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ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

WHY ENERGY MODEL? CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURE 2030 INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0 VITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN ENERGY MODELING INPUTS ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN

ENERGY MODELING METHODOLOGY L E V E R A G I N G T E C H N O L O G Y T O D E L I V E R S M A R T E R , M O R E S U S TA I N A B L E B U I L D I N G D E S I G N S

SMARTER CONCEPTS CLIMATE ANALYSIS PSYCHROMETRIC CHART DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT OPTIMIZING R-VALUES OPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

AUTHOR - CHRISTOPHER WINGATE FACULTY ADVISOR - BLAINE BROWNELL MS&R ADVISOR - THOMAS MEYER DATE - AUGUST 2012 MADE POSSIBLE BY A PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AND MEYER, SCHERER & ROCKCASTLE, LTD


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE

PROJECT TEAM

A UNIQUE COLLABORATION

EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

WHY ENERGY MODEL?

Energy Modeling Methodology is the result of a unique col-

Academic UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA COLLEGE OF DESIGN

laboration between the academic and professional worlds CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURE 2030 INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

of architecture. Renee Cheng, Head of the University of

Research Project ENERGY MODELING

Minnesota School of Architecture, created a semester long work/study program that pairs Master of Architecture stu-

Meyer Scherer & Rockcastle, Ltd. Program Coordinator - Thomas Meyer, FAIA Project Support - Allison Salzman, AIA

This paper is a result of the pilot semester of the project.1

Profession MS&R architecture KFI engineering

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED

Faculty Advisor - Blaine Brownell, Assistant Professor Student Researcher - Christopher Wingate, M.Arch Candidate

dents with local design firms to conduct research projects.

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

University of Minnesota School of Architecture Program Coordinator - Renee Cheng, Head of School of Architecture

Students enrolled in the program split their time between

- Sam Edelstein

Karges-Faulconbridge, Inc. Energy Simulation Engineer - Katherine R. Edwards

the classroom and the office, but their focus is always di-

TOOLS OF DESIGN

rected by the research project. This structure harnesses the

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

strengths of the university and the private sector in conducting mutually beneficial research. Architecture firms

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

benefit from the exploration of innovative processes, tools,

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN

and techniques by university students and faculty, and the university is able to vet its research in the real world, us-

PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE • Implement research on real projects and generate real world results

SMARTER CONCEPTS

ing experienced professionals to shape academic concepts

Research reviewed by experienced professionals

into adoptable methodologies. At the center of it all is an

Research must fit within existing budgets, schedules, and work flows

CLIMATE ANALYSIS

invaluable opportunity for students; they gain experience

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

and make connections in the field while learning a unique

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

skill set that makes them attractive to future employers.

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

OPTIMIZED ENERGY MODELING PROCESS Energy Modeling Methodology was written and researched

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

by Christopher Wingate while paired with Meyer Scherer

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

& Rockcastle, ltd.2 The research is focused on develop-

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

ing an energy modeling methodology for small to medium sized architecture firms that can be used to help inform early concept, schematic, and design development decisions.

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

ACADEMIC RESEARCH • Explores the latest approaches, innovations, and technologies •

OPTIMIZING GLAZING %

Encourages the technical and conceptual understanding of tools and processes through extended investigation

OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

1.

University of Minnesota Master of Architecture program, www.arch.design.umn.edu.

2.

Meyer Scherer & Rockcastle, ltd. www.msrltd.com.

3.

Karges-Faulconbridge, Inc. www.kfiengineers.com.

COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH BETWEEN THE UNIVERSITY AND THE PROFESSION

Inform decisions throughout the design process

Easy to use

Communicates graphically


ABOUT THE STUDY PROFESSIONAL HOURS

A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10

ACADEMIC HOURS 5

5

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

PROJECT TIMELINE

EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

CLIMATE CHANGE

Chart Title

Energy Modeling Methodology wouldn’t have been possible without the collaborative efforts of multiple organiza-

6 12%

tions and individuals.

5 12%

ARCHITECTURE 2030

1 10%

2

The program was structured to split the student research-

ACADEMIC 259 hours

er’s time between the classroom and the office. Christo-

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

pher Wingate spent 10 hours per week conducting research

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED

for academic credit under the guidance of faculty advi-

MS&R 24% 301 HOURS

JUNE

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

KFI 74

JULY

WHY ENERGY MODEL?

3 6%

4 36%

MAY

sor Blaine Brownell and an additional 15 hours per week DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN

HOURS WORKED BY INSTITUTION

MS&R was overseen by Thomas Meyer, founding principal, and counted for IDP credit.1 A team of MS&R profesChart Title

sionals also provided weekly feedback on the progress of

Energy Modeling Methodology was also informed by

(TA)

Christopher Wingate’s position as a teaching assistant for CLIMATE ANALYSIS

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

(MS&R)

Wingate (U of M)

Thermal and Luminous Design, a graduate studio focused on sustainable design through energy modeling.2

2 24%

Wingate

4 36%

3 6%

The

FEBRUARY

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

MARCH

ell Wingate

team

Bro wn

5 12%

1 10%

MS&R

SMARTER CONCEPTS

6 12%

s

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN

gineer from KFI, collaborated on portions of the research.

ard

the project. Katherine Edwards, an energy simulation en-

Edw

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

APRIL

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

at Meyer Scherer & Rockcastle. Research completed at

teaching position ran concurrently with the work/study program.

HOURS WORKED BY INDIVIDUAL

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

Firms that participate in the work/study program receive

JANUARY

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

a strong return on their investment. During this study, MS&R invested 301 hours of its time into the program. It

KEY

RESEARCH HOURS

benefited from an additional 259 hours funded by the UniITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT OPTIMIZING R-VALUES OPTIMIZING GLAZING %

versity of Minnesota. In a business climate that makes research and development difficult, this work/study program enables firms to push the profession forward by leveraging the resources and expertise of the University of Minnesota.

OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

1.

NCARB Intern Development Program, www.ncarb.org

2.

ARCH 5516 Thermal and Luminous Design, http://www.zeropluscampus.umn.edu/

Chris Wingate, U of M Student Researcher 155 Chris Wingate, MS&R Student Researcher

226

Chris Wingate, U of M Teaching Assistant

66

Blaine Brownell, U of M Faculty Advisor

38

MS&R Energy Modeling Team

75

Katherine Edwards, KFI Engineer

74

Combined Total Hours Spent on the Project

634

The horizontal lines of the graph split each month into four representative weeks. Each person’s weekly hours are represented additively at these intersections. The height of the highest peak or valley at each week represents the total hours worked by all people on the project. Individual weekly hours are read by measuring the difference between the peak of the category and the peak directly below it. PROJECT TIMELINE AND HOURS WORKED


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

COMPARING ENERGY MODELING SOFTWARE : EQUEST AND IES VE

WHY ENERGY MODEL?

Energy Modeling Methodology development began by

The subcategories are similar across each category, analyz-

After scoring the software, the research team created an-

CLIMATE CHANGE

choosing an energy modeling software. When the research

ing characteristics such as the time required to complete a

other matrix that highlighted the selection criteria that most

project started, MS&R had already narrowed its search

task, ease of using the software, and the graphical quality

heavily impacted a software’s ability to influence early de-

ARCHITECTURE 2030

for an energy modeling program down to eQUEST by the

of its output. This structure allowed the research team to

sign decisions. We found that the most important aspect of

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

Department of Energy and IES VE by Integrated Environ-

compare software in a variety of ways. By averaging the

a successful energy model was its ability to match the three

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

mental Solutions.1,2 MS&R initially wanted to use energy

software’s scores in each subcategory, a metric emerged that

dimensional qalities of the design concept. The process of

modeling at the beginning of the design process to help in-

gave a quick overview of the energy modeling program.

creating an energy model always involves simplifying a de-

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN

sign model, but a successful energy model will still retain

form conceptual and schematic design decisions, so a set of selection criteria was developed with that goal in mind.

For example, the average score of each category’s Time Re-

the feel of the design intent, convincing the design team

The criteria was based around the steps necessary to cre-

quired subcategory was calculated and given the title Speed.

that the architecture is actually shaping the energy model’s

ate, analyze, and compare energy models of early concep-

This metric is a score out of 5 that illustrates the amount of

performance. IES VE uses a Sketchup plugin to create its

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

tual schemes. Please see the following three pages for the

time it takes to complete a given task with the software. A

energy models, giving architects the ability to easily capture

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

full selection criteria matrix and score comparison between

higher score is always related to better performance. The

the volumetric intent of their designs. By contrast, eQUEST

eQUEST and IES VE.

other subcategories were scored and averaged in the same

creates an energy model by tracing over an AutoCAD draw-

manner. The results can be seen at the bottom of the selec-

ing, extruding floor plans, and controlling other geometric

Each category in the selection criteria matrix represents a

tion criteria in the scoring boxes labeled Speed, Ease of Use,

elements with spreadsheet-based parameters. This severs

step necessary to create an energy model or to run an energy

Data Quality, Graphics, and Workflow.

the connection between design intent and energy analysis,

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN SMARTER CONCEPTS CLIMATE ANALYSIS PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

1. Climate Analysis - Use the software to analyze the site’s specific climate and its ramifications on design.

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

2. Design Model - Create an energy model from a design

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

3. Base Model - Create a baseline energy model to compare performance of design options against.

Total Score. IES VE received a higher total score than eQUEST. It also outscored eQUEST in every subcategory, with the largest margins in Graphics and Workflow. This is due to IES VE

5. Daylighting - Use an energy model to test daylighting

being designed and marketed to architects as well as en-

performance. 6. Thermal Analysis - Use energy modeling to analyze thermal performance.

OPTIMIZING GLAZING %

scores for each software were calculated in the box labeled

4. Solar Shading - Use the software to run a shadow study.

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

The scores were also tallied for each category. The overall

concept .

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

inturrupting the feedback loop necessary to turn analytical

modeling analysis. The categories are:

7. Conceptual Model Comparisons - Compare the performative characteristics of multiple concept models.

OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

1.

eQUEST, doe2.com/equest

2.

IES VE, www.iesve.com

gineers. Although both software platforms will accurately model the energy performance of a building, IES VE is designed with visual thinkers in mind, emphasizing the ability to create spatially complex three dimensional energy models and run graphically rich analyses.

tests into generative project ideas.


eQUEST

ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION

Score

EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

WHY ENERGY MODEL?

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN SMARTER CONCEPTS

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

OPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

Notes

Quality of Data

0

Not available.

Graphical Output

0

Not available.

File Import / Export Options

0

Not available.

Climate-Specific Design Strategies Included

0

Not available.

Time Required

3

Ease of Use Quality of Data

5

Five minutes.

5

Clear, concise results.

3

Included data gives great overview, but not enough for detailed analysis.

4

Three simple graphs combine key information.

2

Graphics can only be exported as image files, not vectors.

3

A few basic climate-specific design strategies are included, but other tools outperform it.

Two to four hours to create geometry. Four to eight hours to assign model data.

3

Two to four hours to create geometry. Four to eight hours to assign model data.

4

Modeling is tedious. Inputting model data is made easier by wizard and smart presets.

3

Geometry is imported from sketchup. Assigning model data can be overwhelming at first.

4

Energy use and ROI feedback is accurate. Daylighting studies not available.

5

Full suite of analyses available once model is defined in IES.

Graphical Output

3

Results displayed in simplistic charts and graphs. No plan overlays or 3D views available.

4

Analysis results are graphically rich, but can only be exported as image files.

File Import / Export Options

3

Must retrace AutoCAD drawings to create model. Graphical output is image file only.

5

Design model geometry is imported from sketchup. Easy workflow.

Strength of Link Between Actual Design and Design Model

2

Model is simplistic 3D extrusion of AutoCAD. Doesn’t feel like the design at all.

5

Creating geometry in sketchup allows for strong 3D correlation between idea and model.

Time Required

5

Base model is created automatically.

4

Five minutes, after you have a fully defined design model.

Ease of Use

5

Base model is created automatically.

4

After you have a fully defined design model, it automatically matches a base model to it.

Quality of Data

5

The automatically created base model has the same functionality as your design model.

2

The only data included is kBTU / square foot.

Graphical Output

3

Base model has same graphical output as the design model. Simplistic charts and graphs.

0

None .

File Import / Export Options

3

Created automatically, so same import/export problems as the design model.

0

None.

Base Model Helps Understand Effects of Design Options

5

Base and design models have same functionality. Can be seamlessly compared.

1

Base model is automatically created, but its data is severely limited.

Time Required

3

Add an extra two hours to modeling process.

5

Thirty minutes. Shading devices modeled in Sketchup, so creation is fast.

Ease of Use

3

Shading devices must be defined via text inputs for each opening.

5

Once shades are in, they can be accounted for in all daylight and thermal analyses.

Quality of Data

5

eQUEST is considered an accurate modeling program.

5

IES models the impact of shading accurately.

Graphical Output

1

Must view effects of shading as a potential energy savings strategy (lowered cooling load).

4

Analysis results are graphically rich, but can only be exported as image files.

File Import / Export Options

1

None. Shading is defined via text inputs for each opening.

4

Shading geometry imported from Sketchup. Graphic output limited to image files.

Integration of Solar Shading with Thermal Analysis

5

eQUEST accurately simulates the effects of shading on energy use.

5

IES models the impact of shading on daylight and thermal analyses accurately.

Time Required

3

No separate daylight analysis included, although daylighting does affect thermal analysis.

3

10 minutes to 12 hours depending on quality settings.

Ease of Use

3

No separate daylight analysis included, although daylighting does affect thermal analysis.

4

You have to get the geometry into IES through Sketchup. Can’t import directly from Rhino.

Quality of Data

1

Daylighting levels can not be simulated, only how daylight affects energy performance.

5

Full suite of daylight analysis tools available including the very accurate Radiance engine.

Graphical Output

1

Must view daylight as a potential energy savings strategy (lower lighting load).

5

Results can be viewed in a number of formants including contours, perspectives, etc.

