policy formulation; Policy implementation; Policy monitoring and impact assessment.

For more information: www.unido.org/en/doc/5066

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Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

Contact: Mohamed-Lamine Dhaoui, Director, Business, Investment and Technology Services Branch Tel: +43 260 26 5183 E-mail: m.dhaoui@unido.org, psd@unido.org

Competitiveness analysis This programme aims to build national capacity in competitiveness analysis and to create a solid basis for national economic data inventories. These are essential for up-to-date, rigorous economic analyses which help to secure the success of industrial exports in global markets and ensure that industrial policy is based on an accurate assessment of a country’s industrial performance. The programme also helps to build up the capacity of support institutions for the private sector. Activities comprise different modules covering: Awareness-raising on industrial competitiveness; the creation and training of Competitiveness Intelligence Units in strategic government and private sector agencies; the establishment of an Industrial Competitiveness Observatory to assess global and regional trends in industry and trade, benchmark countries’ performance and capabilities, identify potential sectors/products with high growth prospects and niche markets, monitor the progress of programmes and policies, and assess their impact; capacity building in support institutions for industry and trade competitiveness analysis and value chain studies; and an International Exchange Programme to promote inter-institutional cooperation through internships, fellowships and study tours to share experiences.

Trade Policy Development

Additional information is available at http://www.unido.org/index.php?id=5609

Contact: Lalith Goonatilake, Director, Trade Capacity Building Branch Tel: +43 1 260 26 4781 E-mail: tcb@unido.org

Sectoral studies Sectoral trade development studies are prepared on the globalization and localization of value chains in industries of key importance for developing countries, such as food processing, textiles and garments, leather, furniture, biotechnology, automotive components and electronics. These studies assist developing countries and economies in transition to assess and benchmark the performances and the competitive position of their domestic industries, in particular with regard to trade and compliance challenges and, on that basis, develop strategies for innovation and entry into global value chains. For more information: www.unido.org/en/doc/5070

Contact: Augusto Alcorta Silva Santisteban Director, Development Policy and Strategic Research Branch Tel: +43 1 260 26 3719 Fax: +43 1 260 26 6859 E-mail: research@unido.org, stat@unido.org

Policy studies Policy studies are prepared on key aspects of industrial governance. The objective is to help policy-makers and other stakeholders to improve the industrial governance system and the formulation, implementation, and monitoring of strategies, policies and programmes to enhance exports, productivity, innovation and learning. They also assist UNIDO in the formulation and implementation of technical assistance activities. They are disseminated through a series of Policy Briefs. For more information: www.unido.org/en/doc/5066

Industrial statistics UNIDO assists developing countries and countries with economies in transition to build capacities in the development of competitive productive supply capacities, both for domestic use and for regional or international trade, by providing technical assistance to: • I ntroduce best practice methodologies and software systems to monitor and assess productivity performance and use it as a guide for policy-making; • Enhance the quality and consistency of industrial statistics databases so as to provide meaningful inputs for assessing productivity and industrial performance. For more information: www.unido.org/en/doc/5066

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Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

WB Support for country trade policies and institutions Much of the Bank’s country-level work aims to support the operational priorities and projects of developing countries in a variety of topics, including trade integration and facilitation, WTO accession, regional trade agreements, the Doha multilateral round of negotiations, agricultural and services trade, export diversification, standards, and customs modernization.

Contact: Mona Haddad, Sector Manager, International Trade Department Tel: +1 202 473 4163 Fax: +1 202 522 7551 E-mail: mhaddad@worldbank.org

With regard to WTO accession, of special note is the Bank’s six-year-old China program, which has moved from pre- to post-accession issues. The Bank has also been engaged in Cambodia, Ethiopia, Iran, Laos, Libya, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Ukraine, Vietnam, and Yemen.

In Tanzania the Bank is working with the government to support the implementation of Tanzania’s Trade Integration Strategy (TTIS). Support is being delivered through a series of policy notes in a number of cross-cutting areas, such as economic processing zones, services, and export market information systems, which will strengthen the TTIS. Similarly in Madagascar, the Bank is supporting implementation of the Madagascar Action Plan by providing guidance on how (i) to accelerate private sector development as an engine of growth and (ii) to promote export-led shared growth. The integration of learning activities with advisory services and lending projects has been instrumental in improving the quality of domestic trade liberalization in China, accelerating the path to WTO accession in China and Vietnam, as noted above, and strengthening the consensus around both. China’s continuing demand for trade-related learning and analytical contributions by the Bank, even following its accession to the WTO and its emergence as an export giant on global markets, reflects the success of these programmes.

Diagnostics World Bank trade-related diagnostics range from comprehensive country-focused diagnostics, such as the Diagnostic Trade Integration Study (DTIS) carried out under the multi-agency Integrated Framework TradeRelated Technical Assistance to Trade chapters in Country Economic Memoranda or Development Policy Reviews, which are the key vehicles for the Bank’s overall economic policy dialogue, to regional studies and specialized analyses, such as Trade and Transport Facilitation Audits (TTFA) or Standards and Conformity Assessments. The TTFA allows initial diagnostics of logistics constraints and was conducted in over 40 countries over the past five years. The TTFA for Malawi pointed to a limited implementation of the regional facilitation framework (SADC and COMESA), deficiencies in current infrastructure, and investment in unproductive corridor infrastructure (e.g., corridors in Northern Mozambique), leading to adjustments in both donor and government strategies. This work is complemented by a growing body of analysis for the private sector through the Investment Climate Assessments and the Doing Business country data, including data on trading across borders (e.g., number of documents, time and cost to export and import) for 180 countries. Knowledge combined with trade data are key tools to engage with countries on policy dialogue, to inform country developing strategies, or to integrate trade into operational programmes.

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On customs modernization, the Bank’s engagement in Mozambique has helped the design of a border management strategy. The Bank will also support the government in developing a comprehensive and transparent “single window” project which will ultimately provide a single gateway whereby all import/export/transit documentation and regulatory requirements can be submitted by traders only once, regardless of the number of government entities involved. In the area of standards, the Bank has designed a project between the Mozambican Bureau of Standards and a similar middle-income country institution to improve the quality of testing services and ensure alignment with the country’s social and business needs.


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

Progress in integrating trade as a part of country growth strategies and country assistance strategies (CASs) has been noticeable since the last review of trade in CASs was undertaken in the context of the 2006 Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) trade evaluation. Trade is on the agenda of the majority of the Bank’s clients and is translating into increased operational support, through analytical work, lending, and technical assistance. Most trade programmes in CASs focus on trade facilitation and export promotion rather than traditional market access issues. The Bank is working towards ensuring that in the future this trend will accelerate.

Support for multilateral and regional trade negotiations In line with the priorities of the World Bank Trade Department, the World Bank Institute has been engaged in a long-term programme of capacity building designed to improve the participation of developing countries in the Doha Development Round. To promote coherence with the WTO, the Bank has been scaling up joint activities where it stresses the link between the WTO agenda and countries’ development objectives. The Bank has been coordinating with the WTO for many years in providing inputs into their Geneva-based trade policy courses, in the Joint Vienna Institute for transition economies and, more recently, in the WTO regional trade policy courses in Africa, the Caribbean, and East Asia.

Trade Policy Development

With the rise in regionalism, the Bank is now expanding its programme selectively to assist in the implementation of existing regional agreements and the negotiation of new bilateral deals. Priority will be given to a project that seeks to develop a regional integration portal that will inform and assist policy makers and trade negotiators in developing countries on the legal, economic, and development implications of different approaches for provisions in regional trade agreements.

Economic and sector work (ESW) Most trade ESW falls into three categories: (i) broad, trade-centred studies, such as Diagnostic Trade and Integration Studies (DTIS), conducted under the Integrated Framework Trade-Related Technical Assistance, and growth and competitiveness studies; (ii) trade chapters in Country Economic Memoranda; and (iii) ondemand policy notes requested by governments. Topics vary widely and include tariff policies, impacts of regional agreements, WTO accession, liberalization of services, and FDI. Examples of recent trade ESW include: • T hirty-three DTIS for LDCs under the Integrated Framework (28 completed, 5 underway); Tunisia’s Global Integration Study; a report, Accelerating Trade and Integration in the Caribbean; and a comprehensive analysis of the implications of Economic Partnership Agreements between the EU and Africa; • Trade chapters in Country Economic Memoranda (CEMs) for Malawi, Madagascar, Mozambique, Mauritius, Peru and Nigeria; • A diverse programme on services trade in Africa which is delivering analytical work on professional services, financial services, tourism, distribution services, and ICT services; • A major programme for South Asia, including policy notes (e.g., on services, export diversification, and trade in lagging regions) as well as a regional trade facilitation study to identify ways to reduce trade costs between countries. Contact: Will Martin, Research Manager, Development Research Group Tel: +1 202 473 1000 Fax: +1 202 477 6391 E-mail: wmartin1@worldbank.org

Trade-related research In addition, the Bank’s trade-related research is an important source of information and analysis, playing a key role in informing developing countries of the implications of trade policy choices at the national or regional level, and for WTO negotiating options. For example, the Bank’s analysis of agricultural trade barriers has highlighted the importance of market access relative to domestic support or export subsidies in the WTO Doha Round. In fiscal year 2009 (FY09), Bank research on trade covered, for example, agriculture, services, trade and poverty, WTO/ Doha, the overall trade restrictiveness index (OTRI), and investment and technology transfer. Recent research on regional arrangements has highlighted a stronger tendency for members of FTAs to continue reducing their tariffs after joining the agreement. The Bank also provides assistance to research institutes based in developing countries, such as the Southern Africa Trade Research Network and the Latin America Trade Network.

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WHO Diagnostic tool on trade and health This diagnostic tool examines five components of the relationship between trade and health: (i) macroeconomics, trade and health; (ii) trade in health-related products, including medicines and IP-related issues; (iii) trade in products hazardous to health, such as tobacco products; (iv) trade in health services: e-commerce, health tourism, FDI in health, cross-border movement of health professionals; and (v) trade in foodstuffs. The tool, documenting best practices, data sources, decision trees, and international norms and standards, is being developed for implementation at the beginning of 2010. This will enable policy-makers to develop national policies and strategies related to trade and health, and to identify their capacity building needs in this area.

Contact:Rüdiger Krech, Director, Department of Ethics, Equity, Trade and Human Rights (ETH) Tel: +41 22 791 3355 E-mail: krechr@who.int, globalization@who.int

The national assessment papers on trade and health, which will come out of the implementation of the diagnostic tool, will be used to structure the requests for capacity building to these existing and new funding mechanisms. The diagnostic tool will also assist countries in preparing positions for trade and health-related bilateral and multilateral negotiations, as well as current multilateral global health diplomacy issues that have trade-related issues, such as the Intergovernmental Working Group on Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property, and the Intergovernmental Meeting on Avian and Pandemic Influenza Preparedness.

WTO General WTO-related technical assistance and training This area covers activities geared towards government officials with a broad overall WTO responsibility and a general knowledge of the multilateral trading system, and who are therefore neither specialists nor technicians. This also includes officials who have recently assumed responsibilities with regard to the WTO, and have not had much exposure to the theory and practice of WTO rules and regulations, and for whom this is an opportunity to exchange information and share experiences. The main purpose is to initiate officials into the rules of the WTO and/or to raise the general level of knowledge. Basic training aims to ensure that participants will have:

Contact: Maarten Smeets, Institute for Training and Technical Cooperation Tel: + 41 22 739 5587 E-mail: maarten.smeets@wto.org

• D  eveloped a good understanding of all aspects of the WTO, including the Agreements (transfer of knowledge); • Improved their analytical and negotiating skills (improvement of skills); • Learned to use effectively the relevant information and documentation on trade-related issues (autonomy); • Strengthened their capacity to work in teams and in an international environment (teamwork); • E stablished and/or strengthened a network of contacts with each other and the trainers/experts (network); • Built institutional partnerships at the regional level for capacity building activities; • Fostered networks among institutions of higher learning and their academics. Specialized and advanced training and technical assistance National and/or regional seminars and workshops, as well as specialized courses, that can be held in Geneva or in the field, address specific topics and issues, and are geared towards the initiated and specialists/technicians. The criteria for participation are clearly indicated in the letter of invitation, and a selection process may be conducted. This category includes other products which are specific in nature, including techni-

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For more information: www.who.int/trade


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

cal missions and workshops, as well as tailor-made programmes for experts and visiting delegations in Geneva, and advice provided by the Secretariat in specific fields. In terms of objectives, it is expected that at the end of the courses the participants will have: • S trengthened their theoretical understanding of the WTO-related topic(s) specifically addressed in the course (transfer of knowledge); • Strengthened their topic-related skills (improvement of skills); • Strengthened their confidence to actively engage in topic-related WTO work (confidence); • Strengthened their capacity to work in teams and in an international environment (teamwork); • E stablished and/or strengthened a network of contacts with each other and the trainers/experts (network); • Commenced the establishment of mechanisms to include trade in their development goals (mainstreaming). National technical assistance (TA) activities

Trade Policy Development

The national TA activities will contribute to building sustainable trade-related national capacities, resulting in the improved knowledge and skills of participants in areas defined by the beneficiary country concerned. Furthermore, each national TA activity will be guided by its own specific objectives in addressing the needs of the participants. The national activities focus on specific issues at the national level that, in terms of priority needs and depth of treatment, cannot be adequately covered in the regional seminars and in the Trade Policy Courses (TPCs). Occasionally, national seminars are of a broad and general nature. National seminars and technical workshops are conducted as a complement to the TPCs and regional seminars. The national demand would thus mainly be a function of what cannot be dealt with efficiently in the other training and assistance provided, including through regional seminars and, ipso facto, cannot always be anticipated. In order to better target the trade-related technical assistance (TRTA), beneficiaries would need to base their requests on a needs identification to be conducted by the beneficiary, possibly with the support of the WTO Secretariat. In addition, it would help if countries were in a position to indicate what assistance is already provided bilaterally (e.g., by donors) or multilaterally (e.g., by other agencies), so that overlap can be avoided and the WTO can provide its expertise.

Technical assistance within the Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM) framework The TPRM is a valuable forum for achieving transparency in, and understanding of, the trade policies and practices of members. TPRs of developing and LDC members have increasingly performed a technical assistance function and have been useful in increasing understanding of the trade policy structure in place and its relationship with the WTO agreements, playing an important part in “capacity building and mainstreaming”. The main objectives of the reviews are: • Improved understanding in these countries of the WTO agreements; • Better compliance and integration in the multilateral trading system (MTS); • Enhanced interaction between government agencies. Assisting beneficiaries in conducting needs assessments It is generally recognized that the WTO’s TRTA can more effectively contribute to building lasting capacity if it is planned and designed on the basis of a thorough assessment of the members’ needs. Following the discussions in the CTD and in the informal consultations process, guidelines for needs assessment are prepared by the Secretariat to be used by beneficiaries in conducting their own needs assessment for TRTA. Beneficiaries will regularly be reminded of the value of the needs assessment process, thus providing a sound analytical basis in the delivery of TRTA. The objective of these guidelines is that member countries use them in the process of identifying their needs, bearing in mind that this task is the prime responsibility of the beneficiary country. The design of these proposed guidelines is based on the pilot needs assessments that were

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conducted through desk studies by the Secretariat. The guidelines are not prescriptive in any way, and countries are encouraged to adapt the approach to their own conditions. The Secretariat can assist beneficiaries in undertaking their needs assessment by providing data and information of direct relevance.

Academic support for training and capacity building Academic cooperation activities by the WTO seek to contribute to developing and consolidating the capacity of academic institutions in developing and least-developed countries to offer and deliver academic courses and training programmes, as well as conducting research on trade-policy and WTO-related matters, with a view to enhancing the contribution of these institutions to the formulation and implementation of trade policy, as well as to the participation of their respective countries in the multilateral trading system.

• The WTO Chairs Programme (WCP), supporting research, teaching and outreach activities; • Training government officials through partnerships with academic institutions from developing countries, through regional trade policy courses (RTPCs) and subsequent “Consolidation Activities”; • Regional and national workshops for academics on WTO matters in cooperation with universities; • Document dissemination programme for universities; • Support programme for doctoral studies; • Programme for visiting academics; • Research collaboration. Support training and technical assistance facilities The Secretariat has developed a number of products and technical assistance facilities that are aimed at providing general and specific support to delegations and beneficiaries, both in the field and in Geneva. In the field, this can include providing infrastructure support, through the reference centres, which facilitates access to WTO-related information, as well as training materials in different formats, including in print or electronically. Geneva-based support includes the Geneva Week, introduction days, the WTO’s trainee programmes and internships, assisting Geneva-based delegations, and briefing sessions, as well as assistance provided in conducting needs assessment.

Advanced training programme for senior government officials It is proposed to organize, in each region, a one-week advanced training programme designed for senior capital-based officials and decision-makers. The main objective of the advanced course is to inform national decision-makers about the key issues in the DDA and strengthen their knowledge-base in order to put them in a better position to fully participate in the negotiations. These programmes address the key issues in the negotiations, so as to inform beneficiaries of the state of play and/or outcome of negotiations and possible national implications. It is intended that these programmes will be conducted in close collaboration with partner institutions in the various regions. Costs will be covered by trust funds.

Intensive course on trade negotiations skills This training provides instruction in pre-negotiation planning, effective negotiation strategies and tactics, and the management of the negotiation process that leads to a win-win outcome for all parties. These activities take different approaches, ranging from theoretical comprehension of previous and present negotia-

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In implementing academic cooperation activities, the WTO Secretariat seeks to build lasting relationships with institutions from developing countries and to contribute to the increase of national capacities to train government officials on WTO matters. The WTO also aims at involving partner universities in the delivery of its Technical Assistance and Training Plan. The WTO academic cooperation activities programme includes teaching, training and research activities in developing countries, supported through several inter-linked programmes which encompass different modalities of support actions on the part of the WTO. Academic cooperation and support activities encompass:


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

Trade Policy Development

tions, and enhancement of skills and techniques, to simulations, case studies, and use of data extracted from existing databases. The target group for the intensive course are officials with a good knowledge of the WTO agreements and who will serve as their government negotiators in regional or international trade negotiations. Costs will be covered by trust funds.

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[ Legal and Regulatory Framework ]


LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK African Development Bank

 nited Nations Economic U Commission for Africa

Food and Agriculture Organization

 nited Nations Economic U Commission for Europe

International Civil Aviation Organization

 nited Nations Economic U Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

International Labour Organization

United Nations Environment 足Programme

International Maritime Organization

 nited Nations Industrial U Development Organization

International Telecommunication Union

World Bank Group

International Trade Centre

World Health Organization

 nited Nations Conference on Trade U and Development

World Intellectual Property Organization

 nited Nations Development U Programme

World Trade Organization

 nited Nations Economic U Commission for Asia and the Pacific


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

AfDB African Legal Support Facility

For more information: http://www.afdb.org/en/topics-sectors/initiatives-partnerships/african-legal-support-facility/

Contact: The General Council Legal Services Department (GECL) Tel: +216 71 10 2832, +216 71 10 2032, +216 71 10 3554 Fax: +216 71 83 2204 E-mail: r.khiari@adfb.org, k.gadio@afdb.org, a.fall@afdb.org

FAO The FAO services relevant to this category relate to: (i) WTO accession facilitation; (ii) trade agreements; (iii) awareness and negotiation of WTO agreements (on TBT, SPS, etc.); and (iv) TRIPS. (Assistance provided on the development side of these areas can be found in the category Compliance Support Infrastructure and Services.) The common aim is to assist members in drafting laws and regulatory frameworks in several areas related to agriculture and agricultural trade, notably the SPS, TBT, and TRIPS Agreements.

Contact: Mr. Stefano Burchi Chief, Development Law Service (LEGN) Tel: +39 06 570 5 3959 E-mail: stefano.burchi@fao.org

Legal framework improvement to match international agricultural treaties and obligations The main objective is to assist countries in each of these areas to: (i) improve their legal framework and make their laws compatible with international treaties and obligations, as well as support agricultural development; and (ii) implement the provisions effectively so that countries develop their agricultural sectors and benefit from trade. Through its Legal Office, FAO provides legal advisory services to governments on land, water, fisheries, plants, animals, food, forestry, wildlife and national parks and environment, and biodiversity, as well as general agricultural issues (institutions, trade, economic reform). This helps governments prepare laws, regulations, agreements and other legal texts. FAO advises on institutional structures and compliance with international law. An element of most advisory projects is capacity building through participatory training of national officials and consultants. FAO has provided a considerable amount of assistance to members in drafting both national plant protection laws in the context of the WTO TRIPS Agreement and national food laws related to the SPS Agreement. Establishing and/or strengthening National Codex Committees has also formed a significant part of its capacity building activities, with a focus on providing policy advice for effective regulatory food control frameworks that harmonize with the SPS Agreement. FAO also provides technical inputs to the ongoing WTO negotiations on fisheries subsidies. In the area of food safety and quality, the review of the existing food control systems, including national legal and regulatory texts, has often been the initial step to the provision of technical, scientific, and regulatory inputs for short, medium, and long-term improvements and for WTO agreements negotiations on TBT and/or SPS issues. The services are provided mainly to national governments but also to local government at different levels, as necessary, and civil society organizations like farmers’ organizations, by means of national and regional projects, and through the dissemination of information and analysis, and through seminars. Depending on

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The AfDB recently launched The African Legal Support Facility with the aim of helping highly indebted poor countries (HIPCs) resolve problems caused by vulture funds. It is also foreseen that this facility could assist regional member countries with highly technical international trade negotiations and complex commercial transactions with multi-national companies, for example the mining sector. In many respects, the Facility provides services similar to legal aid societies that work to remove asymmetric technical capacities and level the field of expertise among parties.


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

the area and project context, the services are also provided in collaboration with partners. For example, assistance in the area of food quality and safety is at times provided in collaboration with WHO. For more information: www.fao.org/Legal/advserv/advice-e.htm, www.fao.org/ag/agn/index_en.stm

ICAO Contact: Yuanzheng Wang, Acting Chief, Economic Policy and Infrastructure Management Section (EPM), Tel: +1 514 954 8056 E-mail: yzwang@icao.int

This service effectively addresses all issues related to economic regulation of air transport that have an impact on the efficient and orderly development of international civil aviation.

Economic policy and infrastructure management (EPM) The objectives of the Economic Policy and Infrastructure (EPM) Section are to:

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• I mplement and promote ICAO’s framework and policy guidance on the economic regulation of international air transport; • Develop guidance in response to states’ requests on emerging issues that have global implications; • Facilitate and assist states in the liberalization process, and serve as the principal information source on economic liberalization. The present evolution of the international air transport regulatory framework (globalization and transnationalization of markets and business operations in general) may increase the need for ICAO to facilitate and assist states in further air transport liberalization, and to keep its guidance on economic regulation current and responsive to the changes. The service is provided to governments (ministry of transport, civil aviation authority), airline associations and airport associations, airlines, airports, civil aviation professionals, consultants, and the travelling public through the provision of technical support on a required basis, and the dissemination of information through publications (documents, manuals and circulars) and meetings (workshops, seminars, symposia, and conferences). The EPM sector has succeeded in developing template air services agreements (TASAs) for the guidance of, and optional use by, states in their air transport relationships. For more information: www.icao.int/icao/en/atb/epm/index.html

ILO Technical cooperation on labour laws Contact: Social Dialogue, Labour Law and Labour Administration Department (DIALOGUE) Tel: +41 22 799 7035 Fax: +41 22 799 8749 E-mail: dialogue@ilo.org International Labour Standards Department Tel: +41 22 799 7155 Fax: +41 22 799 6771 E-mail: infonorm@ilo.org

The International Labour Organization (ILO) offers technical cooperation and advisory services to Member States, assisting them in assessing and, where necessary, framing or revising their labour laws. This includes assistance in the development of national laws and regulations to allow ratification of Conventions and/or the implementation of International Labour Standards and the corresponding principles. ILO Conventions and Recommendations cover a broad range of subjects concerning work, employment, social security, social policy and related human rights. Their ratification and implementation is an essential part of building an enabling framework that facilitates labour market preparedness, in particular the human and social capital which underpins a country’s productive capabilities and thus also its trade capacity. The ILO has, since 1919, maintained and developed a system of international labour standards aimed at promoting opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work in conditions of freedom, equity, security and dignity. The ILO regularly examines the application of standards in Member States and

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points out areas where they could be better applied. If there are any problems in the application of standards, the ILO seeks to assist countries through social dialogue and technical assistance. The elaboration of these standards requires that the Office undertakes thorough research on the national law and practice of Member States, which provides the basis for proposals to the International Labour Conference as to the shape and content of an international instrument - to be eventually adopted in the form of a Convention, a Recommendation or both. The implementation of ILO standards is based, inter alia, on national laws and regulations, whose elaboration may require ILO technical assistance if requested. Furthermore, ILO assistance in the field of labour legislation may be requested by Member States, irrespective of whether they have ratified ILO Conventions, and/or in respect of fields which have not yet been addressed by ILO standards. Member States request ILO advice in the field of labour law with a view to responding to various needs, such as:

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• Developing national law so that it can fully implement ratified ILO standards; • A ssessing and, where necessary, reorganizing the framework regulating the labour market with a view to adapting it to meet the country’s current needs and challenges; • Taking account of emerging types of employment relationships so that they can be provided with a suitable regulatory framework; • Being informed on good practices in a given field. The labour law assistance provided by the Office can take different forms, including the following: • • • • • • • •

E xpertise for assessing the labour law framework in a given country or, as the case may be, sub-region; Advice on the revision of labour law; T he drafting of laws or regulations; Technical comments on draft labour legislation, including comments in the light of ILO standards; this may include proposals for alternative wording; A ssessment of the existing law enforcement machinery and procedures, including recommendations for improvements; Technical information on a wide variety of labour law subjects; Participation in national discussion forums, including parliamentary committees, on the assessment and revision of labour law; Training of national officials - support for the development of national competency.

IMO Although not directly related to trade capacity building, the implementation of IMO global regulations on the safety and security of shipping, the prevention of marine pollution, and liability and compensation for damage, such as pollution, caused by ships provides an indispensable technical framework for vital trade activities related to the carriage of goods and passengers on board commercial vessels. The enactment of legislation to ensure that this carriage is performed in accordance with proper safety and antipollution standards is essential for proper trade by sea.

Contact: Monica N. Mbanefo, Director, Technical Co-operation Division Tel: +44 20 773 5 7611 Fax: +44 20 758 7 3210 E-mail: mmbanefo@imo.org

To ensure that this enactment is effectively implemented, IMO offers, through its Integrated Technical Cooperation Programme, technical assistance consisting of the provision of field missions to draft domestic maritime legislation as well as national and regional seminars on maritime legislation.

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ITU Global Symposium for Regulators (GSR) Contact: Telecommunication Development Bureau Regulatory & Market Environment (RME) Tel: +41 22 730 5643 Fax: +41 22 730 6210 E-mail: treg@itu.int, itu-d-financing-institutions@ itu.int

The annual Global Symposium for Regulators (GSR) organized by ITU has provided a venue for regulators and policy-makers from both developed and developing countries to meet and exchange views and experiences. The meeting fosters an open dialogue between regulators and key ICT stakeholders: the private sector, investors and consumers.

The ICT Regulation Toolkit In order to respond to developing countries’ need for practical, relevant guidance and assistance in an everchanging environment, infoDev (the global development financing programme coordinated by a secretariat housed in the World bank), in cooperation with the ITU, has developed an ICT Regulation Toolkit. The Toolkit is intended to assist regulators with the design of effective and enabling regulatory frameworks to harness the latest technological and market advances. Its most prevalent themes are the impact of changing technology, the role of competition, and the regulatory implications of the transition from traditional telephony to next-generation networks (NGNs).

legal and regulatory framework

For more information: http://www.ictregulationtoolkit.org//en/Page.About.html

Tariff Policies Database The objective of this database is to track and show trends in the application of tariff policies related to pricing, cost/tariff models, analytical accounting, interconnection charges, management of universal service and price control in different countries. Data is provided annually by telecommunication regulatory authorities and network operators. For more information: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ICTEYE/TariffPolicies/TariffPolicies.aspx

ICT Eye The ICT “eye” website is a one-stop-shop for ICT information and provides telecommunication/ICT indicators and statistics, regulatory and policy profiles, national tariff policies and scientific institutions. For more information: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ICTEYE/Default.aspx

Contact: Telecommunication Development Bureau Partnerships, Promotion and Membership Division E-mail: ppm@itu.int

Global Industry Leaders’ Forum (GILF) GILF provides a high-level forum for CEOs and other industry leaders to convey their views and make proposals regarding key regulatory and policy issues affecting their businesses and the ICT/telecommunications industry more broadly, as part of an interactive exchange with regulators and policy-makers. For more information: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/partners/GILF/2009/index.html

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ITC Legal aspects of foreign trade ITC promotes private commercial law-efficient solutions for the dispute-resolution capabilities of arbitration and mediation centres. The needs of SMEs are targeted through a series of standardized model contracts for enterprises, and a simple users’ guide for day-to-day international transactions. Institutional development and training are provided to improve the commercial dispute-resolution capabilities of arbitration and mediation centres set up under chambers of commerce.

Contact: Aïcha Pouyé, Director Division of Business and Institutional Support Tel: +41 22 730 0111 E-mail: pouye@intracen.org

For more information: Legal aspects of international trade: www.intracen.org/laft/ Business and the multilateral trading system: www.intracen.org/mts/

UNCTAD Assistance to WTO accession WTO accession is a very long and complex negotiation process which requires extensive human resources and institutional capacities: every negotiation sector is highly technical and requires its own sectoral experts. A number of acceding countries, particularly LDCs and small economies, face particular constraints and challenges, such as: limited understanding of the scope and complexity of obligations associated with joining the WTO; lack of experience and skills in trade-related negotiations; limited analytical capacity to support trade and impact analysis; limited availability of the required data and information; lack of resources to respond to information requests during the accession process; limited skills in developing mechanisms to implement legislation; and poor coordination between ministries and other stakeholders. In order to benefit from further integration and participation in the multilateral trading system, developing countries need to be assisted to deal with the growing complexity of accession issues, which is putting a strain on their resources. In response to this challenge, and in line with the mandate agreed during UNCTAD IX in 1996 and reconfirmed at UNCTAD X in 2000 and UNCTAD XI in 2004, the UNCTAD Secretariat has developed an extensive programme of assistance for developing countries, economies in transition and LDCs prior to, during and after their accession to the WTO. In addition, the Accra Accord (UNCTAD XII - 2008) mandated UNCTAD to “continue to monitor and assess the evolution of the international trading system and of trends in international trade from a development perspective and, in particular, analyse issues of concern to developing countries, placing greater emphasis on practical solutions” and “help develop capacities in developing countries and countries with economies in transition to establish their own negotiating priorities, and their capacity to negotiate and implement bilateral, regional and multilateral trade agreements”.

Contact: Trade Negotiations and Commercial Diplomacy Branch Tel: +41 22 907 0247, +41 22 907 0044 E-mail: trade.negotiations@unctad.org

For more information: http://www.unctad.org/Templates/Page.asp?intItemID=3926&lang=1

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ITC assists policy-makers and trade promotion organizations in optimizing their country legal framework on international trade. The objective is to raise awareness, promote understanding of the impact on business development, and foster public-private interaction, in particular on WTO agreements, TBT, SPS, WTO accession, dispute resolution, anti-dumping, subsidies and countervailing measures and safeguards, government procurement and TRIPS, and other multilateral treaties impacting on trade. In addition, ITC supports the analysis of and eventually the accession to 250 multilateral treaties impacting on trade (LegaCarta, the ITC database), taking into account the general relevance of these instruments and local/regional conditions.


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

Implementation and administration of the Agreement on the Global System of Trade Preferences among Developing Countries (GSTP) Developing countries established the GSTP Agreement in 1988 to promote and sustain mutual trade and the development of economic cooperation among them, through the exchange of concessions in accordance with the terms of the Agreement, which entered into force in 1990. Accession to the Agreement is open to developing countries who are members of the Group of 77 and their subregional, regional and inter-regional groupings. As of writing, there are 43 parties to the Agreement (“Participants”). The GSTP Committee of Participants, composed of representatives of governments of Participants, performs such functions as facilitating the operation and furthering the objectives of the Agreement. Financed by GSTP Participants, the GSTP Project extends technical and administrative support to the Committee. For more information: www.unctadxi.org/gstp, gstp@unctad.org

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Technical cooperation in the area of competition and consumers’ law and policy UNCTAD provides capacity-building and technical assistance to developing countries (especially LDCs) and economies in transition) which seek to formulate and implement competition law and policy. The objective of the capacity-building and technical cooperation activities is to assist these countries, inter alia, in the following areas: • F ormulating new or strengthening existing competition legislation which fits their specific legal and economic structure and can best address their development needs; • Establishing new or strengthening existing competition institutions; • C apacity-building for the better enforcement of competition law; • Promoting a competition culture through competition advocacy activities; • Conducting voluntary peer reviews of competition law and policy. To achieve these objectives, UNCTAD works closely with competition authorities in developed countries, development partners, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the International Competition Network (ICN), and competition experts. For more information: http://www.unctad.org/Templates/StartPage.asp?intItemID=2239&lang=1

UNCTAD Training Programmes TrainForTrade The TrainForTrade programme produces and delivers training packages and implements training activities in the framework of technical cooperation projects. Its quality derives from a rigorous methodology, comprising nine phases, which focuses on the analysis of training needs, course development, and the implementation and evaluation of training. Based on a unique training method which emphasizes local ownership of knowledge, TrainForTrade helps countries to further develop their human resources. The approach includes tailor-made training on topics of importance to the countries involved, and support to institutional capacity-building through the training of local trainers and tutors in order to ensure a wider dissemination of the knowledge imparted. Learning methods can take the form of face-to-face training, distance learning or a combination of these two. The programme targets government officials involved in formulating and implementing effective trade, investment, finance and development policies. Understanding the key role that other actors play in these processes, the programme also targets trade and transport operators, import/export associations, chambers of commerce and NGOs dealing with trade, investment and development. Evaluations carried out by independent experts assess the quality of materials, the effectiveness of the hybrid training approach that includes distance learning and face-to-face activities, and the value of adapting training methods to local

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and regional contexts. This programme also adopts a train-the-trainers approach which creates a cascade effect and facilitates sustainability at the national and regional levels. For more information: http://learn.unctad.org/

UNCTAD Virtual Institute on Trade and Development

• C ourse design and delivery: The Vi provides advice on the design of courses and programmes and develops teaching materials on trade and development issues, which the universities subsequently adapt to the conditions in their countries by adding data and analysis on the country, translating into local languages, etc. • Professional development for university staff: The Vi offers training and learning opportunities, both for groups of researchers (regional and national workshops) and for individuals (mentoring, especially to junior researchers who work on research projects of specific interest to their universities, either in Geneva in the framework of the Vi fellowship programme, or at a distance). • Training for students: The main target of the Vi is university staff who subsequently teach students in their own countries. Exceptionally, the Vi also offers direct training for students when the involvement of international experts provides an added value that the students could not get at their universities. This is done through videoconferences and tailored training programmes for students at Geneva-based organizations (study tours). • Cooperation within the network: In addition to working bilaterally with the universities, the Vi also draws on the potential of South-South and North-South cooperation in its university network and supports exchanges of experiences and joint projects among the members in the areas of research, development of teaching material and professional development. For more information: http://vi.unctad.org/

Regional training course: Key Issues on the International Economic Agenda This flagship UNCTAD training course on trade and development is delivered on a regional basis to developing countries and countries in transition. It is primarily aimed at policy makers with backgrounds in economics, business, international relations, international law or public administration who work on international economic issues and related policies. Academics teaching or researching these issues can also attend. The course focuses on the links between trade, investment, finance and development, the design and implementation of related policies, and international negotiations of trade and development issues, with a focus on the needs and interests of developing and transition countries. Its individual modules deal with developmental aspects of trade and financial systems, foreign direct investment and enterprise development, the information economy, international trade and transport facilitation, and multilateral and regional trade agreements. The course culminates with a final simulation exercise, allowing the participants to use their gradually built-up knowledge to take on roles in an international negotiation, most often of a current WTO issue. The course programme integrates global, regional and national perspectives on trade, finance, investment and development issues and is designed with the collaboration of regional commissions, experts from UNCTAD Virtual Institute member universities, and national experts from the host country. For more information: http://p166.unctad.org/

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The UNCTAD Virtual Institute (Vi) is a capacity-building and networking programme whose objective is to strengthen professional capacities on trade and development issues at developing and transition country universities and help these universities increase the policy orientation and relevance of their work. The Vi supports its member universities in the long term by providing services in four areas:


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

Short courses on key international economic issues for Geneva-based diplomats The objective of the short courses is to update Geneva-based policymakers on the most recent issues and developments on the international economic agenda, so that they can provide relevant information and advice to their governments and best represent the interests of their countries in international negotiations. The course programmes are demand-driven: the diplomats themselves propose areas on which they would require updating. Their suggestions are complemented by courses on emerging topics on which UNCTAD and its individual divisions conduct research work. Six to nine courses are organized every year, divided in spring and autumn terms. For more information: http://p166.unctad.org/shortcourses

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Contact: trade.logistics@unctad.org, jan.hoffmann@unctad.org, jose.rubiato@unctad.org

Three training programmes • The Port Training Programme: This includes an 8-module course leading to a Port Management Certificate, providing middle managers with a full understanding of modern port management. A distance learning version of the port management course is also available. • Training  on International Investment Agreements (IIAs): Regional training courses on the negotiation of IIAs, and on the management of investor-state dispute settlement; capacity-building seminars; advisory services for requesting countries on the review of concluded international investment agreements and the formulation and/or modernization of investment legal frameworks; distance-learning courses on key issues in international investment agreements; and contributions to specific conferences and seminars. • Training  courses on dispute settlement in international trade, investment and intellectual property: The objective of this programme is to develop knowledge and skills and strengthen institutional capacities in developing countries to deal with dispute settlement in international trade, investment and intellectual property, and to make WTO Panel and Appellate Body rulings more accessible to trade negotiators and affected stakeholders. The programme develops material and delivers capacity building activities on the procedural and substantive rules and main issues in this area. Strengthening of policy-making, negotiations and promotion of international trade in services UNCTAD’s innovative work on trade in services in terms of ground-level support and country and sector-specific assessments has the objective of helping countries to assess the contribution of services, reform the sector with an emphasis on development, including strengthening access to essential services, and generate important data and reference material for multilateral and regional trade negotiations. For more information: http://r0.unctad.org/ttl/ and http://www.gfptt.org/ Assistance on trade policy making and negotiations UNCTAD assists developing countries and LDCs to better understand the technical issues involved in trade policy making and negotiations at the bilateral, regional and multilateral levels, to carefully assess the state of play with regard to the different elements of the negotiating agenda and the development implications of each negotiating proposal, to pursue their strategic interests in the negotiations, and to ensure that the outcomes duly reflect their critical developmental concerns and interests. For more information: http://www.unctad.org/Templates/StartPage.asp?intItemID=1917&lang=1

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Assistance on the utilization of the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) UNCTAD has continued promoting awareness and understanding among developing countries of how to better utilize preferences available under the GSP by the regular provision of information on a dedicated website, the publication of handbooks on the GSP schemes, and the provision of other technical and administrative services.

Contact: gsp@unctad.org

For more information: www.unctad.org/Templates/Page.asp?intItemID=1418&lang=1,

Investment policies and investment promotion UNCTAD is the focal point within the United Nations Secretariat for matters related to foreign direct investment (FDI). The objectives here are:

Contact: diteinfo@unctad.org

• To improve the understanding of developing countries and economies in transition of policy choices; • To strengthen their abilities to formulate and implement policies, measures and action programmes; • To promote understanding of emerging issues, including the role of international arrangements for the purpose of attracting and benefiting from FDI.

International Investment Agreements (IIAs) UNCTAD supports developing countries to better understand key and emerging issues related to IIAs and their development dimension and to enhance their capacity in negotiating and implementing investment treaties and managing investor-states disputes. This is achieved through:

Contact: iia@unctad.org

• P ublications: The series on Issues in IIAs is a learning and reference tool for negotiators and lawmakers from both developed and developing countries. The series, International Investment Policies for Development, provides analysis of technical issues that arise in the context of international investment rulemaking and their impact on development. Four databases provide information on bilateral investment treaties, double taxation treaties, other agreements with investment provisions, and investor-state dispute settlement cases. • Technical assistance. For more information: www.unctad.org/iia

Intellectual property and development UNCTAD XII reconfirmed UNCTAD’s mandate for examining the development dimensions of intellectual property rights. In this context, UNCTAD:

Contact: tot-ip@unctad.org

• Advises client countries on appropriate intellectual property frameworks; • Builds capacity in the design and implementation of intellectual property laws; • Advises on establishing local pharmaceutical supply capacities in line with client countries’ public health objectives. For more information: www.unctad.org/tot-ip

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For more information: www.unctad.org/Templates/Startpage.asp?intItemID=2983,


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

UNDP TRIPS and Access to HIV/AIDS Drugs Contact: Paul Ladd, Inclusive Globalization Cluster, Headquarters, New York Tel: +1 212 906 6113 Fax: +1 212 906 6471 E-mail: paul.ladd@undp.org

The TRIPS and Access to HIV/AIDS Drugs project attempts to contribute to the operationalization of the 2001 Doha Ministerial Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health by providing support to capacity building to ensure access to HIV/AIDS drugs in the context of the flexibilities and safeguards within TRIPS, and in other trade agreements with IPR provisions (both bilateral and regional). The project also aims to respond to the needs of developing countries and LDCs in the context of the Global Strategy and Plan of Action approved by the World Health Assembly in 2008 to stimulate research and development into neglected diseases predominantly affecting poor countries.

TRIPS, Trade and Biodiversity

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The project aims at building the capacities of developing countries to establish mechanisms for better management of plant variety rights, traditional knowledge and natural resources, and to ensure maintenance of agricultural biodiversity and food security underpinned by a fair and equitable trading system.

UNESCAP Contact: Joong-Wan Cho, Chief, Trade Policy Section, Trade and Investment Division Tel: +662 288 2077 E-mail: choj@un.org Melanie Ramjoue, Trade Policy Section, Trade and Investment Division, Tel: +662 288 2067 E-mail: ramjoue@un.org Mia Mikic, Trade Policy Section, Trade and Investment Division, Tel: +662 288 1902 E-mail: mikic@un.org

The aim of the UNESCAP services in this category is to increase national capacity to effectively negotiate, conclude and implement multilateral and other trade agreements supporting the internationally-agreed development goals.

WTO/UNESCAP technical assistance programme The programme’s objective is to increase government officials’ understanding of the current state of play of negotiations under the Doha Development Agenda and the implications for trade policy-making at the national level, so as to assist UNESCAP members and associate members to have a better national planning process and implementation of WTO commitments, and thus lead to a strengthened multilateral trading system and fulfil countries’ development potential. Among 62 members and associate members of UNESCAP, 8 members and 7 associate members have no WTO status, while 12 have observer status and are at various stages of the WTO accession process. The Asia-Pacific region accounts for the highest proportion of countries that are not yet members of the WTO, and thus accession is an issue of special concern to UNESCAP. The beneficiaries of the programme are mainly government officials in the Asia-Pacific region (macro level), and occasionally researchers and policy analysts. To facilitate networking, information-sharing and dialogue among governments, UNESCAP organizes regional seminars with trainers coming from the WTO, UNESCAP, and relevant partner institutions. Access to WTO and UNESCAP databases is provided. Since its initiation in 1999, this service has progressed in line with the evolving nature of the WTO negotiations. Recent activities cover the fields of TRIPS, Trade in Services, agriculture, NAMA, trade facilitation, and regional trade agreements. Over nine years, around 1,200 trade policy-makers from developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region have benefited from this programme. For more information: www.unescap.org/tid/wto.asp

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EU/UNESCAP joint projects on trade capacity building of LDCs The objective is to increase the ability of the governments and other stakeholders in Bhutan and Nepal to manage accession to the WTO (Bhutan) and implementation of WTO commitments (Nepal) and to develop broad-based, coherent trade strategies in both countries. The projects build and broaden the capacity of LDCs to understand and implement WTO commitments. The focus is on increasing the capacity of trade policymakers and negotiators as well as other stakeholders in the development area, and on the implementation of social and poverty reduction policies in the context of globalization and participation in the multilateral trading system. They are part of the EU-Nepal and EU-Bhutan WTO assistance programmes. Other parts of the programmes are provided by ITC (Bhutan) and UNIDO (Nepal).

Contact: Joong-Wan Cho, Chief, Trade Policy Section, Trade and Investment Division Tel: +662 288 2077 E-mail: choj@un.org (Nepal) Marc Proksch, Trade Policy Section, Trade and Investment Division Tel: +662 288 1680 E-mail: proksch.unescap@un.org (Bhutan)

The main beneficiaries at macro level are Governments of the LDCs (Bhutan, Nepal), state planning authorities and various ministries (e.g., on trade and industry) and, at meso level, training organizations and other stakeholders from the public sector, private sector, academia and non-governmental organizations.

For more information: http://tcbdb.wto.org/trta_project.aspx?prjCode=ASIE/2006/119-835&benHostId=189 http://tcbdb.wto.org/trta_project.aspx?prjCode=1850-MAC05002&benHostId=210

Strengthening the Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA) The objective is to enhance the national decision-making process of the current member countries, as well as the prospective member countries, in respect of APTA, thereby contributing to an increase in regional trade flows, regional integration, and global integration in a WTO-consistent manner. In particular, one of the most important parts is to facilitate new members’ accession to APTA by enhancing their understanding of the recent dynamic and development of the Agreement. UNESCAP, as the Secretariat for APTA, successfully completed Phase 1 from July 2005 to June 2007, and has now been implementing Phase 2 activities since March 2008 with a two-year duration. The target groups of this service are all the stakeholders from current member countries and prospective member countries of APTA, including trade policy officials from the government, professionals from academia and business sectors, as well as NGOs. Activities: In order to improve in-depth information on the revitalized APTA for the target groups, Phase 2 conducted a study on the utilization of APTA and policies for its improvement, based on actual trade data among members, with special attention to a sector- and product-specific analysis. Studies on the country-specific benefits of APTA membership were also conducted by international consultants for nine prospective member countries, namely Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mongolia, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam. The results of the studies were introduced to a number of prospective member countries at the Subregional Seminars on Benefits of APTA Membership, which were held in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan (5 November 2008) and Bangkok, Thailand (24 February 2009). To further disseminate the results, a series of national seminars in some selected prospective member countries was organized for mid-2009. The sessions of the Standing Committee and Ministerial Council of APTA will also be utilized to conclude the on-going trade negotiations on three Framework Agreements (trade facilitation, services and investment), deepening tariff concessions, and the elimination of non-tariff barriers. Success and impact: By the implementation of those activities, APTA members will have developed the policy decision related to strengthening APTA and, in particular, to facilitating the 4th round negotiations. Also based on improved understanding of APTA and its benefits, we expect to see the national decisions of accession to APTA by a number of prospective members. For more information: www.unescap.org/tid/apta.asp

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The service is provided through consultants and experts, both foreign and local, and professional UNESCAP staff. Inputs used in the delivery of the service vary by individual activity but, in general, include training, seminars, workshops, conferences, technical missions, study tours, expert consultations, specialized advice, analysis, and surveys. The service includes access to databases developed at UNESCAP, as well as software, reference materials, and other relevant literature. It does not include the purchase of hardware.


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

Contact: Joong-Wan Cho, Chief, Trade Policy Section, Trade and Investment Division E-mail: choj@un.org Marc Proksch, Trade Policy Section, Trade and Investment Division E-mail: Proksch.unescap@un.org Melanie Ramjoue, Trade Policy Section, Trade and Investment Division E-mail: ramjoue@un.org Boo-Sung Kang, Trade Policy Section, Trade and Investment Division E-mail: kangb@un.org

UNECA legal and regulatory framework

UNECA’s main contributions in the Legal and Regulatory Framework Category are: Contact: Halima Noor Abdi. ECA Geneva Liaison Office United Nations Office in Geneva (UNOG) Tel: +41 22 917 5862, + 41 22 917 5882 E-mail: hnoorabdi@unog.ch

• I mproved negotiating capacity of African countries in participating effectively in multilateral trade negotiations; • Strengthened national trade negotiation strategies that address the needs of countries to meet their national development strategies, such as the PRSPs, etc., and thus ensure development gains and poverty reduction. ECA Inter-regional Advisory Services falls under the Trade, Finance, Economic and Development Division (TFED) of UNECA. TFED is the leading implementing division in improving the capacity of African countries to effectively participate in bilateral, regional and multilateral trade negotiations. The UNECA Geneva office, in addition to the activities given below, gives inputs into analytical research and policy research, and contributes to the activities planned and carried out by TFED. The UNECA Geneva office also works closely with sub-regional offices (SROs) of UNECA situated in the African continent and with other divisions of UNECA.

ECA Geneva Inter-regional Advisory Services The long-term objective of this project is to provide trade-related technical assistance and capacity building to African countries to enable them to effectively participate in the current round of multilateral trade negotiations, as well as in other trade negotiations, including EPAs, and bilateral and regional integration processes. The project’s immediate objectives are to: • E nhance the negotiation capacity of the African WTO Geneva Group by providing technical support to the Group in formulating common negotiating positions and strategies on the various issues embodied in the Doha Work Programme; • Improve Africa’s participation in multilateral trade negotiations by assisting African countries in drawing up formal submissions and proposals to the various negotiating committees and organs of the WTO; • Provide linkages for UNECA with Brussels in the current negotiations on EPAs within the framework of the Cotonou Partnership Agreement; • Provide expertise and advisory services to African countries involved in multilateral, regional, bilateral and subregional trade negotiations processes.

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Activities The ECA Geneva liaison office implements its trade-related technical support and capacity building by:

Developing strategic alliances is important, given the complicated and continuous nature of technical assistance. The implementation of this project therefore requires a strategy of strong collaboration with other UN agencies and regional and subregional organizations which are involved in providing trade and trade-related technical assistance and capacity building. As a result, there is strong collaboration with other organizations, such as the African Union (AU), UNCTAD, the WTO, the ITC, UNDP, UNIDO, etc. In addition, the UNECA Geneva office is an active member of the UN-Inter-agency CEB Cluster on Trade and Productive Capacity.

UNECE Reducing barriers to trade in goods and services The UNECE trade subprogramme aims to assist countries and enterprises in the region to increase their competitiveness by: • D  eveloping the infrastructure for international trade, including trade-related norms, standards and tools to help reduce technical obstacles to trade; • Encouraging the reduction or the elimination of barriers to trade through standards development and the exchange of best practices; • Developing regional and international contact networks for national administrations and business communities through Internet-based networks and high-level events on topical issues.

Contact: Lorenza Jachia, Trade Policy and Governmental Cooperation Section Tel: +41 22 917 5593 E-mail: lorenza.jachia@unece.org Rumen Dobrinsky, Innovative Policies Development Section Tel: +41 22 917 2487 E-mail: rumen.dobrisnky@unece.org

Regulatory cooperation and standardization policies Differences between national regulatory regimes and between national and international standards may constitute a barrier to exports, especially for small companies that operate in developing and transition economies. The interaction between regulatory and compliance regimes may further adversely impact on competitiveness. To facilitate the integration of countries with economies in transition into regional and world trade flows, the UNECE, through its Working Party on Regulatory Cooperation and Standardization Policies, provides regional and international forums for discussing concrete initiatives in the areas of technical regulation, standardization, conformity assessment, and market surveillance.

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• Participating and contributing effectively to the meetings of the African WTO Geneva Group; • Mapping out negotiating strategies for the African Group for meetings of the various WTO organs and committees as well as helping in the formulation of such positions; • Organizing relevant retreats for African trade negotiators to allow them to discuss and synthesize negotiating positions as they evolve in the various WTO negotiating committees and organs; • Preparing policy briefs for the Africa WTO Geneva Group on issues related to activities (i) and (ii); • Contributing to the effort of African countries in the analysis of proposals and submissions made to the WTO by other members on the issues under negotiation; • A ssisting in drafting proposals and submissions with and for the African Group; • Contributing to the preparation of training programmes relevant to the trade negotiating positions of African countries; • Contributing to the preparation of WTO ministerial meetings and African trade ministers meetings: • Preparing relevant documentation for different meetings of concern to the African Group in Geneva; • Providing substantive servicing and coordination for the different meetings; • Supporting African countries during the WTO ministerial and African trade ministers meetings and other conferences.


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

In particular, and with the overall objective of reducing or eliminating technical barriers to trade, the UNECE: • E laborates recommendations and best practice to assist countries in creating a business-friendly standardization and regulatory environment that also protects consumers’ health and safety, the environment, and other public interests; • Draws up proposals for harmonizing conformity assessment procedures in the region through agreed, objective criteria for metrology and conformity assessment; • Undertakes studies on ways to promote the wider use, in trade, of agreements on the mutual recognition of tests and certificates; • Promotes regulatory cooperation and mutual confidence among regulatory authorities (and trading partners).

legal and regulatory framework

Capacity building activities in this area of work consist of seminars and workshops that aim to: • P rovide advice and assistance to countries on the implementation of agreed UNECE recommendations on regulatory cooperation and standardization policies; • Coordinate national regulatory and standardization policies and bring them in line with international practices; • L aunch bi-lateral, regional or multilateral dialogues with a view to harmonizing the regulatory requirements for specific products/services; • D iscuss the design and implementation of national conformity assessment schemes that are the least restrictive to trade while also ensuring confidence in national tests for exported products; • Promote market surveillance practices that provide adequate consumer protection while minimizing any adverse impact on trade. The main beneficiaries are governments and state organizations that enforce technical regulations and ensure market surveillance, and trade promotion organizations. The UNECE works with countries and regional groupings to support the implementation of UNECE Recommendation “L”, on an “International Model for Technical Harmonization”. The International Model is an important UNECE achievement and has been used as a tool to facilitate regulatory convergence in a number of different sectors, in particular in telecommunications, earth-moving machinery, and, more recently, oil and gas pipeline security and equipment for explosive environments. Several regional organizations, both from within and outside the UNECE region, are also collaborating with the UNECE in order to use the International Model to support the alignment of their regulatory regimes in specific sectors or product areas. Among these are the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe, the EurAsian Economic Community (EurAsEC) and the African Organization for Standardization (ARSO). Market surveillance is also an important area of work with countries. It is the main regulatory response to ensure that products placed on the market, whether produced locally or imported, conform to regulatory standards for consumer protection and the safety of workers. Market surveillance authorities can also be empowered to ensure that the marks the goods carry – be they quality marks or brand names – are genuine. An important tool is UNECE Recommendation “M” on the “Use of Market Surveillance Infrastructure as a Complementary Means to Protect Consumers and Users Against Counterfeit Goods”, which pioneers a novel approach in the fight against counterfeit goods, notably through the involvement of market surveillance authorities and the intellectual property owners. The UNECE is currently developing guidelines on best practices in market surveillance issues, which will also support work with countries in this area. In Regulatory Cooperation and Standardization Policies, the UNECE cooperates closely with numerous organizations and agencies: national ministries, regulatory and market surveillance bodies, international stand-

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ards-setting organizations, in particular the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), regional standardization organizations (including in the CIS region), organizations and agencies of the UN family, donor agencies (Swedish Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA)), consumers and industry associations. For more information: w ww.unece.org/trade/wp6/welcome.htm www.unece.org/trade/wp6/documents/wp6_tor.pdf

Promotion of knowledge-based development

• • • • •

Innovation and competitiveness policies; Entrepreneurship and enterprise development; Financing innovative development; Public-private partnerships for infrastructure development and the provision of public services; Commercialization and protection of intellectual property rights.

