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2013 EDITION THE  UBC  JOURNAL  OF  INTERNATIONAL  AFFAIRS                                                                                                                    2013  EDITION        VOL  .  28  

THE  UBC  JOURNAL  OF  INTERNATIONAL  AFFAIRS

A HEALTHY RELATIONSHIP Buckley-Pearson on the relationship between executive constraints, aid and development

ARCTIC UNDER SIEGE Franks, Rounding, and Wildcat on Inuit and Sami struggles in the Arctic


JIA

THE UBC JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS 2013

The Annual Publication of the International Relations Student Association The University of British Columbia Vancouver, B.C.

Cover Design: Sandy Chu Cover Photograph: Sam Rowan


THE JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

Editor-in-Chief

Sam Rowan Senior Editors

Michael Barrett, Mollie Deyong, Kelsey Franks, Isabelle Plessis Junior Editors

Sammy Barker, Nikki Blu, Fatima Hewaidi, Julie Jenkins Natalya Kautz, Sabina Kravcakova, Fatemeh Mayanloo, Betty Zhang Head of Production

Sandy Chu Layout and Design

Anita Hung Cartoonist

Indiana Joel Marketing and Distribution

Annie Ju, Stephanie Xu Faculty Liaison

Emma Lange Contributors

Kate Beck, Mieka Buckley-Pearson, Colin Chia, Kelsey Franks, Ivo Martinich, Allison Rounding, Matt Wildcat


THE JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

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Faculty Reviewers

Dr. Nathan Allen

Department of Political Science

Dr. Michael Byers

Department of Political Science

Dr. Arjun Chowdhury

Department of Political Science

Dr. Vinay Kamat Dr. Ashok Kotwal Dr. Steven Lee

Department of Anthropology Department of Economics Department of History

Dr. Richard Price

Department of Political Science

Dr. Allen Sens

Department of Political Science

Special Thanks

Irina Florov

Department of Political Science

Dr. Laura Janara

Department of Political Science

Dr. Richard Johnston

Department of Political Science

Justin Ritchie Dr. Jessica Wang

Alma Mater Society Department of History

2013 UBC International Relations Students Association | all rights reserved. 313 – 6476 NW Marine Drive | Vancouver, BC | Canada | V6T 1Z2 The UBC Journal of International Affairs is publication of the International Relations Students Association of the Alma Mater Society of British Columbia. The UBC logo and the name “UBC” are official marks of the University of British Columbia and are used in accordance with UBC Public Affairs visual guidelines. All articles published in the Journal of International Affairs represent the opinions of the authors and do not reflect the policies or opinions of the University of British Columbia, the staff of the Journal of International Affairs, or the International Relations Student Association. The University of British Columbia does not assume any responsibility for errors or omissions in this journal.


V

CONTENTS

III

Contributors

VI

Foreword

VII

Introduction

1

Mieka  Buckley-­Pearson A  Healthy  Relationship

29

Kate  Beck Living  in  a  Computer  Graveyard

43

Ivo  Martinich Long-­Term  Stalemate

55

Colin  Chia Good  Hedges,  Good  Neighbours?

66

Kelsey  Franks )NDIGENOUSÒ)N¹UENCEÒINÒ!RCTICÒ0OLICY

76

Allison  Rounding 2ECOGNIZINGÒTHEÒ2IGHTSÒOFÒTHEÒ3AMI

88

Matt  Wildcat #OMMENTARYÒ6OICESÒINÒTHEÒ!RCTICÒ

93

Biographies

96

Sponsors


THE JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

VI

FOREWORD Dear Reader, On behalf of the UBC International Relations Students Association, it is my pleasure to welcome you to the 2013 edition of IRSA s UBC Journal of International Affairs. The JIA is one of UBC s oldest and most celebrated undergraduate journals. For 28 years now, it has granted undergraduate students at UBC and abroad the rare opportunity to publish their work in a highly accredited faculty- and peer-reviewed academic journal. The JIA has developed a reputation as one of the most important undergraduate journals at UBC, continually striving to showcase the best of UBC›s undergraduate community to universities across North America. The ambitious scope of this year›s edition marks a continuation of this tradition of excellence. It showcases talented authors in U21, a network of 21 international research-based universities devoted to advancing global perspectives and international communication. I would like to cordially congratulate the JIA team for their time, dedication and passion to the 2013 edition, especially the Editor-in-Chief, editorial staff, and publication team. I would also like to acknowledge the generous support from our sponsors, the Liu Institute for Global Issues and the UBC International Relations Program, whom have always extended an open-door policy to IRSA staff. Without further ado ‒ please, enjoy. Sincerely, Karlson Leung President, 2012/2013 UBC International Relations Students Association


