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Master of Science in Architecture

SUSTAINABLE DESIGN |

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UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA COLLEGE OF DESIGN DESIGN.UMN.EDU


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“Ecological education means changing (a) the substance and process of education contained in curriculum, (b) how educational institutions work, (c) the architecture within which education occurs, and most important, (d) the purposes of learning.” — David W. Orr Environmentalist and Author of Ecological Literacy: Education and the Transition to a Postmodern World

View of Lake Superior, Tofte, Minnesota

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M.S. in Architecture — Sustainable Design z.umn.edu/hdw The planet, for better or worse, is becoming urbanized. By 2050, according to former United Nations SecretaryGeneral Kofi Annan, six billion people, representing two-thirds of humanity, will be living in towns and cities. Today, one billion people — or one of every three urbanites — live in slums. The solutions to this and other environmental challenges hinge on sustainability: preserving the earth’s resources, inhabitants, and environments for the benefit of present and future generations.

a focus on sustainable design theory and practice. This concurrent degree curriculum provides designers and researchers with the knowledge and expertise to address issues including energy and resource efficiency, water, waste, materials, and technological innovations in sustainable design. The concurrent degree prepares students to integrate sustainable design practice and research in the design professions, government agencies, research institutes, and business.

The School of Architecture at the University of Minnesota’s College of Design has responded by developing the M.S. in Architecture — Sustainable Design Track (M.S.-S.D.). Bringing together a rich group of multidisciplinary courses, projects, and research opportunities, students can customize the program to meet their individual needs. Options for an M.S.-S.D. + M.Arch. professional degree are also available. The school’s unique concurrent degree program allows students to combine professional architecture studies with Lakewood Cemetery Garden Mausoleum, Minneapolis HGA Architects

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Sustainable Design: The Future The meaning of “sustainable development” has evolved since the World Commission on Environment and Development coined the term in 1987. The Brundtland Commission, as it came to be known, introduced the idea of “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. This simple proposition challenged humankind to consider the difference between “wants” and “needs”, and called upon each of us to recognize the necessity of establishing limits in a world with finite resources. Over the past decades, spurred by global challenges such as climate change, population growth, and socio-economic inequity, the notion of “sustainability” has been broadly embraced. Many, however, question whether the term needs to be redefined. Should we, in fact, think beyond sustaining the status quo and instead work to repair the damage we have inflicted on the environment? If so, what is the role of design education in this question – are academic institutions now simply indoctrinating students with commonly accepted tenets? 6

Since 2005, the M.S.-S.D. has been counted among the first programs in the U.S. to offer an advanced degree that prepares emerging professionals to critically and creatively address the grand problems facing designers. Looking forward, there are several key areas to which program participants can significantly contribute: ☐☐ Energy: Developing strategies at building, urban, and regional scales that improve energy efficiency and further renewable technologies. ☐☐ Water: Providing solutions at multiple scales that work to conserve and reclaim this essential resource. ☐☐ Design & Health: Producing innovative environments that promote human health and wellness. ☐☐ Materials: Proposing holistic approaches to life-cycle analysis and the impact of materials on environmental quality. ☐☐ Resilience: Formulating designs that successfully respond to volatile natural and human-made conditions.

View of the Minneapolis skyline from the lower Mississippi River


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Overview z.umn.edu/hdy Who should apply? The M.S.-S.D. program admits candidates from diverse design and environmental backgrounds. Candidates for the program include, but are not limited to, practicing design professionals, architecture graduate students, engineering and environmental science professionals, and related disciplines. Ideal applicants will have a clear sustainable design research agenda, experience in environmental design or design production, and a desire to develop new knowledge in the sustainable design field.

View of the Pillsbury Mill from the Guthrie Theater, Minneapolis Ateliers Jean Nouvel

Research The M.S. in Architecture — Sustainable Design Track links coursework with internationally recognized research conducted by College of Design faculty and the Center for Sustainable Building Research (CSBR) associates and fellows. Recent projects include development of sustainable design guidelines and performance standards for commercial and institutional buildings in Hennepin County and the State of Minnesota, as well as research with the U.S. Department of Energy and other state and government agencies on solar and renewable energy, windows and glazing, new roofing systems, post-occupancy evaluations, and human factors. Housing research includes guidelines for green affordable housing, the Single-Family Pilot House Demonstration Project, and related research supported by the Department of Housing and Urban Housing.