Based on an extensive policy dialogue and exchange of experiences and lessons learned, CECI develops guidelines, recommendations and other policy-oriented documents in the thematic areas that are covered in its programme of work. The results of the policy-oriented normative work are then converted into practical guides and training materials and modules for use in capacity building activities. CECI provides a forum for high-level policy dialogue and knowledge-sharing initiatives and serves as a focal point for the development of practical solutions to important policy issues related to the establishment of a policy, financial and regulatory environment conducive to economic growth and innovative development. CECI has developed extended expert networks which include experts from Member States’ Governments, the business and academic communities and civil society, who participate actively in the implementation of its programme of work. Through these expert networks, CECI is promoting an ongoing multi-stakeholder policy dialogue and is undertaking policy-oriented normative work in promoting the development of a knowledgebased supply capacity in the UNECE region. The policy dialogue and the related soft regulatory work take various forms, including open policy discussions, conferences, policy seminars, expert seminars and meetings. One important aspect of the related multi-stakeholder policy dialogue is that it offers a platform for a variety of experts and think tanks to present their views on the issues that are addressed. This helps governments and national policy makers to make more informed choices in selecting policy options. CECI is also mandated to deliver demand-driven policy advisory services and other capacity-building activities in mandated areas. To this effect, all meetings organized under the auspices of CECI are designed to contain a capacity-building component. In addition, CECI is underwriting a range of targeted field-based capacity-building activities in the areas of its competence. For more information: www.unece.org/ceci/

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The UNECE Subprogramme on Economic Cooperation and Integration promotes a policy, financial and regulatory environment conducive to economic growth, knowledge-based development and the higher competitiveness of countries and businesses in the UNECE region, with a focus on countries with economies in transition. The UNECE Committee on Economic Cooperation and Integration (CECI) is the intergovernmental body that oversees the work under this Subprogramme. The CECI programme of work is structured around five main thematic areas:


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

UNECLAC Contact: Osvaldo Rosales, Director of International Trade and Integration Division Tel: +56 2 210 2677 E-mail: osvaldo.rosales@cepal.org

Integrated database of trade disputes for Latin America and the Caribbean The objective is to provide information and disseminate knowledge about the trade dispute systems in which Latin American and Caribbean countries participate to officials of ECLAC member countries, experts, members of the private sector, NGOs, students, and other civil society institutions and interested persons in general. It provides analysis of the main issues involved in trade disputes of interest to the region, and information on trade disputes rulings in relation to the WTO, Mercosur, the Andean Community, the Central American Common Market, and CARICOM. The service contributes to comparative analysis by allowing different types of searches in relation to trade disputes under different subregional agreements in Latin America and in the WTO.

legal and regulatory framework

Inputs used are individual expertise, training, seminars, workshops, conferences, group discussions and any educational course delivered to a group (on-site or in-house), technical missions, expert consultations, specialized advice, investigations, analysis, diagnostic studies, surveys, access to the database and reference guides. Impact: There has been wide diffusion of the database, through links in other institutions, including the WTO and the World Bank, and it has been highly praised by organizations competent in international trade. For more information: http://badicc.eclac.cl/controversias/index_en.jsp

UNEP Legal and regulatory frameworks in the fisheries sector Contact: Anja von Moltke E-mail: anja.moltke@unep.ch Benjamin Simmons, E-mail: benjamin.simmons@unep.ch

UNEP is conducting a number of activities addressing legal and regulatory frameworks, particularly in the fisheries sector. A main focus relates to the issue of fisheries subsidies. Through a series of workshops, analytic papers and country projects, UNEP promotes integrated and well-informed responses to the need for fisheries subsidies reform. The overall objective is to address the problem of inappropriate subsidies that contribute to widespread over-fishing and to the distortion of trade in fisheries products. Through its work focused on the development of sustainability criteria for fisheries subsidies, notably in the WTO context, UNEP gives technical input for fisheries subsidies reform on the international, regional and national level. Special consideration is given to the concerns of developing countries, given the importance of their fisheries sector for livelihoods, employment and food security. To help countries create a supportive policy environment with positive economic incentives, such as market-based instruments, certification and subsidies reform, UNEP is also undertaking demonstration projects and organizing stakeholder consultations at a regional and national level (e.g., Western and Southern African region, Vietnam and Ecuador).

UNIDO Strengthening the regulatory framework for conformity Contact: Bernardo Calzadilla-Sarmiento, Chief, Compliance Infrastructure Unit Trade Capacity Branch Tel: +43 1 260 26 3986 E-mail: b.calzadilla@unido.org

UNIDO provides assistance to governments for the development of the legal and regulatory framework for the implementation of, in particular, the WTO agreements on technical barriers to trade (TBT) and on sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures, and their effective application in the area of standard setting and harmonization, metrology/calibration, product testing, accreditation, inspection, enterprise management system certification, and quality. This also includes legal and regulatory provisions for market surveillance, the promotion of consumer health and safety, animal and plant health issues, and the protection of the environment.

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WB WTO accession and trade policy training The World Bank Institute provides training for government officials in WTO accession countries to help them evaluate the economic implications of WTO membership and of the legal and regulatory reforms associated with implementing WTO commitments. In recent years these training programmes have focused on countries completing the transition to a market economy: Central Asian countries, China, Russia, Ukraine, and Vietnam. For example, in Vietnam the World Bank has partnered with a local institute to train over 1,100 parliamentarians, negotiators and researchers; and in China, it has provided training for trade negotiators and provincial officials on agricultural trade policy and poverty, services, and the implications of regional FTAs.

Contact: Daria Goldstein, Senior Counsel, Legal Department Tel: +1 202 473 1000 Fax: +1 202 477 6391

Assistance on preferential trade agreements The Bank has also conducted comprehensive analyses of the regional preferential trade agreements (PTAs) that are reshaping the world trading system, and is providing technical assistance to countries negotiating PTAs in an effort to improve their design and help governments use them to promote domestic reforms. Recent analyses include:

Advisory work on trade regulations and procedures The joint World Bank-IFC Foreign Investment Advisory Services (FIAS) unit provides technical assistance to developing countries to help them reduce the costs of international trade through streamlined trade regulations and procedures. The FIAS programme provides advisory services to: • • • •

Simplify and harmonize procedures and documentation; Implement electronic processing/automation and develop single window systems; Introduce risk management in border inspections and clearance; Build capacity to improve efficiency in customs and technical control agencies.

Technical assistance (TA) projects in Liberia, Colombia, and Rwanda have helped to reduce the time and cost to trade that is accounted by administrative and regulatory processes.

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The Bank provides assistance related to: trade policy reforms and regional or multilateral negotiating options, such as market access modelling tools (Russia, Morocco, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Kenya), safeguards/antidumping (Andean countries, Morocco), services trade (Central American countries, Bangladesh), and other countries’ FTAs (Egypt, Thailand).


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

WHO Multilateral trade agreements and public health Contact: Rüdiger Krech, Director, Department of Ethics, Equity, Trade and Human Rights (ETH) Tel: +41 22 791 3355 E-mail: krechr@who.int

WHO’s training programme focuses on the implications for public health of four main WTO agreements, namely the TBT, SPS, TRIPS, and GATS agreements. The health issues most relevant to these agreements are: infectious disease control, food safety, tobacco control, the environment, access to drugs, health services, and food security. Emerging issues are biotechnology, information technology and traditional knowledge. For more information: www.who.int/trade

Training course on health policy in a globalized world This course responds to an increasing demand from within and outside the WHO for information related to health policy-making in a globalized world. The module includes:

legal and regulatory framework

• • • • • • • • • • •

Globalization and health International trade law Trans/cross-border risks to public health security Migration of health professionals Foreign policy initiatives Ethics and human rights Aid for health International public health law Global public-private partnerships Global health governance Negotiating across boundaries for health development

For more information: www.who.int/trade

WIPO Legislative assistance Contact: 34, chemin des Colombettes, PO Box 18, 1211, Geneva 20 Tel: +41 22 338 9111 Fax: +41 22 733 5428

The focus of the legislative assistance provided by WIPO has changed dramatically over the last few years. Until recently, developing countries were primarily concerned with the implementation of international obligations and with streamlining internal procedures in order to facilitate access to intellectual property (IP) for the different stakeholders. But most developing countries, particularly after the Doha discussions on IP and health, are now focusing on how to make use of the wide flexibilities available to them. WIPO’s legislative assistance work has prioritized the discussion and preparation of provisions on flexibilities under the major WIPO-administered treaties, as well as under the TRIPS Agreement. Because of the sensitivity of this area, WIPO carries out legislative assistance on a bilateral and confidential basis, and in response to requests from individual Member States. Many aspects of TRIPS flexibilities, resulting from this exercise, were incorporated into a piece of draft legislation on industrial property specially developed for the LDCs, which has been communicated upon request to the Governments of a number of LDCs which are currently revising their legislation.

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Enforcement of intellectual property rights WIPO continues to assist Member States in their efforts to render IP enforcement more effective, with activities focusing primarily on providing training for law enforcement agencies and the judiciary. WIPO ran or co-organized practical workshops on specific aspects of IP enforcement in a number of countries, including Burkina Faso, four Caribbean countries, Germany, Japan, Malaysia, Mozambique, Singapore, and Switzerland.

WTO Legal Advice Contact: Maarten Smeets, Institute for Training and Technical Cooperation Tel: +41 22 739 5587 E-mail: maarten.smeets@wto.org

Establishing and strengthening reference centres WTO Reference Centres on the multilateral trading system use information technologies to help decisionmakers in developing countries better understand and make better use of the rules and mechanisms of the WTO. They are usually established at the national level of eligible beneficiaries, and are generally attached to the Ministry of Trade. Exceptionally, Reference Centres can be established at the Permanent Mission and/ or at the level of regional bodies and/or organizations. The main objective of establishing and strengthening Reference Centres is that government officials, the press, the business community, academia, and other authorized users have better access to WTO-related trade information and documentation. Resource persons, namely coordinators, are attached to the Reference Centres, to help users find their way through the technical and legal documentation.

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A key objective of the WTO’s technical assistance programme is to assist countries to comply with their commitments under the various multilateral trade agreements and, in so doing, put in place an appropriate regulatory framework of their choice. There is the recognition that an effective regulatory framework is sine qua non to countries deriving significant benefits from the multilateral trading system. To that end, the Annex on Financial Services provides, for example, that “a Member shall not be prevented from taking measures for prudential reasons, including the protection of investors, depositors, policy holders or persons to whom a fiduciary duty is owed by a financial service supplier, or to ensure the integrity and stability of the financial system”. Pursuant to Article 27.2 of the Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU), the WTO has engaged two consultants to provide legal advice to developing countries wishing to have recourse to the WTO dispute settlement system. This is in recognition of the fact that the system is a central element in providing security and predictability to the multilateral trading system. Furthermore, the WTO is mandated under Article 27.3 of the DSU “to organize specialized dispute settlement courses for developing countries with a view to strengthening their capacity to fully understand the relevant rules and procedures and to be able to effectively use the dispute settlement system to defend their rights and legitimate obligations”.


[ Supply Capacity ]


SUPPLY CAPACITY African Development Bank

 nited Nations Conference on Trade U and Development

Asian Development Bank

United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Pacific

Caribbean Development Bank

 nited Nations Economic U Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

E uropean Bank for Reconstruction and Development

United Nations Environment Programme

Food and Agriculture Organization

 nited Nations Human Settlements U Programme

Inter-American Development Bank

 nited Nations Industrial U Development Organization

International Atomic Energy Agency

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for the Palestine Refugees in the Near East

International Labour Organization

World Bank Group

International Telecommunication Union

World Tourism Organization

International Trade Centre


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

AfDB Private sector development The growing role of the private sector in achieving sustainable development and poverty alleviation is evident worldwide. The African Development Bank considers private sector development a major objective of its development activities. The Bank addresses private sector development at two primary levels: • A  ssisting African Governments to improve the enabling environment for the private sector (physical infrastructure and regulatory frameworks); • Creating catalytic and demonstration effects by assisting entrepreneurs with specific transactions (infrastructure, industries and services, and financial intermediation).

Contact: The Director Private Sector Department (OPSM) Tel: +216 71 10 2051, +216 71 10 2528, +216 71 10 2140, Fax: +216 71 83 4178 E-mail: t.turner@afdb.org, l.mokadem@afdb.org, l.cheikhrouhou@afdb.org

Agriculture and agro-industries The Bank’s Agriculture and Agro-industry Department focuses on activities in the agricultural and rural development sectors, including irrigation, livestock, fisheries, forestry, natural resources and environmental management. It is also charged with building Bank capacity and operations in agro-industry. Half the Bank’s active operations portfolio comprises projects in this department. It is estimated that about 60 per cent of the investment is in infrastructure. For more information: http://www.afdb.org/en/topics-sectors/sectors/agriculture-agro-industries/

African Fertilizer Financing Mechanism (AFFM) This facility would serve as a vehicle for financing various activities: (i) helping public and private sectors conduct feasibility assessments and secure financing for promising fertilizer production ventures; (ii) improving the economies-of-scale of fertilizer production, procurement and distribution; (iii) boosting fertilizer demand by extending credit guarantees to farmers and suppliers; and (iv) exploiting other opportunities in the value added chain.

Contact: The Director Agriculture and Agro-Industry Department (OSAN) Tel: +216 71 10 2837, +216 71 10 2037, Fax: +216 71 10 3725, +216 71 25 3167 E-mail : n.pinto-affoum@adfb.org, t.bedingar@afdb.org, a.abou-sabaa@afdb.org, d.keita@afdb.org k.johm@afdb.org, c.ojukwu@afdb.org, j.mwangi@afdb.org

For more information: ht tp://w w w.afdb.org/en/topics-sec tors/init iat ives-par tnerships/afr ican-fer t ilizer-f inanc ingmechanism/

Making Finance Work for Africa Partnership This Partnership is a major initiative to support the efforts of African countries to boost economic growth and fight poverty by encouraging and facilitating development of the financial sector. The Partnership focuses on the need to ensure that African countries develop dynamic, well-run and efficient national and regional financial services and banking systems as well as monitoring and tracking financial sector development. The Partnership works to support African public and private sector initiatives and efforts to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of development partner support. For more information: http://www.afdb.org/en/topics-sectors/initiatives-partnerships/making-finance-work-for-africa-partnership/

Contact: The Coordinator Making Finance Work for Africa Partnership (MFFA) Tel: +216 71 10 3953, +216 71 10 2700, +216 71 10 2396 Fax: +216 71 10 3731 E-mail: n.annabi@afdb.org, s.nalletamby@afdb.org, n.kabanyane@afdb.org

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For more information: http://www.afdb.org/en/topics-sectors/sectors/private-sector-development/


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

African Financial Markets Initiative (AFMI) Financial sector development is paramount to successful and sustainable economic development. Indeed a more effective formal financial system will contribute significantly to a better allocation of resources for investments, while an improved access to financial services for the poor and the rural population will help alleviate poverty. For more information:  http://www.afdb.org/en/topics-sectors/initiatives-partnerships/african-financial-markets-initiativeafmi/

ADB Grants Contact: Riccardo Loi, Office of Cofinancing Operations Tel: +632 632 6204 E-mail: : rloi@adb.org

ADB provides grants to support the development of micro-, small- and medium-sized businesses in its developing member countries. The grants also enhance business laws and regulations to facilitate the operations of those enterprises, improve their access to market-based funding, and strengthen the business support infrastructure.

Supply Capacity

CDB Export

Contact: Projects Department Tel: +246 431 1600 Fax: +246 228 9670, +246 426 7269 E-mail: info@caribank.org

Contact: Vice-President (Finance) Caribbean Development Bank Tel: +246 431 1600 Fax: +246 228 9670, +246 426 7269

Given the openness of Caribbean economies, CDB, throughout its history, has always been involved directly and indirectly in promoting the expansion of the external sector as part of its strategy to promote growth, expand employment and reduce poverty in the Region. In the early decades, most of the attention focused on export agriculture (sugar, bananas) and light manufacture for export (garments, shoes, paper, wood, chemical and non-metallic mineral products). More recently, the Bank has been substantially engaged in the provision of infrastructure and direct investments in the tourism industry. The expansion and diversification of the Region’s export supply capacity remains an enduring preoccupation of the Bank.

Loans and grants The CDB provides loans and grants directly to the Governments of its Borrowing Member Countries (BMCs), to public sector enterprises and to private sector entities and enterprises operating within its BMCs. The Bank also provides funding to regional institutions (e.g CARICOM and CARICOM-affiliated agencies), and loans for pre-investment/feasibility studies if it considers a project worthy of investigation. Specific private sector development projects which are considered not large enough to warrant direct supervision by CDB may be financed through loans to national development banks or other suitable intermediaries.

Equity operations CDB may make equity investments where this assists the Bank in fulfilling its development mandate. This can be done through taking a minority stake in specific companies or through investing in equity funds that have a mandate to invest in companies in CDB’s BMCs.

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Project financing CDB’s operations provide principally for the financing of specific projects, (whether forming part of national, sub-regional or regional development programmes) in such fields as agriculture, livestock, fisheries, forestry, marketing, manufacturing, mining, refining, tourism, export services, transportation, housing (low and lower/middle income), education (including student loans and training for resource development), power, water, sewerage, infrastructure and related services, waste management, environment protection and poverty reduction. An important consideration in all of these projects is the promotion of social equity and environmental sustainability.

EBRD Agribusiness Contact: TurnAround Management and Business Advisory Services Tel: +44 20 7338 7356 Fax: +44 20 7338 7742 E-mail: tam@ebrd.com

The EBRD’s countries of operations have many competitive advantages in the agribusiness sector. They account for more than 20% of the world’s potentially arable land, with top-quality soils and an abundance of skilled labour. The region is home to 400 million consumers with increasing average incomes driving an ever-growing demand for high-quality products and improvements in distribution and retailing. The Bank recognizes that the agribusiness sector can have a profound effect on human health and on the environment and that its sustainable development is a fundamental aspect of sound business management. It will therefore pay particular attention to compliance with appropriate standards. It will also ensure that its clients are committed to improving health, safety and environmental protection performance throughout the food chain. For more information: http://www.ebrd.com

TurnAround Management (TAM) Programme and Business Advisory Services (BAS) Programme The TurnAround Management (TAM) Programme aims to support economic reform by assisting small and medium to large-sized enterprises to transform themselves. The Programme assists enterprises to operate successfully and help to develop new business skills at the senior management level so as to be able to survive and compete in market economies. To achieve this, the Programme focuses on substantial managerial and structural changes within companies by providing industry-specific management expertise through the advisory services of experienced former CEOs and directors from economically developed countries. These advisers transfer management and technical know-how to enterprises, conveying the principles of responsible corporate governance and sharing commercial experience directly with CEOs and senior managers. TAM is managed on a not-for-profit basis and utilizes multiple donor funds to provide the costs of support for the projects; none of the funding is given to the enterprises.

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The EBRD is the single biggest investor in the agribusiness sector in its countries of operations. Its work spans all the activities throughout the production chain, from farming, processing and trading to food distribution, packaging and retailing. The Bank has also played a major role in developing this sector by supporting local and foreign corporate clients as well as micro, small and medium-sized enterprises.


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

Community projects are TAM innovations for assistance in the most remote regions of the Early Transition Countries (ETCs). These are the poorest EBRD countries of operations: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyz Republic, Moldova, Mongolia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The projects in the ETCs contribute to the reduction of poverty, supporting small farmers in their endeavours to move from subsistence farming, creating new local businesses, enhancing existing companies and trade and so increasing local incomes. The community basis from which the projects operate provides a good foundation for the effective promotion of transition in such regions. The Business Advisory Services (BAS) Programme helps private enterprises to adapt to the demands of a market economy. It also supports short-term projects with narrowly defined objectives and carries out market development activities to facilitate the development of a sustainable infrastructure of local business advisory services in the countries of operations. As of December 2009 over 750 micro, small and medium-sized enterprises from Albania to Uzbekistan were benefiting from BAS support. For more information: http://www.ebrd.com

Supply Capacity

FAO Contact: Technical Cooperation Department Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Tel: +39 06 5705 5387 Fax: +39 06 5705 4385 E-mail: tc-webmaster@fao.org

FAO’s basic aim is to create sustainable increases in agricultural productivity, the competitiveness of the products produced, and improvements in the supply and availability of food and other products from the crop, livestock, fisheries and forestry sectors. Virtually all FAO activities, and especially field programmes, aim at and contribute to building the supply-side capability of agriculture and making the sector competitive in trade. Three services can be singled out as being most pertinent from the standpoint of FAO: (i) value chain integration; (ii) technology upgrade; and (iii) rural linkages.

Increase agricultural productivity FAO aims to address the challenge of how to increase agricultural productivity to meet the growing food needs of populations and improve producer incomes. The service is important because it promotes holistic systems approaches which recognize the economic and social - including gender - dimensions related to the transfer and adoption of appropriate technology. The resulting increased productivity can bring about rapid and major increases in production, trade, and producers’ incomes. The service aims to assist countries in the adoption of appropriate technology to intensify production systems in a sustainable way, and to ensure sufficient supplies of food and agricultural, fisheries and forestry goods and services. Some key components of the service include: • M  onitoring advances in technology, including bio-technology, and analyzing their possibilities for enhancing production systems in member countries; • Promoting and assisting in the evaluation of promising techniques for the intensification and diversification of crops, livestock, fisheries and forest production systems; • Encouraging linkages among research and development experts and user organizations within and across regions for problem-solving and opportunity identification; enabling producers to participate in and have access to the results of applied research; and enhancing sustainable production and processing of crop, livestock, fishery and forest products. While advising on new techniques and promoting applied research, emphasis is placed on enabling producers to increase productivity to levels commonly obtained in field demonstrations using existing techniques. The main beneficiaries include governments, farmers’ organizations, research institutes, etc., in developing countries and countries in transition.

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Inputs used include expertise, training, seminars, workshops, conferences, group discussions, technical missions, expert consultations, specialized advice, etc. The services also include the provision of equipment, books, reference materials, etc., where resources are available. Several FAO departments provide assistance on supply-side capability, and it is difficult to pinpoint a particular focal point. The Technical Department, which is FAO’s operational arm, is the general contact address for information.

IDB The Aid for Trade Initiative aims to help countries integrate into the global economy and to benefit from liberalized trade and increased market access by channelling resources to enhance trade-related capacities and overcome supply-side constraints. Trade is an engine for growth and poverty reduction when accompanied with appropriate complementary public and private sector policies. The IDB has actively supported the implementation of the Aid for Trade Initiative (AfT) in Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC). As the main institutional counterpart for the World Trade Organization (WTO) in the region for AfT, the IDB, through its Integration and Trade Sector (INT), coordinates its activities with countries and other institutions, such as regional development banks, regional organizations and bilateral donors, and has actively participated in the implementation of the 2008-2009 WTO Roadmap. The IDB also coordinates its activities with the OECD monitoring role.

Contact: Carolyn Robert (Aid for Trade) Senior International Trade Specialist Integration and Trade Sector Tel: +202 623 2883 E-mail: carolynr@iadb.org

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Supporting the integration of Latin America and the Caribbean into the global economy through Aid for Trade

The key modalities of AfT delivery in LAC include: • • • •

AfT is a priority on LAC development agendas; Private sector development is a key strategic goal of the AfT initiative in LAC; The regional dimension is a central component of the AfT initiative in LAC; AfT should be delivered and implemented in LAC according to the principles of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness.

The Bank has established a new Aid for Trade Fund, which is designed to help mobilize resources to support AfT implementation in LAC. The strong presence of the IDB in LAC, its recognized trade expertise, and its ability to channel funding and technical assistance to the region, including through other regional institutions, will improve coordination and effectiveness in implementing the AfT initiative. For more information see: http://www.iadb.org/int/aidfortrade/

IAEA Assistance to improve production methods Global trade is heavily regulated, and developing countries, in particular, often struggle to meet regulatory requirements. As a result, their opportunities to gain greater access to global markets are curtailed. The objective is to assist Member States to acquire the physical infrastructure and expertise to improve production methods, undertake quality control, and meet global trade standards.

Contact: Johannes Seybold, Division for Programme Support and Coordination Tel: +43 1 2600 0 E-mail: j.seybold@iaea.org

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The broader effort here is for the IAEA, through its Technical Cooperation (TC) Programme, to increase the impact of science and technology (S&T) in helping Member States to achieve their social and economic development objectives. Beneficiaries vary from sector to sector and country to country. Inputs used are individual expertise, training, seminars, workshops, conferences, group discussions and any educational course delivered to a group (on-site or in-house), technical missions, expert consultations, specialized advice, investigations, analysis, diagnostic studies, surveys, etc. The service is provided in cooperation with national and regional institutions.

ILO

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Integrated sectoral strategies to build capabilities and improve competitiveness Contact: Eléonore d’Achon, Employment Sector CEPOL/EMP/POLICY Tel: +41 22 799 6111 E-mail: ilo@ilo.org

This service aims to support sectoral restructuring efforts, and assist the actors involved to improve competitiveness through the advancement of decent work. The underlying principle is that the promotion of decent work is not only a social objective, but also contributes to improved competitiveness in world markets.

Abdel-Aziz Boutaleb, Subregional Office for North Africa in Cairo, E-mail: boutaleb@ilo.org

One example is the ILO project in Morocco’s textile and clothing sector. In the context of the restructuring of the sector, the project succeeded in facilitating constructive social dialogue between the principal partners of the textile and clothing sector. The Government and social partners agreed to the principal elements of a new strategy for the industry, which integrates both economic and social development, and decided to create a Bipartite Committee. In addition to the reinforcement of the social dialogue at the sectoral level, the project supports the emergence of a dialogue between management and workers at the enterprise level to improve both efficiency and working conditions. The ILO has facilitated discussions between the Bipartite Committee and strategic buyers on the marketing of Morocco as a socially responsible sourcing destination.

Contact: Nikolai Rogovsky, Employment Sector Enterprise Development Department Tel: +41 22 799 6116 E-mail: rogovsky@ilo.org

Value chain analysis, upgrading, and cluster development

Contact: David Lamotte, Employment Sector Enterprise Development Department Tel: +41 22 799 8614 E-mail: lamotte@ilo.org, rogovsky@ilo.org

Workplace practices

The aim of this service is to support the efforts of policy-makers to help enterprises that are inserted into global value chains to upgrade their productive capabilities. It is based on an approach that seeks to increase the competitiveness of national/regional clusters of enterprises, in general, and SMEs, in particular. The latter are often neglected in value chain upgrading programmes. The service is provided to policy-makers, business organizations, training and productivity centres and enterprises, through the provision of resource material, diagnostics and surveys, training activities and technical support to business development services (BDS). Most activities to date have been focused on agro-business.

In order to remain competitive in national and international markets, sustainable enterprises need to innovate, adopt environmentally friendly technologies, develop skills and human resources, and enhance productivity. The application of productive workplace practices, based on good labour-management relations and respect for workers’ rights, provides an effective means of increasing enterprises’ trade capacity and international competitiveness. The ILO uses a two-part strategy to promote good workplace practices: documentation and dissemination of examples of good practices, case studies and guidelines; and strengthening entrepreneurial management skills through capacity building and training resources that foster the adoption of good workplace practices in micro, small and large enterprises. Implementation of capacity building and training are carried out through strategic partnerships with ILO constituents - governments, workers’ groups, and employers’ groups.

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Success story: The ILO’s Factory Improvement Programme (FIP) helps participating enterprises increase productivity, improve working conditions, and strengthen collaboration and communication between managers and workers. The programme shows enterprises how to apply productive workplace practices based on good labour-management relations and respect for workers’ rights as an effective means of increasing the enterprises’ trade capacity and international competitiveness. The programme demonstrates how effective enterprise-level practices can lead to measurably improved enterprise performance and conditions of employment. For example, an independent evaluation in Vietnam reported:

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• T he establishment of factory improvement teams in each of the factories: These generally comprised an equal mix of managers and workers, and all continue to operate some 14 months after the programme ended; • A reduction in end-line production defects of 67 percent on average: In some workshops, reductions of over 90 percent were achieved; • Raised awareness across all levels of the factories of quality and productivity issues (as demonstrated by the widespread continuing use of tools and techniques introduced by FIP). • Reports from the factories themselves indicating productivity improvements; • Alterations to working areas to ensure efficiency gains in production, enhanced worker safety, and an improved working environment overall; • Heightened awareness of occupational health and safety issues in the participating factories and subsequent action taken to reduce hazards, such as the provision of safety equipment, the establishment of accident response procedures, and the reconfiguration of work areas. Source: Factory Improvement Programme – Vietnam Final Evaluation (September 2006)

ITU ITU technologies infrastructures and applications The programme assists developing countries to plan, build, operate, upgrade, manage and maintain technologies applicable in their networks and services. This includes the development of telecommunications and information infrastructure and applications. The following technology-related domains receive priority: • • • • • • •

Digital broadcasting Spectrum management and monitoring Network and infrastructure planning Wireless broadband Innovative technological applications IMT (Mobile communications) Rural telecommunications

Contact: Telecommunication Development Bureau Telecommunication Technologies & Network Development (TND) Tel: +41 22 730 5720 Fax: + 41 22 730 5484 E-mail: bdtmail@itu.int

For more information: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/tech/index.html

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ITC Exporter competitiveness Contact: Aïcha Pouyé, Director Division of Business and Institutional Support Tel: +41 22 730 0111

The goal is to help develop internationally-competitive exporting SMEs by enhancing the competitiveness of existing enterprises and supporting the creation of new competitive exporting enterprises, including in poor communities. In order to achieve this, ITC has developed the following main competency areas: • D  evelopment of certified experts in Trade Support Institutions (TSIs), equipped with methodologies and tools to provide training and counselling services for building exporter competitiveness; • Expertise provided to develop and increase the capacities of entrepreneurs to: o Strategize and effectively plan, allocate and control resources; o Design, produce and supply competitive products and services; o Market and sell products and services. ITC supports enterprises in the acquisition of an in-depth knowledge of markets’ potential to add higher value to products and services, and to diversify their exports. The aim is to allow them to effectively manage their business functions, and to have the capacity to convert commercial opportunities into actual business.

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ITC’s efforts have been traditionally focused on specific sectors: services, including tourism; creative industries; coffee; horticultural products; jute and hard fibres; leather; organic products; spices and herbs; textiles and clothing; and wood and wood products. A special emphasis is placed on capacity building of export marketing, including the establishment of partnerships, matchmaking capabilities, and product design and branding. ITC provides export information related to technology, marketing, and merchandizing aspects of packaging. Enterprises can also be coached in creating business linkages in export markets by providing them with training and consultancy in sectors with trade potential, and organizing enterprise matchmaking events. In some cases, advice covers e-business solutions, and using business outsourcing and networking for ICT-enabled export development and web marketing. For more information: Business support services: www.intracen.org/menus/busserv.htm “e” solutions for management functions: www.intracen.org/etradebridge/welcome.htm Market development services: www.intracen.org/mds/welcome.htm and www.intracen.org/servicexport/ welcome.htm

UNCTAD The BioTrade Initiative Contact: Trade and Environment Branch, DITC Fax: +41 22 917 0247 E-mail: biotrade@unctad.org

This initiative is aimed at stimulating trade and investment in biodiversity-based products in developing countries to promote sustainable development in line with the three objectives of the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD): • Conservation of biological diversity; • Sustainable use of its components; • Fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources.

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The initiative collaborates closely with various actors, including government, the private sector, NGOs, local and indigenous communities, and academia, to set up programmes that enhance the capability of developing countries to produce value-added products and services derived from biodiversity for both domestic and international markets. The BioTrade Initiative comprises three complementary components: • Country and regional programmes (through national focal points and regional partners); • Policy development and trade facilitation; • Internet services. For more information: www.biotrade.org

UNCTAD/ICC Investment Advisory Council The Investment Advisory Council (IAC) is a joint initiative of UNCTAD and the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) to provide an informal and flexible framework within which senior business executives and senior government officials responsible for investment matters can interact on questions related to attracting and benefiting from FDI.

FORINVEST (Policy framework for attracting foreign investment) FORINVEST provides assistance to developing countries in strengthening their capacity to create and manage the policy and operating climate in which foreign investment and international business can thrive. It provides advisory services and training packages related to investment policy, investment legislation, investment codes, technology transfer and mechanisms for attracting investment, such as export processing zones and build-operate-transfer arrangements. For more information: www.unctad.org/Templates/Page.asp?intItemID=1976&lang=1

STAMP (Strengthening and/or streamlining FDI agencies) The aim of STAMP is to provide assistance to developing countries and economies in transition in strengthening their investment institutions, especially investment promotion agencies (IPAs); streamlining their modes of operation and approval processes; monitoring the quantity, quality and impact of inflows; and promoting host countries as attractive locations. For more information: http://www.unctad.org/Templates/Page.asp?intItemID=4978&lang=1

Capacity building in FDI statistics This project aims at enhancing the capacity of government agencies in developing countries to compile, disseminate and analyze data on FDI and TNC activities through implementing internationally recommended methodological standards, and at enabling national authorities to maintain high-quality and up-to-date databases. The project also intends to strengthen networking among national authorities involved in FDI data compilation and reporting, and in FDI policy issues and investment promotion activities, so as to facilitate the exchange of experiences. For more information: www.unctad.org/fdistatistics

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Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

FDI in Tourism and Development This programme aims at providing information and analyses that will assist policy-makers to design policies that best support their development objectives and strategies in the tourism sector. For more information: http://www.unctad.org/Templates/Page.asp?intItemID=4977&lang=1 http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/iteiia20075_en.pdf

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Contact: E-mail: iia@unctad.org

International Investment Agreements (IIAs) UNCTAD supports developing countries to better understand key and emerging issues related to IIAs and their development dimension, and enhance their capacity in negotiating and implementing investment treaties and managing investor-states disputes. This is achieved through: • P ublications: The series on Issues in IIAs is a learning and reference tool for negotiators and lawmakers from both developed and developing countries. The series, International Investment Policies for Development, provides analysis of technical issues that arise in the context of international investment rulemaking and their impact on development. Four databases provide information on bilateral investment treaties, double taxation treaties, other agreements with investment provisions and investor-state dispute settlement cases. • Technical assistance: regional training courses on the negotiation of IIAs, and on the management of investor-state dispute settlement, capacity-building seminars, advisory services for requesting countries on the review of concluded IIAs and formulation and/or modernization of investment legal frameworks, distance-learning courses on key issues in IIAs, and contributions to specific conferences and seminars. For more information: www.unctad.org/iia

Investment facilitation UNCTAD provides advisory services and training and prepares publications related to investment policies, investment legislation and regulations, institutional arrangements and good governance to attract and facilitate foreign investment, investment promotion strategies and techniques, and investment facilitation practices and procedures. For more information: http://www.unctad.org/Templates/Page.asp?intItemID=4985&lang=1

Other investment-related programmes: The Investment Gateway is an electronic tool in support of investment promotion and facilitation. It is a web-based content management system, which works as an engine to collect, organize and display information. Investment promotion agencies, or other entities in charge of investment promotion and facilitation, can use it to provide content for their website and offer online services. It can be configured to individual countries’ needs and installed at a fraction of the cost of similar systems. The system is composed of four modules offering online information on investment opportunities, regulations, investors, and the country’s business environment. Investment guides for LDCs prepared by UNCTAD with the International Chamber of Commerce are designed to serve as: • Objective descriptions of opportunities and conditions for potential investors; • Credible and attractive marketing tools for governments.

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The project also incorporates a capacity building element through: • The training of local consultants engaged to gather information and produce partial drafts; • The close involvement of the investment agency in the entire process; • Project workshops that strengthen dialogue between investors and the government, and create a greater awareness of the importance of promoting the country as a location for FDI. Guides published so far can be viewed either on the UNCTAD web page ASIT: www.unctad.org/asit or at www.fdi.net or on the ICCWBO website: www.iccwbo.org

Investment guides and i-portals These are jointly produced by UNCTAD and the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). The investment guides provide a promotional tool for countries and include reliable and comprehensive information on investment opportunities, the regulatory framework and the general business environment. I-portal is an online facility that provides investors with pertinent information and data on a country’s investment climate and its investment opportunities.

Contact: E-mail: investmentguides@unctad.org

For more information: http://www.unctad.org/Templates/Page.asp?intItemID=2705&lang=1

The main technical cooperation programmes undertaken in this area are the Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Reviews (STIP Reviews) and the Network of Centres of Excellence (NOCE), which involve scientific and technological institutions committed to strengthening links within the scientific community and increasing the mobility of scientists from developing countries, especially from Africa. The objectives are: • E nhancing the scientific and technological capabilities of developing countries and countries with economies in transition; • Facilitating their access to new and emerging technologies. This is accomplished, in particular, by providing policy advice and supporting those countries’ efforts in strengthening their human resource base by organizing special training events, and analyzing and disseminating information on best practices in the development and transfer of technology, particularly new technologies. For more information: www.unctad.org/Templates/StartPage.asp?intItemID=2529&lang=1

Enterprise development: UNCTAD aims at enhancing the understanding and capacity of developing countries to develop policies aiming at stimulating enterprise development and business facilitation, including on e-tourism. The Enterprise Development Programme answers the need to formulate new enterprise development strategies by providing policy advice to governments and by working with local institutions to spur the creation and healthy growth of enterprises in developing countries. The programme assists Member States in creating a conducive and enabling policy and regulatory environment, and helps them support the outstanding role SMEs play in the economy in general and, more particularly, in job creation. The main objectives are: • Improving SMEs’ growth and international competitiveness; • Stimulating entrepreneurial potential.

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Contact: E-mail: enterprise@unctad.org, empretec@unctad.org

Empretec Empretec promotes entrepreneurial skills and helps promising entrepreneurs to put their ideas into action and foster businesses. The programme contributes to SMEs growth and promotes their business linkages with larger enterprises, which ultimately leads to job creation, increased investment and, more generally, regional economic development. Empretec’s proven entrepreneurial development methodology identifies 10 key areas of competences related to entrepreneurial development that are linked to a series of behavioural aspects. Through behavioural change, Empretec has nurtured over 150,000 entrepreneurs in 27 developing countries with the help of more than 600 local certified trainers. Together with methodology, Empretec provides enterprise support centres that offer advisory services and entrepreneurship training workshops within the public and private sector. Last but not least, Empretec promotes entrepreneurship among women. In all, the Empretec programme aims to:

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• I mprove the beneficiary country’s development and job creation prospects; • Mobilize entrepreneurial resources; • Help SMEs to compete in liberalized and globalized markets by fostering entrepreneurship, innovation and partnering; • Offer SMEs the skills, technology, opportunities, training and information they need to realize their objectives, expand their activities, and establish productive, stable linkages with foreign companies. The programme creates the institutional capacity to stimulate employment-creating investment, technology transfer and exports, and promotes the creation and growth of SMEs through a business support selfsustaining network and an active coalition of public officials, entrepreneurs, corporate managers, bankers and executives of transnational corporations. Empretec’s main beneficiaries are SMEs, entrepreneurs with potential, women entrepreneurs, key country institutions and governments. It transfers its methodologies to the counterpart institutions in all the countries where the programme becomes operational. For more information: www.empretec.net http://www.unctadxi.org/templates/Startpage____7428.aspx

Business linkages The UNCTAD Business Linkages Programme is a multi-stakeholder initiative that transforms linkages between SMEs and TNCs into sustainable business relationships to improve the performance, productivity and efficiency of the entire supply chain through training, mentoring, information exchange, quality improvements, innovation and technology transfer. The Business Linkages Programme helps TNCs reduce costs through local sourcing and specialization; at the same time, it offers SMEs access to markets, training opportunities, international business practices, business information and financial resources. Business Linkages covers policy advice designed to facilitate sustainable business linkages, but also helps to identify business linkage opportunities, the upgrading of SMEs to meet foreign affiliates’ requirements, and to provide ways of accessing credit, and has programmes designed for supply chain management and entrepreneurship training. For more information: http://www.unctad.org/Templates/Page.asp?intItemID=2750&lang=1

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Business facilitation UNCTAD has conceived a web-based e-government system to help developing countries work towards business facilitation through the transparency, simplification and automation of rules and procedures relating to enterprise creation and operation. The objective of the system is four-fold: (i) provide full transparency on rules and procedures; (ii) help governments to simplify procedures; (iii) promote good governance; and (iv) set a basis for regional/international harmonization of rules. For more information: http://www.businessfacilitation.org/

Capacity development and e-applications UNCTAD also aims to build up and strengthen local capacities in member countries by using information and communication technologies. As part of the partnerships launched at UNCTAD XI, UNCTAD has designed a technical assistance package (the e-Tourism Initiative) aimed at promoting the application of ICT in the tourism sector so as to enable developing countries themselves to exploit their tourism resources and benefit from greater autonomy in creating and promoting their own brand. The package builds on the experience accumulated by UNCTAD in the application of information technologies in economic development projects. It comprises three elements: (i) an electronic platform and a business model that help countries to identify, standardize, coordinate and propose tourism services offered by local enterprises online; (ii) a method: collecting information about the tourism and craft sectors, standardizing it and distributing it on the Internet; and (iii) a partnership approach: enabling all stakeholders to coordinate their resources and objectives.

e-Tourism The e-Tourism Programme aims at rebalancing the international tourism system by boosting tourism in developing countries. It seeks to put more power in the hands of their SMEs and help these destinations become autonomous in their search for business. The Programme aims at enabling public and private tourism stakeholders to implement participative e-strategies through relevant public and private partnerships. It provides a comprehensive ICT-centric assistance package aiming at boosting exposure for tourism SMEs by equipping local stakeholders with the behavorial, organizational and technological tools required for the implementation of localized e-business models. For more information: http://etourism.unctad.org

Information and communication technologies and e-business UNCTAD supports interested developing countries in the establishment and implementation of policies and actions aimed at realizing the opportunities for economic development generated by ICT, and their application to business and government operations, emphasizing efforts in sectors and industries of particular interest to developing countries. Policy advice and capacity building activities carried out by UNCTAD in the area of ICT and e-business include: • Support for the formulation of national e-strategies for development; • Reinforcement of the policy-making capacity of developing countries in the field of ICT, with a special focus on the statistical measurement of access to, and use and impact of, ICT; • Strengthening the capacity of developing countries to be active participants in international discussions on ICT, e-business, e-commerce and related matters, including through policy analysis dissemination and awareness creation among policy-makers in developing countries; • Analysis of legal and regulatory frameworks for e-business and e-commerce; • Discussion of the implications of free and open source software; • Use of ICT and e-business to maximize the development potential of sustainable tourism in developing countries; • General capacity building for the adoption of e-business and e-commerce practices by SMEs.

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For more information: www.unctadxi.org/templates/Startpage____1195.aspx


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

For more information: http://r0.unctad.org/ecommerce/ See also in Global Advocacy: • • • •

STIP Reviews; ICT Policy Reviews; Investment Policy Reviews; Trade and Environment Review.

UNESCAP

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Contact: Marinus W. Sikkel, Chief, Private Sector and Development Section, Trade and Investment Division, Tel: +662 288 1671 E-mail: sikkel@un.org, pouye@intracen.org

The common aim of UNESCAP services in this category is to analyze policies and their effectiveness in creating a strong and diversified enterprise sector, especially SMEs, to strengthen the capacity of governments and private sector institutions to improve the investment climate, to increase the contribution of business to inclusive and sustainable development, and to promote enterprise capacity development through research and analytical studies, training courses, policy dialogues, expert group meetings and round-table discussions.

Contact: Masato Abe, Private Sector and Development Section, Trade and Investment Division, E-mail: abem@un.org

Facilitating the effective integration of Asia-Pacific SMEs in the global value chains

Contact: Helina Lam, Private Sector and Development Section, Trade and Investment Division E-mail: lamh@un.org

Increasing the contribution of business to sustainable development

Contact: Marinus W. Sikkel, Chief, Private Sector and Development Section, Trade and Investment Division, E-mail: sikkel@un.org

The Secretariat has been active in facilitating the integration of SMEs in Asia and the Pacific into regional and global value chains by organizing expert group meetings and workshops which contributed to government-to-business interaction and the identification of common interest in developing a programme of action. The programme has been expanded to include countries in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). In addition, the United Nations Asian and Pacific Centre for Agricultural Engineering and Machinery (UNAPCAEM) in Beijing has undertaken projects and networking activities with the purpose of strengthening rural SME development.

This project aims to build the capacity of Global Compact country networks to promote the implementation of CSR and Global Compact principles in Asia and the Pacific. The three-year project started in September 2007, and is implemented in close consultation with the Global Compact Office and other specialized UN agencies which are members of the UN Global Compact Inter-agency Team.

Research and analysis of regional cooperation in reforming business climates and addressing technical barriers to trade Apart from technical assistance, the Secretariat has continued in-depth research and analysis of selected trade and investment topics, such as the role of and modalities for regional cooperation in reforming business climates. UNESCAP’s analytical work aims to identify the role of and modalities for regional cooperation in reforming the business climate to facilitate the efforts of countries in the region to attract FDI. Another area of study relating to regional cooperation to address technical barriers to trade (TBT) aims to provide an overview of the present status of sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS) and TBT and identify the key issues for enterprises, including SMEs, and to compile a list of good practices at the national and regional level for facilitating effective compliance. For more information: www.unescap.org/tid/industry.asp

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Development of business and innovation incubation frameworks UNESCAP has implemented various activities to promote an enabling domestic environment and raise the capacity of SMEs to compete in regional and global markets. One of the projects it has implemented concerns the promotion of a business and innovation incubation framework, called the subnational innovation systems (SIS), at both national and subnational levels. This is a tool to strengthen SMEs’ global competitiveness and expedite their integration into the global value chain. Since 2006, several regional consultative meetings were held that focused on the development of a business and innovation incubation framework, and four national workshops were held to promote the development of indigenous business and innovation policies and SME strategies to strengthen technology and innovation capacity.

This research paper aims to contribute to the stock of policy-related research and understanding of SME sector development in the Asia Pacific region, in the context of a rapidly changing and mutating international business environment. Although considerable research has already been done in this broad field, many developing countries in Asia and the Pacific lack a comprehensive understanding of the quickly changing demands, due to the ongoing globalization of production, being placed on the design and implementation of effective enabling policy frameworks for SME development. This paper attempts to fill that lacuna.

Contact: Masato Abe, Private Sector and Development Section, Trade and Investment Division, E-mail: abem@un.org

UNECLAC Analysis of public-private partnership for innovation and export development UNECLAC aims to discover “basic operational principles” that are common in areas such as: • T he creation of public motivation to promote public-private coordination; • T he construction of public consensus (the public cost of supporting innovation is not always politically attractive); • T he methodologies of diagnoses of “binding constraints” that face private sector enterprises when they try to innovate and internationalize; • The degree of pro-activity of the public sector, its level of automation, mechanisms of coordination in the public sector, and budgets of promotion agencies; • Mechanisms to articulate the company with academic and research centres; • Modalities of selection of policies and programmes.

Contact: Osvaldo Rosales, Director of International Trade and Integration Division Tel: +56 2 210 2677 E-mail: Osvaldo.Rosales@cepal.org

The service contributes to the current process of analysis of the different production sectors in Latin America, and of how a public-private partnership could help the process of innovation and export development in the region. It provides information to governments, NGOs, students and other civil society institutions on trade dispute rulings in relation to the WTO, Mercosur, the Andean Community, the Central America Common Market and CARICOM. The service is provided through seminars, workshops and the publication of a book on the subject. Inputs used are interviews with experts, individual and group expertise, training, seminars, workshops, conferences, group discussions and any educational course delivered to a group (on-site or inhouse), technical missions, specialized advice, investigations, analysis, diagnostic studies, surveys, expert consultations, etc. The services target governmental bodies, and the export sector. For more information: www.eclac.cl/comercio Publicaciones Serie Comercio Internacional www.eclac.cl/Id.asp?Id=28848

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UNEP Promotion of sustainable agriculture Contact: Asad Naqvi, E-mail: asad.naqvi@unep.ch

The agricultural sector is critical for many countries as a source of livelihood, food security and economic development. UNEP has been assisting countries to promote sustainable agriculture in a number of sectors, including bananas, cocoa, gum, cotton, and rice. As part of this work, UNEP is assisting countries to assess the impact of trade liberalization on sustainable agricultural development, to develop more sustainable agriculture and trade policies, and to pursue agricultural policies that lead to “win-win” outcomes, such as organic agriculture, and which may offer prospects for environmental protection, market access, poverty reduction and enhanced food security. In this context, UNEP - under the auspices of the UNEP-UNCTAD CTBF – is currently developing an online training course on successful organic production and export, targeting intermediaries in the agricultural sector (such as extension services, national organic movements, consultants, and exporters) and is supporting a series of regional conferences and national workshops on organic agriculture in East and West Africa. For more information: www.unep-unctad.org/cbtf

UN-HABITAT

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Lake Victoria Local Economic Development (LV-LED) initiative Contact: Officer-In-Charge, Urban Economy and Finance Branch Monitoring and Research Division, Tel: +254 20 762 4659 E-mail: xing.zhang@unhabitat.org

With the aim of revitalizing local economies in the Lake Victoria region, UN-HABITAT, through the RuralUrban Linkages Support Programme (RULSUP), is taking the lead in developing a broad programme of regional development activities – the Lake Victoria Local Economic Development (LV-LED) initiative – in collaboration with FAO, IFAD, ILO, UN-HABITAT, UNIDO and WFP, as well as the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) and government institutions. LV-LED will build on and complement the goals and achievements of UN-HABITAT’s Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation initiative (LV-WATSAN). It is increasingly recognized that the positive developmental effects of measures to improve water and sanitation facilities can be maximized when they form part of broad regional development strategies that promote balanced territorial development through enhanced urban-rural development linkages. LV-LED thus aims to strengthen the regional economy, notably through improved agricultural productivity and the development of complementary urban markets. On the agricultural side, particular emphasis will be given to the provision of alternative irrigation facilities, appropriate financial intermediation, and the procurement of farmers’ surplus agricultural produce. In addition, partner agencies will support the creation of sustainable employment and income-earning opportunities by providing an enabling environment for the development of agro-processing and other small-scale industries in urban areas, together with appropriate urban development strategies. The ultimate objectives of this initiative are to improve the livelihood of the poor in both rural and urban areas, and to accelerate local economic development through the enhancement of socio-economic linkages between rural and urban areas.

Banana drinks project in Uganda and Tanzania Contact: Ananda Weliwita, Human ­Settlements Officer, Urban Economy and Finance Branch, Monitoring and Research Division, Tel: +254 20 762 3743 E-mail: ananda.weliwita@unhabitat.org

One of the first concrete examples of LV-LED’s achievements is the construction of two banana drinks-processing and packing facilities in Tanzania and Uganda. With cooperation from the Governments of Tanzania and Uganda, UNHABITAT, UNIDO, FAO and CFC are jointly funding the construction of facilities – one in Kagera, Tanzania, and the other in Kampala, Uganda. The project aims to add value to banana drinks produced by farmers for urban markets through improved quality, preservation, packing and marketing.

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The project was conceived as an income diversification intervention for coffee farmers who inter-crop coffee and bananas in the Lake Victoria region. Banana-based beverages are already produced in small quantities in this region, mainly by women. Their production, however, is mostly home-based and just enough to satisfy the local demand in villages. Due to poor processing and packing facilities, as well as poor transport and marketing arrangements, these drinks are not marketed in sufficient quantities in secondary towns where the potential demand is much greater. Besides funding the construction of modern processing and packing industrial plants in Kampala and Muleba, respectively, the project will establish five collection centres in the region and provide extension services to farmers. In addition, the project will organize farmers into efficient suppliers of raw material for banana and other fruit-based processing companies. The project is also expected to provide tangible benefits to women engaged in the production and sale of banana-based beverages. The overall goal of the project is to alleviate poverty in the region through the commercialization of higher value-added banana-based products, and thus to improve links between rural products and urban markets. It will generate employment in both participating farms and the two urban processing plants.

UNIDO Techno-economic surveys and assessments of specific industrial sectors and sub-sectors are essential for the development of competitive supply capacities targeting national, regional, and international markets. UNIDO undertakes such assessments for key (sub-)sectors where developing countries have a potential competitive advantage to increase traditional and non-traditional exports, in particular food and fish processing, leather and leather products, textiles and garments, and wood and other forest products.

Contact: Mr Karl Schebesta Industrial Development Officer Agro-Industries Technology Unit Tel: +43 1 260 26 3490 E-mail: K.Schebesta@unido.org

Product and process design and development Product development and process upgrading constitute a key link between available indigenous resources and the competitive processing of such resources, and are vital for the successful integration of tradable commodities and products into national, regional and global value and supply chains. Product and process design and development activities include, inter alia, selection of species, safety requirements, eco-design and life-cycle assessment, improved characteristics, functionality, performance, product appearance, packaging and supply management. In this context, UNIDO also focuses on market intelligence, such as client and market requirements, competition potential, segmentation, branding, and effective communication of product values to consumers.

Development of sectoral technology centres UNIDO assists in the dissemination of modern, sector-specific production and processing technologies, particularly by supporting a network of technology centres, thereby enabling enterprises to better meet the quantity and product quality requirements of world markets. Focus sectors include the agro-processing sector (edible oil, cereals, coffee, fruit and vegetables, meat and fish), textiles, and leather. These centres also provide support and advice on technology-related analyses and related development options, policies and strategies to relevant government bodies, professional associations, and manufacturers. Support and advice to that end include measures to strengthen R&D capacity, technology support and (vocational) training.

Food hygiene management UNIDO provides advisory services to assist enterprises to achieve compliance with SPS requirements, in particular through the provision of good food processing practices, including good hygiene practices (GHP), good manufacturing practices (GMP), and the identification of critical control points for food contamina-

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tion during processing (HACCP). UNIDO trains local consultants and institutions for the replication of such advisory services to local industries on a continuous basis. It is also involved in capacity-building initiatives in the areas of food hygiene and safety through the implementation of GHP and HACCP in the food industry, and the establishment of food safety systems that are based on risk analysis, prevention, and traceability.

Contact: Lalith Goonatilake Director, Trade Capacity Building Branch Tel: +43 1 260 26 4781 E-mail: tcb@unido.org

Advisory services on enterprise management systems Exporting enterprises face buyer or market requirements based on international good practices or standards where they have to demonstrate their capability to manage hygiene and food safety (HACCP/ISO 22000), quality (ISO 9000), environmental impact (ISO 14000), or social accountability (SA 8000), etc. Non-compliance leads to their exclusion from international production or trade relations. UNIDO builds up national and regional capacities to assist enterprises in the establishment of such management systems. This takes the form of training the consultants and staff of sectoral technical centres and supporting the establishment of pilot systems in enterprises and, at the same time, strengthening national or regional certification capacity for such systems.

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Advisory services on traceability Clients or markets request exporters to be able to trace back a product from “shelf or fork to farm”. As part of its SPS-related activities, UNIDO provides advisory services to establish national or regional traceability centres for agro-industrial exports. These centres provide, in particular, assistance to producers, warehouses, manufacturers and plant quarantine institutions on the establishment of a documented chain of product flow from the origin of the product to the market place. A notable success is the establishment of the Egyptian Traceability Centre for Agro-Industrial Exports (ETRACE). In May 2006, ETRACE carried out a mock traceability alert in cooperation with a supermarket in the UK, which demonstrated that the source of rejected produce could be identified within 24 hours.

Contact: Heinz Leuenberger, Director, Environmental ­Management Branch Tel: +43 260 26 5611 E-mail: h.leuenberger@unido.org

Contact: Fabio Russo Senior Industrial Development Officer Cluster and Business Linkages Unit Business, Investment and Technology Services Branch Tel: +43 260 26 3611 E-mail: f.russo@unido.org

Cleaner production and energy efficiency Waste management, energy efficiency, carbon and water footprint, environmental impact management and ISO 14000 are some of the key market requirements for a number of agro-processing, textile and leather processors and exporters. In this area UNIDO aims to improve the productivity and competitiveness of companies in developing countries, as well as their access to international and more local markets, through the application of resource efficient and cleaner production techniques and technologies. The activities focus on building national capacity in resource-efficient and cleaner production by awareness-raising, training, conducting in-plant demonstrations and audits within the processing sectors, and providing policy advice to the government. As a result of these activities, it is expected that many export-oriented enterprises will increase their production efficiency and thereby improve their productivity and competitiveness, as well as their environmental performance through greater resource efficiency (material and energy). Consequently they will be in a position to reduce their production costs, to improve the quality of their products, and to obtain greater access to international markets. Furthermore, national capacities will be in place to ensure the replication of cleaner production practices and methods, and to ensure that cleaner production concepts are also applied to new industrial investments.

Export Consortia One effective way of helping SMEs to reduce risks and improve their chances of accessing export markets is to build export consortia - a specialized form of SME network. They are voluntary alliances of firms with the objective of promoting the export of goods and services of their members through joint actions. Export consortia enable SMEs to combine their knowledge, financial resources and contacts, and thereby significantly improve their export potential, while cutting the costs involved in penetrating foreign markets. Since 2002, UNIDO has been implementing export consortia projects in Latin America, Northern Africa and the Middle East by supporting the creation of pilot SME groupings, training national promoters of such consortia in both the public and private spheres, and encouraging a favourable institutional and regulatory environment for their development. At the global level, UNIDO, in cooperation with the Italian Federation of Export Consor-

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tia, organizes annual training courses on export consortia at the ILO International Training Centre that target the representatives of public and private SME support institutions from all over the world. Additionally, online distance training courses on the same topic were launched during the year 2009. The UNIDO Export Consortia programme knowledge resources can be accessed online at: www.unido.org/exportconsortia.

