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Annual Report 2011

Contents Foreword 01 Leadership and philanthropy 02 04 An electronic partnership Faith in our future 07 Breaking biomedical boundaries 10 Food for thought 13 The Cambridge student experience 16 19 Appointments and awards Charting progress 23 Annual Reports of the Council and General Board


Reports and Financial Statements


The cover image illustrates how Cambridge scientists Mathias Kolle, with Professor Ullrich Steiner and Professor Jeremy Baumberg of the Department of Physics, discovered a way of mimicking the colours found on the wings of tropical butterflies. The findings could have important applications in the security printing industry, helping to make banknotes and credit cards harder to forge.

Foreword Research at the heart of the system The University of Cambridge has a mission to contribute to society at the highest international levels of excellence, through the pursuit of education, learning and research. Each of the three elements of our mission should be valued, and we strive to ensure that they are. Over the past year, the debates around higher education inevitably focused on the undergraduate, as changes in national policy brought an increase in tuition fees. Students, once graduated, now bear more of the cost of their education – but what has not changed is that student fees and government funding combined still do not come close to meeting the cost of a Cambridge undergraduate education. Cambridge funds the difference, as a positive statement and direct financial measure of our commitment to this aspect of our mission. Our undergraduate teaching makes us a serious national asset, but our research makes us a world leader. We need to put research back at the heart of the system, at universities in general and Cambridge in particular.

In this Annual Report, we highlight a small portion of the exceptional research that this institution produces every year. Researchinformed education characterises our student experience, and the benefit to students of being taught by those with active and successful research careers is at the very centre of education in Collegiate Cambridge. It is, we believe, what makes higher education ‘higher’. The world asks a lot of its universities. Government and industry look to us as leaders, creators of new knowledge and original ideas. We attract talent and investment, and contribute to cultural life, social mobility and justice. We pass knowledge to the next generation, and store it for generations to come. We champion enlightened and rational thought, and we articulate the values of humanity. Our 800th Anniversary fundraising campaign asked people to invest in Cambridge and they donated over £1 billion. We believe that everything we do here matters, and such external validation tells us our confidence is not misplaced. Research-intensive universities such as Cambridge are of, and for, the long haul. It is absolutely vital to our continued health and contribution to society that our impact be viewed accordingly.

Professor Sir Leszek Borysiewicz Vice-Chancellor

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Leadership and philanthropy The outstanding generosity of our benefactors has ensured the success of the Cambridge 800th Anniversary Campaign, which raised a remarkable £1.17 billion. These gifts are having a profound impact on the University’s ability to sustain its leadership in teaching and research, and demonstrate that future philanthropic funding must continue to be a vital force in nurturing the innovative thinking and creativity that is the hallmark of Cambridge.

Many of the recent gifts have been focused towards securing solutions to the major environmental, financial and societal challenges the world faces, and several gifts during the past year have addressed some specific environmental issues. Understanding that advances in fundamental physics have always had the capacity to solve very real problems, David Harding, the Founder of Winton Capital Management, has pledged a visionary gift to set up and fund the Winton Programme for the Physics of Sustainability. This will focus on fundamental research to meet the need for the sustainable use of natural resources. The study of fluid mechanics is also important environmentally because of its beneficial impact on the design, development, performance, energy efficiency and noise of aircraft, cars and industrial processes. Despite significant research and teaching in this area, until now Cambridge has lacked an established chair. A donation from Dyson will remedy that by establishing the Dyson Professorship of Fluid Mechanics. Support from Arcadia has enabled the Cambridge Conservation Initiative (CCI), a partnership formed

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by the University and leading conservation organisations, to set up the CCI Collaborative Fund for Conservation (CCI Fund). Arcadia has also established the Miriam Rothschild Scholarship Programme in Conservation Leadership, providing support for Masters students from developing countries rich in biodiversity, so that they can become an impetus for change. The global financial crisis is another continuing challenge. The Keynes Fund for Applied Economics has been launched with an anonymous philanthropic gift, and aims to promote innovative research and teaching. This will amplify the contribution of Cambridge economists to understanding the manifest problems in our financial economy and designing corrective policy responses. Cambridge has an outstanding record of achievement in the exploitation of novel scientific technologies to solve a range of biological questions, and a donation from The Wolfson Foundation will accelerate such successes. Drawing on the University’s widespread strengths, the Cambridge Advanced Imaging Centre will pioneer the translation of the latest scientific

imaging techniques and computer algorithms into solutions for the broader biomedical community. During the course of the Campaign 38 Professorships have been funded, including several over the past year. The relationships between Judaism, Christianity and Islam, and to other traditions and to the modern world, is an important field of study. Research and teaching in this area will be enriched with the endowment of the new Sultan Qaboos Professorship of Abrahamic Faiths and Shared Values by His Majesty Sultan Qaboos Bin Said, Sultan of Oman. A second gift to the Cambridge Inter-Faith Programme will foster academic exchanges and support a summer school. The Sir Kirby Laing Professor of Civil Engineering, funded by The Kirby Laing Foundation, reinforces the leading role Cambridge already plays in the application of innovations in engineering to practical construction projects. Other posts funded this year include the Peter Lipton Lectureship in the History and Philosophy of Science, established and endowed with support from Peter Baldwin and Lisbet Rausing, the Board of Cambridge in America, representing a donation from Lini Lipton, and Trinity College. The post is named in memory of the late Peter Lipton, the first Hans Rausing Professor of the History and Philosophy of Science, one of the world’s leading philosophers of science and epistemologists, and a supremely gifted teacher. Finally, a legacy gift from Marguerite McAvity Price will enhance teaching and research in veterinary medicine.

The new entrance and revitalised ground-floor gallery will enhance the Museum’s ability to attract broader audiences to its remarkable artefacts. A significant gift from the Evolution Education Trust is enabling the University Library to finish what is widely acknowledged as the greatest editorial project in the history of science: the Darwin Correspondence Project. The publication and digitisation of the 15,000 letters that Charles Darwin wrote and received during his lifetime will improve both scholarly and public access to this critically important historical archive. A record total of £135 million has been received this year, bringing the 800th Campaign to a successful completion. “The 800th Anniversary was two years ago,” say Sir David Walker and Bill Janeway, Campaign Co-Chairmen. “The University faces new challenges and must now respond in new ways in these different economic times. Cambridge’s case for investment is a compelling one and the need for philanthropic support is stronger than ever. We are delighted that the Vice-Chancellor, the University Council and the Colleges Committee have agreed that the 800th Campaign must be succeeded by an even bolder and more ambitious one.”