Goals The program’s long-term goals are to foster sustainable design education, research, and practice and to create a significant positive impact on sustainable design in the region and nation. It will achieve these goals by providing courses and research opportunities that: ☐☐ Promote excellence and innovations in regional and global ecological design practice and research. ☐☐ Contribute to the evolving and emerging sustainable design practice and research knowledge base, which includes ecological, environmental, social, and economic issues and impacts. ☐☐ Provide architectural designers and researchers with qualitative and quantitative knowledge, methods, and tools to implement sustainable design in professional practice.

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Features z.umn.edu/hdy Integrated Sustainable Design Curriculum In addition to the coursework, the program includes an integrated curriculum, which includes a variety of sustainable design educational opportunities and initiatives. The program encourages students to expand their education by participating in special lectures and events, professional practice, and research. The integrated curriculum includes: The M.S.-S.D. curriculum, a forum for M.S. students, related lectures and events, the GreenLight discussion series, and research opportunities at the College of Design and CSBR. Practicum M.S.-S.D. candidates are eligible for a funded one- or two-semester practicum with local sustainable design firms, government agencies, or CSBR. Practicum candidates work with faculty, researchers, industry representatives, and practitioners. Typical projects investigate sustainable design theories, alternative energies, green materials, water consumption, landscape and community development issues, or design-build environments related to zero emissions, energy, and ecological impacts. Intern Development Program (IDP) The M.S.-S.D program has been approved as a post-professional advanced degree by the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB). M.S.-S.D. students who successfully complete the program after earning a National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB) or Canandian Architectural Certification Board (CACB)accredited professional degree in architecture qualify for 930 elective hours of IDP (Experience Setting S: Supplemental Experience). Advanced degrees must be submitted within eight months of the graduation date to comply with the reporting requirements.

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Centennial Chromagraph, University of Minnesota School of Architecture Adam Marcus and Daniel Raznick


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12

Energy + IEQ

3 cr.

Site + Water

3 cr.

Materials

3 cr.

Elective

3 cr.

Elective

3 cr.

Elective

3 cr.

Elective

3 cr.

YEAR ONE

3 cr.

GDII

Pro P

Tech

Plan A Thesis

10 cr.

YEAR TWO

FALL

or

Research

3 cr.

Elective

3 cr.

Elective

4 cr.

GDII

Tech

Theo Site

YEAR THREE

Students who enter the M.S.-S.D. may enroll in the program for only the M.S. degree or combine it with the M.Arch. degree. Listed here are example schedules that outline possible course sequences for students in either option. The typical M.S.-Only curriculum is shown on this page. Two methods of combining degrees — with the 2-year or 3-year M.Arch. — are shown on the adjacent page.

Theory + Practice

Plan A Thesis

Students enrolled in the M.S.-S.D. may select either the Plan A Thesis or Plan B Project(s) to demonstrate familiarity with the tools of research or scholarship in their major field, the ability to work independently, and the ability to present the results of their investigation effectively.

2-YEA SPRING

Plan B Project(s)

The M.S.-S.D. requires a total of 34 credits, typically completed over one-and-a-half years. Coursework includes four foundation courses (12 credits), 6 credits of electives in architecture, 6 credits of electives outside of architecture, and 10 credits for the Plan A Thesis or Plan B Project(s). At least 24 of the credits are completed before registering for either the Plan A Thesis or a Plan B Project(s).

FALL YEAR ONE

z.umn.edu/hdt

M.S.-Only Degree Path MS-ONLY DEGREE PATH

YEAR TWO

Curriculum

Elec

Elec

Elec

Elec


3 cr.

SPRING

6 cr. Project Master’s Final Master’s Final Project

Tech C3 cr.