Markets have become increasingly demanding, and meeting their requirements in terms of volume, quality, and delivery time is often problematic for small-scale firms since individual enterprises lack the necessary competence, resources, and knowledge. To address this challenge, UNIDO has developed a strategy based on improving the capacity of firms to work together and collectively address local and global markets. The approach targets clusters (i.e. agglomerations of enterprises) where geographical proximity and shared business interests facilitate collaboration between firms. UNIDO is currently implementing cluster development projects in a number of countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. In this framework, UNIDO provides training and technical assistance in project implementation to so-called “Cluster Development Agents”, i.e. professionals and institutions responsible for facilitating the process of cluster development. Awareness-raising seminars and training are also provided to public sector institutions and policy-makers involved in the cluster initiative. Additionally, UNIDO promotes “cluster-to-cluster” activities, i.e. exchange and partnerships between institutions and enterprises belonging to different but related clusters, in order to expand their knowledge of markets and production processes. Learning resources and informative material on this programme are available online: www.unido.org/cluster and www.unido.org/psd-toolbox.

Supply Chain Development Programme (SCDP) This programme aims to increase productivity and sustainable economic progress by enabling institutions in the public and/or private sectors to establish or strengthen linkages with national and international production systems and global value chains. Such linkages promote global partnerships and the integration of developing countries into the world economy. As part of this programme, UNIDO has established more than 50 Sub-contracting and Partnership Exchanges (SPXs) in different parts of the world. SPXs, which are usually hosted by a private sector association, help local firms in developing countries identify opportunities for supplying components for large company clients through the provision of match-making services. The SPX Programme has recently been revisited and upgraded to include the concept of supplier benchmarking to generate prioritized gap analyses of supplier capacities in relation to buyer requirements This will enable them to recognize their shortfalls in meeting buyer expectations, and to develop the specific upgrading and investment plans that they will need if they are to become competitive suppliers. The UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Offices (ITPOs) are active partners in this process. They are ideally placed to establish direct links with large multinationals based in their countries, identify their outsourcing strategies and supply-chain requirements, and help develop country-level programmes that favour local content increase and sector cluster development. National IPAs will be integrated into the process to give the institutional assistance that is necessary for the swift implementation of supplier upgrading and expansion plans.

Contact: Mohamed-Lamine Dhaoui Director, Business, Investment and ­Technology Services Branch Tel: +43 260 26 5183 E-mail: m.dhaoui@unido.org

Contact: Mithat Kulur Unit Chief and Deputy to the Director Investment and Technology Unit Business, Investment and Technology Services Branch Tel: +43 260 26 3407 E-mail: m.kulur@unido.org

Overall, suppliers will benefit from greater exposure to large private enterprises and public procurement bodies, with positive effects on their output and investment volumes. Large contractors and buyers will benefit from increased levels of local content and reduced procurement costs while at the same time being accepted as important drivers of economic growth.

Export-oriented investment To respond effectively to global trade’s complex requirements of export-oriented investments, UNIDO provides analysis and technical assistance to help national institutions in developing countries in attracting export-oriented foreign investments and assist the domestic private sector in improving their competitiveness and ability to access foreign markets. In addition to organizing awareness seminars and workshops about preferential agreements, UNIDO’s investment programmes strengthen export-oriented services through the

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enhancement of domestic investment with a dedicated Entrepreneurship Development and Investment Promotion (EDIP) programme, the attraction of FDI through a network of UNIDO Investment and Promotion Offices (ITPOs) disseminated worldwide, and the promotion and facilitation of outsourcing and sub-contracting opportunities through its Suppliers Development and Partnership Exchange (SPX) programme. Additional tools such as feasibility studies, financial assessment (COMFAR) and support in accessing financing contribute to enterprise development in export oriented sectors.

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Contact: Natascha Weisert Industrial Development Officer Cluster and Business Linkages Unit Business, Investment and Technology Services Branch Tel: +43 260 26 3614 E-mail: n.weisert@unido.org

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) CSR is becoming more and more a key requirement for suppliers located in developing countries to access foreign markets. The upcoming international standard on social responsibility (ISO 26000) that will be published by the end of 2010, as well as the current trend to discuss this issue in the public policy sphere, have raised concerns within the private sector globally. In this context, UNIDO aims to help SMEs in developing and transition countries to prepare for the pressure that is building up in this area. UNIDO bases its CSR Programme on the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) Approach, which has proven to be a successful tool for assisting smaller businesses to meet social and environmental standards without compromising their competitiveness. The organization’s CSR service portfolio encompasses capacity building on an institutional level, responsible supply chain management, pilot interventions in SMEs, the integration of CSR in government strategies and the inclusion of business ethics in the curricula of vocational schools and educational institutions. UNIDO’s core CSR tool is called Responsible Entrepreneurs Achievement Programme (REAP) - a CSRbased management and reporting tool, developed by UNIDO to assist small and medium enterprises in their efforts to implement responsible management approaches and operation methods in line with internationally required standards and norms. For more information: www.unido.org/csr

Contact: Mohamed-Lamine Dhaoui Director, Business, Investment and ­Technology Services Branch Tel: +43 260 26 5183 E-mail: m.dhaoui@unido.org

Business Partnership Programme UNIDO’s Business Partnership Programme is a multi-stakeholder partnership approach to strengthening linkages between trade partners (producers and buyers). The programme, which has been successfully applied in different sectors (for example, automotive components, textiles, and food-processing) and in different countries, permits SMEs to benefit from the technological and managerial expertise of large corporations, thereby enhancing their productivity and international competitiveness. UNIDO has also established strategic partnerships with global ITC players (Microsoft, Hewlett Packard) so as to pool expertise and resources to build and strengthen local capacities through the use of information and communication technology applications. The UNIDO Business Partnership Programme pulls together the complementary resources of the UN, relevant research institutions, and the business community for the benefit of SMEs. The programme has developed guidelines for the formation and management of such multi-stakeholder partnerships.

Industrial modernization and upgrading UNIDO enterprise upgrading (Mise à Niveau) programmes aim at strengthening countries’ local industry to face increasing competition in their domestic market and to take advantage of new trade opportunities in export markets. They are usually related to the process of adhesion to bilateral, regional or multilateral association and free trade agreements, and aim at strengthening countries’ supply and trade capacity by meeting market requirements for quantity, quality, productivity and the safety of products and services, and have an impact on access to markets and finance, competitiveness, employment and customer protection. UNIDO’s programmes initially covered North Africa and Middle Eastern countries, and then Sub-Saharan Africa, including Senegal, the UEMOA, and Cameroon. New large-scale regional upgrading programmes are now being developed in connection with Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) being signed between the EU and the ACP Regional Economic Commissions.

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Upgrading programmes improve the technical, institutional and financial business environment, such as technical and testing centres (food, textile, packaging, etc.), local consultancies and financial institution capabilities. They encompass comprehensive enterprises/value chain diagnostics and the provision of support to the implementation of intangible investments (technical assistance in management, quality, productivity, marketing, human resource development and finance) and tangible investment (technology). Upgrading also fosters linkages with local, regional and international buyers (retailers and manufacturers).

UNRWA Microfinance and Microcredit Programme (MMP) The goal of the MMP is to promote economic development and alleviate poverty. The programme operates at micro-level by providing direct credit for enterprise, household consumption and housing needs. This provides income-generating opportunities for Palestine refugees and other poor and marginal groups. The service is provided through MMP branch offices. In addition, through its micro-enterprise training programme, which operates only in the Gaza Strip, the MMP contributes to employment-generation and economic development. In its 16 years of existence, the MMP has financed over 126,000 loans totalling US$131 million.

Contact: Volteire Kharoufeh, Chief Field ­Microfinance and Microcredit Programme Tel: +972 258 9 0451 E-mail: v.kharoufeh@unrwa.org

WB IFC assistance to agricultural trade companies A growing part of the World Bank/International Finance Corporation’s (WB/IFC) agribusiness portfolio consists of transactions with integrators and traders, enabling IFC to reach a large number of ultimate beneficiaries in an efficient manner and at a competitive cost. Such key clients are major players in the commodity sector, interacting directly with farmers and producers.

Contact: Tel: +1 202 473 1000 Fax: +1 202 477 6391

Supporting South-South investments As part of the strategic priority, “Build Long-Term Partnerships with Emerging Players in Developing Countries”, IFC places a lot of importance on supporting South-South investments. These investments often promote trade, either directly or through the transfer of knowledge and expertise. For more information: www.ifc.org/

UNWTO Worldwide technical cooperation UNWTO provides useful information on the nature and scope of technical assistance in the tourism industry that is provided to Member States in the form of short-term missions, long-term development projects and Sustainable Tourism - Eliminating Poverty (ST-EP) projects. Missions: UNWTO assists countries or groups of countries, upon request, to identify, evaluate and describe their specific technical assistance needs, and provides policy advice on the problems they are faced with.

Contact: Harsh Varma Technical Cooperation and Services Tel: +34 91 567 8100 Fax: +34 91 571 3733 E-mail: dev-assistance@unwto.org

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These missions are usually fielded for a short duration and result in further project proposals for funding and, in some cases, in direct UNWTO recommendations to Members which they can implement themselves. Long-term development projects: UNWTO’s projects are usually of long duration and aim to assist governments to acquire technical know-how in the formulation of tourism policies and strategies in planning, product development, marketing and human resource development. The projects are based on a policy of sustainability and focus on tourism master planning at all levels, the establishment of tourism training institutes, the formulation of quality standards and regulations, the preparation of marketing programmes and national capacity building, etc. UNWTO’s technical assistance covers many areas of contemporary interest and concern to Member States and, inter alia, includes:

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• • • • • • • • • • • • •

Identification and assessment of potential tourism development areas; Establishment of coherent frameworks for long-term sustainable tourism development; Preparation of national and regional tourism development master plans; Development of community – based tourism; Alleviation of poverty through tourism; Development of rural and eco tourism; Development of human resources for tourism; Formulation and implementation of appropriate marketing and promotional strategies; Strengthening of institutional capacities of national tourism administrations; Adjustment and improvements in existing tourism regulations in accordance with international standards; Stimulation and promotion of public-private partnerships; Establishment of hotel classification systems; Deployment of information technology in tourism.

For more information: http://www.unwto.org/develop/

ST-EP projects Sustainable Tourism - Eliminating Poverty (ST-EP) projects focus on increasing the contribution of tourism to poverty alleviation and are aimed at improving the capacities of national tourism administrators and local authorities in least developed and developing countries to devise and implement poverty reduction policies, plans and projects, through the development of sustainable forms of tourism. The portfolio of ST-EP projects under implementation covers a wide range of activities. It includes projects at local level that focus on the training of guides and local hotel employees and on facilitating the involvement of the local people in tourism development around natural and cultural heritage sites; projects at district level focusing on establishing business linkages between poor producers and tourism enterprises in an area; projects at national level that aim to provide business and financial services to small, medium and community-based tourism enterprises; and projects at regional level that focus on the joint marketing of community-based tourism initiatives. For more information: http://www.unwto.org/step/projects/en/projects.php

Contact: John Kester Tel: +34 91 567 8100 Fax: +34 91 571 3733 E-mail: marketing@unwto.org, quality@unwto.org, calidad@unwto.org

Competitiveness and trade in tourism services A key activity of the Market Trends and Competitiveness Section is to analyse the factors that contribute to the enhancement of competitiveness of destinations. In this respect, the UNWTO collaborates with the World Economic Forum (WEF) on the improvement and extension of the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index.

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COMPLIANCE SUPPORT INFRASTRUCTURE AND SERVICES

Food and Agriculture Organization

International Atomic Energy Agency

International Telecommunication Union

International Trade Centre

United Nations Economic 足Commission for Europe

 nited Nations Economic U Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

 nited Nations Industrial U Development Organization

World Bank Group

World Tourism Organization


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

FAO

The services provided under this category include: (i) good practices (GAP, GMP, HACCP); (ii) TBT, SPS compliance; (iii) standards and technical regulations compliance; and (iv) consumer protection. The services are aimed at governments, food control agencies, the food industry, veterinary services departments, research institutes, etc.

Strengthen food quality and safety programmes to meet SPS and TBT requirements The main purpose of these services, in general, is to assist countries in improving human health, animal health and their phytosanitary situation and, in particular – in the context of international trade in agriculture, fisheries and forestry – to assist members as they adjust to and comply with sanitary and phytosanitary measures necessary to achieve the appropriate level of protection in their trade, in line with the WTO SPS and TBT Agreements. Key activities include: (i) building capacities (technical assistance through, for example, establishing and strengthening national veterinary services and food control systems); (ii) coordination and resource mobilization to help countries comply with SPS and TBT standards; (iii) assisting countries to participate in international standard-setting work; and (iv) sharing information (web portal, network groups and regional and global forums).

Contact: SPS - food safety: Ezzeddine Boutrif Director Nutrition and Consumer Protection Division E-mail: ezzeddine.boutrif@fao.org SPS – animal health and trade in livestock and livestock products: Samuel Jutzi Director Animal Production and Health Division E-mail: samuel.jutzi@fao.org SPS – plant health, phytosanitary aspects: Shivaji Pandey Director Plant Production and Protection Division E-mail: shivaji.pandey@fao.org

This work is very important because consumers increasingly demand safe food, yet trade and globalization have increased the risk of food-borne health hazards, plant pests and disease crossing borders and endangering both human health and agriculture. It is also significant that these international standards are being used as references for the settlement of disputes in the WTO. In the case of food and animal trade, the obligations of WTO members with SPS and TBT Agreements have resulted in a significant upturn in requests for FAO technical assistance. In the case of TBT, FAO’s activities are largely confined to trade-related technical measures on trade in forestry products.

Strengthen live animal and meat import and export inspection programmes The adoption by the SPS of Codex Alimentarius and the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE - formerly: Office International des Épizooties) standards, guidelines, and recommendations as benchmark standards for the international animal and food trade has created a marked interest among developed and developing countries in OIE and Codex activities and associated animal health and food control matters. To facilitate trade, members are seeking FAO’s assistance in strengthening their live animal and meat import and export inspection programmes. In fisheries, assistance is provided to Codex and member countries to promote science-based standards, harmonization and equivalence, and to strengthen fish export control programmes. This is of particular interest to developing countries which contribute around 50 percent (in value) of the international fish trade.

Capacity building work in the framework of Codex Alimentarius In the area of food safety and quality, FAO’s capacity building work in the framework of Codex, in collaboration with relevant partner organizations and institutions, aims to further enhance the respective roles of

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Since the Uruguay Round, in particular, when agricultural trade was covered by the GATT/WTO in a more comprehensive manner, several new or redefined legal and regulatory frameworks have been developed which define basic rules for conducting agricultural trade. For the developing countries, in general, and the LDCs among them, in particular, complying with these rules and developing associated infrastructure and services so that they can all participate in trade has become a challenge. The common aim of all FAO services in this category is to assist countries to both comply with these rules and develop an associated infrastructure.


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

the agriculture and health sectors in ensuring the quality and safety of the food supply, to upgrade the capacity of developing member countries in food safety and food quality assurance, and to support their effective participation in Codex work, resulting in strengthening national food trade programmes, as well as national food control systems. The farm-to-table approach (food chain approach) to food safety and consumer protection has been the core approach for such capacity building activities, providing opportunities for cooperation between all units involved in the production, processing, handling, storage, and distribution of food products, as well as in food safety control and standards development.

Compliance Support Infrastructure and Services

Technical assistance in compliance Technical assistance is provided by FAO in a variety of ways, including through: (i) training programmes; (ii) strengthening veterinary and food laboratory services with equipment, supplies, methodology, personnel training and technology transfer; (iii) improving disease prevention and control activities, as well as inspection activities, by providing equipment, developing inspection procedures and conducting training programmes; (iv) preparing training manuals and guidelines; and (v) providing expert consultations on a variety of these areas. For more information: www.fao.org/ag/

IAEA Assistance to meet global standards and international regulations Contact: Donatella Magliani, Division for Programme Support and Coordination Tel: +43 1 2600 0 E-mail: d.magliani@iaea.org

The objective is to ensure that Member States meet global standards and international regulations in their production and management processes in order to increase the competitiveness of their goods and services. This service is relevant to ensuring consumer safety and production, on the one hand, and, on the other, to providing Member States with cost-effective modern production and management methods. The broader aim is for the IAEA, through its technical cooperation (TC) programme, to increase the impact of science and technology (S&T) in helping Member States achieve their social and economic development objectives. Beneficiaries vary from sector to sector and country to country. Inputs used are individual expertise, training, seminars, workshops, conferences, group discussions and any educational course delivered to a group (on-site or in-house), technical missions, expert consultations, specialized advice, investigations, analysis, diagnostic studies, surveys, etc. The service is provided in cooperation with national and regional institutions.

Assistance related to non-conformity with safety and quality standards This service aims to enable developing countries, in particular, to gain greater access to global markets, especially for consumable agricultural products. The objective of the TC programme is to help Member States make more use of S&T in order to achieve their social and economic development objectives. There are a variety of different beneficiaries in the sectors and the countries receiving assistance. Inputs used are, as above, individual expertise, training, seminars, workshops, conferences, group discussions and any educational course delivered to a group (on-site or in-house), technical missions, expert consultations, specialized advice, investigations, analysis, diagnostic studies, surveys, etc.

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ITU Cybersecurity The objective is to enhance security and build confidence in the use of information and communication technology (ICT) applications. Security concerns have been identified as a barrier to the use of current and nextgeneration networks (NGNs) for certain mission-critical services (e.g. e-commerce, e-governance, e-payment and e-health) where it is important to ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information systems. ITU organizes workshops, meetings and seminars to address technical, policy, legal and strategy issues for cybersecurity, ICT applications and Internet protocol, and to promote public awareness on ICTs and foster use of the Internet.

Contact: Telecommunication Development Bureau ICT Applications and Cybersecurity (CYB) Tel: +41 22 730 5525 Fax: +41 22 730 5484 E-mail: Cybmail@itu.int

Standardization ITU has been at the cutting edge of information and communication technologies, defining and adopting the globally agreed technical standards that have allowed industry to interconnect people and equipment seamlessly around the world. It has also successfully regulated worldwide use of the radio-frequency spectrum, ensuring all international wireless communications remain interference-free to ensure the relay of vital information and economic data around the world.

Contact: Telecommunication Standardization Bureau Tel: +41 22 730 5852 Fax: +41 22 730 5853 E-mail: tsbmail@itu.int

The work of ITU in the development of global standards for ICTs and telecommunications has helped the smoother, more economical introduction of new technologies. Global standards from ITU (ITU-T Recommendations) underpin today’s ICT world, giving us the ability to speak to each other from one side of the world to another, and giving us the Internet that has become so much a part of our daily lives. Literally thousands of standards pin together this framework of technologies that keeps the world’s businesses and consumers connected. Given the importance of global connectivity and interoperability between devices, networks, services and applications, the global harmonization of ICT standards development is essential; an ITU conformity assessment programme must be initiated with the aim of increasing the probability of achieving globally interoperable future ICT infrastructures. Conformance to standards gives both consumers and businesses confidence and is a huge stepping stone towards total digital inclusion. In this context, ITU is also undertaking several capacity building activities to bridge the standardization gap between developing and developed countries with the objectives of: (i) facilitating the participation of developing countries in the standards development process; (ii) allowing them to profit from access to new technology development; and (iii) ensuring that their requirements are taken into account in the development of standards. For instance, ITU-T, in cooperation with UNIDO, is setting up a conformity assessment programme for conformance and interoperability that includes training activities for developing countries, as a contribution to the primary objective of bridging the standardization gap. More information: http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/

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More information: http://www.itu.int/cybersecurity/


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

Accessibility ITU focuses on a series of issues ranging from the rights of the disabled to making technical design standards accessible, to providing education and training on accessible ICT.

Compliance Support Infrastructure and Services

Key areas include: • P romoting telecommunication standards; • Implementing a conformity assessment programme to increase the probability of the interoperability of equipment and services from different vendors; • Promoting the development of assistive products and services; • Helping Member States meet their obligations; • E stablishing outreach programmes; • Encouraging the exchange of best practice; • Helping develop and promoting policy guidelines; • Creating greater awareness through conferences and publications; • Creating capacity building opportunities in developing countries, including in cooperation with other institutions, both internal and external to the UN System.

ITC Standards and quality management Contact: Aïcha Pouyé, Director Division of Business and Institutional Support Tel: +41 22 730 0111 E-mail: pouye@intracen.org

The common aim is to provide the business sector with information (through publications and training) on technical requirements in export markets, including mandatory regulations (technical regulations and sanitary and phytosanitary measures) or voluntary regulations (private standards set by buyers such as big retailers). ITC follows an integrated method which includes a quality component forming part of a broader exports-development approach. This component consists of providing assistance to enterprises in quality needs assessment, and designing implementation plans and follow-up mechanisms. It also includes advisory services on product development and product differentiation, and building awareness of certification schemes. In this context, ITC also supports accreditation bodies, certification bodies, inspection bodies, and testing laboratories to obtain international recognition, for example through accreditation or recognition in the importing country. ITC specializes in short-term, fast interventions, addressing urgent needs which have a direct and immediate impact on trade. Activities focus on assisting intermediary trade support institutions to develop services in export quality management by undertaking gap analysis and helping design implementation plans for conformity assessment bodies, including coaching on recognition processes. For more information: Export Quality Management: www.intracen.org/eqm/

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UNECE

Agricultural quality standards Many developing and transition economies lack the capital, technology, and human resources to meet internationally-agreed commercial agricultural quality standards. This places them at a competitive disadvantage because compliance with these standards is widely used by importing countries as a condition for granting access to developed economy markets. The implementation and enforcement of these standards by developing countries, especially LDCs, would considerably facilitate exports of their agricultural products, thus helping them to develop the agricultural sector and raise average incomes, especially among rural populations.

Contact: Serguei Malanitchev, Trade Policy and Governmental Cooperation Section E-mail: serguei.malanitchev@unece.org Tel: +41 22 917 4146

In order to promote the greater economic integration of its members into regional and global markets, UNECE, through its Working Party on Agricultural Quality Standards (WP.7), provides a forum for governments to develop internationally-harmonized agricultural quality standards. UNECE has developed 85 standards for fresh fruit and vegetables, dry and dried produce, early and ware potatoes, seed potatoes, meat, eggs, and cut flowers. All issues of commercial quality that have implications for international trade are discussed in different specialized groups, and assistance is offered to countries that are interested in implementing UNECE standards (e.g., training workshops and seminars). Each standard is developed in full cooperation with all interested parties (member and non-member countries of UNECE and international governmental and non-governmental organizations), and every effort is made to come to a consensus acceptable to all. For meat standards, in particular, the Secretariat prepares publications that include internationally-agreed specifications written in a consistent, detailed and accurate manner, and using comprehensive colour photographs and diagrams to facilitate practical application of the standards. The main beneficiaries of the technical assistance activities carried out by the UNECE in this area are governmental agencies, specifically those in charge of inspecting agricultural produce imports and exports. Associations of producers, exporters, traders, and processors also participate in the work, and benefit from a better understanding of the standards that are required by export markets. All UNECE agricultural quality standards and implementation guides are available on the Internet and on CD-Rom. Capacity-building activities consist of technical workshops and study visits to growers, packing houses and laboratories. They help countries successfully adapt their human and technical infrastructure to changing market requirements. The capacity-building and promotional activities of the Working Party are financed by the UN Development Account and bi-lateral donors. Workshops have been organized at national and regional levels in China, Egypt, Georgia, Kenya, Moldova, Mongolia, Russia, Slovakia and other countries. The projects are implemented by the UNECE in joint collaboration with other regional commissions, international organizations, and public and private sectors. In this field, the UNECE works closely with all the units of the UN System and also with other organizations, for example the European Community, the OECD, and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. For more information: www.unece.org/trade/agr/welcome.htm For other, related UNECE work undertaken in the area of Regulatory Cooperation and Standardization Policies, see Category 3: Legal and Regulatory Framework.

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Compliance Support Infrastructure and Services

UNECE supports the use of international agricultural quality standards to improve competitiveness in the agricultural sector of low and middle-income countries.


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

UNECLAC Studies and assistance on compliance Contact: Osvaldo Rosales, Director of International Trade and ­Integration Division Tel: +56 2 210 2677 E-mail: osvaldo.rosales@cepal.org

Although in a non-recurrent manner, UNECLAC’s Division of International Trade and Integration has made important contributions in the area of conformity and compliance by preparing studies and offering assistance in the dissemination of good practices in relation to TBT, SPS compliance, standards and technical regulations compliance, and national/regional standardization. For more information: www.eclac.cl/comercio/default.asp?idioma=IN

Compliance Support Infrastructure and Services

UNIDO Contact: Bernardo Calzadilla-Sarmiento, Chief, Compliance Infrastructure Unit Trade Capacity Branch Tel: +43 1 260 26 3986 E-mail: b.calzadilla@unido.org

To access global markets, exporters must prove compliance with international standards and technical regulations. The necessary institutional infrastructure to govern compliance-related issues includes: a metrology body; a standards body; chemical, microbiology and other testing laboratories; inspection services; a certification body for systems certifications; and an accreditation body. In particular, UNIDO provides the following services for each compliance-related infrastructure: Standardization bodies’ support • E stablishment or strengthening of existing standardization bodies by providing training and setting up sub-sectoral technical committees and pilot standards development exercises; • Promotion of the adoption of standards at national and regional level, and assistance for a country’s participation in regional and international standards-setting or harmonization forums and networks; • A ssistance for the development of product conformity mark schemes; • P ilot projects for capacity building related to both product standards and systems standards, such as ISO 9000, ISO 14000, ISO 22000, SA 8000, and traceability. Metrology (measurement) laboratories support • T he establishment or strengthening of laboratory capacities for industrial and legal metrology capabilities covering measurement and calibration requirements in accordance with the manufacturing and export needs of the country. This support involves assisting in the physical set-up and start-up of laboratories, including upgrading measurement equipment, training technicians, providing assistance in networking, and participating in inter-laboratory comparisons, as well as providing support for accreditation. • Implementation of the UNIDO software „Measurement and Control-Chart Toolkit” (MCCT) to meet the requirements related to metrological control of the ISO 9000:2000 standards. Testing laboratories support • T he establishment, or strengthening to achieve international accreditation, of laboratory capacities for material and product testing, primarily for microbiological and chemical analysis, and secondarily for specialist laboratories for industrial sub-sectors with export potential; • A ssistance in specifying testing and equipment requirements; technical support for the harmonization of testing procedures; training of staff, including assistance in networking and participating in proficiency testing schemes; and providing support for accreditation.

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Accreditation bodies support • T he establishment or strengthening of accreditation bodies for the accreditation of system certifiers, inspection bodies and laboratories, and for the management of proficiency testing schemes; • A ssistance to national accreditation bodies to obtain international recognition from the International Accreditation Forum (IAF) and the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC) through pre-peer evaluation mechanisms in order to achieve multilateral recognition agreements so that the national accreditation has global acceptance and can facilitate market access. Development of competent authorities for fish and horticulture exports

WB Lending to meet trade standards The Bank provides lending to meet trade standards in agriculture and industry, particularly in Africa, East Asia and Europe-Central Asia. While the scale of this work is still relatively small, the Bank’s lending portfolio for standards is growing. The combined volume of lending for trade standards is currently around US$200 million, and the lending for agri-food standards has grown from less than US$50 million a decade ago to around US$150 million today.

Contact: Steven Jaffee, Lead Economist, Agriculture and Rural Development Tel: +1 202 473 1000 Fax: +1 202 477 6391 E-mail: sjaffee@worldbank.org

Agri-food standards support An important strand of the Bank’s trade-related work is related to standards. Given the critical role that trade in agricultural products has in catalyzing rural growth and poverty reduction, the Bank: • • • • • •

 aises developing country awareness of evolving public and private standards; R Identifies priorities for investment, regulatory reform, and other measures to attain compliance; Identifies and disseminates “good practices”; Supports inter-donor coordination for capacity building; Provides technical and financial assistance at the country level; Provides online courses on trade and agro-food standards and services; organizes workshops on export development and diversification; and organizes regional courses on agricultural trade regionalism/EPA in Africa.

At the country level, SPS capacity assessments, stakeholder consultations and action plans are being undertaken in 15 countries - in East and Southeast Asia (China, Vietnam and Laos), South Asia (Bangladesh, India and Pakistan), Eastern Europe (Armenia and Moldova), and Africa (Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Niger, Uganda and Zambia). Examples of other projects include: agricultural diversification in the Philippines; agricultural competitiveness in Kazakhstan, Burkina Faso, and Zambia; EU accession support for Croatia, Bosnia and Romania; food safety in China; livestock competitiveness and food safety in Vietnam; and supply chain interventions in Bosnia and North-eastern Brazil.

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Competent authorities for fish and horticulture exports are in charge of inspecting products to be exported to the EU at different stages (production, processing and distribution). The European Commission requests that developing countries intending to export goods to the Community provide accurate and up-to-date information, as well as evidence of the procedures and controls used to inspect these products. UNIDO assists developing countries to establish and upgrade institutions and government bodies that are to become EUrecognized competent authorities in the field of fish and horticulture.


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

UNWTO UNWTO.TedQual Certification System Contact: Amr Abdel Ghaffar Education and Training Department Tel: +34 91 567 8100 Fax: +34 91 571 3733 E-mail: educa@unwto.org, info@unwto-themis.org

UNWTO has developed the UNWTO.TedQual Certification System to contribute to the quality and efficiency of tourism education, training and research. This is a quality assurance system for tourism education, training and research. It proposes a methodology and voluntary standards with universal scope to more clearly define the quality of tourism education systems. It is especially useful for governments and industry as it gives them an opportunity to check and enhance the capacity of their human resources. The specific aims of the UNWTO.TedQual Certification System are: • E stablish a quality standard for tourism education and training systems; • Raise the productivity of tourism educational institutions and programmes.

Compliance Support Infrastructure and Services

For more information: http://www.unwto-themis.org/en/programmes/tedqual

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TRADE PROMOTION CAPACITY BUILDING

Inter-American Development Bank

International Trade Centre

 nited Nations Economic U Commission for Africa

 nited Nations Economic U Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

World Tourism Organization


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

IDB The Bank actively supports the development of trade management capabilities at both public and private sector levels. Specific objectives of IDB’s projects include the modernization of mechanisms and institutions to promote foreign trade and support to the internationalization of small and medium-sized firms through the provision of entrepreneurial and other technical or financial assistance.

Contact: Fabrizio Opertti Senior Trade Specialist Integration and Trade Sector Tel: +1 202 623 1225 E-mail: fabrizioo@iadb.org

The main goals are an increase in the volume and diversification of exports. The Bank supports the development of programmes aimed at improving export capabilities in developing countries. Several aspects of the problem are tackled through these projects, for example: (i) capacity building and institutional strengthening in trade-related public and private organizations; (ii) identification and implementation of a set of instruments to support the internationalization efforts of small and medium-sized firms, including technical and financial assistance to exporters; (iii) the design and implementation of export strategies of narrow scope (as when a specific sector of production or geographical region is emphasized) or wide scope; and (iv) reengineering export promoting agencies, both at the local level, through more efficient and far reaching organizations, and at the foreign country level, through the design and implementation of antennas in commercial offices abroad that can generate business opportunities for local firms. By their scope, those types of programmes can be regional, national or sub-national, and could be funded by either loans or grants. The subject matter of a project can be the institutional set of public and private trade-related agencies, like the cases in which the primary focus is on the incentives of the trade system, or is directly on the private sector, when production and exports are directly supported by technical and financial assistance (the latter, for example, through co-financing or matching grants).

ITC Trade Support Institution strengthening The strengthening of Trade Support Institutions (TSIs) is a fundamental element in ensuring that trade capacity building is sustainable. ITC’s goal is to ensure that exporting SMEs get effective and sustainable support. The objective of this competency practice is to enable export service delivery channels.

Contact: Aïcha Pouyé, Director Division of Business and Institutional Support Tel: +41 22 730 0111 E-mail: pouye@intracen.org

In order to achieve this, ITC is committed to developing the capacity of TSIs by actively supporting their creation and development, as well as enabling TSI networks at national, regional and international levels. The major tasks include: • I mproving the functional system of TSIs: ITC builds the capacity of TSIs in relation to key elements, including: private sector orientation, autonomy, adequate funding, professional staff, provision of relevant services, a well-defined organizational strategy and work programme, flexibility, and mechanisms for ongoing evaluation. ITC uses methodologies for operating or establishing TSIs; provides training to perform business diagnostic surveys, to design business strategies, and to plan implementation; provides network opportunities at international level; and trains overseas representatives. • Supporting TSIs to deliver services to client SMEs: ITC uses a wide array of training packs and professional certification programmes to enable enterprises to cope with cash management, trade flows and export market requirements. It also provide TSIs with advice and training on how to develop and deliver appropriate information systems and services, with special emphasis on the collection and treatment of trade tariff and investment data.

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Trade Promotion Capacity Building

Supporting trade strategies and strengthening institutional capacity in trade promotion and investment attraction.


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

• B  ringing TSIs into networks and developing the corresponding evaluation and performance measurement tools: By doing this, ITC provides TSIs with an opportunity to benchmark against their peers. • Strengthening TSIs’ capability to participate in export development, and strategy design and implementation: The objective is that TSIs improve their analytical capacities to develop and advocate for responses in the area of trade development, including the possibility of building alliances and networks. For more information: Trade support infrastructure: www.intracen.org/instasptp/ Trade information reference system: www.intracen.org/tirc/welcome.htm Enterprise management development services: www.intracen.org/emds/welcome.htm World Trade Promotion Organizations Award: www.tpo-net.com

Trade Promotion Capacity Building

UNECA Contact: Trade, Finance and Economic Development Division (TFED) Tel: +251 11 551 7200 E-mail: ecainfo@uneca.org

UNECA continues to be extensively involved in global advocacy on trade and trade-related issues pertaining to Africa, for example by developing strategic alliances with the African Union, UNCTAD, ITC, UNDP, UNIDO, etc. It is actively involved in the Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB) and has been collaborating extensively with NEPAD and the RECs to advocate solutions to Africa’s trade problems. It has assisted the RECs with both hardware and software as part of its capacity building strategies.

Chambers of commerce cooperation Many of the activities undertaken by the Trade Division in UNECA have often focused on issues of trade promotion in Africa. UNECA has worked with African chambers of commerce and investment promotion agencies. It was in fact the first to try and promote an African chamber of commerce.

UNECLAC Inter-regional Partnership For Promoting Trade Contact: Osvaldo Rosales, Director of International Trade and ­Integration Division Tel: +56 2 210 2677 E-mail: osvaldo.rosales@cepal.org

The objectives of this partnership are to strengthen the international competitiveness and negotiating capacity of developing countries by sharing knowledge on problems and best practices in trade promotion and diversification in various countries and regions; to encourage a greater participation of SMEs in the global supply networks, and in designing and implementing trade facilitation policies at the national and regional levels; and to ensure a greater use of knowledge management and ICT in supply chain management. The project is relevant to promoting the understanding and implementation of trade facilitation instruments and supporting the WTO negotiators in their deliberations on the topic. Its activities have greatly helped to increase knowledge and technical expertise on trade facilitation amongst the regional economic commissions. The project enhances the implementation of trade facilitation instruments by countries in the region, and raises awareness of these instruments among SMEs. It provides information on paperless instruments and WTO negotiations to SMEs, governments, NGOs, students and other civil society institutions. Its service is provided through seminars, workshops and a website on the subject. Inputs used are interviews with experts, individual and group expertise, training, seminars, workshops, conferences, group discussions and any educational course delivered to a group (on-site or in-house), technical missions, analysis, diagnostic studies, surveys, expert consultations, etc. For more information: www.eclac.cl/comercio

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UNWTO ETC/UNWTO Handbook on E-Marketing for Tourism Destinations Contact: John Kester Tel: +34 91 567 8100 Fax: +34 91 571 3733 E-mail: marketing@unwto.org, quality@unwto.org, calidad@unwto.org

Trade Promotion Capacity Building

The Handbook on E-Marketing for Tourism Destinations, published jointly by UNWTO and the European Travel Commission (ETC), is the first comprehensive e-marketing handbook for tourism destinations. The all-new 300-page publication is a practical “how to” manual for tourism destination staff at national, regional and city tourism levels, designed to help them improve their e-marketing skills and manage new technologies. It covers all the basics, including website design, search engine optimization, email marketing, social networking, and e-commerce. It provides advice on how to build better content, distribute it, use CRM (customer relations management), succeed with online PR, support the travel trade on-territory, and get into mobile marketing. Web analytics, online research methods, and performance measurement get full treatment, and new areas, such as digital television, are also covered. The handbook also includes over 30 examples of e-marketing in action.

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[ Market and Trade Information ]


MARKET AND TRADE INFORMATION

African Development Bank

 nited Nations Economic U Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

Asian Development Bank

 nited Nations Industrial U Development Organization

Food and Agriculture Organization

World Bank Group

Inter-American Development Bank

World Tourism Organization

International Trade Centre

World Trade Organization

 nited Nations Conference on Trade U and Development

United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Pacific

 nited Nations Economic U Commission for Africa


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

AfDB Reports

African Competitiveness Report - 2009: For more information: http://www.afdb.org/en/documents/publications/africa-competitiveness-report/ Statistics: For more information: http://www.afdb.org/en/documents/publications African Development Report: For more information: http://www.afdb.org/en/documents/publications/african-development-report/

Contact: The Director Economic Development Research Department (EDRE) Office of the Chief Economist Tel: +216 71 10 2876, +216 71 10 2076, +216 71 10 2193, Fax: +216 71 83 0635 E-mail: r.bargurah@adfb.org, l.ndikumana@afdb.org, a.kamara@afdb.org, p.walkenhorst@afdb.org, t.kandiero@afdb.org Statistics Department (ESTA) Office of the Chief Economist Tel: +216 71 10 3280, +216 71 10 2175, Fax: +216 71 83 2409 E-mail: n.eben-moussi@adfb.org, c.lufumpa@afdb.org, b.kokil@afdb.org

ADB Free trade agreements (FTA) and trade indicators database for Asia As part of its efforts to build, consolidate, and disseminate information that promotes transparency and uniformity in regional cooperation and integration, ADB launched the Asia Regional Information Center (ARIC) website in October 2006. The integration indicators database shows the trend of regional integration as well as global indicators which measure a country’s openness to international trade, investment, and financial markets. The comprehensive FTA database provides three types of information:

Contact: Lei Lei Song, Office of Regional Economic Integration Tel: +632 632 5595 E-mail: lsong@adb.org

• S tatistical tables on the status of FTAs in Asia; • Available resources on each FTA (i.e. legal documents, official summaries, studies, news, opinions, FTA membership and an external link to the UNESCAP database); • A comparative FTA toolkit which enables comparison of chapters/provisions of concluded Asian FTAs. In 2008, the ARIC website generated an average of 23,185 page views and an average of 1,207 visitors per day.

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The Bank is supporting the development of information services with the intention that other players will develop them further. Some examples include the African Competitiveness Report 2009, statistics, and supplying information on economics and development in Africa on a country basis. The Bank also publishes a report each year on a relevant economic development issue, the African Development Report. The 2010 report will deal with ports, logistics and trade.


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

FAO Contact: (trade information): Alexander Sarris, Director, Trade and Markets Division (EST), Tel: +39 06 570 5 4201 E-mail: alexander.sarris@fao.org (market information): Geoffrey C. Mrema, Director, Rural Infrastructure and Agro-industries Division (AGS) E-mail: geoffrey.mrema@fao.org

The common aim of FAO services in this category is to increase farmer competitiveness and the efficiency of agricultural traders, and therefore increase rural incomes, by providing information and analysis on trade and markets at the global, regional and national levels, with a view to assisting policy-makers and private sector stakeholders to improve policy formulation and their negotiation abilities and thus take better informed decisions on markets and trade.

Strengthening capacities in the area of commodity markets and trade These services aim to strengthen the national capacities of member countries in the area of commodity markets and trade, with particular emphasis on:

Market and Trade Information

• • • • • •

I mproving access to existing trade and trade policy databases; Monitoring supply, demand, trade flows and policy changes and other measures of trading partners; Undertaking analytical studies on agricultural commodity markets; Highlighting domestic supply side issues for improving export competitiveness; Intensifying assistance to value chain analyses; Enabling policy and economic environments for agro-industry development.

The broader objective is to equip policy-makers and technicians with information that can assist and guide them in more informed policy-making. This activity also serves as a contribution to FAO’s commitment to ensure that developing countries are fully informed and equal partners in the multilateral and regional trade negotiations on agriculture. The service is important because it equips beneficiaries with relevant information, analysis and tools which are very useful in today’s rapidly integrating global trading environment. A few examples of the areas in which this service can contribute are the search for and development of new markets, the assessment of competition, a better understanding of the policies of other countries, evaluations of the impact of policy changes, and the maximizing of trading opportunities. In particular, the service is extremely beneficial for poorer countries that do not have the capacity to access and analyze market and trade information. The beneficiaries of the services include, but are not limited to, policy-makers, analysts, trade negotiators, research institutes and the private sector and civil society in general in developing and transition countries. The services are provided through the publication of analyses of the commodity situation and outlook, medium term projections, databases and analytical tools, and through national and regional projects and workshops aimed at strengthening market information systems. The services assist countries to set up market information systems for markets and trade, including regional trade. Access to relevant databases, software, and publications is provided through national projects and training workshops. Some aspects of the service, for example workshops, are provided in cooperation with other UN agencies, including UNCTAD, WTO and UNDP, whilst some involve collaboration with outside UN agencies like OECD and GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit). Trade information: www.fao.org/trade

Market information programme Efficient market information can be shown to have positive benefits for farmers and traders. Up-to-date information on prices and other market factors enables farmers to negotiate with traders and also facilitates the spatial distribution of products from rural areas to towns and between markets. In the longer run, knowledge of market price trends can enable farmers to decide which crops to plant and to exploit the option of producing crops out of season to obtain higher prices. Databases developed by market information services are also an important input into policymaking, particularly with regard to food security interventions.

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Most governments in developing countries have tried to provide market information services (MIS) to farmers, but these have tended to experience problems of sustainability. Moreover, even when they function, the service provided is often insufficient to allow commercial decisions to be made because of time lags between data collection and dissemination. However, modern communications technologies open up the possibility for market information services to improve information delivery by SMS on cell phones, and the rapid growth of FM radio stations in many developing countries offers the possibility of more localized information services. In the longer run, the Internet may become an effective way of delivering information to farmers. However, market information services may still face problems associated with the cost and accuracy of data collection.

FAO can provide project and other support to governments seeking to establish or improve market information services and can provide advice to donors establishing regional programmes and to private entrepreneurs. Several publications are available on market information, and FAO has also produced computer software for MIS (FAO AgriMarket). Market Information: http://www.fao.org/ag/ags/subjects/en/agmarket/agmarketinfo.html

IDB Trade Hub Information The IDB develops specialized databases, models and tools to monitor and assess the impact that integration and trade have on the region. Specifically, and as part of a new Trade Hub Information, the Bank has developed INTRADE, which is the most comprehensive and updated information portal about trade and integration in Latin America and the Caribbean, in particular regarding regional trade agreements. It includes a comprehensive database that provides access to accurate and updated information about trade agreements, and a set of applications that facilitates the understanding, analysis and practical application of trade agreements. The database is divided in two main modules, one for trade agreements, which includes information about market access and the legal framework contained in the agreements, as well as some toolkits, and one for trade statistics. The database also includes an interactive trade map of countries involved in 46 trade agreements.

Contact: Paolo Giordano Economist Integration and Trade Sector Tel: +1 202 623 2611 E-mail: paolog@iadb.og

For more information see: http://www.iadb.org/topics/trade/

ITC Trade intelligence ITC’s objective is to enable clients to produce, use and disseminate trade intelligence by providing trade information and customized trade analysis, as well as related capacity building. As a result, ITC contributes to policy-makers, trade support institutions (TSIs), and SMEs making more informed decisions, and TSIs producing and disseminating trade intelligence services effectively. ITC has developed a wide array of trade intelligence products and services that can be organized and used according to the specific needs of policy-makers, TSIs, and SMEs:

Contact: Anders Aeroe, Director of Division for Market Development Tel: +41 22 730 0111 E-mail: aeroe@intracen.org

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But even when they have access to market information, farmers often require assistance in interpreting that information. For example, the market price quoted on the radio may refer to a wholesale selling price and farmers may have difficulty in translating this into a realistic price at their local assembly market. Various attempts have been made in developing countries to introduce commercial market information services but these have largely been targeted at traders, commercial farmers or exporters. It is not easy to see how small, poor farmers can generate sufficient income for a commercial service to be profitable, although one or two tentative attempts are being made to do this.


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

• S tatistical information (trade statistics, tariffs and related information, and FDI-related information) and related web-based software analysis tools: These are used as a platform for the production of tailormade studies on sector competitiveness, identifying countries’ and sectors’ strengths and weaknesses compared to their main competitors and the market access conditions, and based on a combination of theoretical and empirical research and analysis. Priority is given to capacity building on the use of communication technology, data and market studies, and trade negotiations. • Trade intelligence is an essential element to increase the capacities of SMEs to be aware of export market requirements and to identify niche export markets: ITC is shaping its statistical and qualitative information services so that they are affordable, up-to-date, easily accessible and digestible for SMEs. • Intermediary trade support institutions: ITC activities aim to develop their capability to build up information services. In this respect, the importance of information has been brought into sharp focus by advances in ICT, especially the explosion in the use of the Internet, which has opened new windows of opportunity for accessing and disseminating trade information.

Market and Trade Information

For more information: Building up information services: www.intracen.org/tis/welcome.htm Market analysis services: www.intracen.org/mas/welcome.htm Trade information reference system: www.intracen.org/tirc/welcome.htm International trade statistics: www.intracen.org/tradstat/welcome.htm Trade contacts: www.intracen.org/tradinst/welcome.htm

UNCTAD Trade analysis and research Contact: Manuela Tortora, Chief, Technical Cooperation Service Tel: +41 22 917 5752 E-mail: manuela.tortora@unctad.org, tab@unctad.org

Two main types of activities are carried out in the context of trade analysis and research, namely: (i) the maintenance, upgrading and development of new analytical tools and databases, such as TRAINS (Trade Analysis and Information System) / WITS (World Integrated Trade Solution), ATPSM (Agriculture Trade Policy Simulation Model), and AMAD (Agricultural Market Access Database); and (ii) conducting policy-oriented analytical studies on current and emerging issues in international trade of concern to developing countries. For more information: http://r0.unctad.org/ditc/tab/index.shtm

Trade analysis and information system (TRAINS) TRAINS is an information system intended to increase transparency in international trading conditions. More specifically, it is intended for government officials and researchers by providing them with comprehensive, up-to-date information on market access conditions together with corresponding software tools. One component of the system relates to the Generalized System of Preferences in that it includes information on tariffs, preferential margins, rules of origin and other regulations affecting the export interests of developing countries vis-à-vis the preference-giving countries. A sub-system (TRAINS for the Americas) has been developed in collaboration with the Inter-American Development Bank for extension of the database with information on bilateral preferential trade agreements, as well as extended coverage of non-tariff measures. For more information: http://r0.unctad.org/ditc/tab/index.shtm

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The World Integrated Trade Solution (WITS) The WITS computer software has been developed for dissemination purposes. It is a web-based, client-server application, which has been developed jointly with the World Bank. Free and unlimited access to TRAINS is provided to member governments through WITS. TRAINS is available to other parties that make a minimum contribution to the UNCTAD trust fund created for this purpose. (More information about WITS can be found in the World Bank entry on page 117.) For more information: http://r0.unctad.org/ditc/tab/wits.shtm, www.unctad.org/trade_env/index.asp

A pilot project on the collection and quantification of Non-tariff Measures (NTMs)

• D  etermine the types and sources of non-tariff barriers to trade; • Test the feasibility of the preliminary template of NTMs classification; • E xplore the range of data collection options, such as web-based portal and survey-based study, under the new classification format, to maximise the data coverage; • Identify and suggest possible options to increase accuracy and maintain such a complex database; • Increase general understanding of NTMs. For more information: http://ntbinfo.org

UNESCAP Trade Information Service (TIS) UNESCAP’s Trade Information Service (TIS) produces: • E -TISNET, a free monthly electronic newsletter that disseminates up-to-date trade and investment-related news and information relevant for the Asia-Pacific region; • An online directory of trade and investment-related organizations of developing countries and areas in Asia and the Pacific; • An online traders’ manual for selected LDCs; • A TIS Gateway, which offers classified and annotated lists of selected online information sources on trade and investment, with a particular focus on the Asia and the Pacific region.

Contact: Bin Peng, Trade Facilitation Section, Trade and Investment Division, E-mail: pengb@un.org Trade and Investment Division, E-mail: trade_inf.unescap@un.org

In 1985, the first issue of the TISNET Trade and Investment Information Bulletin was published as a means to exchange trade and investment-related information in the Asia/Pacific region. Since January 2004, this bulletin has been replaced by an online product offering news and information resources, called E-TISNET, accessible at www.unescap.org/tid/etisnet.asp. It is disseminated on a monthly basis, accessible on the Trade and Investment Division (TID) web page or delivered by email to the desktop of subscribed customers who mostly represent research institutions, trade-related ministries, chambers of commerce, trade promotion organizations and other governmental and non-governmental organizations, as well as interested private persons (In December 2008 there were approximately 840 recipients). The traders’ manuals serve as a source of information on business, trade and the investment environment, trade regimes, and import and export procedures, and provide other key trade-related information on the respective countries. These manuals are particularly useful to SMEs interested in trading with least developed and landlocked countries.

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The purpose of the pilot project is to draw up a systematic methodology of definition and collection on NTMs by drawing information from official sources as well as barriers faced by traders in the pilot countries. The project will help understanding of how to:


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

TIS Gateway was launched in 2004 to further facilitate access to relevant trade-related information and to provide an overview of the vast range of information available on the Internet. TIS Gateway is a group of databases of specialized trade and investment information, knowledge sources, and reference sites, and is intended to serve as a quick and friendly tool to access the great wealth of online sources of information. The databases are accessible on TID’s web page. www.unescap.org/tid/tisgway.asp

UNECA Publications and policy briefs

Market and Trade Information

Contact: Trade, Finance and Economic Development Division (TFED) Tel: +251 11 551 7200 E-mail: ecainfo@uneca.org

The ECA Geneva Inter-regional Advisory Services prepares policy briefs to inform African countries on trade and WTO-related issues. Prior to Cancun, the UNECA office prepared the Cancun Briefing Papers. These policy briefs proved extremely useful for the African delegations at Cancun. They are currently being updated. The UNECA office also produces a monthly report which covers all the activities undertaken by the office, as well as meetings and events where the ECA Geneva Inter-regional Advisory Services participates.

UNECLAC Interactive graphic system of international trade data (SIGCI) Contact: Osvaldo Rosales, Director of International Trade and ­Integration Division Tel: +56 2 210 2677 E-mail: osvaldo.rosales@cepal.org

This service aims to disseminate information on the evolution of Latin American trade relations with the world in terms of composition and trade direction. It is important and relevant because it allows governments, researchers, students and other civil society groups to understand the past evolution and current situation of the trade relations of Latin American and Caribbean countries, thus enabling the design of better trade strategies. The service assists in the design of trade strategies and in the focalization of instruments related to trade promotion by the countries of the region, and facilitates the diversification of products and of partners for the region’s exports. It provides information to SMEs, governments, NGOs, students and other civil society institutions. The service is provided through an online database, annually updated with statistical data based on raw statistics from the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) Comtrade database. For more information: www.eclac.cl/comercio/Bases_Datos/default.asp

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UNIDO Information and business development services UNIDO has developed a methodology for establishing Business Information Centres (BICs) that provide a package of ICT-based private sector and trade development information services. To achieve sustainability, the BICs operate on a demand-driven and commercial basis, ensuring the trust and support of SMEs through a strong local ownership by public and private sector business partners. The process of establishing a BIC follows four integrated steps:  n SME needs-assessment to ascertain information gaps and requirements; A T he development of a commercial business plan; T he establishment of a commercially operating BIC; Rural extensions of the BICs to complement the national SME information support infrastructure.

Statistics dissemination The following statistical products prepared under the auspices of this service module help governments, industries, institutions, researchers, and UNIDO to monitor and assess the industrial trends and performance of developing countries and economies in transition: • Production and dissemination of the UNIDO statistical database; • Publication of the International Yearbook of Industrial Statistics; • Preparation and dissemination of statistical country briefs and statistical regional outlooks.

Contact: Augusto Alcorta Silva Santisteban Director, Development Policy and Strategic Research Branch Tel: +43 1 26026 3719 Fax: +43 1 26026 6859 E-mail: research@unido.org, stat@unido.org

WB World Integrated Trade System (WITS) World Integrated Trade Solutions (WITS) is a joint WB/UNCTAD software system that allows users to retrieve trade and tariff data from the major international datasets (UN Comtrade, UNCTAD Trains, and the WTO Integrated Database) and conduct analysis of trade flows and tariff changes. WITS is an important resource for developing country government officials who want to develop and implement trade competitiveness strategies. It is used in 97 countries, including 68 developing countries, with over 1,750 distinct users (32 percent academic, 25 percent from international organizations (other than the World Bank), 21 percent government, 15 percent World Bank, and 7 percent from the private sector). The World Bank is currently working with the International Trade Centre (ITC) and UNCTAD to modernize WITS and harmonize its functionalities with those of the ITC’s data portals.

Contact: Phil Schuler, International Trade Department Tel: +1 202 473 4163 Fax: +1 202 522 7551 E-mail: pschuler@worldbank.org

World Trade Indicators (WTI) The World Trade Indicators (WTI) is a user-friendly and easily accessible interactive online database launched in June 2008 that is designed to benchmark a country’s trade policy and institutions and help policy makers, advisors, and analysts identify the main border and behind-the border constraints to trade integration. The database allows quick comparison across countries and time for 305 indicators developed by UNCTAD, ITC, the World Bank and the WTO. The WTI 2008 database and the country Trade-At-A-Glance (TAAG) tables (last updated in December 2008) are organized in the five thematic categories mentioned above, namely trade policy, the external environment, the institutional environment, trade facilitation and trade outcomes. Each category contains a main indicator and other reference indicators. Countries’ trade performance can be examined individually as well as in relation to other countries or country groupings, including by membership of trade agreements. The updated User Guide provides descriptions for the 305 indicators available for download in the database, including data sources. Reflecting the June database, the WB’s Country Briefs capture the key insights from

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• • • •

Contact: Mohamed-Lamine Dhaoui Director, Business, Investment and Technology Services Branch Tel: +43 26026 5183 E-mail: m.dhaoui@unido.org


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

both the indicators and country-level trade-related analytical work, and an overview report summarizes the global patterns in trade policy and trade outcomes, focusing mainly on regional and income level variations. Country Briefs and the overview report were scheduled to be updated by October 2009, in conjunction with the WTI 2009 launch. The database and the tool can be freely accessed at: http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/TRADE/0,,contentMDK:21393040~pagePK:210058~ piPK:210062~theSitePK:239071,00.html For more information: www.worldbank.org/wti2008

GTAP Database

Market and Trade Information

The GTAP Database is a fully documented, publicly available global data base which contains complete bilateral trade information and transport and protection linkages among regions for all GTAP commodities. It is most commonly used with the GTAP Model and RunGTAP software, and has been widely used in the evaluation of multilateral trade negotiations and, more recently, in the evaluation of policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions. The new version, released in 2007, contains data for 57 sectors and 113 countries/regions. The GTAP Data Package is available upon payment of charges at: https://www.gtap.agecon.purdue.edu/products/default.asp Discounted pricing is available for lower-middle and low-income developing countries, using the World Bank classification. Two-plus versions previous to the current release of the GTAP Data Base are publicly available for download at: https://www.gtap.agecon.purdue.edu/databases/free_data.asp

Overall Trade Restrictiveness Indices (OTRI) This set of indices comprises an Overall Trade Restrictiveness Index (Tariff and Non-Tariff Measures), a Trade Restrictiveness Index (only Tariff) and a Market Access Overall Trade Restrictiveness Index. The indices allow users to have a comprehensive view of the restrictions for both exports and imports by summarizing in a unique number the different types of trade policies (e.g., tariffs, quotas, non-automatic licensing, antidumping duties, countervailing duties, tariff-quotas, subsidies, etc.) and the fact that trade policy is applied at the product level. The indices can be compared across countries and can be freely downloaded at: http://econ.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTDEC/EXTRESEARCH/0,,contentMDK:21085342~pagePK: 64214825~piPK:64214943~theSitePK:469382,00.html

Agricultural Distortions Database This database provides a set of quantitative estimates of agricultural distortion policies for more than 50 countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America, Europe’s transition economies and 20 high-income countries. Among the measures included in the database are: nominal rates of assistance for all agricultural tradable goods and for all non-agricultural tradable goods; consumer tax equivalent; volume of production, domestic producer farm gate price, value of production and value of consumption at undistorted prices; and share of production exported, share of consumption imported, and self-sufficiency ratio. Almost all measures are available at the individual farm product level. The time span covered by the database is 1955-2007.