THE JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

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INTRODUCTION Dear Reader, Welcome to the 2013 edition of the UBC Journal of International Affairs. We are proud to present six of the most thoughtful and compelling papers written by UBC undergraduate students this year. Thankfully, the pace of global politics has slowed of late. While financial instability and protest movements have kept our hearts racing over the past few years, we have recently had more time to carefully reflect on the underlying processes shaping the future of global politics. The 2013 Journal of International Affairs indicates how UBC undergraduates have reckoned with these changes. The papers in this volume draw our attention to the complexity of contemporary global politics, and their juxtaposition demonstrates the value of diverse methods and perspectives. Mieka Buckley-Pearson s contribution to this volume highlights the desirability of drawing conclusions only after observing broad trends across many cases, while Kate Beck emphasizes that we cannot lose sight of the uniqueness of each individual case. Ivo Martinich delves into the new face of armed conflict, yet as Colin Chia makes clear, traditional security concerns have not fully receded. Finally, Kelsey Franks and Allison Rounding remind us of the importance of inclusivity. It is imperative to bring all stakeholders into the formation of national policy, but we must not gloss over the agency of marginalized groups, who have often repurposed existing mechanisms in novel ways to press their claims. Publishing the Journal would not be possible without the hard work of many people. I would like to offer my sincerest thanks to the outstanding editors, faculty liaisons, designers, and distribution staff who have all worked enthusiastically to bring this publication to fruition. Generous funding from AMS Sustainability has allowed us to print using environmentally friendly materials for the second year in a row. Additionally, we could have not have asked for more steady and supportive partners over the past 28 years than the UBC International Relations Students Association and the UBC International Relations program. Program Chair Dr. Jessica Wang and several faculty members have made themselves available to review individual papers, and we have a stronger publication because of their guidance. Sincerely, Sam Rowan Editor-in-Chief 2013 UBC Journal of International Affairs


A HEALTHY RELATIONSHIP

1

A Healthy Relationship A  Q UANTITATIVE  A NALYSIS  O F  T HE  R ELATIONSHIP  B ETWEEN  E XECUTIVE    ǥ    ǧ    Mieka  Buckley-­�Pearson*

““The  widening  gap  between  the  developed  and  developing  countries  has   become  a  central  issue  of  our  time.”�   Lester  B.  Pearson  et  al.,  Partners  in  Development,  1969.

IS  AID  A  VIABLE  TOOL  FOR  DEVELOPMENT? Since   the   time   of   The   Commission   on   International   Development   (or   the   Pearson  Commission)  in  1969,  the  development  of  a  world  “more  and  more  starkly   divided   between   the   haves   and   have-­â€?nots,   the   privileged   and   the   less   privileged,â€?1   has  been  one  of  the  international  community’s  greatest  concerns.    In  addressing  this   concern,  on   recommendation  from  the  Pearson  Commission,  member   states  of  the   Organisation  of   Economic   Cooperation  and   Development’s   (OECD)   Development   ••‹•–ƒÂ?…‡‘Â?Â?‹––‡‡Č‹ČŒƒ‰”‡‡†–‘”ƒ‹•‡–Š‡‹”ƒÂ?Â?—ƒŽ…‘Â?–”‹„—–‹‘Â?•‘ˆĆĽÂ…‹ƒŽ Development   Assistance   (ODA)   to   0.7%   of   their   national   income.2   This   was   seen   ĥ–Š‡Â?‘•–Â‡ĆĄÂ‡Â…Â–Â‹Â˜Â‡Â?‡–Š‘†–‘ˆƒ…‹Ž‹–ƒ–‡‰Ž‘„ƒŽ†‡˜‡Ž‘’Â?‡Â?–ǥƒÂ?†‹Â?’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”–‘ improve  the  socio-­â€?economic  welfare  of  the  “have-­â€?nots.â€?   Since  1973,  a  minimum  of  USD  40.05  billion  has  been  transferred  annually   from  the   DAC  to  countries  requiring  development  assistance,  reaching  an   historic   high  of  USD  127.52  billion  in  2010.3  A  large  proportion  of  ODA  has  been  and  continues    *                                              This  article  is  adapted  from  Mieka  Buckley-­â€?Pearson’s  undergraduate  honours  thesis.  Mieka  Buckley-­â€?Pearson,  “A  Healthy                                                    Relationship:  A  Quantitative  Analysis  of  the  Relationship  Between  Executive  Constraints,  Aid  and  Health  Outcomes  in                                                    Sub-­â€?Saharan  Africaâ€?  (BA  Hons  thesis,  University  of  British  Columbia,  2012).