3 cr.

heory + Practice Theory3+cr.Practice

3 cr.

10 cr.

10 cr.

ite + Water

3 cr.

Elective3 cr.

3 cr.

lective

3 cr. Plan A Thesis

Elective3 cr.

3 cr.

Elective3 cr.

3 cr.

Elective3 cr.

or 3 cr.

Research

SPRING Plan A Thesis

10 cr.

Tech B

10 cr.

Elective

Elective3 cr.

Elective

Elective4 cr.

3 cr. 3 cr. 4 cr.

GDIII Studio Tech C

Catalyst 1 cr.

Catalyst 1 cr.

4c

Elective

3 cr.

Elective3 cr.

3c

Tech A3 cr.

Elective

3 cr.

Elective3 cr.

3c

FALL

GDII Studio

Elective

SPRING Elective Elective

4 cr. 9 cr.

9 cr.

3 cr. 4 cr.

SPRING Elective

3c

3 cr. Pro Practice

3 cr. Energy + IEQ

Energy3+cr.IEQ

3c

Tech B3 cr.

Materials

3 cr. Materials

3c

FALL

or 3 cr. Research

Pro Practice

SPRING Plan A Thesis

lective

Elective3 cr.

FALL

Plan B Project(s)

lective

Elective

FALL YEAR THREE

lective

3 cr. Site + Water

GDII Studio

4 cr. 4 cr.

Elective

Theory3 cr.

FALL

SPRING YEAR TWO

6 cr. GDIII Studio

FALL

YEAR THREE

FALL

Tech A

4 cr. 9 cr.

9 cr.

SPRING

Catalyst 1 cr.

3 cr. Materials

Elective Elective

Catalyst 1 cr.

Materials

Elective

SPRING

3 cr.

FALL

6 cr. GDIII Studio

SPRING

SPRING

6 cr. Project Master’s Final Master’s Final Project

Tech C3 cr.

3 cr.

Theory + Practice Theory3+cr.Practice

3 cr.

10 cr.

10 c

Site + Water

3 cr.

Elective3 cr.

3c

3 cr. Site + Water

Elective

FALL Plan A Thesis

FALL

Plan A Thesis

10 cr.

or

10 cr.

Plan A Thesis

Tech B3 cr.

Theory

GDI Studio

Plan A Thesis

3 cr.

FALL

or

Research

3 cr. Research

Elective

Elective3 cr.

Elective

Elective4 cr.

Plan B Project

Energy3+cr.IEQ

YEAR ONE

3 cr. Energy + IEQ 3 cr.

YEAR ONE

3 cr. Pro Practice

GDI Studio

YEAR FOUR

ech C

4 cr.

YEAR TWO

GDIII Studio

49cr. 4cr.cr.

Elective

YEAR THREE

B

9 4cr.cr. 4 cr.

Elective Elective

FALL

YEAR FOUR

.ech

4 cr.

SPRING

Plan A Thesis

Practice

Elective

SPRING

Plan B Project(s)

.ro

GDII Studio

FALL Catalyst 1 cr.

.

YEAR ONE

Studio

YEAR TWO

. GDII

Catalyst 1 cr.

FALL

G

3-year M. M.Arch M.S. 3-YEAR ARCH 3-YEAR ++MS M. ARCH + MS

3 cr. 3 cr. 4 cr.

Plan B Project

2-year M.Arch M.S. YEAR M. ARCH 2-YEAR + MSM. ARCH ++MS

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The Twin Cities Set along the banks of the Mississippi River, the School of Architecture is in the heart of a dynamic metropolitan area. Just minutes from downtown Minneapolis and St. Paul, the University’s urban location is rare among land-grant universities. This places the M.S.-S.D. program within a flourishing design and arts community, and a region offering many economic and ecological assets. This context offers rich educational, cultural, and recreational opportunities for students.

and the metropolitan Twin Cities. For recreation there are the Boundary Waters Canoe Area, a wilderness of over one million acres; the Superior National Trail; and the “ten thousand lakes� for which the state is known. Within the Twin Cities there is an extensive park system that includes the Chain of Lakes, the Mississippi riverfront, and greenway bike trails. Fishing, ice-skating, skiing, and boating are all possible within the metropolitan Twin Cities.