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The database can be freely downloaded at: http://econ.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTDEC/EXTRESEARCH/0,,contentMDK:21960058~pagePK: 64214825~piPK:64214943~theSitePK:469382,00.html

TRIST is an interactive Excel-based tool to simulate the short-term impact of tariff reform on fiscal revenue, imports, protection, and domestic output and employment. Its purpose is to allow policymakers to quickly evaluate the adjustment costs associated with trade policy decisions. The tool is based on statutory and collected tariff, import, VAT and excise revenue data at the tariff line (HS 8 digit) level, broken down by trading partner groups. Import responses to tariff changes are modelled in a partial equilibrium framework, ­t aking into account exporter substitution effects, domestic substitution effects and the effect of tariff liberalization on overall demand. So far, TRISTs have been developed for Bolivia, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Seychelles, Tanzania and Zambia. In 2009, a new and improved version of TRIST was developed and is already in use in a number of countries. TRIST 2.0 will include additional functionality, such as the presentation of additional statistics, the automatic identification (by a number of different criteria) of excluded product lists for trade agreements, and additional options for the definition of trade policy scenarios.

Contact: Christian Saborowski E-mail: csaborowski@ worldbank.org

TRIST can be downloaded free of charge at: http://go.worldbank.org/2P8FPC0760 (click on relevant country).

Logistics Performance Indicators (LPI) The LPI is an interactive benchmarking tool that measures the performance of countries’ trade logistics. The logistics supply chain performance is measured by scoring countries according to key indicators of trade facilitation: the efficiency of the clearance process by customs and other border agencies; the quality of transport and IT infrastructure for logistics; the ease and affordability of arranging international shipments; the competence of the local logistics industry (e.g., transport operators, customs brokers); the ability to track and trace international shipments; the domestic logistics costs (e.g., local transportation, terminal handling, warehousing); and the timeliness of shipments in reaching destination. The LPI allows for comparisons across 150 countries and across time. A new and updated version of the LPI was to be launched in late 2009. The new improved edition of the survey provides a better balance between quantitative and qualitative data, and will include a new customs module.

Contact: Monica Alina Mustra E-mail: mmustra@worldbank.org, tradefacilitation@ worldbank.org

It is updated yearly and can be freely accessed at: http://www.worldbank.org/lpi

Regulatory barriers in services trade This database provides a comprehensive repository of regulatory barriers to international trade in selected services sectors. The five sectors covered, including relevant subsectors where applicable, are financial services (banking and insurance), telecommunications (fixed and mobile), retail distribution, transportation (air, maritime, road, rail, and multimodal), and professional services (legal and accountancy). In each sector the most relevant mode of supplying the respective service is covered, i.e. cross-border trade (mode 1) in financial, transportation, and professional services; commercial presence (mode 3) in every service sector; and the presence of service-supplying individuals (mode 4) in professional services. The database covers the services trade policies of 76 developing countries and 24 OECD countries in 2007/08, grouped into four categories: equity restrictions, licensing requirements, restrictions on ongoing operations, and the regulatory environment. Data are presented in the form of policy summaries and a services trade restrictiveness index number (STRI). Further complementary information on trade in services data is available from the following website: http://go.worldbank.org/VB2SPS5DC0 (permanent URL).

Contact: Shuree Gootiiz, Ingo Borchert E-mail: bgootiiz@worldbank.org, iborchert@worldbank.org

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Tariff Reform Impact Simulation Tool (TRIST)


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

The database will be freely accessible; however, its website is not yet operational. Contact: Doing Business Team E-mail: rru@worldbank.org

Doing Business Database This interactive tool and database offers a collection of quantitative indicators representative of a country’s business regulatory environments. The quantitative indicators cover the regulatory framework of key stages in the life of a business, including dealing with construction permits, employing workers, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and closing a business. Measures can be compared across countries and over time and can be used in conjunction with other cross-country time series data. Updated yearly, the 2009 version of the database covers 181 countries. The database and the tool are freely available at: http://www.doingbusiness.org

Market and Trade Information

Research The Bank undertakes research to achieve a better understanding of the role of international trade in development and poverty reduction. It has also contributed significantly to the development of techniques and policy tools for analyzing the impact of trade policy reforms. At the same time, it has – through policy-based loans - supported trade reforms in many developing countries, such as the reduction of tariffs, the elimination of quantitative restrictions and the improvement of foreign exchange systems.

Contact: E-mail: ppidatabase@worldbank.org

Private Participation in Infrastructure Projects Database The Private Participation in Infrastructure Projects Database is a joint product of the World Bank’s Infrastructure Economics and Finance Department and the Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF). Its purpose is to identify and disseminate information on private participation in infrastructure projects in low and middle-income countries. The database highlights the contractual arrangements used to attract private investment, the sources and destination of investment flows, and information on the main investors. By providing critical data and analysis to government policy-makers, consumer representatives, the donor community, and other stakeholders, the database contributes to the public debate on the private provision of infrastructure. The site currently provides information on more than 4,100 infrastructure projects dating from 1984 to 2007. It contains over 30 fields per project record, including country, financial closure year, infrastructure services provided, type of private participation, technology, capacity, project location, contract duration, private sponsors, and development bank support. Reports can be downloaded into Excel, Word or PDF. Periodic update notes on the financial crises, and its impact on new infrastructure projects with private participation, are being produced since December 2008. Access to the database is free via the following link: http://ppi.worldbank.org

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UNWTO UNWTO provides the Members of the United Nations Organization with the information they need to complete their qualitative and quantitative knowledge of the tourism markets, identify market trends and select effective techniques of tourism promotion and evaluation. For more information: http://www.unwto.org/mkt/menu.html UNWTO regularly compiles and disseminates comprehensive information, analysis and know-how on tourism in the form of various publications such as:

Contact: John Kester Tel: +34 91 567 8100 Fax: +34 91 571 3733 E-mail: marketing@unwto.org, quality@unwto.org, calidad@unwto.org

UNWTO World Tourism Barometer The UNWTO World Tourism Barometer is a regular publication of the Market Trends, Competitiveness and Trade in Tourism Services Department of UNWTO aimed at monitoring the short-term evolution of tourism and providing the sector with relevant and timely information. It is published three times a year (January, June, and October). The first issue was published in June 2003.

Market and Trade Information

It contains three permanent elements: an overview of short-term tourism data from destination countries and air transport; a retrospective and prospective evaluation of tourism performance by the UNWTO Panel of Tourism Experts; and selected economic data relevant for tourism. For more information: http://www.unwto.org/facts/menu.html

ETC/UNWTO Handbook on Tourism Forecasting Methodologies The Handbook on Tourism Forecasting Methodologies, a joint UNWTO/ETC project, aims to be a simple guide to the complex world of tourism forecasting. It presents the basic forecasting techniques and their advantages and disadvantages, as well as some practical examples of such methodologies in action. It also includes an Excel file where the forecasting methodologies are further explained and exemplified. For more information: http://pub.unwto.org/epages/Store.sf/?ObjectPath=/Shops/Infoshop/Products/1466/ SubProducts/1466-1

WTO Data on trade flows The WTO compiles data on trade flows and on trade measures by its members. These are published in its annual publications, World Trade Report and International Trade Statistics. In 2002, the WTO and OECD set up a joint database of trade-related capacity building projects, but this will be discontinued following collection of the 2006 data. The OECD proposes to adapt its existing Creditor Reporting System (CRS) to provide data on trade-related aid.

Contact: Maarten Smeets, Institute for Training and Technical Cooperation Tel: + 41 22 739 5587 E-mail: maarten.smeets@wto.org

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TRADE FACILITATION

African Development Bank

 nited Nations Conference on Trade U and Development

Asian Development Bank

United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Pacific

Inter-American Development Bank

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

International Maritime Organization

 nited Nations Economic U Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

International Monetary Fund

World Bank Group

International Trade Centre

World Trade Organization


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

AfDB Support for regional institutions The AfDB incorporates soft trade facilitation components in infrastructure projects in Bank-funded projects. However, the Bank wants to ensure that the regional institutions succeed in a complex trade environment and will assist them in building their trade facilitation capacity. Support for regional institutions will include the following: • A  ssisting in structuring, negotiating and implementing appropriate trade facilitation measures and instruments: • Addressing coordination problems that arise in the implementation of trade facilitation projects with a regional dimension; • Pushing forward the aid for trade agenda in trade facilitation, which is a specific area that is frequently a priority at the regional level.

Contact: The Director NEPAD, Regional Integration and Trade Department (ONRI) Tel: +216 71 10 2825, +216 71 10 2156, +216 71 10 3477 Fax: +216 71 33 2694 E-mail: c.seka@afdb.org, m.mupotola@afdb.org, h.minnaar@afdb.org, c.lozano@afdb.org

The interventions for regional economic communities will focus on three areas of intervention:

ADB CAREC Regional Trade Facilitation and Customs Cooperation Program The Regional Trade Facilitation and Customs Cooperation Programme is part of the broad Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Programme supported by the ADB. Its objective is twofold: • P romoting concerted customs reforms and modernization, and serving as a regional forum to address issues of common interest; • Supporting an integrated trade facilitation approach through interagency cooperation and partnership with the private sector as a long-term objective.

Contact: Ying Qian East and Central Asia Department E-mail: yqian@adb.org

The CAREC Regional Trade Facilitation Programme is participated in by eight ADB developing member countries: Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, People’s Republic of China (PRC), Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The programme is currently coordinated by the Customs Cooperation Committee (CCC), which consists of the heads of customs administrations of participating countries. The importance of the CCC’s guidance reflects the program’s country-driven process. For more information: http://www.adb.org/Projects/TradeFacilitation/default.asp

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• C ustoms reforms and modernization; • Transport and transit facilitation and logistics; • WTO negotiations on trade facilitation.


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

IDB Contact: Manuel Marquez (Customs, Trade Facilitation and Logistics) Senior Trade and Customs Specialist Integration and Trade Sector Tel: +1 202 623 2053 E-mail: manuelm@iadb.org

Trade Facilitation

Miguel Manzi ­(IDB Mesoamerican ­Coordinator) Senior Country Coordinator Country Department Central America, Mexico, Panama and Dominican Republic Tel: +1 202 623 1476 E-mail: miguelm@iadb.org Mauro MarcondesRodríguez (IDB-IIRSA Coordinator) Vice-presidency of countries Tel: +1 202 623 2310 E-mail: maurom@iadb.org

Customs, trade facilitation and logistics Customs procedures, logistics, foreign trade regimes - preferential or otherwise - and incentives for the internal and external sectors (the “business climate”) all affect the cost of producing and trading. Promoting trade and facilitating the development of international value chains and the improvement of the physical network infrastructure must go hand-in-hand with the creation of sound trade and economic policies governing the activities of operators. The IDB supports the development of programmes aimed at improving cross-border trade, transport networks and logistics services which allow businesses to respond quickly to new opportunities and address bottlenecks and challenges effectively. For example, assessing the impact of logistics costs in production costs and reducing trade transaction costs could promote specialization and diversification in the supply of national logistics services so that these contribute to the creation of value and can be integrated into the basic product and marketing strategies of domestic firms. The Bank provides these services through regional programmes and/or a variety of targeted national interventions, including customs institutional strengthening and modernization, transport and trade facilitation audits (TTFAs) and other diagnostics, regional integration strategies, and lending operations for traderelated infrastructure, etc. Trade facilitation and logistics work is not sector-specific per se but rather covers all the sectors involved in the transportation (and exportation) of goods and services.

The Mesoamerican Project (MP) and the Initiative for the Integration of Regional Infrastructure in South America (IIRSA) The objectives of the Mesoamerican Project (MP) are to foster the development, financing and implementation of regional infrastructure, connectivity and social development projects in the Mesoamerican countries (Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia). Soft and hard trade-related infrastructure investments contemplated in the Mesoamerica Project aim at connecting markets, reducing transport and trade costs, enhancing trade competitiveness and increasing foreign investment. The MP comprises a portfolio of nearly 100 projects with more than US$8 billion in investments in the areas of energy, telecommunications, transportation, competitiveness, trade facilitation and natural disasters. It also includes rehabilitation of more than 13,000 kms of roads, including two major corridors along the Atlantic and the Pacific. The Bank has supported the programme since its inception and serves as a catalyst of financial and knowledge resources to implement the specific projects. The objective of the IIRSA is to improve the physical infrastructure in South American countries as a platform for development and competitiveness at a regional level. The IIRSA has two main lines of action: integration and development hubs, which are multinational territorial sectors where there are concentrations of several factors (natural spaces, human settlements, productive zones and commercial flows); and integration sectoral process, which offers a space for the identification and solving of regulatory drawbacks, as well as operative and institutional ones, which do not allow the efficient use of the basic infrastructure. The Bank has lent support to the IIRSA since its inception, through various financial and non-financial instruments, including loans, grants, guarantees and technical assistance. For more information on the Mesoamerican project see: http://www.proyectomesoamerica.org http://www.iadb.org/int/ For more information on the IIRSA Initiative see: http://www.iirsa.org

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IMO Maritime traffic facilitation The IMO Facilitation Committee aims to promote the facilitation of maritime traffic and develop appropriate measures to expedite international maritime traffic and prevent unnecessary delays to ships and cargoes, and to persons and property on board. To achieve this, the Committee has adopted the following strategies: • P romote wider acceptance of the Facilitation of International Maritime Traffic (FAL) Convention and adoption of the measures contained therein; • Ensure that an appropriate balance is maintained between measures to enhance maritime security and measures to facilitate international maritime traffic; • Encourage the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) to drive continuous improvement and innovation in the facilitation of maritime traffic; • Enhance cooperation and coordination with other international organizations and stakeholders on matters related to the facilitation of maritime traffic.

Contact: Monica N. Mbanefo, Director, Technical Co-operation Division Tel: +44 20 773 5 7611 E-mail: mmbanefo@imo.org Graham Mapplebeck, Head, Facilitation Section, Maritime Safety Division E-mail: gmapplebeck@imo.org

Trade Facilitation

The annex to the FAL Convention contains rules for simplifying formalities, documentary requirements and procedures on the arrival and departure of ships and, in particular, it reduces to eight the number of declarations which can be required by public authorities. These are the General Declaration, Cargo Declaration, Ship’s Stores Declaration, Crew’s Effects Declaration, Crew List and Passenger List, as well as two documents required under the Universal Postal Convention and the International Health Regulations. IMO has developed standardized forms for the first six of these. As a further aid to compliance, the annex to this Convention contains “Standards” and “Recommended Practices” on formalities, documentary requirements and procedures which should be applied to ships, their crews, passengers, baggage and cargo, on arrival, during their stay, and on departure. As part of its technical cooperation programme, assistance is provided by IMO to developing countries to build the capacity to facilitate the procedures connected with the import and export of goods by sea. For more information: www.imo.org

IMF Technical assistance is one of the IMF’s core activities. It is concentrated in critical areas of macroeconomic policy where the Fund has the greatest comparative advantage. About 80 percent of the IMF’s technical assistance goes to low- and lower-middle-income countries, in particular in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. The IMF also provides technical assistance aimed at building capacity to design and implement growth-oriented, poverty-reducing programmes, and help heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs) with debt reduction and management.

Contact: Trade, Institutions, and Policy Review Division, Strategy, Policy, and Review Department, Tel: + 1 202 623 6223 Fax: + 1 202 623 4237

The IMF provides advice and assistance on improving the effectiveness of tax and customs administration; increasing tax compliance through strengthening collection, audit, and taxpayer service functions; implementing significant new taxes; establishing special controls over the largest taxpayers; introducing measures to bring small and medium-size taxpayers into the tax net; and rationalizing customs procedures to secure revenue and facilitate trade. The IMF has stepped up efforts to help countries identify and implement policies that build sound financial systems. The financial crises of the late 1990s underscored the linkages between macroeconomic developments and financial system soundness. Indeed, weak financial institutions, inadequate bank regulation and supervision, and lack of transparency were at the heart of these crises. The IMF’s main channels for promot-

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ing financial system soundness in member countries are through its ongoing multilateral and bilateral surveillance, the design of its lending programmes, and the provision of technical assistance. Technical assistance is delivered in a variety of ways. IMF staff may visit member countries to advise government and central bank officials on specific issues, or the IMF may provide resident specialists on a short- or a long-term basis. Technical assistance is integrated with country reform agendas as well as the IMF’s surveillance and lending operations. The IMF is providing an increasing part of its technical assistance through regional centres located in Gabon, Mali, and Tanzania for Africa; in Barbados for the Caribbean; in Lebanon for the Middle East; and in Fiji for the Pacific Islands. As part of its reform program, the IMF is planning to open four more regional technical assistance centres in Africa, Latin America, and Central Asia. The IMF also offers training courses for government and central bank officials of member countries at its headquarters in Washington, D.C., and at regional training centres in Austria, Brazil, China, India, Singapore, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates. For more information: www.imf.org

ITC Trade Facilitation

Supply chain and logistics Contact: Anders Aeroe, Director of Division for Market Development Tel: +41 22 730 0111 E-mail: aeroe@intracen.org

ITC’s commitment to strengthen exporters’ competitiveness takes a holistic view of the entire value chain, from procurement through production to logistics and final distribution. The seamless optimization of all the influencing factors is essential to sustainable enterprise competitiveness in export markets. ITC’s range of technical skills include training and advice on procurement, production (including quality and packaging, as well as traceability related to specific export requirements of destination markets), and logistics and distribution optimization. ITC also provides trade facilitation capacity in the context of regional trade integration projects. Logistical obstacles within and across borders are addressed from the perspective of the business sector: • S trengthening the capacity of national or regional organizations to develop and implement regional supply chains and logistics; • Empowerment of these organizations to consolidate supplies from small-scale producers and ensure their participation in the supply chain; • Public/private sector consultations on the planning and coordination of supply chain policy systems with a view to achieving an enabling environment and institutional framework for SMEs’ participation. Taking a business sector perspective leads ITC to provide practical training, counselling and advice on issues such as how to optimize containerization, packaging and palletization, communication between producers and shipping agencies, operational protocols of cold-chain systems and the inter-linkages between coldstorage consolidation centres across countries, and human resources development in the logistics area. For more information: www.intracen.org/menus/countries.htm

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UNCTAD UNCTAD’s objectives are: • T o assist developing countries with the formulation and implementation of policies and programmes in the areas of transport and trade facilitation at national, regional and international levels; • To develop long-term institutional and operational capacity to implement trade and transport facilitation actions; • To assist developing countries in trade facilitation negotiations at the WTO; • To assist developing countries in the design and implementation of national legal frameworks in line with international legal instruments and standards.

Contact: Manuela Tortora, Chief, Technical Cooperation Service, Tel: +41 22 917 5752 E-mail: manuela.tortora@ unctad.org

Training on transport and trade facilitation Here the objectives are: • T o develop ad hoc and long-term institutional and individual capacity to implement trade and transport facilitation actions; • To develop long-term institutional and individual capacity in port and shipping management.

Trade Facilitation

Training and human resource development is carried out through transport and trade facilitation workshops at national and regional levels. There is also participation in and ad hoc support to trade-logistics-related courses provided by academic or partner international organizations. The strategic planning workshop for senior shipping management (STRATSHIP) aims to improve the performance of shipping management. It is organized at least once a year and is based on a combination of presentations, case studies, and a computerbased management tool. The Port Training Programme for middle managers on modern port management, jointly developed with TrainForTrade, includes an eight-module course leading to a Port Management Certificate, and provides middle managers with a full understanding of modern port management. A distancelearning version of the port management course is also available. For more information: http://learn.unctad.org/

Support for trade facilitation negotiations UNCTAD offers support for trade facilitation negotiations by assisting developing countries in identifying their particular trade and transport facilitation needs and priorities as a necessary prerequisite for the implementation and programming of specific trade and transport facilitation measures. This is done in workshops and seminars at regional and national levels, through the publication of relevant information and training material, and through comprehensive national and regional trade facilitation projects.

Contact: trade.logistics@ unctad.org, jan.hoffmann@ unctad.org, jose.rubiato@unctad.org

In order to help developing countries and Least Developed Countries to better understand the scope and implications of the negotiated trade facilitation measures at the WTO, UNCTAD develops technical material and cooperates with Geneva- and capital-based negotiators, and organizes training seminars and workshops. This is intended to strengthen national institutions in the area of trade facilitation and to help formulate modalities for an effective implementation of the negotiated commitments and coherent operational, technical assistance and capacity building in the field of trade facilitation. For more information: http://r0.unctad.org/ttl/, and http://www.gfptt.org/

Automated System for Customs Data (ASYCUDA) programme The main objective of the Automated System for Customs Data (ASYCUDA) programme is the modernization of customs, using information technology to speed up and simplify the clearance process of goods, and the reduction and simplification of documentation and procedures. The system manages the whole clearance

Contact: Asia and Pacific E-mail: renaud@asycuda.org

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process, from (and prior to) the arrival of the goods up to their warehousing and ultimate release after payment of duties and taxes. Project implementation includes a comprehensive training package that allows for the full transfer of ASYCUDA know-how and skills to national staff, thus ensuring the programme can be sustained by the national administrations. If you need information regarding the ASYCUDA programme in general and/or the functionalities of the software and underlying technical aspects, contact the nearest regional office by email: For more information: www.asycuda.org/

UNESCAP

Trade Facilitation

Contact: Shamika Sirimanne, Chief, TradeFacilitation Section, Trade and Investment Division, E-mail: sirimanne@un.org

The aim of this service is to promote efficient and secure trade in the Asia-Pacific region and to improve the ability of business and the administrations of countries in the region to exchange goods and services effectively. The main emphasis is on the promotion of simplification, harmonization, and standardization of trade procedures and related documentary requirements in international trade, in order to reduce transaction costs and time.

Trade facilitation support UNESCAP seeks to increase the capacity of member countries to develop national trade efficiency and facilitation policies, and to implement action plans for trade facilitation measures based on innovative methods and techniques, ICT applications and better regional cooperation. To achieve this objective, the Secretariat provides information and knowledge-sharing activities aimed at better collaboration among various government agencies and the private sector; the adoption of international standards and modern technological solutions; and collaboration in policy and strategy-formulation for coordinated trade facilitation measures. In the capacity building area, UNESCAP has implemented various projects and activities promoting the simplification and harmonization of trade procedures and documentary requirements. UNESCAP provides an advocacy platform for the use of international standards in order to ensure inter-operability among trade facilitation measures implemented by different countries in the region. The primary focus is on least-developed, landlocked and transitional countries. The projects in trade facilitation implemented by UNESCAP include the following: • I nter-regional partnership for promoting trade as an engine for growth through knowledge management and ICT (UN Development Account 4th Tranche); • Institutional Capacity Building for Facilitation of International Trade and Transport in the Landlocked and Transit Countries (funded by the Government of the Netherlands). The projects generated are: (i) recommendations on the establishment/strengthening of national trade/ transport coordination mechanisms; (ii) assessment of the level of trade facilitation implementation in the countries involved; (iii) national trade and transport facilitation action plans; and (iv) the establishment of an online database on trade and transport facilitation for six landlocked countries. Relevant information and outputs have been summarized in an ESCAP publication entitled “Trade facilitation in selected landlocked countries in Asia”, available at: www.unescap.org/tid/publication/tipub2437.asp For more information: www.unescap.org/tid/trprom.asp

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United Nations Network of Experts for Paperless Trade in Asia and the Pacific (UN NExT) The United Nations Network of Experts for Paperless Trade in Asia and the Pacific (UN NExT) was created to provide a platform for practitioners and policy makers to share knowledge and practice in order to facilitate the implementation of single window and paperless trade in the region. UN NExT develops trade facilitation tools to support the implementation of international standards and solutions for aligned trade documents and data, single window and electronic data interchange (EDI), as provided, inter alia, by the United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) and the World Customs Organization (WCO), and measures negotiated under the WTO negotiations on trade facilitation. It provides access to technical knowledge and expertise, training activities and peer-to-peer support in the following areas: • • • • • • •

Contact: Yann Duval, Trade Facilitation Section, Trade and Investment Division, E-mail: duvaly@un.org

Business process analysis for simplified trade procedures and documents; Simplification and automation of trade documents for migration to paperless trade; Development of aligned sets of national and regional trade documents; Single window implementation; Regional harmonization of data requirements; Regulatory framework; Business models (including management, financial and operational arrangements).

For more information: www.unescap.org/unnext; www.unescap.org/tid/projects/da6.asp

Project: Enhancing the trade competitiveness of least-developed countries, countries in transition and transit countries through the implementation of single window facilities ThIs is a joint project undertaken by UNESCAP and the UNECE in the Asia-Pacific region. The project seeks to increase networking among landlocked Least Developed Countries and countries in transition in Central, South and Southeast Asia, with the aim of enhancing their capacity to implement international standards for electronic trade data exchange and single window facilities. It examines conditions for the development and implementation of national single window facilities and a paperless trade environment in the selected project countries. The main project outputs include: (i) the creation of the UN Network of Experts for Paperless Trade in Asia Pacific; (ii) a series of targeted regional, subregional and national capacity building workshops for practitioners and policy makers; (iii) country-specific implementation studies; and (iv) the e-Documents Toolkit to support the implementation of global standards for single window and paperless trade. The project is funded under the United Nations Development Account (6th Tranche).

Contact: Maria Misovicova, Trade Facilitation Section, Trade and Investment Division, E-mail: misovicova@un.org

For more information: www.unescap.org/tid/projects/da6.asp

Project: Capacity building in support of trade integration with an emphasis on integrated trade information flow management and trade facilitation Currently UNESCAP and the UNECE are jointly implementing this United Nations Development Account 5th Tranche Project. The objective of the project is to increase the capacity of the SPECA countries (Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan) to develop regional trade integration and facilitation policies which will lead to an increase in their competitiveness in regional and global markets. The duration of the project is 4 years from 2006 to 2009. The areas of activity include:

Contact: Bin Peng, Trade Facilitation Section, Trade and Investment Division, E-mail: pengb@un.org

• E stablishing an integrated approach to trade and transport facilitation and problems analysis on the movement of goods; • Building a network of public-private partnerships for trade facilitation; • E xamining possibilities for implementing single windows;

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UN NExT was established and is being maintained by UNESCAP and the UNECE. UN NExT and its activities, including national, subregional and regional capacity workshops and studies, are funded under the United Nations Development Account (6th Tranche). Countries from Asia and the Pacific interested in benefiting from the accumulated expertise of the network, or to contribute to it, are welcome to contact ESCAP.


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

• B  uilding a “competence network” to create and use electronic trade documents; • Undertaking capacity building activities on trade facilitation, including issues related to transit. Since the launch of the project, a series of capacity building seminars have been organized in SPECA countries. Under the project, ESCAP is developing a guide, “Business Process Analysis to Simplify Trade Procedures and Documents”, which will be used as training material in future capacity building activities.

Contact: Yann Duval, Trade Facilitation Section, Trade and Investment Division, E-mail: duvaly@un.org

Trade Facilitation Research and Publications UNESCAP, in particular through its Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNeT), a network of developing country research institutions, has been actively supporting trade facilitation research. This research has so far focused on identifying the evolving needs and priorities of developing countries, and evaluating the actual impact of specific trade facilitation measures and behind-the-border regulations on trade, with a particular focus on SMEs. Online tools have also been developed to conduct rapid econometric trade impact analysis of selected measures, which is expected to be particularly useful to trade researchers and government planners. For more information, see www.artnetontrade.org.

Trade Facilitation

UNESCAP also publishes technical and practical guides on trade facilitation. For example, the ESCAP Trade Facilitation Framework provides policy-makers with a guiding tool to asses trade facilitation conditions. It was applied in a number of countries in the Central and South Asian region and the Caucasus, and assisted them to identify the physical bottlenecks in international trade and suggested measures to remedy these (available at www.unescap.org/tid/publication/t&ipub2327.asp). ESCAP also issued a Trade Facilitation Handbook for the Greater Mekong Sub-region, which introduces the concept of trade facilitation, and provides some guidance and ideas on how to actively pursue trade facilitation at the national and regional levels (available at www.unescap.org/tid/publication/t&ipub2224.htm). ESCAP also released, in collaboration with ITC UNCTAD/WTO, a Trade Finance Infrastructure Development Handbook for economies in transition (available at: www.unescap.org/tid/publication/tipub2374.pdf).

UNECE The UNECE supports: Contact: Tom Butterly,Chief Global Trade Solutions Section Tel: +41 22 917 1178 E-mail: tom.butterly@unece.org, uncefact@unece.org

• I mproved competitiveness; • Better integration into global supply chains; • Improved regional and international trade. Trade facilitation and electronic business The UNECE develops norms, standards, and recommendations for trade facilitation and electronic business through its UN Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT). The Centre is a focal point for issues related to trade facilitation and electronic business standards within the UN System. Its principal emphasis is the development of recommendations and standards, but it also develops capacity building activities and tools to promote the implementation of its work. UN/CEFACT supports activities for developed, developing, and transition economies that are dedicated to improving the ability of business, trade, and administrative organizations to exchange products and relevant services. Its principal focus is on facilitating national and international transactions through the simplification and harmonization of processes, procedures, and information flows. This is achieved by: • A  nalyzing and understanding the key elements of international processes, procedures, and transactions, and working for the elimination of constraints;

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• D  eveloping methods to facilitate processes, procedures, and transactions, including the relevant use of information technologies; • Promoting both the use of these methods and associated best practices through channels such as government, industry, and service associations. The capacity building events and activities organized in this area are very diverse, but can be grouped under the following main areas: • A  ctivities to support and build capacity in national trade facilitation organs through advisory services and workshops; • Activities to support the establishment and operation of national single windows 1 for export and import clearance; • National and regional workshops to develop national/regional strategies for trade facilitation in the context of current WTO obligations and WTO negotiations on trade facilitation; • Activities to support electronic alternatives to key paper documents in the international supply chain (UNeDocs project); • O ther activities to support paperless trade transactions.

Successful projects • A  project on establishing a single window 1 in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia launched as a result of a regional conference; • Regional initiative on data harmonization as a key step in building the environment for a single window for export and import clearance in South-Eastern Europe; • Projects on trade facilitation launched as a result of seminars in the EurAsEC countries (the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan); • F irst ever English-Russian glossary of trade facilitation terms drafted – as a very necessary tool for promoting the concept and practice of trade facilitation in Russian-speaking countries; • A project on trade facilitation and institution-building successfully prepared and implemented by TRACECA; • A section on trade and transit facilitation established in the Ukrainian Ministry of the Economy as a result of a UNECE seminar on trade and transport facilitation; • A law on transit, developed under a joint UNECE-Czech Republic project and successfully implemented in Ukraine. In this area, close cooperation takes place with other international organizations, both within and outside the UN System. One of the most important forums for this cooperation is the Global Facilitation Partnership for Transportation and Trade (GFP) (http://www.gfptt.org). However, this and other cooperation mechanisms are supplemented by regular working relationships on specific projects. Additionally, UN/CEFACT relies on its close relationship with the representatives of international business associations, such as Global I (the organization that allocates bar codes for products internationally), the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the International Federation of Freight Forwarders Associations (FIATA), the Global Express Carriers Association, and others.

A “single window” is a facility that allows parties involved in trade and transport to lodge standardized information and documents with a single entry point to fulfil all import, export, and transit-related regulatory requirements.

1

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Because the Centre has a global remit, its capacity building activities are organized across the world. However, because of the UNECE’s limited budget for capacity building, it mainly organizes activities in its own region; but it also supports other organizations, including other UN regional commissions, that organize capacity building in other regions.


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

Finally, UN/CEFACT cooperates extensively with regional trade organizations and groupings for the implementation of the results of its work, including the Commonwealth of Independent States, EurAsEC, the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe, the European Union, APEC and ASEAN, as well as other regional commissions. For more information: www.unece.org/cefact/

UNECLAC Trade facilitation support

Trade Facilitation

Contact: Osvaldo Rosales, Director of International Trade and Integration Division Tel: +56 2 210 2677 E-mail: osvaldo.rosales@cepal.org

In cooperation with other regional commissions and organizations working in the field of trade facilitation, ECLAC’s International Trade and Integration Division has been assisting the region’s countries with border management and performance monitoring systems, customs upgrading (valuation, procedures and mechanisms), custom clearance and harmonization, rules of origin, aligned trade documents, electronic standards/EDI, paperless trade, and single window environments. For more information: www.eclac.cl/comercio/default.asp?idioma=IN

WB The World Bank attaches great importance to trade facilitation, as witnessed by its existing portfolio of 80 projects under implementation, totalling US$4.6 billion. Its largest and most rapidly increasing trade-related work is in the area of trade facilitation and competitiveness. Contact: Jean-Francois Arvis, Senior Transport Economist, International Trade Department Tel: +1 202 473 4163 Fax: +1 202 522 7551 E-mail: tradefacilitation@ worldbank.org

Trade facilitation support Trade-related issues such as customs reforms, the elimination of domestic monopolies in tradable goods, services reforms, and, in rare instances, trade liberalization, are part of its budget support lending. The Trade Facilitation Negotiation Support Programme is geared to assisting developing countries and LDCs to play a more active role in the WTO Trade Facilitation (TF) negotiations. The objective is to secure an ambitious and development-friendly new WTO TF Agreement. This programme provides real-time analysis and practical advice to negotiators in Geneva and capitals. A series of national workshops is also held to demonstrate the utility of capital-based support groups to Geneva negotiators.

Trade and Transport Facilitation Audits (TTFA) The Bank’s Trade and Transport Facilitation Audits seek to improve diagnosis and corrective trade activities by providing guidelines on how to carry out the preliminary audit, and insights on how to go over the analysis and prepare appropriate remedial action. They establish a diagnosis, as comprehensive as possible, of procedural or operational constraints to external trade and international transportation services. Fed from public and private sector assessments, these baseline diagnostics are carried out primarily in LDCs on a selfstanding basis or as a contribution to a wider diagnostic.

Trade Facilitation Facility (TFF) In 2009 the World Bank launched the Trade Facilitation Facility (TFF), a multi-donor trust fund that supports concrete improvements in trade facilitation systems, which in turn can help reduce developing countries’ trade costs and thereby improve their competitiveness. The TFF responds rapidly to government requests for assistance in improving infrastructure, institutions, services, policies, procedures, and market-oriented reg-

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ulatory systems that enable firms to conduct international trade on time and at lower costs. The TFF is projected to deliver around US$40 million in support over the next four years.

Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy A new World Bank publication (and indicators – Logistics Performance Index), Connecting to Compete, based on a world survey of international freight forwarders and express carriers, indicates that facilitating the capacity to connect firms, suppliers and consumers, is crucial in a world where predictability and reliability are becoming even more important than costs. Connecting to Compete was published in 2008, and a second edition is under preparation.

Border Management Modernization: A Guide for Reformers

Trade Facilitation

Following the publication in 2005 of its Customs Modernization Handbook, the Bank is currently preparing a new major publication focused on the wider issue of border management modernization. The objective of the book is to provide policymakers and reformers with a practical guide to address border management issues, including but extending well beyond customs. As such, this represents a significant change in focus from the traditional customs-specific trade facilitation agenda to a new and more comprehensive “whole of government” approach to trade facilitation. The book, due to be completed and released in 2009, includes a series of practical case studies drawn from reform and modernization programmes throughout the world. It is designed to complement the 2005 Customs Modernization Handbook.

International Finance Corporation (IFC) analytical and advisory services The core activities of the IFC’s Foreign Investment Advisory Service (FIAS) include providing advice on import/ export policies and procedures (customs), and advice on investment promotion strategies and tools. Other advisory activities also support trade; for example, an SME advisory programme in South Asia has facilitated improvements in cross-border trade between Bangladesh and North-East India, and has promoted new trading links for SMEs in the garment industry. For more information: w ww.worldbank.org/tradefacilitation www.ifc.org/fias

WTO Trade Facilitation National Needs Assessment Project The WTO Secretariat, in cooperation with the IMF, OECD, UNCTAD, the World Bank and the WCO, provides technical assistance to WTO members and observers, upon request, to conduct a national self-assessment of their individual trade facilitation needs and priorities. This project will contribute to the more effective participation of members and observers in the WTO trade facilitation negotiations. A needs assessment will provide detailed information on the technical assistance requirements of recipient countries, and will be a valuable basis for the eventual implementation of any results of the negotiations.

Contact: Maarten Smeets, Institute for Training and Technical Cooperation Tel: +41 22 739 5587

For more information: www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tradfa_e/tf_assess_proposal_e.doc

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PHYSICAL TRADE INFRASTRUCTURE African Development Bank

Caribbean Development Bank

E uropean Bank for Reconstruction and Development

Inter-American Development Bank

International Civil Aviation Organization

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

World Bank Group


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

AfDB Transport Infrastructure

For more information: http://www.afdb.org/en/topics-sectors/sectors/transport/ AfDB has identified a number of sectoral priorities for the transport sector, and has decided to focus its financing on: • • • • • •

Regional transport corridors; Rural roads; Structuring projects that permit the integration of different modes of transport; Rehabilitation and maintenance programmes; Institutional and maintenance capacity building; Promoting public-private partnerships and multi-sectoral projects.

Contact: The Director Infrastructure Development Department (ONIF) African Development Bank Tel: +216 71 10 3280, +216 71 10 2034 Fax: +216 71 33 3364, +216 71 33 1759 E-mail: f.kassahun@afdb.org, g.mbesherubusa@afdb.org, j.rwamabuga@afdb.org, a.kies@afdb.org, rugamba@afdb.org, a.t.diallo@afdb.org

Physical Trade Infrastructure

Africa’s current very defective transport network prevents the countries of the region from being competitive, especially on the world market. Most of the Bank’s resources, the bulk of which go into infrastructure development, end up in road infrastructure—always a major part of its funding of the region’s infrastructure. Energy, too, has always been a major focus for the Bank, whereas the development of port and rail and communication technology involves new undertakings.

For more information: http://www.afdb.org/en/topics-sectors/sectors/transport/bank-group-vision/

Information and communication technology (ICT) AfDB’s ICT operations strategy is to make an important contribution to poverty reduction and the economic growth of regional member countries (RMCs) by increasing the Bank’s role in extending access to ICT infrastructure, stimulating private sector investment and, ultimately, enhancing good governance and the efficient delivery of public services, like education and health, thus contributing to the achievement of the MDGs. For more information: http://www.afdb.org/en/topics-sectors/sectors/information-communication-technology/

NEPAD-Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility (IPPF) This facility assists African countries, regional economic communities, specialized agencies and related institutions, through grant resources, in: • P reparing high quality and viable regional/continental infrastructure projects to be ready to solicit financing from public and private sources; • Developing a consensus and partnership for project implementation; • P romoting infrastructure projects and programmes which would promote regional integration and trade.

Contact: The Director NEPAD, Regional Integration and Trade Department (ONRI) African Development Bank B.P. 323 - 1002 Tunis Belvédère, Tunisia Tel: +216 71 10 2825, +216 71 10 2156, +216 71 10 3477 Fax: +216 71 33 2694 E-mail: c.seka@afdb.org, m.mupotola@afdb.org, h.minnaar@afdb.org, c.lozano@afdb.org

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CDB Restoration of physical infrastructure Contact: Caribbean Development Bank Tel: +246 431 1600 Fax: +246 228 9670, +246 426 7269 E-mail: info@caribank.org

The Immediate Response Loan is intended to help governments meet expenses in clearing affected areas and for emergency restoration of essential public services. Activities could include the repair, replacement or installation of measures to protect and restore vital economic infrastructure necessary for the resumption of social and economic activities. Activities include: • • • • • • •

Repair of roads, bridges, culverts, drains, airports, seaports; Removal of landslips or lava flows; Implementation of slope stabilization measures; Construction or repair of sea defences; Construction of temporary bridges, causeways, or fords; Reinstatement of water supply; Repairs to police, fire, medical and other emergency response facilities and/or equipment.

Physical Trade Infrastructure

For more information: http://www.caribank.org/titanweb/cdb/webcms.nsf/AllDoc/ADFD19E9422431CA04257612007255375/$Fil e/DiMSOG%202009.pdf

EBRD Infrastructure and transport policy Contact: Transport Tel: +44 20 7338 6202 Fax: +44 20 7338 7301

The EBRD fosters transition of the transport sector by financing economically viable infrastructure and transport projects. The EBRD’s Transport Operations Policy aims to build efficient, reliable and secure transport systems in six lines of transport business: aviation, ports, railways, road transport, shipping, and logistics. The EBRD continues to cooperate with the EU on the development of the Trans-European Network corridors and implementation of regional initiatives, such as the REBIS (Regional Balkans Infrastructure Study) initiative in the Western Balkans and the TRACECA (Transport Corridor, Europe-Caucasus-Asia) initiative in Central Asia and the Caucasus. For more information: http://www.ebrd.com

Case study - Modernising transport networks in Serbia In defiance of the global financial crisis, Serbia is pressing ahead with its efforts to maintain its central position in south-eastern Europe. One key element in this strategy is the modernization of the country’s infrastructure, in particular the road network. Not only does Serbia use the network as a link to its neighbours, but its geographical location also means that it forms part of the shortest land route to Greece, Turkey and further east. A major step in this endeavour is the construction of Corridor X, which will ultimately link Salzburg with Thessaloniki. The EBRD – with the World Bank and the European Investment Bank – is financing the section from Nis in south-eastern Serbia to Dimitrovgrad on the border with Bulgaria. Total construction

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costs for the 83.5 km motorway, built to the highest European standards with four lanes plus hard shoulder and electronic tolling, will be €795 million, of which the EBRD is providing €150 million. Traffic levels have been rising steadily and so for Serbia the modernization of its transport infrastructure is vital. The south-east link will provide a boost to a region which has been suffering in recent years as a consequence of the general economic downturn. This project fits with Serbia’s desire to become part of the pan-European project. Acquisition and construction of cargo vessels EBRD’s involvement has so far concentrated on debt financing for the acquisition and construction of various types of cargo vessels. The Bank will continue to finance deep-sea ship owners, including its existing clients, in their on-going efforts to modernize their fleets.

Physical Trade Infrastructure

However, the Bank will also seek to diversify its portfolio to finance the renewal of other types of vessels, including passenger and river ships. The majority of the shipping fleet (including river vessels) in the region are in imminent need of replacement, and this renewal process is critical for the sector if it is to maintain or improve its competitiveness and eliminate sub-standard vessels in order to improve crew safety and address environmental concerns. All EBRD-financed shipping projects should comply with the standards of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) for safety and protection of the environment, and ships should be operated in open and commercial markets. The Bank is intensifying its efforts to develop appropriate structures for projects in the shipbuilding industry. Besides acting as a catalyst in channelling long-term financing to the region, the Bank’s involvement will provide the opportunity to achieve its transition goals. For the Bank’s future operations in the sector, the following transition objectives have been identified: • • • • • • •

Promotion of competitiveness through fleet renewal; Promotion of privatization and restructuring; Transfer of technical know-how and management skills; Promotion of good corporate governance and best business practice; Promotion of safety and environmental consciousness; Development of an appropriate regulatory and legal framework; Facilitation of regional trade.

For more information: http://www.ebrd.com

IDB Transport infrastructure The IDB has broad experience in the financing of basic transport infrastructure, from roads and networks for rural transport to integration corridors. The development of transport infrastructure is mainly aimed at providing transport networks in good condition, and meeting uniform standards that enable the development of trade-related and productive activities. Good accessibility is the foundation for the development of transportation services and of activities that facilitate the formation of productive clusters, value-adding activities and trade synergies. The Bank supports transportation services that are under the responsibility of the national government and sub-national entities through financial and non-financial products, such as policy dialogues, seminars and training activities, among others.

Contact: Pablo Guerrero, Infrastructure and Environment Sector, Tel: +1 202 623 2416 E-mail: pablogu@iadb.org Manuel Marquez Integration and Trade Sector Tel: +1 202 623 2053 E-mail: manuelm@iadb.org

The IDB also supports result-oriented maintenance standards in road networks and infrastructure, such as port dredging, and strives to ensure that the infrastructure built is maintained in a cost-efficient manner and in optimal conditions for its suitable use and operation.

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Ports and maritime transport As a result of its geographical situation and of the goods involved in foreign trade, ports and maritime transport play a fundamental role in the Inter-American region. An annual volume in the order of 1,450 million metric tons is operated through seaports, which are the most significant entry and departure points for foreign trade. Out of that volume, 80 per cent are exports and 20 per cent imports, given the distinctive feature of this region as an exporter of raw material products (minerals, grains, hydrocarbons). Port performance has a significant impact on maritime connectivity, particularly in the transport of containers, which concentrates items with highest unit value. The Bank participates with financing for ports whose operation is still under public responsibility, as well as in the development of technical cooperation to improve port safety and service standards. By means of other cooperation mechanisms, the Bank facilitates the creation of agencies and policies aimed at increasing the participation of the private sector in the supply of infrastructure or related transportation services, seeking to capitalize operational improvements and efficiency from the private sphere.

Physical Trade Infrastructure

The Bank has identified five key priority areas in an attempt to complement other ongoing initiatives that strive to identify areas of activity and opportunities for innovative logistics strategies and trade-related facilitation initiatives, including the optimization of the transportation infrastructure (ports and airports, inter-city and urban logistics platforms), cargo handling and operation, institutional arrangements, business logistics and trade facilitation, and the adoption of innovative technological systems supporting service operations: • Provision of basic infrastructure, for general purposes, not the road network; • A series of infrastructure services directly related to cargo logistics, where the private sector plays a prevailing role in the operation and where public-private associations and regulations are of outmost significance (basically includes ports and railroads); • Services operated by the state, and its border crossings infrastructure, either directly or through outsourcing (customs and customs-related management, migration and phyto-sanitary controls), that enable trade facilitation and the control of theft and robbery of goods; • Support for better private sector development, which comprises technical assistance and training for small-sized companies in the organization of their supply chains as well as for those who supply logistics services, such as carriers, logistics operators or brokers, and their organizations; • T he organization of the public sector to foster quality policies in logistics performance, including intersector, inter-jurisdictional and public-private coordination entities, the development of monitoring systems to follow up on logistics performance, and the general training of related human resources.

ICAO Contact: Julián de la Cámara, Economist, Economic Policy and Infrastructure Management Section (EPM) Tel: +1 514 954 8219 ext. 8051, E-mail: jdelacamara@icao.int

ICAO’s common aim in this category is to increase efficiency and improve cost-effectiveness in the provision and operation of airports and air navigation services by developing and promoting relevant policies and guidance material on user charges, taxation, and the economics of infrastructure management.

Economic Policy and Infrastructure Management (EPM) EPM is a part of ICAO’s strategic objective D - Efficiency. The objectives are to: • I mprove and actively promote ICAO’s policies on user charges and taxation in the field of international air transport; • Monitor compliance with Articles 15 and 24 of the Chicago Convention and the application of ICAO-­ recommended policies and practices in the area of cost recovery for airports and air navigation services; • Monitor and report on the economic situation of airports and air navigation services and the impact of associated charges on users; • Promote international cooperation in the operation of air navigation services.

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In the current environment of commercialization/privatization of airports and air navigation services, some consensus is needed on establishing and levying airport and air navigation charges. Without common international policies, airports and air navigation service providers would develop and apply their own principles, thus reducing transparency and leading to higher charges and governments finding reasons to increase taxation on international aviation. This service is provided to governments (Ministry of Transport, Civil Aviation Authority), airport authorities, air navigation service providers, airline associations, civil aviation professionals, consultants, airlines, and the travelling public. The service is provided by technical support on a required basis, the dissemination of information through publications (documents, manuals and circulars), meetings (workshops, seminars, symposia, and conferences), and training courses. Inputs include meetings (workshops, seminars, symposia, and conferences), two standing panels of experts, state surveys, individual expertise and access to databases, CD-ROMs and printed material. One hundred and twenty-one airport managers from 53 States have taken the joint ICAO/ACI (Airports Council International) course on airport charges.

UNCTAD Transport and trade facilitation The objectives are:

Contact: trade.logistics@unctad.org

• To improve the performance of transport operators and auxiliary services; • To set up the necessary institutional and operational environment for the introduction of multi-modal transport.

Americas E-mail: AsyAmer@unctad.org

Technical assistance is provided for the identification of the required improvements to the physical features of existing transport networks; in proposals for specific actions to make the best use of available trade and transport related assets; and in eliminating, wherever possible, barriers that might increase transaction costs and create unnecessary delays. Activities in the transport area include the creation of platforms to support the development of efficient transport systems, and assistance in the design of solutions to overcome impediments to trade. Advice and operational support is given in the areas of port management, and the modernization and harmonization of national transport legislation and regulations. In addition, institutional and individual capacity building is provided to help elaborate proposals to improve the efficiency of transit transport operations and transit agreements between landlocked countries and their neighbours.

East Africa E-mail: pascal.minvielle@ unctad.org Europe & CIS E-mail: nicolae.popa@unctad.org Middle East E-mail: alioune.ciss@unctad.org West Africa E-mail: marc.morizot@unctad.org

For more information: http://r0.unctad.org/ttl/

Review of Maritime Transport (RMT) The Review of Maritime Transport examines trends in sea-borne trade and analyses the comparative performance of different geographic regions and countries. For more information: http://www.unctad.org/Templates/StartPage.asp?intItemID=2614&lang=1

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For more information: www.icao.int/icao/en/atb/epm/index.html


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

UNECE The UNECE supports: Contact: Eva Molnar,Director, Transport Division, E-mail: eva.molnar@unece.org

• • • • •

Facilitation of the international movement of goods and persons; Safe transport of dangerous goods; Harmonization of road vehicle regulations: Development of trans-European and Euro-Asian transport links; Facilitation of transit and border crossing.

Subprogramme on transport The UNECE objective under the subprogramme on transport is to facilitate the international movement of persons and goods by inland transport modes, and to improve safety and security in the transport sector.

Physical Trade Infrastructure

For more information: www.unece.org/trans/welcome.html

Contact: Olivier Kervella, Chief, Dangerous Goods and Special Cargoes Section E-mail: olivier.kervella@unece.org

Transport of dangerous goods In this area of work, the UNECE develops global and multi-modal regulations for the safe transport of dangerous goods. The regulations produced - the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (Orange Book) - contain the basic prescriptions for the safe carriage of dangerous goods by road, rail, inland water, sea, and air. They serve as the basis for the legal instruments governing the transport of dangerous goods by the various modes. To facilitate the operation and better implementation of these legal instruments in the region, workshops and seminars are organized by the UNECE, with the assistance of the Secretariat and national experts. For more information: www.unece.org/trans/danger/danger.htm

Contact: Juan Ramos Garcia, Chief, Technology Section, E-mail: juan.ramos.garcia@unece.org

Harmonization of road vehicle regulations In this area, the UNECE develops new regional and global regulations, harmonizes existing regulations, and amends and updates current UNECE regulations in the field of road vehicle construction. The objective of these regulations is to provide procedures for establishing uniform prescriptions regarding new motor vehicles and equipment and for reciprocal acceptance of approvals issued under the respective regulations. Issues addressed relate to the active safety of vehicles (crash avoidance), passive safety of vehicles (crashworthiness), environmental and general safety, and special technical considerations. To facilitate the operation and better implementation of these regulations, workshops and seminars are organized by the UNECE, with the assistance of the Secretariat and national experts. For more information: www.unece.org/trans/main/welcwp29.htm

Contact: Michalis Adamantiadis, Chief, Transport and Infrastructure Development Section E-mail: michalis.adamantiadis@unece.org

Transport links projects. The Trans-European Motorway (TEM) and Railway (TER) and Euro-Asian Transport Links (EATL) projects are subregional cooperation frameworks for countries in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe that aim at developing coherent road, rail and intermodal transport infrastructure networks and enhance transport facilitation. In the framework of the TEM and TER master plans, a consistent and realistic short, medium and longterm investment strategy for the development of road and rail networks in 21 participating countries has been developed on the basis of a methodology allowing evaluation and prioritization of infrastructure and investment needs. Similarly, in the framework of the EATL project, the UNECE and UNESCAP have developed methodologies and procedures providing for the identification of the main Euro-Asian land transport routes and the prioritization of projects along these routes.

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Numerous capacity building workshops and seminars are organized by the UNECE and UNESCAP to familiarize countries in the region with these methodologies and implementation procedures. More information about these activities can be obtained from the following websites: http://www.unece.org/trans/main/tem/tem.html http://www.unece.org/trans/main/ter/ter.html http://www.unece.org/trans/main/temtermp/news.html http://www.unece.org/trans/main/eatl/intro.html

Transport and border crossing facilitation is an important part of UNECE activities in the field of transport and is a key factor for trade facilitation. In this respect, the UNECE provides the following services:

Contact: Martin Magold, Chief, Border Crossing Facilitation Section E-mail: martin.magold@unece.org

• Facilitates cooperation and coordination of border control services; • Monitors the application of several international legal instruments in these areas, such as the TIR and the harmonization conventions; • Supports the simplification and standardization of customs transit procedures; • Facilitates the harmonization and reduction of formalities, as well as the reduction of the number and duration of border controls, both at national and international levels. To facilitate the operation and better implementation of these legal instruments in the region, national and regional workshops and seminars are organized by the UNECE, with the assistance of the Secretariat and national experts. For more information: www.unece.org/trans/bcf/welcome.html

WB Trade-related infrastructure projects lending The World Bank Group total transport sector portfolio consists of US$24.8 billion of net commitments at the end of the fiscal year 2008 (FY08), representing 18 per cent of the total World Bank Group portfolio. IBRD/ IDA makes up US$23.1 billion of this amount, with the IFC contributing US$1.7 billion. The sector’s lending is on a growing trend. In FY07, IBRD/IDA approved US$5 billion of new commitments, of which 78 per cent has been committed to the roads sector. IBRD/IDA commitments again reached about US$5 billion in FY08, but with the transport portfolio showing signs of rebalancing, with roads and highways coming down to 57 per cent, while urban transport projects and railways, in particular, took a larger share of operational activities. The greater importance of cross-sectoral issues in project design and monitoring is also apparent, with environment and climate impact being more systematically addressed; health, social inclusion and accessibility issues being part of many more projects; and the relationship with trade competitiveness strengthened, in particular in operations dealing with ports, air transport, and regional corridors. Simultaneously the International Finance Corporation (IFC) transport commitments have been rising strongly, reaching close to US$1 billion in FY08 after being US$350 million in FY07. Specialized investments and advisory work related to export-oriented industrial zones and e-commerce export marketing have also been provided.

Contact: Marc Juhel, Transport Unit Sector Manager Energy, Transport and Water Department Tel: +1 202 473 1000 Fax: +1 202 477 6391 E-mail: mjuhel@worldbank.org

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TIR customs transit and border crossing facilitation


[ Trade-Related Financial Services ]


TRADE-RELATED FINANCIAL SERVICES African Development Bank

Asian Development Bank

E uropean Bank for Reconstruction and Development

Inter-American Development Bank

International Trade Centre

 nited Nations Conference on Trade U and Development

World Bank Group


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

AfDB Emergency Liquidity Facility (ELF)

For more information: http://www.afdb.org/en/projects-operations/financial-products/emergency-financing/

Sovereign guaranteed loans for the public sector A loan qualifies as a sovereign guaranteed loan if made to a regional member country or if it is supported by the full faith and credit of the member country in whose territory the borrower is domiciled or, in the case of loans to multinational institutions, if it is guaranteed by a member country or by member countries in whose territory(ies) the borrower shall execute the project. For more information: http://www.afdb.org/en/projects-operations/financial-products/product-information/ loans/sovereign-guaranteed-loans-for-public-sector/ Non-sovereign guaranteed loans for public and private sectors Non-sovereign guaranteed loans to public-sector enterprises (public-sector NSGLs) are made to public enterprises that meet specific eligibility criteria, without the requirement of a sovereign guarantee by the host government. For more information: http://www.afdb.org/en/projects-operations/financial-products/product-information/ loans/non-sovereign-guaranteed-loans-for-public-private-sectors/

Risk management products To manage risks related to its loans, the AfDB offers risk management products to its borrowers, including interest rate swaps, currency swaps, commodity swaps, index swaps, caps and floors, and collars. These instruments are provided at prevailing market conditions. For more information: http://www.afdb.org/en/projects-operations/financial-products/product-information/ risk-management-products/

Contact: The Vice-President Operations III: Infrastructure, Private Sector and Regional Integration (OIVP) Tel : +216 71 10 2802, +216 71 10 2002, +216 71 10 3023 Fax: +216 71 33 2015 E-mail: w.brient@afdb.org, b.pittman@afdb.org, a.abou-zeid@afdb.org

Contact: The Vice-President Operations I: Country & Regional Programs & Policy (ORVP) Tel: +216 71 10 2801, +216 71 10 2064, +216 71 10 2429 Fax: +216 71 83 2737 E-mail: r.van-ess@afdb.org, ordu@afdb.org, v.dabady@afdb.org, o.shingiro@afdb.org The Vice-President Operations III: Infrastructure, Private Sector and Regional Integration (OIVP) Tel: +216 71 10 2802, +216 71 10 2002, +216 71 10 3023 Fax: +216 71 33 2015 E-mail: w.brient@afdb.org, b.pittman@afdb.org, a.abou-zeid@afdb.org Contact: The Director Treasury Department (FTRY) Tel: +216 71 10 2828, +216 71 10 2028, +216 71 10 2453 Fax: +216 71 33 0632 E-mail: n.mouihbi@afdb.org, p.vanpeteghem@afdb.org, m.akin-olugbade@afdb.org

Guarantees To support private sector development in regional member countries, the AfDB offers two types of guarantee: • Partial credit guarantee; • Partial risk guarantee. For more information: http://www.afdb.org/en/projects-operations/financial-products/product-information/ guarantees/

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African Development Bank Group, on 4 March 2009, established a US$1.5 billion ELF as part of a global response to the financial crisis. The ELF aims at providing financial support to eligible clients in exceptional cases.


