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DPA - DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN ETSAM - ARCHITECTURE SCHOOL OF MADRID UPM - TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF MADRID

Pop Up

udd

23

statement

2012-2013

architectures that appear and disappear

01


2nd International Design Seminar: POP UP. SHRINKING CONCEPT. Technical University of Madrid (Spain). University of Minas Gerais (Brazil). Democritus University of Thrace (Greece). Coordinators: Álvaro M. Fidalgo, Francisco G. Triviño. --Grupo de Innovación Educativa: Dispositivos Aglutinadores de Proyecto (DIP). --Architectural Design. Course 2012-2013. Spring term. Unit 23 Soriano. Teachers: Federico Soriano, Pedro Urzáiz, Néstor Montenegro. Assistant teachers: Álvaro M. Fidalgo, Arantzazu Luzárraga, Francisco G. Triviño, Toni Gelabert, Jose M. López Ujaque. Mentor: Ana Martínez-Pita.

de la cultura contemporánea

Editorial Libro de bolsillo sobre arquitectura. Título: “Pop Up. Ud 23 Statement. Architectures that appear and disappear. 2012-2013.” Febrero 2013. Numero fuera de colección. Publicación non-profit de investigación universitaria. 10 euros, 7 pounds, 14$ USA.

Esta publicación forma parte de los trabajos realizados dentro del grupo de investigación PRoLAB_ Laboratorio de Investigación del Proyecto Contemporáneo, línea de investigación “Encoger”.W

ETSAM

Director Fisuras. Fisuras Director.

Federico Soriano.

Editores de este número. Editors for this issue.

Federico Soriano. Pedro Urzaiz.

Redactores. Editorial advisers .

Dolores Palacios. Francisco García Triviño. Álvaro Martín Fidalgo. Jose M. López Ujaque. Ana Martínez-Pita.

Diseño gráfico. Graphic Design.

Federico Soriano. Francisco García Triviño. Álvaro Martín Fidalgo. Jose M. López Ujaque.

Traducción. Translation.

Ana Freitas Pereira. Katerina Psegiannaki.

Esta publicación posee el sello “I”. Imprenta. Printer: Stock CERO S.A. C/ San Romualdo, 26 2ª planta Edificio Astygi 28037 - Madrid Tel: 917 54 54 54 / 687 930 036 Distribución, subscripciones. Distribution, subscriptions: Revista Fisuras Avenida de Levante 41 28016 Madrid Tel/Fax: 0034 91 519 21 56 fisuras@fisuras.es Deposito legal M-3073-2013 ISBN 978-84-940502-2-0


Pop Up

Index Undiscovered territories Statement Instructions Action protocol Work stages Islands References Texts Minutes of the seminar Previous works Bibliography

3 5 9 17 23 27 31 81 109 139 145 189


Undiscovered territories

5


32

36

Bastøy

forgotten program

San Pedro

sound program

Rodrigues

treasure program

48

Mysterious

unique program

Santa Cruz

dense program

Neverland

excessive program

Trash

extensive program

60

Museums Berlin cultured program

La Toja

pleasure program

64

Martha’s Vineyard intangible program

Lost

hybrid program

Northern Mariana unnamed program

72

Manhattan

attractor program

6

Iceberg

passer-by program

Iceland

impossible program


40

44

Ithaca

myth program

Gorea

discreet program

Nauru

material program

52

Alcatraz

inaccessible program

Corfu

literary program

Ellis

exclusive program

56

Tuvalu

diffuse program

Sandy

trick program

Bounty

desire program

68

Sealand

server program

Bouvet

served program

Maldive

attractive program

76

Selkirk

lost program

San Borondon

invisible program

Deception

hosting program

7


Statement: Architectures that appear and disappear

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SPA /// El curso quiere reflexionar sobre los programas como generadores de situaciones específicas que pueden hacer aparecer y desaparecer arquitecturas reales o forzar la lectura de unas condiciones espaciales y materiales existentes que cristalicen en un momento dado en esas arquitecturas. Los programas son islas programáticas. Pueden “ser” cuando las condiciones favorezcan su visibilidad. Ocurre igual que esas islas fantasmas que están en los mapas pero que muy pocos, o nadie, ha podido visitarlas. Que no sabemos si existen realmente. Recordadlas. Esos trozos de tierra anclados al fondo marino que estaban y ya no están. O no estaban y ahora están. Islas que aparecen y desaparecen. Que a veces constaban y luego no figuran. Algunas que nunca vas a poder ver y otros han visto. Islas que se pueden mover, cambian de sitio. Que se materializan y desmaterializan. Las nuevas. Las de aglomeraciones de basura flotante aglutinada. Las viejas, las que ves brillar en la lejanía y no puedes atracar en ellas porque cuando intentas acercarte, se esfuman en el horizonte. Grandes o pequeñas. Isla de Kiribati. Tuvalu. Isla Lincoln. San Borondón. Isla Bermeja. Sandy. Salió hace unos días en el periódico la noticia de la desaparición de la isla Sandy en el Pacífico Sur. Medía entre 15 Kilómetros de largo por 3 Kilómetros de ancho y supuestamente pertenecería a Francia. El barco científico RV Southern Surveyor, un buque del servicio hidrográfico australiano, intentó llegar hasta allí por primera vez sin llegar a detectarla, incluso cuando se colocó sobre las coordenadas exactas. El fondo se mantenía estable a la profundidad de 1.400 metros. Sin rastro de ninguna particularidad. Todavía sigue figurando en los mapas. ¿Por qué desaparecen o aparecen islas, que condiciones –físicas o inteligentes- hacen de una isla un lugar evanescente, son perfectas o precisas –el perímetro de una isla es perfecto porque solo con decir “isla” sabemos que tiene límite, mientras que no es preciso porque es particular-, son inventadas o descubiertas? De la misma forma podemos pensar en programas, en arquitecturas, en materiales, que en un momento dado, en un lugar, edificio, programa,

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o entorno existente e incontrolado, por unas condiciones específicas que somos capaces de identificar, imaginar, proyectar y controlar, se materializan y se convierten en arquitecturas independientes. Pero que antes, o un rato después de que desaparezcan las condiciones programadas, vuelven a no estar, a desaparecer. A no existir. Pensamos en cuerpos reales que, dentro de ellos cristalizan, sin que haya soporte previo, unas pequeñas arquitecturas revitalizantes. Daremos los lugares específicos de trabajo y el alumno deberá programar las reacciones que precipiten la aparición controlada de estas arquitecturas. Imaginará programas, materiales, modificaciones físicas sobre lo existente que soportarán lo que va a surgir. La arquitectura no necesita de soportes fijos para ser generada. No necesita tectónica sino condiciones de notificación y supervivencia. Puede surgir en cualquier punto, aunque hoy esté ocupado por otra cosa, por una arquitectura o por un agujero negro. La arquitectura se precipita en reacciones controladas, el proyecto es el procedimiento de estas reacciones químicas controladas y programadas. Y debemos tener en cuenta que los usuarios, en el momento de entrar e interactuar con un espacio, son precisamente los principales reactivos con el que trabajaremos. Nada debe ser fijo, debemos convertir los objetos estables en eventos, los accidentes físicos en acciones, los datos en probabilidades. Es fascinante ver que lo más estable del mundo, el propio soporte físico sobre el que nos movemos, puede ser una ficción y el mundo de lo real que nos han hecho creer inmutable, es absolutamente voluble e irreal a voluntad. ///

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POR /// O curso reflecte nos programas como geradores de situações específicas que podem fazer aparecer e desaparecer arquitecturas reais ou forçar a leitura de condições espaciais e materiais existentes que se expressem em dado momento nessas arquitecturas. Os programas são ilhas programáticas. Podem “ser” quando as condições favorecem à sua visibilidade. Tal como essas ilhas fantasma que estão no mapa mas que poucos ou mesmo ninguém pode visita-las. Que não sabemos se realmente existem. Recordai-as. Esses pedaços de terra ancorados ao fundo marinho que estavam e já não estão. Ou não estavam e agora estão. Ilhas que aparecem e desaparecem. Que às vezes constavam e já não figuram. Algumas que nunca vais poder ver e que outros viram. Ilhas que se movem e mudam de sítio. Que se materializam e desmaterializam. As novas. As de aglomerados de lixo flutuante. As velhas, que vês brilhar ao longe, sem poder atracar nelas porque mal te aproximas se desvanecem no horizonte. Grandes ou pequenas. Ilha de Kiribati. Tuvalu. Ilha Lincoln. San Borondón. Ilha Bermeja. Sandy. Saiu há uns dias no jornal a notícia do desaparecimento da ilha Sandy no Pacífico sul. Media entre 15 Km de comprimento por 3 Km de largura e supostamente pertencia a França. O barco científico RV Southern Surveyor, um navio do serviço hidrográfico australiano, tentou chegar até ai pela primeira vez sem conseguir detecta-la, inclusive colocandose sobre as coordenadas exactas. O fundo permanecia estável à profundidade de 1.400 metros. Sem rastro de nenhuma particularidade. Ainda continua a figurar nos mapas. Porque que desaparecem ou aparecem ilhas, que condições - físicas ou inteligentes- fazem de uma ilha um lugar evanescente, são perfeitas ou precisas - o perímetro de uma ilha é perfeito porque só com dizer “ilha” sabemos que tem limite, mas não é preciso porque é particular, são inventadas ou descobertas? Da mesma forma podemos pensar em programas, arquitecturas, materiais, que num momento dado, num lugar, edifício, programa, ou envolvente existente e descontrolado, por circunstâncias específicas

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que podemos identificar, imaginar, projectar e controlar, se materializam e se convertem em arquitecturas independentes. Mas que antes, ou por algum tempo depois de que desapareçam as circunstâncias programadas, voltem a não estar, a desaparecer. A não existir. Pensamos em corpos reais que, dentro deles se cristalizam, sem que haja suporte prévio, pequenas arquitecturas revitalizantes. Daremos os lugares específicos de trabalho e o estudante terá que programar as reacções que precipitem a aparência controlada destas arquitecturas. Imaginará programas, materiais, modificações físicas sobre o existente que suportarão o que vai surgir. A arquitectura não necessita sustentações fixas para ser gerada. Não necessita tectónica mas condições de notificação e sobrevivência. Pode levantar-se em qualquer ponto, embora hoje esteja ocupado por outra coisa, por uma arquitectura ou por um buraco negro. A arquitectura precipita-se em reacções controladas, o projecto é o procedimento destas reacções químicas controladas e de programas. E devemos ter em conta que os usuários, no momento de entrar e interagir com um espaço, são certamente os principais reactivos com que trabalharemos. Nada deve ser fixo, devemos converter os objectos estáveis em eventos, os acidentes físicos nas acções, os dados em probabilidades. É fascinante ver que o mais estável do mundo, o próprio suporte físico sobre o que nos movemos pode ser uma ficção e o mundo do real que nos fez crer imutável, é absolutamente volúvel e irreal à vontade. ///