The 800th Anniversary Campaign has had a global reach, epitomising Cambridge’s desire to transcend intellectual, political and physical boundaries. One aspect of this is symbolised by benefactions to increase physical and virtual access to some of the University’s unique collections. The Li Ka Shing (Canada) Foundation has contributed generously towards the substantial refurbishment of the Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. The Darwin notebooks

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An electronic partnership We are on the brink of a manufacturing revolution for photonic and electronic devices, and it is vital that the UK is able to capitalise on the cutting-edge research taking place at universities such as Cambridge to attract global industries. Not content with just being a world leader for research in this field, the Centre for Applied Photonics and Electronics (CAPE) has also established a unique model for working, which takes collaboration between academia and industry to a new level.

Professor Daping Chu talks with infectious enthusiasm as his colleague hooks up the liquid crystal display demonstration in front of the window. At the flick of a switch, a perfectly transparent panel turns a matt grey, completely opaque, like an instant paint job. Another flick of the switch and the view from the lab window is revealed again, all traces of grey gone. “Imagine if portions of the windows of a sky scraper could act like pixels of a giant screen, but without power requirement to maintain their state, as with current display Professor Daping Chu technologies,” Centre for Applied Photonics and Electronics (CAPE) grins Professor Chu, “you could turn entire buildings into the biggest billboards the world has ever seen! Better still, it could be used to control building radiation at the same time throughout the days and the seasons. This

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could be done, by new build or retrofitting, to create an energy-efficient city, with a much reduced carbon footprint and a lot of money saved on air conditioning, heating and lighting.” This work is part of the SiLC project, looking at liquid crystal display and the development of ‘e-ink’. The aim is to create large-scale public displays that rival print. An electrical pulse colours the liquid crystal ink, generating the image, which could then stay in situ for years with no need for continuing power to feed it. As well as showing the remarkable technology, the demonstration also illustrates CAPE’s insistence on a level of implementation as part of its research. “Demonstration is crucial for us,” says Professor Chu, “global industries need to be shown practical application, and universities have to understand that perspective. At CAPE we have an appreciation of business needs that goes beyond traditional academia.” It’s easy to see why Professor Chu is so excited. The innovative work taking place at CAPE is thrilling in its potential for application in everyday life. As well as the SiLC project, there is also

pioneering work on holographic micro-projectors, which has now gone beyond the prototype stage and into product development. Projection systems need to generate a high volume of light, as up to 90% of it is blocked by the internal micro display requiring projection. CAPE’s projectors use a ‘phase-only hologram’ of the image that allows the light to pass through, so that much less energy is required. This means projectors can be shrunk to remarkably small sizes, and even embedded into pocket-sized technology such as mobile phones. Collaboration with industry such as mobile device companies is the very deliberate core of the CAPE ethos. Yet academia and industry can make for precarious bedfellows, so CAPE has developed a new model by selecting a few major global companies with which to work in partnership, through the vision of its founding Director Professor Bill Milne and founding Chairman Professor Bill Crossland. The aim is to provide the best and most rapid route for groundbreaking research to reach the marketplace.

Professor Bill Milne, Director of CAPE and Head of Electrical Engineering, and Professor Daping Chu, Chairman of CAPE, in front of the Electrical Engineering / CAPE building

“How academic research is actually used and translated to the real world is a big issue,” says Professor Chu. “Universities have not been great at adapting to the needs of industrial development, often taking industry money but keeping them in the dark, having a ‘we’re very clever so just trust us’ approach.” “Top-level companies can’t afford to work like this any more. When CAPE was set up, we realised we needed to have a more equal and open approach when interfacing with big industry, which has the resources that a university like Cambridge needs.” “The aim was to create terms that are acceptable for both sides. We appreciate that companies have business needs, and we ask them to respect the academic invention and intellectual rights of the University. They come here for our good ideas, but we need to know how these ideas can be practically used, we need industry’s input on business directions.” Fundamental to CAPE’s new model of collaboration are the Strategic Partnership Agreements with Industrial Partners. Under the terms of these agreements, ownership

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of intellectual property originated from the University is retained within the University, and the Partners benefit from preferential licensing. Part of these agreements is that all Partner companies are represented on the CAPE Steering Committee, of which Professor Chu is the Chairman. The Steering Committee defines everything that transpires within CAPE, and the University and the Partner companies have equal representation. “It’s a democratic voting system. If there is disagreement, the Chairman has the casting vote, and we work hard to make sure that it doesn’t come to that point! I don’t think there’s anything that can’t be talked through and settled if everyone has good intentions and the desire to work together.” One of the keys to CAPE’s success is the careful selection of the Partner companies with which it works. Partners operate at different positions in the supply chain, from materials and devices to systems and delivery companies. Through the Steering Committee, the Partners have a say in the appointment of any new companies, in order to avoid direct commercial competition within CAPE, which would significantly hinder collaboration. “As our Partner companies are from varying areas of the supply chain, we can integrate them with each other so that these relationships get embedded,” says Professor Chu. “CAPE inspires our Partner companies to collaborate with each other. Developing research to a product stage takes a long time, often a 15 to 20 year period, so you have to be persistent, and forge long-term relationships and investment.” CAPE was founded in October 2004, bringing together the Electrical Engineering Division of the University’s Engineering Department with several industrial Partners for the first phase, which included Alps Electric and Dow Corning, which continue to collaborate with CAPE on the microprojectors and e-ink projects, respectively.

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An initial £10 million investment from these Partners enabled CAPE to get off the ground. In April 2011, the second phase of CAPE came into effect, with a new CAPE Partnership Agreement and the addition of two new Partner companies, major global players in the form of Disney Research and Jaguar Land Rover, with other international companies currently in negotiation. The success of CAPE has been one of the factors that led to Cambridge receiving government funding through the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, which granted £7 million over five years to fund the Cambridge Integrated Knowledge Centre (CIKC), demonstrating the chain reaction that large-scale funding can have. The CIKC partners with UK industry enterprises to create business propositions and a knowledge base for commercialisation in the field of macromolecular materials. The Vice-Chancellor, in his Annual Address, said that: “to be useful to society, universities must take responsibility for helping to put our discoveries to work”. CAPE continues to be at the forefront of such endeavour, both for Cambridge and the wider world. For further information visit

A laser holographic colour image projection system

Faith in our future In a world where religious differences contribute to war and terrorism, and faith influences global politics, the need for a deeper understanding of, and the difference between, the major religions is vital to the global community. The Cambridge Inter-Faith Programme (CIP) is dedicated to learning about the three ‘Abrahamic’ faiths – Islam, Judaism and Christianity – their relations with each other and with the secular world. CIP fosters long-term projects designed to create meaningful interaction through academic research and public education.