The Twin Cities are ideally suited to the study of sustainability. With over 250 firms, the area has one of the largest and most active design communities in the country, giving students excellent opportunities to engage with local practitioners. Many practicing architects teach in the program. The numerous firms in the area also provide internship and employment opportunities for students pursuing their degree.

Minnesota and the Twin Cities have long provided a setting for architectural innovation. Works by Frank Lloyd Wright, Marcel Breuer, Frank Gehry, Michael Graves, Phillip Johnson, Herzog and deMeuron, Jean Nouvel, Steven Holl, Antoine Predock, Ralph Rapson, Eero Saarinen, Eliel Saarinen, and many others, can all be found in the area.

Minneapolis and St. Paul are home to some of the leading cultural institutions in the country. The Walker Arts Center and the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, both known for their innovative programming, host exhibitions and lectures that address a wide range of issues, including sustainability. There are more than 30 museums, over 60 theaters, numerous art galleries, and diverse music venues, making the Twin Cities a thriving arts center. Minnesota has been ranked as one of the most livable places in the United States. The state is composed of a wide range of environments: the wilderness of the north shore of Lake Superior, small mining towns on the Iron Range, rolling prairies in the southwestern corner of the state, the central lakes region, 14

Weisman Art Museum, University of Minnesota Frank O. Gehry & Associates


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Manhattan, KS Houston, TX Ames, IA Minneapolis, MN Providence, RI USA

Kathmandu NEPAL Xian CHINA

Bali INDONESIA Monterrey MEXICO Pune Chennai Kharagpur INDIA

Santiago CHILE Lima PERU

Tehran IRAN A program with international diversity: a map of M.S.-S.D. student home cities

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Students

“I chose the M.S.-S.D. program at the University of Minnesota because it seemed very willing to adapt. There are always changing and shifting contexts with sustainability, and it seemed to me that a school that has a framework for adapting to this would be ahead of the curve, no matter what may change in the future. This adaptation framework includes the priority given to student feedback, as well as the importance placed on interdisciplinary education.”

”I was able to use the M.S.S.D. thesis as a vehicle for studying sustainable design in Norway on a Fulbright grant. Not only was it an incredible opportunity to travel and gain perspective on the field from outside the University, but it’s also given me a unique experience that’s very interesting to potential employers.” — Rolf Jacobson

“I am currently working towards architectural licensure in a large firm in which I was hired on due to my interest and background in sustainable design and research. I have the opportunity in this position to work on a project team exploring sustainable design ideas, continuing both my sustainability and architectural career goals. The most important thing I learned from this program is that there is no ‘right’ way to design sustainably – everything is debatable.”

“The M.S.-S.D. program had the breadth and depth of coursework that I was looking for in a sustainable design degree. Also, I was able to tailor the program to work concurrently with my M.Arch program. I gained a broad and balanced knowledge of sustainable design technology, theory, and practice that I use every day in my career as an architect.” — Mike Refsland

— Shengyin Xu — Molly Eagen 17


Example Student Work z.umn.edu/hds Sinking MASS: Water Use in Buildings as a Sinkhole Mitigation Strategy in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador (MASS)

The Development of an Affordable Seismic Base Isolator (SBI) for Adobe Housing in Chile

Laurie McGinley - Plan B Project

Sebastian Mery - Plan A Thesis

This study evaluates water use at the building scale in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador (MASS), a city of 1.6 million inhabitants that currently has over 400 identified sinkholes caused by water system failures. The residents of MASS have been stressed by an extreme environmental condition and are poised to adopt more sustainable lifestyles as a result of the financial and safety risks of the sinkhole condition. Although there are existing technologies that can help mitigate the severity of sinkhole related risks for Salvadorans, they have not yet been implemented. Based on interviews conducted with MASS residents, this study proposes a variety of targeted, culturally-informed strategies in lieu of any one technical solution. Just as cultural understanding is important to building-scale water design in San Salvador, lifestyle impact is critical to the success of any sustainable design that hopes to gain broad acceptance.