13


GRE /// Σκοπός του μαθήματος είναι να θέσει τις βάσεις ενός διαλόγου σχετικά με την έννοια του «προγράμματος» ως παραγωγού γένεσης ξεχωριστών καταστάσεων. Υπό αυτή την έννοια, το πρόγραμμα μπορεί να συμβάλει στην εμφάνιση ή εξαφάνιση πραγματικών αρχιτεκτονικών, ή στην ανάγκη ανάγνωσης των υπαρχόντων χωρικών και υλικών καταστάσεων, που σε ορισμένη χρονική στιγμή, κρυσταλλώνονται σε αυτές τις αρχιτεκτονικές. Τα προγράμματα είναι «προγραμματικά νησιά», μπορούν να «υπάρχουν» όταν οι καταστάσεις τα ευνοούν να γίνουν ορατά. Συμβαίνει το ίδιο και με εκείνα τα νησιά φαντάσματα που είναι στους χάρτες αλλά που πολύ λίγοι ή σχεδόν κανείς, δεν έχει μπορέσει να τα επισκεφθεί. Που δεν ξέρουμε αν υπάρχουν στην πραγματικότητα. Θυμηθείτε τα. Αυτά τα κομμάτια γης, αγκυροβολημένα στον πυθμένα της θάλασσας, που υπήρξαν αλλά πλέον δεν υπάρχουν. Ή δεν υπήρξαν αλλά τώρα υπάρχουν. Νησιά που εμφανίζονται και εξαφανίζονται. Που κάποτε ήταν καταγεγραμμένα αλλά πλέον όχι. Κάποια, που ποτέ δεν θα μπορέσεις να δεις, αλλά που άλλοι έχουν δει. Νησιά που μπορούν να μετακινηθούν να αλλάξουν μέρος. Που υλοποιούνται και που εξαϋλώνονται. Τα νέα, από συγκόλληση επιπλεόντων συσσωρευμένων απορριμμάτων. Τα παλαιά, που βλέπεις να αστράφτουν από απόσταση, αλλά δεν μπορείς να αράξεις σε αυτά γιατί όταν προσπαθείς να τα πλησιάσεις, εξαφανίζονται στον ορίζοντα. Μεγάλα η μικρά. Τα νησιά Κιριμπάτι. Τουβαλού. Η νήσος Λίνκολν. Σαν Μποροντόν. Η νήσος Μπερμέχα. Σάντι. Έγραψαν πριν λίγες μέρες οι εφημερίδες το νέο της εξαφάνισης της νήσου Σάντι στον Νότιο Ειρηνικό. Είχε μήκος 15 χιλιομέτρων και πλάτος 3 χιλιομέτρων και υποτίθεται πως άνηκε στην Γαλλία. Το επιστημονικό πλοίο RV Southern Surveyor, σκάφος της αυστραλιανής υδρογραφικής υπηρεσίας, προσπάθησε να φτάσει μέχρι εκεί για πρώτη φορά, αλλά δεν κατάφερε να εντοπίσει το εν λόγω νησί ακόμα και όταν τοποθετήθηκε πάνω στις ακριβείς συντεταγμένες. Ο βυθός της θάλασσας παρέμενε σταθερός στο βάθος των 1.400 μέτρων. Χωρίς ίχνος καμιάς ιδιαιτερότητας. Η νήσος Σάντι συνεχίζει ακόμα να εμφανίζεται στους χάρτες. Γιατί εμφανίζονται και εξαφανίζονται νησιά; Τι καταστάσεις - φυσικές ή νοητές - κάνουν ένα νησί μέρος εφήμερο; Τα νησιά χαρακτηρίζονται από την τελειότητα ή από την ακρίβεια; Η περίμετρος ενός νησιού είναι τέλεια γιατί απλά λέγοντας «νησί»

14


ξέρουμε ότι έχει όρια, ενώ δεν είναι ακριβής γιατί είναι ιδιόμορφη. Έχουν εφευρεθεί ή έχουν ανακαλυφθεί. Με τον ίδιο τρόπο μπορούμε να σκεφτούμε προγράμματα, αρχιτεκτονικές και υλικά που σε συγκεκριμένη στιγμή, μέρος, κτίριο, πρόγραμμα ή υπάρχων ανεξέλεγκτο περιβάλλοντα χώρο και υπό συγκεκριμένες συνθήκες που είμαστε ικανοί να προσδιορίσουμε, να φανταστούμε, να σχεδιάσουμε και

να

ελέγξουμε,

υλοποιούνται

και

μετατρέπονται

σε

ανεξάρτητες

αρχιτεκτονικές. Αλλά που προηγουμένως, μια στιγμή μετά την εξαφάνιση των προγραμματισμένων συνθηκών, δεν υπάρχουν και πάλι, εξαφανίζονται. Σκεφτόμαστε σε σώματα αληθινά που μέσα τους κρυσταλλώνονται, χωρίς προηγούμενη υποστήριξη, μικρές αναζωογονητικές αρχιτεκτονικές. Θα δώσουμε συγκεκριμένες τοποθεσίες εργασίας και ο φοιτητής θα πρέπει να προγραμματίσει τις αντιδράσεις που θα ωθήσουν στην ελεγχόμενη εμφάνιση αυτών των αρχιτεκτονικών. Θα φανταστεί προγράμματα, υλικά, φυσικές τροποποιήσεις πάνω στο ήδη υπάρχον περιβάλλον, που θα στηρίξουν αυτό που θα προκύψει. Η αρχιτεκτονική δεν χρειάζεται καθορισμένα στηρίγματα για να παραχθεί. Δεν χρειάζεται δομικές συνθήκες αλλά συνθήκες επιβίωσης και κοινοποίησης. Μπορεί να προκύψει σε οποιοδήποτε σημείο, και ας είναι αυτό προσωρινά κατειλημμένο από κάτι άλλο, είτε μία αρχιτεκτονική είτε μία μαύρη τρύπα. Η αρχιτεκτονική ωθεί σε ελεγχόμενες αντιδράσεις, η αρχιτεκτονική πρόταση είναι η διαδικασία αυτών των ελεγχόμενων χημικών αντιδράσεων και των προγραμμάτων. Πρέπει να λαμβάνουμε υπ’ όψη μας τους χρήστες, τη στιγμή που εισέρχονται και αλληλεπιδρούν με ένα χώρο, είναι αυτοί τα βασικά στοιχεία της αντίδρασης με τα οποία θα δουλέψουμε. Τίποτα δεν πρέπει να είναι σταθερό, πρέπει να μετατρέψουμε τα σταθερά στοιχεία σε συμβάντα, τα φυσικά ατυχήματα σε δράσεις. Τα στοιχεία σε πιθανότητες. Είναι συναρπαστικό να αντιληφθούμε ότι το πιο σταθερό πράγμα στον κόσμο, το ίδιο του το φυσικό στήριγμα και υπόβαθρο, πάνω στο οποίο κινούμαστε, μπορεί να είναι μια φαντασία, και ότι ο πραγματικός κόσμος που μας κάνουν να πιστέψουμε ότι είναι αμετάβλητος, είναι απολύτως ευμετάβλητος και εξωπραγματικός κατά βούληση. ///

15


Instructions

17


SPA /// Se trata de elaborar un proyecto de un programa complejo e intermitente que construya una situación espacial nueva y diferente en determinados momentos, o con determinadas condiciones ambientales, dentro de un contexto arquitectónico preexistente real. Es una arquitectura en un entorno. Este enunciado os dará los entornos sobre los cuales es posible trabajar. El grupo de trabajo deberá analizarlos, elegir la ubicación concreta y determinar los programas, usuarios y horarios en los cuales ese proyecto va a constituirse. Deberá definirlo programáticamente, formalmente y posteriormente, estructural, material y constructivamente. Deberá cumplir que su superficie construida sea menor o igual a 160 metros cuadrados. Le entrega final consistirá en un documento gráfico, una planta, en un formato de Doble A-0, una escala de extrema definición constructiva y material, y una maqueta tamaño A-1, que añadirá las condiciones de tipo espacial y experimental arquitectónicas que los formatos papel limitan. El trabajo se realizará por equipos de tres personas, desconocidas entre sí, una por cada escuela o facultad implicada en este cuatrimestre: (La ETSAM-UPM de Madrid, la Universidad de Democritos de Tracia en Grecia y la Universidad Federal de Minas Gerais en Brasil) La formación de los equipos se producirá progresivamente durante las primeras etapas de trabajo según un proceso que se indicará durante el curso. ///

Profesores del seminario: UPM-ETSAM: Federico Soriano, Pedro Urzaiz, Néstor Montenegro, Arantzazu Luzárraga, Francisco G. Triviño, Álvaro M. Fidalgo, Ana Martínez-Pita, Jose M. López Ujaque, Toni Gelabert. Democritus University of Thrace: Polixeny Mantzou, Konstantinos Sakantamis. U.F. Minas Gerais: Juliana Torres de Miranda, Denise Morado, Natacha Rena, Débora Cristina Tavares Caetano, Marcela Brandão.

19


POR /// Trata-se de elaborar um projecto de um programa complexo e intermitente que construa uma situação espacial nova e diferente em determinados momentos, ou com determinadas condições ambientais, dentro de um contexto arquitectónico preexistente real. É uma arquitectura numa envolvente. Este enunciado dar-vos-á as envolventes sobre as quais é possível trabalhar. O grupo de trabalho terá que analisá-las, escolher a posição concreta e determinar os programas, usuários e horários nos quais esse projecto se vai constituir. Terá que definir programática, formal e posteriormente, estrutural, material e construtivamente. Terá que cumprir com uma superfície construída menor ou igual a 160 metros quadrados. A entrega final consistira num documento gráfico, uma planta, num formato Duplo A-0, numa escala de extrema definição construtiva e material, e uma maqueta tamanho A-1, com as condições de tipo espacial e experimental arquitectónicas que os formatos papel limitam. O trabalho será feito por equipas de três pessoas, desconhecidas entre si, uma por cada escola ou faculdade implicada neste quadrimestre: (ETSAM-UPM de Madrid, da universidade de Democritos de Tracia na Grecia e da universidade federal de Minas Gerais do Brasil) a formação das equipas produzir-se-á progressivamente durante as primeiras etapas de trabalho de acordo com um processo que se indicara durante o curso. ///

Professores de seminário: UPM-ETSAM: Federico Soriano, Pedro Urzaiz, Néstor Montenegro, Arantzazu Luzárraga, Francisco G. Triviño, Álvaro M. Fidalgo, Ana Martínez-Pita, Jose M. López Ujaque, Toni Gelabert. Democritus University of Thrace: Polixeny Mantzou, Konstantinos Sakantamis. U.F. Minas Gerais: Juliana Torres de Miranda, Denise Morado, Natacha Rena, Débora Cristina Tavares Caetano, Marcela Brandão.

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GRE /// Το θέμα της συγκεκριμένης εργασίας είναι η ανάπτυξη μιας αρχιτεκτονικής πρότασης ενός πολύπλοκου και διαλείποντος προγράμματος που να διαμορφώνει μία νέα και διαφορετική χωρική κατάσταση σε συγκεκριμένες στιγμές, ή σε συγκεκριμένες περιβαλλοντικές συνθήκες, μέσα σε ένα πραγματικό και προϋπάρχον αρχιτεκτονικό πλαίσιο. Είναι μία αρχιτεκτονική σε ένα περιβάλλον. Με αυτήν την εκφώνηση θα σας δοθούν τα περιβάλλοντα πάνω στα οποία μπορείτε να δουλέψετε. Η ομάδα εργασίας θα πρέπει να τα αναλύσει, να διαλέξει την ακριβή τοποθεσία και να καθορίσει τα προγράμματα, τους χρήστες και τα ωράρια τα οποία θα αποτελέσουν την πρόταση. Η πρόταση θα πρέπει να οριστεί προγραμματικά, μορφικά και αργότερα δομικά, υλικά και κατασκευαστικά. Η κατασκευασμένη επιφάνεια θα πρέπει να είναι ίση ή μικρότερη των 160 τμ. Η τελική παράδοση θα αποτελείτε από ένα σχεδιαστικό έγγραφο, μία κάτοψη, σε μέγεθος χαρτιού Α0, σε κλίμακα απόλυτου προσδιορισμού, υλικού και κατασκευαστικού, και μία μακέτα μεγέθους Α1, που θα προσθέτει τις αρχιτεκτονικές συνθήκες, χωρικού και πειραματικού τύπου, που ο σχεδιασμός στο χαρτί περιορίζει. Η δουλειά θα πραγματοποιηθεί από ομάδες τριών ατόμων, άγνωστων μεταξύ τους, μία από κάθε αρχιτεκτονική σχολή που συμμετέχει στο κοινό μάθημα αυτού του εξαμήνου μεταξύ της Πολυτεχνικής Σχολής της Μαδρίτης στην Ισπανία, του Δημοκρίτειου Πανεπιστήμιου Θράκης στην Ελλάδα και του Ομοσπονδιακού Πανεπιστήμιου του Minas Gerais στη Βραζιλία. ///

Καθηγητές του σεμιναρίου: UPM-ETSAM: Federico Soriano, Pedro Urzaiz, Néstor Montenegro, Arantzazu Luzárraga, Francisco G. Triviño, Álvaro M. Fidalgo, Ana Martínez-Pita, Jose M. López Ujaque, Toni Gelabert. Δημοκρίτειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θράκης: Πολυξένη Μάντζου, Κωσταντίνος Σακαντάμης. U.F. Minas Gerais: Juliana Torres de Miranda, Denise Morado, Natacha Rena, Débora Cristina Tavares Caetano, Marcela Brandão.

