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$300 $275 $250

U n i v e rs it y o f Ma ry l a n d Research 2008–2009

$225 $200 $175 $150 SR&O Totals

FY 1998

FY 1999

FY 2000*

FY 2001*

FY 2002*

FY 2003*

FY 2004*

Research Profile $192

$203

$262

$310

$352

$322

$352

FY 2005*

FY 2006*

FY 2007*

FY 2008*

$329

$350

$407

$401

UM-Sponsored Research and Outreach Activities, FY 1998–2008 Millions $425 $400

$407

$375 $350

$352

$325 $300

$352 $329

$322

$310

$401

$350

$275 $250

$262

$225 $200 $175

$192

$203

$150 FY 1998

FY 1999

FY 2000*

FY 2001*

FY 2002*

FY 2003*

FY 2004*

FY 2005*

know?

NSF 13%

DHHS 8%

Other 8%

All Other Federal 7%

Foundation 1% Corporate 3%

Commerce 7%

USDA 3% DOE 3% DHS 2% Education 2% DOD 21%

Federal Sponsors: 80% of total Non-Federal: 20% of total

FY 2008*

did you

Major Sponsor Totals

STMD 9%

FY 2007*

*Combined award totals Report generated on 30 January 2009

SR&O Totals

NASA 13%

FY 2006*

University of Maryland Research

UM ranks in the top 10 of all public and private universities without a medical school for research expenditures (more than $401 million in awards FY 2008)

Home to internationally recognized researchers and more than 3,000 faculty and 35,000 students

UM is first in graduating African-American students among its peers who constitute the top 25 public universities

Research Division of ReseaRch T. 301.405.4175, F. 301.405.8386 www.umresearch.umd.edu

2008–2009


U n i v e rs it y o f Ma ry l a n d R e s earch 2008–2009 | 1

270 National Security Agency National Institute of Standards and Technology Department of Energy

95

Food and Drug Administration Army Research Laboratory

1 Department of Agriculture NASA Goddard

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

National Archives and Records Administration

National Institutes of Health Central Intelligence Agency Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity

National Science Foundation Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

Environmental Protection Agency State Department

Department of Defense

495

Department of Education Department of Homeland Security Smithsonian Institution

Office of Naval Research

National Endowment for the Humanities NASA headquarters

Naval Research Laboratory

495

95

The Nation’s Research University Climate Change and Adaptation 2 | Language and Culture Studies 4 | National Security and Defense 6 Public Health and Personalized Medicine 10 | Race Relations in America 12 | Energy Independence 14 | Nanoscale Solutions 16 Selected Honors and Awards 18 | Selected Books 20 | Selected Research Facilities 22 | Technology Commercialization 24 Research Park, Selected Research Centers and Research Profile Inside Back Cover


2 | climate change and adaptation

climate change and adaptation

We are entering a new era of environmental monitoring and prediction that is required to adapt to tomorrow’s changing climate, and UM has unique capabilities to respond to this challenge. Antonio J. Busalacchi, Professor of Atmospheric & Oceanic Science

ESSIC At the Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center (ESSIC), led by Antonio J. Busalacchi, scientists monitor and predict global climate changes by analyzing sophisticated satellite data that track sea surface temperatures, ozone levels, precipitation, infrared radiation, oceanic chlorophyll levels and more. The center’s latest research focuses on predicting biological changes, such as emerging infectious diseases that result from complex interactions between the Earth’s systems. essic.umd.edu

Joint Global Change Research The Joint Global Change Research Institute, affiliated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), brings together a multidisciplinary team of economists, social scientists, life and physical scientists and business experts and engineers to assess the growth of atmospheric greenhouse gas and analyze technologies and policies for mitigating and reducing emissions. Its models are widely used by analysts and policymakers, including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which shared the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize with Albert Gore. globalchange.umd.edu


U n i v e rs it y o f Ma ry l a n d R e s earch 2008–2009 | 3

Integrated Environmental Research Researchers from the Center for Integrative Environmental Research, led by Matthias Ruth, public policy, are using dynamic modeling to explore natural resource use, industrial and infrastructure systems analysis and economic policy. Ruth was lead author of The U.S. Economic Impacts of Climate Change and the Costs of Inaction, a 2007 report that presents the most thorough estimate to date of the economic impact of climate change. cier.umd.edu

Deforestation, Remote Sensing Christopher Justice, geography, is using satellite remote sensing to improve fire detection. His research has led to the development of a rapid response system that provides near real-time information and is widely used worldwide for natural resource management and firefighting. Ruth DeFries, geography and ESSIC, also relies on satellite data in her studies of deforestation and other changes that humans are making to the Earth’s land surface. She looks at how these changes affect climate, biodiversity, water quality and other factors that have implications for conservation and the Earth's habitability. www.geog.umd.edu/people/justice/justice.html www.geog.umd.edu/people/defries.html

Chesapeake Bay Forecast Modeling System A team led by Raghu Murtugudde, atmospheric and oceanic science, is developing an end-to-end, expert forecast system for the Chesapeake Bay that will provide integrated Earth system analyses and predication capabilities. The research will provide the scientific and socioeconomic foundation for management and policy decisions on the state and health of the bay. climateneeds.umd.edu/chesapeake/chesroms.html

did you

know?

The University of Maryland is the 4th largest university recipient of NASA funding in the country.