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

Contact: The Director Private Sector Department (OPSM) African Development Bank Tel: +216 71 10 2051, +216 71 10 2528, +216 71 10 2140 Fax: +216 71 83 4178 E-mail : t.turner@afdb.org, l.mokadem@afdb.org, l.cheikhrouhou@afdb.org

African Financing Partnership (AFP) The African Financing Partnership (AFP) is an organized collaboration and co-financing platform among development financing institutions with a strong African experience that optimizes the use of their consolidated market knowledge and project financing skills. For more information: http://www.afdb.org/en/topics-sectors/initiatives-partnerships/african-financingpartnership/

The Trade Finance Initiative (TFI) Trade Finance Line of Credit (TF LOC): The AfDB established a multiphase US$1 billion TFI in March 2009. It will consist of a TF LOC that will, in the first phase of the TFI, allow African commercial banks and development finance institutions to use AfDB resources to support trade finance operations.

Trade-Related Financial Services

Global Trade Liquidity Programme (GTLP): The second phase of the TFI will consist of the GTLP. In response to the urgency of the crisis, the GTLP’s feasibility was endorsed by the Bank and IFC, among others. The Bank is now investing US$500 million in the GTLP. This is justified by the urgency of alleviating the trade finance constraints being experienced by regional member countries. For more information:  http://www.afdb.org/en/topics-sectors/initiatives-partnerships/trade-finance-initiative/

ADB Contact: Private Sector Operations Department (PSOD) Philip C. Erquiaga Tel: +632 632 6315 E-mail: perquiaga@adb.org

Jo Yamagata Deputy Director General Private Sector Operations Department Tel: +632 632 6877 E-mail: jyamagata@adb.org

ADB provides trade-related financial assistance to developing countries in the form of equity, grants, loans and guarantees, as well as B loans (complementary financing scheme).

Equity investments ADB provides equity investments to facilitate the launching of new ventures or the privatization of stateowned enterprises. It invests in projects either directly or through financial intermediaries, such as investment funds. ADB chooses to invest directly when: • A sector is being opened for private sector investment; • The investment provides the opportunity for ADB to maximize policy leverage or gain detailed knowledge in a new sector; • Developmental projects are progressing slowly due to a funding shortfall. Alternatively, ADB channels its equity investments through funds if: • A  DB believes that a qualified fund manager can better supply the expertise that ADB lacks in a particular sector; • Several relatively small projects with similar characteristics require funding. Investment fund operations deliver private equity to developing member countries (DMCs). This simulates domestic market development and capacity-building and increases access to debt financing in its DMCs. Private equity is in high demand from ADB’s DMCs, and is a standard modality for investment within ADB’s peer institutions. For more information: http://www.adb.org/PrivateSector/Finance/equity.asp

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Loans and guarantees ADB provides loans, without government guarantees, to private sector projects and enterprises. In general, these loans are denominated in the major international currencies. However, local currency financing is also available in selected countries. Loans to private sector companies or projects may be co-financed by commercial banks and other development banks. ADB’s guarantee instruments cover those risks that the private sector cannot easily absorb or manage on its own. Mitigating these risks can make a crucial difference in mobilizing debt funding for private sector projects. For more information: http://www.adb.org/PrivateSector/Finance/guarantees.asp

B Loan (Complementary Financing Scheme) B loans are funded by commercial lenders with ADB acting as “lender of record”. Although B loans do not provide co-financiers with recourse to ADB for debt service, such loans do enjoy the same privileges and immunities as those given to ADB direct loans.

Trade Finance Facilitation Programme (TFFP) ADB’s Trade Finance Facilitation Program, which started operations in 2004, provides finance and guarantees through, and in conjunction with, international and developing member country banks to support trade transactions in developing nations. Realizing that access to trade finance in times of crisis is vital to cushioning the shock of the global downturn on international trade, ADB has significantly expanded the Trade Finance Facilitation Programme to US$1 billion. This move is expected to generate up to US$15 billion in trade support by the end of 2013. By the end of 2008, the programme had supported nearly 1,200 international trade transactions worth over US$578 million and has been used in nine countries in Asia, without incurring any losses or problem loans.

Contact: Steven Beck Capital Markets and Financial Sectors Division Private Sector Operations ­Department Tel: +632 632 6599 Fax: +632 636 2448 E-mail: sbeck@adb.org

The TFFP: • Provides guarantees to confirming banks and revolving credits to issuing banks located in DMCs; • Enhances banks’ abilities to offer importers and exporters access to financial services; • Works in partnership with the private sector to provide capacity, liquidity and stability to the trade finance system. For more information: http://www.adb.org/TradeFinance/default.asp

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For more information: http://www.adb.org/PrivateSector/Finance/com_financing.asp


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

EBRD Trade Facilitation Programme (TFP) Contact: Trade Facilitation Programme Telephone: +44 207 338 6991 Fax: +44 207 338 6119 E-mail: tfpops@ebrd.com

The EBRD’s Trade Facilitation Programme (TFP) promotes foreign trade with Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Through the Programme, the EBRD provides guarantees to international confirming banks. In so doing, it takes the political and commercial payment risk of transactions undertaken by issuing banks in the countries where the EBRD operates. The Programme can guarantee any genuine trade transaction associated with exports from, imports to, and trade between the EBRD’s countries of operations. Over 80 issuing banks in the Bank’s region of operations participate in the Programme together with over 500 confirming banks throughout the world. EBRD guarantees cover a wide range of goods and services, including consumer goods, commodities, equipment, machinery and power supply as well as cross-border engineering, construction, shipbuilding, ­technical and other services. Trade finance instruments include letters of credit, payment and other types of guarantees, bills of exchange or promissory notes, performance bonds and bid bonds.

Trade-Related Financial Services

The EBRD also provides short-term loans for trade-related transactions under the TFP. The EBRD has added factoring as a new product to its TFP in order to further support the transfer of innovative trade finance solutions and know-how to its countries of operations. Through the TFP, the EBRD also provides financing for the domestic factoring activities, including in local currencies in a number of countries. Importantly, the TFP covers the political and commercial payment risk in the international trade transactions undertaken by banks in the countries of operations (the issuing banks) in the area of international factoring. For more information: http://www.ebrd.com

Training and advisory services for the TFP Donors support the development of the TFP by providing funds for training and advisory services for issuing banks in the TFP. With support from the Governments of Austria, France, Ireland, Taiwan and the UK, the EBRD has been conducting trade finance training targeted at issuing-bank staff. In addition, with funds provided by Canada, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Taiwan, the EBRD has been hiring trade finance specialists to deliver trade finance advisory services for the banks in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Ukraine. This project helps banks to increase their operational skills and improve their international trade finance services.

Loans In order for the EBRD to facilitate its reach, especially for low-income countries in the region, two new forms of private financial tools have been introduced to stimulate market activity, along with an existing but modified small size equity financing ability. These tools rely on a streamlined approach to finance projects, where the Bank’s participation ranges from €0.5 million to €4 million. The EBRD’s lending programmes provide individual entrepreneurs and firms with access to otherwise scarce finance. The Bank also provides complementary schemes that aim to help individual enterprises adapt to the demands of a market economy: • T he Direct Loan Facility (DLF) finances expansion, modernization and acquisition projects in the private sector and provides working capital of €0.5 million to €4 million. It provides the Bank with an instrument to meet the growing demand for medium-sized loans, with medium to long-term maturities, in early transition countries which cannot be met by the EBRD’s available intermediate programmes, i.e. SME credit lines, the Trade Facilitation Programmes and the Medium-sized Co-financing Facility with local banks, or by the local banks directly.

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• T he Medium-sized Co-financing Facility (MCFF) provides co-financing alongside local banks for up to 50 per cent of the loans to selected enterprises. The MCFF with local banks was established as a new regional framework to be provided to leading commercial banks in the early transition countries (ETCs) - Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyz Republic, Moldova, Mongolia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The MCFF is designed to meet the financing needs of successful medium-sized private companies in the ETCs that have begun to outgrow the countries’ financial sector. The ability of local banks to support the growth of successful companies is often constrained by single-borrower exposure limits imposed by the countries’ central banks or by the local banks’ internal guidelines introduced to avoid the risk of loan portfolio concentration. • T he Direct Investment Facility (DIF) is an equity driven programme which focuses on supporting local enterprises. DIF’s purpose is to provide financing in the form of equity and, under appropriate circumstances, quasi-equity to private sector businesses led by motivated and experienced entrepreneurs who are otherwise unable to find appropriate capital to support commercially promising activities in the Early Transition Countries (ETCs) and elsewhere in the EBRD’s countries of operations.

IDB Grants and loans The IDB provides trade-related financial assistance to Latin American and Caribbean countries in the form of grants and loans to both the public and private sectors. The Vice Presidency for Private Sector and Non-Sovereign Guaranteed Operations (VPP) coordinates the development and delivery of private sector and non-sovereign guaranteed operational programmes of the IDB Group (composed of the IDB, the Inter-American Investment Corporation (IIC) and the Multilateral Investment Fund (MIF)).

Contact: Hans Schulz Manager Structured and Corporate Finance Department (SCF) Tel: +1 202 623 3702 E-mail: scf@iadb.org

The Structured and Corporate Finance Department (SCF) of the IDB provides loans from the IDB’s own resources (“A” Loans) and works with banks and institutional investors to participate on a co-financing basis with the IDB through the sale of loan participations, or “B Loans”. SCF also provides partial credit and political risk guarantees and can work with clients to mobilize non-reimbursable resources for project preparation.

Trade finance SCF also supports the development of international trade through the implementation of the IDB’s Trade Finance Facilitation Programme (TFFP). Under the TFFP, the IDB extends credit guarantees in favour of confirming banks to cover the risk they take on eligible trade financing instruments issued by Latin American and Caribbean issuing banks. For more information see: http://www.iadb.org/scf

Private sector development The mission of the IDB Investment Corporation is to promote and support the development of the private sector and the capital markets in its Latin American and Caribbean member countries by investing, lending, innovating, and leveraging resources as the institution charged with fostering the development of small and medium-sized enterprises to further sustainable economic development. FINPYME® is a diagnostic methodology developed by the Inter-American Investment Corporation to assess small and medium-sized enterprises in order to help them become more competitive and improve their access to potential sources of financing.

Contact: Jorge Roldán Chief, Technical Assistance and Strategic partnership Division (TAS) Tel: +1 202 623 3948

For more information see: http://www.iic.org http://www.finpyme.org/

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For more information: http://www.ebrd.com


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

ITC Trade finance Contact: Anders Aeroe, Director of Division for Market Development Tel: +41 22 730 0111 E-mail: aeroe@intracen.org

ITC’s objective is threefold: • E nable trade support institutions to provide more adapted financial services to meet the needs of client enterprises; • Train enterprises in financial management, for example how to approach banks; • Provide the banking sector with assessment tools to better assess the risks of financing SMEs in order to facilitate the SMEs’ access to financing for export. Capacity is built through training on issues related to financial guarantees and collateral needs. Financial institutions are assisted in the provision of SME-specific financing mechanisms by integrating e-solutions into the risk analysis processes. Emphasis is put on promoting a better understanding and mitigation of exporting SMEs’ risk.

Trade-Related Financial Services

For more information: www.intracen.org/tfs/

UNCTAD Insurance Contact: UNCTAD Insurance Programme Tel: +41 22 907 4888 Fax: +41 22 907 0197 E-mail: marko.stanovic@unctad.org

The UNCTAD Insurance Programme provides developing countries with technical assistance aimed at: • H  elping establish competitive and efficient insurance markets and improving access to insurance services for the majority of developing countries’ populations, as well as their commercial sectors, so as to prepare those countries for further liberalization of their financial services sectors; • Providing technical support, advice, guidance and training for insurance supervisory authorities, particularly in the establishment of legal frameworks and supervisory practices geared to the development of sustainable competitive insurance markets; • Organizing training seminars/workshops to improve understanding of the role of supervision and enhance the competence and technical abilities of the staff of supervisory authorities; • Organizing events on the impact of liberalization. For more information: http://www.unctad.org/Templates/StartPage.asp?intItemID=4126&lang=1

Contact: Corporate Governance and Transparency Section Division on Investment, Technology and Enterprise Development Fax: +41 22 917 0122 E-mail: isar@unctad.org

Corporate transparency and accounting UNCTAD helps developing countries participate in the processes that set internationally recognized accounting and reporting standards, and assists them in building the technical capacity and institutions needed for the implementation of such standards and codes. The centrepiece of the programme is the exchange of views and experiences on technical issues between experts from Member States through the annual sessions of the Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR) and related workshops and round-tables. Key issues of concern include accounting, auditing, corporate governance and corporate responsibility. Best practice is disseminated through technical guidance on various aspects of corporate transparency and disclosure. Capacity building activities include training sessions in such areas as accounting by small and medium sized enterprises, the practical implementation of ­International Financial Reporting Standards, and the improvement of corporate governance disclosure and corporate responsibility reporting. For more information: www.unctad.org/isar

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Commodity 1 risk management and finance tools UNCTAD plays a leading role in assisting commodity-dependent countries to enhance their capacity to use modern commodity risk management and finance tools. Work in this area involves research, policy advice,

Success stories / impacts achieved (2006): Tajikistan – Improving trade finance architecture

training and technical cooperation activities geared to both the private and the public sectors. The following activities are emphasized: • • • •

• • •

Integration of commodity marketing, risk management and finance operations; Creation of solutions to problems of access to commodity risk management and finance markets; Training, development of manuals, and capacity building for banks, farmer’s associations, etc.; Implementation of legal and regulatory frameworks to reduce transaction costs, and improved access to international commodity risk management and finance markets, including the means of reducing sovereign risk; Better understanding of the functioning of commodity exchanges and the role of new groups of non-traderelated participants in commodity futures markets; Development of regional and national commodity exchanges and new futures contracts; Using market-based price risk management tools in schemes designed to stabilize the income of producers of commodities and to mitigate the impact of fluctuating commodity prices on government revenues; Introduction of structured commodity finance, including asset-backed financing and the use of warehouse receipts as collateral.

For more information: http://www.unctad.info/en/Special-Unit-on-Commodities/ Commodity exchanges

Oil and gas resouces in addition to agricultural commodities

1

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During 2006, ITC and a group of national consultants used trade finance pointers, a methodology for connecting SMEs with banks, to prepare an analysis of Tajikistan’s trade finance infrastructure and the spectrum of financial services offered. This analysis was presented to the monetary authorities and representatives of the banking sector, and training of financial service providers was conducted. As a result of these efforts, the capacity of financial service providers to evaluate credit requests through credit scoring was enhanced, and they also obtained a better understanding of the trade finance needs of enterprises. This is an important step towards overcoming the supply constraints of funding for the exports of small businesses.


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

INTERNATIONAL FINANCE Contact: E-mail: dmfas@unctad.org

Debt management programme – DMFAS UNCTAD responds to the needs of countries for effective debt management, a central feature of financial stability and gaining creditor confidence. This is undertaken essentially through the Debt Management and Financial Analysis System (DMFAS) programme, which involves the provision of a computer-based debt management system, usually installed in central banks and/or ministries of finance. DMFAS, with a client base of about 65 countries, is the most widely used standard debt management system in the world. The objectives are: • T o help developing countries and countries in transition develop appropriate administrative, institutional and legal structures for effective debt management; • To establish an adequate information system, with detailed and aggregated data on loan contracts, past and future disbursements, and past and future debt service payments; • To improve national capacity to define and select appropriate debt strategies; • To increase national capacity to record grants and projects financed from external resources, thereby contributing to aid management.

Trade-Related Financial Services

Through its implementation, substantial savings have been documented in avoiding unnecessary costs, such as overpayments to debtors or penalty interests. The assistance given under the programme has three main features: • A  dvisory services, including needs assessment and advice on technical, administrative, legal and institutional debt management issues, and assistance in software installation and maintenance; • Software designed to meet the operational, statistical and analytical needs of debt managers and bodies involved in elaborating external debt strategies; • Training in the use of the software and in debt management issues in general. For more information: http://r0.unctad.org/dmfas/

WB Global Trade Finance Programme Contact: Bonnie L. Galat, Principal ­Investment Officer, Financial Management, Sustainability & Trade Finance, International Finance Corporation Tel: +1 202 473 1000 Fax: +1 202 477 6391

Through its private sector arm, the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the Bank is expanding its programs for trade finance, in particular in low-income IDA countries. The US$3 billion Global Trade Finance Programme (GTFP), launched in 2005, facilitates trade to underserved clients and markets by providing partial or full guarantees for individual trade transactions, covering the payment risk of local banks in the emerging markets. The GTFP aims at: (i) expanding the financing available to local banks in less advanced markets to support their clients, particularly SMEs; (ii) enabling local banks to do business with a broadened network of international banks on an unsecured basis; and (iii) supporting nascent trade corridors, particularly between emerging markets. Cumulative statistics on the GTFP show that of the US$4 billion in guarantees issued as of April 2009, 75 per cent supported SME trade, 34 per cent represented South-South trade, and 52 per cent represented trade with the poorest (IDA) countries, of which three-quarters represented Africa.

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Global Trade Liquidity Program

Trade-Related Financial Services

The Global Trade Liquidity Programme (GTLP) is a collaborative crisis-response initiative among the IFC, development finance institutions (DFIs), bilateral and multilateral organizations, and governments to mobilize funding targeted to support trade finance in the developing world on a temporary basis. Conceived to address the severe market constraints that became evident in the Fall 2008 period, GTLP was approved in March 2009 as part of the IFC’s first wave of crisis response initiatives, which included the doubling to US$3 billion of the IFC’s Global Trade Finance Programme (GTFP), which supports trade on an unfunded basis through the issuance of IFC guarantees. GTLP is designed as a vehicle whereby aggregated funding from the IFC, DFIs, bilateral and multilateral organizations and governments of up to US$5 billion (including up to US$1 billion from the IFC), will be mobilized and disbursed to individual commercial banks (global or regional) with an extensive trade finance presence in the developing world. Funding will be provided through a number of investment structures to extend liquidity for trade financing to reach under-served clients globally. The overall impact of the GTLP is estimated to be US$45 billion of emerging market trades financed over the period of need, and is expected to terminate within a three year period.

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[ Other Trade-Related Activities ]


OTHER TRADE-RELATED ACTIVITIES

African Development Bank

E uropean Bank for Reconstruction and Development

International Civil Aviation Organization

International Labour Organization

International Monetary Fund

International Telecommunication Union

 nited Nations Conference on Trade U and Development

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for the Palestine Refugees in the Near East

World Bank Group


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

AfDB Investment Climate Facility (ICF) This is a public-private initiative through which donors, international and domestic corporations, and NGOs collaborate with African governments and regional organizations to improve the investment climate at the national, regional, and continental levels. ICF’s operations are driven by three strategic themes: • I ntra-African trade; • Facilitating business development and expansion; • Facilitating the financial and investment environment.

Contact: Tanzania Tel: +255 22 212 9211 Fax: +255 22 212 9210 E-mail: info@icfafrica.org

For more information: www.icfafrica.org

EBRD The EBRD and the European Investment Bank (EIB) established the Multilateral Carbon Credit Fund (MCCF) as a key instrument in their strategy for combating climate change. Fully subscribed, with €190 million in commitments, the MCCF is one of the few carbon funds dedicated specifically to countries from Central Europe to Central Asia.

Contact: MCCF Secretariat Tel: +44 207 338 7821 E-mail: vandevej@ebrd.com

By joining the MCCF, private and public companies as well as EBRD and EIB shareholder countries can purchase carbon credits from emission reduction projects financed by the EIB or the EBRD to meet their mandatory or voluntary greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets. In addition to the project credits, countries can also participate via the MCCF in green investment schemes. This is an innovative way to facilitate government-to-government trade in carbon credits whereby the selling country uses the revenue from the sale of carbon credits to support investments in climate-friendly projects. By selling carbon credits to carbon funds, such as the MCCF, the investor increases the financial return on a project. For example, renewable energy projects (e.g. wind, hydro and biomass) are able to boost their internal rate of return by 1 to 7 per cent. There are also projects, such as landfill gas collection and flaring projects at large waste management sites that can be financed almost completely from sales of carbon credits. For more information: http://www.ebrd.com

Technical Cooperation Funds Programme (TCFP) The Technical Cooperation Funds Programme (TCFP) provides funding to improve the preparation and implementation of the EBRD’s investment projects and to provide advisory services to private and public sector clients. It is funded by governments and international institutions and managed by the Bank. Each year the Programme provides about €80 million to finance the activities of a wide range of consultants and other experts. As well as supporting the EBRD’s investment programme, the TCFP promotes institutional reform and the highest standards of corporate governance.

Contact: Official Co-financing Tel: +44 20 733 8 6909 Fax: +44 20 733 8 6538 E-mail: oddio@ebrd.com

For more information: http://www.ebrd.com

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A joint EBRD and EIB climate change initiative


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

ICAO The three main ICAO environmental goals are: Contact: Jane Hupe, Chief Environmental Unit Tel: +1 514 954 8219, Fax: +1 514 954 6077, E-mail: jhupe@icao.org

• T o limit or reduce the number of people affected by significant aircraft noise; • To limit or reduce the impact of aviation emissions on local air quality; • To limit or reduce the impact of aviation greenhouse gas emissions on the global climate. Environmental unit

Other Trade-Related Activities

Quantifying the environmental effects and improving the environmental performance of aviation is an ICAO strategic objective. Since the late 1960s, ICAO has produced standards, policies and guidance material for: (i) the development of internationally harmonized measures that have significantly reduced the impact of aircraft noise and aircraft engine emissions on the environment while encouraging technological development; improvements in aircraft operational procedures; enhanced air traffic management efficiency; and improved airport land-use planning; and (ii) the development of market-based measures (e.g., voluntary programmes, charges, emissions trading, carbon offsets) for the benefit of its Member States and the aviation sector. Action by ICAO is very important since international civil aviation is unique in that it involves cross-border operation and operations over the high-seas that are outside the jurisdiction of sovereign states. Therefore, to assure a seamless, inter-operable efficient global air transport system, harmonization of these operations, including the appropriate environmental regulatory framework, requires effective coordination among nations, non-governmental organizations, and the industry. The Environmental Unit’s objective is to develop and disseminate internationally-harmonized technical standards, related guidance material, information and advisory circulars to quantify and assess the environmental effects of international civil aviation, and to provide mechanisms to stabilize or mitigate those effects without compromising aviation safety. Its important role in helping achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals by ensuring the maximum compatibility between the safe and orderly development of civil aviation and protecting the quality of the environment is based on the: • • • •

Introduction of technical standards which address aircraft noise and emissions; Provision of guidance on improved aircraft operational procedures to mitigate environmental effects; Development of policy and guidance on environmental market-based measures; Provision of support for the development of multilateral agreements among states.

The ICAO Environment Unit has developed an internationally approved Aviation Carbon Emissions Calculator based on the methodology established jointly by the Council’s Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) and the Environment Unit. This ICAO Carbon Emissions Calculator estimates the amount of CO2 emissions from air travel and is available on the ICAO website along with the methodology. ICAO is the forum where all stakeholders in their areas of expertise can work together to develop effective solutions which enable an appropriate balance between the growth of air transport and proper protection of the environment. The main beneficiaries are governments (ministries of transport and environment, civil aviation authorities, airlines, airports and the aerospace industry, environmental NGOs, civil aviation professionals, pilots, consultants and the public. The service is provided through the establishment of international standards, the publication of guidance material and the dissemination of information through documents, manuals and circulars, the convening of international meetings, workshops, seminars, symposia and conferences, and the provision of a publicly accessible website. Partners: ICAO’s 190 contracting states, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the World Meteorological Organization

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(WMO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the Airports Council International (ACI), numerous civil aviation commissions and regional commissions, various associations and NGOs and others. For more information: www.icao.int/env/

ILO Development of the business environment Contact: Employment Sector Enterprise Development Department Graeme Buckley, Tel: +41 22 799 6312 E-mail: buckleyg@ilo.org

The ILO collaborates with other agencies through the Donor Committee for Enterprise Development (specifically the Working Group on Business Environment, which is chaired by the ILO), and the drafting of comprehensive guidance for donor agencies. For more information: www.ilo.org/dyn/empent/empent.portal?p_prog=S&p_subprog=PE

Local economic development (LED) A project titled “Voices of Heritage� aims to boost the local economy of the Laikipia Maasai community in Kenya as a means to create employment and reduce poverty. Through a territorial diagnosis and market assessment, opportunities are identified for Maasai products in local and export markets. Development strategies are then formulated, and support is provided to build supply capacity through business development services, technical training institutions and local associations. Technical assistance is also provided to enable the Maasai to protect their cultural heritage and intellectual property rights.

Contact: Employment Sector Enterprise Development Department Jens Dyring Christensen, Tel: +41 22 799 6646 E-mail: dyring@ilo.org

The project is designed to address issues of poverty, unemployment, low level of market development, and the misappropriation of intellectual property rights by third parties through the use of Maasai culture for marketing and tourism purposes with no revenues flowing to the community. The project, which is part of a larger programme on local economic development, involves cooperation between the Maasai Cultural Heritage Foundation (MCH) in Kenya, WIPO and the ILO.

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Other Trade-Related Activities

The aim of this service is to enhance the business environment in which small enterprises develop in a manner that serves employment goals. The service provides policy guidance, technical cooperation and international advocacy aimed at enhancing the employment creation potential of enterprises and ensuring appropriate levels of regulation. It focuses on those areas that are specifically relevant to small enterprises. The service is provided through direct technical assistance, training programmes, and the dissemination of information.


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

IMF Trade Integration Mechanism (TIM) Contact: Trade, Institutions, and Policy Review Division, Strategy, Policy, and Review Department, Tel: + 1 202 623 6223 Fax: + 1 202 623 4237

The TIM was introduced in April 2004 to assist member countries to meet balance of payments shortfalls that might result from multilateral trade liberalization. It is not a lending facility, but rather a policy aimed at making Fund resources more predictably available under existing IMF facilities. The TIM allows the IMF to provide loans under one of its facilities to a developing country whose balance of payments is suffering because of multilateral trade liberalization, either because its export earnings decline when it loses preferential access to certain markets or because prices for food imports go up when agricultural subsidies are eliminated. The TIM is a policy designed to increase the predictability of resources that are available under existing facilities. Three member countries (Bangladesh, the Dominican Republic, and the Republic of Madagascar) have so far requested and obtained support in accordance with the TIM. For more information: www.imf.org

Other Trade-Related Activities

ITU Environment and climate change Contact: Corporate Strategy Division Tel: +41 22 730 5111 E-mail: csd@itu.int

Active in the area of climate change for well over a decade, ITU is now making climate change a key priority, with strategies to: Reduce the environmental impact of climate change through: • The creation of a standard methodology for calculating carbon footprint; • The promotion of next-generation networks (NGNs) (reducing power consumption by up to 40%); • Publishing online rather than in print. Harness the power of ICTs through: • Remote collaboration; • Intelligent transport systems; • Sensor-based networks based on RFID and telemetry. Monitor climate change by: • Conducting and managing studies on remote-sensing; • Providing key climate data via radio-based applications. For more information: http://www.itu.int/themes/climate/

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Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

UNCTAD Climate change programme UNCTAD’s work on climate change focuses on the trade and investment impacts of the emerging climate regime and carbon market, with a particular emphasis on potential opportunities available to developing countries. It supports the establishment of public–private operational entities in developing countries, particularly in LDCs and countries with economies in transition, in order to facilitate investments and maximize the sustainable development benef its of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), one of the “flexibility mechanisms“of the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The main objective is to promote developing countries’ participation in the emerging carbon market through the use of clean technologies and by bringing together governments, industry and civil society.

Contact: Climate change Programme Tel: +41 22 917 2116 Fax: +41 22 917 0247 E-mail: climatechange@unctad.org

For more information: www.unctad.org/Templates/StartPage.asp?intItemID=4342

Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) TVET aims to enhance the employability of the youth segment of the Palestine refugee population by offering them two-year trade or semi-professional courses in line with current labour market demands. The programme operates at a micro-level by providing direct services to the refugees in the 15-21 age group. The service is provided through the UNRWA-administered Technical and Vocational Training Centres present in all five fields of the UNRWA operations. The vocational training centres achieved high pass rates in the external comprehensive examinations, the average being 96.6 percent. Three centres scored 100 percent results, with UNRWA trainees attaining the top positions.

Contact: Kabir Shaikh, Director, Education Department, UNRWA.

For more information: www.un.org/unrwa/programmes/education/vocational.html

Relief and social services The social services division operates through the network of the community-based organizations (CBOs), providing direct business training to vulnerable population groups. A number of CBOs are implementing small scale credit programmes, from which 1,254 female refugees have received loans.

Contact: Beth Kuttab, Director, Relief and Social Services ­Department

For more information: www.un.org/unrwa/programmes/rss/index.html

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Other Trade-Related Activities

UNRWA


Programmes, Services and Activities by Area of Intervention

WB Trade-related lending Contact: Monica Alina Mustra, International Trade Department Tel: +1 202 473 4163 Fax: +1 202 522 7551

World Bank trade-related lending has tapered off at around US$1.5 billion per year since fiscal year 2006 (FY06). Concessional trade-related lending has continued to grow steadily and more rapidly than total Bank concessional lending. With about US$590 million in FY08, the share of concessional trade-related lending in total Bank concessional lending has increased from 4.8 percent to 5.3 percent between FY07 and FY08. As in previous years, the bulk of this lending was driven by projects in Africa, and by trade-related infrastructure in support of regional integration and trade facilitation. As a result, the stock of concessional trade-related lending has continued to increase, surpassing US$2 billion in FY08 and representing about five percent of total Bank concessional lending, twice the level in FY02. In FY08, Bank trade-related lending involved 51 projects, including 12 regional projects.

Other Trade-Related Activities

List of Inter-agency Cooperation Mechanisms: • • • • • • •

CEB Inter-Agency Cluster on Trade and Productive Capacity Measuring Aid for Trade - Creditor Reporting System (CRS) WTO’s Global Technical Assistance Database (GTAD) Enhanced Integrated Framework (EIF) Global Partnership Facilitation for Transportation and Trade (GFP) Standards and Trade Development Facility (STDF) Agency for International Trade Information and Cooperation (AITIC)

For more information: www.worldbank.org\trade

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INTER-AGENCY COOPERATION MECHANISMS

CEB Inter-Agency Cluster on Trade and Productive Capacity

OECD Creditor Reporting System (CRS): Measuring Aid for Trade

WTO’s Global Technical Assistance Database (GTAD)

Enhanced Integrated Framework (EIF)

Global Facilitation Partnership for Transportation and Trade (GFP)

Standards and Trade Development Facility (STDF)

Agency for International Trade Information and Cooperation (AITIC)


Inter-agency Cooperation Mechanisms

CEB INTER-AGENCY CLUSTER ON TRADE AND PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY

(FAO, ITC, UNCTAD, UNDP, UNEP, UNIDO, UNOPS, WTO and five UN regional commissions) The CEB Inter-Agency Cluster on Trade and Productive Capacity is led by UNCTAD and includes FAO, ITC, UNDP, UNEP, UNIDO, United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS), WTO and five UN regional commissions.

• I n the “Delivering as One” UN Pilots and countries involved in a new UN Development Assistance Frameworks (UNDAF) process; • A s appropriate, within United Nations Development Group (UNDG) machinery, with a view to the formulation of new United Nations rules and standards mechanisms for development operations.

Initiatives The following is a summary of the main initiatives undertaken by the CEB Cluster since its creation, including operations of the Cluster at the country level and at the level of the UN System.

Operations of the Cluster at the country level: • P articipation of the Cluster in the “Delivering as One” UN Pilots: In the case of the Least Developed Countries (LDCs), the Cluster has played an important role in ensuring the interface and coordination between the Enhanced Integrated Framework (EIF) and the “Delivering as One” UN programmes. • Role of the Cluster in new UNDAFs: The Cluster is expanding its contacts with the UN Country Teams (UNCTs) of some of these countries with a view to possible inclusion of trade and productive capacity operations in their programme of work based on national needs and demands. In this regard, the Secretary-General of UNCTAD addressed a letter to the Chair of the UNDG and all concerned UN Resident Coordinators (RCs), requesting their cooperation. • Participation of the Cluster in regional events for UNCTs in Asia, Europe and CIS countries. With a view to facilitating its contacts with the UNCTs, the Cluster participated in two regional training workshops organized by the Secretariat of the UNDG (Development Operations and Coordination Office-DOCO) for the UNCTs that were starting the formulation of new UNDAFs in 2009. The Cluster was to increase contacts with DOCO and the UN System Staff College with a view to its participation in similar regional events in 2009 and 2010. • Support to the UN Resident Coordinators and UNCTs on operational issues related to trade and productive sectors. The Cluster organized or participated in learning events for UN Resident Coordinators and economic advisors with a view to facilitating the inclusion of trade and productive capacity issues in the UNDAFs.

Cooperation within the Cluster at the UN System level • Coordination within the Cluster in the aid for trade events and process; • Preparation of a Cluster proposal on MDGs’ new targets and indicators; • Cooperation and coordination within the Cluster for the setting-up of new UN rules and standard mechanisms within the system-wide reform process; • The Cluster’s contribution to the United Nations system-wide coherence. For more information: http://www.unsystemceb.org http://www.unctad.org/sections/un_ceb/docs/ceb2009_01_en.pdf

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CEB Inter-Agency Cluster on Trade and Productive Capacity

The CEB is an inter-agency mechanism dedicated to the coordination of trade and development operations at the national and regional levels within the UN System through coordinating the UN’s participation:


Inter-agency Cooperation Mechanisms

Contact:

CEB Inter-Agency Cluster on Trade and Productive Capacity

Manuela Tortora United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) Palais des Nations 8-14, Av. de la Paix 1211 Geneva 10 Switzerland Tel: +41 22 917 1234, Fax: +41 22 917 0057 E-mail: Manuela.tortora@unctad.org, info@unctad.org

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OEcd creditor reporting system (CRS): Measuring AID FOR TRADE (OECD, WTO)

Monitoring aid for trade The WTO Task Force on aid for trade recommended establishing accountability mechanisms to track progress in implementing this initiative and to enhance its credibility: at the country level to foster genuine local ownership and ensure that trade needs are integrated into national development strategies and adequately addressed; and at the global level to increase transparency about what is happening, what is not and where improvements are required. Following these recommendations, the OECD and the WTO established an aid for trade monitoring framework. The objective of the framework is to promote dialogue and encourage all the key actors to honour commitments, meet local needs, improve effectiveness, and reinforce mutual accountability. The value of the new monitoring framework lies in creating incentives, through enhanced transparency, scrutiny and dialogue (i.e. putting a “spotlight” on progress), to foster synergies between trade and other economic policy areas in developing countries, and to improve the coherence of aid for trade with overall donor strategies – all essential components of effective aid delivery as embodied in the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. Aid for Trade Monitoring Framework

Qualitative analysis Donor self-assessment Global Aid for Trade Reviews Global AfT flows Quantitative analysis Performance indicators The assessment of whether progress is being made towards the aid for trade objectives consists of four elements that were identified by the Task Force (i.e. the logical framework): 1. 2. 3. 4.

Mainstreaming and prioritizing trade (i.e., demand); Trade-related projects and programmes (i.e., response); Enhanced capacity to trade (i.e., outcome); Improved trade performance and reduced poverty (i.e., impact).

Assessment of the “demand” is obtained through partner-country self-assessments based on an OECD-WTO partner questionnaire. These assessments also provide information about mainstreaming trade in development strategies, trade-related priorities, the delivery of aid for trade, and co-operation between partner countries and donors. Assessment of the “response” consists of: • Q  uantitative information (i.e. aid for trade flows) about trade-related programmes and projects which is extracted from the OECD/Creditor Reporting System (CRS) database for the categories that are most closely related to the Task Force definition; • Qualitative information derived from donor self-assessments which solicit information on the progress made in developing operational aid for trade strategies, the extent to which these are implemented in line with the Paris Declaration, and the different steps taken to improve the quality of aid for trade programmes.

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OECD CRS

Partner self-assessment


Inter-agency Cooperation Mechanisms

The “outcome” and the “impact” of the Aid for Trade Initiative are presented in factsheets for those partner countries that participated in the second monitoring survey. 1 These factsheets focus on a limited number of stylized facts and indicators that capture the four main elements of the logical framework underlying the Aid for Trade Initiative. This allows for country comparison at a glance. In addition, the factsheets could form the starting point of a more comprehensive in-country national stakeholder dialogue – involving governments, donors, civil society and the private sector – to promote transparency and greater accountability on building trade capacities. Developing a credible monitoring mechanism is a work in progress. It is important that monitoring does not become a passive activity but is complemented and reinforced by an active review process – one that promotes change by submitting feedback to donor and partner countries and providing an environment for dialogue, knowledge-sharing and the exchange of best practices and information on unfunded trade-related priorities and available donor funding.

Measuring global aid for trade flows 2

OECD CRS

The OECD Creditor Reporting System (CRS), a database covering around 90 per cent of all DAC official development assistance (ODA), was recognized as the best available data source for tracking global aid for trade flows. The CRS aid activity database, established in 1967, collects information on ODA and other official flows to developing countries from members of the DAC. The CRS enables the tracking of aid commitments and disbursements, and provides comparable data over time and across countries. However, it should be kept in mind that the CRS does not provide data that match exactly all of the aid for trade categories identified by the WTO Task Force, which concluded that aid for trade comprises the following categories: • Technical assistance for trade policy and regulations. In the CRS, five purpose codes are used to cover trade policy and regulations activities: (i) trade policy and administrative management; (ii) trade facilitation; (iii) regional trade agreements; (iv) multilateral trade negotiations; and (v) trade education/training. • Economic  infrastructure. Aid commitments for trade-related infrastructure are proxied in the CRS by data under the heading “economic infrastructure”. This heading covers data on aid for communications, energy and transport. To know how close the CRS proxies are (e.g., how much of the hypothetical energy project relates to trade), the CRS data must be compared with donors’ knowledge of the specific features of their infrastructure aid. • Productive  capacity building (including trade development). There is data on commitments of aid for productive capacity building under the CRS category “building productive capacity”. The CRS allows components of a productive capacity building project (i.e. the trade development policy marker) to be marked as relevant to trade development. • Trade-related  adjustment. A new subheading has been introduced in the CRS to track flows corresponding to trade-related adjustment. This category identifies contributions to developing country budgets to assist the implementation of trade reforms and adjustments to trade policy measures by other countries, and alleviate shortfalls in balance-of-payments due to changes in the world trading environment. • Other  trade-related needs. The CRS covers all DAC ODA, but only those activities reported under the above four categories will be identified as aid for trade. Data on “other trade-related needs” cannot be gleaned from the CRS. To estimate the volume of such “other” commitments, donors would need to examine aid projects in sectors other than those considered so far – for example, in health and education – and indicate what proportion, if any, of these activities have an important trade component. Consequently, accurately monitoring aid for trade would require comparison of the CRS data with donor and partner countries’ self-assessments of their aid for trade.

83 partner countries responded before the official deadline and another 5 after the deadline. Access to the Aid for Trade data, as well as the complete list of Aid for Trade purpose codes and their definitions, can be found on http://www.oecd.org/document/21/0,3343,en_2649_34665_43230357_1_1_1_1,00.html

1 2

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Contact: Mr. Frans Lammersen Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 2, rue André Pascal F-75775 Paris Cedex 16 France Tel: +33 1 45 24 8200 Fax: +33 1 45 24 8500 E-mail: frans.lammersen@oecd.org

OECD CRS

For more information: www.oecd.org/

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WTO’s GLOBAL TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE DATABASE (GTAD) (WTO) Under the mandate of the Doha Development Agenda (DDA), it is recognized that trade-related technical assistance (TRTA) and capacity-building are core elements in the multilateral trading system (MTS). Traderelated capacity-building is a key delivery component of the Aid for Trade work programme, and provides direct support to beneficiary countries in enhancing their human and institutional capacities to deal with the challenges emerging from the MTS. It is in relation to this that the WTO’s Global Technical Assistance Database (GTAD) was developed. It is a forward looking tool which shows future, planned activities by agencies and other relevant bodies. The main objective of the GTAD is to be a portal for an exchange and sharing of information between partner agencies on the future execution of TRTA and capacity building activities. This could contribute to building and enhancing synergies and efficiency in the global delivery of TRTA and capacity building, enhance transparency, efficiency and coherence in approaches with partner providers of TRTA in the field of human and institutional trade capacity building, and with the key regional bodies (e.g. regional development banks).

GTAD

It takes into account national and regional projects, as well as training courses of a global nature. The GTAD is forward looking, with the period of coverage starting in January 2010. The database includes a search engine which enables the extraction of information through different parameters, such as beneficiary country or by one of the 20 trade categories, etc. The database comprises 20 trade categories: 1. Accession 2. Agriculture 3. Customs valuation 4. Dispute settlement 5. Regional trade agreements (RTAs) 6. Rules 7. Sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS): • Food safety • Plant health • Animal health • General 8. Services 9. Tariff negotiations – non-agricultural market access rules 10. Tariff reforms 11. Technical barriers to trade (TBT) 12. Trade and competition 13. Trade and the environment 14. Trade and investment 15. Trade-related training and education 16. Trade facilitation 17. Trade mainstreaming in PRSPs/development plans 18. Trade-related intellectual property rights (TRIPS) 19. Negotiation training 20. Transparency and government procurement The GTAD is an interactive tool which can be accessed at the following address: http://gtad.wto.org Contact: Susan Harrison Institute for Training and Technical Cooperation E-mail: susan.harrison@wto.org, trta.admin@wto.org

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ENHANCED INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK (EIF) (IMF, ITC, UNCTAD, UNDP, WB, WTO)

The Integrated Framework (IF) was established to support LDC governments in trade capacity building and in integrating trade issues into overall national development strategies. The founding multilateral agencies of the IF (IMF, ITC, UNCTAD, UNDP, the World Bank and the WTO) combined their efforts with those of LDCs and bilateral donors to respond to the trade development needs of LDCs so that LDCs could become full and active players and beneficiaries of the multilateral trading system. UNIDO has recently joined as an implementing agency, and FAO has observer status. The IF was launched in October 1997 at the High-Level Meeting on LDCs’ Trade Development at the WTO. The main objectives of the IF are to mainstream trade into national development strategies, such as the PRSPs, and assist in the coordinated delivery of trade-related assistance. The Enhanced IF was launched in 2008 and began operations in 2009. The objectives were:

The Secretariat of the IF has been the responsibility of the WTO. In 2007 it was reinforced through the addition of the IF Programme Implementation Unit, which includes three staff members working exclusively on the IF. Under the EIF, the Executive Secretariat remains administratively housed in the WTO but reports to the EIF Board on issues of policy. The IF Trust Fund was managed by UNDP, and the new EIF Trust Fund is managed by UNOPS. The EIF Trust Fund is funded on a multi-donor basis. Under the EIF, resources are provided for two sets of activities, namely Tier 1: Diagnostic Trade Integration Studies (DTIS) and support to national implementation arrangements (for new beneficiaries there is also support for pre-DTIS activities as well as some initial mainstreaming activities), and Tier 2: some seed projects, capacity building projects, feasibility studies, etc., identified as priorities in the DTIS Action Matrices. Up to early 2010, the IF process consisted of three phases, namely: • Awareness-building on the importance of trade for development; • Preparation of a DTIS to identify constraints to traders and sectors of greatest export potential, an action matrix for better integration into the global trading system, and an action matrix that lists trade-related priorities; the action matrix is validated by all stakeholders at a validation workshop; • Integration of the trade priorities into the national development strategy, and implementation of the action matrix in partnership with the development cooperation community. To date, all but five of the 49 LDCs are at various stages of the IF process. The most important improvements in the EIF are expected to take place in the beneficiary countries where the IF structures will be strengthened through a more effective partnership between national stakeholders, donors and IF agencies, and through the establishment of national implementation units, which will support the focal point. The second aspect of the enhancement is an improvement of the IF global governance structure that is being put in place in Geneva. An IF Board, which assumed the mandate of the former IF Working Group, initiated its work on an interim basis in May 2007. The new IF Executive Secretariat, headed by an Executive Director (ED), was established in October 2008. The Executive Director and the Secretariat staff support governments in

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EIF

• Provision of increased, predictable, and additional funding on a multi-year basis; • Strengthening of the IF in-country, including through mainstreaming trade into national development plans and poverty reduction strategies; more effective follow-up to diagnostic trade integration studies (DTIS) and implementation of action matrices; and achieving greater and more effective coordination amongst donors and IF stakeholders, including beneficiaries; • Improvement of the IF decision-making and management structure to ensure an effective and timely delivery of the increased financial resources and programmes.


Inter-agency Cooperation Mechanisms

managing the IF process, as well as providing assistance to national focal points and national implementation arrangements. In September 2007, an EIF High Level Donor Pledging Conference in Stockholm addressed the third aspect of the IF enhancement, namely the provision of increased, predictable, and additional funding on a multi-year basis. The target set for the budget of the first two years of US$100 million was oversubscribed by some US$10 million, and a total of US$170 million, or 75 percent of the budget for the first five years of the EIF, has already been raised. As of April 2009, about US$63 million is available for funding and commitments. The EIF has been operational since January 2009, with some work on the Monitoring and Evaluation framework finalized in May 2009. The first EIF Tier 1 projects have been approved, and the first disbursements were made in June 2009. Funding of the EIF is channelled through two sources: the multilateral EIF Trust Fund and bilateral/regional donors. In addition to funding the multilateral EIF Trust Fund, which is aimed at providing bridging funding to jump-start project-related activities, more resources will be needed to respond to the larger demands specified by the beneficiary countries in their diagnostics. These resources will be channelled through the traditional bilateral and regional sources where trade-related support is being increased as part of the Doha Development Round’s Aid for Trade Initiative. For more information: www.integratedframework.org/

EIF

E-mail: if.secretariat@wto.org

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GLOBAL FACILITATION PARTNERSHIP for­ ­TRANSPORTATION AND TRADE (GFP) (IRU, TIACA, UNCTAD, UNECE, UNIDO, WB, WCO)

The GFP was officially launched by the World Bank in 1999. It aims at pulling together all interested parties, public and private, national and international, who want to help achieve significant improvements in transport and trade facilitation in World Bank member countries.

Topics covered

Activities and projects include:

• Border agency modernization

• Trade and Transport Facilitation Toolkit

• B  uilding Trade and Transport Facilitation (TTF) Partnerships • Customs issues

• W  orld Bank Logistics Performance Index Survey 2007 (LPI) • Preparation of customs guidelines

• Economic development and trade facilitation

• WCO Time Release for Goods software

• Electronic commerce and business

• ASEAN countries: Pathway to Excellence

• Other aspects of trade facilitation

• DAC project on trade facilitation

• Regional transport integration

• GFP gatherings

GFP

The GFP is a network of over 250 public and private partners and more than a thousand subscribed trade facilitation professionals worldwide, and has become the reference forum on trade and transport facilitation. The partners have together agreed to design and undertake specific programs towards meeting this objective, create knowledge, and support trade facilitation training opportunities while making use of their respective comparative advantage in the subject matter in a coordinated fashion.

• T rade facilitation for small and medium-sized • Meeting of governmental experts from enterprises (SME) Landlocked and Transit Developing Countries • Trade liberalization and facilitation • Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Programme (SSATP) • Trade logistics and facilitation • T he Northern Corridor Transit Agreement • Transit • Transport operations

• T RACECA - Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia • Trade and transport facilitation in South-Eastern Europe (TTFSE)

The United Nations Trade Facilitation Network has been established as a common platform for UN agencies involved in trade facilitation activities. It was launched in response to the request from the High Level Committee on Programmes of the United Nations Chief Executives Board to identify trade facilitation issues to be addressed in a coordinated manner within the United Nations system. Recognizing that these agencies have different approaches to trade facilitation, the GFP platform concentrates information on each agency’s approach. It provides a doorway for users to further investigate the work carried out by the different agencies. The GFP website portal is therefore designed as a “single window” for worldwide trade facilitation information and resources. It is maintained by the GFP Core Partners and informs both on GFP partner activities and other important trade facilitation events worldwide, sorted by TTF topics. Since its inception, the GFP portal has become a well established information source for trade and transport facilitation (TTF) professionals, reaching a landmark of thousand subscribed trade facilitation professionals worldwide.

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Core partners The GFP Core Partners are the BULPRO at the Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, International Road Transport Union (IRU), the International Air Cargo Association (TIACA), UNCTAD, UNECE, UNIDO and the WB. The Core Partners are actively contributing partners who commit to upload new content as it becomes available on their website, define internal information flows to update the website, and conduct a quarterly review of the website. Individuals associated with the Core Partners are eligible to receive automated notifications on topics and activities of interest which indicate changes that have taken place in the previous month.

GFP funding The World Bank is working closely with other organizations, such as the IMF, WTO, UNCTAD, and WCO, to help policy makers and stakeholders from developing countries better understand the stakes and the roadmap to trade facilitation reform and modernization. As part of the ongoing effort to support constituencies for reform through partnerships, the World Bank has supported the GFP for several years now and will continue to do so in the future, since the GFP is an important vehicle for promoting the value of trade and transport facilitation, for both developed and developing countries. It is also one of the only vehicles available to date which brings together international organizations, government officials and private sector representatives to debate and discuss trade and transport facilitation issues in an open and informal way. For questions related to the GFP and contributions, please email: admin@gfptt.org

GFP

For more information: www.gfptt.org. Trade Logistics and Facilitation websites: w ww.gfptt.org www.worldbank.org/lpi www.worldbank.org/tradelogistics www.worldbank.org/tradefacilitation

Contact: Monica Alina Mustra The World Bank Group 1818 H Street NW, Washington DC 20433-0002 Tel: +1 202 458 8963, Fax: +1 202 614 0468 Skype: damustra E-mail: mmustra@worldbank.org

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STANDARDS AND TRADE DEVELOPMENT FACILITY (STDF) (FAO, WB, WHO, OIE, WTO) The STDF is a global programme in capacity building and technical cooperation established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Bank (WB), the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO). The International Trade Centre (ITC), the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), also participate actively in the STDF and have observer status. The strategic aims of the STDF are: • T o assist developing countries enhance their expertise and capacity to analyze and implement international sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) standards, thereby improving their human, animal and plant health, and thus their ability to gain and maintain market access; • To act as a vehicle for awareness raising on the importance of SPS issues, coordination among technical cooperation providers, the mobilization of funds, the exchange of experience and the dissemination of good practice in the provision and receipt of SPS-related technical cooperation. To achieve its aims, the STDF acts as both a co-coordinating and a financing mechanism.

The STDF acts as a forum for coordination and resource mobilization among partners, donors, observers and beneficiaries so that they can achieve greater coherence and synergy in their operations, thereby strengthening current and future planned cooperation activities and avoiding duplication of effort. A key role for the STDF is to act as a bridge between the technical work of partners, donors and observers and a broader trade and development audience. Key coordination functions and responsibilities of the STDF include: • M  aintaining regular and close contact with partners, donors and observers to ensure that their initiatives are publicized within the STDF and more broadly; • Raising awareness on the importance and role of SPS capacity building in enhancing trade and development, in particular by maintaining close contacts with multilateral, regional and bilateral SPS-related cooperation programmes, especially the Enhanced Integrated Framework and Aid for Trade; • Collecting information and improving the reporting on SPS-related technical cooperation; • Organizing global level workshops of an informative and consultative nature on specific thematic SPSrelated topics; • Organizing regional consultations between donors, beneficiaries and regional organizations on technical cooperation priorities and funding mechanisms; • Identifying good practice in the request for, and provision and receipt of, SPS-related technical cooperation; • Researching indicators of the impact and effectiveness of SPS-related technical cooperation; • Mobilizing additional funds for SPS-related technical cooperation, and liaising with donors and other funding mechanisms; • D isseminating information on SPS-related technical cooperation activities, such as capacity evaluation assessments, training materials and project evaluations, through STDF meetings and those of partner agencies, including the WTO-SPS Committee, the STDF website, the STDF newsletter and STDF briefings and publications.

As part of its coordination mandate, the STDF organized several successful thematic events at global and regional level, in some instances back-to-back with WTO-SPS Committee meetings:

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STDF

Coordination


STDF

Inter-agency Cooperation Mechanisms

• A  workshop on SPS-related capacity evaluation tools considered the merits of specific and generic tools developed by international organizations, and helped to increase understanding of the various tools available and their practical application (2008). • An information session on private standards provided an update on recent developments in this area, and examined options for facilitating compliance with these schemes (2008). • A workshop on good practice in SPS-related technical cooperation, organized jointly with the OECD and WTO Secretariat, considered examples of good practice in SPS technical assistance, including use of the Paris Principles on Aid Effectiveness. It was based on STDF research carried out in East Africa, Central America, and the Greater Mekong Basin Sub-Region (2008). • A workshop on climate change, organized jointly with the World Bank’s Development Research Group, raised awareness among donors and developing countries about the importance of integrating the climate change dimension into their SPS-related technical assistance programmes. Participants agreed that strengthened food safety and animal and plant health systems are critical to tackling the challenges faced (2009). • At a regional meeting in Bamako, Mali, organized in close collaboration with the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), research institutes, bilateral donors, multilateral organizations and other stakeholders agreed on a coordinated multi-stakeholder approach to fruit fly control in West Africa (2009). • A workshop on economic analysis raised awareness among participants about the costs and benefits of investing in SPS capacity building and the role and use of different economic analysis methodologies, specifically how they can be used to inform decision-making and enhance resource allocation (2009). • In July 2010, the STDF and the OECD organized a technical working meeting to identify and discuss indicators to measure the performance of national SPS systems. Pilot testing activities are being planned in selected countries. • In October 2010, the STDF, in collaboration with the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality and the World Bank, organized a workshop on the role of public-private partnerships in the area of food safety, animal and plant health.

Financing Two forms of grant financing are available through the STDF. Project preparation grants for project development are a key mechanism in the STDF programme, and aim to bridge the gap between the identification of needs and their articulation into sustainable projects. An additional component of the STDF’s work in this respect consists of the mobilization of financial resources within the general donor community to fund resultant projects, rather than relying exclusively on the STDF’s limited budgetary funds. In addition, grant financing is available for projects which address underlying issues of SPS capacity building in developing countries, or on a regional basis, ideally through innovative, preventative pilot projects which may be replicated by other donors. Grant financing is also available for projects which aim to address gaps in SPS information and training materials, or improve coordination among SPS technical cooperation providers. The STDF aims to devote 40 percent of project grant resources to LDCs and other low income countries. To achieve this target, the STDF operates in synergy with other technical cooperation trust funds managed by the WTO which aim to mainstream trade into development policy, such as the Enhanced Integrated Framework (EIF) and Aid for Trade. Various projects have been developed and funded based on SPS needs identified in the EIF Diagnostic Trade Integration Studies.