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Action protocol

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Se propone un curso de proyectos cuatrimestral conjunto con otras dos Universidades foráneas. Se trabajará con un programa y condicionantes de partidas comunes y de manera simultánea. Enunciado: Como continuación a la publicación “Transmutaciones”, se prevé realizar una experiencia similar con las nuevas universidades invitadas para el seminario que se va a desarrollar, para ello se les ha hecho entrega de la publicación a modo informativo y poder partir de una misma base de trabajo común. La nueva publicación conjunta se entregará a los alumnos de las universidades participantes al comienzo del semestre, habiendo cerrado y negociado el Enunciado de curso y protocolo de trabajo. Workshop: Para el desarrollo de dicho seminario, previo o al inicio de este, se propone un workshop en las distintas universidades foráneas. Será el desencadenante que marque las pautas, las afinidades o los desencuentros que se van a producir, formalizará las diferencias de cada universidad, servirá de entrenamiento para el desarrollo del resto del curso. Un momento intenso, una incubadora de procederes, donde la innovación educativa y la investigación puedan producir un resultado común entre localizaciones no afines. Organización: Cada proyecto se desarrollará por grupos. Cada grupo estará formado por tres alumnos, obligatoriamente uno de cada Universidad. Los estudiantes que no puedan por requerimiento de número formar grupo con los de otras universidades solo recibirá información para su ejercicio de otros grupos. Dado el desfase entre el número de estudiantes y las fechas de comienzo en las distintas universidades, los estudiantes de la Escuela Técnica de Madrid producirán un video presentación de su trabajo que previamente habrán realizado al inicio del curso. Mostrarán un video promocional sobre lo hecho para que estudiantes de la Universidad de Tracia y de Minas puedan elegir su compañero de grupo.

24


Una vez conformados los grupos, se formalizarán las reglas de juego de cada equipo de trabajo en un contrato. Los participantes deberán asumir las consecuencias y las reglas que ellos mismos han establecido, con el fin de asegurar una fructífera producción. Evaluación: Las correcciones y el ritmo de clases serán independientes en cada Universidad, personalizadas por cada profesor. Podrán surgir contradicciones entre ellos, no se consideran un problema, –esto es la realidad-, ni se intentarán minimizar. Habrá siempre que adaptarse. De todas formas, existirán algunos momentos de jury’s conjuntos en momentos intermedios del proyecto. Los ritmos de corrección y entregas, así como los formatos de trabajo serán los específicos de cada Universidad. Cada grupo podrá optar por desarrollar un proyecto conjunto que se representa de tres maneras diversas, así como desarrollar un proyecto que va asumiendo las presentaciones diversas. Se propone entregar al final del cuatrimestre un proyecto único de grupo, con la misma o específicas entregas individualizadas, según decisión de los integrantes del equipo. La calificación será única para cada proyecto, por lo tanto, será la misma para los alumnos integrantes de cada grupo en su respectiva Universidad. El sistema de calificación de los tres profesores será indicado al inicio del curso, y podría ser una nota media entre ellos así como una negociación conjunta. Libro de Actas: Como reflejo de las investigaciones del proceso pedagógico llevado a cabo, las conclusiones, las controversias, los nuevos campos de oportunidad, las extrañezas, etc., serán recogidas en un libro de actas.

25


Work stages

27


Minas

Madrid

Xanthi workshop presentation

presentation psycho-geographical map of the site possible program trick program presentation video selection

promotional video

video selection

contract between students - joint work plan workshop diagrams and proto-floorplan

proto-section

model

furniture

structure

material

interchange section

model

floorplan

public-private space

communication strategies

public-private space

interchange - pre-deadline development and adaptation

development and adaptation

development and adaptation

final deadline

final deadline final deadline

29


Islands

31


32


Bastøy island forgotten program

N

33


Bastøy Boys’ Home

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Bastøy island forgotten program

position: 59º22’48’’N, 10º31’29’’W population density: 46 inh/km 2 temperature: 35º max / -26º min 20 days with 35 cm snow thickness year program: 65% high security / resort-like leisure 20% self-sufficient farming 15 % beach timetable: 24 h materials: high resistant high ecological efficiency

35


36


Rodrigues island

N

treasure program

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Robert Louis Stevenson. Treasure Island

38


Rodrigues island treasure program

position: 19º43’0’’S, 63º25’0’’E population density: 328 inh/km 2 temperature: 26º max / 22º min probability of cyclones program: 45% 22% 21% 12%

tourism fishing cultivation of vegetables handicraft industry

timetable: 24 h materials: unstable light

39


40


Ithaca island myth program

N

41


The journey of Ithaca

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Ithaca island myth program

position: 38º22’0’’N, 20º43’0’’E population density: 27 inh/km 2 temperature: 26º max / 9º min 20º average sea temperature program: 35% wine industry 55% olive oil industry 10% residential timetable: 24 h materials: minimum floor support surface

43


44


Nauru island islan

N

material progra program

45


Nauru phosphate cantilevers

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Nauru island material program

position: 0º31’56’’S, 166º55’58’’E population density: 213 inh/km 2 temperature: 31º max / 25º min 152 mm average precipitation program: 50% financially independent 50% imported goods timetable: 24 h materials: flooding react

47


48


Neverland island excessive program

N

49


Peter Pan quote

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Neverland island excessive program

position: ISBN 9780140366747 population density: unknown temperature: can change unexpectedly program: 55% forest 22% water 14% underground 9 % dangerous timetable: 24 h materials: reached by flight playful

51


52


Alcatraz island inaccessible program

N

53


Alcatraz warning

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Alcatraz island inaccessible program

position: 37º49’36’’N, 122º25’24’’W population density: 0 inh/km 2 3.000 visitors per day temperature: 24º max / 3º min 187 rainy days year program: 30% high security 37% industrial 33% protected timetable: 9:30 am - 4:30 pm materials: high resistant

55


56


Sandy island

N

trick program

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FOX News screenshot

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Sandy island trick program

position: 19º 13’ 30”S, 159º 55’ 30”E population density: 0 inh/km 2 temperature: 30º max / 20º min possibility of 100 km wind speed hour program: 90% copyright security 10% error timetable: 0 h materials: high invisibility rough

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60


Martha’s Vineyard island intangible program

N

61


Hereditary deafness on Martha’s Vineyard

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Martha’s Vineyard island intangible program

position: 41º24’0’’N, 70º37’0’’W population density: 63 inh/km 2 temperature: 26º max / -4º min prone to fog program: 100% leisure timetable: 24 h materials: high economic value valid for hearing impairment

63


64


Northern Mariana islands unnamed program

N

65


First historical eruption of Anatahan volcano, Northern Mariana Islands

66


Northern Mariana islands unnamed program

position: 17º0’0’’N, 146º0’0’’E population density: 168 inh/km 2 temperature: 29º max / 27º min probability of typhoons program: 30% 22% 23% 25%

japanese tourism free trade area industry illegal

timetable: 24 h materials: any

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68


Sealand island server program

N

69


Principality of Sealand coins

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Sealand island server program

position: 51º53’42’’N, 1º28’49’’E population density: 49.090 inh/km 2 temperature: 21º max / 2º min average of 4,6 sunlight hours day program: 100% micronation (self-sufficient) timetable: 24 h materials: sea water resistant keep birds from nesting energy producer

71


72


Iceberg island passer-by program

N

73


The iceberg which sank the Titanic

74


Iceberg island passer-by program

position: in movement population density: 0 inh/km 2 possibility of wild animals temperature: 24ยบ max / 0,5ยบ min (increasing values) program: 20% visible 80 % hidden timetable: 24 h till disappearance materials: volatile temporary evanescent

75


76


Deception island hosting program

N

77


Death-ray controlling satellite-dish disguised as a lake in the James Bond Golden Eye movie

78


Deception island hosting program

position: 62º58’37’’S, 60º39’00’’W population density: 0 inh/km 2 temperature: 2º max / -11º min 87% average relative humidity program: 20% tourist 45% important bird area (IBA) 15% warm baths timetable: 24 h materials: high thermal resistance no polluting substance easy transport

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References

81


Sandy island.

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Estos son los hechos: un barco científico, el RV Southem Surveyor, del servicio hidrográfico australiano, aprovechando que está en el Mar del Coral en una singladura de 25 días estudiando la tectónica de placas, decide, quizá con ánimo de recrearse con playas y cocoteros, echar un vistazo a Sandy Island, una isla del Pacífico Sur que diferentes cartas y mapas, entre ellos Google Earth y Google Maps, muestran entre Australia y Nueva Caledonia. Llegados al punto marcado, la isla no está y el océano se extiende, imperturbable. ¿Dónde diablos ha ido a parar la isla?, se preguntan perplejos los científicos. Sus mapas la muestran, aunque no así las cartas náuticas, que señalan una profundidad de 1.400 metros y ni asomo de isla. Se han propuesto diversas explicaciones, como el error humano o la broma colosal. Una que parece plausible es que ciertos autores de mapas acostumbran a introducir algún dato falso que les sirva para detectar copias que infrinjan su copyright: si otro mapa muestra lo mismo es que lo han pirateado y valga el término hablando de islas, aunque no se trate de Tortuga, Sulú o el Arrecife del Hombre Muerto.

El extraño caso de la isla del pacífico. http://goo.gl/czhxs

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Antarctic island radio. http://goo.gl/tKNSF

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Personal island. Acconci Studio.

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Europe 27. Point Supreme Architects. http://goo.gl/gf7Oq

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A los amantes de los misterios y los secretos les encantará este libro de antiturismo. También a los conspiranoicos ilustrados y a los escritores en busca de localizaciones para libros de misterio, acción o terror. O simplemente a los curiosos. Porque aparecen una serie de sitios a los que está prohibido visitar o a los que una persona en su sano juicio no se le ocurriría ir. Como la “isla” formada por residuos v basuras en el océano Pacífico, la zona de exclusión de Chernóbil o la central nuclear de Fukushima. Abundan las bases militares, particularmente las estadounidenses y británicas, además de las norcoreanas (desde el arsenal de Hawthome, Skunk Works, para el desarrollo de proyectos secretos de armamento; el área 51, de las Fuerzas Aéreas norteamericanas; el complejo Raven Rock Mountain, conocido como el Pentágono subterráneo, o la red de túneles londinenses conocida como Q-Whitehall, cuya existencia no está reconocida oficialmente). Hay también lugares cerrados al público como The Dalles, el centro de datos de Google; ADX Florence, prisión de altísima seguridad o la base de Guantánamo; la sede subterránea de Dulce, para contactos con alienígenas (cuestionable elección); la caja fuerte que conserva la fórmula de Coca-Cola; la reserva de oro de Fort Knox o el ‘Fort Knox’ suizo, un búnker secreto bajo una montaña que guarda documentos confidenciales. No todos son lugares siniestros. También se: incluye el dormitorio de la Reina británica, la cámara de semillas de Svalbard, el archivo secreto del Vaticano o el de los mormones en Granite Mountain. Cada capítulo lleva, además de las explicaciones, fotos y algunos hasta planos y vistas aéreas. Porque ¿quién se resiste al halo de lo prohibido?