1  

 Lester  B.  Pearson,  Partners  in  Development:  Report  on  the  Commission  on  International  Development  (New  York:  Praeger  Publishers,  1969),

                                                   7-­�8.

2  

 OECD,  “The  0.7%  ODA/GNI  target  –  a  history,�  http://www.oecd.org/document/19/0,3746,en_2649_34447_45539475_1_1_1_1,00.html.    

3  

 OECD  Stat  Extracts,  “Net  ODA  disbursements,  Total  DAC  countries,�  http://webnet.oecd.org/dcdgraphs/ODAhistory/.


2

BUCKLEY-PEARSON

–‘„‡–”ƒ•ˆ‡””‡†–‘…‘—–”‹‡•‹—„ǦƒŠƒ”ƒˆ”‹…ƒǡ‹…Ž—†‹‰‡ƒ”Ž›‘‡ǦƤˆ–Š‘ˆ the   2010  total   (USD   26.5   billion).4  These  countries  are  generally  perceived   to   be   the  least  developed,  or  the  most  in  need,  of  the  international  community.  As  many   ‘ˆ–Š‡•‡…‘—–”‹‡•…‘–‹—‡–‘”‡’”‡•‡––Š‡’‘‘”‡•–ǡ Ž‡ƒ•–•–ƒ„Ž‡ǡ ‘•–…‘ƪ‹…–Ǧ ridden,  most  diseased  and  most  corrupt  states  in  the  world,  foreign  governments,   international   institutions   and   non-­‐governmental   actors   continue   to   seek   ways   to  assist  in  their  development  and  the  development  of  their  citizens.  Substantial   ƒ‹†ƪ‘™•–‘—„ǦƒŠƒ”ƒˆ”‹…ƒ„‡‰ƒ‹–Š‡ͥͣ͜͝•Ǥ‡–‘”‡–Šƒˆ‘”–››‡ƒ”•ƒ† hundreds  of  billions  of  dollars  later,  many  of  these  countries  are  still  struggling  to   †‡˜‡Ž‘’ǡƒ†–Š‡‹••—‡•‹†‡–‹Ƥ‡†„›–Š‡‡ƒ”•‘‘‹••‹‘…‘–‹—‡–‘„‡•‘‡ of  the  “central  [issues]  of  our  time.” Ultimately   there   is   little   consensus   as   to   why   underdevelopment   persists  in  Africa,  and  whether  foreign  aid  should  be  considered  a  viable  tool  for   †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–Ǥ ‘™ †‘ ™‡ ‡š’Žƒ‹ –Š‡ ˜ƒ•– †‹ơ‡”‡…‡• ‹ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– „‡–™‡‡ Botswana   and   Nigeria,   both   resource-­‐rich   and   colonized   by   the   British,   yet   the   former   far   surpassing   the   latter   in   political,   social   and   economic   development?   Perhaps   part   of   the   answer,   only   somewhat   addressed   in   the   popular   debate,   is   political   institutions.   The   relationship   between   political   institutions   and   the   socio-­‐economic   development   of   states   is   not   a   new   topic   of   study   for   political   •…‹‡–‹•–•ǡ–Š‘—‰Š‹–‹•„›‘‡ƒ•‡šŠƒ—•–‡†ǤŠ‡•–—†›‘ˆ–Š‡‡ơ‡…–‘ˆˆ‘”‡‹‰ƒ‹† on  this  relationship,  particularly  in  developing  countries,  has  only  recently  become   popular  amongst  political  scientists  and  economists  alike.   This   paper   seeks   to   add   to   the   existing   academic   literature   through   a   quantitative   analysis   of   the   relationship   between   aid,   executive   constraints   and   health  outcomes  in  Sub-­‐Saharan  Africa.  The  analysis  comprised  a  time  series  cross-­‐ •‡…–‹‘‘ˆ—„ǦƒŠƒ”ƒˆ”‹…ƒ…‘—–”‹‡•‘˜‡”ƒƤˆ–›Ǧ›‡ƒ”’‡”‹‘†ǡˆ”‘ͥ͢͜͝Ǧͥ͜͜͞Ǥ To  account  for  temporal  dependencies  in  the  data,  the  tests  were  also  performed   across   four   historical   sub-­‐periods   that   vary   in   length:   post-­‐colonial,   Cold   War,   ’‘•–Ǧ‘Ž†ƒ”ǡƒ†‹ŽŽ‡‹—ǤƤˆ–Š•—„Ǧ’‡”‹‘†ȋͥͥ͜͝Ǧͤ͜͜͞Ȍ™ƒ•‹…Ž—†‡†–‘ …‘’ƒ”‡‘˜‡”ƒŽŽƒ‹†ȋ–‘–ƒŽ‡–Ȍ–‘Š‡ƒŽ–Š•‡…–‘”•’‡…‹Ƥ…ƒ‹†ǡƒ•†ƒ–ƒˆ‘”–Š‡Žƒ––‡” 4  