Born in the Faculty of Divinity in 2002, CIP pursues an innovative approach to religious study, unique among universities worldwide. CIP is an interdisciplinary space for study and creative exploration. “We feel that Cambridge now has a model for how to engage with the understanding of religion in critical, descriptive and discursive ways through a wide range of disciplines,” says David Ford, Director of CIP and Regius Professor of Divinity. “We strive to do the things that Cambridge does best, which is to educate the educators and influence the influencers.”

Communication and collaboration are at the heart of CIP – what Ford describes as “partnerships of difference”. “We are not interested in trying to create consensus,” explains Dr Mike Higton, CIP’s Academic Co-Director. “We don’t ask people to sign up to some pre-defined common ground; they are all coming with their own particular approaches and ideas. What we are interested in is creating sustainable, long-term engagements between people who continue to differ, but can work together on projects that serve the common good.”

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Research is grounded in contemporary issues. Recent examples include a study on policing in religious communities in London, in collaboration with Leeds University and the Metropolitan Police. The aim of the study was to look at how the police engage with religious communities over time, in ways that go beyond the counter-terrorism agenda. “We conducted interviews with policing teams in several London boroughs and found that there was a fantastic amount of local knowledge and some really thoughtful approaches,” says Higton. “The crucial issue is how this knowledge gets preserved and passed on to the next generation of officers.” Several new research projects have begun, including a collaboration with the National Offender Management Service to look at challenges facing prison staff. Another major project is addressing the question of ‘religion and the idea of a research university’ with Post-docs in Psychiatry, English and History recently arriving to begin the first stage. To say CIP has ambition is an understatement. It is expanding at a rapid rate, more than doubling its project staff in the past few months. Alongside its academic research collaborations CIP has also recently launched the Cambridge Coexist Programme, in conjunction with the Coexist Foundation, which already has a number of public engagement projects under way, and a new Director installed in Michael Wakelin, former Head of Religion and Ethics at the BBC. “The projects range from film festivals to travelling faith gardens, with partners including the Cheltenham Literature Festival, the BBC and St George’s House, Windsor,” says Miriam Lorie, CIP’s External Relations Officer. “In September 2012, we launch our first year-long cross-religion leadership training programme. We are also planning a major art exhibition with King’s College London in Somerset House, and this just names a few!” The longer-term goal of the Cambridge Coexist Programme is to establish an inter-faith education and exhibition centre in the heart of London,

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where these, and other projects can grow and flourish. To this end, CIP has created a board of advisors in collaboration with three major London institutions: the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Inner Temple and the City of London Corporation, and locations are being scouted. The centre will be a resource for teachers and schools, as well as a place for the public to explore the texts, arts, ideas and practices of the Abrahamic faiths. “We want to establish the public education aspect of our Programme, alongside our academic endowments, on a permanent footing,” says Ford. “We understand that you need to go on resourcing your responsibilities to the wider society, and it’s something we are absolutely committed to.” Endowment has been critical to the establishment and success of CIP. A flagship project for the 800th Anniversary Campaign, the first outside the USA to raise over a billion pounds, CIP has also received support from key external organisations that has allowed it to grow from strength to strength. Three charitable foundations in particular have been instrumental in this: the Coexist and Polonsky Foundations and the Mulberry Trust. This includes a joint Muslim–Jewish endowment from the Coexist and Polonsky Foundations for a new lectureship in Jewish Studies, to which Dr Daniel Weiss was appointed in 2010.

The Sultan of Oman has also recently endowed funds for a Chair in Abrahamic Faiths and Shared Values, which will be appointed later this year. One of the major projects for CIP, part funded by Coexist and matched through the Research Councils UK, is the Nurani digital platform. CIP has partnered with Californian technology company Meedan to create an online tool that facilitates inter-faith dialogue and discussion of sacred texts. The project uses the latest translation technologies to break down Arabic–English language barriers, allowing Muslims, Jews and Christians across the world to engage directly in religious discourse. CIP has developed links with other institutions to promote the platform, including Yale University, Al-Azhar University, and Kalam Research and Media in Dubai. “We’re now in the process of building use on the site,” explains Higton. “We have various partnerships with other institutions, helping to get groups of users on the platform so we can fine-tune it. We have academics using Nurani, conducting online seminars, but also people from grass roots religious communities from around the UK, the USA and the Middle East, crossing language, religious and cultural boundaries.” “People get involved in multiple small-group discussions, each of which is carefully moderated by CIP staff to begin with, but we will train up other moderators in future so that it is not limited to Cambridge and the project can take on a life of its own. We’ve got a team of new staff just started to help with this, including an IT developer and two Post-docs working on gathering texts and guidance materials.” Nurani is open to select groups at the moment, while the team design the processes that will allow the public to join in on discussions. Current plans will see the platform launched to the global public within the next two years.

The Nurani research team (left to right): Hilary Marlow, Zainab Balogun and Rim Hassen

“Cambridge is a long term institution that spans generations, and we have a long term commitment to these issues. There’s a huge amount of ignorant and consequently dangerous faith in the world. “ David Ford, Director of CIP and Regius Professor of Divinity

While CIP continues to grow and take on increasingly diverse challenges on national and international stages, Ford remains unequivocal about the core values of the programme: “Cambridge is a long-term institution that spans generations, and we have a long-term commitment to these issues. There’s a huge amount of ignorant and consequently dangerous faith in the world. High-quality educational institutions like Cambridge are the ideal place to forge some of the alliances needed for wise and responsible faith, engaging as richly and intelligently as possible with other religions and the secular side of our world.” For further information visit

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Breaking biomedical boundaries Our advancing knowledge in medical science is one of the fundamental areas of human development, underpinning our modern evolution as a species. The University of Cambridge is a global leader in many of the clinical fields that are effecting real change, and at the Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre (BRC), the world’s finest brains and facilities are dedicated to translating research into patient benefit and to tackle major healthcare challenges. Described by the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) as “internationally outstanding” and “the UK’s primary academic resource in biomedical research”, the Cambridge BRC has recently been awarded more than £114 million over the next five years to boost research and allow the development of groundbreaking medicines.