100 lugares que nunca visitarás. http://goo.gl/g7ghC

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Mediterranean west coast. Subarquitectura.

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Imaginary maps. Robert Smithson.

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Doomsday preepers. National Geographic TV.

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Nancy Lanza era una expertísima tiradora, pero eso no la salvó de la muerte. Cuatro balazos -según las últimas informaciones- de su hijo pusieron fin a su vida en la mañana del viernes. Probablemente, Lanza nunca se enteró de que se moría. Las informaciones disponibles ayer aseguraban que, con toda probabilidad, habría fallecido mientras dormía. La muerte de Lanza tiene un toque sarcástico, llevaba años preparándose para el fin de los tiempos. No en sentido bíblico, sino al estilo de Mad Max o The Road. Era una prepper, que es como en EEUU se califica a los que se preparan para sobrevivir a una catástrofe natural, una revolución, un ataque con bombas atómicas, la fusión de los polos o una combinación de todos esos factores. Para ello, acumulan comida, agua, aíslan sus casas y reducen sus contactos con otras personas. Los preppers son una parte del paísaje sociológico en EEUU, hasta el punto de que la cadena de televisión National Geographic tiene un programa de gran éxito titulado Preppers del Día del Juicio Final. Entre los protagonistas de ese show está Robert Earl, un jubilado de Florida que se ha trasladado con su esposa al desierto de Texas en previsión de la fusión del hielo de Groenlandia debido al calentamiento de la Tierra. Earl ha aprendido a cazar serpientes de cascabel y a comérselas para que no le falte nada que echarse al gaznate el día en el que Groenlandia se funda de golpe, el nivel del mar suba siete metros y le gente se mate por un sándwich de crótalo diamantino oriental. El problema es que el esfuerzo por sobrevivir a veces puede matar. Es lo que le pasó a Nancy Lanza que, según su cuñada, le había dicho la última vez que se vieron: «¿Estás preparada para lo que se nos viene encima cuando la economía se colapse?» Todo indica que Lanza no estaba preparada para lo que se le venía encima: su propio hijo. Mientras tanto, a día de ayer, la economía no se había colapsado, Groenlandia seguía congelada y no había estallado ninguna bomba electromagnética. El apocalipsis de Nancy Lanza. El Mundo. 19/12/2012.

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Trash island. http://goo.gl/SeSIz

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Star shaped diatom. National Geographic.

93


Lost island. http://goo.gl/y9JwS

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El fin del mundo es hoy, así que no haga planes. Claro, que si los mayas no estaban en lo cierto personas como el chino Liu Qiyuan habrán trabajado en balde. Aunque ya se sabe que con esto de las profecías es mejor ser precavido. Eso mismo pensó Liu que lleva 20 años trabajando en la construcción del Arca de Noé del siglo XXI. En 1992, este granjero escuchó la advertencia de su hija de cinco años cuando otro rumor apocalíptico atemorizó su aldea. «Me dijo: ‘Papá, tengo miedo al fin del mundo. ¿Podrías hacemos una casa indestructible?», dice al South China Moming Post. Liu ha construido una suerte de esferas hechas de fibra de carbono diseñadas para flotar en el agua. Cada-bola de Noé pesa cuatro toneladas y puede albergar en su interior hasta 14 personas. Como es normal, sus vecinos al principio le tomaron por loco pero cuando las hojas del calendario maya empezaron a agotarse su costoso proyecto -243.00 euros- empezó a recibir donaciones. Aunque su proyecto comenzó antes, la película 2012 de Roland Emmerich le aportó ideas para el diseño de las seis cápsulas anti cataclismo. Preparadas para soportar altas temperaturas, fuertes impactos y radiactividad, cuentan con agua y oxígeno para resistir dos meses flotando por lo que quede del planeta. Además, el Noé chino no ha escatimado en confort y ha provisto los asientos de cinturones de seguridad y de una lámpara LED para poder leer. Y como no podía ser de otra manera, tampoco falta el clásico periscopio para avistar tierra cuando todo haya pasado. Sin estudios ni preparación científica este agricultor presume de que el diseño de refugio es sólo obra suya, aunque en él han participado 10 obreros a tiempo completo. «Todo, desde la estructura de refuerzo hasta los pernos y tomillos, ha salido de mi cabeza», dice Liu.

El Noé chino del fin del mundo. El Mundo. 21/12/2012.

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Utopia island. Tomas Moro.

96


Utopia island. Abraham Ortelius.

97


Jeju island. South Korea.

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Not only refugees and criminals but also hidden business practices are exiled to or stored on islands. lslands are the place where the doppelganger lives, and where extra desires and fantasies flourish. They are the sites of stories, other wives, confidence men, and pirates. lslands are the world’s mythomaniacs, not only sidestepping reality with a fabled existence, but also declaring exemptions from the laws that govern behavior on the continent. lslands also harbor the ingredients of culture that fall outside permissible boundaries or between cultural in dices. Consequently, they are often penal colonies or, during war, stationary battleships. Jeju has been both. lt was a penal colony before modern times, and for a hundred years after that a military headquarters for both the Japanese and the Americans. Many Jeju families also suffered losses in a revolt that the mainland Korean army squelched in 1948. American soldiers, having determined that it was a “Red lsland,” brought over Korean police and army members who massacred 30,000 people, some of them children. lslands off the coast of both Koreas remain the storage places of bitter fights that most recently surfaced in the world wars of the twentieth century. The United Nations’ new Laws of the Sea (1982) exacerbate this latent conflict. They establish, for any nation, an exclusive economic zone 200 nautical miles off the shore. For archipelagos of the South China Sea, this new law creates not only many overlapping boundary lines, but a rush to lay ancient claim to islands or rocks that extend, for instance, national property rights to fishing or offshore oil.

Keller Easterline. “Offshore”, Enduring Innocence. MIT Press, 2007.

99


Marcel Broodthaers. Atlas.

100


Sol LeWitt. Photo of Florence.

101


Rem Koolhaas. “Islands”, S,M,L,XL. Monacelli Press, 1998.

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In the world of highways, a beautiful landscape means: an island of beauty connected by a long line with other islands of beauty.

Rem Koolhaas. Islands.

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Words island of the Pop Up statement. Produce with www.wordle.net.

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Berndt & Hilla Becher. Wassert端rme.

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George Brecht. Landmass translocation project.

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Judith Schalansky. Atlas of Remote Islands.

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Texts

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Desert islands Gilles DELEUZE Desert islands and other texts. 1953-1974. New York: Semiotext(e), 2004.

Geographers say there are two kinds of islands. This is valuable information for the imagination because it confirms what the imagination already knew. Nor is it the only case where science makes mythology more concrete, and mythology makes science more vivid. Continental islands are accidental, derived islands. They are separated from a continent, born of disarticulation, erosion, fracture; they survive the absorption of what once contained them. Oceanic islands are originary, essential islands. Some are formed from coral reefs and display a genuine organism. Others emerge from underwater eruptions, bringing to the light of day a movement from the lowest depths. Some rise slowly; some disappear and then return, leaving us no time to annex them. These two kinds of islands, continental and originary, reveal a profound opposition between ocean and land. Continental islands serve as a reminder that the sea is on top of the earth, taking advantage of the slightest sagging in the highest structures; oceanic islands, that the earth is still there, under the sea, gathering its strength to punch through to the surface. We can assume that these elements are in constant strife, displaying a repulsion for one another. In this we find nothing to reassure us. Also, that an island is deserted must appear philosophically normal to us. Humans cannot live, nor live in security, unless they assume that the active struggle between earth and water is over, or at least contained. People like to call these two elements mother and father, assigning them gender roles according to the whim of their fancy. They must somehow persuade themselves that a struggle of this kind does not exist, or that it has somehow ended. In one way or another, the very existence of islands is the negation of this point of view, of this effort, this conviction. That England is populated will always come as a surprise; humans can live on an island only by forgetting what an island represents. Islands are either from before or for after humankind. But everything that geography has told us about the two kinds of islands, the imagination knew already on its own and in another way. The elan that

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draws humans toward islands extends the double movement that produces islands in themselves. Dreaming of islands—whether with joy or in fear, it doesn’t matter—is dreaming of pulling away, of being already separate, far from any continent, of being lost and alone—or it is dreaming of starting from scratch, recreating, beginning anew. Some islands drifted away from the continent, but the island is also that toward which one drifts; other islands originated in the ocean, but the island is also the origin, radical and absolute. Certainly, separating and creating are not mutually exclusive: one has to hold one’s own when one is separated, and had better be separate to create anew; nevertheless, one of the two tendencies always predominates. In this way, the movement of the imagination of islands takes up the movement of their production, but they don’t have the same objective. It is the same movement, but a different goal. It is no longer the island that is separated from the continent, it is humans who find themselves separated from the world when on an island. It is no longer the island that is created from the bowels of the earth through the liquid depths, it is humans who create the world anew from the island and on the waters. Humans thus take up for themselves both movements of the island and are able to do so on an island that, precisely, lacks one kind of movement: humans can drift toward an island that is nonetheless originary, and they can create on an island that has merely drifted away. On closer inspection, we find here a new reason for every island to be and remain in theory deserted. An island doesn’t stop being deserted simply because it is inhabited. While it is true that the movement of humans toward and on the island takes up the movement of the island prior to humankind, some people can occupy the island—it is still deserted, all the more so, provided they are sufficiently, that is, absolutely separate, and provided they are sufficient, absolute creators. Certainly, this is never the case in fact, though people who are shipwrecked approach such a condition. But for this to be the case, we need only extrapolate in imagination the movement they bring with them to the island. Only in appearance does such a movement put an end to the island’s desertedness; in reality, it takes up and prolongs the elan that produced the island as deserted. Far from compromising it, humans bring the desertedness

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to its perfection and highest point. In certain conditions which attach them to the very movement of things, humans do not put an end to desertedness, they make it sacred. Those people who come to the island indeed occupy and populate it; but in reality, were they sufficiently separate, sufficiently creative, they would give the island only a dynamic image of itself, a consciousness of the movement which produced the island, such that through them the island would in the end become conscious of itself as deserted and unpeopled. The island would be only the dream of humans, and humans, the pure consciousness of the island. For this to be the case, there is again but one condition: humans would have to reduce themselves to the movement that brings them to the island, the movement which prolongs and takes up the elan that produced the island. Then geography and the imagination would be one. To that question so dear to the old explorers—”which creatures live on deserted islands?”—one could only answer: human beings live there already, but uncommon humans, they are absolutely separate, absolute creators, in short, an Idea of humanity, a prototype, a man who would almost be a god, a woman who would be a goddess, a great Amnesiac, a pure Artist, a consciousness of Earth and Ocean, an enormous hurricane, a beautiful witch, a statue from the Easter Islands. There you have a human being who precedes itself. Such a creature on a deserted island would be the deserted island itself, insofar as it imagines and reflects itself in its first movement. A consciousness of the earth and ocean, such is the deserted island, ready to begin the world anew. But since human beings, even voluntarily, are not identical to the movement that puts them on the island, they are unable to join with the elan that produces the island; they always encounter it from the outside, and their presence in fact spoils its desertedness. The unity of the deserted island and its inhabitant is thus not actual, only imaginary, like the idea of looking behind the curtain when one is not behind it. More importantly, it is doubtful whether the individual imagination, unaided, could raise itself up to such an admirable identity; it would require the collective imagination, what is most profound in it, i.e. rites and mythology. In the facts themselves we find at least a negative confirmation of all this, if we consider what a deserted island is in reality, that is, geographically. The