ǡDz͜͡›‡ƒ”•‘ˆ‘ƥ…‹ƒŽ†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–ƒ••‹•–ƒ…‡ǡdzŠ––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ‘‡…†Ǥ‘”‰Ȁ†‘…—‡–Ȁ͠͝Ȁ͜ǡͣ͟͢͠ǡ‡̼̼̼̼̼̼̼ͥͣͥ͢͟͢͢͞͠͠͠͠͠͝͡͞͡͝͝͝͝ǡ͜͜ǤŠ–ŽǤ


A HEALTHY RELATIONSHIP

3

‹• ‘Ž› ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡ ƒ• ‘ˆ ͥͥ͜͝Ǥ Š‡ Ƥ†‹‰• †‡‘•–”ƒ–‡ –Šƒ– ‹ ‰‡‡”ƒŽǡ ‘˜‡”ƒŽŽ ƒ‹† ‹• ‘–‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡ƒ– ‹’”‘˜‹‰ Š‡ƒŽ–Š‘—–…‘‡• ‹ —„ǦƒŠƒ”ƒˆ”‹…ƒǡ™Š‹Ž‡ Š‡ƒŽ–Š •‡…–‘” •’‡…‹Ƥ… ƒ‹† Šƒ• ƒ ‡ƒ•—”ƒ„Ž‡ ’‘•‹–‹˜‡ ‡ơ‡…–Ǥ š‡…—–‹˜‡ …‘•–”ƒ‹–• ‡š’ƒ† –Š‡‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••‘ˆ‘˜‡”ƒŽŽƒ‹†ȋ–‘–Š‡’‘‹––Šƒ–‹–…ƒŠƒ˜‡ƒ’‘•‹–‹˜‡‡ơ‡…–Ȍǡ™Š‹Ž‡ –Š‡›Šƒ˜‡‘•–ƒ–‹•–‹…ƒŽŽ›•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–‹’ƒ…–‘Š‡ƒŽ–Š•‡…–‘”•’‡…‹Ƥ…ƒ‹†ǤŠ‡”‡•—Ž–• support   Todd   Moss   et   al.’s   theory   of   the   aid-­‐institutions   paradox5:   countries   with   •–”‘‰’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ‹•–‹–—–‹‘•™‹ŽŽ—•‡ƒ‹†‘•–‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡Ž›ǡŠ‘™‡˜‡”‹–‹•–Š‡…‘—–”‹‡• with  weak  political  institutions  (and  a  lack  of  overall  development)  that  are  the  most   in  need  of  aid.     Although   further   investigation   is   required,   this   paper   establishes   that   executive  constraints  and  political  institutions  in  general  are  important  variables  to   …‘•‹†‡”‹ƒƒŽ›•‡•‘ˆƒ‹†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••ƒ†Š‡ƒŽ–Š‘—–…‘‡•Ǥ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ–Š‡›ƒ”‡„—– one  piece  of  an  increasingly  complex  aid-­‐development  puzzle.   The  following  two  sections  will  review  some  of  the  recent  literature  on  these   ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’•ƒ•™‡ŽŽƒ•‹†‡–‹ˆ›–Š‡’Žƒ…‡–Š‹•’ƒ’‡”‘……—’‹‡•™‹–Š‹–Š‹•Ƥ‡Ž†Ǥ

POLITICAL  INSTITUTIONS  AND  DEVELOPMENT In   the   past   decade,   the   academic   literature   has   focused   on   the   impact   of   particular  political  institutions  (as  opposed  to  regimes  types)  on  economic  growth   and  development,  especially  in  studies  of  the  developing  world.  Stephen  Knack  et  al.   assert,  “it  is  naïve  to   suppose  that  [either   democracies   or   autocracies]   will  regularly   have   better  economic   performance   than   the  other,”6   but   perhaps   it   is   the  variance   in   institutions,   both   between   and   among   regime   types,   that   explains   economic   and   social   development.   Economic   performance   depends   at   least   partly   on   the   “incentives  and  constraints”7  faced  by  those  making  political  decisions,  namely  the   executive.   As   Jennifer   Gandhi   argues,   these   institutions   vary   across   regime   type,   “incentives,  constraints,  and  institutions  structure  the  behaviour  of  political  actors   ͡