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Dr John Bradley, Director of the NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre

“The NIHR assessment was very clear that we had brought together an outstanding group of worldleading scientists and research programmes in an environment that delivers translational research,” says Dr John Bradley, Director of the Centre. “The last four years as a recognised BRC have revolutionised how we operate at Cambridge; the BRC has provided core facilities, and increased collaboration between all the groups in different medical and clinical disciplines. “Because the relationship between the University and the hospital functions so well, we can actually work at that interface between the bench and the bedside. This ensures we undertake research that will bring the real benefits to the healthcare system,” says Bradley. World-class experimental medicine in Cambridge involves cross-disciplinary working and partnerships with other organisations engaged in health research, and a key strategy of the Cambridge BRC has been to embed research infrastructure within Cambridge University Hospitals. BRC funding has made possible a world-beating raft of new facilities including the Addenbrooke’s Clinical Research Centre, the Tissue Bank, a Clinical Trials Pharmacy, a Haematology Translational Research Lab, the GMP Resource for Regenerative Medicine, the list goes on. This abundance of facilities, located on the Cambridge Biomedical Research campus, means that a small geographic space has a vast range of expertise coming together to compare different techniques and modalities. The close-knit nature of the Cambridge BRC allows for interconnecting research and the ability to move patients from one facility to another with ease. “Most of this new infrastructure has been established in partnership with industry and other funding bodies,” explains Bradley. “We have been able to leverage investment and establish crucial relationships. Getting new drugs and treatments from proof of principle to practice takes many years, and engaging with industry is vital to this process. The BRC has been instrumental in turning

early-stage innovation into new health products by attracting investment from the medical, pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.” Understanding the genetic “Facilities such as the factors of BRC Cell Phenotyping human disease Hub and the Cambridge and abnormal BioResource allow the rapid processing of patient development samples, enabling us to is a central characterise cells at a cellular and component of molecular level.” the Cambridge Professor John Todd, BRC. Without Theme Leader for the application Medical Genetics and Genomic Medicine of genetics to medical care, illnesses such as diabetes, Huntington’s disease and muscular dystrophy will continue to be passed down through generations. Focusing on the diagnosis of disorders and birth defects caused by genetic mechanisms will provide critical insight into how these diseases can be treated and prevented. “With the BRC funding we have been able to invest in state-of-the-art technologies,” says Professor John Todd, theme leader for medical genetics and genomic medicine. “Facilities such as the BRC Cell Phenotyping Hub and the Cambridge BioResource allow the rapid processing of patient samples, enabling us to characterise cells at a cellular and molecular level.” “This means that the effects of genes associated with risk of common diseases can be identified, and could be used in the future to develop personalised treatments. We are already seeing advances in research into diseases including prostate and breast cancer, type 2 and type 1 diabetes, and lupus.” Translating the benefits of medical genetic research to advances in patient care will be a major challenge for the NHS in the coming decade. The Eastern Sequence and Informatics Hub (EASIH) is one of the next generation of DNA sequencing facilities, another core resource made Breaking biomedical boundaries 11

possible by the Cambridge BRC and major grant awards from the Medical Research Council (MRC) and the University. “The EASIH is an integral part of our drive to get cutting-edge gene sequencing into the clinic,” explains Todd. “The development of faster and less expensive ways of decoding genetic material is transforming our understanding of how organisms work, and how certain diseases are strongly inherited.” “We have already made good progress, in particular with a project concerned with tissue typing for bone marrow and stem cell transplants, which will help with the process of matching donors and recipients. Using the EASIH, we can lower costs and increase accuracy, providing economic benefits to the NHS and health benefits for patients.” At the heart of the BRC is the Cambridge BioResource, a partnership between the BRC, MRC, NHS Blood and Transplant and the University. This unique resource of willing volunteers for medical research includes lifestyle information and plasma, serum and DNA samples from more than 10,000 general population volunteers in the Cambridge area. By providing researchers with bespoke samples and volunteers that can represent subsets of the population to a precise level, it is possible to undertake powerful and cost-effective studies of disease structure, and gauge the pros and cons of emerging therapies. The BioResource has already played a central role for research into a wide spectrum of conditions including cancer, obesity and cardiovascular disease. “Our latest research into type 1 diabetes has been based on the analyses of blood donations from the Cambridge BioResource,” says Todd. “We are entering a new era in the prevention and treatment of the disease, and 12 University of Cambridge Annual Report 2011

promising therapies are now being planned for clinical studies and trials. The BioResource does away with the need for each research group to conduct its own costly and time-consuming volunteer recruitment. It’s impossible to calculate the savings involved in this.” As part of the latest NIHR funding, Cambridge will lead a national roll-out of the BioResource, including the development of an integrated central database with common protocols, the production of stem cells, deep genetic analyses and a large-scale recruitment of patients with rare and common disorders. The first phase involves working in partnership with other BRCs including those at Oxford, Imperial College London, King’s College London and the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM). “It’s a major task ahead of us,” says Todd. “We’re working with SLaM and others to develop our expertise; looking at how we can integrate the health indicators routinely collected – blood pressure, blood tests, enzymes and so on – into the BioResource. We need to consolidate our collaborations – getting them right and getting them national.” To co-ordinate and integrate all BRC activity across the campus, a central hub has been created to provide a one-stopshop for researchers to gain direct access to the NHS and to the University. “Through the BRC we have been able to provide pioneering research facilities embedded within the hospital,” says Dr Bradley. “The Cambridge BRC provides investigators with infrastructural support in terms of access to facilities and patients, creating a critical mass which makes Cambridge extremely attractive as a global destination for industry partners and the best research talent. Our integrated approach on a single site is offered by very few biomedical centres in the world.” For further information visit

“Not only do we have to continue to produce food for a growing population, we have to do it sustainably.” Professor Sir David Baulcombe, Regius Professor of Botany in the Department of Plant Sciences