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island, and all the more so the deserted island, is an extremely poor or weak notion from the point of view of geography. This is to its credit. The range of islands has no objective unity, and deserted islands have even less. The deserted island may indeed have extremely poor soil. Deserted, the island may be a desert, but not necessarily. The real desert is uninhabited only insofar as it presents no conditions that by rights would make life possible, whether vegetable, animal, or human. On the contrary, the lack of inhabitants on the deserted island is a pure fact due to circumstance, in other words, the island’s surroundings. The island is what the sea surrounds and what we travel around. It is like an egg. An egg of the sea, it is round. It is as though the island had pushed its desert outside. What is deserted is the ocean around it. It is by virtue of circumstance, for other reasons than the principle on which the island depends, that ships pass in the distance and never come ashore. The island is deserted more than it is a desert. So much so, that in itself the island may contain the liveliest of rivers, the most agile fauna, the brightest flora, the most amazing nourishment, the hardiest of savages, and the castaway as its most precious fruit, it may even contain, however momentarily, the ship that comes to take him away. For all that, it is not any less a deserted island. To change this situation, we would have to overhaul the general distribution of the continents, the state of the seas, and the lines of navigation. This is to state once again that the essence of the deserted island is imaginary and not actual, mythological and not geographical. At the same time, its destiny is subject to those human conditions that make mythology possible. Mythology is not simply willed into existence, and the peoples of the earth quickly ensured they would no longer understand their own myths. It is at this very moment literature begins. Literature is the attempt to interpret, in an ingenious way, the myths we no longer understand, at the moment we no longer understand them, since we no longer know how to dream them or reproduce them. Literature is the competition of misinterpretations that consciousness naturally and necessarily produces on themes of the unconscious, and like every competition it has its prizes. One would have to show exactly how in this sense mythology fails and dies in two classic novels of the deserted island, Robinson and Suzanne. Suzanne and the Pacific

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emphasizes the separated aspect of islands, the separation of the young woman who finds herself there;1 Robinson Crusoe, the creative aspect, the beginning anew. It is true that the way mythology fails is different in each case. In the case of Giraudoux’s Suzanne, mythology dies the prettiest, most graceful death. In Robinson’s case, its death is heavy indeed. One can hardly imagine a more boring novel, and it is sad to see children still reading it today. Robinson’s vision of the world resides exclusively in property; never have we seen an owner more ready to preach. The mythical recreation of the world from the deserted island gives way to the reconstitution of everyday bourgeois life from a reserve of capital. Everything is taken from the ship. Nothing is invented. It is all painstakingly applied on the island. Time is nothing but the time necessary for capital to produce a benefit as the outcome of work. And the providential function of God is to guarantee a return. God knows his people, the hardworking honest type, by their beautiful properties, and the evil doers, by their poorly maintained, shabby property. Robinson’s companion is not Eve, but Friday, docile towards work, happy to be a slave, and too easily disgusted by cannibalism. Any healthy reader would dream of seeing him eat Robinson. Robinson Crusoe represents the best illustration of that thesis which affirms the close ties between capitalism and Protestantism. The novel develops the failure and the death of mythology in Puritanism. Things are quite different with Suzanne. In her case, the deserted island is a depository of ready-made, luxurious objects. The island bears immediately what it has taken civilization centuries to produce, perfect, and ripen. But mythology still dies, though in Suzanne’s case it dies in a particularly Parisian way. Suzanne has nothing to create anew. The deserted island provides her with the double of every object from the city, in the windows of the shops; it is a double without consistency, separated from the real, since it does not receive the solidity that objects ordinarily take on in human relations, amidst buying and selling, exchanges and presents. She is an insipid young woman. Her companions are not Adam, but young cadavers, and when she reenters the world of living men, she will love them in a uniform way, like a priest, as though love were the minimum threshold of her perception. What must be recovered is the mythological life of the deserted island.

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However, in its very failure, Robinson gives us some indication: he first needed a reserve of capital. In Suzanne’s case, she was first and foremost separate. And neither the one nor the other could be part of a couple. These three indications must be restored to their mythological purity. We have to get back to the movement of the imagination that makes the deserted island a model, a prototype of the collective soul. First, it is true that from the deserted island it is not creation but re-creation, not the beginning but a re-beginning that takes place. The deserted island is the origin, but a second origin. From it everything begins anew. The island is the necessary minimum for this re-beginning, the material that survives the first origin, the radiating seed or egg that must be sufficient to re-produce everything. Clearly, this presupposes that the formation of the world happens in two stages, in two periods of time, birth and re-birth, and that the second is just as necessary and essential as the first, and thus the first is necessarily compromised, born for renewal and already renounced in a catastrophe. It is not that there is a second birth because there has been a catastrophe, but the reverse, there is a catastrophe after the origin because there must be, from the beginning, a second birth. Within ourselves we can locate the source of such a theme: it is not the production of life that we look for when we judge it to be life, but its reproduction. The animal whose mode of reproduction remains unknown to us has not yet taken its place among living beings. It is not enough that everything begin, everything must begin again once the cycle of possible combinations has come to completion. The second moment does not succeed the first: it is the reappearance of the first when the cycle of the other moments has been completed. The second origin is thus more essential than the first, since it gives us the law of repetition, the law of the series, whose first origin gave us only moments. But this theme, even more than in our fantasies, finds expression in every mythology. It is well known as the myth of the flood. The ark sets down on the one place on earth that remains uncovered by water, a circular and sacred place, from which the world begins anew. It is an island or a mountain, or both at once: the island is a mountain under water, and the mountain, an island that is still dry. Here we see original creation caught in a re-creation, which is concentrated in a holy land in the middle of the ocean. This second origin of the world is more important than

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the first: it is a sacred island. Many myths recount that what we find there is an egg, a cosmic egg. Since the island is a second origin, it is entrusted to man and not to the gods. It is separate, separated by the massive expanse of the flood. Ocean and water embody a principle of segregation such that, on sacred islands, exclusively female communities can come to be, such as the island of Circe or Calypso. After all, the beginning started from God and from a couple, but not the new beginning, the beginning again, which starts from an egg: mythological maternity is often a parthenogenesis. The idea of a second origin gives the deserted island its whole meaning, the survival of a sacred place in a world that is slow to re-begin. In the ideal of beginning anew there is something that precedes the beginning itself, that takes it up to deepen it and delay it in the passage of time. The desert island is the material of this something immemorial, this something most profound.

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Heterotopias Michel FOUCAULT Of Other Spaces (1967). Paris: Architecture-Mouvement-Continuit, 1984

First there are the utopias. Utopias are sites with no real place. They are sites that have a general relation of direct or inverted analogy with the real space of Society. They present society itself in a perfected form, or else society turned upside down, but in any case these utopias are fundamentally unreal spaces. There are also, probably in every culture, in every civilization, real places places that do exist and that are formed in the very founding of society - which are something like counter-sites, a kind of effectively enacted utopia in which the real sites, all the other real sites that can be found within the culture, are simultaneously represented, contested, and inverted. Places of this kind are outside of all places, even though it may be possible to indicate their location in reality. Because these places are absolutely different from all the sites that they reflect and speak about, I shall call them, by way of contrast to utopias, heterotopias. I believe that between utopias and these quite other sites, these heterotopias, there might be a sort of mixed, joint experience, which would be the mirror. The mirror is, after all, a utopia, since it is a placeless place. In the mirror, I see myself there where I am not, in an unreal, virtual space that opens up behind the surface; I am over there, there where I am not, a sort of shadow that gives my own visibility to myself, that enables me to see myself there where I am absent: such is the utopia of the mirror. But it is also a heterotopia in so far as the mirror does exist in reality, where it exerts a sort of counteraction on the position that I occupy. From the standpoint of the mirror I discover my absence from the place where I am since I see myself over there. Starting from this gaze that is, as it were, directed toward me, from the ground of this virtual space that is on the other side of the glass, I come back toward myself; I begin again to direct my eyes toward myself and to reconstitute myself there where I am. The mirror functions as a heterotopia in this respect: it makes this place that I occupy at the moment when I look at myself in the glass at once absolutely real, connected with all the space that surrounds it, and absolutely unreal, since in order to be perceived it has to pass through

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this virtual point which is over there. As for the heterotopias as such, how can they be described? What meaning do they have? We might imagine a sort of systematic description - I do not say a science because the term is too galvanized now -that would, in a given society, take as its object the study, analysis, description, and ‘reading’ (as some like to say nowadays) of these different spaces, of these other places. As a sort of simultaneously mythic and real contestation of the space in which we live, this description could be called heterotopology. Its first principle is that there is probably not a single culture in the world that fails to constitute heterotopias. That is a constant of every human group. But the heterotopias obviously take quite varied forms, and perhaps no one absolutely universal form of heterotopia would be found. We can however class them in two main categories. In the so-called primitive societies, there is a certain form of heterotopia that I would call crisis heterotopias, i.e., there are privileged or sacred or forbidden places, reserved for individuals who are, in relation to society and to the human environment in which they live, in a state of crisis: adolescents, menstruating women, pregnant women. the elderly, etc. In out society, these crisis heterotopias are persistently disappearing, though a few remnants can still be found. For example, the boarding school, in its nineteenth-century form, or military service for young men, have certainly played such a role, as the first manifestations of sexual virility were in fact supposed to take place “elsewhere” than at home. For girls, there was, until the middle of the twentieth century, a tradition called the “honeymoon trip” which was an ancestral theme. The young woman’s deflowering could take place “nowhere” and, at the moment of its occurrence the train or honeymoon hotel was indeed the place of this nowhere, this heterotopia without geographical markers. But these heterotopias of crisis are disappearing today and are being replaced, I believe, by what we might call heterotopias of deviation: those in which individuals whose behavior is deviant in relation to the required mean or

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norm are placed. Cases of this are rest homes and psychiatric hospitals, and of course prisons, and one should perhaps add retirement homes that are, as it were, on the borderline between the heterotopia of crisis and the heterotopia of deviation since, after all, old age is a crisis, but is also a deviation since in our society where leisure is the rule, idleness is a sort of deviation. The second principle of this description of heterotopias is that a society, as its history unfolds, can make an existing heterotopia function in a very different fashion; for each heterotopia has a precise and determined function within a society and the same heterotopia can, according to the synchrony of the culture in which it occurs, have one function or another. As an example I shall take the strange heterotopia of the cemetery. The cemetery is certainly a place unlike ordinary cultural spaces. It is a space that is however connected with all the sites of the city, state or society or village, etc., since each individual, each family has relatives in the cemetery. In western culture the cemetery has practically always existed. But it has undergone important changes. Until the end of the eighteenth century, the cemetery was placed at the heart of the city, next to the church. In it there was a hierarchy of possible tombs. There was the charnel house in which bodies lost the last traces of individuality, there were a few individual tombs and then there were the tombs inside the church. These latter tombs were themselves of two types, either simply tombstones with an inscription, or mausoleums with statues. This cemetery housed inside the sacred space of the church has taken on a quite different cast in modern civilizations, and curiously, it is in a time when civilization has become ‘atheistic,’ as one says very crudely, that western culture has established what is termed the cult of the dead. Basically it was quite natural that, in a time of real belief in the resurrection of bodies and the immortality of the soul, overriding importance was not accorded to the body’s remains. On the contrary, from the moment when people are no longer sure that they have a soul or that the body will regain life, it is perhaps necessary to give much more attention to the dead body, which is ultimately the only trace of our existence in the world and in language. In