4 | language and culture studies

Center for Advanced Study of Language Following the events of September 11, 2001, the federal government quickly needed to mobilize language capability in areas of the world that were not well-studied. The Center for Advanced Study of Language is the nation’s only University Affiliated Research Center (UARC) devoted to developing the language capabilities of federal government personnel. In recent projects, researchers have created a course that improved Arabic language training for Marines about to be deployed to Iraq, a user tool and reference guide to increase the government’s capabilities for identifying Arabic dialects, and software to digitize paper-based critical language dictionaries. www.casl.umd.edu

National Foreign Language Center The National Foreign Language Center is dedicated to improving the nation’s ability to understand and communicate with people around the world and to manage the unprecedented flow of information resulting from globalization. Center researchers have developed a state-of-the-art web site to help teach high school students to read Chinese and a bibliographical database of language and culture resources. The center is also participating in the National Security Language Initiative, a summer education program in less commonly taught languages, such as Arabic, Chinese, Russian and Hindi. languagescience.umd.edu/locale/centers

Language Translation via Computer Linguists, engineers and computer scientists are collaborating through the Computational Linguistics and Information Processing (CLIP) Laboratory to create software that can summarize, sort and translate documents quickly and cross-lingually. Amy Weinberg, linguistics, and colleagues have focused their work on statistical machine translation and teaching computers to understand syntax. They are also working to make dictionaries electronically searchable. These computerized methods of absorbing and translating language can open access to languages that are rarely used in the United States and can be invaluable in understanding a new dialect or language in times of political crises. umiacs.umd.edu/research/CLIP/clip.htm


U n i v e rs it y o f Ma ry l a n d R e s earch 2008–2009 | 5

language and Culture Studies Decoding Cross-Cultural Information Computer scientists in the Laboratory for Computational Cultural Dynamics (LCCD) are developing tools to understand different cultural contexts and identify behavior patterns of specific groups, including terrorists. Researchers have developed software that scours the Internet to extract data on subjects of interest and compiles the information into succinct, personalized summaries. They have also developed an opinion analysis system to sift through vast amounts of text and quickly gauge collective opinions on specific subjects. Their work is assisting Jonathan Wilkenfeld, head of the university’s Center for International Development and Conflict Management, which maintains a database about minority groups around the world that face discrimination, annually updating information on almost 300 organizations. umiacs.umd.edu/research/LCCD/

Negotiation Skills in a Cultural Context Michelle Gelfand, psychology, and collaborators have received a $4.27 million Multi-University Research Grant (MURI) from the Department of Defense for work on “Dynamic Models of Culture and Negotiation and Collaboration in the Middle East.” The team will be studying the effects of culture on negotiation processes in 10 Middle Eastern countries. Cultural knowledge in negotiation is critical to prepare managers, military personnel, diplomats and even travelers to negotiate effectively across different cultural contexts. www.bsos.umd.edu/psyc/main/people/profiles/mgelfand.html


6 | National Security and Defense

national security and defense

The university is fully engaged in critical research areas that are vital to advancing national defense and security efforts, and to ensuring our nation’s ability to meet the complex challenges of the 21st century. Honorable Jacques S. Gansler Professor and Roger C. Lipitz Chair in Public Policy and Private Enterprise, former U.S. Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics

Computer Vision Lab Researchers at the Computer Vision Lab in the University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies are creating software to identify and track suspicious people and recognize unusual activities in surveillance video. By studying human gait—individuals’ appearances, dimensions and walking styles—Rama Chellappa and Larry Davis are developing algorithms to recognize patterns in video data. Their research could lead to easier detection of loitering, physical confrontations and individuals leaving parcels in public places, and could have widespread applications in security surveillance, particularly in sensitive locations such as military bases and public transportation terminals. www.cfar.umd.edu/cvl

START Center The National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START), one of 11 such centers in the country and the only such consortium devoted to terrorism, brings together researchers from the social and behavioral sciences to explore how terrorist groups form and recruit members, the types of domestic and international support such groups receive, and the impact that the threat of terrorism has on individuals throughout the United States. A centerpiece of START’s work is the development and release of the Global Terrorism Database, the world’s largest open-source database on international and domestic terrorist events, with details on more than 80,000 events dating back to 1970. www.start.umd.edu


U n i v e rs it y o f Ma ry l a n d R e s earch 2008–2009 | 7

Food Safety and Security Systems The university’s new Center for Food Safety and Security Systems, directed by Robert L. Buchanan, is addressing the security of food supplies and systems from the field to the dinner table, with an emphasis on food manufacturing. Center researchers are looking at potential threats, such as bioterrorism and intentional contamination, to the nation’s food supply and will work closely with the Department of Homeland Security, the Food and Drug Administration’s Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition and the Department of Agriculture. agnr.umd.edu/directory/bio.cfm?ID=rbuchana

Community Response Grids Paul T. Jaeger, director of the Center for Information Policy and Electronic Government (CIPEG), is working with other Maryland researchers to develop an interface that integrates the Internet with mobile technologies to provide quicker and more widespread information during a large-scale emergency. Known as Community Response Grids (CRGs), these web-based systems can create interactive communication mechanisms able to reach citizens and first responders simultaneously and allow them to report and receive information about events such as fires, floods, hurricanes, community health concerns and terrorist attacks. cipeg.umd.edu

Cyber Security University cyber-security researchers are developing technologies and strategies to secure data transmission and storage. To ensure that authentic information is delivered and used only by its intended receivers, Min Wu’s forensic encryption algorithms help track the circulation of large files, such as video files and satellite photos. The technology can help combat media piracy and protect sensitive files, like military intelligence images. Jeffrey Hollingsworth creates interfaces, tools and analytic programs to help programmers immediately detect security flaws. His work aims to provide a mechanism to audit code and identify security vulnerabilities early in the code development process. ece.umd.edu/~minwu/ www.cs.umd.edu/users/hollings

did you

know?

The University of Maryland has the largest social and behavioral research center on terrorism in the world.