This thesis explores the effects of employing an affordable seismic base isolator in adobe housing in Chile. The SBI is formed by two components located between the footing and the foundation wall of the adobe housing unit, acting together during the seismic event. These components are (1) the frictional interface layer, which diffuses horizontal forces, and (2) the recentering piece, which limits lateral displacement and relocates the adobe structure. The SBI was seismically analyzed in a 650 square foot one-story adobe dwelling with 18� wall thickness. The execution of the seismic analysis employed the simulator package SAP 2000 following the static analysis method and seismic code of Chile. Results of this analysis show that the SBI effectively works, reducing the difference between the maximum wall stresses above the admissible stresses in a range of 5 lb/in2 from an adobe structure without SBI to another with SBI.

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Envisioning the Carbon-Neutral Campus: Planning for Reduced Campus Energy Consumption at St. Olaf College

New Social Architecture and Sustainable Design: The Case of the Cambodian Center for Cham Studies

Elizabeth Turner - Plan B Project

Ahti Westphal - Plan A Thesis

For this project, I played the hypothetical role of consultant to St. Olaf College to develop a preliminary outline for a carbon planning process unique to its campus, outlining current best practices and examining current strengths and opportunities. My research began by comparing several methods that campuses currently employ for planning or assessing their environmental performance. By analyzing American College and University President’s Climate Commitment data, I developed a baseline for campus carbon emissions to which I could compare St. Olaf. In a parallel process, I obtained campus energy consumption data and conducted interviews with campus facilities management. Using St. Olaf as a case study provided the specificity necessary to develop the broader thesis: the campus is rich with data and stories from buildings and operations that students might explore, with guidance from faculty, facilities personnel, and professionals, to gain a better understanding of how the campus consumes energy and produces carbon.

This thesis investigates the role of culture in sustainable design theory and aims to invert some common assumptions about sustainability drivers as predominantly defined by a Western techno-centric design profession. Through a case study of an architectural project under way in Cambodia with the Cham people, I assess principles of sustainability in architecture from the vantage points of written language, religion, cultural heritage, building typologies, reception theory, building design, and architectural practice as it relates to the international development. These inquiries and assessments seek to reveal the importance of lived cross-cultural experience and research in sustainable design theory and aim to more precisely locate architecture’s role in society as a catalyst for positive social change. By addressing culture as a primary motor for collective action, the present work moves sustainability studies forward. 19


Program Faculty z.umn.edu/hdu Loren Abraham, RA, LEED AP Adjunct Assistant Professor B.A, University of Minnesota Renewable energy, daylighting, sustainable building standards, ecological product design, whole building analysis.

Rick Carter, FAIA, LEED AP BD+C, LEED Fellow Professor in Practice B.Arch., University of Minnesota M.S.-S.D., University of Minnesota Sustainable design and performance metrics.

Lucas Alm, AIA Adjunct Assistant Professor B.A., Lewis and Clark College M.Arch., University of Minnesota Sustainable building construction, energy conservation, public interest design.

RenĂŠe Cheng, AIA Professor, Head of School B.A., Harvard College M.Arch., Harvard University Integrated project delivery, emerging construction technologies, professional practice, computing technologies.

Blaine Brownell, AIA, LEED AP Associate Professor and Co-Director, MS-SD Program B.A., Princeton University M.Arch., Rice University Material innovation, sustainable building technologies, Japanese architecture and design. John Carmody Director of CSBR B.Arch., University of Minnesota M.Arch., University of Minnesota High performance buildings, energy efficiency, sustainable building guidelines, material lifecycle assessment, post-occupancy evaluation.

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Science Teaching and Student Services Center, University of Minnesota KPF Associates

Thomas Fisher, Assoc. AIA Professor and Dean, College of Design B.Arch., Cornell University M.A., Case Western Reserve University Resilient design, architectural theory, ethics. Mary Guzowski Professor B.A., Kalamazoo College M.Arch., University of Washington Sustainability theory and design, daylighting, solar design, zero energy architecture.