”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’Ƥ”•–‹†‡–‹Ƥ‡†ƒ†‡š’Ž‘”‡†„›‘††‘••‡–ƒŽǤ‹Dz‹†Ǧ •–‹–—–‹‘•ƒ”ƒ†‘šǫ‡˜‹‡™••ƒ›‘‹†‡’‡†‡…›ƒ†

                                                   State  Building  in  Sub-­‐Saharan  Africa,”  in  Reinventing  Foreign  Aid,  edited  by  William  Easterly,  255-­‐282  (Cambridge:  MIT  Press,  2008).  

6  

 Christopher  Clague,  Philip  Keefer,  Stephen  Knack  and  Mancur  Olson,  “Property  and  Contract  Rights  in  Democracies,”  in  Democracy,

                                                 Governance  and  Growth,  edited  by  Stephen  Knack  (Maryland:  The  University  of  Michigan  Press,  2003):  136-­‐180,  136.

7  

 Clague  et  al.,  136.


4

BUCKLEY-PEARSON

within  authoritarian  regimes  as  much  as  they  do  for  their  democratic  counterparts.â€?8   Variances   in   incentives,   constraints   and   institutions   determine   the   degree   of   discretion  policymakers  have  to  take  either  “benevolent  measures  ‌  or  malevolent   actions,â€?  9  both  for  their  country’s  economic  growth  and  the  well-­â€?being  of  its  citizens.   The   literature  on  development   in  Africa  points  to  a  variety  of   institutional   •–”—…–—”‡• –Šƒ– Â?ƒ› ÂƒĆĄÂ‡Â…Â– ‡…‘Â?‘Â?‹… ‰”‘™–Š ƒÂ?† ™‡ŽŽnj„‡‹Â?‰Ǥ Â? Â’ÂƒÂ”Â–Â‹Â…Â—ÂŽÂƒÂ”ÇĄ –Š‡ literature   demonstrates   the   importance   of   executive   incentives   and   constraints,   including:  coalition  size  and  level  of  political  contestation,  degree  of  state  legitimacy,   degree   of   decentralization,   degree   of   public   scrutiny   of   the   executive   and   the   institutional   separation   of   powers.10   Durham   asserts,   “the   key   causal   institutional   characteristic  of  regimes  [in  creating  growth]  is  the  degree  of  policymaker  discretion   or   freedom   of   action.â€?11   Durham’s   assertion   is   representative   of   a   near   intellectual   consensus   that   there   is   a   positive   relationship   between   restraints   on   executive   discretion   and   economic   growth.12   Whether   a   lack   of   restraints   is   attributable   to   state  legitimacy,13  coalition  size,14  or  institutional  separation  of  powers,15  it  increases   incentives  for  the  executive  to  use  state  resources  for  personal  enrichment  and  the   maintenance   of   power.16   This   phenomenon   is   often   called   “neopatrimonialism,â€?   particularly   with   regard   to   African   states.   Neopatrimonialism   is   when   “decisions   8  

 Jennifer  Gandhi,  “Dictatorial  Institutions  and  Their  Impact  on  Economic  Growth,�  in  European  Journal  of  Sociology  49  (2008):  3-­�30,  25.

9  

 J.  Benson  Durham,  “Economic  Growth  and  Political  Regimes,�  Journal  of  Economic  Growth  4,  (1999):  81–111,  81.

10  

 Durham,  “Economic  Growth  and  Political  Regimes;�  Pierre  Englebert,  State  Legitimacy  and  Development  in  Africa  (Boulder,  Colorado:  Lynne