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Who can apply? The following organizations are eligible to apply for STDF funding: • P ublic sector entities (including regional or international bodies) with responsibility for SPS measures or policy, either in their own right or in cooperation with the private sector; • Private sector entities and/or partnerships; • STDF partners; • Non-profit non-governmental organizations (NGOs) with expertise in the SPS area and operating in developing countries with an eligible organization in the relevant countries. Origins The STDF grew out of a commitment by the heads of FAO, the OIE, the World Bank, WHO and the WTO at the Doha Ministerial Conference in November 2001 to jointly explore new technical and financial mechanisms for coordination and resource mobilization, and to build alliances between standard setting bodies and the implementing and financing agencies, so as to ensure the most effective use of technical and financial resources. The five organizations formally established the STDF in August 2002 as a partnership and a trust fund with seed funding from the World Bank and WTO. Membership of the STDF was further expanded in 2005 to include representatives of donors and developing countries. In 2007, observer status was granted to various organizations with SPS expertise, or implementing SPS-related technical assistance projects.

Structure

• T he Policy Committee, which consists of high level representatives of STDF partners, donors and developing countries: It sets policy guidelines and provides oversight on the overall direction of the Facility. • T he Working Group, which consists of technical level representatives of STDF partners, donors and developing countries, and includes participation by the Secretariats of the Codex Alimentarius Commission and the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), as well as by invited observers: Responsibilities of the Working Group include, inter alia, guiding the development of resources for the coordination and dissemination of best practice, and the review and approval of applications for funding. • T he Secretariat which, under the administrative responsibility of the WTO, inter alia, is responsible for administration of the facility.

The Policy Committee meets once a year, and the Working Group normally three times a year (usually backto-back with the WTO SPS Committee meetings in Geneva). All decisions are taken by consensus. Key STDF documents include the Medium Term Strategy (2007-2011), the STDF Operational Rules and the STDF Operating Plan for 2010-11. For more information, including key documents, ongoing activities and project eligibility criteria, please visit the STDF website: www.standardsfacility.org or write to STDFSecretariat@wto.org.

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STDF

The STDF comprises three main bodies:


Inter-agency Cooperation Mechanisms

AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL TRADE INFORMATION AND COOPERATION (AITIC) AITIC was established in Geneva in 1998 as an association and later transformed into an intergovernmental organization in 2004. AITIC provides trade-related technical assistance and capacity building activities to countries that have not had an active participation in the international trading system. Its mandate is to assist them to define and better defend their trade interests, as well as to participate more actively in the work and negotiations of the WTO and other trade-related organizations. The target countries identified as resource-constrained and priority recipients of AITIC’s services are the Least Developed Countries and those without permanent representation in Geneva, and also the small, vulnerable economies and economies in transition. For convenience, these have been described collectively in AITIC as the “less-advantaged countries” (LACs). AITIC’s organizational strategy consists of three pillars: • T he identification of national trade capacity needs and priorities in consultation with the governments of its Members; • Personalised assistance to LAC delegates in Geneva and officials in capital; • Addressing trade-related policy demands through the provision of information, written analyses and advice; seminars and workshops; and on-the-job training for AITIC Member officials through ad hoc capacity-building programmes.

AITIC

The aims of AITIC’s TCB programme are: • M  ainstreaming trade into developing countries’ national development and poverty reduction strategies; • Contributing to the fulfilment of Goal 8 of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and developing a rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and development-friendly international trade regime; • F ocusing on the poorest countries, notably the least-developed countries and those in Sub-Saharan Africa; • Addressing the special needs of landlocked and small-island developing states; • Integrating women in international trade; • Contributing, through trade, to the fulfilment of Goal 7 of the MDGs: integrating the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reversing the loss of environmental resources.

Successful TCB activities: • T he setting up in 2001 of the AITIC Non-Residents’ Unit to provide trade-related information and advice to those countries without a permanent representation in Geneva, as well as to offer them logistical support (use of free office installations and reference centre) to follow trade-related activities in Geneva and a temporary base that will facilitate their setting up of permanent missions in Geneva. • A ITIC documents (Background Notes, Information Briefs and its recently launched Trade and Development and Trade Facilitation Briefs) are highly valued by its Members. For more information: http://www.acici.org/aitic/documents/docs.htm • The AITIC Glossary of International Trade Terminology with Particular Reference to the WTO has become an indispensable reference tool for developing and Least Developed Countries. For more information: http://www.acici.org/aitic/glossary.htm • A ITIC’s recently published Handbook of Aid for Trade Providers has been considered a valued guide for aid for trade prospective recipients.

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Partnerships AITIC has signed a number of Memoranda of Understanding with its international partners, including UNIDO, UNCTAD, the WTO Institute for Training and Technical Cooperation (ITTC), the UK Department for International Development (DFID), the OECS (Organization of Eastern Caribbean States) and the ILI (International Law Institute) to enable closer and more active collaboration. In addition, AITIC has observer status on the UNCTAD Trade and Development Board; the Inter-Parliamentary Union’s Conference on the WTO and WIPO’s Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore (IGC); AITIC has a close working relationship with other institutions, such as the WTO, the International Trade Centre (ITC), the Commonwealth Secretariat, the ACP Group of States and the Agence Intergouvernementale de la Francophonie, as well as with academic institutions and the private sector.

Contact:

AITIC

AITIC - Agency for international trade information and cooperation 9 Rue de Varembe – PO Box 156 1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland Phone: + 41 22 910 31 50 Fax: + 41 22 910 31 51 Website: www.aitic.org E-mail: info@aitic.org

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[ Agency Summaries ]


AGENCY SUMMARIES African Development Bank

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs

Asian Development Bank

United Nations Development Programme

Caribbean Development Bank

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development

United Nations Economic Commission for Africa

Food and Agriculture Organization

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Inter-American Development Bank

United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

International Atomic Energy Agency

United Nations Environment Programme

International Civil Aviation Organization

United Nations Human Settlements Programme

International Fund for Agricultural Development

United Nations Industrial Development Organization

International Labour Organization

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for the Palestine Refugees in the Near East

International Maritime Organization

World Bank Group

International Monetary Fund

World Health Organization

International Telecommunication Union

World Intellectual Property Organization

International Trade Centre

World Tourism Organization

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

World Trade Organization


Agency Summaries

AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK (AfDB)

The Bank provides various financing instruments to its clients, who comprise national governments, private sector companies (e.g., financial institutions and private and public companies) and government-owned companies (subregional development banks). It also renders support to and works with inter-governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, community-based organizations and other developmental organizations.

TCB-related programme

Contact: The Director NEPAD, Regional Integration and Trade Department African Development Bank B.P. 323 - 1002 Tunis Belvédère, Tunisia Tel: +216 71 10 2825, +216 71 10 2156, +216 71 10 3477, +216 71 10 3100 Fax: +216 71 33 2694 E-mail: c.seka@afdb.org, m.mupotola@afdb.org, h.minnaar@afdb.org, c.lozano@afdb.org Web: www.afdb.org

The AfDB’s economic and trade-related infrastructure programme encompasses all physical infrastructure investments, such as roads, ports, transport and storage, communication and energy, but excludes water supply and sanitation. All African Development Fund (ADF)-funded infrastructure projects have been categorised under transport, communication, and energy supply and generation projects. The recent aid for trade (AfT) monitoring exercise showed that new commitments for infrastructure in 2006 and 2007 amounted to US$930 million and US$684 million respectively, accounting for 69 per cent and 75 per cent of the Bank’s total AfT contribution. During the recent North-South Corridor AfT Conference in Lusaka in April 2009, the Bank committed US$600 million for four years to support activities on the corridor. For the 2008 to 2010 period, it earmarked investment in the North-South Corridor in the order of US$380 million, and it also recently approved the BlantyreZomba road (US$37.5 million) and the Nacala road corridor (US$181 million). The Bank’s investment in total infrastructure was US$2.17 billion in 2008 (a small portion is not AfT and must still be determined), of which 44.5 per cent of total grants and loans comprise: (i) power supply - 38 per cent; (ii) transport - 45 per cent; and (iii) other infrastructure - 16.8 per cent (including water and sanitation which are not part of AfT). The AfDB’s productive-capacity programmes include all activities aimed at improving a country’s capacity to produce goods and services. All agricultural (including forestry, fisheries and agro-industry) projects are funded by the ADF, the Nigerian Trust Fund, the Special Relief Fund, and the Technical Assistance Fund for Middle Income Countries and are included under AfT. During 2006 and 2007, the Bank committed US$336 million and US$230 million, respectively, or 31 per cent and 25 per cent, in the same period to the agricultural sector. The disbursements to agricultural projects constituted 65 per cent and 84 per cent of total AfT disbursed in 2006 and 2007 respectively.

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AfDB

The AfDB Group’s mission is to help reduce poverty and improve living conditions for Africans and mobilize resources for Africa’s economic and social development. The overarching objective of the AfDB Group is to spur sustainable economic development and social progress in its regional member countries (RMCs), thus contributing to poverty reduction. The AfDB Group achieves this objective by: (i) mobilizing and allocating resources for investment in its RMCs; and (ii) providing policy advice and technical assistance to support development efforts. The Bank was created in 1964 and has 78 members, of whom 53 are RMCs and 25 nonregional member countries.


Agency Summaries

Successful projects Infrastructure Cameroon: Road improvement in the West, Littoral and South Provinces With the upgrade of this 22.5km long road (including a 15km cliff stretch and a 7.5km plain stretch), the project provided a permanent, all-weather link in the three provinces, allowing thriving agriculture production and improvement in the welfare of the riverside population. This road enables its users in these provinces to avoid a detour of about 150km to join the highway leading to Douala, Cameroon’s commercial capital. The road project has therefore helped considerably to reduce poverty and promote economic growth as: (i) it facilitates the supply of agricultural inputs and manufactured products into the zone; (ii) it allows the evacuation to Douala, the big port and economic metropolis of Cameroon, of farm products; (iii) it reduces the period of absence of family members who have emigrated to the urban centres of Douala and Yaoundé, thereby promoting greater cohesion in households and the undertaking of new income generating activities (sand digging), etc. At project completion, the most direct and quantifiable effect of the road project was the reduction in travel time to Douala from 2 hours to 40 minutes. As a result, transport costs were reduced by 70 per cent and trade volumes doubled, and there was a 30 per cent decrease in loss of perishable goods being ferried to consumer areas and a 220 per cent increase in the local farmers’ revenues.

Agriculture Uganda:

AfDB

Area-Based Agricultural Modernization Programme (AAMP) The Government of Uganda (GoU), through a participatory process, developed a comprehensive plan to modernize its agricultural sector as a major platform for realizing the objectives of the Poverty Eradication Action Plan formulated in 1997. The Plan for Modernization of Agriculture (PMA) was developed in 2000, with a broad vision of a profitable, competitive, dynamic and sustainable agricultural and agroindustrial sector. It aimed to eradicate poverty, ensure food security and create gainful employment. Commercialization of small-holder agricultural production offered a bright prospect for improved agricultural productivity, increased agricultural production, improved household food security and increased household incomes, and a general increase in rural welfare. AAMP was one of the earliest attempts at realizing PMA’s objectives. AAMP was designed to target 35 per cent of rural households in 13 (now 16) programmed districts in south-western Uganda. The primary development objective was to increase household incomes through: (i) increased involvement of the private sector in support of the commercialization of smallholder agriculture; (ii) improved capacity among economically active farmers to organize themselves to gain better access to rural services; (iii) sustainable development and improvement of rural infrastructure; and (iv) increased public sector capacity to perform its role in responding to production needs identified by interest groups and rural communities. IFAD identified the programme on behalf of GoU and co-financed it with ADB. AAMP was consistent with the strategic thrust of ADB financial and technical support for Uganda as reflected in the Country Strategy Paper 1999 - 2001.

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Partnerships Through its normal bank operations, the Bank works with most inter-governmental organizations (WTO, UN organizations), other multilateral development banks (World Bank, ADB, etc.), non-governmental organizations, and bilateral donor countries who are members of the Bank, etc. The Bank also has partnerships with developmental organizations, and houses many facilities, some of which are mentioned above. On trade capacity building, the Bank works closely with the WTO, AUC, UNECA and the regional economic communities. There are also other organizations, like the WCO, UNCTAD, WIPO and ITC, with which it would wish to develop closer ties in the future. EU-Africa Partnership on Infrastructure: The overarching goals of the strategy are to support Africa’s efforts to achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals and make Europe’s partnership with Africa more efficient. For more information: http://www.afdb.org/en/topics-sectors/sectors/infrastructure/

TCB activities described in this guide GLOBAL ADVOCACY • Trade advocacy • Workshops and seminars

AfDB

TRADE POLICY DEVELOPMENT • Regional integration strategy • Trade policy training LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK • African Legal Support Facility SUPPLY CAPACITY • • • • •

Private sector development Agriculture and agro-industries African Fertilizer Financing Mechanism (AFFM) Making Finance Work for Africa Partnership African Financial Markets Initiative (AFMI)

MARKET AND TRADE INFORMATION • Reports TRADE FACILITATION • Support for regional institutions PHYSICAL TRADE INFRASTRUCTURE • Transport infrastructure • Information and communication technology (ICT) • NEPAD-infrastructure Project Preparation Facility (IPPF) TRADE-RELATED FINANCIAL SERVICES • Emergency Liquidity Facility (ELF) • Sovereign guaranteed loans for the public sector

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Agency Summaries

• • • • •

Non-sovereign guaranteed loans for public and private sectors Risk management products Guarantees African Financing Partnership (AFP) The Trade Finance Initiative (TFI)

OTHER TRADE-RELATED ACTIVITIES

AfDB

• Investment Climate Facility (ICF)

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ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK (ADB)

Under Strategy 2020, a long-term strategic framework adopted in 2008, ADB will follow three complementary strategic agendas: inclusive growth, environmentally sustainable growth, and regional integration. In pursuing its vision, ADB’s main instruments comprise loans, technical assistance, grants, advice, and knowledge. Although most lending is in the public sector - and to governments - ADB also provides direct assistance to private enterprises of developing countries through equity investments, guarantees, and loans.

TCB-related programme As Asia’s main regional development partner, ADB has, for over 40 years, recognized the benefits of trade in its efforts to reduce poverty. Through its regional, subregional, and other programmes fostering cooperation - and its many demand-driven country-specific projects - ADB acts as catalyst, broker, and financier to help its DMCs gain the skills and build the infrastructure required to boost trade. ADB’s trade-related work is multifaceted, extending from its many projects - simple and complex - to a substantial body of traderelated research, complemented by trade-related training for DMC officials. Since 1994, ADB has been involved in regional cooperation and integration activities and has played an active role in the evolution of regional and subregional initiatives, including ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations), GMS (Greater Mekong Subregion), SASEC (South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation), SECSCA (Subregional Economic Cooperation in South and Central Asia), CAREC (Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation), BIMP-EAGA (Brunei Darussalam-Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines East ASEAN Growth Area), IMT-GT (Indonesia-Malaysia-Thailand Growth Triangle), and the Pacific Plan. ADB’s Regional Cooperation and Integration (RCI) Strategy, endorsed by the ADB’s Board of Directors in July 2006, can complement its long experience and provide a framework for moving forward. Three of its four components are directly related to trade: • C ross-border infrastructure and related services (Pillar 1)—trade facilitation and customs modernization; • Trade and investment (Pillar 2); • Money and finance (Pillar 3)—mobilizing savings for trade-related infrastructure, investment, and possible trade finance.

Contact: Ganeshan Wignaraja (regional trade, Aid for Trade) Principal Economist Office of Regional Integration, Asian Development Bank Tel: +632 632 6116 Fax: +632 6362183 E-mail: gwignaraja@adb.org Steven Beck (trade finance) Head, Trade Finance Private Sector Operations Department Tel: +632 632 6599 Fax: +632 636 2448 E-mail: sbeck@adb.org Asian Development Bank Web: www.adb.org Asian Development Bank Institute Web: www.adbi.org Aid for Trade in Asia and Pacific Web: http://www.aric.adb.org/ aid-for-trade-asia/ Aid for Trade Secretariat Office of Regional Economic Integration 7/F Asian Development Bank 6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong City 1550 Metro Manila Philippines Tel: +63 2 632 5276, +63 2 632 6938 Fax: +63 2 636 2183 E-mail: aft_asia@adb.org

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ADB

ADB is an international development finance institution whose mission is to help its developing member countries (DMCs) reduce poverty and improve the quality of life of their people. Established in 1966, ADB is owned and financed by its 67 members, of which 48 are from the Asian region and 19 from other parts of the globe. ADB’s main partners are governments, the private sector, nongovernment organizations, development agencies, community-based organizations and foundations.


Agency Summaries

Successful projects

ADB

ADB’s cross-border road infrastructure projects in the Greater Mekong and Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) sub-regions exemplify the good practice of linking infrastructure development with trade facilitation, including customs and logistics reforms. Since cross-border infrastructure development yields positive externalities, ADB views its use of concessionary funds for these projects as amply justified. Another best practice in RCI is the encouragement of public-private partnerships (PPP) in cross border projects for catalyzing additional resources and involving the private sector in promoting RCI. The Nam Theun II Project, implemented with ADB assistance in Laos DPR, provides a good example of PPP in cross border infrastructure development and is viewed as a successful model for promoting cross border trade in electricity. Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Transport and Trade Facilitation Programme: Launched in 1992, the GMS programme has focused on transport and trade facilitation initiatives in its endeavour to enhance connectivity and improve competitiveness across international borders. ADB funding for the transport sector within the GMS programme had reached US$3.3 billion by December 2008. ADB’s participation in the GMS programme has ranged from the provision of financing for physical infrastructure and for “software” such as the development of cross-border agreements (CBTA) and trade facilitation. The combined impact of ADB assistance for the transport and trade facilitation sectors is visible at various levels. At the project level, ADB assistance has resulted in increased domestic economic activity, with new industries and special economic zones developing along the road. At the corridor level, passenger fares have decreased, reflecting lower costs. At the national level, the impact on small-sized economies—Lao PDR and Cambodia—has been higher, since a larger proportion of their trade uses the border points on the Southern Corridor and the East–West Corridor. ADB is currently supporting the early implementation of the CBTA. The GMS Transport and Trade Facilitation Programme—which covers Cambodia, PRC, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam— has created a demonstration effect in that it is being replicated in other subregions in Asia. Partnerships ADB is forging partnerships throughout the region and with global institutions (such as the WTO and WCO) to foster the creation and dissemination of development knowledge, develop and implement training programmes, and build capacity and expertise in various trade-related initiatives. Examples are: • A  id for Trade Initiative. In 2006, ADB began to work with global partners, such as the WTO, World Bank, OECD and other regional development banks (RDBs), in support of the Aid for Trade Initiative. ADB played an active role in the WTO Aid for Trade Roadmap for 2007-2009, including membership in the WTO Advisory Group and the Technical Working Group on global monitoring of aid for trade flows, and co-hosting the Asia-Pacific Aid for Trade Regional Review in Manila on 19-20 September 2007. Recently, ADB cohosted with the WTO a regional review meeting on aid for trade with a focus on the ASEAN experience. ADB also helps coordinate the many players—donors, recipients, development partners—of aid for trade as the secretariat to the Regional Technical Group for Asia and the Pacific. • ADB has collaborated with UNESCAP through the FTA database, a manual on trade facilitation, the Aid for Trade Initiative for Asia and the Pacific, and several capacity building activities. • ADB’s CAREC Unit has served as the programme secretariat since March 2000. CAREC is an alliance of multilateral institutions comprising ADB, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the IMF, the Islamic Development Bank, UNDP, and the World Bank. CAREC also operates in partnership with other key regional cooperation programmes and institutions, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the Eurasian Economic Community. • Recently, ADB and the IDB have agreed to share access to their trade finance programmes, linking more than 100 financial institutions to support trade between companies in Asia and the Pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean. • The Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI) is collaborating with Asian think tanks, the Latin America/ Caribbean and Asia/Pacific Economics and Business Association; the Global Development Learning Network; and the Network of Asian River Basin Organizations.

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Agency Summaries

TCB activities described in this guide GLOBAL ADVOCACY • Policy advocacy TRADE POLICY DEVELOPMENT • Training and seminars • Trade-related manuals • Research on trade and investment SUPPLY CAPACITY • Grants MARKET AND TRADE INFORMATION • Free trade agreements (FTA) and trade indicators database for Asia TRADE FACILITATION • CAREC Regional Trade Facilitation and Customs Cooperation Program TRADE-RELATED FINANCIAL SERVICES Equity investments Loans and guarantees B Loan (Complementary Financing Scheme) Trade Finance Facilitation Programme (TFFP)

ADB

• • • •

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Agency Summaries

CARIBBEAN DEVELOPMENT BANK (CDB)

CDB

Contact: Caribbean Development Bank P.O. Box 408 Wildey, St. Michael Barbados, West Indies Telex: WB 2287 Tel: +246 431 1600 Fax: +246 426 7269, +246 228 9670 E-mail: info@caribank.org Web: www.caribank.org

The Caribbean Development Bank (CDB) was established by the Agreement signed on October 18, 1969, at Kingston, Jamaica and that entered into force on January 26, 1970, for the purpose of contributing to the harmonious economic growth and development of the member countries in the Caribbean and promoting economic cooperation and integration among them, having special and urgent regard to the needs of the less developed members of the region (Article 1 of the Agreement establishing CDB). The Bank recently adopted the following mission statement: “CDB intends to be the leading catalyst for development resources into the Region, working in an efficient, responsive and collaborative manner with our Borrowing Member Countries (BMCs) and other development partners, towards the systematic reduction of poverty in their countries through social and economic development.” The Bank’s Strategic Plan details the strategic focus of its interventions in the BMCs, in light of the critical challenges facing the Region, such as trade liberalization; globalization; lack of competitiveness in major export sectors; poverty and indigence; fiscal and debt unsustainability; the increasing frequency and intensity of natural hazards; and environmental degradation. Based on the foregoing, and cognisant of its own areas of comparative advantage, the Bank has focused its attention on four critical areas: (i) promotion of broad-based economic growth, including in part through the strengthening of export sector development (tourism, export manufacture, agriculture, export services etc.); (ii) fostering of inclusive social development through social sector enhancements (education, housing, health, social protection, etc.), thereby improving the productivity of the regional labour force and regional capacity to engage more competitively in the world economy; (iii) promotion of good governance, including the development of appropriate trading policies through policy dialogue and institutional enhancements (Caribbean Regional Negotiating Machinery); and (iv) regional cooperation and integration, an important strategic regional response to the challenges of trade liberalization and globalization. To this end, the Bank has supported the strengthening and establishment of institutions critical to the integration process, such as, the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ), and has provided substantial resources for the provision of regional public goods. In fact, the support to regional integration is an important element of the Bank’s charter. For more information: www.caribank.org/titanweb/cdb/webcms.nsf/AllDoc/A541525E64242BE7872572BF007AECAC?OpenDocument

TCB-Related programme The Bank’s Trade Capacity Building (TCB)-related programme is multifaceted, encompassing various initiatives to boost trade through the development of physical (roads, airports, ports), economic (telecommunications, electricity) and social infrastructure (education). In the attempt to foster intraregional trade, the Bank has also been very involved in the establishment of key regional transportation projects, namely the establishment and continued viability of LIAT, a sub-regional airline, and in enhancing regional maritime transport capability through the funding of a regional carrier – WISCO. Furthermore, in the past the Bank has attempted to foster the exploitation of regional production complementarities through the establishment of regional industrial and agricultural projects. More recently, it has been supporting the regional integration process through the development of technical assistance in the analysis of key issues fundamental to moving the integration process forward and in the establishment of critical institutional infrastructure such as the CCJ.

Partnerships CDB cooperates with a number of development partners (United Nations agencies; bilateral partners [Canadian Investment Development Agency, UK Department for International Development, USAID, European Union], and international financial institutions (IFIs) [World Bank, IDB, IMF] in the development of trade

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capacity in the region. This is done mainly by channelling investment resources through the Bank for expansion of the various types of infrastructure and other projects mentioned above. More directly, CDB and the development partners facilitate export capacity expansion through the encouragement, facilitation and funding of investments (tourism, manufacturing, etc.) in various sectors geared towards external markets.

TCB activities described in this guide GLOBAL ADVOCACY • Events SUPPLY CAPACITY • • • •

Export Loans and Grants Equity Operations Project Financing

PHYSICAL TRADE INFRASTRUCTURE

CDB

• Restoration of physical infrastructure

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EUROPEAN BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT (EBRD) Contact: Communications One Exchange Square London EC2A 2JN United Kingdom Tel: +44 20 7338 6372 Fax: +44 20 7338 6102 E-mail: harrisob@ebrd.com Web: www.ebrd.com

The EBRD is an international financial institution that supports projects in 30 countries from Central Europe to Central Asia. Investing primarily in private sector clients whose needs cannot be fully met by the market, the Bank promotes entrepreneurship and fosters transition towards open and democratic market economies. The EBRD is the largest single foreign investor in the region and also mobilizes significant foreign direct investment into its countries of operations. It invests mainly in private enterprises, usually together with commercial partners. It provides project financing for the financial sector and the real economy, both new ventures and investments in existing companies. It also works with publicly-owned companies to support privatization, the restructuring of state-owned firms and improvement of municipal services. Owned by 61 countries and two intergovernmental institutions, the EBRD maintains a close political dialogue with governments, authorities and representatives of civil society to promote its goals. In all its operations the EBRD follows the highest standards of corporate governance and sustainable development. As a public institution, the EBRD is committed to a rigorous public information policy.

TCB-related programmes and initiatives

EBRD

The EBRD is a project finance institution and its main TCB-related activities in its countries of operations are the following: • T rade financing: Through the Trade Facilitation Programme (TFP), designed to overcome counter-party risks in trade credits, the EBRD has supported over 8,700 transactions for a total of €5.4 billion since it was launched in 1999. In addition to providing trade finance guarantees, the EBRD also extends shortterm loans to selected banks in its countries of operations. These loans are structured to fund traderelated advances to local companies exclusively for the purpose of pre-shipment finance, post-shipment finance and other financing of working capital necessary for the performance of foreign trade contracts. Credit agreements are signed between the EBRD and these selected banks. • Investment in trade-related infrastructure: The EBRD supports investments in cross-border transport infrastructure, including roads, railways, airlines, ports, shipping and logistics companies and associated equipment, as well as in regional power pools and projects to promote regional energy markets. Over the period 1991 – 2008, EBRD provided €5.7 billion for 169 transactions to support cross-border transport and storage and €903 million for 25 transactions in regional power projects. • Advisory services and financing to enterprises: The EBRD also provides both advisory services and financing to export-orientated enterprises that improve product quality to internationally accepted standards. In the agricultural sector, EBRD has developed a financing structure where loans are secured by commodities and provided through local banks. This significantly reduces the risks for commercial banks and eases access to financing by farmers, food processors and traders. In order to widen its outreach to smaller enterprises, the EBRD provides financing to local financial intermediaries dedicated to micro, small and medium-sized enterprises.

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Case study Credit lines target rural poverty in Tajikistan With 70 per cent of the population living in rural areas and relying on agriculture for their livelihoods, cotton, known as “white gold”, dominates life in Tajikistan. It is a vital source of export earnings and tax revenue for the country. Cotton-related indebtedness has virtually paralysed the Tajik cotton industry, and debt resolution has become the focus of assistance programmes by international financial institutions in the country. To help relieve the situation, the EBRD has established the Tajik Agricultural Finance Framework (TAFF) with US$ 35 million available for small farmers through local banks. This finance is used to purchase farming supplies such as seeds and fertilisers. Many of the farmers have never received a loan before and many of them are women who look after household plots and small farms, while the men have left Tajikistan to seek employment in other countries.

A groundbreaking initiative, TAFF is providing farmers with finance which will help to decrease rural poverty and, in time, change the structural economic circumstances that can lead to child labour. According to an IOM report, children harvest up to 40 per cent of cotton in Tajikistan. This contributes to continuing the cycle of poverty. Giving farmers access to finance allows them to plant the crop of their choice, thus diversifying production and increasing profitability. The Tajik Agricultural Finance Facility builds on the successful Tajik Micro and Small Enterprise Finance Framework through which the EBRD has provided credit lines since 2003. Partnerships The EBRD works in partnership with multilateral institutions, including the World Bank, UN agencies, the European Commission and other financial organizations such as the Nordic Investment Bank (NIB) and the Nordic Environment Finance Corporation (NEFCO).

TCB activities described in this guide GLOBAL ADVOCACY • Conferences and events SUPPLY CAPACITY • Agribusiness • TurnAround Management (TAM) & Business Advisory Services (BAS) Programme PHYSICAL TRADE INFRASTRUCTURE • Infrastructure and transport policy • Acquisition and construction of cargo vessels TRADE-RELATED FINANCIAL SERVICES • Trade Facilitation Programme (TFP)

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EBRD

This facility is tailored for seasonal agricultural finance, something which is currently unavailable in Tajikistan. EBRD donor countries are covering the costs of training credit and agricultural advisers. Farmers will be trained to learn more about the use of harmful environmental practices and to work according to best farming practices. The EBRD has a strong track record of supporting the Tajik micro and small business sector, with over US$ 122 million invested in microfinance projects. The uncertainty of crop yields and quality from one season to another, the price volatility and the varying management capabilities of farmers means that lending to individual farmers is a high-risk activity for banks.


Agency Summaries

• Training and advisory services for TFP • Loans OTHER TRADE-RELATED ACTIVITIES

EBRD

• A joint EBRD and EIB climate initiative • Technical Cooperation Funds Programme (TCFP)

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FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION (FAO)

• P utting information within reach. FAO serves as a knowledge network. We use the expertise of our staff - agronomists, foresters, fisheries and livestock specialists, nutritionists, social scientists, economists, statisticians and other professionals - to collect, analyze and disseminate the data that assists in development. A million times a month, someone visits the FAO Internet site to consult a technical document or read about our work with farmers. We also publish hundreds of newsletters, reports and books, distribute several magazines, create numerous CD-ROMS, and host dozens of electronic forums. • Sharing policy expertise. FAO lends its years of experience to member countries in devising agricultural policy, supporting planning, drafting effective legislation, and creating national strategies to achieve rural development and hunger alleviation goals. • Providing a meeting place for nations. On any given day, dozens of policy-makers and experts from around the globe convene at headquarters or in our field offices to forge agreements on major food and agriculture issues. As a neutral forum, FAO provides the setting where rich and poor nations can come together to build common understanding. • Bringing knowledge to the field. Our breadth of knowledge is put to the test in thousands of field projects throughout the world. FAO mobilizes and manages millions of dollars provided by industrialized countries, development banks, and other sources, to make sure the projects achieve their goals. It provides the technical know-how and, in a few cases, is a limited source of funds. In crisis situations, we work sideby-side with the World Food Programme and other humanitarian agencies to protect rural livelihoods and help people rebuild their lives.

Contact: Alexander Sarris Director, Trade and Markets Division (EST), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Viale delle Terme di Caracalla Rome 00153, Italy Tel: +39 06 570 5 4201 Fax: +39 06 570 5 4495 E-mail: alexander.sarris@fao.org Web: www.fao.org

The FAO mandate is to raise levels of nutrition, improve agricultural productivity, better the lives of rural populations and contribute to the growth of the world economy. Achieving food security for all is at the heart of FAO’s efforts.

TCB-related programme The provision of information and analysis on trade issues affecting agriculture, fisheries and forestry, and assistance to member countries to build trade-related capacities have been long-standing FAO activities. FAO is committed to providing its Member States with trade-related assistance, as mandated in the World Food Summit Plan of Action. In support of the new WTO negotiations on agriculture, FAO has strengthened its programme of technical assistance aimed at enhancing the capacity of Member States - especially developing countries and economies in transition - to participate effectively in the multilateral negotiations and to derive maximum benefit from global trade. FAO’s trade work dates back to well before the Uruguay Round of negotiations, and addresses broader policy and market issues of relevance to agriculture, fisheries and forestry. FAO’s approach is multidisciplinary in that it involves capacity building for trade, including analytical activities, as well as operational field activities with a direct impact on supply-side capacities. As such, trade is one of FAO’s priority areas for interdepartmental action. Broadly, the TCB programmes of the organization aim to: • S trengthen the supply-side capability of the agricultural sector, including fisheries and forestry, so that the sector is competitive and countries can take advantage of trade opportunities;

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FAO

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations leads international efforts to defeat hunger. Serving both developed and developing countries, FAO acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate agreements and debate policy, and also as a source of knowledge and information. FAO helps developing countries and countries in transition modernize and improve their agriculture, forestry and fisheries practices, and ensure good nutrition for all. Since its founding in 1945, FAO has focused special attention on development in rural areas, home to 70 percent of the world’s poor and hungry people. FAO’s activities comprise four main areas:


Agency Summaries

• E nsure that trade and trade policies are conducive to overall economic development, agricultural development and food security; • P romote, develop and reinforce policy and regulatory frameworks for food, agriculture, fisheries and forestry; • Improve decision-making through the provision of information and analysis on trade policy and practices. Successful projects The TCB programmes are intended to address member countries’ needs, particularly developing countries and countries in transition. The main beneficiaries are government and non-government entities in the agriculture, forestry and fisheries sectors. FAO has been receiving an increasing volume of requests from a large number of members for information, analysis and technical assistance on a wide range of WTO-related issues, notably in the area of trade policy (multilateral and regional trade negotiations), and implementation and compliance and has been providing technical assistance in a variety of forms. An example of a successful programme is the “Umbrella” programme on trade-related capacity building, implemented during 1999-2001, under which FAO organized regional workshops in 14 sub-regions, reaching some 850 officials from 151 countries. This programme continues as new needs and issues emerge, for example the Doha Round, Economic Partnership Agreements, and new challenges in the SPS and TBT and TRIPS Agreements.

FAO

Another example of a success story in this area is the Standards and Trade Development Facility (STDF) which resulted from a joint communiqué issued by the heads of FAO, the OIE, the World Bank, WHO and the WTO at the Doha Ministerial Conference in November 2001. The STDF is mobilizing resources and assisting countries in building capacity in SPS-related areas.

Partnerships FAO provides technical assistance in collaboration with international organizations, national governments, international and regional financial institutions and NGOs, as appropriate. It collaborates actively with WHO (for example, on food safety (SPS)), with the OIE (on animal health (SPS)), and with UNIDO on fisheries. For more information: www.fao.org

TCB activities described in this guide GLOBAL ADVOCACY • Mainstreaming appropriate trade policies in national development plans TRADE POLICY DEVELOPMENT • Support for the multilateral trade negotiations LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK • Legal framework improvement to match international agricultural treaties & obligations SUPPLY CAPACITY • Increase agricultural productivity COMPLIANCE INFRASTRUCTURE AND SERVICES • Strengthen food quality and safety programmes to meet SPS and TBT requirements

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• Strengthen live animal and meat import and export inspection programmes • Capacity building work in the framework of Codex Alimentarius • Technical assistance in compliance MARKET AND TRADE INFORMATION

FAO

• Strengthening capacities in the area of commodity markets and trade • Market information programme

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INTER-AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK (IDB) Contact: Antoni Estevadeordal Manager Integration and Trade Sector Tel: +202 623 2614 Fax: +202 623 2169 E-mail: VPS-int@iadb.org Carolyn Robert (Aid for Trade contact) Senior International Trade Specialist Tel: +202 623 2883 E-mail: carolynr@iadb.org Web: www.iadb.org/int

The IDB, established in 1959 to support the process of economic and social development in Latin America and the Caribbean, is the main source of multilateral financing in this region. The IDB Group provides solutions to development challenges by partnering with governments, companies and civil society organizations to reach clients ranging from central governments to city authorities and businesses. The IDB lends money and provides grants. With a triple-A rating, it borrows in international markets at competitive rates, and can therefore structure loans at competitive conditions for its clients in its 26 borrowing member countries. In addition, it offers research, advice and technical assistance to support key areas like education, poverty reduction and agriculture, and is also active in cross-border issues like trade, infrastructure and energy. The IDB Group is composed of the Inter-American Development Bank, the Inter-American Investment Corporation (IIC) and the Multilateral Investment Fund (MIF). The IIC focuses on support for small and mediumsized businesses, while the MIF promotes private sector growth through grants and investments, with an emphasis on microenterprises.

IDB

Inter-American Investment Corporation: http://www.iic.int/home.asp Institute for the Integration of Latin American and the Caribbean: www.iadb.org/intal With its main goals of promoting sustainable economic growth and regional integration in Latin America and the Caribbean, the IDB works with governments and the private sector to support increased competitiveness, modernized public institutions, and the fostering of free trade, and strives to attain these goals in environmentally and socially sustainable ways that will bring lasting poverty reduction and greater social equity. More specifically, the Bank seeks to: • M  ake countries more competitive by supporting policies and programmes that increase their potential for development in the global economy. • Modernize  the state by strengthening public institutions and increasing their efficiency and transparency. • Invest in programmes and activities that expand economic opportunities for the low-income majority of the region’s population. • Promote regional integration by forging links among countries to develop larger markets for their goods and services.

TCB-related programme In the area of capacity building in trade, the Bank, mainly through its Trade and Integration Sector (INT), performs research, provides policy advice and technical assistance, and carries out financial operations through grants and loans with the objective of strengthening the capacity of countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. IDB operations in the areas of trade and integration help countries to benefit from an open trade and investment regime and pursue proactive regional and global economic integration agendas. The operations provide support for negotiating and implementing trade and investment agreements, promoting exports and attracting investment, strengthening trade facilitation practices and customs modernization, building productive capacity for regional and global integration, ensuring appropriate adjustment measures to advance the process of economic integration, and deepening regional integration and cooperation through the provision of regional public goods, including migration and financial integration.

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As part of its research programme in the areas of trade and integration, the IDB generates state-of-the art research and knowledge relevant to policy making; translates policy research into effective projects and operations; evaluates the results and impacts of relevant projects and disseminates best practices; and develops specialized databases and modelling services for assessing the impact of trade and integration. Specifically, the IDB provides financing through loans and non-reimbursable technical cooperation in the following areas: • • • • • •

Export promotion and investment attraction; Customs modernization and trade facilitation; Negotiations and implementation of trade and investment agreements; Regional public goods: Trade adjustment and poverty reduction; Financial and labor integration.

The Bank supports the implementation of the Aid for Trade Initiative in Latin American and the Caribbean in partnership with the WTO and the OECD; and collaborates with other international organizations such as the WCO, the World Bank, the United Nations, and other regional development banks, such as the ADB, in a number a trade-related initiatives. Through INT and in coordination with the Institute for the Integration of Latin America and the Caribbean (INTAL), the Bank supports the Trade and Integration Capacity Building programmes, the Trade and Integration Policy Research Networks (LAEBA, ELSNIT, RedINT) and key publications and databases (INTRADE; DATAINTAL; INTAL Newsletter; Integration and Trade Journal).

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IDB

Through its Integration and Trade Sector, the Bank also supports trade and integration initiatives to strengthen Latin American and Caribbean subregional, regional, hemispheric, extra-regional (Europe and Asia), and global integration. This includes supporting regional infrastructure initiatives such as the Initiative for the Integration of Regional Infrastructure in South America (IIRSA), and the Mesoamerican Integration and Development Project.


Agency Summaries

Successful projects Trade facilitation and the Mesoamerican Integration and Development Project A successful story is the Mesoamerican Project (MP), which serves as the operational tool responsible for the execution of specific projects and programmes aimed at fostering the development, financing and implementation of regional infrastructure, connectivity, and social development projects in the Mesoamerican countries (Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia). The MP connects markets within the region, reduces transport and trade costs, enhances trade competitiveness, and increases foreign investment. Of the 100 projects, two stand out: The Pacific Corridor Highway (PC) and the International Transit of Goods (TIM). The PC constitutes the international trade backbone of the region, through which it circulates 95 per cent of international trade within these countries. This corridor will cut the distance from Mexico to Panama by 300 kms, saving considerable time and cost to its users. Also, as part of the Corridor, a pilot plan has been implemented to develop a common system for the international transit of goods. To this date, the average transit time has been reduced at the “El Amatillo” border between El Salvador and Honduras from 60 minutes to 8 minutes. Institutional strengthening of international trade

IDB

The programmes financed by the Bank to support institutional strengthening of international trade (including support for the negotiation and implementation of trade agreements) under the modalities of “sectoral facility” and investments loans have shown significant results in improving beneficiary countries’ capacity to design and conduct their own trade policy. With these instruments, the Bank has financed numerous operations in the region. Many of these operations were also identified as best practices during the last exercise done by the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Organization of Economic and Cooperation Development (OECD) under the frame of the Aid for Trade Initiative, in particular because of their contribution to the improvement of countries’ capacity to design and conduct trade policy. Trade promotion Bank programmes financing trade promotion have demonstrated that investment in trade promotion results in a high return. In the case of the Bank’s programmes, results have been very positive: projects that have supported and financed export promotion agencies have resulted in a return of 30 to 40 dollars of exports per dollar invested. Partnerships The Bank has engaged in partnerships throughout the region and with global institutions, such as the WTO, the WCO, the OECD and the World Bank, to foster the design and implementation of knowledge products, implementing concrete projects and building capacity. This is the case with the Aid for Trade Initiative in Latin America and the Caribbean, where the Bank has developed a partnership with the WTO, the OECD and other regional development banks. As part of the Bank’s contribution to the implementation of the WTO Aid for Trade Initiative, the IDB organized a series of national, subregional and regional reviews on aid for trade in Latin American and the Caribbean during 2008-2009 (see “Implementing Aid for Trade in Latin America and the Caribbean. The National and Regional Review Meetings 2008-2009” at http://www.iadb.org/int/ ) The Bank also collaborates with other international organizations, such as the World Customs Organization, the World Bank, the United Nations, the European Commission and the Asian Development Bank in a number of trade-related initiatives.

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TCB activities described in this guide GLOBAL ADVOCACY • Inter-institutional cooperation on trade and integration • Regional Policy Dialogue on Trade and Integration TRADE POLICY DEVELOPMENT • • • •

Policy research and impact studies Trade policy notes Support for the negotiation and implementation of trade and investment agreements Trade and Integration Capacity Building Program

SUPPLY CAPACITY • S upporting the integration of Latin America and the Caribbean into the global economy through Aid for Trade TRADE PROMOTION CAPACITY BUILDING • S upporting trade strategies and strengthening institutional capacity in trade promotion and ­investment attraction MARKET AND TRADE INFORMATION

TRADE FACILITATION • Customs, trade facilitation and logistics • T he Mesoamerican Project (MP) and the Initiative for the Integration of Regional Infrastructure in South America (IIRSA) PHYSICAL TRADE INFRASTRUCTURE • Transport infrastructure • Ports and maritime transport TRADE-RELATED FINANCIAL SERVICES • Grants and loans • Trade finance • Private sector development

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IDB

• Trade Hub Information


Agency Summaries

INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA) Contact: Division for Programme Support and Coordination International Atomic Energy Agency P. O. Box 100 Wagramer Strasse 5 A-1400 Vienna, Austria Tel: +431 2 6000 Fax: +431 2 6007 E-mail: official.mail@iaea.org Web: www.iaea.org

The IAEA works with its Member States and multiple partners to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health, and prosperity throughout the world. Through its Department of Technical Cooperation, the IAEA seeks “to increasingly promote tangible socio-economic impact by contributing directly in a cost-effective manner to the achievement of the major sustainable development priorities of each country.” The principal functions of its Technical Cooperation (TC) Programme are to: (i) encourage and assist research in the development and practical application of nuclear science and technology for development; (ii) assist Member States to procure materials, services, equipment, and facilities to meet the needs of research with due consideration for the needs of developing countries; and (iii) encourage the exchange of training of scientists and experts within and across all Member States, which includes the exchange of scientific information. With more than 190 staff members, the TC Department works in full partnership with technical officers from the technical departments within the IAEA and project counterparts in its 135 Member States. Through training courses, expert missions, fellowships, scientific visits, and equipment disbursement, the TC programme provides the necessary skills and equipment to establish sustainable technology in the counterpart country or region. In addition, the TC Department collaborates with United Nations and other organizations to plan and execute projects.

IAEA

TCB-related programme Through its TC programme, the IAEA is systematically building national and regional capability for its Member States, particularly the developing countries, to establish infrastructure and services that would enable them to gain greater access to global trade through improved production processes and the ability to meet global established standards. This is carried out in two forms: firstly, assisting Member States to acquire the equipment and material required for setting up infrastructure, such as analytical laboratories and irradiation facilities; and, secondly, building human resource capacity – fellowships, training, scientific visits, etc. The overall strategy lies in transferring science and technology that relates to the specific requirements of each region to ensure ownership and concerted efforts towards self-reliance and long-term sustainability. Ultimately, the IAEA seeks to establish the capacity of its Member States to harness nuclear science and technology for improved production in all sectors, including those activities that relate to trade. There is increased recognition that science and technology can significantly contribute to enabling countries to provide goods and services which, when traded, can contribute to the socio-economic well-being of a country. However, many developing countries have neither the infrastructure, the human resources, nor the investment capability to acquire modern science and technology know-how. In this context, the Agency is working to assist its Member States, particularly developing Member States, to procure the expertise and infrastructure that would enable them to exploit and better utilize science and technology to not only meet national needs but ultimately to increase their production capability for goods and services that can meet global standards. IAEA support is available to all its Member States, with particular consideration for LDC Member States. Successful projects Project on improving food security and boosting vegetable exports in Latin America In Central America, the regional project RLA5045: “Preparation for Pilot Fruit Fly Free Areas Using the Sterile Insect Technique” aimed to control fruit flies by way of an integrated approach which includes the sterile insect technique. The ultimate goal of this effort was to export fruits and vegetables to high value markets, such as the USA. The Member States in the region - Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama - made strong commitments to this project, which benefited from

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e­x tra-budgetary contributions, both financial and in-kind, from other national and international organizations, such as FAO, the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture, the International Regional Organization for Plant and Animal Health, and the United States Department of Agriculture, in what has been called a regional inter-institutional project alliance. Substantial results have been achieved, with an area that is free of the fruit fly pest being officially declared in each of the participating countries. Member States have developed the human and physical infrastructure to maintain the areas free or with a low prevalence of fruit flies. Vegetables from these areas in El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua, such as bell peppers and tomatoes, are already being exported to the USA, and papayas are being exported to Mexico and the USA. In 2006, these exports generated significant revenues for these countries. In October 2006, Honduras signed a protocol to export bell peppers to the USA, and Costa Rica invested in infrastructure to start horticultural exports to the USA in 2007. Belize has expanded its range of horticultural products in the international market by retaining its sanitary status as a country that is not affected by the medfly. Projections indicate that in the medium term, as exports of fruits and vegetables from these areas realize their full potential, the expected socio-economic impact will be substantial throughout Central America.

The IAEA is using nuclear and related techniques to assist governments in implementing a food chain approach by developing methodologies, indicators, and guidelines that protect food chains from safety hazards at their source through good agricultural practices. These activities include the improvement of laboratory-quality management and analytical techniques to meet international standards for pesticides, mycotoxins and veterinary drug residues. They include the adoption of the collaboratively developed Codex Guidelines on the Use of Mass Spectrometry for Identification, Confirmation and Quantitative Determination of Residues. The success of the application of previously adopted international standards related to the use of ionizing radiation for the control of food-borne pathogens and insect pests, which is now used by over 50 countries worldwide, is reflected in part by the recent enactment of harmonized regulations for various types of food in five more countries. Other activities related to the application of international standards for consumer protection and the facilitation of agricultural trade include an online database of government first actions in response to a nuclear emergency affecting agriculture. International trade from affected regions will also be enhanced through collaborative efforts in the revision, and expansion to cover additional isotopes, of the Codex Guideline Levels for Radionuclides in Foods Following Accidental Nuclear Contamination for Use in International Trade that will apply for a period longer than one year following a nuclear accident or radiological event. As IAEA’s Member States gain more expertise and infrastructure, greater trade opportunities and options become available. Partnerships An example of a successful partnership is the established joint division of the IAEA and FAO, based in the IAEA’s Secretariat in Vienna. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division is currently responsible for providing scientific and technical support for over 200 national and regional technical cooperation projects, as well as for interregional and regional training courses channelled to recipient countries for the purpose of providing equipment, expert advice and training. Projects are financed by IAEA’s Technical Cooperation Fund and FAO’s Technical Cooperation Programme, and through trust funds provided by donor countries and international funding agencies. Other partnerships have been established at international, regional and national levels.

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IAEA

Use of irradiation for sanitary and phytosanitary treatment of agricultural produce


Agency Summaries

TCB activities described in this guide SUPPLY CAPACITY • Assistance to improve production methods COMPLIANCE SUPPORT INFRASTRUCTURE AND SERVICES

IAEA

• Assistance to meet global standards and international regulations • Assistance related to non-conformity with safety and quality standards

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INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) A specialized agency of the United Nations, ICAO was created in 1944 to promote the safe and orderly development of international civil aviation throughout the world. It sets standards and regulations necessary for aviation safety, security, efficiency and regularity, as well as for aviation environmental protection. The Organization serves as the forum for cooperation in all fields of civil aviation among its 190 contracting states. ICAO works to achieve its vision of safe, secure and sustainable development of civil aviation through cooperation amongst its Member States. To implement this vision, the Organization has established the following strategic objectives for the period 2005-2010: • • • • • •

Contact: International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) 999 University Street Montréal, Quebec, Canada H3C 5H7 Tel: +1 514 954 8219 Fax: +1 514 954 6077 Web: www.icao.int

Safety - enhance global civil aviation safety; Security - enhance global civil aviation security; Environmental protection - minimize the adverse effect of global civil aviation on the environment; Efficiency - enhance the efficiency of aviation operations; Continuity - maintain the continuity of aviation operations; Rule of law - strengthen the law governing international civil aviation.

TCB activities described in this guide

ICAO

TRADE POLICY DEVELOPMENT • Economic policy and infrastructure management (EPM) LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK • Economic policy and infrastructure management (EPM) PHYSICAL TRADE INFRASTRUCTURE • Economic Policy and Infrastructure Management (EPM) OTHER TRADE-RELATED ACTIVITIES • Environmental unit

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Agency Summaries

INTERNATIONAL FUND FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT (IFAD) Contact: International Fund for Agricultural Development Via Paolo di Dono, 44 00142 Rome, Italy Tel: +39 065 4591, Fax: +39 065 04 3463 E-mail: ifad@ifad.org Web: www.ifad.org

A specialized agency of the United Nations, IFAD was established as an international financial institution in 1977 as one of the major outcomes of the 1974 World Food Conference. The conference resolved that “an International Fund for Agricultural Development should be established immediately to finance agricultural development projects primarily for food production in the developing countries”. One of the most important insights emerging from the conference was that the causes of food insecurity and famine were not so much failures in food production, but structural problems relating to poverty and to the fact that the majority of the developing world’s poor populations were concentrated in rural areas. IFAD is dedicated to eradicating rural poverty in developing countries. Seventy-five per cent of the world’s poorest people - 1.05 billion women, children and men - live in rural areas and depend on agriculture and related activities for their livelihoods. Working with rural poor people, governments, donors, non-governmental organizations and many other partners, IFAD focuses on country-specific solutions, which can involve increasing rural poor peoples’ access to financial services, markets, technology, land and other natural resources.

IFAD

IFAD’s activities are guided by the Strategic Framework for IFAD 2007-2010: Enabling the rural poor to overcome poverty. Its goal is to empower poor rural women and men in developing countries to achieve higher incomes and improved food security. Its objectives are to ensure that poor rural people have better access to, and the skills and organization they need to take advantage of: • N  atural resources, especially secure access to land and water, and improved natural resource management and conservation practices; • Improved agricultural technologies and effective production services; • A broad range of financial services; • Transparent and competitive markets for agricultural inputs and produce; • Opportunities for rural off-farm employment and enterprise development; • Local and national policy and programming processes. All of IFAD’s decisions - on regional, country and thematic strategies, poverty reduction strategies, policy dialogue and development partners - are made with these principles and objectives in mind. As reflected in the strategic framework, IFAD is committed to achieving the Millennium Development Goals, in particular the target of halving the proportion of hungry and extremely poor people by 2015. For more information: http://www.ifad.org/governance/index.htm

TCB-related programme How much poor rural people may benefit from the changes envisaged in international trade regulations depends upon both the macroeconomic policies of national governments in the developing world and the extent to which those governments provide the institutional, policy and material framework foundations for a positive response from different groups of rural poor. To benefit from trade opportunities, poor rural people need access to capital, relevant technology, land, water, infrastructure and opportunities for organization. Without these, the direct benefits of changes in trade regulations may be modest in terms of rural poverty reduction. For more information: http://www.ifad.org/english/trade/index.htm

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As an institution dedicated to combating poverty and hunger in the rural areas of developing countries, all IFAD-funded programmes address food security in some way. IFAD has supported around 350 million poor rural people in the past three decades. For more information: http://www.ifad.org/pub/factsheet/food/foodsecurity_e.pdf As a result of IFAD’s Action Plan for Improving its Development Effectiveness, the Fund’s core processes now devote explicit attention to innovation. The IFAD Innovation Strategy does not set new objectives for staff, but rather defines what is needed to create an innovation-friendly environment and to support staff in achieving the expected results. The goal of the strategy is to ensure that innovation is systematically and effectively mainstreamed in IFAD processes and in its practice in country programmes. Its purpose is to enhance IFAD’s capacity to work with partners to find and promote new and better ways to enable the rural poor to overcome poverty. For more information: http://www.ifad.org/pub/policy/innovation/e.pdf Successful projects IFAD has more than 30 years of experience in meeting the challenges of rural poverty reduction. Over this time we have provided US$12 billion in loans and grants to developing countries for agriculture and rural development programmes and projects, and to support agricultural research. With co-financing from our partners, the total investment is US$29 billion. These initiatives have reached about 350 million poor rural people in 115 countries and in Gaza and the West Bank.

IFAD

For more information: http://www.ifad.org/story/index.htm

Partnerships To accomplish its fundamental goals of rural poverty eradication, ensuring food security and helping prevent famines, and with a view to mobilizing resources for the implementation of the Fund’s mandate, IFAD has made efforts to consolidate existing and create new partnerships and to broaden its outreach. The Fund maintains strategic partnerships with a number of bilateral donors, in particular with the major OECD countries. Key aspects of these strategic partnerships are contributions to IFAD core resources, the supplementary funds, co-financing of IFAD projects, participation in the associate professional officer (APO) programme and participation in the Government of Québec’s International Internship Programme. For more information: http://www.ifad.org/partners/index.htm

TCB activities described in this guide GLOBAL ADVOCACY • Rural poverty advocacy TRADE POLICY DEVELOPMENT • Results-based Country Strategic Opportunities Programme (COSOP)

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Agency Summaries

INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (ILO) Contact: José Manuel Salazar-Xirinachs, Executive Director Employment Sector International Labour Office 4, route des Morillons, CH – 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland Tel: +41 22 799 6282 Fax: +41 22 799 7562 E-mail: salazar-xirinachs@ilo.org Web: www.ilo.org

The International Labour Organization (ILO) is the UN specialized agency devoted to advancing opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work in conditions of freedom, equity, security, and human dignity. Its main aims are to: • • • •

Promote and realize standards and fundamental principles and rights at work; Create greater opportunities for women and men to secure decent employment and income; Enhance the coverage and effectiveness of social protection for all; Strengthen tripartism and social dialogue in handling work-related issues.