8 | National Security and Defense

The Sky Walker Program Researchers are taking cues from how birds use atmospheric energy and applying them to improve flight and fuel efficiencies of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The Sky Walker Program, a project funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, is the first phase of an $11 million UAV research and development program between the A. James Clark School of Engineering and the National Institute of Aerospace. Researchers in the Alfred Gessow Rotorcraft Center are leading a Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) to accelerate the development of the next generation of hovering micro air vehicles equipped with biologically inspired algorithms to support Department of Defense applications. morpheus.umd.edu/research/systems/skywalker.html www.agrc.umd.edu

Joint Quantum Institute The Joint Quantum Institute, a collaboration of the College of Computer, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the National Security Agency, is integrating research in quantum and condensed matter physics. The institute’s pioneering work could lead to the creation of a quantum computer that can complete tasks exponentially faster than the best conventional computers. The National Science Foundation awarded the institute $12.5 million to create and operate a Physics Frontier Center, which will emphasize research that integrates atomic, molecular and optical physics, the field that produced the laser and the MRI, and condensed-matter physics, which produced the transistor and superconducting materials. jqi.umd.edu pfc.umd.edu

Department of Defense—MURIs For the second year in a row the University of Maryland has led the nation by taking the lead on three highly competitive Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) program awards. Michelle Gelfand, psychology, is examining the influence of culture on negotiations with a focus on the Middle East. Her team’s work will provide critical knowledge to prepare soldiers for a wide variety of environments and situations in the Middle East. J. Gordon Leishman, aerospace engineering, is part of a team that is investigating fundamental issues related to helicopter brownout— the heavy dust suspension that rises from the ground during landing and takeoff and obscures a pilot’s view. A team led by Rama Chellappa, electrical and computer engineering, is developing face, gait, long-distance speech and other motion-based human recognition algorithms tailored to the needs of the maritime industry. The team will also create novel sensors and systems for maritime biometrics. psychology.umd.edu/people/profiles/mgelfand.html www.aero.umd.edu/facstaff/fac-profiles/leishman-gordon.html ece.umd.edu/meet/faculty/chellappa.php3


U n i v e rs it y o f Ma ry l a n d R e s earch 2008–2009 | 9

christopher monroe Christopher Monroe, physics, is one of the world’s leading experts in the field of single-atom physics and quantum information science. Aspects of Monroe’s research will lead to the development of a large-scale quantum computer network.

Center for Applied Electromagnetics A new Center for Applied Electromagnetics, established with significant funding from the Office of Naval Research, is focusing on research on electromagnetic phenomena in the full spectral range from microwaves to visible light. The center’s work, drawing on the expertise of nineteen researchers across seven different departments, will form a basis for all-electric ships, speed-of-light weapons and advanced communication technologies that the Navy anticipates deploying. www.ireap.umd.edu/AppEl/

Autonomous Micro Vehicles The A. James Clark School of Engineering is part of a multidisciplinary, multi-institution initiative to dramatically improve surveillance capabilities and enhance soldiers’ safety. The program, called the Micro Autonomous Science and Technology (MAST) Collaborative Technology Alliance (CTA) is funded by the Army Research Laboratory. The program will develop networked, bio-inspired micro vehicles that become the eyes and ears of soldiers in the field and will monitor and convey critical information to keep soldiers out of harm’s way. microsystems.umd.edu/index.php

Public Policy and Private Enterprise The Honorable Jacques Gansler, director of the university’s Center for Public Policy and Private Enterprise, is at the forefront of efforts to transform supply-chain management practices for the U.S. military. He recently led a commission on procurement reform for the U.S. Army and has assisted in developing a 21st century interactive supply-chain system for the military—one that will get repairable military equipment back into battle sooner and at reduced costs. cpppe.umd.edu


10 | Public health and personalized medicine

Bioinformatics Steven Salzberg, who directs the Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, is an authority on the sequencing and analysis of genomes and the design of computational software that is an integral part of most genome projects. Salzberg is leading a project to sequence all of the microbes in the human body and is developing algorithms to explore the new genome sequencing machines that are hundreds of times faster and cheaper than current technology. cbcb.umd.edu/

Nanofactories William Bentley, bioengineering, and his team have pioneered nanoscale, microelectrical-mechanical systems (MEMS) devices that respond to the changing biological environment. These tiny nanofactories can sense when and where a drug is needed and then synthesize it at the proper dosage while traveling to the delivery site. Ben Shapiro, aerospace engineering, works at the intersection of micro systems and control theory. Using feedback control, Shapiro is targeting chemotherapy-treated magnetic nanoparticles to deep tissue tumors. bioe.umd.edu/facstaff/bentley.html isr.umd.edu/faculty/gateways/shapiro.htm

Population Research Center The Maryland Population Research Center is a multidisciplinary center dedicated to population research in four key areas: family and fertility, social and economic inequality, health processes and aging and data and methods for population research. With 56 faculty and affiliates across 11 university departments, the center plays a vital role in providing scientific evidence on population-related issues to policymakers. www.popcenter.umd.edu

Pathogen Research The Maryland Pathogen Research Institute (MPRI) brings together leaders in the biosciences, computational sciences, engineering and nanosciences to find new ways to diagnose, treat and prevent the spread of pathogens. MPRI researchers use sophisticated advances in computational biology to analyze and understand the complex genetic controls that contribute to the pathogenicity of disease-causing microorganisms. mpri.umd.edu

Exercise and Aging Bradley Hatfield, public health, uses high-tech brain imaging to study the benefits of exercise on an aging brain. Early research results show that moderate physical activity may help maintain memory function longer, maybe even for years, in people with a genetic predisposition to Alzheimer’s disease. sph.umd.edu/knes/faculty/bhatfield