Food for thought Food security is one of the major challenges that we face in the 21st century. How can we ensure affordable, sustainable access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food for all? Food demand is predicted to increase by 70 per cent between now and 2050, when the global population is estimated to reach nine billion. Even now, a billion people in developing countries do not have enough food to meet their basic needs. These alarming statistics drive the Cambridge commitment to address this global imperative. A new Strategic Initiative has been established in Global Food Security, integrating a wealth of expertise in the humanities and natural, clinical and social sciences. The first green revolution in the 1950s was based on an increased understanding of plants; it saved millions of lives, and led to higher yielding cereals with improved disease resistance. But it does not meet the emerging challenge of competing demands for food, energy and crops, balanced against the effects of climate change and depletion of natural resources. “Not only do we have to continue to produce food for a growing population, we have to do it sustainably,” explains Professor Sir David Baulcombe, Regius Professor of Botany in the Department of Plant Sciences. “Many practices

in modern agriculture are not sustainable – using water supplies that won’t continue indefinitely, leading to soil erosion and the emission of greenhouse gases. They are consuming energy in the manufacture of fertilisers and having detrimental effects on biodiversity.” Baulcombe is optimistic that we can use plant science to assist a ‘doubly green revolution’ that meets this growing challenge. “We are benefitting from a revolution in modern bioscience,” he says. “We can now routinely generate genome sequences, massively enhancing the potential of science to contribute to agriculture. Food for thought 13

We are working with mathematicians, statisticians, engineers and computer scientists to model the vast amounts of data now available to us through nextgeneration DNA sequencing.” Newly opened Sainsbury Laboratory

Baulcombe believes it will be possible to predict precisely which plant parents will produce the most effective hybrid, and to translate that improvement into yield, drought tolerance and disease resistance. “Within our sights is a glimpse of how future plant breeding could change dramatically for the benefit of the growing population. We will be able to predict on an unprecedented molecular scale how breeders can improve crops by unlocking the potential in plant genomes.” The work of Dr Julian Hibberd could revolutionise agriculture by radically increasing crop yields through research into ways of overcoming inefficiencies in photosynthesis – the process that takes CO₂ from the atmosphere and, using the sun’s energy, converts it into the sugars that crops need to grow. Baulcombe explains: “Most of the world’s plants use C₃ photosynthesis, but some plants have a more efficient form known as C₄. These plants produce higher yields for the same amount of light energy, have double the wateruse efficiency of C₃ plants, and have leaves that use 40 per cent less nitrogen to achieve 50 per cent higher yields. Understanding this process is a key component in the efforts to meet increasing food demand.” Hibberd is part of the C₄ Rice Consortium, which brings together 12 partner institutions across four continents, and is led by the International

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Rice Research Institute in the Philippines. The Consortium, with $22 million funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, is working to unpick the C₄ mechanism and rebuild it in rice. Recent findings published by Hibberd suggest that it’s possible to recreate C₄ photosynthesis in rice without alterations to the gene sequence – a discovery that has dramatically altered the approaches being taken by the Consortium. “We now have a strategic plan within the Department to give more emphasis to crops,” explains Baulcombe. “Some of our work has always had an agricultural focus. Professor Chris Gilligan’s understanding of epidemics, for example, continues to influence the management of crops that are affected by disease.” A range of projects in the Department could lead to improved agriculture, including a cell biology project on the relationship between crops and weeds along with new insights into pollinator interactions and plant hormone physiology among many others. “It is not that we will stop tackling fundamental questions in science,” stresses Baulcombe, “but we will now think of these projects as being science that is ‘not yet applied’.” Research on plant development at the newly opened Sainsbury Laboratory is geared towards the future design of optimal crops. The stateof-the-art Laboratory was made possible by an £82 million grant from the Gatsby Charitable Foundation, and will facilitate a highly collaborative and interdisciplinary research environment, drawing together expertise in computational modelling, mathematical and engineering-based approaches, as well as experts in genetics, cell biology, physiology and evolutionary biology. “Our remit is to carry out fundamental research to elucidate the regulatory systems underlying plant growth and development,” says Professor Ottoline Leyser, Associate Director of the Laboratory. “Since it is plant growth and development that

ultimately provide all our food, we are confident that our discoveries will make a vital contribution to the food security agenda.” Leyser’s own research is concerned with plant branching and plasticity – a defining feature of plant development. Plants adjust their development to suit the conditions in which they grow. Leyser and her team study how information from the environment is relayed through a network of hormonal signals that move throughout the plant body to regulate branching. To deliver real-world application from research such as this, partnerships with commerce and industry will be essential. “We are building links with researchers at the National Institute of Agricultural Botany,” says Leyser. “It is crucial to establish a good flow of information along the delivery path from lab to lunch.” An active recruitment programme is under way to ensure that the Laboratory can bring together the finest researchers to address the fundamental questions of plant sciences; this research will have a critical application in efforts to improve agricultural productivity in a sustainable way. The Sainsbury Laboratory is providing a welcome boost to teaching and training capacity in plant sciences. “In order to have impact in basic and applied research, we need to keep recruiting and developing outstanding students,” says Baulcombe. “We make sure that our teaching reflects our outward-looking perspective on

the science and its potential. Some of our PhD studentships now include a three-month internship in industry or at a policy organisation. We want to make sure our students are aware of the context in which they are researching.” Partnership with industry is crucial in translating research into real-world application; but partnerships with policy makers are becoming increasingly important. A new food security memorandum of understanding with the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council will ensure that Cambridge is well placed to inform policy developments. “Over the past few years there has been a change in the policy agenda that has taken plant sciences up the pecking order, and Cambridge is going with it,” says Baulcombe. “There is a long tradition of outstanding plant research here and we have a fantastic environment for multidisciplinary working that exists in few other places. Plants underpin everything we do: life on this planet would not survive without them; they affect the climate; they affect CO₂ – they basically stop the planet from overheating. Plants are an integral part of Gaia. They produce our food and they can produce our fuels. Policy makers have finally cottoned on to this, and Cambridge will be an influential voice in the food security debate.” For further information visit

“Our remit is to carry out fundamental research to elucidate the regulatory systems underlying plant growth and development. Since it is plant growth and development that ultimately provide all our food, we are confident that our discoveries will make a vital contribution to the food security agenda.” Professor Ottoline Leyser, Associate Director of the Sainsbury Laboratory