In promoting social justice and internationally-recognized human and labour rights, the organization continues to pursue its founding mission, which was based on the premise that labour peace is essential to prosperity. Today, the ILO helps advance the creation of decent jobs and the kinds of economic and working conditions that give working people and business people a stake in lasting peace, prosperity, and progress. For more information: www.ilo.org

ILO

TCB-related programme The ILO’s trade-related services promote an integrated approach to trade, employment and decent work, one that seeks to simultaneously enhance a country’s trade performance and create more, and better, jobs. The ILO seeks to enhance the capabilities of countries and social partners (governments, workers’ and employers’ organizations) to realize the opportunities for decent employment and income that may be created by trade and to limit social adjustment costs. It seeks to achieve this through actions at the international, regional and national levels. At the international level, the ILO promotes dialogue between its own constituents - governments, trade unions and employers’ organizations - on the potential employment effects of trade policies and measures that maximize opportunities for employment and decent work. It also engages with other agencies to promote policy coherence between trade policies, on the one hand, and labour market policies, on the other. At the regional level, the ILO is involved in assisting regional institutions to assess the impact of trade integration on decent work, and to develop regional social policies on employment, skills development, the movement of people, labour standards, and other social goals. At the national level, through the ILO’s Decent Work Country Programmes - national strategies designed to achieve the organization’s four strategic objectives - it is involved in: • Assessing the impact of trade policy on employment and working conditions; • Developing integrated sectoral strategies that seek to improve the export competitiveness of enterprises together with the number of jobs created and the conditions of work and employment; • Supporting social dialogue between trade unions, employers’ organizations and government to promote more effective and coherent trade and labour market policies; • Facilitating labour market preparedness for trade by providing assistance with the development of active labour market policies, and adequate regulatory frameworks and institutions to provide social protection; • Strengthening productive capabilities for trade preparedness; • Unlocking the potential of enterprises to create decent jobs that can help alleviate poor working conditions and create a route out of poverty by: providing market information; facilitating the development of clusters and the upgrading of enterprises in value chains; improving workplace practices and productive capabilities; assessing the policy and regulatory environment within which enterprises operate in order

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to create a supportive business environment; and building skills and knowledge as the engines of economic growth and social development, crucial to sustaining productivity and income-earning opportunities. Through its training arm, the International Training Centre in Turin, the ILO provides training on the nexus of trade and labour markets. The proposed training aims at equipping ILO’s constituents (workers and employers organizations, ministries of labour) as well as trade negotiators and professionals from ministries of trade and regional economic organizations, with conceptual and analytical tools for the effective mainstreaming of decent employment in national and regional trade policy strategies. Successful projects Integrated sectoral strategies to build capabilities and improve competitiveness through decent work - Morocco’s textile and clothing sector A vital industry under restructuring

The programmed ends of quotas, the forecast entering into force of the free trade zone with the European Union in 2010, and the signing of the free trade agreement with the United States in 2004, have put additional pressure on the industry to accelerate its redeployment process. The national actors decided to be proactive and to anticipate the impact of these trade agreements on Morocco’s global TC market. The initial strategy to upgrade the sector was developed in 2002 when the employers and the government signed a Framework Agreement aimed at boosting the TC industry from a conventional standpoint (focusing on the economic determinants of competitiveness). In parallel, the employers’ association of the TC industries, the Moroccan Textile and Apparel Manufacturers Association (AMITH), developed specific upgrading strategies. These strategies addressed the following key factors: competitiveness; responsiveness; creativity; commercial assertiveness; skills development; and networking and clustering. Moving towards an integrated economic and social strategy, with ILO support The ILO and the Government of Morocco launched a Decent Work Pilot (Country) Programme (DWPP) with a sectoral focus on TC. The objective was to improve the competitiveness of the sector and its trade capacity through decent work. The TC redeployment strategy sought to improve social dialogue and build productive capacity through the integration of the economic and social determinants of competitiveness. The first phase of the project focused on the establishment of a National Tripartite Steering Committee involving all the stakeholders (the Ministry of Employment and Vocation Training, the Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Economic Upgrading, the National Agency for the Promotion of SMEs, the TC employers, the General Confederation of Moroccan Enterprises and the three most representative trade unions), and the facilitation of tripartite dialogue around the challenges faced by the industry in terms of competitiveness and decent work. The outcome was the adoption, in December 2003, of a “National Tripartite Action Plan to promote the competitiveness of the TC industry through the promotion of decent work”. The action plan had two major components: the improvement of social dialogue at enterprise and industry level, and practical measures to boost competitiveness through enhancing the quality of employment. Cutting across both these components, was the objective of achieving greater gender equality.

From political consensus to action: The social partners join forces with the support of the ILO In its second phase (2004-05), the project provided support for the implementation of the priority components of the tripartite action plan: promotion of social dialogue at the industry and enterprise levels; ­capacity

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ILO

Textiles and clothing (TC) are at the forefront of export-led industrial growth in Morocco. The sector contributes 15 percent of the value added of the industrial sector and generates 36 percent of foreign export earnings. It is also at the origin of 23 percent of enterprise creation. It remains a key source of employment. With over 201,000 workers employed in 1,607 enterprises, the sector contributes to 43 percent of overall employment, three-quarters of which is female employment. Given its national strategic importance, both in social and economic terms, the sector has been the subject of a long-standing upgrading strategy.


Agency Summaries

building among the social partners; social upgrading of enterprises and the strengthening of their role in the design and implementation of on-the-job vocational training; and promotion of gender equality. More recently, with project support from Spain, the programme implemented the priorities of the National Action Plan at the enterprise level. Training has been conducted on the social upgrading of textile and clothing enterprises, the strengthening of human resource management, and enterprises’ role in training. Social upgrading is based on a bipartite approach facilitated by national trainers who help workers and managers to identify actions that they could carry out at their workplace to improve working conditions, productivity, and labour-management relations. In order to secure sustainability, the training at the enterprise level is undertaken by national training institutions trained by the ILO. This approach is being tested on a pilot group of voluntary enterprises.

Major achievements

ILO

One of the major achievements of the project is a shift from conflictual relations to more collaborative social dialogue. Not only has this led to the adoption of the tripartite action plan, but it has also given a new impetus to national, sectoral and regional social dialogue. The social partners decided in January 2004 to establish a bipartite TC committee to deal in a socially responsible way with the new challenges of globalization. In addition, in the recent past, some trade unions have established TC national federations to strengthen their representation. The programme has improved the social partners’ understanding of the challenges and opportunities the TC industry faces in global markets. The creation of a decent work agenda has now become a key driver in the competitiveness and trading capacity of the Moroccan TC industry. The employers’ association, AMITH, has put the social dimension at the heart of the restructuring process, recognizing the importance of integrating the creation of decent work with the search for economic efficiency. Partnerships EU, ITC, UNCTAD, UNDP, UNIDO, WIPO, WTO

TCB activities described in this guide GLOBAL ADVOCACY • Policy Coherence Initiative (PCI) • Working Party on the Social Dimension of Globalization (WPSDG) • Integrating the decent work agenda in poverty reduction strategies TRADE POLICY DEVELOPMENT • Regional integration and employment policies • Assessing and addressing the impact of trade policy on employment LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK • Technical cooperation on labour laws SUPPLY CAPACIY • Integrated sectoral strategies to build capabilities and improve competitiveness • Value chain analysis, upgrading, and cluster development • Workplace practices OTHER TRADE-RELATED ACTIVITIES • Development of the business environment • Local economic development (LED)

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INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION (IMO) IMO’s main task has been to develop and maintain a comprehensive regulatory framework for shipping, and its remit today includes safety, environmental concerns, legal matters, technical co-operation, maritime security and the efficiency of shipping. IMO seeks to ensure that measures to promote safe, secure, and environmentally sound shipping do not unduly affect the efficiency of shipping, and constantly reviews such measures to ensure their adequacy. For more information: www.imo.org

Contact: The International Maritime Organization (IMO) 4, Albert Embankment London SE1 7SR UK Tel: +44 20 7735 7611 Fax: +44 20 7587 3210 E-mail (general enquiries): info@imo.org Web: www.imo.org

TCB-related programme Bearing in mind that around 90 percent of world trade is carried by ships, the work of IMO to regulate and facilitate shipping activities contributes directly to building trade capacity.

The Facilitation Committee deals with the elimination of unnecessary formalities and red tape in international shipping. The Convention on the Facilitation of Maritime Traffic (FAL Convention) was adopted on 9 April 1965 and entered into force on 5 March 1967. The purpose of this Convention is to facilitate maritime transport by simplifying and minimizing the formalities, documentary requirements and procedures associated with the arrival, stay and departure of ships engaged in international voyages. It was originally developed to meet growing international concern about excessive documents required for merchant shipping. Traditionally, large numbers of documents are required by customs, immigration, health and other public authorities pertaining to the ship, its crew and passengers, baggage, cargo and mail. Unnecessary paperwork is a problem in most industries, but the potential for red tape is probably greater in shipping than in other industries because of its international nature and the traditional acceptance of formalities and procedures. The Convention emphasizes the importance of facilitating maritime traffic and demonstrates why authorities and operators concerned with documents should adopt the standardized documentation system developed by IMO and recommended by its Assembly for worldwide use. Contracting parties to the Convention undertake to bring about uniformity and simplicity to facilitate international maritime traffic.

TCB activities described in this guide LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK • IMO global regulations on safety and security of shipping TRADE FACILITATION • Maritime traffic facilitation

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IMO

To ensure the implementation of IMO regulations and standards, IMO offers, through its Integrated Technical Cooperation Programme, technical assistance in the form of field missions to draft domestic maritime legislation as well as national and regional seminars on maritime legislation.


Agency Summaries

INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF)

IMF

Contact: Trade, Institutions, and Policy Review Division, Strategy, Policy, and Review Department, International Monetary Fund, 700 19th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20431 Tel: + 1 202 623 6223 Fax: + 1 202 623 4237 Web: www.imf.org

The IMF is an organization of 186 member countries. Established in 1945, its role is to promote international monetary cooperation, exchange stability, and orderly exchange arrangements; to foster economic growth and high levels of employment; and to provide temporary financial assistance to countries, helping to ease their balance of payments adjustment. Since the IMF was established, its purposes—as set out in its Articles of Agreement—have remained unchanged, while its operations—surveillance, financial assistance, and technical assistance—have evolved to meet the changing needs of its members. • S urveillance of economies: To maintain stability and prevent crises in the international monetary system, the IMF reviews national, regional, and global economic and financial developments through a formal system known as surveillance. The IMF provides advice to its 186 member countries, encouraging them to adopt policies that foster economic stability, reduce their vulnerability to economic and financial crises, and raise living standards. It provides regular assessment of global prospects in its World Economic Outlook and of capital markets in its Global Financial Stability Report, as well as publishing a series of regional economic outlooks. • F inancial assistance: IMF financing is available to give member countries the breathing room they need to correct balance of payments problems. A policy programme supported by IMF financing is designed by the national authorities in close cooperation with the IMF, and continued financial support is generally conditional on effective implementation of this program. To help support countries during the global economic crisis in 2008-2009, the IMF has strengthened its lending capacity and has approved a major overhaul of how it lends money. In low-income countries, the IMF provides financial support through its concessional lending facilities. The IMF has doubled loan access limits and is boosting its lending to the world’s poorer countries, with interest rates set at zero in 2010 and 2011. • Technical assistance: The IMF offers technical assistance and training to help member countries strengthen their capacity to design and implement effective policies. Technical assistance is offered in several areas, including tax policy (tax, tariffs, and customs reform) and administration, expenditure management, monetary and exchange rate policies, banking and financial system supervision and regulation, legislative frameworks, and statistics.

Assistance to Low-Income Countries (LICs) The IMF’s scaled-up financial assistance to low-income countries is being channeled through a new architecture of concessional lending facilities under the new Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust (PRGT). This architecture closes gaps in the previous lending framework and streamlines existing facilities to provide more effective support to LICs, especially for short-term, precautionary, and emergency needs. New access limits are consistent with a doubling of access per country and apply uniformly across the facilities. The new facilities reinforce links between IMF-supported programmes and country poverty reduction strategies (PRS). The PRGT has three lending windows: • T he Extended Credit Facility (ECF) replaces the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility and helps to address medium-term balance of payments (BoP) needs. • T he Standby Credit Facility (SCF) can help LICs that do not face protracted BoP problems but need occasional assistance. It is similar to the Fund’s non-concessional Stand-By Arrangement and can be used on a precautionary basis. • T he Rapid Credit Facility (RCF) provides limited financial support in a single tranche for LICs with urgent financing needs, replacing the Exogenous Shocks Facility (ESF) Rapid Access Component and Emergency Natural Disaster Assistance, and replacing and expanding the subsidized Emergency Post-Conflict Assistance Facility. Conditionality under this new instrument is limited. A new structural conditionality framework introduced in 2009 eliminates structural performance criteria. Progress in structural reforms critical to programme objectives (and specified as structural benchmarks) is

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monitored and assessed by the IMF’s Executive Board only through periodic programme reviews. These changes emphasize the reform goals themselves rather than specific time-bound measures, helping to enhance country ownership and to improve reform results. A more flexible approach to setting debt limits in IMF-supported programmes has also been adopted, to better reflect the considerable diversity among LICs in terms of their debt vulnerabilities and macroeconomic and public financial management capacity. At the same time, the Debt Sustainability Framework for LowIncome Countries is being made more flexible, including through closer attention to the impact of public investment on growth, the role of remittances, and the treatment of external debt of state-owned enterprises. These changes will provide more flexibility to LICs in the design of their borrowing strategies. The global financial safety net was further strengthened with a general allocation of Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) of about US$250 billion in August 2009. While the allocation helped strengthen the external financial position of every member country, LICs’ foreign exchange reserves were bolstered by about US$18 billion. For more information: www.imf.org

The IMF is not mandated to develop dedicated TCB programmes or provide project support. Rather, the IMF collaborates with other organizations, including in the Aid for Trade initiative and the Enhanced Integrated Framework for the Least Developed Countries. The IMF also works with other agencies to help bring the MDGs to fruition. The IMF’s main contribution lies in promoting macroeconomic and financial stability—a crucial foundation for poverty reduction and economic growth. It is a necessary complement to efforts by others who have a more direct role in addressing the specific trade development needs of developing countries, helping them become full and active players in and beneficiaries of the multilateral trading system. For more information: www.imf.org

Partnerships The IMF collaborates actively with the World Bank, the regional development banks, the WTO, UN entities, and other international bodies. It also interacts with think-tanks, parliamentarians, and civil society.

TCB activities described in this guide GLOBAL ADVOCACY • Transparency and communication TRADE DEVELOPMENT POLICY • Assistance to governments on trade liberalization TRADE FACILITATION • Advice and assistance on improving the effectiveness of tax and customs administration OTHER TRADE-RELATED ACTIVITIES • Support for countries facing difficulties because of multilateral trade liberalisation

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TCB-related programme


Agency Summaries

INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU) Contact: Place des Nations 1211 Geneva 20 Tel: +41 22 730 5111 E-mail: itumail@itu.int Web: www.itu.int

ITU is the leading United Nations agency for information and communication technology issues, and the global focal point for governments and the private sector in developing networks and services. ITU has coordinated the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promoted international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, worked to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, established the worldwide standards that foster the seamless interconnection of a vast range of communications systems, and addressed the global challenges of our times, such as mitigating climate change and strengthening cybersecurity. ITU also organizes worldwide and regional exhibitions and forums, such as ITU TELECOM WORLD, bringing together the most influential representatives of government and the telecommunications and information and communication technologies (ICT) industry to exchange ideas, knowledge and technology for the benefit of the global community and, in particular, the developing world. From broadband Internet to latest-generation wireless technologies, from aeronautical and maritime navigation to radio astronomy and satellite-based meteorology, from convergence in fixed-mobile phone, Internet access, data, voice and TV broadcasting to next-generation networks, ITU is committed to connecting the world. ITU’s activities are carried out by three sectors: The Radio Communication Sector (ITU-R), the Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) and the Telecommunication Development Sector (ITU-D).

ITU

For more information: http://www.itu.int/net/about/index.aspx

TCB-related programme Assisting developing countries in building human resources management and development has always been one of ITU’s fundamental roles. Capacity building is important in achieving meaningful progress in the performance of their telecommunication organizations to ensure their smooth transition to the current telecommunication environment. Traditionally, challenges were driven by the ever-evolving telecommunication technology. This has now been overshadowed by the challenges emanating from the restructuring of the telecommunication sector, the convergence of telecommunications with information technologies and multimedia, and the transition towards competition, liberalization and globalization. The availability of highly qualified staff at key levels in the telecommunication organizations in developing countries has become a particularly critical factor for a smooth transition of these organizations to the current telecommunication environment. Policy-makers and regulators at the governmental level, as well as corporate executives and senior managers at the service-provision level, have become the priority target population for the ITU’s training and human resource development efforts. ITU ‘s flagship initiatives include: • Centres of Excellence; • The ITU e-Learning Centre; • The Internet Training Centres Initiative. For more information: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/hrd/index.asp

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Partnerships ITU is a platform for public/private sector partnership In today’s fast moving environment, ITU provides governments and private companies with an opportunity to make an important and valuable contribution to the rapidly changing telecommunication and ICT sectors. ITU is the UN specialized agency within which governments and the private sector work together to coordinate the operation of telecommunication networks and services and advance the development of communication technologies. Today, ITU is composed of 191 Member States and nearly 700 Sector Members and Associates. ITU’s membership encompasses telecommunication policy-makers, regulators, network operators, equipment manufacturers, hardware and software developers, regional standard bodies, telecommunications organizations and financing institutions. Cooperation with universities Given the knowledge that many new technologies find life in the minds of the academic and research communities, ITU is also increasingly looking to attract more involvement from the world’s universities and other academic institutions. One of the key examples of cooperation with universities is the ITU-T Kaleidoscope Events. Fore more information: http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/uni/kaleidoscope/

ITU works in close collaboration with appropriate regional and international organizations (e.g. UNDP, WTO, UNCTAD, UPU, UNESCO, UNIDO, WHO, ILO, WMO, UNEP, UN-Habitat, ICAO, FAO, ECOSOC, IDB, World Bank, etc.) for ICT applications in their relevant domains.

TCB activities described in this guide GLOBAL ADVOCACY • Exhibitions and forums • Workshops and seminars LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK • • • • •

Global Symposium for Regulators (GSR) The ICT Regulation Toolkit Tariff Policies Database ICT Eye Global Industry Leaders’ Forum (GILF)

SUPPLY CAPACITY • ITU technologies infrastructures and applications COMPLIANCE SUPPORT INFRASTRUCTURES AND SERVICES • Cybersecurity • Standardization • Accessibility OTHER TRADE-RELATED ACTIVITIES • Environment and climate change

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Cooperation with other organizations


Agency Summaries

INTERNATIONAL TRADE CENTRE (ITC) Contact: International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO 54-56 rue de Montbrillant, Palais des Nations CH–1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland Tel: +41 22 730 0111 Fax: +41 22 730 0575 Web: www.intracen.org

The International Trade Centre (ITC) is the joint technical cooperation agency of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and the World Trade Organization (WTO). The organization has two original and mutually reinforcing functions embedded in the expression of its mandate – “export impact for good”: • T he affiliation with the WTO awards ITC the role of helping its client countries to benefit from the opportunities created by the WTO framework. • A s a UN development organization, ITC’s role is to promote the fulfilment of the Millennium Development Goals. ITC contributes to countries building national ownership over their export development. Their goals and objectives must be aligned to a national vision for development. Commitments in this respect are developed and owned by countries on the basis of their historical, political and economic circumstances. ITC’s aim is to enhance the capacity of entrepreneurship to put innovation into practice and to contribute to progress in society.

TCB-related programme

ITC

ITC’s mission is completely focused on trade capacity building: it enables small business export success in developing countries by providing, with partners, trade development solutions to the private sector, trade support institutions, and policy-makers. Trade development requires cooperation from many different organizations working in different ways. Priority setting with partners is critical to achieving impact, and ITC’s resources must be directed in the area of its core competencies, partnering with other players to intervene in their area of strength. ITC applies a holistic and integrated approach to its technical assistance through building trade capacity at three levels: • A  t the level of policy or strategy-maker, the objective is to enable countries to integrate business priorities in national trade policies and negotiations, and to achieve effective collaboration between public and private sectors. • At the trade support institution level, the objective is that export service delivery channels are enabled. • At the enterprise (SME) level, the aim is that potentially competitive new enterprises are created, and that the competitiveness of existing enterprises is strengthened. ITC Core Competencies

ITC Clients

Export Strategy

ITC Beneficiaries

ITC Development Outcomes

Policy-Makers

Export Impact for Good

Business in Trade Policy Trade Support Institution Strengthening

Trade Support Institutions

Trade Intelligence Exporter Competitiveness

Small and Medium-sized Exporters

Generating sustainable incomes and livelihoods especially for poor households by connecting enterprises to global markets

Business Community

ITC’s fundamental role is to support developing and transition countries to understand destination markets and create opportunities for export success. In order to achieve this, ITC needs to build the capacities of its clients to understand what their existing and potential consumers want, and to demonstrate compliance to consumer requirements.

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Partnerships ITC builds bridges and partnerships between the private sector, government institutions, and civil society organizations, all of whom have an important role to play in trade development. As a result, partnerships are systematically pursued on project levels. ITC works in partnership with the following organizations at the national and regional levels: enterprises, trade-related government departments, trade and industry associations, national trade promotion agencies, chambers of commerce, commodity organizations, small enterprise development agencies, commercial banks and other trade financing institutions, standards boards, packaging institutes, management institutes for training trade managers, tender boards and central purchasing institutions, state-owned corporations, purchasing and supply management associations, and regional organizations specialized in selected trade and marketing functions. Partnerships are defined with ITC’s parent organizations, UNCTAD and the WTO, in several areas, including WTO’s trade policy courses. In addition, ITC is also instrumental in other key partnerships, such as the Enhanced Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries (EIF), a multi-agency, multi-donor programme, which includes the participation of the IMF, UNCTAD, UNDP, the World Bank and the WTO.

TCB activities described in this guide GLOBAL ADVOCACY

ITC

• Strategies for export development and mainstreaming trade TRADE POLICY DEVELOPMENT • Business in trade policy LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK • Legal aspects of foreign trade SUPPLY CAPACITY • Exporter competitiveness COMPLIANCE SUPPORT INFRASTRUCTURES AND SERVICES • Standards and quality management TRADE PROMOTION CAPACITY BUILDING • Trade Support Institution strengthening MARKET AND TRADE INFORMATION • Trade intelligence TRADE FACILITATION • Supply chains and logistics TRADE-RELATED FINANCIAL SERVICES • Trade finance

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UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT (UNCTAD) Contact: Technical Cooperation Service UNCTAD, Palais des Nations, 8-14 avenue de la Paix, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland Tel: +41 22 917 5752 Web: www.unctad.org

Established in 1964, UNCTAD promotes the development-friendly integration of developing countries into the world economy. UNCTAD has progressively evolved into an authoritative, knowledge-based institution whose work aims to help shape current policy debates and thinking on development, with a particular focus on ensuring that domestic policies and international action are mutually supportive in bringing about sustainable development. As the focal point within the United Nations for the integrated treatment of trade and development and the inter-related issues in the areas of finance, technology, investment, and sustainable development, UNCTAD´s technical cooperation activities address these issues in a mutually complementary fashion. The thrust of UNCTAD´s technical cooperation is capacity development in the four main areas of its work: • • • •

International finance, globalization and development strategies; International trade in goods and services and commodities; Investment and enterprise development; Technology and trade logistics

UNCTAD

TCB-related programme UNCTAD´s technical cooperation aims to enhance capacity development in beneficiary countries. In pursuing that goal, Its technical cooperation activities seek to enhance the human and institutional capacities of developing countries to strengthen their national development policies and to create an environment conducive to sustainable development. The population at large is the ultimate beneficiary of capacity building and technical cooperation programmes. Governments are the main direct beneficiaries of UNCTAD’s technical cooperation activities. These services are available to all developing countries and countries in transition, individually or through intergovernmental organizations, such as regional or subregional groupings. Priority is given to the 50 LDCs. The main beneficiaries are usually officials in the relevant government departments. Participants in training and human-resource-related activities are selected by the countries concerned, in consultation with the UNCTAD Secretariat. Through their governments, individual companies, both public and private, and especially SMEs, can benefit from numerous UNCTAD projects. Thus, representatives of the private sector are invited on a regular basis to attend, in particular, national seminars and workshops on various issues, which help them to gain a better understanding of how to integrate into the global economy. Involving the private sector in technical cooperation activities helps to raise the business community’s awareness of issues related to international trade and development, and to alert it to new trading opportunities, as well as to enhance the national policy dialogue. National ownership is a necessity for turning national stakeholders into active partners in the design and implementation of capacity building programmes. These programmes should increasingly rely on expertise from developing countries and emerging economies. Ownership and commitment by beneficiaries remain the priorities. Academia also benefits from UNCTAD cooperation, particularly through the Virtual Institute on Trade and Development, launched in 2004. Several UNCTAD activities targeting parliamentarians and civil society are

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usually organized in close coordination with the national authorities, particularly regarding topics such as the WTO issues.

Partnerships UNCTAD is the lead-organization of the CEB Inter-Agency Cluster on Trade and Productive Capacity, an interagency mechanism dedicated to the coordination of trade and development operations within the UN System. In partnership with the agencies of the Cluster (UNIDO, UNDP, ITC, FAO, WTO, the five UN regional commissions, UNEP and UNOPS), UNCTAD coordinates joint programmes at country and regional level. (For more information on the Cluster please refer to www.unsystemceb.org) As the focal point for the integrated treatment of trade and development, UNCTAD also interacts and cooperates with a variety of other organizations within and outside the United Nations system. These include the following: World Trade Organization

International Trade Centre The International Trade Centre (ITC) is jointly sponsored by UNCTAD and the WTO for operational, enterpriseoriented aspects of trade development, with an emphasis on trade promotion. In contrast to UNCTAD, whose technical assistance is primarily tailored to governments, ITC’s technical assistance focuses on assisting businesses in developing countries. Both UNCTAD and the WTO are represented in the Joint Advisory Group supervising ITC’s work, and UNCTAD has a number of joint technical assistance activities with ITC. UNDP A new Memorandum of Understanding between UNCTAD and the United Nations Development Porgramme (UNDP) was signed on 31st March 2009. The two organizations have a long and fruitful history of collaboration. They share similar development objectives in providing assistance to countries to meet the MDGs and cooperate in areas of mutual concern. The new MoU, which replaces the previous one signed in 1998, lays out substantive areas and modalities of collaboration. This agreement bears particular importance in the context of the UN System-wide coherence reforms. It is based on the General Assembly´s mandates regarding the UN development operations and coherence process. It also refers to the UNDP Strategic Framework for 2008-2011 and the Accra Ministerial Declaration adopted at UNCTAD XII. For the first time, specific mechanisms for broad and deep cooperative arrangements and joint operations between the two organizations are provided in the agreement. These mechanisms refer to both headquarters and country levels, and take into account the field presence of UNDP and its capacity to host administrative, financial and logistical support services at the country level. The MoU seeks to enhance effectiveness, collaboration, coordination and the avoidance of duplication between the two agencies. In this regard, the mandate and expertise of UNCTAD as the focal point of the United Nations for the integrated treatment of trade and development are fully recognized. UN regional commissions UNCTAD cooperates with these international entities on a project-by-project basis, whether in relation to research projects, joint workshops and seminars, or technical assistance. Since UNCTAD has no representatives in the field, the UNDP country offices are also used to support UNCTAD’s field activities.

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UNCTAD and the WTO have joined forces to ensure a better functioning of the multilateral trading system. In April 2003, the organizations signed an MoU providing for cooperation and consultations on their technical assistance activities, and for the conduct of joint studies on selected issues. The two organizations interact frequently, and the intergovernmental processes in both organizations are often attended by the same government representatives.


Agency Summaries

Bretton Woods Institutions (International Monetary Fund and World Bank) The World Bank and UNCTAD cooperate in the delivery of some technical assistance and capacity building programmes. The UNCTAD Secretariat, through the Debt Management and Financial Analysis System (DMFAS) programme, is also an active member of the Inter-Agency Task Force on Finance Statistics, which is chaired by the IMF. The three agencies also cooperate in organizing seminars. UNCTAD attends the biannual meetings of the IMF and the World Bank, and both institutions participate in UNCTAD’s intergovernmental meetings. UNOPS Since the Enhanced Integrated Framework (EIF) was officially launched on 31 May 2008, a number of institutional arrangements have been put in place to make it fully operational. These include the establishment of an EIF Secretariat and the appointment of an executive director. The United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS) has been appointed as the trust fund manager, and up to US$64.5 million has been deposited with it. The current level of funding commitments stands at US$240 million. (The EIF guidelines require that an agency wishing to implement EIF projects in LDCs has to sign a partnership agreement with UNOPS as the trust fund manager.)

UNCTAD

Potential implementing agencies are UNCTAD, ITC, the UNDP, the World Bank and UNIDO, approved as a new partner agency to the Integrated Framework on 14 May 2009. As of June 2009, agreements have been finalized and signed with UNCTAD and ITC (TDB 14-25 September 2009). Other intergovernmental bodies In addition to the organizations of the UN System, a total of 111 other intergovernmental bodies have gained accreditation as observers to UNCTAD’s Trade and Development Board. Partnerships per area of intervention: 1. Agriculture and industrial domestic policies to determine trade policy, investment (FAO, UNIDO, WB, UNDP) and technology policy (UNCTAD, WB, UNIDO) involving: • • • •

Investment regimes; Investment/ technology agreements; Investment promotion; Dispute settlement on investments, etc.

2. Competition policy (UNCTAD, WB) involving: • Domestic laws and institutions; • Regional/international rules on competition. 3. Intellectual property (WIPO, WTO) involving: • Domestic laws and institutions; • Regional /international rules on intellectual property rights. 4. Environment policy (UNEP, WB, WTO, UNCTAD) involving: • Domestic laws and institutions; • Regional/international rules on the environment.

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5. Macroeconomic policies (IMF, WB, WTO, UNCTAD) involving: • • • •

Strong links with trade policy; Fiscal and monetary policies; Impact of the international economic environment; Coherence issues.

TCB activities described in this guide GLOBAL ADVOCACY The World Investment Report Trade and Development Report Economic Development in Africa Report Least Developed Countries Report (LDC) Information Economy Report (IER) and E-commerce and Development Report (ECDR) The Creative Economy Report 2008 Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Reviews - STIP Reviews ICT Policy Reviews (ICTPRs) Investment Policy Reviews (IPRs) Trade and Environment Review (TER) Commodity Policy Reviews Development and Globalization: Facts and Figures (DGFF) Best Practices in Investment for Development The Creative Economy Programme

UNCTAD

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

TRADE POLICY DEVELOPMENT • Policy advice on commodities • Trade, environment and development • Trade negotiations and commercial diplomacy LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK • Assistance to WTO accession • Implementation and administration of the Agreement on the Global System of Trade Preferences among Developing Countries (GSTP) • Technical cooperation in the area of competition and consumers’ law and policy • TrainForTrade • UNCTAD Virtual Institute on Trade and Development • Regional training course: Key Issues on the International Economic Agenda • Short courses on key international economic issues for Geneva-based diplomats • The Port Training Programme • Training on International Investment Agreements (IIAs) • Training courses on dispute settlement in international trade, investment and intellectual property • Strengthening of policy-making, negotiations and promotion of international trade in services • Assistance on trade policy making and negotiations • Assistance on the utilization of the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) • Investment policies and investment promotion • International Investment Agreements (IIAs) • Intellectual property and development

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SUPPLY CAPACITY • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

The BioTrade Initiative UNCTAD/ICC Investment Advisory Council FORINVEST (Policy framework for attracting foreign investment) STAMP (Strengthening and/or streamlining FDI agencies) Capacity building in FDI statistics FDI in Tourism and Development International Investment Agreements (IIAs) Investment facilitation The Investment Gateway Investment guides and i-portals Science and technology Enterprise development Empretec Business linkages Business facilitation Capacity development and e-applications e-Tourism Information and communication technologies and e-business

UNCTAD

MARKET AND TRADE INFORMATION • • • •

Trade analysis and research Trade analysis and information system (TRAINS) The World Integrated Trade Solution (WITS) A pilot project on the collection and quantification of Non-tariff Measures (NTMs)

TRADE FACILITATION • Training on transport and trade facilitation • Support for trade facilitation negotiations • Automated System for Customs Data (ASYCUDA) programme PHYSICAL TRADE INFRASTRUCTURE • Transport and trade facilitation • Review of Maritime Transport (RMT) TRADE-RELATED FINANCIAL SERVICES • • • •

Insurance Corporate transparency and accounting Commodity risk management and finance tools Debt management programme – DMFAS

OTHER TRADE-RELATED ACTIVITIES • Climate change programme

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UNITED NATIONS DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS (UNDESA) The Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat is a vital interface between global policies in the economic, social, and environmental spheres and national action. The Department works in three main interlinked areas: • I t compiles, generates, and analyzes a wide range of economic, social, and environmental data and information which UN Member States draw on in order to review common problems and to take stock of policy options; • It facilitates the negotiations of Member States in many intergovernmental bodies on joint courses of action to address ongoing or emerging global challenges; • It advises interested governments on the ways and means of translating policy frameworks developed in UN conferences and summits into programmes at the country level and, through technical assistance, helps build national capacities.

Contact: Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DC2-2310), United Nations, New York, N.Y. 10017 Tel: +1 212 963 1707 Fax: +1 212 963 1010 Web: www.un.org/esa/desa

Through its capacity development activities, UNDESA assists countries, at their request, in global advocacy and trade policy development as part of broader national development strategies. In so doing, it collaborates with the regional commissions and UNCTAD, particularly through the UN Development Account and its projects. The typical impacts are an increased ability of policy-makers to exploit and expand the existing policy space they have in setting trade and other economic and social policies.

Partnerships The UN Development Account involves partnerships between UNDESA, UNCTAD, and the regional commissions. The projects implemented or under implementation have benefited from the collaboration of the member entities of the United Nations Executive Committee on Economic and Social Affairs (ECESA), which includes all those entities with normative, analytical, and operational activities in economic and social development. For more information, please visit http://www.un.org/esa/devaccount/

TCB activities described in this guide GLOBAL ADVOCACY • I mplications of macroeconomic policy, external shocks and social protection systems for poverty, in­equality and social vulnerability in Latin America and the Caribbean • The World Economic and Social Survey (WESS) TRADE POLICY DEVELOPMENT • Capacity-building for graduation strategies for Least Developed Countries in Asia and Africa • Building capacity in macroeconomic policy analysis in Central America and the Caribbean

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UNDESA

TCB-related programme


Agency Summaries

UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (UNDP) Contact: Luisa Bernal, Trade and Human Development Unit, Geneva Office Tel: +41 22 917 8551 Fax: +41 22 917 8001 E-mail: luisa.bernal@undp.org Henry Jackelen, Private Sector Division, New York E-mail: henry.jackelen@undp.org Web: www.undp.org

Strengthening trade competitiveness in developing countries has become even more important in the context of the current global economic crisis. Both nationally and regionally coordinated actions will help position developing countries to benefit from the recovery of global growth. UNDP’s support for trade capacity development is based on the premise that international trade can play an important role in raising levels of human development and achieving sustainable poverty reduction. It therefore considers trade a means to an end, not an end in itself. Properly harnessed, international trade can create opportunities for growth, poverty reduction, and human development within developing countries by:

UNDP

• Expanding markets: trade allows an economy to overcome the constraints of its domestic market; • Raising productivity through the increased returns to scale in production, especially in the manufacturing sector, that result from access to international markets; • Accelerated technological development resulting from increased exposure to new technologies and the dissemination of knowledge – mainly through exposure to foreign competition, marketing and, in particular, technological diffusion. However, none of this is an automatic or inevitable consequence of international trade. If developing countries are to reap the potential benefits of trade, trade agreements must ensure enough flexibility for them to establish policies that address human development needs and concerns. This may include a prioritized focus on agriculture, commodities, industrial tariffs, special and differential treatment, and services of particular interest to developing countries. Further support for trade development and productive sector capacity building is provided under UNDP’s private sector portfolio which seeks to foster inclusive markets. This portfolio, including the activities of UNDP’s affiliate, the UN Capital Development Fund (UNCDF), accounts for approximately US$100 million per year, and is aimed at enhancing the contribution of the private sector, including micro, small and medium sized enterprises, to trade, growth and poverty reduction.

TCB-related programme To enable trade to become a meaningful driver of development and a serious contributor to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), UNDP helps to strengthen capacities in developing countries in three important areas: • T rade competitiveness - the capacity to compete internationally by overcoming supply-side constraints (especially LDCs); • Trade agreements - the capacity to negotiate, interpret, and implement trade agreements which prioritize poverty and human development concerns; • Policy integration - the capacity to integrate pro-poor trade policy in national poverty reduction strategies. The overriding aim is to put human development concerns at the forefront so that economic growth and development are viewed as a means towards the achievement of employment, health, education, and empowerment.

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Partnerships UNDP maintains a variety of partnerships on trade-related issues at multilateral, regional and country levels. These include: • Chief Executives Board (CEB) Inter-agency Cluster on Trade and Productive Capacity • The Enhanced Integrated Framework • The WTO Advisory Body on Aid for Trade For more information: w ww.undp.org/poverty/topics7_trade_capacity.shtml, www.undp.org/geneva/trade.html

TCB activities described in this guide GLOBAL ADVOCACY • Commodities • Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs)

• Trade diagnostic and needs assessments • Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Initiative (APTII) • Regional Integration and Institutional Capacity Development for Trade Policy Formulation and Implementation • Arab States Trade, Economic Governance and Human Development Programme • Eastern Europe and CIS Trade Programme LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK • TRIPS and Access to HIV/AIDS Drugs • TRIPS, Trade and Biodiversity

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TRADE POLICY DEVELOPMENT


Agency Summaries

UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMISSION FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC (UNESCAP) Contact: Ravi Ratnayake, Director, Trade and Investment Division, UNESCAP United Nations Building, Rajadamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok, 10200, Thailand Tel: +66 2 288 1902 E-mail: ratnayaker@un.org www.unescap.org

UNESCAP

Nanda Krairiksh, Chief Programme Management Division,UNESCAP United Nations Building, Rajadamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok, 10200, Thailand Tel: +66 2 288 1505 E-mail: pmd.unescap@un.org www.unescap.org

The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) is the regional development arm of the United Nations for the Asia-Pacific region. With a membership of 62 Governments, 58 of which are in the region, and a geographical scope that stretches from Turkey in the west, to the Pacific island nation of Kiribati in the east, and from the Russian Federation in the north to New Zealand in the south, UNESCAP is the largest regional commission in terms of membership. It is also the largest United Nations body serving the Asia-Pacific region, with over 600 staff. Established in 1947 and with its headquarters in Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCAP promotes inclusive and sustainable development and seeks to overcome some of the region’s greatest challenges in the areas of: • Poverty reduction; • Managing globalization; • Tackling emerging social issues. UNESCAP focuses on issues that are most effectively addressed through regional cooperation, including: • I ssues that all or a group of countries in the region face and for which it is necessary to learn from each other; • I ssues that benefit from regional or multi-country involvement; • I ssues that are trans-boundary in nature, or that would benefit from collaborative inter-country approaches; • Issues that are of a sensitive or emerging nature, and require further advocacy and negotiation. UNESCAP’s mandate is to promote economic and social development in the Asian and Pacific region by fostering cooperation between its members and associate members. The organization’s objective in the area of trade and investment, as defined in its Strategic Framework for the biennium 2008-2009 approved by the General Assembly, is to achieve a more equitable distribution of benefits from the globalization process through increased trade and investment in support of the internationally-agreed development goals, including the MDGs.

TCB-related programme The organization is mandated to undertake trade capacity building through Commission Resolution 62/6 of 12 April 2006 on managing globalization through strengthened regional cooperation in trade and investment, and Commission Resolution 60/1 of 28 April 2004 on the Shanghai Declaration. To achieve its objective, UNESCAP’s subprogramme on trade and investment supports the efforts of UNESCAP members and associate members to develop the capacity, institutions, and legal and regulatory frameworks necessary to participate more effectively and competitively in international trade and investment activities. The subprogramme assists countries in strengthening trade and investment policy regimes through issue-specific and practical trade policy research and analysis, training, exchange of experiences, provision of information and toolkits, integrated regional programmes, targeted advice and regional consensus-building, including multi-stakeholder policy dialogues. It aims to achieve: (i) increased national capacity to effectively negotiate, conclude and implement multilateral and other trade agreements supporting the internationally agreed development goals, including the MDGs; (ii) increased capacity and regional cooperation to develop and implement trade efficiency policies and programmes to promote international competitiveness; (iii) increased capacity to design and implement

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policies and programmes that create an enabling environment for investment and promote a competitive business sector; and (iv) increased capacity to design and implement policies and programmes that promote sustainable economic growth and rural poverty reduction through agro-technology transfer and agro-based enterprise development. The main beneficiaries are government officials from UNESCAP members and associate members, particularly LDCs, LLDCs, and countries with economies in transition, as well as small island developing states (SIDS), in the Asia and Pacific region. The following impacts have been achieved:

The generic draft national framework for technology and innovation has raised awareness and increased knowledge in developing indigenous technology, and some member countries have shown strong interest in follow-up activities that can further enhance their national capacities for developing indigenous technologies. The sharing of knowledge and expertise through government-business dialogues in general (e.g., the Asia-Pacific Business Forum) has contributed to member countries’ progress in achieving the MDGs. The work in the areas of agro-export competitiveness and access to regional markets through the promotion of trade was recognized by the Commission at its 63rd session for its contribution to addressing the needs of the rural agricultural sector in the developing member countries. Three working groups have been established and are actively involved in increasing the government-business dialogue and developing action plans to promote SMEs’ participation in global and regional supply chains in the Greater Mekong Sub-region. Successful TCB activities are: (i) Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNeT), an open regional network composed of leading trade research institutions across the region, that aims to equip the region with a mechanism for enhancing the capacity of research institutions; (ii) WTO/ESCAP technical assistance programmes for government officials to develop increased knowledge and awareness of issues related to accession to the WTO, implementation of WTO agreements and commitments and/or issues related to negotiations within the framework of the Doha Development Agenda; and (iii) launching of the United Nations Network of Experts for Paperless Trade in Asia and the Pacific (UN NExT). Partnerships In carrying out work related to trade capacity building, UNESCAP has developed partnerships with the following organizations: • • • • • • •

ADB The European Community The Secretariat of the Integration Committee of the Eurasian Economic Community UNCTAD UNDP UNECE WTO

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UNESCAP

• A  dditional countries in the region have made progress towards accession to the WTO and the Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement. • There has been an increase in member countries’ national capacity to effectively negotiate, conclude and implement multilateral and other trade arrangements supporting the internationally-agreed development goals. • More relevant and quality trade-related research and policy recommendations have been made available to policy-makers and other stakeholders in the region. • T here has been deeper integration among the member countries of the Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA).


Agency Summaries

In addition, UNESCAP’s joint initiative with the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and a number of national research institutions led to the launch of the Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNeT) in 2004. For more information: www.unescap.org/tid/

TCB activities described in this guide TRADE POLICY DEVELOPMENT • Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNeT) • Macao regional knowledge hub (MARKHUB) • Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Agreements Database (APTIAD) LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK • WTO/UNESCAP technical assistance programme • EU/UNESCAP joint projects on trade capacity building of LDCs

UNESCAP

SUPPLY CAPACITY • Facilitating the effective integration of Asia-Pacific SMEs in the global value chains • Increasing the contribution of business to sustainable development • Research and analysis of regional cooperation in reforming business climates and addressing t­ echnical barriers to trade • Development of business and innovation incubation frameworks • A study on globalization of production and trends and prospects for the competitiveness of SMEs in Asia and the Pacific MARKET AND TRADE INFORMATION • Trade Information Service (TIS) TRADE FACILITATION • Trade facilitation support • United Nations Network of Experts for Paperless Trade in Asia and the Pacific (UN NExT) • Project: Enhancing the trade competitiveness of least-developed countries, countries in tr­ansition and transit countries through the implementation of single window facilities • Project capacity building in support of trade integration with an emphasis on integrated trade information flow management and trade facilitation • Trade facilitation research and publications

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UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR AFRICA (UNECA) Established in 1958 by the Economic and Social Council of the UN, UNECA’s mandate is to promote the economic and social development of its Member States, and to promote international cooperation for Africa’s development. The Trade, Finance and Economic Development Division (TFED) is in charge of all UNECA’s traderelated capacity building activities and programmes. In addition, UNECA has set up the African Trade Policy Centre (ATPC), which organizes continental and regional workshops on various aspects of ongoing trade negotiations in the WTO and other multilateral forums, conducts research on trade-related issues of interest to African countries, and helps to convene subregional and regional meetings to build consensus on major trade issues. UNECA is also helping African countries to strengthen or establish trade negotiation units and build their capacity to undertake technical work on trade negotiations. At the same time, it continues to undertake short-term technical advisory services and missions to Member States and regional economic communities (RECs).

Contact: Trade, Finance and Economic Development Division (TFED) Tel: +251 11 551 7200 E-mail: ecainfo@uneca.org Web: www.uneca.org

Trade capacity building (TCB) services are provided to African countries and their high level officials, in particular trade negotiators and trade policy-makers, and private sector and civil society organizations. Technical assistance is provided to Mauritius, Senegal, Gabon, Egypt, Cameroon, Mali, Malawi, Burkina Faso, Swaziland, Sudan, Kenya, Ethiopia and Seychelles, and training workshops to 10 countries on trade-related analysis tools and methods: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Egypt, Gabon, Kenya, Mali, Senegal, Seychelles, Sudan and Swaziland. The trade capacity building activities have helped African countries to adopt better-informed positions on trade-related issues and their WTO positions, while TCB training activities have contributed to enhancing the analytical capacity of more than 200 national trade officials and experts, so enabling African countries and their RECs to assess the implications of trade agreements on their economies.

Partnerships Major TCB–related partnerships and joint programmes with the African Union Commission, UNDP, the WTO, UNCTAD and ITC. African RECs are always involved in our TCB activities. UNECA is hosting the African Trade Policy Centre. For more information: www.uneca.org; www.uneca.org/atpc/

TCB activities described in this guide GLOBAL ADVOCACY • Trade advocacy • Trade-related technical assistance and capacity building TRADE POLICY DEVELOPMENT • African Trade Policy Centre (ATPC) LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK • ECA Geneva Inter-regional Advisory Services

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Agency Summaries

TRADE PROMOTION CAPACITY BUILDING • Chambers of commerce cooperation MARKET TRADE AND INFORMATION

UNECA

• Publications and policy briefs

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UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR EUROPE (UNECE)

TCB-related programme The UNECE TCB-related work is implemented under the following subprogrammes: Trade, Economic Cooperation and Integration (promotion of knowledge-based development), and Transport. Subprogramme on Trade In the area of trade, capacity building activities are guided by the following principles:

Contact UNECE Trade and Timber Division, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10 Virginia Cram-Martos, Director, Trade and Timber Division Tel: +41 22 917 2745 E-mail: virginia.cram-martos@unece.org Web: www.unece.org UNECE Transport Division, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10 Eva Molnar, Director, Transport Division Tel: +41 22 917 2400 E-mail: eva.molnar@unece.org Web: www.unece.org UNECE Economic Cooperation and Integration Division, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10 Andrey Vasilyev, Director, Economic Cooperation and Integration Division Tel: + 41 22 917 4221 E-mail: andrey.vasilyev@unece.org Web: www.unece.org

• L inkage to UNECE’s normative work - improving the capacity of governments to implement UNECE legal instruments, norms, standards, and recommendations; UNECE regional advisers play a key role in this area; • Selectivity - focusing on areas where the UNECE has recognized expertise, and ensuring an optimal use of limited resources; • That they be results-oriented; • That they be demand-driven; • Cooperation and partnership with others, including the private sector and the academic community. The main goals of UNECE capacity building activities in the field of trade are: • A  ssisting Member States with economies in transition in the implementation of UNECE legal instruments, regulations and norms, specifically in the areas of agricultural quality standards, electronic business, regulatory cooperation, standardization policy, and trade facilitation; • Supporting subregional and regional integration networks in the areas of agricultural quality standards, electronic business, regulatory cooperation, standardization policy, and trade facilitation; • Helping economies in transition to elaborate and implement technical assistance programmes/projects, focusing on those related to resolving trans-boundary problems; • A ssisting economies in transition in their efforts to develop capacity building that supports the achievement of internationally-agreed development goals. While the main beneficiaries of technical cooperation activities are countries with economies in transition in South-Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and the Caucasus, the UNECE international standards, recommendations and legal instruments are increasingly applied by countries outside the UNECE region.

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UNECE

The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) is one of five regional commissions of the United Nations. It was established in 1947 by the UN Economic and Social Council. The overall mandate of the UNECE is to facilitate greater economic integration and cooperation among its fifty-six Member States and promote sustainable development and economic prosperity. The UNECE’s area of expertise covers the following sectors: environment; transport; statistics; sustainable energy; economic cooperation and integration; trade; timber and forestry; and housing, land management and population. The UNECE programme of work is focused on (i) the negotiation of conventions, norms, standards, and guidelines in the above-mentioned sectoral areas; (ii) the provision of technical assistance (advisory services, capacity building workshops, training courses, and study tours) to countries with economies in transition, aimed at building national capacity to implement UNECE legally binding instruments and standards, and supporting these countries in the achievement of internationally-agreed development goals; (iii) the organization of policy debate, and the exchange of experience and best practices in the key areas of UNECE work; and (iv) the monitoring of and provision of support to the regional implementation of the outcomes of global UN conferences and summits.


Agency Summaries

Agricultural quality standards Compliance with international commercial quality standards in agriculture is a prerequisite for integrating international markets for agricultural products. Many developing and transition economies, however, lack the capital, technology and human resources required. This places these countries at a competitive disadvantage. Improving the implementation and enforcement of agricultural quality standards would facilitate agricultural exports, and contribute to a rise in average incomes, especially in rural areas. Regulatory cooperation on norms and standardization policies Differences between national regulatory regimes, and between national and international standards, may constitute a barrier to exports, especially for small companies that operate in developing and transition economies. To resolve these difficulties, countries may need assistance with: • Coordinating national regulatory and standardization policies; • L aunching bi-lateral, regional or multilateral dialogues, with a view to harmonizing the regulatory requirements for products/services in the countries concerned; • Designing and implementing national conformity assessment schemes that are as unrestrictive to trade as possible, while also ensuring a necessary international level of confidence in nationally-implemented tests for exported products; • Evaluating market surveillance practices (for regulatory enforcement) in order to establish national systems that restrict trade as little as possible, while still providing adequate consumer protection.

UNECE

Trade facilitation Trade facilitation technical assistance activities aim at developing national competitiveness and participation in global markets by helping countries develop the knowledge and institutions for facilitating national and international transactions through the simplification and harmonization of processes, procedures, and information flows. This is achieved by: • A  ctivities to support and build capacity in national trade facilitation organs through advisory services and workshops; • Activities to support the establishment and operation of national single windows for export and import clearance; • National and regional workshops to develop national/regional strategies for trade facilitation in the context of current WTO obligations and WTO negotiations on trade facilitation; • Activities to support electronic alternatives to key paper documents in the international supply chain; • Other activities to support paperless trade transactions. Subprogramme on Economic Cooperation and Integration (promotion of knowledge-based development) The UNECE Subprogramme on Economic Cooperation and Integration promotes a policy, financial and regulatory environment conducive to economic growth, knowledge-based development and the higher competitiveness of countries and businesses in the UNECE region, with a focus on countries with economies in transition.

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Successful projects (UNECE) The UNECE technical assistance projects contributed to:

The Committee on Economic Cooperation and Integration (CECI) information exchange platform is a polyvalent and innovative tool for the online exchange of professional information among groups of connected experts. It also serves as a communication tool for conferencing among them between physical meetings. It was launched as a pilot project in April 2007 and, later, as a fully functioning environment. It is structured along the five thematic areas in the CECI programme of work, and was designed in-house by the UNECE Secretariat. The secretariat also fully manages the platform and provides user accounts to individuals with expertise and interest in the CECI areas of work. In the field of standards: • I t is a sign of the quality of UNECE agricultural standards that, in many cases, they serve as a basis for European Union regulations, have been adopted as OECD standards, and are used as the basis of work in Codex. • T he 36 European Union regulations based on UNECE agricultural quality standards cover around 90 percent of the market volume for fruit and vegetables traded in the 27 EU countries. The texts of these EU regulations are completely harmonized with UNECE standards. In practice, the EU accepts produce coming from non-EU countries that is marked and controlled according to UNECE standards for the purposes of confirming commercial quality. • The OECD has adopted 52 UNECE standards and promotes them internationally through its Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables. In addition, a number of Codex standards are based on UNECE standards for fresh fruits and vegetables, and a number of countries outside the European Union, such as China and the Russian Federation, have based some of their national standards on those from UNECE. Subprogramme on transport The UNECE objective in this area is to facilitate the international movement of persons and goods by inland transport modes. Transport infrastructure is a key element in promoting trade flows. In this respect, the UNECE Subprogramme on transport relates to trade capacity, particularly its activities in such areas as the development of transport infrastructure networks and border crossing facilitation. A number of international

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• S trengthening trade facilitation bodies’ institutional capacity: for example, the Ministry of the Economy of Ukraine was assisted in establishing a section for trade and transport facilitation issues; likewise, AzerPRO in Azerbaijan and similar bodies in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Mongolia received advice and guidance; • Strengthening cooperation among trade facilitation bodies by creating regional networks: for example, within the Russian Federation and among the EurAsEC countries (the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan); • Designing technical cooperation projects that attracted financing from IFIs and various other donors: the UNECE also participated in the implementation of these projects, for example, the development of national and regional trade facilitation organizations in South-Eastern Europe, a trade facilitation project in Central Asia, and project plans for pilot single windows for export and import in a number of countries, including the Russian Federation; • Strengthening the negotiating capacity of countries with economies in transition in multilateral negotiations on trade facilitation: for example, workshops on WTO accession and trade facilitation in Sarajevo, June 2004, and Belgrade, October 2005, and a workshop for WTO members from the Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) in Chisinau, June 2006; • Development of guidelines and policy papers that were implemented by several Member States with economies in transition: for example, guidelines on a strategy for electronic business for the Western Balkan countries within the framework of the Stability Pact for South-Eastern Europe.


Agency Summaries

legal instruments in the field of transport developed and adopted by the UNECE cover the following traderelated areas: • • • •

Transport networks, international road transport and road traffic safety; Vehicle regulations; Transport of dangerous goods; Border crossing facilitation.

To facilitate the operation and implementation of these legal instruments and recommendations on inland transport, the UNECE Secretariat organizes training courses, seminars and workshops, and provides advisory services to its Member States, particularly those with economies in transition, to promote capacity and institution-building and to assist in the identification, formulation and implementation of national and regional transport strategies and programmes.

Partnerships In the area of commercial agricultural quality standards, the main partners are the European Commission (EC), the OECD and FAO (Codex), together with the other regional commissions. In the area of regulatory cooperation and standardization policies, the main partner is the ISO.

UNECE

In the area of trade facilitation, the main partners are the World Bank, the WTO, WCO, OECD, the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) and UNCTAD, notably in the context of the MoU for the Global Facilitation Partnership for Transport and Trade (GFP). To secure coherence in the development of standards and recommendations, the UNECE cooperates with ISO, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the ITU and selected NGOs in the context of the ISO/ IEC/ITU/UNECE MoU on electronic business standards. On less technical aspects of trade facilitation, its most important partners are IMO, UNCTAD, the other UN regional commissions, the WCO, and the World Bank. These agencies work together through the Global Facilitation Partnership for Transportation and Trade (GFP) and the United Nations Trade Facilitation Network (UNTF), which unite the world’s leading organizations and practitioners in trade and transport facilitation with the aim of creating an open information and exchange platform covering all aspects of trade and transport facilitation. GFP holds biannual meetings, and keeps a regularly updated website: www.gfptt.org. In the area of transport, the main partners are the European Commission, the EBRD, the World Bank, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), UNESCAP, and the ADB. Work under the CECI programme is undertaken in close cooperation with other relevant organizations and institutions operating in this field, including United Nations agencies, with a view to increasing synergies. The list of partner organizations includes, but is not limited to: UNDESA, UNCTAD, UNIDO, UNESCAP, WIPO, the ITC, the World Bank, the EC, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC), the OECD, the EBRD, the European Patent Office, the WCO, the European Business Angel Network (EBAN), the European Private Equity and Venture Capital Association (EVCA), the IPR Business Partnership, the Alliance for Gray Market and Counterfeit Abatement (AGMA), etc. For more information: www.unece.org/ www.unece.org/trade/welcome.htm www.unece.org/cefact/ www.unece.org/trans/welcome.html www.unece.org/ceci/

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TCB activities described in this guide GLOBAL ADVOCACY • Improving understanding of the needs of transition economies LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK • Reducing barriers to trade in goods and services • Regulatory cooperation and standardization policies • Promotion of knowledge-based development COMPLIANCE SUPPORT INFRASTRUCTURE AND SERVICES • Agricultural quality standards TRADE FACILITATION • Trade facilitation and electronic business PHYSICAL TRADE INFRASTRUCTURE Subprogramme on transport Transport of dangerous goods Harmonization of road vehicle regulations Transport links projects TIR customs transit and border crossing facilitation

UNECE

• • • • •

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UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (UNECLAC) Contact: Osvaldo Rosales, Director of International Trade and Integration Division Tel: +56 2 210 2677 E-mail: osvaldo.rosales@cepal.org Web: www.eclac.org

The Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA) – the Spanish acronym is CEPAL - was established by Economic and Social Council Resolution 106(VI) of 25 February 1948 and began to function that same year. The scope of the Commission’s work was later broadened to include the countries of the Caribbean, and, by resolution 1984/67 of 27 July 1984, the Economic Council decided to change its name to the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC); the Spanish acronym, CEPAL, remains unchanged.