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any case, it is from the beginning of the nineteenth century that everyone has a right to her or his own little box for her or his own little personal decay, but on the other hand, it is only from that start of the nineteenth century that cemeteries began to be located at the outside border of cities. In correlation with the individualization of death and the bourgeois appropriation of the cemetery, there arises an obsession with death as an ‘illness.’ The dead, it is supposed, bring illnesses to the living, and it is the presence and proximity of the dead right beside the houses, next to the church, almost in the middle of the street, it is this proximity that propagates death itself. This major theme of illness spread by the contagion in the cemeteries persisted until the end of the eighteenth century, until, during the nineteenth century, the shift of cemeteries toward the suburbs was initiated. The cemeteries then came to constitute, no longer the sacred and immortal heart of the city, but the other city, where each family possesses its dark resting place. Third principle. The heterotopia is capable of juxtaposing in a single real place several spaces, several sites that are in themselves incompatible. Thus it is that the theater brings onto the rectangle of the stage, one after the other, a whole series of places that are foreign to one another; thus it is that the cinema is a very odd rectangular room, at the end of which, on a twodimensional screen, one sees the projection of a three-dimensional space, but perhaps the oldest example of these heterotopias that take the form of contradictory sites is the garden. We must not forget that in the Orient the garden, an astonishing creation that is now a thousand years old, had very deep and seemingly superimposed meanings. The traditional garden of the Persians was a sacred space that was supposed to bring together inside its rectangle four parts representing the four parts of the world, with a space still more sacred than the others that were like an umbilicus, the navel of the world at its center (the basin and water fountain were there); and all the vegetation of the garden was supposed to come together in this space, in this sort of microcosm. As for carpets, they were originally reproductions of gardens (the garden is a rug onto which the whole world comes to enact its symbolic perfection, and the rug is a sort of garden that can move across space). The garden is the smallest parcel of the world and then it is the totality

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of the world. The garden has been a sort of happy, universalizing heterotopia since the beginnings of antiquity (our modern zoological gardens spring from that source). Fourth principle. Heterotopias are most often linked to slices in time - which is to say that they open onto what might be termed, for the sake of symmetry, heterochronies. The heterotopia begins to function at full capacity when men arrive at a sort of absolute break with their traditional time. This situation shows us that the cemetery is indeed a highly heterotopic place since, for the individual, the cemetery begins with this strange heterochrony, the loss of life, and with this quasi-eternity in which her permanent lot is dissolution and disappearance. From a general standpoint, in a society like ours heterotopias and heterochronies are structured and distributed in a relatively complex fashion. First of all, there are heterotopias of indefinitely accumulating time, for example museums and libraries, Museums and libraries have become heterotopias in which time never stops building up and topping its own summit, whereas in the seventeenth century, even at the end of the century, museums and libraries were the expression of an individual choice. By contrast, the idea of accumulating everything, of establishing a sort of general archive, the will to enclose in one place all times, all epochs, all forms, all tastes, the idea of constituting a place of all times that is itself outside of time and inaccessible to its ravages, the project of organizing in this way a sort of perpetual and indefinite accumulation of time in an immobile place, this whole idea belongs to our modernity. The museum and the library are heterotopias that are proper to western culture of the nineteenth century. Opposite these heterotopias that are linked to the accumulation of time, there are those linked, on the contrary, to time in its most flowing, transitory, precarious aspect, to time in the mode of the festival. These heterotopias are not oriented toward the eternal, they are rather absolutely temporal [chroniques]. Such, for example, are the fairgrounds, these’ marvelous empty sites on the outskirts of cities that teem once or twice a year with stands,

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displays, heteroclite objects, wrestlers, snakewomen, fortune-tellers, and so forth. Quite recently, a new kind of temporal heterotopia has been invented: vacation villages, such as those Polynesian villages that offer a compact three weeks of primitive and eternal nudity to the inhabitants of the cities. You see, moreover, that through the two forms of heterotopias that come together here, the heterotopia of the festival and that of the eternity of accumulating time, the huts of Djerba are in a sense relatives of libraries and museums. for the rediscovery of Polynesian life abolishes time; yet the experience is just as much the,, rediscovery of time, it is as if the entire history of humanity reaching back to its origin were accessible in a sort of immediate knowledge. Fifth principle. Heterotopias always presuppose a system of opening and closing that both isolates them and makes them penetrable. In general, the heterotopic site is not freely accessible like a public place. Either the entry is compulsory, as in the case of entering a barracks or a prison, or else the individual has to submit to rites and purifications. To get in one must have a certain permission and make certain gestures. Moreover, there are even heterotopias that are entirely consecrated to these activities of purification -purification that is partly religious and partly hygienic, such as the hammin of the Moslems, or else purification that appears to be purely hygienic, as in Scandinavian saunas. There are others, on the contrary, that seem to be pure and simple openings, but that generally hide curious exclusions. Everyone can enter into thew heterotopic sites, but in fact that is only an illusion- we think we enter where we are, by the very fact that we enter, excluded. I am thinking for example, of the famous bedrooms that existed on the great farms of Brazil and elsewhere in South America. The entry door did not lead into the central room where the family lived, and every individual or traveler who came by had the right to ope this door, to enter into the bedroom and to sleep there for a night. Now these bedrooms were such that the individual who went into them never had access to the family’s quarter the visitor was absolutely the guest in transit, was not really the invited guest. This type of heterotopia, which has practically disappeared from our civilizations, could perhaps be found in the famous

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American motel rooms where a man goes with his car and his mistress and where illicit sex is both absolutely sheltered and absolutely hidden, kept isolated without however being allowed out in the open. Sixth principle. The last trait of heterotopias is that they have a function in relation to all the space that remains. This function unfolds between two extreme poles. Either their role is to create a space of illusion that exposes every real space, all the sites inside of which human life is partitioned, as still more illusory (perhaps that is the role that was played by those famous brothels of which we are now deprived). Or else, on the contrary, their role is to create a space that is other, another real space, as perfect, as meticulous, as well arranged as ours is messy, ill constructed, and jumbled. This latter type would be the heterotopia, not of illusion, but of compensation, and I wonder if certain colonies have not functioned somewhat in this manner. In certain cases, they have played, on the level of the general organization of terrestrial space, the role of heterotopias. I am thinking, for example, of the first wave of colonization in the seventeenth century, of the Puritan societies that the English had founded in America and that were absolutely perfect other places. I am also thinking of those extraordinary Jesuit colonies that were founded in South America: marvelous, absolutely regulated colonies in which human perfection was effectively achieved. The Jesuits of Paraguay established colonies in which existence was regulated at every turn. The village was laid out according to a rigorous plan around a rectangular place at the foot of which was the church; on one side, there was the school; on the other, the cemetery-, and then, in front of the church, an avenue set out that another crossed at fight angles; each family had its little cabin along these two axes and thus the sign of Christ was exactly reproduced. Christianity marked the space and geography of the American world with its fundamental sign. The daily life of individuals was regulated, not by the whistle, but by the bell. Everyone was awakened at the same time, everyone began work at the same time; meals were at noon and five o’clock-, then came bedtime, and at midnight came what was called the marital wake-up, that is, at the chime of

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the churchbell, each person carried out her/his duty. Brothels and colonies are two extreme types of heterotopia, and if we think, after all, that the boat is a floating piece of space, a place without a place, that exists by itself, that is closed in on itself and at the same time is given over to the infinity of the sea and that, from port to port, from tack to tack, from brothel to brothel, it goes as far as the colonies in search of the most precious treasures they conceal in their gardens, you will understand why the boat has not only been for our civilization, from the sixteenth century until the present, the great instrument of economic development (I have not been speaking of that today), but has been simultaneously the greatest reserve of the imagination. The ship is the heterotopia par excellence. In civilizations without boats, dreams dry up, espionage takes the place of adventure, and the police take the place of pirates.

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Island of I Arantzatu LUZARRAGA UPM-ETSAM

In this seaside village there is an island called I, which is any island and all of them at once. Only 3 km separate I from the rest of the village, however despite spotting it every day it maintains its distance, has something unattainable and its own idiosyncrasy. I was attacked by Francis Drake in the sixteenth century, because as any island, has been a shelter and stopover for pirates. Franciscans lived in I for centuries, like in any island where distance from crowd is sought. I, like any island, is a desired location but also a destination for undesirables. The convent housed a leper colony, because as any island, was used to send the rejected, like the convicts sent from the late eighteenth century to Australia to ease population pressure in British prisons. The island I was rented during the nineteenth century for sheep to graze on it, as any insular program users, shepherd and flock, sailed mile and a half each day aboard their boat to arrive at I. Nobles and monarchs enjoyed visiting I and offered generous donations to do so; as it is done on the island of Jeju in Korea, where gambling tourism attracts millions of people every year. I was during the Napoleonic Wars a munitions dump and a prisoners’ pontoon, like that other Cuban island in which the U.S. government uses its unique position to create a state of emergency. I helds each year a party to commemorate a legendary race in which one of the nearby villages won the property of the island to its neighbour, ending up with a long time dispute. The winning village throws a tile to the sea as a sign that the leak of that village come to this point; as happened in the Perejil

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Island, where in 2002 the first XXI century armed incident between Spain and Morocco was held, disputing 0.15 km 2 of islet, including diplomatic tension and military intervention. Rabbits were raised in I to supplement a diet based exclusively on herbs, fish and gull eggs. These animals thrived in I because they had no natural predators that make impossible for them to survive on land. Those same rabbits went to the Galapagos and became invasive species, disrupting the fragile endemic equilibrium that any island keeps. I currently only hosts a colony of gulls, lies latent, waiting for new users to skip the current prohibition of landing on it. I is any island, and therefore a very particular place; with multiple constraints and restrictions, allows going through boundaries that govern outside it. I is only 67 x 150 m, and everything happens within it.

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Island conditions Toni GELABERT UPM-ETSAM

An island is not defined through its perimeter, ¿how could we draw the outline of an urban heat island? The island neither protect, even though the inhabitants of Vtopiae (1) build its own to defend themselves against the enemy. The island does not even isolate, although the first inhabitants of Iceland were Norwegians who arrived with the intention of fleeing the regime intending their submission in their own land. Islands are defined by unstable conditions. They constantly change their perimeters, but also their density, their location, their weight, their topography, their topology... Islands are only apprehended for a moment, their condition is volatile. Through its definition we can recognize that fragment; that will be the reality of the island. Our readings are in charge of rebuilding them in an endless process that must keep in mind that besides what it is true it exists what is outstanding, what it significant, what is interesting... (2) Only ‘dirty realism’ (3) is able to describe them. Islands activate. They are generators of coincidences. Islands are not the scene of what happens in them, but the engine. What happens in its territory is determined by its own condition; the condition we have just defined through its reading, or even through superposed readings. Islands are infrastructures enabling the emergence of each and every one of the orders that potentially define them; islands have a high degree of affordance (4). They are containers of information; information that is transferred to the action of which they are part. They are destabilizing agents in their environments, and they are able to keep them in constant motion. Ultimately, islands are able to generate connections. Islands thus establish ‘organization of appearances.’ (5) Islands are invisible. They just appear at the instant they became crossing, a place of link between agents. From that moment, agents relating through it are capable of transmitting the information that each island contains. During

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the rest of the time islands are latent territory, spaces waiting to be temporarily filled by the collision of trajectories. All this makes islands extraordinary flow display machines. But they do not only display but also translate, distort, and modify the information that is introduced in them. Those clashes on its surface alter their condition; its nature changes depending on the lines that are linked through them. (This brings us back to the first of the features described.) Islands thus unfold its ‘strategy of the void.’ (6) The island relates. (7) The island is the land par excellence of contemporary instability.