Food for thought 15

The Cambridge student experience Studying at Cambridge is a life-changing experience. Our students may become academics pushing at the global frontiers of research and teaching, or leaders in either professional or public service or in commercial enterprise for which their degree has equipped them with essential skills. In addition to joining a department or faculty, every student is also a member of a College, where enthusiasts from every subject meet and enrich each other. They remain a member of their College for life. Colleges are educational charities devoted to study across the range of disciplines. They are governed by Fellows, who are mostly academics employed in the University, and have chosen to take on College roles because they believe in the values of community and education. Colleges promote and sustain these values through the care they offer to their students, individually and collectively. Colleges offer the students a home, and services that other universities provide centrally. They also give students experiences and opportunities that are unique to Cambridge. 16 University of Cambridge Annual Report 2011

Some of the advantages of College membership are material, and obvious. These include: ongoing academic and pastoral support from a tutor and – for undergraduates – Director of Studies and supervisors; accommodation and catering; financial advice and assistance; social, cultural and sporting facilities; and opportunities for career development. And some benefits of College membership are intangible, but just as real: friendships that stimulate new ideas, often outside a student’s own subject area; and the satisfaction of representing fellow students in College or the University. The friendship and advice individual students find in Colleges make these communities indispensable elements of Cambridge life.” Dr Paul Hartle is a Senior Tutor and Lecturer in English at St Catharine’s College.

Cambridge’s unique method of a collegiate system can appear complicated, but it didn’t take me long to realise that individual Colleges combine the best features of both campus and city living. From my earliest visit, I learnt that each College has its own distinct personality; whether it’s the hustle and bustle of a large College or the intimate charm of those smaller. Not only do you get to come to Cambridge, but you can tailormake your university lifestyle through factors such as location and College size. Everyone gets nervous about moving to university, and Cambridge’s academic reputation can make you feel more than a little daunted at first, but once I settled in my College, all my initial fears disappeared pretty quickly. It became a welcoming hub where there is always someone on hand to offer advice, help with problems, or even just have a coffee with. Cambridge’s combination of peer and staff support goes beyond pastoral care, reaching as far as one-to-one academic assistance. If I’m struggling with a piece of French grammar or a passage from medieval literature from a university lecture, it can be resolved in College in one supervision. I’ve found this especially helpful since a large proportion of work for humanities students is private study.” Marianne Styger is a second-year undergraduate studying French and Italian as part of the Modern & Medieval Language Tripos, and attends Christ’s College.

I was initially unsure why Cambridge insisted that all postgrads must have a College, as I couldn’t see what role they would play. It didn’t take me long to discover that the benefits of the College system are just as important for postgraduate students. College life is fantastic for networking – I made friends with a lawyer from the Supreme Court of Canada, a former investment banker now working for a non-profit public policy institution and an Australian teacher researching educational practices. Our paths would not have crossed had we not been part of the same College community. I find being a subject supervisor in my College very rewarding. Colleges entrust graduate students with teaching our specialist subjects to the undergrads. It is refreshing to know that the research I do in my university department can be directly applicable to undergraduate teaching in the Colleges – you can see how this helps Cambridge stay ahead of the pack. Finances are important for all students. Departments alone cannot support every student when it comes to conference grants and so on, so once again Colleges can step in to provide some assistance, as mine did when I travelled abroad to present at an international laser conference. I have found that Colleges have an important influence on postgraduate life at Cambridge, providing extra opportunities and support to help you make the most of four years in the lab.” Ssegawa-Ssekintu Kiwanuka is studying for a PhD in Chemical Engineering, and attends Queens’ College.

The Cambridge student experience 17

“Teaching students in the College setting is never predictable; all bring their own experiences and points of view. We encourage students to form original conclusions, often leading supervisions in unusual directions, which keeps us on our toes!”

Being a Cambridge tutor means being a point of contact for the personal, financial and general life problems that students encounter. My tutees come from subjects other than my own, and turn to me whenever they are feeling confused, sad or just want to talk. One of the first jobs is often to convince new students that they were not an admissions mistake, and that they really do belong in Cambridge. For students, the inevitable process of selfdiscovery is great fun, and a vital part of learning, but leads to moments of uncertainty and exhaustion. The tutor is there to listen, reassure and remind students of the need to sleep and eat. In the process, the tutor gets to form enriching relationships with the talented and interesting students who study here. In each College, tutorials are paralleled by subject supervisions, also tailored to individuals. The supervisor discusses lectures, expands on the students area of interest and so on. Teaching students in the College setting is never predictable; all bring their own experiences and points of view. We encourage students to form original conclusions, often leading supervisions in unusual directions, which keeps us on our toes!. The supervision allows students to process and take ownership of ideas and methods offered in lectures and seminars at faculties. College teaching gives them the confidence to feel they can make their own contributions, challenge the orthodoxy and, sometimes, surprise both their teachers and themselves.” Dr Lucy Delap teaches modern British history, and is a Director of Studies in History at St Catharine’s College, where she is a Fellow.

18 University of Cambridge Annual Report 2011

Training in Medicine is one of the most challenging courses that a student can embark on. In the early years, trainee doctors are required to assimilate a vast amount of basic scientific knowledge, and to develop the critical appraisal skills that will be essential for their future career as a medical practitioner. Progression into the clinical arena demands an entirely new set of skills (clinical and communication), and maturity beyond their peer group as they come face to face with serious illness on a daily basis. Throughout their six years (or longer) at Medical School, the Collegiate system in Cambridge offers an important extra tier of support for students, serving as a constant point of reference, both from an academic and pastoral perspective. The opportunity to learn in a small group under the close supervision of leading academics and clinicians is particularly suited to developing the skills required of a budding junior doctor. During the clinical years when students spend a considerable amount of time away from Cambridge on placements in regional hospitals, often working in small groups or even as individuals on busy clinical firms, retaining links with College through their Director of Studies ensures that when advice or support is needed it is readily available. From a senior clinician’s perspective, it has always been my belief that the provision of a high-quality clinical service should be underpinned by ‘cuttingedge’ research and a strong commitment to train the next generation of clinicians and clinical academics – Cambridge, especially through its Collegiate system, affords a unique opportunity to deliver these goals.” Dr Mark Gurnell teaches in the Department of Medicine and the Clinical School, and is Director of Studies in Clinical Medicine at Sidney Sussex College, where he is a Bye-Fellow.