File Import / Export Options

1

None. Daylighting analysis is turned on via a check box.

3

Geometry must come into IES from Sketchup. Graphic output limited to image files.

Ability to Test a Design’s Affect on Daylighting Levels

1

No way to view daylighting levels.

5

Daylighting levels can be analyzed in plan, section, and perspective renderings.

Time Required

5

Five to thirty minutes depending on complexity of model.

5

Ten to sixty minutes depending on complexity of model.

Ease of Use

4

Scheduling an HVAC systems input is helped by a wizard and smart default settings.

3

Scheduling and HVAC systems input is complicated without help from M/E consultant.

Quality of Data

5

eQUEST is an acceptable energy modeling software for a variety of certification programs.

5

Output a bevy of graphs and raw data. Highly accurate with correct HVAC systems.

Graphical Output

3

Charts and graphs clearly illustrate impacts of design options, but aesthetically lacking.

4

Analysis results are graphically rich, but can only be exported as image files.

File Import / Export Options

3

HVAC systems must be manipulated in eQUEST.

3

HVAC systems must be manipulated in IES.

Accuracy Compared to Other Accepted Modeling Programs

5

eQUEST is an acceptable energy modeling software for a variety of certification programs.

3

IES with APACHE HVAC module is highly accurate. Without module it is inaccurate.

Time Required

5

One hour per massing study to model. Two additional hours to analyze.

4

One hour per massing study to model. Four additional hours to analyze.

Ease of Use

3

Geometry must be traced from AutoCAD plans. Wizard for inputting model data.

4

Creating geometry is very easy. Geometry and building data can be defined in Sketchup.

Quality of Data

4

Can quickly compare design options by looking at key energy use metrics. No daylighting.

5

You can run the full suite of analyses on massing models once they are in IES.

Graphical Output

3

Charts and graphs are easy to create but somewhat limited in scope.

4

Analysis results are graphically rich, but can only be exported as image files.

File Import / Export Options

3

Must retrace AutoCAD drawings to create model. Graphical output is image file only.

5

Massing model geometry is imported from sketchup. Easy workflow.

Strength of Link Between Actual Design and Concept Model

2

Model is simplistic 3D extrusion of AutoCAD. Doesn’t feel like the design at all.

5

Creating geometry in sketchup allows for strong 3D correlation between idea and model.

Thermal Analysis

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

Not available.

Daylighting

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

Not available.

0

Solar Shading

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

CLIMATE ANALYSIS

0

Ease of Use

Base Model

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

Time Required

Design Model

ARCHITECTURE 2030

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

Score

Climate Analysis

PROJECT TIMELINE

CLIMATE CHANGE

IES VE

Notes

Concept Model Studies

Category Averages and Total Score SPEED

4.0

EASE OF USE

3.7

DATA QUALITY GRAPHICS

4.5

2.3

ENERGY MODELING SOFTWARE COMPARISON

0 19 26 18 10 25 20

WORKFLOW TOTAL SCORE

2.3

117

SPEED

4.1

EASE OF USE

4.0

DATA QUALITY GRAPHICS

4.7

4.2

22 25 11 28 25 24 27

WORKFLOW TOTAL SCORE

3.7

161


eQUEST

ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION

Score

EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

WHY ENERGY MODEL?

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN SMARTER CONCEPTS

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

OPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

Notes

Quality of Data

0

Not available.

Graphical Output

0

Not available.

File Import / Export Options

0

Not available.

Climate-Specific Design Strategies Included

0

Not available.

Time Required

3

Ease of Use Quality of Data

5

Five minutes.

5

Clear, concise results.

3

Included data gives great overview, but not enough for detailed analysis.

4

Three simple graphs combine key information.

2

Graphics can only be exported as image files, not vectors.

3

A few basic climate-specific design strategies are included, but other tools outperform it.

Two to four hours to create geometry. Four to eight hours to assign model data.

3

Two to four hours to create geometry. Four to eight hours to assign model data.

4

Modeling is tedious. Inputting model data is made easier by wizard and smart presets.

3

Geometry is imported from sketchup. Assigning model data can be overwhelming at first.

4

Energy use and ROI feedback is accurate. Daylighting studies not available.

5

Full suite of analyses available once model is defined in IES.

Graphical Output

3

Results displayed in simplistic charts and graphs. No plan overlays or 3D views available.

4

Analysis results are graphically rich, but can only be exported as image files.

File Import / Export Options

3

Must retrace AutoCAD drawings to create model. Graphical output is image file only.

5

Design model geometry is imported from sketchup. Easy workflow.

Strength of Link Between Actual Design and Design Model

2

Model is simplistic 3D extrusion of AutoCAD. Doesn’t feel like the design at all.

5

Creating geometry in sketchup allows for strong 3D correlation between idea and model.

Time Required

5

Base model is created automatically.

4

Five minutes, after you have a fully defined design model.

Ease of Use

5

Base model is created automatically.

4

After you have a fully defined design model, it automatically matches a base model to it.

Quality of Data

5

The automatically created base model has the same functionality as your design model.

2

The only data included is kBTU / square foot.

Graphical Output

3

Base model has same graphical output as the design model. Simplistic charts and graphs.

0

None .

File Import / Export Options

3

Created automatically, so same import/export problems as the design model.

0

None.

Base Model Helps Understand Effects of Design Options

5

Base and design models have same functionality. Can be seamlessly compared.

1

Base model is automatically created, but its data is severely limited.

Time Required

3

Add an extra two hours to modeling process.

5

Thirty minutes. Shading devices modeled in Sketchup, so creation is fast.

Ease of Use

3

Shading devices must be defined via text inputs for each opening.

5

Once shades are in, they can be accounted for in all daylight and thermal analyses.

Quality of Data

5

eQUEST is considered an accurate modeling program.

5

IES models the impact of shading accurately.

Graphical Output

1

Must view effects of shading as a potential energy savings strategy (lowered cooling load).

4

Analysis results are graphically rich, but can only be exported as image files.

File Import / Export Options

1

None. Shading is defined via text inputs for each opening.

4

Shading geometry imported from Sketchup. Graphic output limited to image files.

Integration of Solar Shading with Thermal Analysis

5

eQUEST accurately simulates the effects of shading on energy use.

5

IES models the impact of shading on daylight and thermal analyses accurately.

Time Required

3

No separate daylight analysis included, although daylighting does affect thermal analysis.

3

10 minutes to 12 hours depending on quality settings.

Ease of Use

3

No separate daylight analysis included, although daylighting does affect thermal analysis.

4

You have to get the geometry into IES through Sketchup. Can’t import directly from Rhino.

Quality of Data

1

Daylighting levels can not be simulated, only how daylight affects energy performance.

5

Full suite of daylight analysis tools available including the very accurate Radiance engine.

Graphical Output

1

Must view daylight as a potential energy savings strategy (lower lighting load).

5

Results can be viewed in a number of formants including contours, perspectives, etc.

File Import / Export Options

1

None. Daylighting analysis is turned on via a check box.

3

Geometry must come into IES from Sketchup. Graphic output limited to image files.

Ability to Test a Design’s Affect on Daylighting Levels

1

No way to view daylighting levels.

5

Daylighting levels can be analyzed in plan, section, and perspective renderings.

Time Required

5

Five to thirty minutes depending on complexity of model.

5

Ten to sixty minutes depending on complexity of model.

Ease of Use

4

Scheduling an HVAC systems input is helped by a wizard and smart default settings.

3

Scheduling and HVAC systems input is complicated without help from M/E consultant.

Quality of Data

5

eQUEST is an acceptable energy modeling software for a variety of certification programs.

5

Output a bevy of graphs and raw data. Highly accurate with correct HVAC systems.

Graphical Output

3

Charts and graphs clearly illustrate impacts of design options, but aesthetically lacking.

4

Analysis results are graphically rich, but can only be exported as image files.

File Import / Export Options

3

HVAC systems must be manipulated in eQUEST.

3

HVAC systems must be manipulated in IES.

Accuracy Compared to Other Accepted Modeling Programs

5

eQUEST is an acceptable energy modeling software for a variety of certification programs.

3

IES with APACHE HVAC module is highly accurate. Without module it is inaccurate.

Time Required

5

One hour per massing study to model. Two additional hours to analyze.

4

One hour per massing study to model. Four additional hours to analyze.

Ease of Use

3

Geometry must be traced from AutoCAD plans. Wizard for inputting model data.

4

Creating geometry is very easy. Geometry and building data can be defined in Sketchup.

Quality of Data

4

Can quickly compare design options by looking at key energy use metrics. No daylighting.

5

You can run the full suite of analyses on massing models once they are in IES.

Graphical Output

3

Charts and graphs are easy to create but somewhat limited in scope.

4

Analysis results are graphically rich, but can only be exported as image files.

File Import / Export Options

3

Must retrace AutoCAD drawings to create model. Graphical output is image file only.

5

Massing model geometry is imported from sketchup. Easy workflow.

Strength of Link Between Actual Design and Concept Model

2

Model is simplistic 3D extrusion of AutoCAD. Doesn’t feel like the design at all.

5

Creating geometry in sketchup allows for strong 3D correlation between idea and model.

Thermal Analysis

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

Not available.

Daylighting

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

Not available.

0

Solar Shading

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

CLIMATE ANALYSIS

0

Ease of Use

Base Model

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

Time Required

Design Model

ARCHITECTURE 2030

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

Score

Climate Analysis

PROJECT TIMELINE

CLIMATE CHANGE

IES VE

Notes

Concept Model Studies

Category Averages and Total Score SPEED

4.0

EASE OF USE

3.7

DATA QUALITY GRAPHICS

4.5

2.3

ENERGY MODELING SOFTWARE COMPARISON

0 19 26 18 10 25 20

WORKFLOW TOTAL SCORE

2.3

117

SPEED

4.1

EASE OF USE

4.0

DATA QUALITY GRAPHICS

4.7

4.2

22 25 11 28 25 24 27

WORKFLOW TOTAL SCORE

3.7

161


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION

eQUEST

IES VE

PROJECT TIMELINE EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

Source Drawing - AutoCAD

Source Drawing - AutoCAD or Revit

Creating Rooms - Tracing Plans

Creating Rooms - Extruding Plans

Modeling Roof - Check Box

Modeling Roof - 3D Geometry

Final Model - Simple Box

Final Model - Complex Geometry

WHY ENERGY MODEL? CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURE 2030

MODELING IN EQUEST AND IES VE

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

While comparing eQuest and IES VE, the research team concluded that one of the most important aspects of an en-

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN

ergy modeling software is its ability to create a model that matches the three dimensional intent of the design. The images on the right show the considerable differences between the programs’ approach to modeling.

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN

eQuest creates a model by tracing and extruding masses from an autoCAD plan. Other geometric information, like pitched rooves and glazing, is controlled by check boxes. The final model resembles an extruded box, modified by

SMARTER CONCEPTS CLIMATE ANALYSIS

spreadsheet-like inputs. Complex sectional characteristics are impossible to capture.

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

IES VE uses a Sketchup plugin to create its energy models. DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

This allows designers to accurately represent the design in-

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

tent in their energy models. The 3D model is able to cap-

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

ture complex geometry, important sectional characteristics, and the intent of the design, building confidence that the

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

energy model actually responds to changes in the archi-

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

chosen over eQuest as MS&R’s energy modeling software.

tecture. This is the number one reason why IES VE was

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES OPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON - CREATING AN ENERGY MODEL IN EQUEST AND IES VE


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

“WE TEND TO RUSH TOWARD THE COMPLEX WHEN TRYING TO SOLVE A DAUNTING PROBLEM, BUT IN THIS CASE, SIMPLICITY WINS. BETTER BUILDINGS, RESPONSIBLE ENERGY USE AND RENEWABLE ENERGY CHOICES ARE ALL WE NEED TO TACKLE BOTH ENERGY INDEPENDENCE AND CLIMATE CHANGE.” - Edward Mazaria, Architect and founder of Architecture 2030

WHY ENERGY MODEL? CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURE 2030

CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE IMPACT OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0 VITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN

Climate change. Global warming. Extreme weather. These

Architecture 2030 explains that the building sector con-

themes seem to dominate news headlines as humanity’s im-

sumes nearly half of all energy produced in the United

pact on the planet shifts from scientific theory to a force

States. It was also responsible for 46.7% of U.S. CO2 emis-

that can be experienced first hand with increasing frequen-

sions in 2010. To make matters worse, building sector en-

cy. From the destruction of coral reefs to the shrinking of

ergy consumption and CO2 emissions are projected to rise

the world’s glaciers, it is clear that our climate is changing.

faster than any other source between now and 2030.

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

The scientific community is in agreement that humanity is

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

causing the change, and carbon dioxide is our weapon of

The graph U.S. Energy Consumption by Subdivided Sector

choice. As we pump CO2 into the atmosphere by burning

shows that the vast majority of energy use attributed to the

fossil fuels, it acts as a “greenhouse” gas, trapping the sun’s

building sector is used to operate buildings. This includes

heat in our atmosphere and leading to a gradual increase

all the energy needed to heat, cool, and light buildings over

in the Earth’s temperature. Scientists predict this will have

their life spans. For an even clearer illustration on how op-

dire consequences including rising sea levels, the increasing

erating buildings impacts energy use, look at the graph U.S.

frequency of severe weather, drought, and a massive destruc-

Electricity Consumption By Sector; a full 75% of the elec-

tion of ecosystems across the globe. It is time for humanity

tricity used in the U.S. goes into operating buildings.

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN SMARTER CONCEPTS CLIMATE ANALYSIS PSYCHROMETRIC CHART DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

U.S. ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY SECTOR1

U.S. ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY SUBDIVIDED SECTOR1

to act, and the built environment is poised to play a pivotal role in redefining our relationship with climate.

If architects design buildings that are more energy efficient, we can drastically reduce the energy demands of the planet

Architecture 2030 sums up the important role the built en-

and slow the pace of global warming. With enough down-

vironment has to play in the fight against climate change on

ward pressure, we can even reach carbon neutrality. So

its website:1

what are these targets and what does it take to get there?