                                                   Rienner  Publishers,  2000);  Aidan  Cox  and  John  Healey,  European  Development  Cooperation  and  the  Poor  (New  York:  St  Martin’s  Press,  2000);                                                    Bruce  Bueno  de  Mesquita  et  al.,  “Political  Institutions,  Policy  Choice  and  the  Survival  of  Leaders,â€?  British  Journal  of  Political  Science  32,  no.                                                    4  (2002):  pp.  559-­â€?590;  Rod  Alence,  “Political  Institutions  and  Developmental  Governance  in  Sub-­â€?Saharan  Africa,â€?  The  Journal  of  Modern ˆ”‹…ƒÂ?–—†‹‡•͠͞ǥÂ?‘Ǥ͞ǥČ‹ÍžÍœÍœÍ ČŒÇŁÍ?͢Í&#x;ÇŚÍ?ͤͣǢ†™ƒ”†Ǥ ÂŽÂƒÂ‡Â•Â‡Â”ÇĄƒˆƒ‡ŽƒÂ‘Â”Â–ÂƒÇĄ Ž‘”‡Â?…‹‘Â‘Â’Â‡ÂœÇŚ‡nj‹Ž‹ƒÂ?‡•ǥÂ?†”‡‹ŠŽ‡Ƥ‡”ǥDz‘ Â?•–‹–—–‹‘Â?•                                                    Cause  Growth?,â€?  Journal  of  Economic  Growth  9,  no.  3,  (2009):  271-­â€?303;  John  Mukum  Mbaku,  Institutions  and  Development  in  Africa  (Trenton,                                                    New  Jersey:  Africa  World  Press,  2004);  A.  Cooper  Drury  et  al.,  “Corruption,  Democracy  and  Economic  Growth,â€?  International  Political  Science ‡˜‹‡™ͣ͞ǥÂ?‘Ǥ͞ǥČ‹ÍžÍœÍœÍ˘ČŒÇŁÍ?ÍžÍ?ÇŚÍ?Í&#x;͢ǢŽƒ•–ƒ‹”Â?‹–ŠǥDz‡”Â?‹…‹‘—•‹†Ǎǣ‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ…‘Â?‘Â?›‘ˆ‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ Â?•–‹–—–‹‘Â?•ƒÂ?†–Š‡ƥ‡…–‘ˆ ‘”‡‹‰Â?‹†ǥdz                                                    Unpublished  manuscript,  16  May  2006,  1-­â€?39;  B.C.  Smith,  Good  Governance  and  Development  (New  York:  Palgrave  MacMillan,  2007);  Gandhi,                                                              “Dictatorial  Institutions  and  Their  Impact  on  Economic  Growth;â€?  Joseph  Wright,  “Do  Authoritarian  Institutions  Constrain?:  How  legislatures ÂƒĆĄÂ‡Â…Â–‡…‘Â?‘Â?‹…‰”‘™–ŠƒÂ?†‹Â?˜‡•–Â?‡Â?–ǥdzÂ?‡”‹…ƒÂ? ‘—”Â?ƒŽ‘ˆ‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ…‹‡Â?…‡ͥ͞ǥÂ?‘ǤÍžČ‹ÍžÍœÍœÍ¤ČŒÇŁÍ&#x;͞͞njÍ&#x;Í Í&#x;Ǥ

11  

 Durham,  “Economic  Growth  and  Political  Regimes,�  81,  emphasis  in  original.

12  

 Glaeser  et  al.,  “Do  Institutions  Cause  Growth?,�  272.

13  

 Pierre  Englebert,  State  Legitimacy  and  Development  in  Africa.

14  

 Bueno  de  Mesquita  et  al.,  “Political  Institutions, ��Policy  Choice  and  the  Survival  of  Leaders;�  Smith,  “Pernicious  Aid?.�

15  

 Wright,  “Do  Authoritarian  Institutions  Constrain?;�  Alence,  “Political  Institutions  and  Development  Governance  in  Sub-­�Saharan  Africa.�

16  

 Ibid.,  167.


A HEALTHY RELATIONSHIP

5

about   resources   are   made   by   ‘big   men’   and   their   cronies…   who   follow   a   logic   of   personal  and  particularist  interest  rather  than  national  betterment.”17  In  Sub-­‐Saharan   African  states,  a   lack  of  strong   institutional  structures   that  constrain   the   freedom   of   the   executive   in   policymaking   has   led   to   widespread   neopatrimonialism,   and   development  (both  economic  growth  and  material  well-­‐being)  has  become  its  victim.    

HOW  DOES  AID  FIT  IN? Much  of  this   literature  also  considers  the  relationship   between  aid,  political   institutions  and  development.18Š‡Ƥ†‹‰•…ƒ„‡‰‡‡”ƒŽ‹œ‡†‹–‘–™‘•–ƒ–‡‡–•ǣ aid   leads   to   deteriorations   in   governance;   and   aid   has   a   minimal,   and   sometimes   ’‡”˜‡”•‡ǡ‡ơ‡…–‘‡…‘‘‹…‰”‘™–ŠǤ Š‡”‡Šƒ˜‡„‡‡”‘„—•–Ƥ†‹‰•–Šƒ–ƒ‹†Ž‡ƒ†•–‘†‡–‡”‹‘”ƒ–‹‘•‹‰‘˜‡”ƒ…‡ǡ both   when   governance   is   categorized   broadly   by   regime   type   (democracy   or   dictatorship)  or  narrowly  by  particular  institutions  (such  as  restraints  on  executive   discretion).  Aid,  like  natural  resource  rents,  is  “unearned  revenue”19  for  governments.   Governments  can  allocate  unearned  revenues  to  particular  sectors  or  policies  without   public  scrutiny.  In  the  weak  institutional  environment  that  is  characteristic  of  African   states,   these  revenues  are   “either  captured   by   the   leader   …  or  doled  out  as  private   goods  to  supporters  rather  than  used  to  fund  public  goods  provisions.”20  Bureaucrats   are   “not  rewarded   for   focusing  on  their  core  development   functions   but  rather  on   getting   money   from   donors.”21   In   this   context,   governments   “behave   in   politically  