Appointments and awards The University of Cambridge has been ranked number one in the world for the second year running in the 2011 QS World Ranking of Universities. This is in no small part attributable to the outstanding calibre of the University staff, academics and students who make up this esteemed institution. Each year members of the University receive more awards and prizes than we can feature; this section includes just some of the many accolades received and mentions a few of the new appointments that have been made over this past academic year.

The honorary graduands entering the Senate House

It was a year that started with the inauguration of the new Vice-Chancellor, Professor Sir Leszek Borysiewicz, who succeeded Dame Alison Richard after her sevenyear tenure came to an end. HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh stood down from HRH Prince Philip, his role as Chancellor after Duke of Edinburgh nearly 35 years. Professor Jeremy Sanders has also been appointed as the new Pro-Vice-Chancellor for Institutional Affairs. Other appointments include: Professor John Toland, Director of the Isaac Newton Institute and NM Rothschild & Sons Professor of Mathematical Sciences; Professor James Stirling, Head of Department at the Cavendish Laboratory; Peter Williams, Director of the Cambridge Centre for Housing and Planning Research; Professor Huw Price, Bertrand Russell Professor, Department of Philosophy; and Christoph H Loch, Director of Cambridge Judge Business School.

Appointments and awards 19

The University has been rated top for student satisfaction in the latest National Student Survey. The excellence and expertise of the teaching staff contribute massively to this positive student experience and 12 of the University’s very best teaching talents have been honoured at the annual Pilkington Prizes awards ceremony: Dr Brendan Burchell, Senior Lecturer at the Department of Sociology; Dr Lucy Delap, College Teaching Officer and Newton Trust Associate Lecturer, Faculty of History; Dr Mark Gurnell, University Lecturer, Department of Medicine; Mr Andrew Jefferies, Director of Teaching, Department of Veterinary Medicine; Dr Barry Kingston, University Senior Lecturer, Department of Pathology; Dr David Oldfield, Affiliated Lecturer, Department of History of Art; Dr David Perry, Consultant Haematologist, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, and University Associate Lecturer, School of Clinical Medicine; Dr Paul Russell, College Teaching Officer and Affiliated Lecturer, Faculty of Mathematics; Dr David Scott, Deputy Head (Teaching), Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology; Dr Hugh Shercliff, University Senior Lecturer, Department of Engineering; Professor David Ward, Head of Physics Teaching, Department of Physics; and Dr Charles Weiss, Language Teaching Officer, Faculty of Classics. Six Cambridge academics have been recognised in the Queen’s New Year Honours list. Professor Mike Gregory, Head of the Institute for Manufacturing (IfM) and of the Manufacturing and Management Division of the Department of Engineering, has received a knighthood for services to technology. Caroline Humphrey, Emerita Sigrid Rausing Professor of Collaborative Anthropology, is made a DBE for services to scholarship. Professor Barry Kemp, Senior Research Fellow, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, is made a CBE for services to archaeology, education and international relations. Ronald Laskey, Charles Darwin Professor of Animal Embryology, and Director of the Medical Research Council Cancer Cell Unit, is made a CBE for services to science. Professor Christopher Lowe, Director of the

20 University of Cambridge Annual Report 2011

Institute of Biotechnology, is made an OBE for services to science. Professor Sheila Bird, Senior Research Professor Sheila Bird Scientist at the Medical Research Council Biostatistics Unit, Institute of Public Health, is made an OBE for services to social sciences. Miss Margaret Johnston, formerly Administrator at the Department of Earth Sciences, is made an MBE for services to higher education. Eight Cambridge academics have been elected to Fellowships of the British Academy, in recognition of their contributions to the fields of humanities and social sciences. The newly elected Fellows are: Professor Robin Alexander, Director of the Cambridge Primary Review, Faculty of Education; Nicholas de Lange, Professor of Hebrew and Jewish Studies, Faculties of Divinity and Asian and Middle Eastern Studies; Raymond Geuss, Professor of Philosophy, Faculty of Philosophy; Robert Gordon, Regius Professor of Hebrew, Faculty of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies; Sylvia Huot, Professor of Medieval French Literature, Faculty of Modern and Medieval Languages; Dr Neil Kenny, Reader in Early Modern French Literature and Thought, Department of French; Susan Owens, Professor of Environment and Policy and Head of the Department of Geography; and Per-Olof Wikstrom, Professor of Ecological and Developmental Criminology, Institute of Criminology. Seven Cambridge academics have been elected Fellows of the Royal Society: Andrew Balmford, Professor of Conservation Science, Department of Zoology; Professor Jeremy Baumberg, Director of the NanoPhotonics Centre, Cavendish Laboratory; Professor Béla Bollobás, Department of Pure Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics; Professor Clare P Grey, Department of Chemistry; Professor Sir Colin Humphreys, Director of

Research, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy; Rob Kennicutt, Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy, and Director of the Institute of Astronomy; and Professor Simon Tavaré, Departments of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, and Oncology. Professor Dan McKenzie, Department of Earth Sciences, has received the Royal Society’s prestigious Copley Medal, the world’s oldest award for scientific achievement, for his seminal contributions to the understanding of geological and geophysical phenomena. Roberto Cipolla, Professor of Information Engineering, and Dr Ivor Day, Senior Rolls-Royce Research Fellow at the Whittle Laboratory, have been elected Fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering. Dr Mark Gales, Reader in Information Engineering in the Machine Intelligence Laboratory, has been elected a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Dr Tim Bussey has been appointed a Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science. Professor George Efstathiou, Director of the Kavli Institute for Cosmology, is one of four astronomers who have won this year’s esteemed Gruber Cosmology Prize. The prize is part of a programme recognising people whose work provides new models that inspire and enable fundamental shifts in knowledge and culture. Professor Efstathiou is also one of 13 Cambridge academics to appear in a new list that names the 100 most important contemporary figures in British science. Published in Eureka, The Times’ monthly science magazine, the list also featured: Lord Martin Rees, Master of Trinity College, and this year’s recipient of the prestigious Templeton Prize; and Professor Dame Ann Dowling, Head of the Department of Engineering, who has also been acknowledged, alongside Professor Dame Athene Donald, in the UK Resource Centre’s Women of Outstanding Achievement Awards. Dame Ann received the Inspiration and Leadership in Academia and Research Award; Dame Athene, Professor of Experimental Physics, and Director of the Women in Science,