Architecture 2030 provides a guideline.

“Problem: The Building Sector Solution: The Building Sector”

OPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

1.

Architecture 2030. www.architecture2030.org

U.S. ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION BY SECTOR1


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

“THE MAJOR PART [OF A BUILDING’S ENERGY USE] - 40% - IS DESIGN. EVERY TIME WE DESIGN A BUILDING, WE SET UP ITS ENERGY CONSUMPTION PATTERN AND ITS GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS PATTERN FOR THE NEXT 50-100 YEARS. THAT’S WHY THE BUILDING SECTOR AND THE ARCHITECTURE SECTOR IS SO CRITICAL. IT TAKES A LONG TIME TO TURN OVER.” - Edward Mazaria, Architect and founder of Architecture 2030

WHY ENERGY MODEL? CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURE 2030

ARCHITECTURE 2030 - A ROAD MAP TO RECOVERY

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0 VITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN

Architecture 2030 is optimistic about the positive impact

Meeting these targets requires the design of more energy

the built environment can have on reducing domestic energy

efficient buildings, the development of new building tech-

use over the next twenty years. It points to the projection

nologies and systems, and the implementation of renewable

that by 2035, approximately 75% of the built environment

energy sources. Of these categories, it is building design

will be either new or renovated.1 Architecture 2030 calls

that can have the greatest impact on energy reductions. It is

for architects to seize this opportunity, challenging them to

design that will create buildings that are in tune with their

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

design each new or renovated building to meet ever increas-

natural environments and harvest the local climate to con-

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

ing energy targets, leading us to carbon neutrality by 2030.

dition their interiors, resulting in a more efficient, and more

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN SMARTER CONCEPTS CLIMATE ANALYSIS PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

appealing, built environment. Architecture 2030 developed its energy reduction targets by working backward from the greenhouse gas emissions

Environmentally sensitive designs require an environmen-

reductions scientists predicted were necessary to reach by

tally sensitive design approach, one that seeks to understand

2050 to avoid catastrophic climate change. In an interview

the climate at the outset of the process, collaborates with the

with BLDG BLOG, Ed Mazaria explains, “Working back-

entire design team on sustainable strategies, and adopts the

wards from those reductions, and looking at, specifically,

tools necessary to test and develop them into sustainable ar-

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

the building sector – which is responsible for about half of

chitecture. Integrated Energy Design shows what this new

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

all emissions – you can see what we need to do today. We

process might look like.

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

ARCHITECTURE 2030 FOSSIL FUEL ENERGY REDUCTION TARGETS1

need an immediate, 50% reduction in fossil fuel, greenhouse gas-emitting energy in all new building construction. And

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

since we renovate about as much as we build new, we need

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

that reduction by 10% every five years – so that by 2030 all

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

COMPOSITION OF THE BUILDING SECTOR BY 20351

a 50% reduction in renovation, as well. If you then increase new buildings use no greenhouse gas-emitting fossil fuel energy to operate – then you reach a state that’s called carbon

OPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

neutral. And you get there by 2030. That way we meet the targets that climate scientists have set out for us.”1

1.

Architecture 2030. www.architecture2030.org

MEETING THE 2030 CHALLENGE1


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

“AN INTEGRATED DESIGN MIGHT BEGIN WITH THE REDUCTION OF HEAT LOADS IN THE OCCUPIED SPACE THROUGH THE USE OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT LIGHTING FIXTURES AND DAY LIGHTING. THAT MAY MAKE IT POSSIBLE TO REDUCE SUPPLY-AIR FLOW RATES, LEADING TO LESS PRESSURE DROP IN THE AIR-DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AND ALLOWING FOR SMALLER FANS TO BE INSTALLED. FURTHER, AS A RESULT OF ALL OF THOSE DOWNSTREAM CHANGES, IT MAY ALSO BE POSSIBLE TO SPECIFY A SMALLER COOLING PLANT.” - Energy Design Resources

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN

pied space through the use of energy-efficient lighting fix-

how a project is delivered, bringing together owners, design-

tures and daylighting. That may make it possible to reduce

ers, and consultants to work towards creating sustainable

supply-air flow rates, leading to less pressure drop in the

and energy efficient buildings. Integrated Energy Design,

air-distribution system and allowing for smaller fans to be

a process developed by Energy Design Resources, outlines

installed. Further, as a result of all of those downstream

how to accomplish that. Of the process’s six steps, the first

changes, it may also be possible to specify a smaller cooling

three provide the strongest guidance for our Energy Model-

plant.”2 This process can result in energy savings, cost sav-

ing Methodology.

ings, and increased occupant comfort.

1. Plan for energy efficiency right from the beginning of

3. Run whole-system analyses that treat a building as a

1

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN

the design process. SMARTER CONCEPTS CLIMATE ANALYSIS PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

complete system, taking into account the interactions among all of the building’s systems.

The diagram on the right illustrates that the greatest potential to affect the energy use of a building occurs at the

According to Energy Design Resources, “Whole-systems

beginning of the design process. As the design continues,

analysis is an evaluative process that treats a building as

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

decisions are locked into place, making changes difficult.

a series of interacting systems instead of looking at build-

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

Therefore, it is imperative that planning for energy efficien-

ing systems as individual components that function in iso-

cy is implemented from the start.

lation.” It takes a specialized tool to run a whole-systems

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

analysis, and that tool is energy modeling. In order to de2. Identify integrated design strategies that will reduce life-

liver more sustainable buildings, we need to redefine our de-

time costs while also improving occupant comfort.

sign process, planning for energy efficiency from the start, developing integrated sustainable design strategies, using

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

Energy Design Resources gives an example of why integrated design strategies are so effective. “An integrated design

OPTIMIZING GLAZING %

might begin with the reduction of heat loads in the occu-

OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

1.

Integrated Energy Design, Energy Design Resources, www.energydesignresources.com

energy modeling to analyze building performance.

Occupancy

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED

Meeting the Architecture 2030 challenge requires rethinking

Construction

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

Construction documents

Figure 1: Energy-saving opportunities and the design sequence

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

Design development

ARCHITECTURE 2030

Schematic design

CLIMATE CHANGE

Programming

WHY ENERGY MODEL?

Potential cost-effective energy savings

Level of design effort

Phase of design process Source: ENSAR Group and E SOURCE

ENERGY SAVING OPPORTUNITIES AND THE DESIGN SEQUENCE1


ABOUT THE STUDY

AN ANCIENT ROMAN ARCHITECT NAMED VITRUVIUS WROTE THAT A BUILDING MUST BE CONSIDERED “WITH REFERENCE TO FUNCTION, STRUCTURE, AND BEAUTY.”

Construction Systems

...THINK OF THE VITRUVIAN FACTORS AS THE LEGS OF A

Materiality

TRIPOD CALLED ARCHITECTURE.

NONE CAN STAND

Structure

EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

ALONE; EACH IS DEPENDENT UPON THE OTHER TWO TO

Firmness

WHY ENERGY MODEL?

FORM THE WORK OF ARCHITECTURE.1

PROJECT TIMELINE

- James O’Gorman, from ABC of Architecture.

CLIMATE CHANGE

ity od mm n Co ctio Fun am gr Pro get d Bu

ARCHITECTURE 2030

Architecture

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

In 27 BC, Vitruvius wrote a definition of architecture that

De ligh t Be aut Ae y sth Em etic oti s on al I mp act

A UNIQUE COLLABORATION

is still relevant. He wrote that architecture must exhibit VITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN

three qualities - firmness, commodity, and delight. Firmness is concerned with structure and construction systems; commodity is related to function, program, and budget; and delight describes the beauty, aesthetics, and emotional im-

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

THE VITRUVIAN TRIANGLE

pact of a building.

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

A cornerstone of Energy Modeling Methodology is that

Energy Performance

building performance is viewed as an integral part of architecture. Energy modeling doesn’t reside outside of the design

Construction Systems

process, it is used to enhance architecture’s core qualities.

Materiality

CLIMATE ANALYSIS

Firmness

the Vitruvian Triangle. The emotional impact of a building tecture’s environmental impact should be considered just as

act mp

project, fully explore the impact of their design on architec-

al I

a design team’s ability to understand the issues that affect a

ent

Integrated energy modeling into the design process enhances

nm

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

iro

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

mance directly effects a building’s structure and materiality.

Env

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

ity od mm n Co ctio Fun am gr Pro get d Bu

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

Architecture

its function, program, and budget are, and energy perfor-

ture’s core qualities, and deliver a richer, more sustainable OPTIMIZING GLAZING %

aut y s Em the oti tics on al I mp act Da ylig ht

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

Be

is enhanced by optimizing its use of natural daylight, archi-

final project.

OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

THE VITRUVIAN TRIANGLE REDEFINED - USING ENERGY MODELING TO ENHANCE DESIGN

Ae

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

t

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

Structure

Designing for energy performance is a natural extension of

ligh

SMARTER CONCEPTS

De

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE

DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED

EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

WHY ENERGY MODEL? CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURE 2030

Before we can push the design process forward, we must first understand the thought process that powers it. Thomas Fisher, Dean of the University of Minnesota’s College of Design, diagrammed how design thinking was distinct from problem solving in a 2011 lecture to his Principles of Design Theory class.

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0 VITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN SMARTER CONCEPTS CLIMATE ANALYSIS PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

CONCLUSIONS

EXPERIMENTS

GENERALIZATIONS

DATA COLLECTION, EVIDENCE, OBSERVATIONS

FACTS, EVIDENCE, OBSERVATIONS

Deductive and inductive reasoning are two types of problem solving. Throughout their academic lives, students are taught the value of linear thought processes, training them to search for one correct solution to a given problem. Deductive reasoning is more commonly known as the scientific method. It involves making a hypothesis, running experiments to test the hypothesis,

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

HYPOTHESIS

and evaluating the resulting evidence to determine if it is correct. Inductive reasoning works in reverse; a person makes an array of observations, constructs generalizations that connect the obser-

DEDUCTIVE REASONING1

vations, and arrives at a conclusion when a generalized statement can be used to explain the entire set of observations. Although these processes are useful, it is important to realize that they will only lead to solutions that lay in the original field of inquiry. These processes explain existing phenomena, they do not create new phenomena.

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

Creativity is powered by design thinking, a decidedly non-linear process. Design thinking involves addressing a problem by looking at a multitude of issues that define it and using them to gener-

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

ate and explore new avenues of possibility. Some discoveries will

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

take a step back, revisiting prior assumptions. Still others will

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

push the process forward while others will cause the designer to redefine the original problem all together, generating a unique trajectory of their own. It is precisely design thinking’s chaotic,

OPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

non-linear nature that enables it to create in innovative discoveries. Architecture is very much a product of design thinking. 1.

Tom Fisher, Lecture, September 2010, University of Minnesota College of Design

DESIGN THINKING1

INDUCTIVE REASONING1


ABOUT THE STUDY

SCHEMATIC DESIGN

CONCEPT

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS

A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

DESIGN PROCESS AND ENERGY MODELING

WHY ENERGY MODEL? CLIMATE CHANGE

While non-linear design thinking powers creative innovation, architects must also inhabit the linear world of the in this overlap, acting as a catalyst to help architects make

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

informed decisions at each stage of development, leading to projects that can meet the Architecture 2030 challenge.

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED

The creative process by its very nature pulls inspiration from a variety of sources, ensuring that the final result of

TOOLS OF DESIGN ENERGY MODELING INPUTS ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

DESIGN PROCESS

ENERGY MODELING

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

ENERGY MODELING

design process to deliver a project. Energy modeling exists

ENERGY MODELING

ARCHITECTURE 2030

a design, as well as the criteria used to judge it, will be unique. It is usually the architect’s own narrative that is used to test the merit of early conceptual development.

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN

As a project progresses, the design must meet a variety of

SMARTER CONCEPTS

ments. Energy performance should be thought of in the

CLIMATE ANALYSIS

same way; the conceptual intent of a design must be bal-

other demands, from structural loads to fire safety require-

anced against given performance standards to improve the PSYCHROMETRIC CHART DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

quality of the project. Energy modeling should be used at tainability are addressed throughout the process.

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

Over time, this enhanced design process will result in ac-

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

cumulated sustainable expertise within the office. Energy

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

DESIGN PROCESS WITH ENERGY MODELING

each stage of design to ensure energy performance and sus-

modeling reacts to the specifics of a project, but the sustainable strategies it points to can be abstracted and digested as new and improved rules of thumb. Future designs will

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES OPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

start from an ever-more informed position, improving the sustainability and energy efficiency of each successive building.

ACCUMULATED EXPERTISE FROM ENERGY MODELING

DESIGN PROCESS AND ACCUMULATED EXPERTISE FROM ENERGY MODELING


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

WHY ENERGY MODEL? CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURE 2030 INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

TOOLS OF DESIGN

Design Study

Architectural offices must accept that there is no single piece of software that consolidates all of the functionality necessary to create and execute a design. Rather, firms

Design Study

flow that matches the character of the office. The diagram on the right maps the software tools and workflow patterns MS&R uses during design studies. The

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED

studies themselves are the building block of the design pro-

DESIGN THINKING

DESIGN STUDY - THE MOLECULE OF DESIGN THINKING

cess. Each study uses the project’s current state as input, TOOLS OF DESIGN

Design Study

must work with a collection of tools, developing a work-

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED

Design Study

3D PRINTER

explores the design, and creates output that can inform the project and spark the next study.

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

MS&R uses Revit as its primary modeling software and ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

treats Rhino and Sketchup as design models. Design mod-

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN

els can be thought of as digital sketches; the software ensketch can’t inform the project until it leaves the design-

Energy modeling software enables MS&R to analyze the CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

performance of design studies. IES VE uses Sketchup to

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

create the 3D geometry for the energy model. It is not

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

N MODEL

Y MODE IMAR L PR

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

DESIG

they are deposited into Revit.