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Public Health and Personalized Medicine School of Public Health The School of Public Health, launched in 2007, collaborates with a range of university programs and a network of extension services to address public health issues across the state. Improving health literacy is a major priority for the school, which is creating the nation’s first academic center on health literacy to promote and conduct research and related education.

sph.umd.edu

Health Information and Decision Making Information technology research is helping to improve the delivery of health care. Nancy Atkinson, who directs the Public Health Informatics Laboratory, is using technology to improve public health, particularly for underserved groups, and is developing e-health systems for the Department of Defense, including tools to boost self-care and preventive behaviors among women in the military. Ritu Agarwal, director of the Center for Health Information and Decision Systems, at the Robert H. Smith School of Business, is studying privacy issues related to electronic health information, the effects of clinical documentation systems on pediatric care and the economic impact of enhancing communication in hospitals. phi.umd.edu rhsmith.umd.edu/chids

steven m. roth Steven M. Roth and colleagues are studying the role genetics plays in how different individuals respond to various exercise programs. Much of his research is targeted at identifying factors that influence sarcopenia—the loss of skeletal muscle strength and mass with age—and the response of muscle to strength training.


12 | race relations in america

Race Relations in America Slavery and Emancipation Distinguished University Professor of History Ira Berlin has spent his entire career studying slavery and emancipation. His search for answers about the institution of slavery has led to a number of award-winning books, including Generations of Captivity: A History of African-American Slavery (Harvard University Press), which was honored by the American History Society as the best book in Western Hemisphere history in 2003. He is also the founding editor of the Freedmen and Southern Society Project, which garnered national honors for its work on the history of emancipation. Berlin is now working with students to investigate the university’s connections to slavery, emphasizing slavery’s unique presence in North America, the United States and Maryland. www.history.umd.edu/Bio/berlin.html

Race, Class and Gender Bonnie Thornton Dill founded the university’s Consortium on Race, Gender and Ethnicity and served as its director until 2006. Her research focuses on the intersection of race, class and gender with an emphasis on African American women and families. In 2008, she led a delegation to South Africa to examine the impact of the relationship of power and inequality in the lives of women and excluded groups, and how this knowledge can be used to explain and design global strategies for social justice. She is currently conducting research on single mothers in rural Southern communities. www.womensstudies.umd.edu/about/faculty/dill.html

Multi-Ethnic Perspectives Distinguished Scholar Teacher Robert Levine, an expert on Frederick Douglass, is the inaugural director of the Center for Literary and Comparative Studies. The center will promote important research in the field of literary studies, including the rise in multi-ethnic and global perspectives. Levine recently published Dislocating Race and Nation: Episodes in Nineteenth-Century American Literary Nationalism (University of North Carolina Press, 2008). A previous work, Martin Delany, Frederick Douglass, and the Politics of Representative Identity (North Carolina, 1977), won the Choice Magazine Outstanding Book Award. www.english.umd.edu/rlevine


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African American Arts and Theatre The David C. Driskell Center for the Study of Visual Arts and Culture of African Americans and the African Diaspora celebrates the legacy of Distinguished University Professor Emeritus David C. Driskell and preserves the rich heritage of African American visual art and culture. Heather S. Nathans, theatre, is a scholar of African-American theatre. Her book, Lifting the Veil of Black: Studies in Sentiment and Slavery on the American Stage, 1787-1861, is forthcoming from Cambridge University Press. Walter Dallas, senior artist-in-residence in theatre, is an esteemed Broadway and off-Broadway director noted for the world premiere of August Wilson’s Seven Guitars and for his personal collaboration with Wilson. In 1983, he founded the School of Theatre for Philadelphia’s University of the Arts and served as artistic director of the Freedom Theatre in Philadelphia. In 2008, he was named Man of the Year by the Institute for the Preservation of African-American Music. driskellcenter.umd.edu www.theatre.umd.edu/Faculty/#nathans www.theatre.umd.edu/Faculty/#dallas

Bridging Health Disparities Researchers in the School of Public Health are playing significant roles in addressing health disparities in the U.S. Olivia Carter-Pokras is working to improve the cultural and linguistic competencies of medical students, physicians and other health professionals throughout Maryland. She is coordinating with state and local agencies and community-based organizations to improve language access to services and to establish health education programs for Latino communities in Maryland and the Washington, D.C., area. Sunmin Lee is directing a community-based project to obtain information on the health and health care needs of Asian-Americans living in Montgomery County. Lee and her team have visited 13 Asian-American communities in the county to assess how the local health care system can best meet their needs. sph.umd.edu/epib/faculty/opokras sph.umd.edu/epib/faculty/slee

renee ater Renee Ater, assistant professor in the Department of Art History and Archeology, is a historian of U.S. 19th and 20th century art, with a specialty in African-American visual culture. Her research focuses on the intersection of race and gender in American art in the 20th century.


14 | Energy Independence

Energy Independence Biofuel Science Research Steven Hutcheson uses the unique enzymes of a grass-dwelling bacterium— Microbulbifer degradans—found in Chesapeake Bay marshes to create biofuel from plant fibers. Biofuels are typically made from grains, but more expensive technologies exist to make fuel from cellulose, the tough, fibrous part of plants. Hutcheson’s bacterium could dramatically reduce those costs. life.umd.edu/cbmg/faculty/hutcheson/hutcheson2.html

Rick Kohn and his research group are working on ways to control the behavior of cattle-gut microbes, large cultures of which could be used to convert plant fibers into ethanol and methane fuels. Up to 12 percent of the energy from cattle feed ends up as methane, which is released into the air as flatulence. By studying the process of methane production in cattle, Kohn hopes to make methane a more efficient and cost-effective biofuel. ansc.umd.edu/faculty/Kohn/