(1) MORO, Tomas. Utopia. (Barcelona: Altaya, 1997). (2) INNERARITY, Daniel. “Pensar el orden y el desorden: una poética de la excepción” Revista electrónica Estudos Hegelianos 2 (2005). (3) KOOLHAAS, Rem. S M L XL (New YorK : Monacelli Press, 1995). (4) GIBSON, Jame J. “The Theory of Affordances” en Perceiving, acting, and knowing: Toward an ecological psychology, ed. Robert Shaw [and] John Bransford (Hillsdale : Lawrence Erlbaum, 1977). (5) KOOLHAAS, Rem. S M L XL. (6) KOOLHAAS, Rem. S M L XL. (7) SERRES, Michel, Le parasite (Paris: B. Grasset, cop.1980).

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Celestial kinetics

(1)

Néstor MONTENEGRO UPM-ETSAM

An asteroid of a considerable size is approaching Earth. It is a 60 meters diameter rock called 2012 DA14 and next February 15 will approach us [...] to a distance of 27,000 kilometres, which means that will [over]fly below the telecommunication satellites, which are in orbit 36,000 miles high. “The 2012 DA14 is the celestial object of this kind which will get closer to Earth than those known until now” [...] Will not collide with our planet, there is no danger. The important thing is not the movement itself but the intensity with which [...] it may reveal space, time and energy. [...] The static image which survives a kinetic work may be the very antithesis of nature. [...] Telescopes around the world, from the largest to the amateur will be watching the asteroid. “It will be hard to follow it because it will happen at a high speed, 10 kilometres per second,” says [Jaime] Nomen [of the Astronomical Observatory Mallorca]. 2012 DA14 will not be noticeable to the naked eye because it is too small and dark. [...] A revealing evidence of what comes into existence with the movement, of the transformation that occurs when the movement begins, is that we can link works that come from opposite ends of the kinetics: a motorized relief by Von Graevenitz -systematic, repetitive, formal- and a Baluba by Tinguely. The history of this object [...] began on the night of February 22 last year [...] A few days later, the object tracking enabled calculation of its orbit. At the time of the discovery it was 4.3 million kilometres away. [...] “With the first observations of an object of this kind is made a preliminary calculation that helps locating it again in heaven, and so on, successively, with more data, specifying its trajectory ,” explains Miguel Belló-Mora , a specialist on

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such calculations in celestial mechanics [...]. “In computing models you need to have all the effects of the sun and the planets and the solar radiation pressure, even integrate the effects of the 5,000 largest asteroids,” he adds. The accuracy achieved is enormous. Thus, the latest estimates determined by 27,000 kilometres, with error of plus / minus 300 kilometres, the pitch distance. [...] […]”Motionless, are rather disappointing, so the electric motor plays a decisive role.” (2) While the engine in Tinguley piece is comically visible and stir with the resulting contortions, in the relief by Von Graevenitz the engine is hidden. Simply spins the small tabs or indicators, separated at regular intervals, identical and visible. But since the relationship of these movements is random, their interconnections become extremely complex. Poverty of information, predictability, and banal calculation become incalculable. Perhaps what constitutes the real pleasure is just the coming into being of that movement, that life from its uncertain elements. Thus a paradox arises similar to the one that led Marcel Duchamp to exclaim that the movement did not exist. [...] Alluding to Gaston Bachelard, he joked with Denis Rougement: “What does your colleague call ‘motion’? If he sets it as opposed to rest, it does not work, because nothing is at rest in the universe. And, then? Movement is just a myth.” (3)

(1) Text made from fragments of the information appeared in the online newspaper ELPAÍS.com in its issue of January 22, 2013, signed by Alicia Rivera titled “A 60-meter asteroid ‘fly’ under the satellites” and the essay The Century of Kinesthesia, signed by Guy Brett as introduction and theme of the exhibition Campo de Fuerzas. An Essay on the Kinetic, organized by the MACBA in 2000. (2) HULTEN, Pontus. Museum Jean Tinguely Basel – The collection. Basel: Museum Jean Tinguely, 1995. (3) Marcel Duchamp, quoted in Denis de Rougement. Journal d’une époque. Paris, 1969.

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Cidades contemporâneas: uma paisagem de arquipélagos Juliana TORRES DE MIRANDA U.F. Minas Gerais

A ideia de ilha, em meio a seu vasto imaginário, remete-me à ideia de isolamento, tema com o qual se pode abordar a cidade contemporânea em um de seus mais fortes fenômenos: o da segregação espacial. Um olhar atento para as novas metrópoles mundiais irá reconhecer uma multitude de organismos e objetos isolados, de territórios cindidos, dispersos e distanciados, como ilhas envoltas por tecidos disformes, espaços públicos amorfos e gigantes corredores viários. Principalmente nas franjas de expansão urbana metropolitana, em processos de urbanização extensiva, surgem bairros fechados ou conjuntos de torres residenciais – de interior homogêneo e limites bem estabelecidos em

altos muros e cercas

eletrificadas; surgem grandes construções fechadas rodeadas por imensos parques de estacionamentos, como os shoppings centers e os centros de lazer privados. Na contraposição destes redutos de riqueza e de consumo, as favelas e comunidades auto-organizadas criam também as suas ilhas. A delimitação desses territórios informais é necessária como forma de resistência, de fazer persistir a marginalidade das soluções de sobrevivência impossíveis de serem supridas pelos mecanismos formais de sociedades guiadas pelo poder do capital. As delimitações na cidade evitam o encontro, a troca e a mistura social que deveriam caracterizar a riqueza da vida urbana. As marcas espaciais da segregação social demonstram como se inserem, os mecanismos de produção espacial, nos próprios mecanismos de reprodução social, como bem discutido por Henri Lefebvre (1). Se existem uma arquitetura e urbanismo que possam estar além dos mecanismos segregadores de produção do capital, penso que deva acontecer numa escala menor, na dedicação às margens e espaços públicos, articulada às ações e acontecimentos do cotidiano. A tensão da segregação é experimentada principalmente nas bordas, nas linhas e zonas que separam classes e atividades econômicas e nos espaços públicos das cidades

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contemporâneas. Mas é também aí em que se encontra a potência de subversão. O problema das bordas é bem trabalhado por Richard Sennet (2) que nos desafia a pensar no seu potencial não como limites, mas como membranas porosas e permeáveis. Na ecologia natural, bordas são zonas em um habitat onde organismos tornam-se mais interativos, devido ao encontro de diferentes espécies ou condições físicas. Os limites, ao contrário, são territórios guardados e estabelecidos. A potência do espaço público na cidade cindida é tratada por Julio Arroyo (3) como um problema a ser compreendido dentre os processos contemporâneos de deslocamento e desterritorialização, em que o espaço mais fluido e pouco determinado das bordas faz-se mais suscetível aos múltiplos vetores, efêmeros e inesperados, das táticas da vida cotidiana, capazes de produzir a diferença e renovar-se a cada instante. Alguns desafios precisam, no entanto, serem enfrentados. Primeiro, no sentido de revisão dos instrumentos de mapeamento da cidade para compreensão crítica de como se dá a fricção entre sociedade e espaço, de como se materializam os vetores e fluxos invisíveis que perpassam o território das cidades contemporâneas. Desafio este tratado por Stefano Boeri (4) na sua discussão sobre Atlas Ecléticos. Segundo, pela revisão crítica dos procedimentos tradicionais de projetação, baseados na determinação de programas e lugares sempre previsíveis e estruturados. Como coloca Julio Arroyo, seria necessário repensar a prática projetual a partir de paradigmas que incluam inevitáveis doses de incerteza e indeterminação, de multiplicidades e devir, de eventualidade e contingência. Para ilhas que aparecem e desaparecem. (1) LEFEBVRE, Henri. Le droit à la Ville – suivi de Espace et politique. Paris: Editions Anthropos, 1972. (2) SENNET, Richard. Boundaries and Borders. In: BURDETT, Ricky and SUDJIC, Deyan (ed.) The Urban Age Projet by London School of Economics. London: Phaidon Press, 2011. (3) ARROYO, Julio. Bordas e Espaço Público: fronteiras internas na Acidade contemporânea. Arquitextos, São Paulo, 07.081, Vitrúvius, fev 2007 http://vitruvius.com.br/revistas/read/ arquitextos/07.081/269 (4) BOERI, Stefano. Atlas Eclétivos. In: WALKER, Enrique (Ed.) Lo Ordinario. Barcelona: Gustavo Gili, 2010.

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An island... Polyxeni MANTZOU, Konstantinos SAKANTAMIS Democritus University of Thrace

An island is a land mass, entirely surrounded by water. An island thus, cannot be conceived without the sea. If the inhabitants of an island are not aware of the circumscription of their condition by the sea, then they are practically living in a non-island. An island is therefore a place that is entire, complete, whole, circumscribed, constrained. But it is also a place that is defined by the otherness of its surroundings. It exists only as part of a dipole; out of its perimeter there is always radical difference, apartness, dissimilarity. An island was the homeland of Ulysses, Ithaka. Coming back to it after the Troyan war he was awfully punished by the Gods and was battered by a furious, inhospitable sea that again and again threw him in islands where he felt threatened, maltreated, but most of all aparted, confined, isolated and incarcerated. On one hand, the autotelic nature of each island, the fact that they are perfect, closed, finished entities, each with a telos of its own, seems to suffocate Ulysses in all of his steps-stations throughout his ten-year circumnavigation. Each island is consumed, each threat is answered, and each situation is resolved. On the other hand no island can hold him because he is committed to his own island, which is his whole world, because it is exactly that, complete, entire, confined and perfect, that is, ultimate. An “Island” is the title of the last book by Aldous Huxley. This Pala Island is a gentle and doomed utopia, a very specific, defined and enclosed reality, as it is often with islands. The first principle of Pala’s existence describes the mentality of an island resident: “Nobody needs to go anywhere else. We are all, if only we knew it, already there.” An island is exactly that, it is a totality that is present and assumed as such by its residents. And of course it is an alterity, because its totality encloses and

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defines an otherness to all that surrounds it. Architecture has always been about constructing islands: places where one can perceive a wholeness, an autonomy, an independence and of course protection and shelter from the toil and agony of survival, inevitable when floating in the natural environment. Architectural islands can be homelands where we want to live forever or intermediate situations, where we only plan the next trip. But they are always conceived as self-ruling entities that are differentiated from their immediate environs. This quality of otherness imposes a continuous dependence to what surrounds architecture. This otherness can be constructed upon dipoles such as natural/man-made, open/closed, public/ private, interior/exterior, but it can also be programmatic and interactive to the changes that occur in the surroundings. Programs can appear, function and then change or disappear, letting new programs emerge. Of course architectural islands are defined and identified by a number of agents, among which their program. Nevertheless, it is primarily their perimeter that organizes their relation to the otherness of their surroundings, a perimeter that, as in islands, is not fixed and determined, but can respond to change and shrink or expand, wrinkle or smooth away. An island can only be conceived in relation to its sea. The contradiction of its autonomic and its autotelic subsistence with its dependence to its environs is its most pulsating and critical quality. In the perimeter of the island there is friction, tension, strain, but there is also encounter, interaction, feedback and adjustment. Since the first island, that is the Garden of Eden up to nowadays, mankind strives to deal with the expulsion and to regain through fictional islands or materialized ones the sense of paradisiacal utopia lost when the gates of Eden where eternally closed.