ANALYSIS

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

models don’t become fully interwoven into the project until

PDF

VISUALIZATION

er’s desk and is shared with the team, the results of design CLIMATE ANALYSIS

ILLUSTRATOR

REVIT

AUTOCAD

REVIT

SKETCHUP RHINO

PDF SKETCHUP

possible to import Rhino geometry directly into IES VE,

PHOTOSHOP

however Sketchup can be used to translate Rhino geometry and then export it to IES VE.

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT IES VE

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES OPTIMIZING GLAZING %

INDESIGN

PHOTOSHOP

RHINO

ables quick explorations of ideas. However, much like a

DOCUMENTATION

SMARTER CONCEPTS

VRAY

MS&R’s software and workflow fosters collaboration within a design team while still allowing for individual creative freedom.

PHYSICAL MODEL

OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

DESIGN STUDY TOOLS AND WORKFLOW

VRAY

INDESIGN


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

WHY ENERGY MODEL? CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURE 2030 INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PHASES AND TECHNOLOGY MS&R uses a variety of software throughout the design

CONCEPT

process. Design Phases and Software Implementation il-

SCHEMATIC DESIGN

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS

CONSTRUCTION ADMINISTRATION

TOOLS OF DESIGN

multiple concepts. Revit is integrated throughout, building

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

up the digital model as the design progresses. Once the Construction Documents phase is reached, the majority of

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN SMARTER CONCEPTS CLIMATE ANALYSIS PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

digital modeling occurs within the detailed Revit model. Energy modeling is used during every phase, but it has the greatest impact on design at the beginning of the process. It is used during Concept and Schematic Design to analyze the climate and test the performance of early design studies, helping inform and improve design decisions.

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

Energy modeling has long been thought of as too compli-

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

effectively. Viewing it alongside other design software puts

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

it in perspective; it is simply another tool that helps address

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT OPTIMIZING R-VALUES OPTIMIZING GLAZING %

Multiple Schemes

Design Options

Design Options

Site Analysis

Model Complex Geometry

Model Complex Geometry

Model Complex Geometry

Existing Conditions

Visualization

Visualization

3D Detailing

Quantity Analysis

Final Systems Definitions

Final Systems Integration

RFI’s

Test Fit Program

System Integration

Final Design Development

Supplemental Sketches

Program Refinement

Typical Details

Construction Sequencing

Construction Sequencing

Prelim. Systems Definition

Door / Finish Schedules

Atypical Details

Prelim. Systems Integration

Coordination

Contract Documents

Infrastructure Identification

Quantity Analysis

Massing and Energy Use

Share Model with Engineer

Share Model with Engineer

Share Model with Engineer

Glazing Percentage Studies

Prelim. Daylight Analysis

Detailed Daylight Analysis

Regulatory Compliance Model

Concept Comparison

Prelim. Thermal Analysis

Detailed Thermal Analysis

Massing Studies Spatial Quality 3D Printed Models

Zoning Analysis Program Studies Existing Conditions

Climate Analysis Initial Daylight Analysis Initial Shadow Studies

cated and specialized to be utilized in the design process

a specific set of decisions that must be made during the design process. Effective implementation of energy model-

SUPPLEMENTAL

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

RHINO GRASSHOPPER SKETCHUP

the ability of the software to quickly model and explore

BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING

DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED

are used heavily in the beginning of the process, leveraging

REVIT

each stage of design. Rhino, Grasshopper, and Sketchup

IES VE

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED

MAIN MODEL

gram also shows the weighted emphasis of the software at

ENERGY MODEL

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

DIGITAL SKETCHING

lustrates when and how each software is used. The dia-

CLIMATE CONSULTANT

Climate Analysis

NEWFORMA

Communication Management

Communication Management

Communication Management

Information Management

ADOBE CS5

Presentation

Presentation, Rendering

Presentation, Rendering

Presentation

RFI’s, Info Management

ing allows design teams to address a wider scope of issues, improving design decisions and ultimately the performance of the building itself.

Light

Weighted Emphasis of Software

OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

DESIGN PHASES AND SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION

heavy


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

WHY ENERGY MODEL? CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURE 2030 INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0 VITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

Energy Modeling Input Category

1

The inputs that go into an energy model are common across all software packages.

2

The modeling software

combines climate data with information about the building form, construction types, occupancy types, occupancy 4, 5

loads, building systems, and building system schedules to

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN SMARTER CONCEPTS CLIMATE ANALYSIS

2)

Building Form

4)

Occupancy Types

5)

Occupancy Loads

6)

Building Systems

7)

Building System Schedules

6, 7

These inputs can be broken into categories by looking at ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

Climate Data

3) Construction Types 3

analyze the energy use of the building.

TOOLS OF DESIGN

1)

whether the architect or engineer is responsible for them during the design process. Climate is a given condition directly related to the project’s site. Building form, construction types, and occupancy types are controlled by the

Design Team Responsibility

Architect

Engineer

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS AND DESIGN TEAM RESPONSIBILITY

architect’s programming and design. Occupancy loads, building systems, and building systems schedules are in the engineer’s domain.

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

An energy model can be represented as a stacked set of DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

inputs. When each input is defined with project specific information, the model will be at its most accurate, as shown in Fully Defined Energy Model.

Fully Defined Energy Model

Partially Defined Energy Model

Energy Model

Energy Model

Climate Data

Climate Data

Building Form

Building Form

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

If you don’t input project specific information into a category, the model will instead rely on pre loaded default

Construction Types

Construction Types

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

settings. In this state, an energy model will still perform

Occupancy Types

Occupancy Types

analyses, it just won’t be as accurate as a model that has

Occupancy Loads

Occupancy Loads

Input Defined by Architects

Building Systems

Building Systems

Input Defined by Engineers

Building Systems Schedules

Building Systems Schedules

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

been fully defined by project specific information. As each OPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

input becomes project-specific, the results become more accurate.

DEFINING ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

Key

Undefined Energy Model Input (Program Default)


ABOUT THE STUDY ENGINEERS

ARCHITECTS

A UNIQUE COLLABORATION

Analyze climate

PROJECT TIMELINE

Analyze site

EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

Explore program

WHY ENERGY MODEL?

Identify energy budget

ARCHITECTURE 2030

CURRENT ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0 VITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

Analyze climate Identify building systems budget

Currently, energy modeling, if it happens at all, occurs at

Identify systems design strategies

the end of design development. Engineering consultants

Develop building systems narrative

create an energy model by defining each input based on

CONCEPT / SCHEMATIC DESIGN

CLIMATE CHANGE

Identify construction budget Identify design strategies

Create massing studies

the finalized design. Because the design is actually a com-

Explore siting options

posite of decisions made during the duration of the design

Explore design options

process, the engineers in effect collapse a tree of decisions

Initial investigation of materials

made over time and turn them into energy modeling inputs.

Explore building systems design options

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN

COMBINE DESIGN

The results of this type of energy model are an accurate prediction of how the building will perform, but they are

Detailed exploration of building geometry

an ineffective design tool. The current process places en-

CLIMATE ANALYSIS PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

ergy modeling too late in the design process, turning it into more of an autopsy of performance rather than a generative tool to inform the design.

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

If we want energy modeling to be used to facilitate design

Calculate heating, cooling, and lighting loads

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

decisions, it must be implemented at the start of a proj-

Size building systems

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

ect and used throughout its duration. The following pages diagram what this process looks like.

FINALIZE DESIGN

Energy Model Climate Data

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

Building Form Construction Types

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

Occupancy Types Occupancy Loads

OPTIMIZING GLAZING %

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

SMARTER CONCEPTS

Building Systems Building Systems Schedules

OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE - CURRENT PRACTICE

Detailed exploration of construction systems Detailed exploration of materials


ABOUT THE STUDY ENGINEERS

ARCHITECTS

A UNIQUE COLLABORATION

Analyze climate

PROJECT TIMELINE

Climate Data

Analyze site

EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

Explore program

WHY ENERGY MODEL?

Identify energy budget

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE - PHASE I

ARCHITECTURE 2030 INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0 VITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED

Analyze climate Energy Modeling Timeline - Proposed Phase I shows how

Identify building systems budget

to implement energy modeling at the earliest stages of de-

Identify systems design strategies

sign. At the beginning of a project, the design team starts

Develop building systems narrative

an energy model by defining Climate Data and Occupancy

CONCEPT / SCHEMATIC DESIGN

CLIMATE CHANGE

Types with project-specific information. When the team begins exploring massing and materials, they input infor-

TOOLS OF DESIGN

mation about Building Form and Construction Types into

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

the model for different design options, running compara-

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN

Create massing studies

CLIMATE ANALYSIS

Concept sketches allow designers to evaluate how well different designs conform to the site and embody the concept, but are understood to not initially tackle issues like ADA

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

accessibility and fire egress. Relative performance testing

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

Occupancy Loads

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

Construction Types Occupancy Types Occupancy Loads Building Systems Building Systems Schedules

Size building systems

different options perform against one another even though the results are not 100% accurate. If engineers and architects share an energy model, it can

Calculate heating, cooling, and lighting loads

Detailed exploration of building geometry

Detailed exploration of construction systems

be passed from architects to engineers as design development begins. Energy Modeling Timeline - Proposed Phase

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

1 realigns the creation of an energy model more closely

OPTIMIZING GLAZING %

with the way decisions are made during the design process.

OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

Simulate energy use

Phase II explores the potential of sharing an energy model

Detailed exploration of materials FINALIZE DESIGN

during design development. ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE - PHASE 1

Climate Data Building Form

Explore design options

Energy Model

in energy modeling is similar; it informs the designers how

Building Systems Building Systems Schedules

Construction Types

COMBINE DESIGN

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

Occupancy Types Occupancy Loads

Explore siting options

Climate Data

Think of relative performance testing like a concept sketch.

Construction Types

Energy Model

Explore building systems design options

is accurate enough to evaluate the relative performance of

Building Form

Identify design strategies

Initial investigation of materials

tive tests between them. At this stage, the software’s output the options.

Identify construction budget

Building Form

SMARTER CONCEPTS

Energy Model

Occupancy Types

Building Systems Building Systems Schedules


ABOUT THE STUDY ENGINEERS

ARCHITECTS

A UNIQUE COLLABORATION

Analyze climate

PROJECT TIMELINE EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

WHY ENERGY MODEL?

ARCHITECTURE 2030

Climate Data

Analyze site

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE - PHASE II

Explore program Identify energy budget

Energy Modeling Timeline - Phase II illustrates the power of sharing an energy model between architects and engineers during design development. As the design progresses Analyze climate

and the model’s default settings are replaced by projectINTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0 VITRUVIUS REDEFINED

specific information, the results become more accurate. In

Identify building systems budget

Phase II, engineers and architects collaborate on the same

Identify systems design strategies

energy model, using their combined knowledge to fully de-

Develop building systems narrative

fine all of its inputs and ensure accurate results.

CONCEPT / SCHEMATIC DESIGN

CLIMATE CHANGE

DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

Energy Model

Identify construction budget

Building Form Construction Types Occupancy Types Occupancy Loads Building Systems Building Systems Schedules

Identify design strategies

Energy Model

Create massing studies

Climate Data Building Form

Explore siting options

Construction Types

After schematic design, architects hand the model to the

Explore design options

Occupancy Loads

engineers who fill in its inputs for occupancy loads, build-

Initial investigation of materials

ing systems, and building systems schedules. If the engi-

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

neers hand the model back to the architects, both parties

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN

now have an energy model fully defined with project-specific information.

Occupancy Types

Building Systems Building Systems Schedules

Explore building systems design options COMBINE DESIGN Energy Model Climate Data Building Form

SMARTER CONCEPTS

Equipped with a fully defined model, architects can now

CLIMATE ANALYSIS

fine tune a project during Design Development by using the

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

energy model to run iterative tests. Not only can the results

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

Occupancy Types Occupancy Loads Building Systems Building Systems Schedules

be used to test how different options for building form and construction types perform against one another, the results are now an accurate projection of the building’s energy use.

Size building systems

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT OPTIMIZING R-VALUES OPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

Both relative performance comparisons and accurate performance projections are useful. By sharing an energy model, architects and engineers can start with relative comparisons early in the design process and work towards accurate projections as the design is developed. This will help the team integrate building performance into the entire design process, keeping projects on track to reach Architecture 2030’s performance goals.

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

Construction Types

Detailed exploration of building geometry

Energy Model Climate Data Building Form Construction Types Occupancy Types Occupancy Loads

Energy Model

Calculate heating, cooling, and lighting loads

Detailed exploration of construction systems

Climate Data Building Form Construction Types Occupancy Types Occupancy Loads Building Systems

Official energy model for certification

Building Systems Schedules

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE - PHASE II

Detailed exploration of materials FINALIZE DESIGN

Building Systems Building Systems Schedules


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

WHY ENERGY MODEL? CLIMATE CHANGE

SMARTER CONCEPTS Concept design provides an ideal opportunity for design teams to set aggressive energy goals and leverage energy

ARCHITECTURE 2030 INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

modeling to steer projects towards them.

phase, designers have a great deal of flexibility in exploring strategies to minimize energy use and maximize building performance. At the same time, the project schedule pres-

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED

sures the design team to be efficient in their explorations

DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED

and design recommendations. Integrating energy modeling

TOOLS OF DESIGN ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

CONCEPT DESIGN ENERGY MODELING METHODOLOGY

During this

PROCESS GOAL

Help inform design decisions during concept design

GUIDING PRINCIPLES

Easy to use

along with a clearly defined process will make the most out of this opportunity by helping designers make informed decisions.