17  

 Diane  Cammack,  “The  Logic  of  African  Neopatrimonialism:  What  Role  for  Donors?,”  Development  Policy  Review  5,  no.  25  (2007):  499-­‐614,

                                                   600.

18  

 Deborah  Brautigam,  “Aid  Dependence  and  Governance,”  Expert  Group  on  Development  Issues  (2000:1);  Englebert,  State  Legitimacy  and

                                                 Development  in  Africa;  Cox  and  Healey,  European  Development  Cooperation  and  the  Poor;  Brautigam  and  Knack,  “Foreign  Aid,  Institutions,                                                  and  Governance  in  Sub-­‐Saharan  Africa;”  Alence,  “Political  Institutions  and  Development  Governance  in  Sub-­‐Saharan  Africa;”  Glaeser  et  al.,                                                      “Do  Institutions  Cause  Growth?;”  Mbaku,  Institutions  and  Development  in  Africa;  Djankov  et  al.,  “The  Curse  of  Aid,”  World  Bank,  (April                                                  2005);  Smith,  “Pernicious  Aid?;”  Wright,  “Do  Authoritarian  Institutions  Constrain?;”  Moss  et  al.,  “An  Aid-­‐Institutions  Paradox?  A  Review  Essay                                                  on  Aid  Dependency  and  State  Building  in  Sub-­‐Saharan  Africa,”  Reinventing  Foreign  Aid,  (Cambridge:  MIT  Press,  2008);  Joseph  Wright,  “How                                                  Foreign  Aid  Can  Foster  Democratization  in  Authoritarian  Regimes,”  American  Journal  of  Political  Science  53,  no.  3  (2009):  552-­‐571.

19  

 Smith,  “Pernicious  Aid?,”  2.

20  

 Ibid.,  18.

21  

 Todd  Moss  et  al.,  263.  