Energy Storage Gary Rubloff, director of the Maryland NanoCenter, and his research group are pursuing nanostructure-based approaches to compact energy storage through supercapacitors. New designs are enabling the nanofabrication of very high surface-area multilayer nanostructures, which may ultimately be used for other energy applications such as batteries and solar cells. His group is also exploring all-thin-film processing routes to create structures that would facilitate the manufacturing process. isr.umd.edu/gwrubloff

Nuclear Safety Mohammad Modarres’ work is focused on the next generation of nuclear reactors, particularly nuclear fuel cycle safety and risk assessment and management. In research for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Modarres is addressing possible safety issues of the current nuclear-based hydrogen-generating facility design, primarily related to the interface of the nuclear reactor and the facility. www.enre.umd.edu/faculty/modarres


U n i v e rs it y o f Ma ry l a n d R e s e arch 2008–2009 | 15

Solar Decathlon Winners LEAFHouse, the university’s beautifully designed and engineered solar house, placed first among U.S. student teams and also won the BP Solar People’s Choice Award in the 2007 International Solar Decathlon, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. The goal of the Solar Decathlon was to build an 800-square-foot, fully functional, solar-powered house that produces more energy than it uses. arch.umd.edu/resources/academic_resources/solar_decathlon.cfm

Low-Carbon Scenarios Steve Fetter, public policy, works on energy cooperation to promote a new portfolio of cleaner and greener global energy supply. His work helps quantify low- or no-carbon energy scenarios, including scenarios with sizeable nuclear energy components as well as solar, wind, biomass and fossil fuel sources. Fetter looks to demonstrate how environmental science, energy technology assessment and risk communication can intersect for a low-carbon future. publicpolicy.umd.edu/fetter

Fuel Cells Gregory Jackson and Bryan Eichhorn have invented a catalyst that helps fuel cells utilize impure hydrogen while reducing carbon monoxide levels. The researchers covered nanoscale particles of gold with platinum tendrils, which are active ingredients in an alumina-based powder that serves as the prototype catalyst. The prototype not only withstands carbon monoxide but destroys it. The researchers are looking to incorporate their technology into fuel-cell manufacturing. www.enme.umd.edu/~gsjackso www.chem.umd.edu/Faculty_Directory/profile.php?facID=11


16 | nanoscale solutions

Materials Synthesis at the Nanoscale The Keck Laboratory for Combinatorial Nanosynthesis and Multiscale Characterization focuses on combinatorial materials science, scanning nanoprobes and highly controlled materials synthesis into the nanoscale domain to provide new insights into the behavior of materials at the nanoscale. Ellen Williams, physics, and her team map out the positions of individual atoms in very small structures to explore the special consequences of fluctuations that arise at the nanoscale. They are working on applications that include control of nanoscale materials fabrication, electromigration, electronic noise in nanoelectronic devices and flexible electronics. www.physics.umd.edu/spg/

Pioneering Research with MEMS Miniature devices called MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) are machines related to computer chips but more diverse in design and function. Rhezza Ghodssi designs MEMS made from indium phosphide, or inP materials, and he is working to create integrated machines that generate, detect and guide the flow of light using inP materials. The machines could become an important part of communications networks. He has also merged bio- and nanotechnology to create portable devices that detect individual molecules with unprecedented sensitivity. Fischell Professor of Bioengineering William Bentley and his team were the first to demonstrate mechanized, nanobased drug synthesis and delivery with MEMS. These “nanofactories� automatically collect raw materials in the local environment to synthesize drugs and deliver them to specific sites at specific times and dosages. To broaden nanofactory applications and reduce animal testing, Bentley experiments with biofabrication, putting synthetic pathways onto nanoparticles, which then mimic the reactions of biological systems. isr.umd.edu/faculty/gateways/ghodssi.htm umbi.umd.edu/cbr/home.php

Testing the Safety of Nanoparticles At the Center for Nano Manufacturing and Metrology, an alliance between the university and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), center Director Michael Zachariah has assembled a research team with unmatched expertise in manufacturing and characterizing nanoparticles. The ability to measure and control the sizes and doses of drug-delivery devices is essential to making nanoparticles that can be used in medicine. Zachariah is collaborating with toxicologists to determine how cultured cells respond to such nanoparticles. www.enme.umd.edu/~mrz/


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Nanoscale Solutions Detecting and Treating Diseases Breakthroughs in nanotechnology promise to revolutionize drug manufacturing, drug delivery and medical diagnostics. Douglass English, Philip DeShong and Sang Bok Lee are developing stable, durable drug carriers that can be coated with materials that enable targeting to specific cells. Their research demonstrates promising capabilities for detecting and treating diseases and tumors more efficiently and with fewer side effects. nanocenter.umd.edu/faculty/faculty_list.php

Graphene: A Breakthrough Material Michael Fuhrer, physics, and his team work with a new material called graphene, a single-atom-thick sheet of graphite that combines aspects of semiconductors and metals. His team has shown that graphene’s room temperature limit of mobility— a measure of how a material conducts electricity—is higher than any other known material. The findings demonstrate that graphene holds great promise for replacing conventional semiconductor materials. nanocenter.umd.edu/faculty/faculty_list.php

sang bok lee Sang Bok Lee, an associate professor in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, is investigating the electrochemical properties of nanotube arrays. The nanotubes, which may provide higher energy conductivity, hold promise in the development of supercapacitors that can be used as energy storage devices and small-scale power systems for electronics.