Able to efficiently compare design options

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN

Produce graphical output

The goal of the Energy Modeling Methodology during concept design is to help inform design decisions. To achieve this, it must be:

SMARTER CONCEPTS CLIMATE ANALYSIS PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

Easy to use

Able to efficiently compare design options

Produce graphical output

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

A clearly defined process will help the design team utilize energy modeling efficiently. The process should follow

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

these principles chronologically:

Define energy goals Understand and diagram climate Identify passive and energy efficient design strategies Use energy modeling to compare design options Interpret results holistically

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

Define energy goals

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

Understand and diagram climate

Identify possible passive and energy efficient design

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

METHODOLOGY

strategies

OPTIMIZING GLAZING %

Use energy modeling to compare design options

OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

Interpret results holistically


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

WHY ENERGY MODEL? CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURE 2030

CLIMATE ANALYSIS

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

Sustainable and energy efficient buildings come in a variety of shapes and sizes but they share one thing in common -

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN

they respond to their local climates. Unfortunately, this is the exception rather than the rule for today’s built environment. Beginning with the Lever House in 1952, buildings became sealed boxes, separating themselves from climactic

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

considerations and instead relying on cheap energy from

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

fossil fuels to run HVAC systems that conditioned their in-

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN

teriors.

LEVER HOUSE, 1952, 1ST SEALED CURTAIN WALL SKYSCRAPER 1

Architects must reverse this trend using a design process SMARTER CONCEPTS CLIMATE ANALYSIS PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

that embraces site sensitivity and uses passive strategies to harness local climactic conditions. This process starts with a thorough understanding of climate before design begins.

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

Two excellent tools that help a design team understand

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

their site’s climate and its impact on design are IES VE and

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

Climate Consultant. The following pages give an overview of the tools.

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT OPTIMIZING R-VALUES OPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

1.

Lever House, photo by David Shankbone, Photobucket. media.photobucket.com/image/lever%20 house/HansPB/USA/Lever_House_by_David_Shankbone.jpg.

PASSIVE DESIGN STRATEGIES FOR LAKE ITASCA BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH CENTER


ABOUT THE STUDY

Tulsa_bayStudy 001

A UNIQUE COLLABORATION

31/July/2012 at 12:46 PM

PROJECT TIMELINE

INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS LTD

CLIMATE

EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

Climate metrics

WHY ENERGY MODEL? CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURE 2030

energy modeling software, gives an excellent overview of

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

climactic conditions. The report consists of three columns,

DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED

one containing climate graphs, the second containing critical climate metrics, and the third serving as an explanation of how to read and interpret the first two.

2

Temperature :

TOOLS OF DESIGN

The center graph in the first column is a strong startENERGY MODELING INPUTS ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN SMARTER CONCEPTS

Copyright © 2012 IES Limited All rights reserved

ing point for analyzing climate. It quickly illustrates the months that have cold stress (require cooling), heat stress conditioning). It also shows when peak temperatures and rainfall occurs, and what months contain diurnal swings of

Moisture and humidity4:

greater than 9 degrees. In a snapshot, designers can start to understand the climate. If there are more heating stress

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

months than cooling, the design should place emphasis on

Max. moisture content 0.021 lb/lb Min. moisture content 0.000 lb/lb Mean moisture content 0.009 lb/lb Mean relative humidity 66.9 % Wind5:

minimizing heating loads. If diurnal swings of greater than DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

9 degrees occur in the summer, there may be potential to

Copyright © 2012 IES Limited All rights reserved

Annual rainfall 40.591" in Driest month Jan with 1.539" in rainfall Wettest month May with 5.598" in rainfall Wettest summer month May Wettest winter month Apr Driest summer month Jul Driest winter month Jan Wettest six months May Sep Jun Apr Oct Mar

strategies didn’t immediately pop in your head, no worry; the explanatory column on the right points them out for you.

Solar energy7:

The information in the middle column has been paired

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

down to the most important climate metrics. Reading and

Annual hourly mean global radiation(a) 187.0 Btu/h•ft 2 Mean daily global radiation(b) 1420.5 Btu/ft2 Annual solar resource(c) 519.3 Btu/ft2.yr Annual mean cloud cover(d) 3.9 oktas Degree days8:

digesting it will give design teams a strong initial under-

OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

Annual mean speed 15.8 ft/s Annual mean direction E of N 179.6° Precipitation6:

use night flushing as a passive cooling strategy. And if these

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

OPTIMIZING GLAZING %

Warmest month Jul Max annual temperature (Jul) 102.9 °F Warmest six months Jul Aug Jun May Sep Oct Coldest month Jan Min annual temperature (Jan) -0.9 °F Coldest six months Jan Dec Feb Nov Mar Apr Number of months warmer than 50.0°F mean = 8 Diurnal temperature swing3: 0 months swing > 68 °F, of which 0 are in the warmest 6M 0 months swing 59 to 68 °F, of which 0 are in the warmest 6M 11 months swing 50 to 59 °F, of which 5 are in the warmest 6M 1 months swing 41 to 50 °F, of which 1 are in the warmest 6M 0 months swing < 41 °F

(require heating), or are comfortable (require little to no

CLIMATE ANALYSIS

3A Cfa

Warm humid Humid temperate (mild winters), Fully humid; no dry season, Hot summer (sub-tropical), Mild winters, hot muggy summers with thunderstorms Chosen weather file is TulsaTMY2.fwt Rainfall location: Tulsa, USA Summer is potentially most dominant - the design must minimise cooling energy. Latitude is mid - solar radiation on south/east/west walls is significant. Solar radiation on roofs is significant. Summer is hot/warm. Summer also has a large diurnal range. Humidity is often greater than normal comfort limits. Winter is mild. There may be seasonal destructive storms (Hurricanes, Typhoons). Wind patterns: Typically westerly winds. Insects may be an issue. ASHRAE 90.11 Koeppen-Geiger1

Climate Metrics, an automated report within the IES VE

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED

Tulsa Intl Airport

CLIMATE ANALYSIS - IES VE

standing of climate. For a more in depth study, turn to

HDD(64.4) = 4094.3 CDD(50.0) = 5114.8 Copyright © 2012 IES Limited All rights reserved

Climate Consultant. GRAPHIC CLIMATE ANALYSIS FOR TULSA, OKLAHOMA

The climate report provides the headlines you need to know about the weather file you have selected 1. The Ashrae 90.1 climate classes are based around the Koeppen-Geiger classification system, but provide better definition in temperate and maritime zones. See also Koeppen Geiger and Kottek, Greiser,Beck, Rudolf and Rubel 2. Note the coincidence of wet or dry seasons and warm or cold seasons e.g. Wet summers, dry summers, wet winters etc 3. A good diurnal swing (monthly mean of the daily swing) during the warmest months indicates the potential for passive night time cooling and the use of thermal mass 4. Moisture content the nominal comfort range is 0.004-0.012 lb/lb If moisture content is 0.020 lb/lb or above either all year or in summertime it is an issue. High humidity high temp. cause comfort stress. 5. Wind speeds: less than 4.9 ft/s light and calm 4.9-26 ft/s breeze 26-45 ft/s strong breeze greater than 45 ft/s gale and above 6. Typically what does annual rainfall mean: Wet 67 inches Temperate 20 to 59 inches Dry 12 inches Desert 4 inches 7. Globally what is the range? a. 48 to 143 b. 634 to 2061 c. 254 to 697 d. 1.5 to 8 8. Globally what is the range? HDD 32 to 11432 CDD 32 to 11732


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

WHY ENERGY MODEL? CLIMATE CHANGE

CLIMATE ANALYSIS - CLIMATE CONSULTANT

ARCHITECTURE 2030

Climate Consultant is a free tool developed by UCLA.1 It INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0 VITRUVIUS REDEFINED

is an excellent source for graphically representing climactic information. The tool is used by loading a climate file and clicking

DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED

through the various graphic representations of the data.

TOOLS OF DESIGN

Everything from monthly temperature range to wind roses

TEMPERATURE RANGE

MONTHLY DIURNAL AVERAGES

DRY BULB AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY

SKY COVER RANGE

WIND VELOCITY RANGE

WIND ROSE

are covered. ENERGY MODELING INPUTS ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

Walking through the Climate Consultant is an excellent

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN

way to study certain aspects of climate in detail. During

SMARTER CONCEPTS

the development of Energy Modeling Methodology, I was asked to research the climate in Tulsa for a library MS&R was working on. The design team was interested in how

CLIMATE ANALYSIS

to cool a garden space next to the library using passive

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

strategies. By looking at the graph Temperature Range, we quickly saw that the average temperature in July was

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

85 degrees. We also learned from the Dry Bulb x Relative Humidity graph that the relative humidity hovered around 66% in July. This combination of heat and humidity meant that passive cooling strategies relying on evapotranspiration wouldn’t be that effective. However, the wind patterns in the area showed that the summer breezes came directly

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

from the south. This positioned them to flow right through

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

the project’s outdoor garden. After learning this, the design team focused its initial passive cooling strategies around

OPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

shading and harnessing the wind to passively condition the outdoor garden. 1.

Climate Consultant, www.energy-design-tools.aud.ucla.edu/


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

After a design team becomes familiar with climate, the next

WHY ENERGY MODEL?

step is to determine how it might affect design. Luckily, a

CLIMATE CHANGE

tool has been developed that clearly illustrates the effec-

ARCHITECTURE 2030

tiveness of a variety of passive design strategies in a given climate - the psychrometric chart.1

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

Psychrometric charts work by setting up a system of axes capable of graphing dry-bulb temperature, humidity ratio,

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN

relative humidity, and wet-bulb temperature. Climate data points are then graphed on the chart, usually in the form of hourly data for the entire year. Once these points are graphed, you can get a quick visual overview of the climate

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

by looking at the pattern of dots.

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART SHOWING HUMAN COMFORT ZONE

A comfort zone is then imposed on the chart. This shows the ranges of temperature and humidity that people are comfortable in. Dots that land inside this area donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t need

SMARTER CONCEPTS CLIMATE ANALYSIS PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

any heating, cooling, or humidity alteration to maintain human comfort. Dots that sit outside of it show the hours in the year where the climate does need conditioning to reach comfort levels.

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

Finally, a series of passive design strategies can be selected in the upper left hand corner. The user clicks on a strategy and an associated area is graphed on the psychrometric chart showing the climactic conditions it can effectively temper. One a strategy is active, the chart also calculates the percentage of yearly hours it effectively conditions.

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

Users can quickly cycle through the passive strategies, getOPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

ting visual feedback on how effective each strategy is in their specific climate.

1.

The Psychrometric Chart is part of the Climate Consultant software. www.energy-design-tools.aud.ucla.edu/

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART SHOWING NATURAL VENTILATION AND INTERNAL HEAT GAIN


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

The power of diagrams lies in their ability to bring phe-

WHY ENERGY MODEL?

nomena into the visual realm, facilitating understanding

CLIMATE CHANGE

and communication. In architecture, where practitioners

ARCHITECTURE 2030

are inherently visual people, diagraming a phenomena enables it to be part of the design conversation. Climate is

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

not exempt from this rule; if climactic considerations are

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

to be interwoven into the design process, they must be diagrammed throughout a project’s development.

context

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED

Climate Overview

right was developed to facilitate MS&R’s understanding

periods of heat in summer, yet far enough south to miss the extreme

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

of the Tulsa climate and how it affected the design of a

Mexico is often noted, due to the high humidity, but the climate is

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN SMARTER CONCEPTS CLIMATE ANALYSIS PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

cold of winter. The influence of warm moist air from the Gulf of essentially continental characterized by rapid changes in temperature. Generally the winter months are mild. Temperatures occasionally fall

tic information like wind direction and magnitude and the

below zero but only last a very short time. Temperatures of 100

sun path over an aerial view, they now become generative

September, but are usually accompanied by low relative humidity and

forces for the design. Can the design harness the summer

of pleasant, sunny days and cool, bracing nights.

winds and block the winter winds? Will the project be shaded by nearby buildings?

S

At latitude 36 degrees, Tulsa is far enough north to escape the long

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

library they were working on. By simply overlaying climac-

IND

W

a project’s other generative forces. The graphic on the

ER

begin diagramming its most important aspects alongside

CLIMATE INT

TOOLS OF DESIGN

After researching climate, designers should immediately

W

DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED

19:40

5:12

degrees or higher are often experienced from late July to early a good southerly breeze. The fall season is long with a great number

SITE

Rainfall is ample for most agricultural pursuits and is distributed favorably throughout the year. Spring is the wettest season, having an abundance of rain in the form of showers and thunderstorms. The steady rains of fall are a contrast to the spring and summer showers and provide a good supply of moisture. The greatest amounts of snow are received in January and early March. The snow is usually

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

Adding key climate metrics to the graphic helps the design

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

team gain a more nuanced understanding of how climate

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

place an extreme cooling load on unshaded areas of the site? Does the high relative humidity make natural ventila-

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

Finally, writing a short climate overview acts like a textbased version of a diagram; it quickly brings together sa-

OPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

Max annual temperature (July)

102.9 F

Min annual temperature (Jan)

0.9 F

Mean relative humidity

66.9 %

Annual mean wind speed

15.8 ft/s

Annual rainfall

40.59 in

Mean daily global radiation

1420.5 Btu/sqft

Annual mean cloud cover

3.9 oktas

Heating Degree Days

4094.3

Cooling Degree Days

5114.8

lient information into a format that facilitates understand-

DS ER WIN

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

7:36

SUMM

tion an ineffective strategy?

17:08

By the Numbers

WINTER WINDS

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

might affect the design. Will the high daily global radiation

light and only remains on the ground for brief periods.

Meyer, Scherer & Rockcastle, ltd

ing and communication. TULSA CLIMATE DIAGRAM

36


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

WHY ENERGY MODEL? CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURE 2030 INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

A project’s diagrams should continue to address climate

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED

throughout the design process. After completing the initial climate analysis for Tulsa, I explored passive and active

DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

strategies for conditioning the project’s outdoor garden

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN SMARTER CONCEPTS

GARDEN STUDY Climate Metrics

Investigated Strategies

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

102.9 F

1.

Capture rainfall on roof and in garden

Min annual temperature (Jan)

0.9 F

2.

Store rainfall in underground cisterns

spatial constraints of the site with the climactic conditions

Mean relative humidity

66.9 %

3.