Mandate and mission The Secretariat of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC): 1. Provides substantive secretariat services and documentation for the Commission and its subsidiary bodies; 2. Undertakes studies, research and other support activities within the terms of reference of the Commission;

UNECLAC

3. Promotes economic and social development through regional and subregional cooperation and integration; 4. Gathers, organizes, interprets and disseminates information and data relating to the economic and social development of the region; 5. Provides advisory services to governments at their request, and plans, organizes and executes programmes of technical cooperation; 6. Formulates and promotes development cooperation activities and projects of regional and subregional scope commensurate with the needs and priorities of the region and acts as an executing agency for such projects; 7. Organizes conferences and intergovernmental and expert group meetings, and sponsors training workshops, symposia and seminars; 8. A ssists in bringing a regional perspective to global problems and forums, and introduces global concerns at the regional and subregional levels; 9. Coordinates ECLAC activities with those of the major departments and offices at United Nations Headquarters, specialized agencies and intergovernmental organizations, with a view to avoiding duplication and ensuring coherence in the exchange of information.

TCB-related programme At present, the main objectives of the Division of International Trade and Integration of ECLAC, as stated in its work programme for 2008-2009, are to strengthen linkages between Latin American and Caribbean countries and the global economy, and regional cooperation and integration schemes at subregional, regional and hemispheric levels. These objectives will be attained through increased awareness in the countries of the region of the implications and impact of the adoption of conventional and new trade rules and disciplines, and also by strengthened understanding and analytical knowledge of Member State stakeholders of ways of improving their linkages with the global economy in the context of the parallel advancement of globalization and open regionalism in Latin America and the Caribbean.

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The work of the Division is organized around the following main areas: • Analysis of global trends in the world economy and in Latin American and Caribbean trade policies; • The rules governing international trade, integration trends and national trade policies; • Issues relating to specific markets of interest to the region.

advocacy: the Division is mainly concerned with the MDGs and mainstreaming trade-related issues. • Global  • Trade policy development: the Division is deeply involved in trade policy and country studies, trade agreements, and trade diplomacy. • T he legal and regulatory framework related to the multilateral trade system: the Division is very active in dispute resolution, good regulatory practice, and awareness and negotiation of WTO agreements (on TBT, SPS, etc.). High priority has been given to technical cooperation for institutional, technical and human capacity building for the negotiation, implementation and management of regional and multilateral trade agreements. • Supply capacity: the Division provides studies and assistance to enhance the international competitiveness of the supply capacity base in value chain integration, private sector development and business networking, as well as innovation. • Conformity and compliance: although in a non-recurrent manner, the Division has made important contributions to conformity and compliance by preparing studies and offering assistance on the dissemination of good practices in relation to TBT and SPS compliance, standards and technical regulations compliance, and national/regional standardization. • P romoting trade and exports: the Division has presented studies and made recommendations related to export strategy development and implementation. • Market and trade information: the Division is also very active in the provision of market and trade information through the compilation of databases on international trade and trade relations between Latin America and the Caribbean and other regions. • Trade facilitation: in cooperation with other regional commissions and organizations related to the field of trade facilitation, the Division has been engaged in research and the provision of assistance to the countries of the region in the fields of border management and performance monitoring systems, customs upgrading (valuation, procedures and mechanisms), custom clearance and harmonization, rules of origin, aligned trade documents, electronic standards/EDI, paperless trade and the single window environment, and is also active in the field of logistics and transport services. These services are provided to public servants of foreign trade ministries, entrepreneurs, NGOs, chambers of commerce and production, students and other members of civil society. Successful projects • A  new GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit) project for a new database on trade disputes for Latin America and the Caribbean; • SEGIB (Secretaría Genera Iberoamericana) report on trade and investment in Ibero-America; • Contribution to ECLAC’s Plenary Session (No. 32) document; • Participation in several aid for trade seminars and activities; • Joint Initiative for Regional Cooperation and Integration (CAF-ECLAC); • Publication of the document “Economic and Trade Relations between Latin America and Asia-Pacific. The Link with China”, which provides updated information on the internationalization process in both regions in order to stimulate bi-regional trade and investment. • Publication of the document “The Latin American Pacific Basin Initiative and the Asia-Pacific region”, a contribution to the fourth Forum of Ministers of the Latin American Pacific Basin Initiative. It provides a broad view of the economic and trade links between Asian and Latin American countries.

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The Division has been active in a variety of areas related to the categories of this Trade Capacity Building Resource Guide:


Agency Summaries

• P ublication of the document “Opportunities for Trade and Investment between Latin America and Asia–Pacific. The link with APEC”, prepared with the cooperation of the International Trade and Tourism Ministry of Peru; reference material for government ministers and heads of state attending the APEC summit in Lima. Among the impacts of the implementation are the improvement of ECLAC’s role as a facilitator of regional integration, and the increase in human, technical and institutional capacities among ECLAC member countries in the main categories in the field of international trade and integration. Partnerships • • • •

C hambers of commerce of different Latin American and Caribbean countries; Ministries of trade and of economy of different Latin American and Caribbean countries; NGOs and government-related cooperation agencies (GTZ); O ther regional commissions under the framework of the 4th Tranche of the UN Development Account, Project D.

For more information: www.eclac.cl/comercio E-mail: comercio@eclac.cl TCB activities described in this guide

UNECLAC

GLOBAL ADVOCACY • Updated diagnostic activities and stronger links with the UN specialized agencies • D iagnosis of updated guidelines on commercial regional experiences and levels of poverty and investigation of possible links between the two TRADE POLICY DEVELOPMENT • Policy-making and policy implementation assistance • Fair trade and free trade agreements: “Improving Access to Global Markets” LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK • Integrated database of trade disputes for Latin America and the Caribbean SUPPLY CAPACITY • Analysis of public-private partnership for innovation and export development COMPLIANCE SUPPORT INFRASTRUCTURE AND SERVICES • Studies and assistance on compliance TRADE PROMOTION CAPACITY BUILDING • Inter-regional Partnership For Promoting Trade MARKET AND TRADE INFORMATION • Interactive graphic system of international trade data (SIGCI) TRADE FACILITATION • Trade facilitation support

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UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME (UNEP) UNEP, established in 1972, is the voice for the environment within the United Nations system. UNEP acts as a catalyst, advocate, educator and facilitator to promote the wise use and sustainable development of the global environment. To accomplish this, UNEP works with a wide range of partners, including UN entities, international organizations, national governments, non-governmental organizations, the private sector and civil society.

Contact: Hussein Abaza, Chief, Economics and Trade Unit., Division of Technology, Industry and Economics, E-mail: hussein.abaza@unep.ch Web: www.unep.org

UNEP work encompasses: • • • • •

 ssessing global, regional and national environmental conditions and trends; A Developing international and national environmental instruments; Strengthening institutions for the wise management of the environment; Facilitating the transfer of knowledge and technology for sustainable development; Encouraging new partnerships and mind-sets within civil society and the private sector.

UNEP’s overall mandate is to provide leadership and encourage partnership in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing, and enabling nations and peoples to improve their quality of life without compromising that of future generations.

UNEP’s Governing Council requested UNEP in 2001 to “assist countries, particularly developing countries and countries with economies in transition, to enhance their capacities to develop and implement mutually supportive trade and environmental policies” in a manner that is “geared to reflect the socio-economic and development priorities, as well as the needs and capacities of individual countries” (GC 21/14). Located within UNEP’s Division of Technology, Industry and Economics, UNEP’s Economics and Trade Branch (UNEP-ETB) seeks to conserve the environment, reduce poverty, and promote sustainable development by enhancing the capacity of governments, businesses, and civil society to integrate environmental considerations into economic, trade, and financial policies and practices. Trade and environment policies are often developed in relative isolation from one another due to limited understanding of trade and environment linkages, insufficient coordination among policy-makers, and a lack of capacity to design integrated and mutually supportive policies. UNEP-ETB has been responding to this challenge by initiating a number of joint initiatives and activities with the WTO, UNCTAD, UN regional economic commissions and Secretariats of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs), which aim to build the capacity of developing countries to integrate trade, environment and development objectives into national policy-making. Since 1997, UNEP has supported numerous country-driven, national-level integrated assessments of the environmental, social and economic impacts of trade liberalization in specific sectors, such as fisheries, agriculture and forestry, with the goal of ensuring that trade liberalization supports national sustainable development objectives and poverty reduction strategies. Based on these projects, UNEP has produced A Reference Manual for the Integrated Assessment of Trade-related Policies and Integrated Assessment Guidance for Mainstreaming Sustainability into Policy Making, which are tailored to the needs of policy-makers and practitioners in developing countries. Given the importance of the agricultural sector for poverty reduction and the environment in developing countries, UNEP has also developed a handbook on the integrated assessment of trade-related measures in the agricultural sector.

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TCB-related programme


Agency Summaries

To further analyze the complex inter-relationships between agriculture, biological diversity, and trade liberalization, UNEP is currently implementing an initiative on Integrated Assessment of Trade-Related Policies in the Agriculture Sector with a focus on biological diversity. This initiative aims to identify and assess the impacts of agricultural trade policies on biodiversity, and build the capacity of African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries to develop policy recommendations that safeguard biological diversity, while maximizing sustainable development gains from trade liberalization in the agriculture sector. It includes six country projects and the development of a manual specifically addressing the incorporation of biodiversity into the integrated assessment of trade policy in the agricultural sector.

Successful projects

UNEP

UNEP ETB has supported over 30 country projects over the past eight years that analyze the environmental, economic and social effects of trade liberalization and other trade-related policies. Undertaken by national research institutions in collaboration with relevant government ministries, these country projects have strengthened countries’ capacities for assessing trade-related impacts, instituting participatory processes, enhancing inter-ministerial coordination and developing integrated policy design and implementation. Lessons learned and findings from the country projects have been compiled as follows: • Sustainable Trade and Poverty Reduction: New Approaches to Integrated Policy Making at the National Level. • Environmental Impacts of Trade Liberalization and Policies for the Sustainable Management of Natural Resources. • Integrated Assessment of Trade Liberalization and Trade-related Policies. • Integrated Assessment of Trade Liberalization in the Rice Sector.

Under the auspices of the joint UNEP-UNCTAD Capacity Building Task Force on Trade, Environment and Development (CBTF), UNEP is providing capacity building support to countries through a number of inter-related activities, including: • C ountry projects, involving national experts and institutions, to enhance national capacities to develop mutually supportive trade, environment and development policies; • T hematic research on major issues in the trade-environment-development domain and on practical approaches to addressing them in a sustainable way, while bearing in mind the development priorities of countries; • Policy dialogues to facilitate awareness-raising, consultations and the exchange of perspectives among experts, practitioners and negotiators at the national, regional and international levels; • Training to enhance countries’ understanding of the relationship and complementarities between trade, the environment and development; • Networking and information exchange to provide technical and operational support at the national and regional levels and to widely disseminate the results of TCB activities. Since its inception in 2000, UNEP-UNCTAD CBTF has provided capacity building support to over 1,000 policymakers and stakeholders from 32 countries. In addition to capacity building seminars and workshops, 10 country projects have been completed including three which focused on promoting production and trading opportunities for organic agriculture in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. One of the recent successes of the CBTF has been the assistance provided for the East African Organic Product Standard (EAOPS), the world’s second regional standard after that of the European Union. The East African Community (EAC) adopted the EAOPS, developed with the support of the CBTF and its partners as its official standard, which overrules all the existing national standards in the five East African countries. As a result of the evidence collected, and the research, advocacy and lobbying by the CBTF and its partners, organic products have been included in Ugan-

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da’s National Export Strategy 2008-2012, the United Republic of Tanzania has, for the first time, included special reference to organic agriculture in its national agriculture policy, and Kenya has established a Desk for Organic Agriculture in the Ministry of Agriculture.

Partnerships UNEP-UNCTAD Capacity Building Task Force for Trade, Environment and Development (CBTF): By enhancing synergies between UNEP and UNCTAD, the CBTF aims to strengthen the capacities of countries, particularly developing countries and countries with economies in transition, to effectively address trade-environmentdevelopment issues. UNEP also partners with the WTO, other UN agencies, the secretariats of environmental conventions, and UN RECs in projects focused on their respective mandates. For UNEP as a whole: www.unep.org/ For TCB of the UNEP Economics and Trade Branch: www.unep.ch/etb/ For specific activities of ETB: w ww.unep.ch/etb/areas/enviTrade.php www.unep.ch/etb/areas/IntTraRelPol.php www.unep.ch/etb/areas/biodivAgriSector.php www.unep.ch/etb/areas/fisherySub.php

UNEP

And for UNEP-UNCTAD CBTF: www.unep-unctad.org/cbtf/

TCB activities described in this guide GLOBAL ADVOCACY • I ncreasing understanding of the relationship between international trade, climate change and development • Supporting the transition to a green economy TRADE POLICY DEVELOPMENT • Strengthening the mutual supportiveness of trade and environment policies • Assessing the impact of agricultural trade liberalization on biodiversity LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK • Legal and regulatory frameworks in the fisheries sector SUPPLY CAPACITY • Promotion of sustainable agriculture

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UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMME (UN-HABITAT) Contact: Information Services Section, UN-HABITAT Nairobi, Kenya E-mail: infohabitat@unhabitat.org Web: www.unhabitat.org

The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) is the United Nations agency for human settlements. It is mandated by the UN General Assembly to promote socially and environmentally sustainable towns and cities with the goal of providing adequate shelter for all. The main roles and responsibilities of UN-HABITAT derive from the Habitat Agenda, adopted by the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) in Istanbul, Turkey, in 1996. Thereafter, the UN General Assembly mandated UN-Habitat with overall responsibility for the coordinated implementation of the Habitat Agenda. The Habitat Agenda comprises two main goals: adequate shelter for all, and sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world.

UN-HABITAT

TCB-related programme Given the considerable degree of socio-economic interdependence between urban and rural areas in most countries, the international development agenda has given increasing importance to the promotion of a more balanced approach to the development of these two areas, namely the rural-urban linkage development approach. Rural-urban linkages generally refer to the growing flows of public and private capital, people, goods, ideas, information and technology between the two areas. Adequate infrastructure, such as transportation, communication, energy, and basic services, is central to the rural-urban development linkage approach. One of the main economic objectives of this approach is to strengthen (sub-national) trade links by improving the access of rural products to urban markets. The three main aims are: (i) to promote balanced regional development through enhanced rural-urban linkages; (ii) to alleviate poverty through the promotion of employment and other income-generating activities; and (iii) to facilitate the commercialization of rural products in urban areas. UN-HABITAT considers that this approach has a great potential for promoting regional socio-economic development and, in particular, for generating employment opportunities and thus contributing to poverty alleviation in both rural and urban areas. UN-HABITAT’s capacity building activities to enhance rural-urban trade links encourage governments to institutionalize and integrate rural-urban linkages into their respective national and sub-national development planning processes. Its activities thus focus on trade policy development, supply capacity and trade promotion at the national level, as well as global advocacy. As part of its national capacity building and global advocacy efforts, UN-HABITAT disseminates innovative policies and practices to enhance rural-urban development linkages. These policies and strategies are contained in two major UN-HABITAT publications, entitled Report of the Inter-regional Conference on Rural-Urban Linkages Approach to Development and Rural-urban Linkages Approach to Sustainable Development, and published in 2005.

Successful projects Over the years, UN-HABITAT has taken concrete steps to launch various programmes and initiatives to promote and implement this approach. For example, in cooperation with UNDP and the Government of Nepal, UN-HABITAT has implemented the Rural-Urban Partnership Programme (RUPP), which aimed to strengthen the country’s rural-urban development linkages. RUPP addressed not only the physical and spatial aspects of development, but also its key socio-economic dimensions. Similarly, with financial support from UNDP, UN-HABITAT has implemented the Poverty Alleviation through Rural-Urban Linkages (PARUL) project in Indonesia. This project adopted several strategies to strengthen rural-urban linkages, including the promotion of public-private partnerships and improved market access for small scale producers through collaboration with large scale enterprises.

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Building on this past work, the Urban Economy Branch of UN-HABITAT has recently set up a Rural-Urban Linkages Support Programme (RULSUP) to promote the incorporation of the rural-urban linkages approach into regional and national development strategies. RULSUP will initially focus on strengthening ruralurban development linkages in Eastern Africa. Similar initiatives for other developing country regions will be considered in the future.

Pilot Banana Drinks Project in the Lake Victoria Region of Uganda and Tanzania: The first concrete joint project to be implemented under LV-LED is a Pilot Banana Drinks Preservation and Packing Facilities project in Uganda and Tanzania. The main objective of this project – to be jointly implemented by UNHABITAT, FAO, UNIDO and the Common Fund for Commodities – is to add value to banana drinks produced by small-scale banana farmers for urban markets. The overall goal of the project is to alleviate the poverty of coffee and banana farmers in the Lake Victoria region through the commercialization of banana drinks in urban areas, and in so doing to contribute to increasing trade links between rural and urban areas. Partnerships The Lake Victoria Local Economic Development Initiative (LV-LED): UN-HABITAT, FAO, IFAD, WFP, ILO, UNIDO and the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC); Pilot Banana Drinks Project in Uganda and Tanzania: UNHABITAT, FAO, UNIDO and CFC. For more information: http://www.unhabitat.org/categories.asp?catid=513

TCB activities described in this guide SUPPLY CAPACITY • Lake Victoria Local Economic Development (LV-LED) initiative • Banana drinks project in Uganda and Tanzania

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UN-HABITAT

The Lake Victoria Local Economic Development Initiative (LV-LED): LV-LED is an inter-agency programme of action to enhance rural-urban development linkages in the Lake Victoria regions of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Its major developmental goals are: (i) to promote balanced regional development through enhanced rural-urban linkages, notably the marketing of rural products in urban areas; (ii) to alleviate poverty through the promotion of employment and other income-generating activities, notably through joint pilot projects; (iii) to reduce the rate of rural-to-urban migration in selected communities in the region; and (iv) to improve basic urban infrastructure, including in secondary towns, and also as a means of contributing to the achievement of the MDGs.


Agency Summaries

UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION (UNIDO) Contact: Lalith Goonatilake, Director, Trade Capacity Building Branch Vienna International Centre Wagramerstr. 5 P.O. Box 300 A-1400 Vienna Austria Tel: +43 1 26026-4781 E-mail: tcb@unido.org Web: www.unido.org

The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is the specialized United Nations agency promoting sustainable, private-sector-led industrial development in developing and transition economies, with a special focus on LDCs and Sub-Saharan Africa. UNIDO helps countries to meet the challenge of sustainable industrial development through technical assistance and capacity building so that they will be better equipped to compete in the global marketplace. UNIDO has sharpened its technical cooperation activities by focusing on three themes which directly respond to international development priorities: • P overty reduction through productive activities, by promoting industry, especially through SMEs in less developed areas, with a focus on employment creation, income generation and institutional capacity building; • Trade capacity building, by helping countries to develop production and trade-related capacities, including their capacity to meet the standards of international markets and to prove compliance with those market requirements; • Environment and energy, by promoting industrial energy efficiency and renewable sources of energy, particularly in rural areas, and supporting other activities for sustainable industrial development.

UNIDO

To improve standards of living through industries that are both internationally competitive and environmentally sustainable, UNIDO has created a large portfolio of projects related to trade capacity building.

TCB-related programme UNIDO’s activities and programmes in trade capacity building enhance the capacity of developing countries and countries with economies in transition to participate in global trade and hence increase their economic growth. To effectively address the many factors underlying successful industrial exports and trade, UNIDO has adopted a holistic approach to trade capacity building, structured around three key imperatives, the needs to: • “ Compete”: Developing competitive productive supply capacities; • “Conform”: Developing standards and conformity assessment infrastructure and services to prove compliance with market requirements in an internationally recognized manner; • “Connect”: Enhancing connectivity to markets. The focus of UNIDO’s own activities primarily addresses the first two of these imperatives, while services facilitating market connectivity are often sourced from other agencies or links with buyers through cooperation agreements. On the supply side, UNIDO supports enterprises in their efforts to offer competitive, safe, reliable, costeffective and compliant products on the world markets by improving manufacturing competitiveness and resource-use efficiency, upgrading existing enterprises, promoting technology management and diffusion, road-mapping and foresight, and by supporting the creation of clusters and export consortia. UNIDO provides such technical support services by building local capacity and through regional and national productivity centres and sector-specific technology advisory centres. The activities are mainly targeted at strengthening institutional capacity through providing expert knowledge and best practices, training programmes and study tours, supplying equipment, developing tools and methodologies, and undertaking pilot demonstration projects for replication. UNIDO also designs and implements national and regional commodity-based trade capacity building programmes, in cooperation with international partner agencies such as the WTO, ITC and FAO.

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With respect to conformity issues, UNIDO assists developing countries, and also those that have recently acceded to the WTO or are in the accession process, to develop a conformity infrastructure that will allow the implementation of WTO rules and agreements, such as those on TBT and on SPS measures. Since globallyrecognized conformity assessment infrastructure and services are a pre-condition for effective trade participation, UNIDO develops the capacities of standards bodies, metrology/calibration and testing laboratories, inspection bodies, enterprise system management certification bodies, accreditation services, traceability schemes, etc. In addition to developing national capacities, UNIDO has also been increasingly developing regional traderelated compliance infrastructure and services. UNIDO is building-up regional trade capacity infrastructure in the Andean community, Central America, East African Community, UEMOA and ECOWAS, as well as in the SAARC and Mekong regions, with a main emphasis on the harmonization of standards and technical regulations and conformity assessment schemes and procedures within a regional quality infrastructure. UNIDO also supports the development of ILAC/IAF Multilateral Recognition Agreements (MRAs). Successful projects Over the years, UNIDO has successfully completed a large number of trade capacity building projects, both for the development of competitive productive supply capacities, and for the development of standards and conformity assessment infrastructure and services. Two examples of projects are:

UNIDO has assisted the eight Member States of the UEMOA - Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal and Togo - in the establishment or strengthening of their trade-related quality infrastructure. Financed by the EU, the €14 million project aimed to promote regional integration and greater participation in international and regional trade. Specifically, it aimed: (i) to establish a regional system for accreditation and certification; (ii) to harmonize standards and strengthen standards bodies; (iii) to develop product testing laboratories; and (iv) to promote quality and consumer protection. The programme’s impact includes: • T he development of the fishing industry and the increase in exports of fish products to the EU (involving more than 100,000 fishermen and their families); • The reduced cost of exports and easier participation in international trade through the establishment of regional quality infrastructures and services, mainly a regional accreditation service, harmonized standards development, and a network of product testing laboratories; • Quality promotion initiatives, including national and regional quality awards; • Increased consumer awareness and the introduction of consumer protection in a national and regional legislative framework. The first four-year phase of the project came to an end in 2005. Its success was such that a successor programme was initiated in 2007, extending the development of quality infrastructures to all the Member States of ECOWAS and Mauritania, through a €14 million programme, again under EU funding.

Trade-related technical assistance (TRTA) in Pakistan The EU financed a €5 million technical assistance programme with two components of €2.5 million each, which was implemented by UNIDO and ITC. The overall objective of the programme was to foster Pakistan’s integration into global trade.

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UNIDO

Standards, laboratory, certification and accreditation infrastructure in West Africa


Agency Summaries

UNIDO specifically upgraded the national institutional infrastructure for standardization, product testing, metrology/calibration, enterprise systems’ certification and accreditation, as well as supporting the development of the fisheries sector in hygiene and quality management and the inspection of fisheries exports, as required by international markets. The project achieved the following specific results: • A  ssessment of the constraints faced by Pakistan’s exporters in relation to supply side, proof of conformity and market connectivity issues; • Analysis of SPS compliance issues for key non-traditional export sectors, in particular fisheries; • National Standards and Physical Laboratory upgraded to provide internationally traceable calibration services; National Standards Body upgraded to operate according to international good practice; 19 product testing laboratories upgraded, of which 18 achieved international recognition of their services through accreditation; • National Accreditation Body strengthened for its international recognition; • F isheries sector advised on hygiene and quality management on boats, for auction hall renovation; processors trained in hygiene and quality management, and in traceability; inspection services developed to serve as EU-designated Competent Authority.

UNIDO

The programme allowed for an important mobilization of national funding, in particular for local equipment purchase for laboratories and for related civil works through government funding, as well as for the upgrading of 250 fishing boats by their owners. Due to the positive outcome of the 2004-2007 TRTA programme, the EC has earmarked funds in excess of €10 million for a successor TRTA programme during 2008-2011. Partnerships Over the last years, UNIDO has been continuously developing partnerships with international agencies in the area of trade capacity building, such as the WTO, World Bank, FAO, ITC and UNCTAD, in order to strengthen synergies and enhance collective impact. Such inter-agency cooperation in the framework of a common, systemic, non-agency-partisan approach has been more recently advocated by the call for One UN Coherence in technical assistance delivery, and is also the underlying philosophy of the Aid for Trade Initiative. UNIDO signed an MoU with the WTO in 2003, allowing both organizations to combine their strengths to help developing countries and transition economies remove supply-side obstacles to trade, ensure conformity of their products to market requirements, and become better integrated into the multilateral trading system. UNIDO participates in WTO committee work, training activities, conferences, etc., and UNIDO and the WTO have joined forces to develop joint trade capacity programmes for 11 pilot countries. The two organizations are also cooperating in the Joint Cotton Initiative for African Countries, which aims to develop value added cotton exports from 11 West and Central African countries, including the nine largest cotton producers in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Joint Cotton Initiative is an outcome of aid for trade, a multilateral initiative, monitored by the WTO, to help developing countries strengthen their position in global markets. UNIDO also undertakes joint global forum or advocacy activities with other international technical agencies, specifically in the area of standards and conformity, such as the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), the International Accreditation Forum (IAF), the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Trade Centre (ITC), and the International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML).

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Agency Summaries

UNIDO also participates in the Joint Committee on Coordination of Assistance to Developing Countries in Metrology, Accreditation and Standardization (JCDCMAS). Presently, the members of the JCDCMAS are BIPM, IAF, IEC, ILAC, ISO, ITC, ITU-T, OIML and UNIDO. The Global Compact: UNIDO is one of six core agencies, and is especially mandated to assist SMEs in their efforts to adhere to the principles of the Global Compact, in particular in the area of CSR. With UNDP: In 2004, UNIDO and UNDP signed a cooperation framework for joint programming at country level; initially, UNIDO desks have been established in 11 countries that will benefit from the joint activities, with other countries expected to follow very soon. With UNEP: Since the mid-1990s, UNIDO and UNEP have run a joint programme that established a network of more than 30 National Cleaner Production Centres to, inter alia, help industries clean up their production processes and adopt cleaner technologies. With UNODC: In 2005, UNIDO and UNODC signed an MoU that envisages joint programming in up to five countries, focusing on UNIDO’s SME and private sector development activities and UNODC’s sustainable livelihood programme. With NEPAD: Starting in 2007, UNIDO initiated trade capacity building activities under the Africa Productive Capacity Initiative (APCI) of NEPAD.

UNIDO

Similar partnerships (e.g., joint programme development and implementation) are being discussed with other UN agencies, such as FAO, IAEA and UNESCO.

TCB activities described in this guide GLOBAL ADVOCACY • Industrial Development Reports • Cost-benefit analysis for conformity assessment infrastructure and services • Assessing specific needs for quality infrastructure TRADE POLICY DEVELOPMENT • • • • •

Development of national quality policy and strategy Competitiveness analysis Sectoral studies Policy studies Industrial statistics

LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK • Strengthening the regulatory framework for conformity SUPPLY CAPACITY • • • • • • • •

Techno-economic assessments Product and process design and development Development of sectoral technology centres Food hygiene management Advisory services on enterprise management systems Advisory services on traceability Cleaner production and energy efficiency Export consortia

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Agency Summaries

• • • • • •

Cluster development Supply Chain Development Programme (SCDP) Export-oriented investment Corporate social responsibility (CSR) Business Partnership Programme Industrial modernization and upgrading

COMPLIANCE SUPPORT INFRASTRUCTURES AND SERVICES • • • • •

Standardization bodies support Metrology (measurement) laboratories support Testing laboratories support Accreditation bodies support Development of competent authorities for fish and horticulture exports

MARKET AND TRADE INFORMATION

UNIDO

• Information and business development services • Statistics dissemination

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UNITED NATIONS RELIEF AND WORKS AGENCY FOR THE PALESTINE REFUGEES IN THE NEAR EAST (UNRWA) UNRWA is a UN Agency of a quasi-governmental nature, which provides direct health, education, relief services, and microcredit and microfinance services to Palestine refugees. It does not provide “capacity development to governments” but rather works in coordination with the host countries of Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon, as well as the government structures of the Occupied Palestinian Territories and the Government of Israel. UNRWA’s interventions particularly address issues relating to PRPS and the MDGs, and aim to address the human development needs of the Palestine refugee population residing in Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

Contact: UNRWA Headquarters Gaza, Gamal Abdul Nasser Street, Gaza City HQ Gaza, PO Box 140157, Amman 11814, Jordan Tel: +972 8 677 7333 Web: www.un.org/unrwa

UNRWA’s organizational strategy focuses on the main programmatic areas of its mandate, contributing towards poverty alleviation and sustainable socio-economic development outcomes amongst its target population.

Successful projects

• U  NRWA’s Microfinance and Microcredit Programme is the leading microfinance provider in the occupied Palestinian territory, and is now pioneering the development of urban microfinance in the Syrian Arab Republic. • UNRWA’s Technical and Vocational Training Centres offer Palestine refugee youth two-year trade or semi-professional courses that provide opportunities to acquire knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that enhance their development as responsible citizens, capable of making informed decisions and a positive contribution to their society. • UNRWA’s Social Services Division promotes the self-reliance of less advantaged members of the refugee community, especially women, the elderly, youth, and those with disabilities, by providing them with business training and subsequent microcredit opportunities.

TCB activities described in this guide SUPPLY CAPACITY • Microfinance and Microcredit Programme (MMP) OTHER TRADE-RELATED ACTIVITIES • Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) • Relief and social services

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UNRWA

Highlights of successful activities include but are not limited to the following:


Agency Summaries

WORLD BANK GROUP (WB) Contact: The World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW Washington, DC 20433 USA Tel: +1 202 473 1000 Fax: +1 202 477 6391 Web: www.worldbank.org

The World Bank is a vital source of financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world. It is made up of two development institutions—the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA). Each institution plays a different but supportive role in the Bank’s mission of global poverty reduction and the improvement of living standards. The IBRD focuses on middle-income and creditworthy poor countries, while the IDA focuses on the poorest countries in the world. Together, they provide low-interest loans and interest-free credit and grants to developing countries for education, health, infrastructure, communications, and many other purposes. The IBRD and IDA offer two basic types of loans and credits: investment loans and development policy loans. Investment loans are made to countries for goods, works and services in support of economic and social development projects in a broad range of economic and social sectors. Development policy loans (formerly known as adjustment loans) provide quick-disbursing financing to support countries’ policy and institutional reforms.

WB

Each borrower’s project proposal is assessed to ensure that the project is economically, financially, socially and environmentally sound. During loan negotiations, the Bank and borrower agree on the development objectives, outputs, performance indicators and implementation plan, as well as a loan disbursement schedule. While the Bank supervises the implementation of each loan and evaluates its results, the borrower implements the project or programme according to the agreed terms. As nearly 30 percent of Bank staff are based in some 100 country offices worldwide, three-quarters of outstanding loans are managed by country directors located away from the Bank offices in Washington.

TCB-related programme The Bank is helping to make the world trading system more conducive to development. It also contributes to shaping the growing agenda on regionalism and bilateral agreements, and to integrating trade into the growth strategies of developing countries. The Bank has been rapidly expanding its trade-related activities, which include operations, research and analysis, advocacy, training, and capacity building. Today, research work falls into various areas, including the poverty impacts of trade and adjustment policies; country competitiveness analyses; analysis of pro-active policies to enhance export supply response; analysis of national trade policies; the ongoing Doha Round of WTO negotiations; and the design and impact of regional trade agreements. The Bank’s work on trade has two central objectives. At the global level, the Bank advocates changes in the world trading system to make it more supportive of development, especially in the poorest countries and for poor people across the developing world. This includes collaborating with the WTO, other multilateral agencies, governments in developing countries and donors to support a “pro-development” outcome in the Doha Development agenda, as well as working with partners to maximize the development impact of regional trading agreements. The Bank undertakes research to better understand the role of international trade in development and poverty reduction. It has also contributed significantly to the development of techniques and policy tools for analyzing the impact of trade policy reforms. At the same time, the Bank, through policybased loans, has supported trade reforms in many developing countries, such as the reduction of tariffs, the elimination of quantitative restrictions, and the improvement of foreign exchange systems. The distinguishing feature of the World Bank work on international trade is that it is an integral part of the Bank’s work on development and poverty reduction. The Bank assists developing countries to formulate liberal trade policies in their process of development and poverty reduction, and provides technical assistance or policy advice to the governments towards an open trade regime.

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At the country level, the Bank supports developing countries in their efforts to improve their own policies, institutions and infrastructure (i.e. roads, ports and telecommunications) in order to use trade to help spur growth and reduce poverty. This work includes strategic assistance to clients in support of pro-poor traderelated reforms, with special attention to the low-income countries that are most in need of Bank support. The projects in trade and integration are: • • • • •

Export development and competitiveness; Regional integration: International financial architecture; Technology diffusion; Trade facilitation and market access.

Training and capacity building

• • • • • • • • •

WB

The Trade Department’s training and capacity building serves two constituencies: Bank staff, and stakeholders and decision-makers in developing countries. Internal trade-related learning and capacity building is designed to provide staff with access to technical tools, lessons of experience, and rigorous research and learning opportunities that enable them to mainstream trade in country assistance strategies, and to strengthen staff’s understanding of the role of trade as an engine for sustainable growth and poverty reduction. External training and capacity building is carried out by the World Bank Institute (WBI). The WBI Trade Learning Programme is designed to enhance the capacity of developing countries to put in place sound national trade policies and institutions that would enable them to take advantage of the world trading system and to help them participate effectively in multilateral and regional trade arrangements and negotiations. Trade-related topics covered by WBI learning programmes are: Doha Trade Negotiating Agenda Trade in Services Agriculture Regionalism Export development and diversification (including trade finance) Standards Trade, growth, poverty and gender Analytical tools (including WITS) WTO accession and trade policy

Partnerships The World Bank Group works in partnership with the development agencies of individual countries to better coordinate aid and to more effectively achieve development goals. The World Bank works with UN agencies, other international institutions, donors, civil society and professional and academic associations to improve the coordination of aid policies and practices in countries, both at the regional and the global level.

TCB activities described in this guide GLOBAL ADVOCACY • Global dialogue on trade and development

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Agency Summaries

TRADE POLICY DEVELOPMENT • • • • •

Support for country trade policies and institutions Diagnostics Support for multilateral and regional trade negotiations Economic and sector work (ESW) Trade-related research

LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK • WTO accession and trade policy training • Assistance on preferential trade agreements • Advisory work on trade regulations and procedures SUPPLY CAPACITY • IFC assistance to agricultural trade companies • Supporting South-South investments COMPLIANCE SUPPORT INFRASTRUCTURE AND SERVICES • Lending to meet trade standards • Agri-food standards support

WB

MARKET AND TRADE INFORMATION • • • • • • • • • • •

World Integrated Trade System (WITS) World Trade Indicators (WTI) GTAP Database Overall Trade Restrictiveness Indices (OTRI) Agricultural Distortions Database Tariff Reform Impact Simulation Tool (TRIST) Logistics Performance Indicators (LPI) Regulatory barriers in services trade Doing Business Database Research Private Participation in Infrastructure Projects Database

TRADE FACILITATION • • • • • •

Trade facilitation support Trade and Transport Facilitation Audits (TTFA) Trade Facilitation Facility (TFF) Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy Border Management Modernization: A Guide for Reformers International Finance Corporation (IFC) analytical and advisory services

PHYSICAL TRADE INFRASTRUCTURE • Trade-related infrastructure projects lending TRADE-RELATED FINANCIAL SERVICES • Global Trade Finance Programme • Global Trade Liquidity Program OTHER TRADE-RELATED ACTIVITIES • Trade-related lending

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WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO) The World Health Organization is the United Nations specialized agency for health. It was established on 7 April 1948. WHO’s objective, as set out in its constitution, is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health. Health is defined in WHO’s constitution as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. WHO is governed by 193 Member States through the World Health Assembly, which is composed of representatives of the Member States. The main tasks of the World Health Assembly are to approve the WHO programme and the budget for the following biennium, and to decide major policy questions.

Contact Avenue Appia 20, 1211 Geneva 27 Switzerland Tel: +41 22 791 2111 Fax: +41 22 791 3111 Web: www.who.int

TCB-related programme

Work on the relationship between international trade and health responds to the demand from Member States (increasingly a priority in WHO country cooperation strategies) and international organizations, such as the WTO, through three main functions: • P erforming analysis and research to better inform policy decisions, negotiations, dispute settlement and agenda setting; • Creating tools and training materials to build capacity in Member States to fully understand the public health implications of multilateral trade agreements; • Meeting country requests for support in specific trade and health issues. These functions are carried out across a number of departments and with staff in all regional offices, and are coordinated by a technical working group on globalization, trade, and health, convened and led by WHO’s Department of Ethics, Equity, Trade and Human Rights (ETH). Various resource groups of outside experts guide the work.

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WHO

WHO works to achieve greater policy coherence between trade and health policy so that international trade and trade rules maximize health benefits and minimize health risks, especially for poor and vulnerable populations. Its focus is on strengthening capacities in the ministries of health to enable them to work most effectively with their colleagues in the ministries of trade, commerce and finance in shaping and managing the trade policy environment for health. The objective is to support Member States to achieve greater coherence between international trade and health policy, with a focus on building the knowledge base to strengthen capacity in WHO Member States and in WHO itself so that they will be able to recognize and act on the public health implications of international trade and trade rules.


Agency Summaries

Partnerships As a major response to implement the World Health Assembly (WHA) resolution on International Trade and Health, WHO is working with the WTO, the World Bank, and international experts and trade and health policymakers from 10 countries, to develop a diagnostic tool on trade and health. WHO actively promotes international policy coherence through strategic initiatives and partnerships with international organizations and through international meetings with the WTO, WB, UNCTAD, OECD, the European Union, ITC, UN Commission on Human Rights, ILO, and IOM. For more information: www.who.int

TCB activities described in this guide GLOBAL ADVOCACY • Policy coherence in trade and health for human development TRADE POLICY DEVELOPMENT • Diagnostic tool on trade and health LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

WHO

• Multilateral trade agreements and public health • Training course on health policy in a globalized world

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WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ORGANIZATION (WIPO) The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It is dedicated to developing a balanced and accessible international intellectual property (IP) system which rewards creativity, stimulates innovation, and contributes to economic development while safeguarding the public interest. WIPO was established by the WIPO Convention in 1967 with a mandate from its Member States to promote the protection of IP throughout the world through cooperation among states and in collaboration with other international organizations. Its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland.

Contact: WIPO’s headquarters 34, chemin des Colombettes, Geneva, Switzerland Tel: +41 22 338 9111 Fax: +41 22 733 5428 PO Box 18, 1211 Geneva 20 Tel: +41 22 338 9111 Fax: +41 22 733 5428 Web: www.wipo.int

Strategic Goals WIPO’s revised and expanded strategic goals are part of a comprehensive process of realignment taking place within the Organization. These new goals will enable WIPO to fulfill its mandate more effectively in response to a rapidly evolving external environment and to the urgent challenges for intellectual property in the 21st Century.

• • • • • • • • •

 alanced evolution of the International Normative Framework for IP; B Provision of Premier Global IP Services; Facilitation of the use of IP for development; Coordination and development of a global IP infrastructure; E stablishment of a world reference source for IP information and analysis; International cooperation on building respect for IP; Addressing IP in relation to global policy issues; A responsive communications interface between WIPO, its Member States and all stakeholders; An efficient administrative and financial support structure to enable WIPO to deliver its programmes.

Partnerships WIPO continues to strengthen its cooperation with the United Nations Secretariat, funds, programmes and specialized agencies, as well as with intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, with the aim of further developing partnerships and synergies in the pursuit of the UN MDGs. It also continues its active

Successful Projects Key ETH trade and health products include: WTO Agreements and Public Health, a joint study by the WHO and the WTO Secretariat; International Trade in Health Services and the GATS, published by the World Bank; Legal review of the GATS From a Health Policy Perspective; Defining and Shaping the Architecture for Global Health Governance; Towards Policy Coherence in Trade and Health; Rapid Assessment of the Economic Impact of Global Disease Outbreaks; Trade and Health notes for health policy-makers on GATS and health-related services; Global Public Goods for Health; Negotiating Health Development: a Guide for Practitioners 2. Strategic support to countries includes support for WTO accession negotiations and health sector liberalization. All work is evidence-based, publications are extensively peer-reviewed, and country missions are undertaken with WTO.

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WIPO

The nine strategic goals set out in the Revised Programme and Budget for the 2008/09 Biennium were:


Agency Summaries

Viet Nam A joint WHO-WTO health and trade mission to Viet Nam took place in August 2004 as part of a capacity building effort to enable the Ministry of Health to advise the Ministry of Trade on trade issues with public health perspectives in order to achieve better policy coherence between trade and health. The main outcomes of the mission were: high-level commitments given by the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Trade to work together on health-related trade issues, including on current WTO accession negotiations; local institutions with complementary expertise in trade and health expressed ability and interest in being involved in studies related to the impacts of trade liberalization on health; and collaboration with the World Bank (on SPS and food safety) and UNDP on trade services was established. In order to provide support for the implementation of the diagnostic tool, WHO undertook another health and trade mission to Vietnam in March 2009. At the time of writing, Viet Nam was undertaking in-depth analysis in two fields, namely trade in health services and trade in foodstuffs. participation in the High Level Committee on Management (HLCM), the High Level Committee on Programmes (HLCP), and the Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB).

WIPO

WIPO has further intensified its cooperation with WHO and actively participated in the 61st World Health Assembly (WHA). It closely followed the work of the Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health (CIPIH) set up in 2004, and contributed inputs as requested by the Commission. In May 2008, the 61st World Health Assembly adopted the global strategy and plan of action on public health, innovation and intellectual property. WIPO has continued to work with the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), notably in the followup to the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS). The Summit, held in Tunis in November 2005, offered an indicative and non-exhaustive list of facilitators/moderators for the Actionlines of the Geneva Plan of Action. UN agencies, including WIPO, were invited to become facilitators /moderators. WIPO has continued its cooperation with the WTO under the framework of the 1995 agreement between the two organizations, and carried out joint activities in the area of technical assistance for the benefit of developing and Least Developed Countries. Following discussions between the two director-generals, WIPO and the WTO established a consultative group to periodically meet and discuss matters of mutual interest.

TCB activities described in this guide LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK • Legislative assistance • Enforcement of intellectual property rights

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WORLD TOURISM ORGANIZATION (UNWTO) The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations, and the leading international organization in the field of tourism. It serves as a global forum for tourism policy issues and a practical source of tourism know-how. UNWTO’s mission is to promote and develop tourism as a significant means of fostering international peace and understanding, economic development and international trade. UNWTO plays a central and decisive role in promoting the development of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism, paying particular attention to the interests of developing countries. Its membership includes 154 Member States and 7 territories and 407 affiliate members representing the private sector, educational institutions, tourism associations and local tourism authorities.

Contact: United Nations World Tourism Organization Capitán Haya 42 28020 Madrid, Spain Tel: +34 91 567 8100 Fax: +34 91 571 3733 E-mail: omt@unwto.org Web: www.unwto.org

Direct actions that strengthen and support the efforts of national tourism administrations are carried out by UNWTO’s Regional Representations (Africa, the Americas, East Asia and the Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and South Asia) based at the Headquarters in Madrid. UNWTO is committed to the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, geared toward reducing poverty and fostering sustainable development.

UNWTO believes that a progressive liberalization of trade in tourism services can contribute to sustainable tourism development and thus to the alleviation of poverty, particularly if liberalization is achieved under fair and transparent conditions where developing and Least Developed Countries are given an equitable share of benefits. Encouraging travel will strengthen two-way trade, promoting essential foreign exchange income for the poorest countries and improving the performance of global suppliers. It will support consumer and business confidence, create jobs and put a green economy into action. Through Aid for Trade, a World Trade Organization (WTO) development assistance programme, countries can strengthen their negotiation capacities in order to maximize their trade opportunities. Tourism is one of the areas where requesting and providing such assistance is feasible, and several countries have already included tourism in their aid for trade strategy.

Partnerships UNWTO projects are implemented through funding obtained from a variety of major donor agencies, such as the UNDP, the World Bank, the EU, the ADB, several bilateral donors and others. UNWTO has observer status with the WTO on issues regarding trade in tourism services.

TCB activities described in this guide GLOBAL ADVOCACY • Advocate for trade liberalization SUPPLY CAPACITY • Worldwide technical cooperation • ST-EP projects • Competitiveness and trade in tourism services

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UNWTO

TCB-related programme


Agency Summaries

COMPLIANCE SUPPORT INFRASTRUCTURE AND SERVICES • UNWTO.TedQual Certification System TRADE PROMOTION CAPACITY BUILDING • ETC/UNWTO Handbook on E-Marketing for Tourism Destinations MARKET AND TRADE INFORMATION

UNWTO

• UNWTO World Tourism Barometer • ETC/UNWTO Handbook on Tourism Forecasting Methodologies

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WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO) The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only international organization dealing with the global rules of trade between nations. Its main objective is to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably and freely as possible. It does this by: • • • • •

Administering trade agreements; Acting as a forum for trade negotiations; Settling trade disputes; Reviewing national trade policies; Ensuring coherence in policy-making.

Contact: World Trade Organization Centre William Rappard, Rue de Lausanne 154, 1211 Geneva 21 Tel: +41 22 739 5111 Fax: +41 22 731 4206 E-mail: enquiries@wto.org Web: www.wto.org

The WTO organizes around 500 technical cooperation activities annually. It holds, on average, four trade policy courses each year in Geneva for government officials, and five field-based regional trade policy courses. Regional seminars are held regularly in all the regions of the world, covering all WTO agreements, with a special emphasis on African countries. Training courses are also organized in Geneva for officials from countries in transition from central planning to market economies. The WTO has set up reference centres in over 100 trade ministries and regional organizations in the capitals of developing and least-developed countries, providing computers and Internet access to enable ministry officials to keep abreast of events in the WTO in Geneva through online access to the WTO’s immense database of official documents and other material.

The Institute for Training and Technical Cooperation (ITTC) was established to coordinate WTO-related technical assistance and training in response to the main development-related challenges of the Doha Development Agenda. ITTC’s main objectives are to assist beneficiary countries to: • • • • •

Enhance institutional and human capacity in the field of trade; Address trade policy issues; Integrate more fully into the multilateral trading system; E xercise the rights of WTO membership; Fully participate in multilateral trade negotiations.

In order to achieve these objectives, ITTC prepares its Biennial Technical Assistance and Training Plans (‘TA Plans’), which provide the WTO Secretariat’s backbone for the delivery of all activities. The WTO compiles data on trade flows and trade measures by its members. These are published in its annual publications, World Trade Report and World Trade Statistics. In 2002, the WTO and OECD set up a joint database of trade-related capacity building projects, but this was discontinued following collection of the 2006 data. The OECD proposes to adapt its existing Creditor Reporting System (CRS) to provide data on traderelated aid. The Biennial Technical Assistance Plan 2008-2009 (WT/COMTD/W/160) (The Plan) was prepared by the ITTC, with substantive contributions from WTO divisions, and then presented to and adopted by the members. The Plan is designed to enable the WTO Secretariat to pursue, in a coherent and cost-effective fashion, key objectives mandated by members. These are to enhance institutional and human capacity in beneficiary countries to address trade policy issues and concerns; mainstream trade into national development and poverty reduction policies; facilitate fuller participation of beneficiaries in the Multilateral Trading System (MTS); and enable effective participation in the negotiations.

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WTO

TCB-related programme


Agency Summaries

The Plan features a range of products which can be used in the delivery of technical assistance and training as well as some programmes. Whether used in Geneva or in the field, all the products are geared towards achieving the same general objective, and can be applied individually or in combination. The Plan is designed in such a way that all eligible members and observers can benefit systematically. In light of their pressing trade development needs, priority will be given to LDCs. This priority will be articulated through specially designed events and, for beneficiaries of the Integrated Framework (IF), activities will be linked to their processes of mainstreaming trade into their national development plans. The main challenge for the WTO is to assist LDCs to integrate into the Multilateral Trading System (MTS) and to benefit from progressive liberalization in world trade, while a further challenge is to assist LDCs to participate fully in the negotiating process of the DDA. In the Secretariat’s experience, one way of addressing these challenges is to identify and put in place appropriate cost-effective mechanisms that the Secretariat can deploy to encourage LDCs to take advantage of the full range of technical assistance and training programmes, including national seminars. The products can be grouped broadly in four main categories: • • • •

 eneral WTO-related technical assistance and training; G Specialized and advanced technical assistance and training; Academic support for training and capacity building: an integrated approach; Support in technical assistance and training facilities.

Partnerships

WTO

The WTO is an active member of: • T he Enhanced Integrated Framework (EIF) for trade-related technical assistance to LDCs; • T he Standards and Trade Development Facility (STDF). In order to build and strengthen local capacity in beneficiary countries and enhance ownership, emphasis is increasingly put on partnerships, at varying levels of involvement, with other providers or sponsors of TRTA. Basically, in each geographical region, partnerships are built and used for training purposes and for conducting joint activities. The nature of the partnerships varies widely among partner institutions, depending on the institution itself, the contents of any signed undertakings, where they exist, and on the agreed objectives in the partnership arrangements.

Regional Partnerships Partnership arrangements have been established at the regional level and, by way of illustration, these include the following: In Africa, training and technical cooperation activities are undertaken in partnership with UNECA, the African Development Bank (AfDB), the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) Secretariat, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), the South African Development Community (SADC), the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), etc. The Organization internationale de la Francophonie is also a partner in this region. Its „Rexpaco“ programme dovetails well with WTO’s programme of activities with academics, and is aimed mainly at African French-speaking states. For Arab and Middle East countries, close cooperation is undertaken with the Arab Monetary Fund (AMF), the Islamic Development Bank (IsDB) and the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (UNESCWA).

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Agency Summaries

In Asia and the Pacific there is cooperation with UNESCAP, the Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat (PIFS), the International Development Law Organization (IDLO), and with the ADB. Institutional cooperation for training for countries in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia mostly takes place with the Joint Vienna Institute (JVI). The WTO will have slots of a total of some six weeks for conducting seminars and training courses. In addition, the Secretariat undertakes training through the so-called Applied Economic Policy Course. The WTO is also cooperating with UNESCAP and with the Canadian Centre for Trade Policy and Law (CTPL), and is cooperating closely with the World Bank to design and implement a joint training event in Central Asia, mainly geared towards acceding countries. In Latin America and the Caribbean, the bulk of regional activities are undertaken in close partnership with the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), in particular with its Institute for the Integration of Latin America and the Caribbean (INTAL). Every year a joint programme is defined and co-financed. Within the framework of the IDB/INTAL cooperation, there are partnerships with regional integration secretariats, such as the Latin American Integration Association (ALADI), the Andean Community, the Central American Economic Integration Secretariat (SIECA) and Mercosur, as well as with the Organization of American States. In the Caribbean, there is cooperation with the CARICOM Secretariat and the Caribbean Regional Negotiating Machinery, as well as with the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States and the Association of Caribbean States.

The Secretariat is always seeking to strengthen and expand cooperation with other international organizations, regional bodies and institutions. There are currently a total of some twenty MoUs with different international organizations, bodies and partner institutions. These MOUs are subject to regular review. It should be noted that the WTO also has a large number of partnership arrangements to undertake joint activities with other organizations without having established a formal MOU, for example with regional bodies, training centres, and academia. The WTO and the WBI are pursuing cooperation on the basis of an agreement between the two organizations, signed on 28 April 1997. Joint activities, such as co-lecturing, and the occasional participation in each other’s TRTA activities are undertaken through the IF, and the two organizations are gradually expanding this cooperation in a more structured manner. The partnership with UNIDO is geared towards addressing supply-side constraints in conjunction with barriers to market access. Through its MTS-related initiatives, ITC disseminates WTO-related information to businesses and other stakeholders involved in trade negotiations through a network of focal points in 65 countries. It produces analytical publications on WTO-related issues from a business perspective, and organizes high-level interactive regional meetings that gather national teams of private-public representatives, contribute to analysis of negotiating positions from the commercial perspective, and strengthen the coalescing of public and private sector concerns.

TCB Resource Guide Volume 1  253

WTO

Other Partnerships


Agency Summaries

TCB activities described in this guide GLOBAL ADVOCACY • Activities for parliamentarians and civil society TRADE POLICY DEVELOPMENT • • • • • • • • •

General WTO-related technical assistance and training Specialized and advanced training and technical assistance National technical assistance (TA) activities Technical assistance within the Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM) framework Assisting beneficiaries in conducting needs assessments Academic support for training and capacity building Support training and technical assistance facilities Advanced training programme for senior government officials Intensive course on trade negotiations skills

LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK • Legal Advice • Establishing and strengthening reference centres MARKET AND TRADE INFORMATION

WTO

• Data on trade flows TRADE FACILITATION • Trade Facilitation National Needs Assessment Project

254  TCB Resource Guide Volume 1


Agency Summaries

The following institutions have contributed to the completion of this guide: African Development Bank

www.afdb.org

Asian Development Bank

www.adb.org

Caribbean Development Bank

www.caribank.org

European Bank for Recustruction and Development

www.ebrd.com

Food and Agriculture Organization

www.fao.org

Inter-American Development Bank

www.iadb.org/int

International Atomic Energy Agency 

www.iaea.org

International Civil Aviation Organization 

www.icao.int

International Fund for Agricultural Development

www.ifad.org

International Labour Organization 

www.ilo.org

International Maritime Organization 

www.imo.org

International Monetary Fund

www.imf.org

International Telecommunication Union

www.itu.int

International Trade Centre 

www.intracen.org

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 

www.unctad.org

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs 

www.un.org/esa/desa

United Nations Development Programme 

www.undp.org

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

www.unescap.org

United Nations Economic Commission for Africa 

www.uneca.org

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe 

www.unece.org

United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

www.eclac.org

United Nations Environment Programme 

www.unep.org

United Nations Human Settlements Programme

www.unhabitat.org

United Nations Industrial Development Organization 

www.unido.org

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for the Palestine Refugees in the Near East 

www.un.org/unrwa

World Bank Group 

www.worldbank.org

World Health Organization 

www.who.int

World Intellectual Property Organization 

www.wipo.int

World Tourism Organization World Trade Organization  Agency for International Trade Information and Cooperation CEB Inter-Agency Cluster on Trade and Productive Capacity Enhanced Integrated Framework Global Facilitation Partnership for Transportation and Trade Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Standards and Trade Development Facility WTO’s Global Technical Assistance Database

www.unwto.org www.wto.org www.aitic.org www.unctad.org www.integratedframework.org www.gfptt.org www.oecd.org www.standardsfacility.org http://gtad.wto.org

TCB Resource Guide Volume 1  255


African Development Bank Asian Development Bank Caribbean Development Bank European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Food and Agriculture Organization Inter-American Development Bank International Atomic Energy Agency International Civil Aviation Organization International Fund for Agricultural Development International Labour Organization International Maritime Organization International Monetary Fund International Telecommunication Union International Trade Centre United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs

Volume 1: Multilateral Services

2010

Volume 1 Multilateral Services

United Nations Development Programme United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific United Nations Economic Commission for Africa United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

United Nations Human Settlements Programme United Nations Industrial Development Organization United Nations Relief and Works Agency for the Palestine Refugees in the Near East World Bank Group World Health Organization World Intellectual Property Organization World Tourism Organization World Trade Organization

TRADE CAPACITIY BUILDING

United Nations Environment Programme

[Resource Guide]

United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

The information and the opinions herein are those of its authors, and do not necessarily reflect the official views or policies of the organizations and agencies cooperating with UNIDO in the preparation of this publication. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Organizations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of firm names or commercial products does not imply endorsement by any UN organization. This document has not been formally edited.

Trade Capacity Building Resource Guide 2010 Volume I  

This is the second edition of the Trade Capacity Building Inter-agency Resource Guide, a publication that has proven to be very successful s...

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