Dan Handeen, LEED AP Lecturer and Research Fellow, CSBR B.A., Macalester College M.Arch., University of Minnesota M.S.-S.D., University of Minnesota Sustainable and high-performance building technologies, material life cycle assessment, sustainable community development. Julianne Laue, PE, LEED AP BD+C, BEMP Adjunct Instructor B.S.M.E., Bradley University M.S.M.E., Bradley University Sustainable high performance design, building energy modeling, performance simulation, renewable energy. Jim Lutz, AIA Lecturer and Co-Director, MS-SD Program B.A., University of California, Berkeley M.Arch., Syracuse University Sustainable building technologies, materials and construction methods, acoustics, public interest design. Garrett Mosiman, LEED AP Lecturer and Senior Research Fellow, CSBR B.Arch., Rice University, M.S.-S.D., University of Minnesota Energy efficiency, building science, sustainable building technologies, light pollution.

Douglas Pierce, AIA, LEED AP BD+C, SMaRT AP Professor in Practice B. Arch., Kansas State University Sustainability theory and design, systems theory, sustainable integrated design, living design, energy, material health, sustainable design pattern development, biomimicry. Virajita Singh, LEED AP Adjunct Assistant Professor and Senior Research Fellow, CSBR B.Arch., Mumbai University M.Arch., University of Minnesota Design for community resilience, design thinking for innovation, social and environmental justice, greening the campus. Patrick Smith, LEED AP Lecturer and Research Fellow, CSBR B.A., Carleton College M.Arch., University of Minnesota M.S.-S.D., University of Minnesota Sustainability performance benchmarks, energy policy, utility auditing, life-cycle analysis implementation.

Richard Strong, RA Adjunct Assistant Professor and Senior Research Fellow, CSBR University of Minnesota B.Arch., North Dakota State University M.U.P., McGill University M.Des., Harvard University Sustainable building guidelines, material life cycle assessment, urban hydrology, environmental policy, low energy lab, urban ecology, sustainable site and water design. William (Billy) Weber Lecturer and Senior Research Fellow, CSBR B.A., University of Minnesota M.Arch., University of Minnesota Sustainable housing, green communities, ecological literacy. Stephen Weeks, AIA Associate Professor, Emeritus A.B., Colby College B.Arch., University of Minnesota Sustainable building technologies, materials and construction methods, building production process.

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Please visit the School of Architecture website, arch.design.umn.edu, for information about our graduate degree programs: Master of Architecture M.S. in Architecture — Sustainable Design M.S. in Architecture — Heritage Preservation M.S. in Architecture — Metropolitan Design M.S. in Architecture — Research Practices Telephone and E-mail Inquiries: Terence Rafferty, Director of Graduate Admissions & Recruitment 612 624-7866 archinfo@umn.edu Postal Mail: School of Architecture 145 Rapson Hall 89 Church Street S.E. Minneapolis, MN 55455 School of Architecture Location: The School of Architecture Graduate Program Office is located in Rapson Hall, room 145 In the United States, most state registration boards require a degree from an accredited professional degree program as a prerequisite for licensure. The National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB), which is the sole agency authorized to accredit U.S. professional degree programs in architecture, recognizes three types of degrees: the Bachelor of Architecture, the Master of Architecture, and the Doctor of Architecture. The Master of Science alone is not an accredited degree. The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer. Printed on recycled and recyclable paper with at least 10 percent post-consumer material. Credits: Photos by Blaine Brownell (Cover, 2-15, 20-23), Laurie McGinley (18, left), Sebastian Mery (18, right), Elizabeth Turner (19, left), and Ahti Westphal (19, right); book design by Chris Brenny. Outer cover: Stairwell in Rapson Hall, University of Minnesota School of Architecture Steven Holl Architects.

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Mill District, Minneapolis


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M.S. in Architecture-Sustainable Design (MS-SD)  

Our program allows students to combine professional architecture studies with a focus on sustainable design theory and practice.

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