Potential to cool rainfall through a ground

7.

Use tensile fabric to shade garden

Annual mean wind speed

15.8 ft/s

heat exchanger

8.

Verify if garden and greenwall can condition

Annual rainfall

40.59 in

Mean daily global radiation

1420.5 Btu/sqft

indirect evaporative cooling by running water

Annual mean cloud cover

3.9 oktas

over roof

placed on the sheet, ensuring they would be referenced dur-

4.

ing the process.

5.

garden and funneling it into an air ground heat

and green wall with canopy structure

Explore cooling library interior through

exchanger 11.

Explore using summer breezes from the south to help condition garden

PV panels produce electricity and shade roof

exchanger to precondition ventilation air for

outdoor areas through evapotranspiration 9. 10.

Test viability of using an air ground heat the library

12.

Consider using preconditioned air for library ventilation

Investigate collecting air at northern end of

Wind flow and annual rainfall stood out as potential drivThe resulting design proposal then looked at the ways wa-

1 5 7

1

7

4

6

6

ter could be passively collected, stored, cooled, and then

5

4

9

used to condition the garden and the interior of the library. A combination of evapotranspiration and harnessing the

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

wind patterns might help further condition the air in the

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

garden, and this precooled air sould then be drawn through

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

Study integrating irrigation system for garden

Max annual temperature (July)

ers of passive design, and they were added to the diagram. CLIMATE ANALYSIS

6.

space. First I created a graphic that combined the existing that affected the design. Important climate metrics were

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

context

10 8

8

12

an air / ground heat exchanger and used to condition the library’s interior.

2

2

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

11

11

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

3

3

OPTIMIZING GLAZING % Meyer, Scherer & Rockcastle, ltd

OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

INVESTIGATED SUSTAINABLE STRATEGIES FOR THE TULSA GARDEN

39


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

WHY ENERGY MODEL? CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURE 2030

WIND ANALYSIS IES VE was used to conduct a wind flow analysis for MS&R’s Tulsa Central Library project. After earlier diagrams identified the possibility of using the site’s wind flow

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

patterns to passively cool the project’s garden space, the

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

design team wanted to explore the issue in more detail us-

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN

ing energy modeling. MicroFlo is a computational fluid dynamics application that is a part of IES VE.1 It can be used to study internal or external air flow. For this study, the design team was

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN SMARTER CONCEPTS CLIMATE ANALYSIS PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

interested in how a design option would affect wind flow through the garden area between the library and parking

TULSA GARDEN WIND FLOW ANALYSIS - INITIAL CONDITION

ramp. The project’s garden, library, parking ramp, and surrounding buildings were modeled as simple masses. The team then referenced the initial climate studies to determine the average summer wind speed and direction. The values, 16 feet per second blowing from South to North, were input in MicroFlo. The software then computed wind flow patterns through the site.

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

The images show the results of the analysis. They each depict a sectional slice of the modeled wind field that cuts through the garden. As the scale shows, red areas represent wind speeds of 16 feet per second and dark blue areas represent zones with speeds near 0 feet per second.

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

The design option explored in the lower image interrupts wind flow at the garden’s surface but still allows air to cir-

OPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

culate above. The design team used this information to inform the next round of design explorations. 1.

IES VE MicroFLO User Guide. www.iesve.com/content/downloadasset_2287

TULSA GARDEN WIND FLOW ANALYSIS - DESIGN OPTION


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

CONCEPTUAL MASSING STUDIES COMPARISON

WHY ENERGY MODEL? CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURE 2030

1

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

• What questions are you trying to answer?

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

DEFINE THE GOAL • What variables are you testing?

Massing studies are a cornerstone of concept design. Diagrams, hand sketches, and digital and physical models help

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN

architects visualize, test, and refine early massing concepts.

2

Energy modeling can add another layer of analysis to the

• Design decisions are complicated with a multitude of influences. Clear selection criteria

mix, allowing the design team to consider a massing op-

facilitates decision making

tion’s impact on energy performance as well. ENERGY MODELING INPUTS ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN

• Use existing standards as selection criteria when possible.

Using energy modeling to test massing concepts ensures that issue of energy efficiency and sustainability will shape the design from its earliest stages. Because the design teams

3

CLIMATE ANALYSIS PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

feedback from early energy modeling can put a design on

lenge; because there are so many initial variables, it can DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

be difficult to compare and analyze the performance of di-

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

vergent concepts against one another. However, if design

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT OPTIMIZING R-VALUES OPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

• Model only the detail necessary to facilitate decision making.

track to meet aggressive performance goals. Unfortunately, this inherent strength is also the process’s greatest chal-

BUILD AN ENERGY MODEL • Simplify the model.

have so much creative freedom at the start of a project, SMARTER CONCEPTS

CREATE SELECTION CRITERIA

4

RUN ANALYSES • What analyses are necessary to shape your decision? • What output is required to match your selection criteria?

teams adopt a process that starts by clearly defining goals

• Are there additional analyses that can give you a more holistic view of performance?

and ends with a wholistic comparison of design options across a wide range of selection criteria, the methodology can overcome this challenge and help inform those crucial initial design decisions.

5

INTERPRET RESULTS HOLISTICALLY • Always think holistically. Sustainability is not an end goal, it is part of good design. • Balance energy modeling results with other important design aspects when making design decisions.


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE

1

DEFINE THE GOAL

EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

Comprehensively compare massing options across selection

WHY ENERGY MODEL?

criteria that integrating the project’s main design drivers with

CLIMATE CHANGE

DEFINE THE GOAL

energy performance.

ARCHITECTURE 2030

Lake Itasca Biological Research Station, a MS&R project INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0 VITRUVIUS REDEFINED

targeting net-zero energy use, was used as the platform to develop much of the Energy Modeling Methodology. When research began, the project had already completed Schematic Design and was awaiting the start of Design

DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED

Development. This allowed the research team freedom to

TOOLS OF DESIGN

focus on process development rather than project deliver-

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

ables because the work was conducted outside of the standard fee and scheduling pressures of a project. This spe-

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

cific portion of the methodology, Concept Massing Studies,

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN

revisited early concept studies as the basis of comparison.

SMARTER CONCEPTS CLIMATE ANALYSIS

Although these studies were conducted well after initial design decisions had been made, the process that emerged will be implemented on future MS&R projects to steer concept design.

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

An early challenge for the design team was to choose a massing option that not only responded to the project’s de-

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

sign drivers but also put it on track to achieve its net-zero

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

energy goal. In response, I created a process that combined

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

energy modeling with other selection criteria in comprehensively evaluating three different massing schemes. The first step in the comparison was defining its goal. The goal was defined as:

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES OPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

“Comprehensively compare massing options across selection criteria that integrating the project’s main design drivers with energy performance.” CONCEPTUAL MASSING OPTIONS FOR ITASCA BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH STATION


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

WHY ENERGY MODEL? 2

CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURE 2030

CREATE SELECTION CRITERIA

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

Using energy modeling to help in the comparison of conceptual massing options is a powerful tool that is inher-

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN

ently difficult to use; because there are so many initial variables at play, it is a challenge to compare analysis results

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN

Balance the Economic, Social, and Environmental impacts of various massing options

ECONOMIC • Efficient to operate • On budget • Functional

between massing options. However, by developing clear selection criteria, the design team can facilitate massing op-

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

CREATE SELECTION CRITERIA

tion comparisons that will help steer the project in a successful direction.

SOCIAL • Sensitive to historic fabric • Building will be the visitor arrival point, meeting place, and social center

MS&R always strives to work with the client to clearly

• Interior and exterior public spaces

define a project’s goals at the outset of design. These goals SMARTER CONCEPTS CLIMATE ANALYSIS PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

become the benchmark of the project, acting as both a generative force and a set of criteria to judge design decisions against.

CULTURAL • Contemporary building that will not be confused with original historic buildings of the field station • Embody the “field station” experience by enhancing outdoor activities and nature appreciation

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

When creating selection criteria to facilitate the compari-

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

son of concept massing options, the research team began with the project’s goals. They were split into categories,

• Posses a compelling identity

Economic, Social, Cultural, and Environmental. The last

ENVIRONMENTAL

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

category, Environmental, already contained aggressive per-

• Approach “zero net energy” within the limits of the budget

formance standards that could be analyzed by energy mod-

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

eling. The first three, while outside the domain of energy

• Use natural light to illuminate interior during operating hours

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

modeling, are integral to the project’s success. Including

• Utilize passive design strategies and make them an experiential and educational part of the building

the entire lists ensures that massing options are compared OPTIMIZING GLAZING %

in a holistic manner.

OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT DESIGN PERFORMANCE SELECTION CRITERIA FOR THE ITASCA BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH STATION


ABOUT THE STUDY 2

A UNIQUE COLLABORATION

CREATE SELECTION CRITERIA

Balance the Economic, Social, and Environmental impacts of various massing options

ECONOMIC

PROJECT TIMELINE

SOCIAL EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

CULTURAL

WHY ENERGY MODEL? CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURE 2030

• Using existing standards as selection criteria when possible

ENVIRONMENTAL

USE EXISTING STANDARDS FOR SELECTION CRITERIA

Approach “zero net energy” within the limits of the budget

Use natural light to illuminate interior during operating hours

Utilize passive design strategies and make them an experiential and educational part of the building

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

While outlining selection criteria for the Itasca concept

DESIGN PERFORMANCE SELECTION CRITERIA FOR THE ITASCA BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH STATION

massing comparisons, the research team searched for existVITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN

ing standards that could be used to augment the list. The environmental category called for the design to use natu-

• Modify existing standards for your project to create selection criteria

ral light to illuminate the interior during operating hours. IESNA standards exist that govern the lighting levels in

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

various programmatic spaces.1 The research team adapted

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

them to the project’s program and used them as a bench-

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN SMARTER CONCEPTS CLIMATE ANALYSIS PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

Lux

Foot Candles

20-30-50

2-3-5

Simple orientation for short temporary visits

B

50-75-100

5-7.5-10

Working spaces where visual tasks are only occasionally performed

C

100-150-200

10-15-20

Performance of visual tasks of high contrast or large size

D

200-300-500

20-30-50

Performance of visual tasks of medium contrast or small size

E

500-750-1000

50-75-100

Performance of visual tasks of low contrast or very small size

F

1000-1500-2000

100-150-200

Performance of visual tasks of low contrast or very small size over a prolonged period

G

2000-3000-5000

200-300-500

range of illuminance values required by the categories. The

Performance of very prolonged and exacting visual tasks

H

5000-7500-10000

500-750-1000

research team listed the various programs the Itasca proj-

Performance of very special visual tasks of extremely low contrast and small size

I

10000-15000-20000

1000-1500-2000

mark to test natural lighting performance when comparing massing options. IESNA lists nine categories that cover a variety of programs in its lighting standards. Attached to each are a

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

the illuminance levels that matched. The selection criteria

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

Ranges of Illuminance

A

ect contained and, consulting the IESNA standards, chose

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

Illuminance Category

Public spaces with dark surroundings

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

Type of Activity

Reference Work-Plane

General lighting throughout spaces

Illuminance on task Illuminance on task, obtained by a combination of general and local lighting

ILLUMINANCE CATEGORIES AND ILLUMINANCE VALUES FOR GENERIC TYPES OF ACTIVITIES IN INTERIORS

called for the design to use natural light to illuminate the interiors during operating hours; this chart contained the lighting levels required to meet this goal. And energy mod-

Itasca Programmatic Spaces

Illuminance Category

eling analyses were later used to test if the concept massing options could hit these targets.

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES OPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

1.

IESNA Illumination guidelines are published by IESNA. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory republished them on their website. www.wbdg.org/pdfs/usace_lightinglevels.pdf

Ranges of Illuminance Lux

Foot Candles

Lab Area

E

500-750-1000

50-75-100

Office Area

D

200-300-500

20-30-50

Auditorium

D

200-300-500

20-30-50

Mechanical

D

200-300-500

20-30-50

Lobby

B

50-75-100

5-7.5-10

Circulation

B

50-75-100

5-7.5-10

Rest Rooms

B

50-75-100

5-7.5-10

ITASCA DAYLIGHTING TARGETS

Reference Work-Plane

Illuminance on task

General lighting throughout spaces


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

WHY ENERGY MODEL? 3

CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURE 2030

BUILD AN ENERGY MODEL

Simplify, simplify, simplify. Model only the level of detail necessary to facilitate decision making.

BUILDING AN ENERGY MODEL

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

Energy modeling is used to analyze and compare the performative aspects of massing options. When creating the

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN

energy model, it is important to simplify it as much as possible. At this early stage of design, it is important for an energy model to be quick to make and to be able to provide enough information to facilitate a relative comparison.

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

These energy models don’t have to accurately predict the

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

building’s energy use down to the nearest kBtu/sf. Instead

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN

they need to contain only the detail necessary to differentiate them from one another and capture each concept’s unique features that may affect energy use.

SMARTER CONCEPTS CLIMATE ANALYSIS PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

The building’s geometry should be simplified. Any rooms

ITASCA CONCEPT SKETCH WITH DETAILED ROOM DIVISIONS

that are similar should be grouped together into a single zone. The images on the right show an early concept plan

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

for Itasca. The second image illustrates how the energy

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

model combines multiple offices into a single zone as well

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

REST ROOMS

as combining the lab spaces and their support areas. This speeds up the modeling process considerably while still keeping enough definition to provide results accurate enough to facilitate a relative comparison.

AUDITORIUM LOBBY OFFICE

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

LAB SPACES

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

CIRCULATION

OPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

1.

IES VE Sketchup Plugin User Guide. http://www.iesve.com/content/downloadasset_2867

COMBINE SIMILAR ROOMS INTO SINGLE ZONES WHEN BUILDING AN ENERGY MODEL1

OFFICE


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION

A 1) CONCEPT DRAWING PROJECT TIMELINE

B 2) SKETCHUP MODEL

EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

WHY ENERGY MODEL?