18 | Selected honors and awards

selectED honors and awards National Academy of Sciences

Kuiper PRize

Michael A’Hearn

Maureen Cropper

Awarded the 2008 Kuiper Prize by the American Astronomical Society’s Division of Planetary Science

Elected into NAS, 2008

Katepalli Sreenivasan

Guggenheim Fellowship 2008

James Farquhar

Mary Kay Vaughan

Geology

History

Elected into NAS, 2007

AmeRican Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Elected Fellows November 2007

Russell Dickerson

Alexander Dragt

Anthony Janetos

Atmospheric and Oceanic Science

Physics

Joint Global Change Research Institute

Raymond Johnson

David Poeppel

Patrick O’Shea

Mathematics

Linguistics and Biology

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Elected Fellows November 2008

Avis H. Cohen

Nathan Fox

Biology

Human Development

Nicholas Hadley

KJ Ray Liu

V. S. Subrahmanian

Physics

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Computer Science

Nobel PRize

National Medal of Science by Former President George W. Bush

John Mather

Bill Phillips

Tom Schelling

Physics (2006)

Physics (1997)

Economics (2005)

Rita Colwell Institute for Advanced Computer Studies


Pulitzer PRize Seven winners are faculty in the Phillip Merrill College of Journalism. William Beecher

David Broder

Ira Chinoy

Jon Franklin

National Reporting (1983)

Distinguished Commentary (1973)

Public Service (1998)

Feature Writing (1979) Explanatory Writing (1985)

Haynes Johnson

Deborah Nelson

Gene Roberts

Distinguished National Reporting (1966)

Investigative Reporting (1997)

History (2007)

NSF Career Awards 2007

Doron Levy

Nuno Martins

Ctr for Scientific Computation Electrical and Computer and Math Modeling Engineering October 1, 2007 February 1, 2007

Miao Yu

Computer Science January 1, 2007

Institute for Systems Research March 15, 2007

NSF Career Awards 2009

Santiago De Jesus Solares Mechanical Engineering February 1, 2009

Adam Hsieh Bioengineering February 1, 2009

NSF Career Awards 2008

Neil Spring

Ray Sedwick

Edo Waks

Aerospace Engineering March 1, 2009

Electrical and Computer Engineering February 15, 2009

Lise Getoor

Herman Sintim

Yunfeng Zhang

Computer Science April 1, 2008

Chemistry and Biochemistry June 3, 2008

Civil and Environmental Engineering January 8, 2008

The CAREER awaRd is one of the National Science Foundation’s most prestigious and competitive awards for young researchers.

The university is home to many distinguished scholars and researchers who have been recognized for the impact their work has on the region, the country and around the world. Nariman Farvardin, Senior Vice President for Academic Affairs and Provost


Selected Books Daniel Chazan, Embracing Reason: Egalitarian Ideals and High School Mathematics Teaching (Taylor & Francis, 2007) | David Crocker, Ethics of Global Development: Agency, Capability, and Deliberative Democracy (Cambridge University Press, 2008) | Herman Daly, Ecological Economics and Sustainable Development (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2008) | George E. Dieter and Linda C. Schmidt, Engineering Design, (Fourth edition) (McGraw-Hill Book Co., 2008) | Arthur Eckstein, Rome Enters the Greek East: From Anarchy to Hierarchy in the Hellenistic Mediterranean, 230-170 B.C. (Blackwell Publishing, 2008) | Charles J. Gelso, Countertransference and the Therapist’s Inner Experience: Perils and Possibilities (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2007) | Raffaella Fabiani Giannetto, Medici Gardens: From Making to Design (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008) | Isabelle Gournay, Paris on the Potomac: The French Influence on the Architecture and Art of Washington, D.C., (Ohio University Press, 2007) | Jeffrey Herf, The Jewish Enemy: Nazi Propaganda During World War II and the Holocaust (Harvard, 2008) | Joe Hewitt, Jonathan Wilkenfeld and Ted Gurr, Peace and Conflict 2008 (Paradigm Publishers, 2007) | Wendell T. Hill, III and Chi H. Lee, Light-Matter Interaction: Atoms and Molecules in External Fields and Nonlinear Optics (Wiley-VCH, 2007) | Thomas R. Holtz, The Most Complete, Up-to-Date Encyclopedia for Dinosaur Lovers of All Ages (Random House, 2007) | Richard E. Just and Darrell L. Hueth, Applied Welfare Economics (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2008) | Karen M. Kaufmann, Unconventional Wisdom: Facts and Myths About American Voters (Oxford University Press, 2008) | Elizabeth Loizeaux, Twentieth-Century Poetry and the Visual Arts (Cambridge University Press, 2008)


Henry C. Lucas, Inside the Future: Surviving the Technology Revolution (Praeger, 2008) | Susan Moeller, Packaging Terrorism: Co-opting the News for Politics and Profit (Wiley-Blackwell, 2008) | John H. Moore, Christopher C. Davis and Michael A. Coplan, Building Scientific Apparatus (Cambridge University Press, 2009) | Arthur Popper, Hair Cell Regeneration, Repair, and Protection (Springer Science + Business Media, 2008) | Stanley Plumly, Posthumous Keats: A Personal Biography (W.W. Norton, 2008) | William Pressly, The Artist as Original Genius: Shakespeare’s “Fine Frenzy” in Late-Eighteenth-Century British Art (University of Delaware Press, 2007) | Richard Price, Making Empires: Colonial Encounters and the Creation of Imperial Rule in Nineteenth-Century Africa (Cambridge University Press, 2008) | Nan Bernstein Ratner, The Development of Language (Allyn & Bacon, 2008) | Stephen M. Roth, Genetics Primer for Exercise Science and Health (Human Kinetics, 2007) | Mark Sagoff, The Economy of the Earth: Philosophy, Law, and the Environment (2nd edition. Cambridge University Press, 2008) | Juan Uriagereka, Syntactic Anchors: On Semantic Structuring, Cambridge Studies in Linguistics (Cambridge University Press, 2008) | Linda Valli, Robert Croninger, Marilyn Chambliss and Anna Graeber, Test Driven: High-Stakes Accountability in Elementary Schools (Teachers College Press, 2008) | Michel Wedel, Visual Marketing (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Marketing and Consumer Psychology Series, 2007) | Ronald A. Yaros, Communicating Complex News Online: How Users Process Information About Science, Health and Technology (VDM, 2008) | Peter Y. Zavalij, Fundamentals of Powder Diffraction and Structural Characterization of Materials (Springer, 2009)