Engineering and Technology Initiative, was the recipient of the Lifetime Achievement Award. Dame Athene has also been recognised as an Equality Champion for the University, alongside Professor Ian White, Department of Engineering, and Dr Nick Bampos, Department of Chemistry. Equality Professor Dame Athene Donald Champions demonstrate senior leadership and support for equality and diversity. The University has now been ranked in the top 100 employers by The Stonewall Workplace Equality Index, the leading survey of workplace equality. Dame Athene was also honoured in the Women of the Year Awards, together with Mary Beard, Professor of Classics, Serena Best, Professor of Materials Science, and Co-Director of the Cambridge Centre for Medical Materials, and Helen Stephens, Head Porter at Selwyn College. Professor Beard has also been elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of the Arts and Sciences; her BBC documentary Pompeii: Life and Death in a Roman Town was nominated for a BAFTA. In other awards: Barbara Sahakian, Professor of Clinical Neuropsychology, Department of Psychiatry, has been given the 2010 Senior Investigator Award by the International College of Geriatric and Psychoneuropharmacology, for her contribution to translational cognitive psychopharmacology; Professor Claire Grey, Department of Chemistry, has been awarded the John Jeyes Award by the Royal Society of Chemistry, in recognition of her world-leadership role in the use of solid-state NMR methods to study structure and function in inorganic materials; Professor Robin Irvine, Department of Pharmacology, has been awarded the

Appointments and awards 21

2010 JR Vane Medal from the British Pharmacological Society, in recognition of his work in the field of molecular, cellular and signalling pharmacology; and Dr Tom Sanders, Faculty of Mathematics, has been jointly awarded the Adams Prize, in recognition of his exceptional research in mathematical sciences. Several Cambridge individuals have been specifically recognised for achievements early in their research careers: Dr Barbara Lorber, Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, has received an Early Career Investigator Award from the charity Fight for Sight, for her research into the possibilities of transplanting specialist cells into the eye and optic nerve to repair the damage caused by glaucoma; Dr Bertie Gottgens, Reader in Molecular Haematology, has been awarded the McCulloch and Till Award by the International Society for Stem Cells and Haematology, recognising him as the most promising younger group leader worldwide in stem cell and haematology research; Dr Akhilesh Reddy, a Wellcome Trust Clinical Scientist, Department of Neurosciences, has won the Biochemical Society’s Colworth Medal, in recognition of outstanding research by a young biochemist; Dr Andrea Ferrari has been awarded the European Materials Research Society’s EU-40 Materials Prize, which recognises outstanding contributions to materials research by a scientist under 40 years of age; and Dr Steve Morris, Researcher in the Centre of Molecular Materials for Photonics and Electronics, has received the British Liquid Crystal Society Young Scientist of the Year Award. Prince Philip’s final duty as Chancellor was to confer Honorary Degrees on eight distinguished individuals at a special Congregation in the Senate House: Mrs Anita Lasker Wallfisch, a cellist and a Co-Founder of the English Chamber Orchestra, who is a survivor of, and writer on, the Holocaust and a visiting lecturer in the Faculty of Divinity (Doctor of Divinity); Dr Shirin Ebadi, Nobel Peace Prize-winner, a lawyer and judge who was formerly President of the Tehran City Court, and a Lecturer in Law at the University of Tehran

22 University of Cambridge Annual Report 2011

(Doctor of Law); Sir Martin Evans, Nobel Prizewinner in Medicine, Professor of Mammalian Genetics and Director of the Cardiff School of Biosciences at the University of Cardiff, and an Honorary Fellow of Christ’s College and St Edmund’s College (Doctor of Law); Dame Alison Richard, an anthropologist and former Vice-Chancellor of the University, Honorary Fellow of Newnham College, Wolfson College and Lucy Cavendish College (Doctor of Law); Dr Mildred Dresselhaus, Professor of Physics and Electrical Engineering and Emerita Institute Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Doctor of Science); Sir Peter Mansfield, Nobel Prize-winner in Physiology or Medicine, a medical physicist and developer of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Emeritus Professor of Physics in the University of Nottingham and an Honorary Fellow of Hughes Hall (Doctor of Science); Sir Trevor Nunn, Theatre Director, Director Emeritus of the Royal Shakespeare Company, formerly Artistic Director of the Royal National Theatre, and an Honorary Fellow of Downing College (Doctor of Letters); Sir Colin Davis, Conductor, who was formerly Musical Director of the Royal Opera House, and is President and a former Principal Conductor of the London Symphony Orchestra (Doctor of Music). A special Congregation in the Senate House

Charting progress Full-time undergraduate Full-time postgraduate students 2010 students 2010

Admission statistics Full-time undergraduate students 2010

■ Home (including EU and Islands) 3,345

■ Overseas 416

■ Men


■ Women 5,680

■ Men


Full-time postgraduate students 2010

■ Women

■ Home (including EU and Islands)



■ Overseas 1,590

Staff group by gender Academic

Academic Related



Acceptances by type of school/college by year of entry or deferred entry for the following year. 1,609 2010

1,259 526

■ Male ■ Female Total













1,675 2009 486

■ UK maintained ■ UK independent ■ Other & overseas

(31 July 2011)

Staff ethnicity overall Staff ethnicity percentages given are for staff with a known disclosed ethnic background. Currently, the University of Cambridge does not hold ethnicity information for 18.3% of all staff.


Ethnicity Bangladeshi Black African Black Caribbean Chinese Indian Mixed Non-White - Other Pakistani White - British White - Other Not Known Total *% of total with unknowns excluded



11 28 17 225 150 43 218 21 4,920 1,840 1,674 9,147

0.1% 0.4% 0.2% 3.0% 2.0% 0.6% 2.9% 0.3% 65.8% 24.6%

(31 July 2011)

Information provided by the Cambridge Student Statistic Office, Equality & Diversity, and Cambridge Admissions Office

Charting progress 23

Image credits Cover Page 01 Page 03 Page 07 Page 12 Page 14 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22

Mathias Kolle Philip Mynott The Sedgwick Museum of Earth Sciences Sir Cam Sarah Nutland Sir Cam Sir Cam Sir Cam Large image - Sir Cam, small image - Nigel Luckhurst Neil Grant, Copyright MRC Cambridge Robert Taylor Nigel Luckhurst

Pages 04, 05, 06, 08, 09, 10, 11, 13, 15

104 University of Cambridge Annual Report 2011

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