C 3) SKETCHUP IES ENERGY MODELING PLUG IN

CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURE 2030

D 4) IES ENERGY MODEL

BUILDING AN ENERGY MODEL

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

Because IES VE uses a Sketchup plugin to create its energy models, going from concept sketch to three dimensional en-

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN

ergy model is quick and easy. The images on the right start by showing a concept drawing that has been imported into Sketchup. Because the most important differences were the sectional characteristics and glazing placement between the

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN

massing options, these were captured in detail. Again, using Sketchup makes modeling this detail very easy. When creating an energy model in Sketchup, do not model wall thickness. Energy models deal in zones, looking at the

SMARTER CONCEPTS CLIMATE ANALYSIS

space between defining elements, not at the elements themselves. Define the geometry with simple planes.1

A) CONCEPT SKETCH

B) SKETCHUP MODEL

C) SKETCHUP IES ENERGY MODELING PLUG IN

D) IES ENERGY MODEL (DAYLIGHT ANALYSIS SHOWN)

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

After the sketchup model is complete, the IES Plugin auDIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

tomates the process that converts it into an energy model.

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

The plugin searches the model for enclosed areas and turns

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

them into zones that can be read by IES VE. Finally, it exports the converted model into IES VE where the full suite of analyses can be run on it.

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT OPTIMIZING R-VALUES OPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

1.

IES VE Sketchup Plugin User Guide. http://www.iesve.com/content/downloadasset_2867


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE

RUNNING ANALYSES

EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

WHY ENERGY MODEL? CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURE 2030 INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

4

RUN ANALYSES

Chose analyses that will help inform decision making in a holistic manner

Once an energy model is created, design teams need to choose analyses that will provide them with the information necessary to make an informed decision. For the

CONCEPT SKETCH

ENERGY MODEL

DAYLIGHTING ANALYSIS

KBTU/SF

Itasca project, our selection criteria was broken into four categories: economic, social, cultural, and environmental.

70

Energy modeling analyses can help test the performance of the concept massing options in the environmental category.

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

The environmental category of the selection criteria called for a building that approaches zero net energy, uses natural

CONCEPT 1

light, and utilizes passive design strategies. The first two criteria, energy use and natural lighting, can be easily analyzed by an energy model. It is much more difficult and

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN SMARTER CONCEPTS CLIMATE ANALYSIS PSYCHROMETRIC CHART DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

71

time consuming to analyze passive design strategies with an energy model, so the design team instead relied on climate research and the psychrometric chart to determine what passive strategies might be effective. CONCEPT 2

A massing conceptâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy use can be determined by running a thermal analysis with IES VE ApacheSim.1 Remember that the performance comparisons between massing

74

options will be relative; define the building geometry and CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT OPTIMIZING R-VALUES OPTIMIZING GLAZING %

make quick assumptions about the rest of the energy modeling inputs. When running a thermal analysis, focus on heating and cooling loads instead of energy use, as building systems, an unknown at this point in the process, have little

CONCEPT 3

effect on them. Daylight analyses use IES VE Flucs DL. Run tests for the

79

winter and summer solstice. Then measure and graph lighting levels in foot candles to enable comparisons with

OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

the lighting selection criteria. 1.

IES VE ApacheSim User Guide. www.iesve.com/content/downloadasset_2883

2.

IES VE FlucsDL User Guide. http://www.iesve.com/content/downloadasset_2307

CONCEPT 3


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE

INTERPRETING RESULTS

EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

WHY ENERGY MODEL? CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURE 2030 INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

The final steps in comparing conceptual massing options is compiling the analyses, interpreting the results, and making a decision. The most important thing to remember is to think holistically. The graphic on the right brings together the four massing

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

options, the energy modeling results, and the original selec-

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED

tion criteria. Architecture must respond to a wide range of

5

INTERPRET RESULTS HOLISTICALLY

Balance energy modeling results with other important design aspects when making design decisions

factors; combining all of this information helps ensure that

te

r

criteria.

r te ac

COMPARING CONCEPT MASSING OPTIONS

ial nt t gh l li ra tu na e

Us

5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4

2

2

1

1

3

5 4

2 1

3

5 4

2 1

3

5 4

2 1

3

at th n

sig de ive

ss pa e

Us

5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1

5 4 3 2 1

5 4 3 2 1

5 4 3 2 1 5 4

2 1

3

5 4

2 1

3

5

5 2 1

Concept 4

was decided to be the best direction for the project.

4

use. But, after looking at the full range of design drivers, it

3

10867 sf

Glazing to Floor Area Ratio - 21.30%

4

11497 sf

Exterior Wall Area -

3

5

this option may have been tossed out for its higher energy

4

79 kBtu / SF

Total Floor Area -

3

Thermal Loads -

ar

gy er en o

tz er ch

oa Ap

pr

5 4 3 2 1

5 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 1

5 4 3 2 1

5 4 3 2 1

5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1

5 4 3 2 1

5 4 3 2 1

1

Concept 3

If the concept massing comparison wasn’t done holistically,

e

ex

pe

EN M N RO

ne

VI EN 1

5 4 3 2 1

5 4 3 2 1

5 4 3 2 1

5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1

5 4 3

3 2 1

7902 sf

Glazing to Floor Area Ratio - 15.44%

4

12069 sf

Exterior Wall Area -

2

design strategies as experiential elements. ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

74 kBtu / SF

Total Floor Area -

3

el and into the lab, received high marks for using passive

Thermal Loads -

2

ing into a sun corridor and then through a translucent pan-

5

Concept 2

1

And the unique section, with skylights on the south stream-

2

10262 sf

1

13295 sf

Exterior Wall Area -

rie

e nc rie pe

ex n” io

at St ld

Fie e“

th

Em

bo

dy

TA L

ar ch e

ch

iqu

iqu un

ith

ith

gw bu il

din ry

bu il

ra

ry Co

nt

em

po

ra po em nt

din

gw

L RA LT U U Co

er Int

un

es Sp

C

nd io

ra

ac

lp rP

ito Ex

te

rio

e be

ild Bu

ub lic

ic br

vis

Fa

th

or ist

ill

H ing

w

to

5 4 3 2 1

5 4 5

70 kBtu / SF

Total Floor Area -

4

Thermal Loads -

Glazing to Floor Area Ratio - 9.82%

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

3

Concept 1

much higher glazing percentage than the rest of the models. the only one to achieve the IESNA lighning benchmarks.

OPTIMIZING GLAZING %

10262 sf

the highest energy use with 79 kBtu/sf, it also contained a

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

13295 sf

Exterior Wall Area -

Glazing to Floor Area Ratio - 9.82%

The concept outperformed the rest in daylighting and was

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

70 kBtu/sf

Total Floor Area -

1

to continue in the direction of Concept 4. Although it had

Thermal Loads -

2

After scoring the concept options, the design team elected

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

THERMAL ANALYSIS

deemed more critical than others.

SMARTER CONCEPTS

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

ic

L IA C DAYLIGHTING ANALYSIS

itiv e

CONCEPTS

ns

also weight the scores if certain aspects of the project are

Se

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN

SO

be scored for each selection criteria. Design teams can

CLIMATE ANALYSIS

ra

rr

iva

To facilitate the decision making process, the concepts can ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

e

oi

nt

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

ar

an

d

ac

te

so

r

cia

lc

TOOLS OF DESIGN

each concept is evaluated against the full range of selection en

DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

WHY ENERGY MODEL?

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT ENERGY MODELING METHODOLOGY

CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURE 2030

ITERATIVE ANALYSIS

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0 VITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN

Energy modeling is a perfect match for the design development phase.

Aid designers in fine tuning a design

GUIDING PRINCIPLES

Easy to use

During design development, large-scale

decisions have been made, a concept has been locked in, and the project team spends the majority of their time fine tuning the design. Energy modeling thrives in this environment, leveraging its strength as an analytical tool that is

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

most effective when studying isolated variables. Designers

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

can use energy modeling to help dial in a range of design

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN

PROCESS GOAL

Able to efficiently compare design options Produce graphical output

development decisions using iterative analyses. An iterative analysis takes one variable, be it the R value of

SMARTER CONCEPTS CLIMATE ANALYSIS PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

a wall, the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s glazing percentage, or the geometry or a room, testing baseline performance against a series of options that all slightly modify it. By using iterative analyses, the design team can optimize conditions. In practice, this

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

usually involves using energy modeling to find a range of

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

optimized conditions and setting them as bracketed targets

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT ITERATIVE ANALYSIS OPTIMIZING R-VALUES OPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

for the design to hit.

METHODOLOGY

Create a baseline energy model of the schematic design Identify key aspects of the design to fine tune Use iterative analysis to bracket optimized conditions Interpret results holistically


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

WHY ENERGY MODEL? CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURE 2030 INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0 VITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES As buildings strive to reach higher levels of energy efficiency, the quality of their envelopes becomes very important. Having a well insulated, well designed, and well constructed envelope is critical to the performance of a design. So just how much insulation is necessary? Energy modeling can help answer this perennial question. R-value is a measurement of thermal resistance used to

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

describe the performance of building materials. It is ex-

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN

pressed as the thickness of the material divided by its ther-

SMARTER CONCEPTS CLIMATE ANALYSIS PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

WALL ASSEMBLY Material

mal conductivity. Materials with higher insulating capaci-

.08

1” Rigid Insulation - Extruded Polystyrene

5

5/8” OSB Sheathing

0.63

3 1/2” Cellulose Blown Insulation

13.65

calculated by adding the R-values of its component parts

2 1/2” Cellulose Blown Insulation

9.75

5 1/2” Cellulose Blown Insulation

21.45

together. U-value, used to describe the thermal resistance

5/8” OSB

.63

1” Rigid Insulation - Extruded Polystyrene

5

of windows, is simply the reciprocal of R-value.

5/8” Gypsum Board

.56

ties have a higher R-value. The R-value for an assembly is

TOTAL R VALUE OF ASSEMBLY

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

R Value

5/8” Hardy Panel

57.47

Energy modeling and iterative analysis can help design teams dial in optimized target R-values for a building’s envelope.

11” COMPACTED GRAVEL FILL BACKFILL

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

As a target, the values help guide the design while still al-

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

cisions holistically. While iterative analysis will provide a

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

range of optimized R-values, it is still up to the design team

OPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

lowing for the flexibility necessary to address design de-

1 1/2” FLOWABLE FILL

12” COMPACTED GRAVEL FILL

to factor in the cost, durability, constructability, sustainability, and aesthetic and conceptual impact of designing

UNDISTURBED SOIL

the envelope to achieve the recommended values. 1

Section - Double Stud Wall 1 1/2" = 1'-0"

WALL SECTION AND R-VALUES


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

PROJECT TIMELINE

The design team for MS&R’s Itasca Biological Research

EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

Center wanted to determine target values for effective lev-

ITASCA ENERGY MODELING

els of insulation in the project’s envelope. The process be-

Wall R Value Wall R Value

WHY ENERGY MODEL?

13 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65

gan by creating a base energy model, setting the envelope’s

CLIMATE CHANGE

R-values to code-minimum levels. The performance of this

ARCHITECTURE 2030

base condition was analyzed using IES VE ApacheSim and graphed as the design’s total annual heating and cooling

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

Design Model

Heating Loads Cooling Loads Total Loads 619827 133190 753017 606219 134041 740260 585561 136064 721625 572214 137022 709236 563177 137661 700838 556650 138115 694765 551702 138445 690147 547822 138699 686521 544698 138904 683602 542131 139080 681211 539987 139237 679224 538173 139384 677557

Wall R-Value

30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85

Cooling Loads Total Loads Heating Loads 619827 133190 753017 610011 132955 742966 602558 133113 735671 596704 133215 729919 591980 133288 725268 588089 133352 721441 584833 133421 718254 582076 133503 715579 579720 133601 713321 577687 133715 711402 575913 133820 709733 574368 133953 708321

Roof R-Value

Wall R Value

load.1

Roof R Value Roof R Value

Slab R Value Slab R Value 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65

Heating Loads Cooling Loads Total Loads 619827 133190 753017 578573 139255 717828 556004 142875 698879 540864 145434 686298 530198 147311 677509 522290 148740 671030 516184 149870 666054 511331 150786 662117 507375 151544 658919 504103 152174 656277 501334 152719 654053 499110 153159 652269

Slab R-Value

Roof R Value

Window R Value Window R Value Heating Loads Cooling Loads Total Loads 1.5 619827 133190 753017 2 542684 135236 677920 3 466900 145821 612721 4 428415 152660 581075 5 405152 157421 562573 6 376684 178931 555615 7 365494 182487 547981 8 357087 185288 542375 9 350540 187547 538087 10 345291 189409 534700 11 340991 190969 531960 12 337402 192294 529696

Window R-Value

Slab R Value

Window R Value

750000

750000

750000

750000

700000

700000

700000

700000

650000

650000

650000

650000

600000

600000

600000

600000

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED

Each assembly was then studied independently using iterative analysis. With the rest of the building remaining at

DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED

code-minimum levels, each successive iteration would raise

TOOLS OF DESIGN

the R-value of the assembly being tested by 5 and model

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

its impact on heating and cooling loads. Eleven iterations were completed for each assembly.

Annual heating and cooling load (kBtu/sf) Scale consistent across assemblies

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

ITASCA ENERGY MODELING Wall R Value 550000 Wall R Value

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN SMARTER CONCEPTS

The results all show that heating and cooling loads are re-

500000

duced when the assembly’s R-value is increased. However, by studying the slope of each graph, the design team could see where the performance benefits of additional R value began to plane out. When the cost of increasing an as-

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

sembly’s R-value is factored in, it became clear that these

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

changes in slope signaled the point where increased insulation no longer carried a strong return on investment. These target values were highlighted in yellow. The lighter shade of yellow indicated increased R-values that, while not returning a large performance benefit, might still be necessary to achieve the project’s net-zero energy targets. The orange line marks where the R-values were previously set during schematic design.