22 | Selected research facilities

Facilities

Maryland

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4

5

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U n i v e rs it y o f Ma ry l a n d R e s e arch 2008–2009 | 2 3

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neutral buoyancy research facility The Neutral Buoyancy Research Facility is one of only three operating neutral buoyancy tanks in the United States and the only one located on a college campus and dedicated to research. At 50 feet wide and 50 feet deep, the facility is large enough to accommodate equipment, robots and people engaged in research dedicated to making it easier and safer to work in space.

the jeong h. kim engineering building The Jeong H. Kim Engineering Building, which opened in 2005, houses some of the most sophisticated engineering research and educational laboratories in the nation. Its state-ofthe-art labs are shared across departments to encourage cross-disciplinary work. Major areas of emphasis include nanotechnology, information technology, bioengineering, microelectronics, sensors and actuators, transportation systems and space research.

3) geodynamo

laboratory

The Geodynamo Laboratory was constructed to house the 10-foot sphere of molten sodium used in a new magnetic field experiment that will try to recreate in miniature the forces that produce Earth’s magnetic field. The “sodium ball,” currently filled with water for test purposes, is located in a steel enclosure capable of containing the mass and the molten sodium inside.

4) nanoscale

imaging spectroscopy and properties laboratory

The Nanoscale Imaging Spectroscopy and Properties Laboratory (NISP) is equipped with the latest electron microscopy equipment used to characterize the structure and composition of a broad spectrum of hard and soft materials and biological systems with nanometer resolution. Research performed in the lab focuses on biomaterials, multifunctional and smart materials, nanostructured materials and nanodevices and geological materials.

5) biosciences

research building

The Biosciences Research Building is a new 68,000-square-foot facility that includes laboratories and core instrumentation for protemics, genomics and cell imaging, and three biosafety level containment facilities for studying disease-causing pathogens. The building houses the Maryland Pathogen Research Institute as well as research clusters in sensory neuroscience and comparative and functional genomics.

6) fablab

The FabLab is a Class 1,000 clean room that supports research and development programs in nanoscience and technoelectromechanical systems, semiconductors, materials and devices for electronic bioengineering, and sensor-actuator systems. The 10,000-square-foot facility is available for use by area companies, local universities and government laboratories.


24 | Technology commercialization

Technology Commercialization Creating an Entrepreneurial Environment The Office of Technology Commercialization (OTC) is the gateway to the university’s technology transfer and commercialization endeavors. The OTC develops and manages a high-quality portfolio of diverse technologies, ensures intellectual property rights through patents or copyrights and negotiates and executes licensing agreements that benefit the state and local economy. Today, the university is the largest public university patent holder in Maryland and ranks among the top 10 of all Maryland patent holders. The OTC is leading an effort to integrate campus-wide entrepreneurial activities through the University of Maryland Network of Entrepreneurs. Commercial ventures originate with faculty and students, who receive end-to-end support through a variety of university programs. The Small Business Development Center offers management and technical assistance programs, and the Maryland Technology Enterprise Institute (Mtech) accelerates new ventures through

technology entrepreneurship and research programs. Within Mtech, a number of programs contribute to the entrepreneurship process, including: the Hinman Campus Entrepreneurship Opportunities (Hinman CEOs), a living/learning undergraduate entrepreneurship program; the VentureCatalyst Program, an entrepreneurship education and business plan competition; the VentureAccelerator Program, providing entrepreneurial mentoring for faculty and students; the Technology Advancement Program, an incubator for start-up companies; the Maryland Industrial Partnerships Program, helping companies find faculty research to enhance their competitiveness; the Biotechnology Program, providing bioprocess scale-up, technical assistance and training; and the Maryland Technology Extension Service, offering manufacturing solutions for Maryland companies. www.otl.umd.edu/ www.mtech.umd.edu/

Entrepreneurial Success Zymetis Steven Hutcheson and Ron Weiner, professors of cell biology and molecular genetics, founded Zymetis in 2006 after discovering the unique ability of a Chesapeake Bay marsh grass bacterium, Saccarophagus degradans, to transform plants and plant waste into ethanol and other biofuels. Zymetis participated in the university’s VentureAccelerator spin-out program, and received research assistance from the Mtech Bioprocess Scale-Up Facility. In 2007, the company received OTC’s Invention of the Year Life Science Award.

Komoku, Inc. Founded by William Arbaugh, professor of computer science, Komoku, Inc. provides advanced rootkit security detection solutions. Rootkits are malicious software programs that are designed to take control of a computer’s operating system at the administrator, or root level, where they can hide from detection from standard anti-malware software. Purchased by Microsoft in 2008, Komoku, Inc. was formed through the OTC in 2005.

TRX Systems In 2008, TRX Systems took first place in the third annual Global Security Challenge competition, making it one of the world’s top security start-up companies. The company has developed a prototype technology that can effectively track people inside multistory buildings and relay information to colleagues outside, which could ultimately reduce the risk firefighters face every day. The Greenbelt, Maryland-based company recently graduated from the Technology Advancement Program administered by the Maryland Technology Enterprise Institute.