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Being a traveling, not a traveler Francisco G. TRIVIÑO, Jose M. LÓPEZ UJAQUE, Álvaro M. FIDALGO UPM-ETSAM

They are here because they are Shandys. (1) Because one day, when he was little, he realized that everybody used to lead him by the hand, they used to guide him. Then, when he was more independent, he began to travel by car, something that in a short time was discovered to be disliked, because it limited him, the road forced where to go. Therefore, he understood that any journey was not valid and traveling was not just enough. It should be made in a special way. He started to sail, and he met the Shandys. While the route is shown to the traveler, the traveling plans the route at the moment. While the traveler looks at the journey, the traveling makes the journey while does it. Only the traveling, against the traveler, can belong to the Shandy Conspiracy (2). Thus, he turned into one of them. The Shandys are a limited number of people, unclassifiable and extremely contradictories, that is their main distinction. They show particular features such as brevity, madness, spontaneity, insolence, innovative spirit, lack of big purposes, or tireless nomadism. The Shandys are obsessive in searching, that is why they always use a compass. However, their compass does not point the North, but the South. “...because, indeed, our North is the South. For us, it does not exist the north position, but as an opposition of our south. For that reason […] we turn the maps upside down and then, we are aware of our location.” (3) The Shandys have a special ability to look what is around us in a different way, under their watchful eye and without prejudice. They take for granted nothing, this is a must.

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Their suitcase is somewhat special, they do not pick the essential, or the very best, not even a little bit of everything, but they choose what is potential. They travel with necessary objects in abundance with the intention beyond the usual. In each one of the Shandy’s objects there is an active future, a projective thought that gets out of that one we often have. In fact, their suitcase, its shape, is closer to a bag, and each one is carefully labeled with a French sentence: “This bag must contain 69 items”. In 1942 reproductions of the suitcase were fabricated, and fourteen of them were exhibited in the gallery of Peggy Guggenheim Art of this Century (4). They were the early adventurers. The Shandys love islands, because those hold somewhat unpredictable, but at the same time limited. Their outlines make that what we see looks different, unique, while recurrent. The elements that form an island turn quickly into references that not only arrange visions, but also they measure distances and make possible we build places in our mind. An Island is a soul mate for a Shandy, a broken mirror that reflects a split body, a place where we look for our face incessantly.

(1) The Shandys is a secret “Portable Society”, allegedly founded in Africa in 1924 in the mouth of the Níger river. This name was adopted in reference to a spoken dialect in the country of Yorkshire (where Laurence Sterne, Tristram Shandy author, lived part of his life), where it means both cheerful, unpredictable and nutty. (From the book “Historia de la Literatura Portátil” by Enrique Vila-Matas, 1985). (2) The Shandy Conspirancy involved writers as varied as Walter Benjamin, Duchamp, Scott Fitzgerald, Pola Negri, César Vallejo, Rita Malú, Valery Larbaud, García Lorca, Alberto Savinio and Georgia O’Keefe. (3) ‘Inverted America’. Javier García Torres, February, 1935. (4) Marcel Duchamp; Boîte en valise, 1938-1941.

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Inverted America. Javier GarcĂ­a Torres,

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Minutes of the seminar

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Septiembre de 2012: Desde el grupo de innovación docente

“Dispositivos Aglutinadores de

Proyecto”, D.I.P., perteneciente a la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid a través de la Unidad Docente Soriano, motivados en ensayar una metodología distinta en clase, una forma de trabajo en grupo más cercana a las situaciones reales pero a la vez más estimulante en cuanto a la hora de producir conocimiento, ponemos en marcha la estructura necesaria para poder desarrollar un segundo seminario llamado “Pop Up” bajo la línea de investigación “Encoger”, con dos nuevas universidades tal y como ocurrió en 2010 con la Universidad de Montevideo y Génova. Octubre de 2012: Desde el grupo de innovación D.I.P. se contacta a través de posibles asignaturas con la que se puede llevar a cabo conjuntamente dicho seminario, con la Universidad de Democritos de Thrace (Xanthi, Grecia) y la Universidad Federal de Minas Gerais (Brasil). Se cierran los participantes de dicho seminario con la asignatura “New Media in Architecture” dirigida por la profesora responsable Polyxeni Mantzou, que se imparte un día lectivo a la semana, con 30-40 estudiantes de cuarto curso, y la asignatura Projeto de Arquitetura (PFLEX) y dirigida por la profesora responsable Juliana Torres, asignatura que se imparte dos días lectivos a la semana y que tiene una asistencia de unos 20 estudiantes de distintos cursos. Junto a ellos, participará la Unidad Soriano, dirigida por los profesores responsables Federico Soriano, Pedro Urzaiz y Néstor Montenegro, asignatura obligatoria que se imparte 3 días lectivos a la semana con 60 estudiantes de cuarto curso. Noviembre de 2012: Entre las tres universidades se cierran los puntos principales del procedimiento que se llevará a cabo: Se establece que al experimentar el trabajo en equipo con dos universidades desconocidas se debe hacer más hincapié en rastrear oportunidades creativas diferentes. Se cierra un protocolo común de entregas, un mismo enunciado, una misma

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superficie de programa y tres formatos de trabajo diferentes, diagramas, “proto-documentos” y maquetas (Soriano, 2011). Se acuerda en empezar a trabajar con un formato diferente desde cada universidad. En Madrid con los diagramas, en Minas con los protodocumentos, y en Xanthi con las maquetas, en fechas determinadas los documentos se intercambiarán. Se acuerda que los estudiantes formarán equipos de 3 miembros, cada uno procedente de una universidad diferente, que firmando un contrato común de mutuo acuerdo concretará las reglas de trabajo internas. Se establecen unos encuentros entre los profesores de las universidades; digitales (via Skype) y reales, a través de dos workshops, uno en Xanthi otro en Minas para aclarar el procedimiento y establecer una misma estrategia evaluativa. Diciembre 2012: Desde D.I.P. y en colaboración con los profesores de las diferentes asignaturas participantes se comienza la edición del enunciado del seminario, una publicación que se dará a los estudiantes de las diferentes universidades con el fin de que tengan todos unas herramientas comunes con las que afrontar el curso. Enero de 2013: Una vez ya presentado el borrador del proyecto en las diferentes asignaturas, en Xanthi y Minas, entre los diferentes profesores de las universidades participantes, se establecen algunas conclusiones importantes a tener en cuenta durante protocolo establecido. El profesor además del papel habitual, tomará principalmente un papel de “coordinador” entre los miembros de los equipos y la información con la que ambos han estado trabajando. Pasa a ser una figura más imaginativa, colaborativa en el intercambio de información, positiva en el modo de afrontar las descoordinaciones y reflexiva en cuanto a dejar ver posibles oportunidades de las comunicaciones surgidas.

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El trabajo en equipo entre estudiantes que no se conocen, permitirá que cada uno ponga en duda su conocimiento adquirido dentro de cada comunidad arquitectónica universitaria. Al trabajar con desconocidos y en otro idioma se tendrá que explicar más allá de lo que se suele hacer. Por un lado el estudiante se enfrentará a la dificultad de explicar conceptos cerrados y conocidos por su entorno inmediato, por otro al utilizar un idioma no habitual tendrá que reflexionar sobre el propio significado asociado a sus palabras habituales para hacerse entender en otra lengua. Las dificultades comunicativas harán que los propios estudiantes de un mismo grupo sirvan de nuevos interlocutores en igualdad de condiciones (sumado al que el propio papel que hace el profesor) que permiten sacar más fácilmente a la luz nuevos prejuicios en su hacer arquitectónico. Se espera que este procedimiento cuestione el proceso de hacer y de proyectar. El tema elegido “Pop up”, islas que aparecen y desaparecen, es la guía de un procedimiento sin soluciones receta, ni programa conocido o experiencia. El modo de trabajo pasará de ser deductivo a inductivo, más arriesgado, los errores surgidos tanto en el intercambio de información como en la propia comunicación se pretenden que sean nuevos modos de adaptación y no situaciones que retengan un avance. Febrero de 2013: Comienza el desarrollo práctico del seminario con la publicación impresa, que por fechas de calendario académico, primero será en Madrid, después en Xanthi y por último Minas.

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Previous works

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Alonso Atienza Sรกnchez. Level 6. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Plan.

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Alonso Atienza Sรกnchez. Level 6. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Model.

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Pablo Santacana L贸pez. Level 6. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Model.

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Pablo Santacana L贸pez. Level 6. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Plan.

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Miguel テ]gel Maure Blesa. Level 6. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Plan.

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Miguel テ]gel Maure Blesa. Level 6. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Model.

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Almudena BallarĂ­n Torres. Level 6. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Model.

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Almudena BallarĂ­n Torres. Level 6. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Plan.

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テ]gela Lupiテ。nez Morillas. Level 6. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Plan.

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テ]gela Lupiテ。nez Morillas. Level 6. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Model.

160


Raquel Oc贸n Ruiz. Level 7. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Model.

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Raquel Oc贸n Ruiz. Level 7. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Plan.

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Patricia MartĂ­nez GonzĂĄlez . Level 7. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Plan.

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Patricia MartĂ­nez GonzĂĄlez . Level 7. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Model.

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SofĂ­a Lens Bell. Level 7. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Model.

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168


SofĂ­a Lens Bell. Level 7. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Plan.

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Miguel de la Ossa Peinador. Level 7. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Plan.

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Miguel de la Ossa Peinador. Level 7. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Model.

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Gabriel Ruiz-Larrea Fernรกndez. Level 7. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Model.

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Gabriel Ruiz-Larrea Fernรกndez. Level 7. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Plan.

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Kerstin Pluch. Level 7. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Plan.

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Kerstin Pluch. Level 7. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Model.

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Teresa Pรกrama Larrondo. Level 7. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Model.

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Teresa Pรกrama Larrondo. Level 7. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Plan.

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Luis Alfonso Orbegoso Portocarrero. Level 7. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Plan.

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Luis Alfonso Orbegoso Portocarrero. Level 7. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Model.

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Esteban Arteaga. Level 7. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Model.

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Esteban Arteaga. Level 7. 2012-2013 course. 1st term. Plan.

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Bibliography

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BOUMAN, Ole; et al. Archis 198: Islands. Archis / Artimo, 2003. CHARBONNET, François; HEIZ, Patrick. Portraits III. Territory/Politics. ETH Zurich, 2012. ——. Portraits II. Finance/Religion. ETH Zurich, 2012. ——. Portraits I. Airport/Prison. ETH Zurich, 2011. HUBERMAN, Didi. Atlas: ¿cómo llevar el mundo a cuestas?. Tf Editores, 2010. MIKI, Akiko. Insular Insight: Where Art and Architecture Conspire with Nature. Lars Müller Publishers, 2011. SACKS, Oliver. La isla de los ciegos al color. Anagrama, 1999. SCHALANSKY, Judith. Atlas of Remote Islands: Fifty Islands I Have Never Set Foot on and Never Will. Penguin Books, 2010. SMITH, Dan. Cien lugares que nunca visitarás. El País - Aguilar, 2012. SORIANO, Federico; URZÁIZ, Pedro. Transmutaciones. enunciado. 2012-2013. El Joker. Fisuras, 2012. www.issuu.com/uddfedericosoriano/docs/udd23eljoker

Udd

23

SORIANO, Federico. Postproducciones. Fisuras, 2011. ——. Desviaciones. Fisuras, 2010. ——. Diagramas©. Fisuras, 2002. --www.unidadfedericosoriano.dpa-etsam.com --www.arq.ufmg.br/praxis/blog www.programadesejaca.wordpress.com --www.housing-cell.blogspot.gr www.wallab.blogspot.gr ---

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ETSAM

www.etsamadrid.upm.es www.dpa-etsam.com

Pop Up. Udd23 statement. 2012-2013. Architectures that appear and disappear.  

Course statement. Unit 23 Soriano.

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