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES OPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

The top row of graphs also illustrates the relative perfor-

Heating Loads Cooling Loads Total Loads 619827 133190 753017 606219 134041 740260 585561 136064 721625 572214 137022 709236 563177 137661 700838 556650 138115 694765 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 551702 138445 690147 547822 138699 Current: 686521 R63 544698 138904 683602 542131 139080 681211 539987 139237 679224 538173 139384 677557

Wall R Value

Roof R Value 550000 Roof R Value

Heating Loads Cooling Loads Total Loads 30 619827 133190 753017 35 610011 132955 742966 40 602558 133113 735671 45 596704 133215 729919 50 591980 133288 725268 500000 55 588089 133352 721441 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 60 584833 133421 718254 65 582076 133503 715579 Current: R178 70 579720 133601 713321 Model Data 75 577687 133715 711402 Floor Area 11740 80 575913 133820 709733 Volume 215865 85 574368 133953 708321 Ext. Wall Area 10434 Ext. Opening Area 3300 Ext. Roof Area 13223 Roof R Value

Heating Loads Cooling Loads Total Loads 619827 133190 753017 578573 139255 717828 556004 142875 698879 540864 145434 686298 530198 147311 677509 522290 148740 671030 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 516184 149870 666054 511331 150786 662117 Current: R93 507375 151544 658919 504103 152174 656277 501334 152719 654053 499110 153159 652269

Slab R Value

Window R Value 550000 Window R Value Heating Loads Cooling Loads Total Loads 1.5 619827 133190 753017 2 542684 135236 677920 3 466900 145821 612721 4 428415 152660 581075 5 405152 157421 562573 500000 6 376684 178931 555615 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 7 365494 182487 547981 8 185288 542375 Current:357087 R4.3 9 350540 187547 538087 10 345291 189409 534700 11 340991 190969 531960 12 337402 192294 529696

Window R Value

748321

737557

743321

727557

738321

729696

732269

679696 712269

733321 717557 728321

629696 692269

707557 723321 697557 718321

687557

579696

672269

713321

708321

677557 13

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

652269 30

35

40

45

50

55

Current: R63

60

65

70

75

80

85

Current: R178 Model Data Floor Area Volume Ext. Wall Area Ext. Opening Area Ext. Roof Area

er. The graphs show that increasing the window R-value IES VE ApacheSim User Guide, http://www.iesve.com/content/downloadasset_2883

500000

10 15 20 25 30 35 10 15 40 45 50 55 60 65

747557

mance benefits of addressing one assembly against anoth-

1.

Slab R Value 550000 Slab R Value

752269

Annual heating and cooling load (kBtu/sf) Scale to fit data per assembly

CLIMATE ANALYSIS

13 15 20 25 30 35 13 15 40 45 50 55 60 65

Design Model

ITASCA ITERATIVE ANALYSIS OF R-VALUES

11740 215865 10434 3300 13223

529696 10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

Current: R93

1

2

3

4

5

Current: R4.3

6

7

8

9

10

11

12


ABOUT THE STUDY A UNIQUE COLLABORATION

OPTIMIZING GLAZING PERCENTAGE

SUN CORRIDOR DAYLIGHT STUDY Target Standard - LEED 2009 Credit 8.1: Daylight

PROJECT TIMELINE EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

WHY ENERGY MODEL?

percentage on Itasca’s south facing sun corridor. Daylight-

Standard Used - LEED Innovation in Design Credit

Option 1

Option 2

Option 3

Starting condition

Remove every fourth window

Remove every other window

46% Glazing

29% Glazing

17% Glazing

Average Daylight FC - 87.3 Meet LEED 8.1 Daylight Target - YES

Average Daylight FC - 62.5 Meet LEED 8.1 Daylight Target - YES

Average Daylight FC - 37.5 Meet LEED 8.1 Daylight Target - NO

Meet LEED IDC Daylight Target - YES

Meet LEED IDC Daylight Target - NO

Meet LEED IDC Daylight Target - NO

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED

associated Innovation in Design credit to serve as the target. The standard called for 95% of a design’s regularly occupied spaces to achieve daylighting levels between 25 and 500 foot candles measured at 9:00 am and 3:00 pm on September 21st. ITASCA BIOLOGICAL FIELD STATION - Design Development

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

IES VE includes a LEED Credit 8.1 navigator that analzes

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN

the design for credit compliance. I simply modeled the sun

Daylight Optimization 08.21.2012

SUN CORRIDOR DAYLIGHT STUDY

corridor with a variety of glazing percentages in IES VE,

Target Standard - LEED 2009 Credit 8.1: Daylight

ran the navigator, and interpreted the results. The top im-

LEED Credit 8.1 - 10 foot candle minimum daylight in 75% of occupied space at 9:00 am and 3:00 pm on September 21st.

age shows the graphical output from the IES VE analysis. CLIMATE ANALYSIS PSYCHROMETRIC CHART DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

Results File - 120820 Sun Co LEEED Daylight Study

Because the project is pursuing LEED certification, the design team used LEED Credit 8.1 - Daylighting and an

SMARTER CONCEPTS

September 21st.

ing targets were developed before beginning the analysis.

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

daylight in 95% of occupied space at 9:00 am and 3:00 pm on

Model - IES VE FlucsDL with sky set to Clear Sky

ARCHITECTURE 2030

TOOLS OF DESIGN

LEED Innovation in Design Credit - 25 foot candle minimum

these effects when using energy modeling to optimize them. The study on the right was used to optimize the glazing

DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED

occupied space at 9:00 am and 3:00 pm on September 21st.

gy use and daylighting potential. It is important to balance

CLIMATE CHANGE

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

LEED Credit 8.1 - 10 foot candle minimum daylight in 75% of

Glazing percentage has a strong impact on a project’s ener-

LEED Innovation in Design Credit - 25 foot candle minimum daylight in 95% of occupied space at 9:00 am and 3:00 pm on September 21st.

It marks areas of the design that comply with the standard in green. It also reports the percentage of the design that complies. This allowed me to quickly hone in on glazing

Standard Used - LEED Innovation in Design Credit Model - IES VE FlucsDL with sky set to Clear Sky Option 4 Remove every 4th window. Decrease size of all windows. 20% Glazing

Option 5 Remove every 4th window. Decrease size of all windows. 16% Glazing

Option 6 Remove every 4th window. Decrease size of all windows. 13% Glazing

Average Daylight FC - 83.3

Average Daylight FC - 62.8

Average Daylight FC - 42.3

Meet LEED 8.1 Daylight Target - YES Meet LEED IDC Daylight Target - YES

Meet LEED 8.1 Daylight Target - YES Meet LEED IDC Daylight Target - YES

Meet LEED 8.1 Daylight Target - YES Meet LEED IDC Daylight Target - YES

Results File - 120820 Sun Co LEEED Daylight Study 4

percentages and patterns that achieved the standard. CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

After running a series of iterative analyses, I found the minimum glazing percentage that still achieved the daylighting targets. Thermal analysis was carried out by engineering consultants, revealing that the minimum condition actually

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT OPTIMIZING R-VALUES OPTIMIZING GLAZING %

didn’t out perform the original heavily glazed design due to a balance between passive heating gains and lowered heat losses. Because of this, the design team felt free to maximize the glazing to capture the unique site views of

OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

ITASCA BIOLOGICAL FIELD STATION - Design Development

Lake Itasca. ITASCA GLAZING PERCENTAGE OPTIMIZATION

Daylight Optimization 08.21.2012


ABOUT THE STUDY LAB DAYLIGHT STUDY

A UNIQUE COLLABORATION PROJECT TIMELINE

Daylighting can be optimized by analyzing glazing percent-

WHY ENERGY MODEL?

age as well as glazing design. Intelligent sizing and placeshown on this page were completed to optimize glazing in the Itasca Biological Research Centerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lab spaces. Once

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

again, an iterative approach to energy modeling was used.

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED

occupied space at 9:00 am and 3:00 pm on September 21st.

daylight in 95% of occupied space at 9:00 am and 3:00 pm on September 21st. Standard Used - LEED Innovation in Design Credit Model - IES VE FlucsDL with sky set to Clear Sky.

ment of glazing will facilitate daylighting. The studies

ARCHITECTURE 2030

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

LEED Credit 8.1 - 10 foot candle minimum daylight in 75% of

LEED Innovation in Design Credit - 25 foot candle minimum

EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

CLIMATE CHANGE

Target Standard - LEED 2009 Credit 8.1: Daylight

OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

Results File - 120820 Lab LEED Daylight Study

Option 1

Option 2

Option 3

Starting Condition

Raised Skylight

Lowered North glazing to view height

Average Daylight FC - 28.9 Meet LEED 8.1 Daylight Target - YES Meet LEED IDC Daylight Target - NO

Average Daylight FC - 31 Meet LEED 8.1 Daylight Target - YES Meet LEED IDC Daylight Target - NO

Average Daylight FC - 29.5 Meet LEED 8.1 Daylight Target - YES Meet LEED IDC Daylight Target - NO

Because the study was focused solely on the labs, I created a new energy model of a single lab space and an adjacent section of sun corridor. The sun corridor was included because the labs are designed to pull daylight from the sun

TOOLS OF DESIGN

corridor. Like the glazing percentage optimizations shown

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

on the previous page, these studies used LEED Credit 8.1 -

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN SMARTER CONCEPTS CLIMATE ANALYSIS

Daylighting as the target and the IES VE navigator to test

ITASCA BIOLOGICAL FIELD STATION - Design Development

Daylight Optimization 08.21.2012

for compliance. LAB DAYLIGHT STUDY

What is unique about the challenge of studying the place-

Target Standard - LEED 2009 Credit 8.1: Daylight

ment of glazing is that there are unlimited possibilities; it

LEED Credit 8.1 - 10 foot candle minimum daylight in 75% of occupied space at 9:00 am and 3:00 pm on September 21st.

would be impossible to methodically test all of the pos-

LEED Innovation in Design Credit - 25 foot candle minimum daylight in 95% of occupied space at 9:00 am and 3:00 pm on September 21st.

sible permutations in search of an optimal design. Instead, PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

designers must analyze results for trends, leading them to-

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE

wards designs that meet the criteria.

Standard Used - LEED Innovation in Design Credit Model - IES VE FlucsDL with sky set to Clear Sky Results File - 120820 Lab LEED Daylight Study 4

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS

Option 5 Two skylights at edges of room 26% Roof Glazing. 21% North Facade Glazing.

Option 6 One large skylight in center 32% Roof Glazing. 21% North Facade Glazing.

Average Daylight FC - 41.1

Average Daylight FC - 38.2

Average Daylight FC - 39.7

Meet LEED 8.1 Daylight Target - YES Meet LEED IDC Daylight Target - YES

Meet LEED 8.1 Daylight Target - YES Meet LEED IDC Daylight Target - YES

Meet LEED 8.1 Daylight Target - YES Meet LEED IDC Daylight Target - YES

The first set of analyses studies the effect of moving a

CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

north-facing skylight up. The results indicated that this

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

brought more daylight into the interior. The second set of

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

Option 4 Thin and wide skylight 32% Roof Glazing. 21% North Facade Glazing.

studies builds off this and shows the minimum glazing size and placement of three design options that all achieve the target daylighting levels.

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES OPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

ITASCA BIOLOGICAL FIELD STATION - Design Development

ITASCA DAYLIGHTING ANALYSIS

Daylight Optimization 08.21.2012


ABOUT THE STUDY LAB SECTION 1

A UNIQUE COLLABORATION

Daylight Performance - Achieves LEED 2009 Credit 8.1: Daylight Achieves LEED 2009 IDC Credit for Optimal Daylighting Performance Average Daylight = 43.6FC

PROJECT TIMELINE Thermal Performance -

EQUEST AND IES VE COMPARISON

WHY ENERGY MODEL? CLIMATE CHANGE ARCHITECTURE 2030

OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

INTEGRATED ENERGY DESIGN

DESIGN PROCESS 2.0

The final step in the daylight optimization studies was to test the resulting geometries holistically. After finding two

VITRUVIUS REDEFINED DESIGN THINKING EVOLVED TOOLS OF DESIGN

glazing options for the lab space that achieved the daylighting targets, they were diagrammed to test their ability to facilitate the project’s other goals. In a sense, this brought the process full circle, combining a detailed daylighting analy-

ENERGY MODELING INPUTS

sis with the original climate diagrams to help te team make

ENERGY MODELING TIMELINE

an informed design decision. Both options lent themselves

ENERGY MODELING & CONCEPT DESIGN SMARTER CONCEPTS CLIMATE ANALYSIS PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

ITASCA BIOLOGICAL FIELD STATION - Design Development

Daylight Optimization 08.21.2012

well to harnessing the site’s wind flow patterns, bringing in the summer breezes through low windows in the south

LAB SECTION 3

facade and allowing them to vent out of the operable sky-

Daylight Performance - Achieves LEED 2009 Credit 8.1: Daylight Achieves LEED 2009 IDC Credit for Optimal Daylighting Performance Average Daylight = 41.4 FC

light. However, Lab Section 3 provided additional shading

Thermal Performance -

for the skylights from the summer sun, added more south facing roof surface area for mounting PV panels, and furthered some of the project’s original aesthetic intentions.

DIAGRAMMING CLIMATE CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES WIND ANALYSIS CONCEPT MASSING STUDIES

By using a combination of analysis techniques and always striving to present results graphically and in a holistic manner, the design team was able to make well informed de-

ENERGY MODELING & DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

cisions throughout the process. This kept the project on

ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

mance goals, but also in achieving excellence in the other

OPTIMIZING R-VALUES

track to be successful in not only meeting energy perforareas of architecture described by Vitruvius - firmness, commodity, and ultimately, delight.

OPTIMIZING GLAZING % OPTIMIZING DAYLIGHT

ITASCA BIOLOGICAL FIELD STATION - Design Development

ITASCA DAYLIGHT ANALYSIS AND SECTIONAL STUDIES

Daylight Optimization 08.21.2012


Energy Modeling Methodology