Univ e rs ity of M ary land Re s e arch 2008–2009

RESEARCH PARK at Maryland 270

research

National Institute of Standards and Technology

Department of Energy

Maryland

Even more exciting is the innovative nature of UM research, across a wide range of evolving fields. Our faculty work on critical societal challenges ranging from climate change to national security, from personalized medicine to race relations. Across disciplines, departments, centers and institutes, we are addressing questions that will shape our future. Our emphasis on interdisciplinary research collaborations broadens our capacity to imagine solutions outside the bounds of traditional disciplines. As a major academic research institution in the nation’s capital region, we have extraordinary opportunities to work with a wide range of federal agencies, federal laboratories, corporations and foundations, as well as the state of Maryland. These partnerships facilitate our ability to tackle key research that improves the quality of our lives both today and tomorrow. The University of Maryland engages in continuing dialogues on the most pressing issues of our time. We hope this report provides a glimpse of our exciting research directions. We are proud of this work.

Army Research Laboratory

U.S. Department of Agriculture

NASA Goddard

research park in the nation’s capital region,Oceanic with close National andproximity to the Washington Metro subway and a commuter Atmospheric Administration rail station. National research laboratories and agencies closely collaborate with university researchers in key Institutes of Health technology clusters that include homelandNational and national security, environmental and earth sciences and food safety and security. Through such alliances and partnerships, the university has positioned itself as one of the federal Central Intelligence Agency National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency government’s leading research resources. Intelligence Advanced Research

National Counterterrorism Center

did you

Projects Activity

National Science Foundation

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

Environmental Protection Agency State Department

Department of Education)

know? Department of Defense

495

Department of Homeland Security ODN/Defense Intelligence Agency

University of MarylandNaval Research Laboratory Research Park

495

Largest research park in the state of Maryland and the Greater Washington, D.C., region

95 State-of-the-art research, laboratory and incubator facilities

2.8 million-square-foot park planned to encompass 130 acres

Dedicated to the advancement of technology, computer science, mathematics, engineering, physical and life sciences and biotechnology

25 minutes to Baltimore and only 8 miles to Washington, D.C.

Centered among a highly educated metropolitan area work force

M metro

1

Selected Research Centers

1

M Square, the University of Maryland Research Park, is the largest

Mel Bernstein Vice President for Research

95

Federal Drug Administration

In the last decade, the research enterprise at the University of Maryland has realized dramatic growth. University research funding has surpassed $400 million annually, which places us in the top tier of research universities without medical schools.

C. D. Mote, Jr. President

National Security Agency

Alfred Gessow Rotocraft Center for Education and Research (AGRC) Auditory Neuroethology Lab (“BatLab”) Center for Addictions, Personality and Emotion Research Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering (CALCE) Center for Advanced Study of Language (CASL) Center for Advanced Transportation Technology (CATT) Center for Astronomy and Space Physics (CASP) Center for Auditory and Acoustic Research (CAAR) Center for Automation Research (CfAR) Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (CBCB) Center for Comparative and Evolutionary Biology of Hearing (CCEBH) Center for Complexity in Business Center for Energetic Concepts Development (CECD) Center for Environmental Energy Engineering (CEEE) Center for Firefighter Safety Research and Development Center for Food Safety and Security Systems (CFS3) Center for Health Information and Decision Systems (CHIDS) Center for High-Energy Astrophysics Center for Information Policy and Electronic Government (CIPEG) Center for Integrative Environmental Research (CIER) Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland (CISSM) Center for International Development and Conflict Management (CIDCM) Center for Multiscale Plasma Dynamics (CMPD) Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials (CNAM) Center for Particle and String Theory (CPST) Center for Public Policy and Private Enterprise (CPPPE) Center for Risk and Reliability (CRR) Center for Risk Communication Research (CR2) Center for Scientific Computation and Mathematical Modeling (CSCAMM)  Center for Teaching Excellence (CTE) Computer Vision Lab (CVL) Condensed Matter Theory Center (CMTC) Cooperative Institute for Climate Studies (CICS) David C. Driskell Center for the Study of the Visual Arts and Culture of African Americans and the African Diaspora Dingman Center for Entrepreneurship Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center (ESSIC) Energy Research Center (UMERC)

Fraunhofer Center Graphics and Visual Informatics Lab (GVIL) Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory (HCIL) Institute for Advanced Computer Studies (UMIACS) Institute for Governmental Service and Research (IGSR) Institute for Physical Science and Technology (IPST) Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics (IREAP)  Institute for Systems Research (ISR) Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (JIFSAN)  J-Lab: The Institute for Interactive Journalism Joint Global Change Research Institute Joint Quantum Institute (JQI) Laboratory for Computational Cultural Dynamics (LCCD) Laboratory for Computational Linguistics and Information Processing (CLIP) Laboratory for Millimeter-Wave Astronomy Language and Media Processing Laboratory  (LAMP) Maryland Assessment Research Center for Education Success (MARCES) Maryland Information and Network Dynamics Laboratory (MIND) Maryland Institute for Technology in the Humanities (MITH) Maryland Nanocenter Maryland Pathogen Research Institute (MPRI) Maryland Population Research Center (MPRC) Maryland Small Business Development Center (MDSBDC) Maryland Technology Enterprise Institute (Mtech) Maryland Transportation Technology Transfer Center Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) National Center for Smart Growth Research and Education National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Response to Terrorism (START)  National Foreign Language Center (NFLC)   Neuroscience and Cognitive Sciences Program Plasma Mass Spectrometry Laboratory Sloan Biotechnology Industry Center (SBIC) Smart Materials and Structures Research Center Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) Space Vehicles Technology Institute Supply Chain Management Center (SCMC) University of Maryland Center on Aging (UMCA)

For a complete listing of University of Maryland Research Centers, visit www.provost.umd.edu/centers.


Research @Maryland 2008-2009 Annual Report