6

BUCKLEY-PEARSON

sensible  yet  economically  damaging  ways.â€?22  This  results  in  decreased  public  goods   provision,  and  increased  isolation  of   the  executive  from  public  accountability;  or  in   other  words,  deteriorations  in  governance.  Aid  has  been  demonstrated  to  improve   governance   and   strengthen   institutional   structures   in   developing   countries,   but   almost  solely  when  these  institutional  structures  are  already  fairly  well-­â€?established   and  developed.23   Ironically,  aid   is   best  suited  to   improve  political   institutions  that   require  the  least,  if  any,  improvement. ‹Â?Â‹ÂŽÂƒÂ”ÂŽÂ›ÇĄ ‹– ‹• ‘ˆ–‡Â? ƒ”‰—‡† –Šƒ– –Š‡ ‡ƥ‡…– ‘ˆ ƒ‹† ‘Â? ‡…‘Â?‘Â?‹… ‰”‘™–Š ‹• dependent  on   the  existing   policy  environment,24 –Š‘—‰Š ‹– ‹•†‹Ƽ…—Ž– –‘†‹•…‡”Â?ƒ clear  causal  relationship  between  aid  and  growth.25  Aid  has  been  demonstrated  to   Šƒ˜‡ƒDz•–”‘Â?‰’‘•‹–‹˜‡‡ƥ‡…–‘Â?‰”‘™–Š‹Â?Ž‘™nj‹Â?…‘Â?‡…‘—Â?–”‹‡•™‹–Š‰‘‘†’‘Ž‹…‹‡•ǥdz26   ƒÂ?†Â?‘Â?‡ƒ•—”ƒ„Ž‡‡ƥ‡…–‹Â?…‘—Â?–”‹‡•™‹–Š’‘‘”‘”†‹•–‘”–‡†’‘Ž‹…›”‡‰‹Â?‡•Ǥ27  Again,   though   aid   has   the   potential   to   make   a   positive   contribution   to   the   development   ‡ƥ‘”–ǥ‹–••—……‡••‡•ƒ”‡”‡•–”‹…–‡†–‘…‘—Â?–”‹‡•–Šƒ–ƒ”‡†‘‹Â?‰ˆƒ‹”Ž›™‡ŽŽ–‘„‡‰‹Â?™‹–ŠǤ The   research   on   the   relationship   between   aid,   political   institutions   and   development  typically  focuses  on  economic  indicators  as  a  measure  of  development   ‘”ƒ‹†Â‡ĆĄÂ‡Â…–‹˜‡Â?‡••Ǥ‡…‡Â?–Â”Â‡Â•Â‡ÂƒÂ”Â…ÂŠÇĄŽ‹Â?‡–Š‡™‘”Â?‘ˆƒ…ƒ†‡Â?‹…••—…ŠĥԠŽ‡Â?…‡ and  Alastair  Smith,  includes  both  economic  indicators  and  public  goods  provision  as   measures  of  development.  Public  goods  –  such  as  schools,  healthcare,  roads,  clean   drinking  water  and  adequate  sanitation  –  are  fundamental  to  the  overall  development   of  a  country.  It  is  important  to  examine  indicators  of  social  development  (such  as  the   ’”‘˜‹•‹‘Â?‘ˆ…‡”–ƒ‹Â?’—„Ž‹…Â‰Â‘Â‘Â†Â•ČŒÇĄ™Š‡Â?†‹•…—••‹Â?‰ƒ‹†Â‡ĆĄÂ‡Â…–‹˜‡Â?॥ˆ‘”–™‘”‡ƒ•‘Â?•ǣ social  development  has  become  one  of  the  principal  objectives  of  ODA;28  and  social   •‡…–‘”ƒ‹†‹•‘ˆ–‡Â?…‘Â?•‹†‡”‡†–‘„‡–Š‡Â?‘•–Â‡ĆĄÂ‡Â…Â–Â‹Â˜Â‡Ç¤29   22  

 Alence,  “Political  Institutions  and  Developmental  Governance  in  Sub-­�Saharan  Africa,�  167.

23  

 Mbaku,  Institutions  and  Development  in  Africa,  200.  

24  

 Craig  Burnside  and  David  Dollar,  “Aid,  growth,  the  incentive  regime  and  poverty  reduction,�  in  The  World  Bank:  Structure  and  Policies,  edited

                                                   by  Christopher  L.  Gilbert  and  David  Vines  (New  York:  Cambridge  University  Press,  2000):  210-­�227,  224.

25  

 Roger  Riddell,  Does  Foreign  Aid  Really  Work?  (New  York:  Oxford  University  Press,  2007),  223.

26  

 Cox  and  Healey,  European  Development  Cooperation  and  the  Poor,  45.

27  

 Burnside  and  Dollar,  “Aid,  growth,  the  incentive  regime  and  poverty  reduction,�  210.

28  

—–Š‡˜‹Â?‡ƒÂ?†–‡˜‡Â?ÂƒÂ†Â‡ÂŽÂ‡Â–ÇĄDzƒÂ?‡—‹Ž†‡––‡”Â‘Â—Â•Â‡Â–Â”ÂƒÂ’ÇŤŠ”‡‡‡™ Â?•–‹–—–‹‘Â?•‡•‹‰Â?‡†–‘ Â?’”‘˜‡ܠĆĄÂ‡Â…Â–Â‹Â˜Â‡Â?‡••ǥdz‹Â?

                                                   Reinventing  Foreign  Aid,  edited  by  William  Easterly  (Cambridge:  MIT  Press,  2008):  431-­�460,  432.

29  

 William  Easterly,  The  White  Man’s  Burden  (London:  Penguin,  2006);  Riddell,  Does  Foreign  Aid  Really  Work?;  Smith,  “Pernicious  Aid?.�


A HEALTHY RELATIONSHIP

7

Though  “economic  growth  and  wealth  creation  are  essential  to  development   ƒ†’‘˜‡”–›‡”ƒ†‹…ƒ–‹‘ǥˆ‡™™‘—Ž†‘™ƒ”‰—‡–Šƒ––Š‡›ƒ”‡•—ƥ…‹‡–Ǥdz30  It  is  not  only   economic  growth,  but  also  growth  in  human  capital  that  is  essential  to  development.31   Most   aid   programs   provide   support   for   health,   education,   environment,   and   infrastructure  initiatives  as  well  as  capacity  and  skill-­‐building  in  a  variety  of  sectors,   including  government.  The  share  of   the  social  sector  in   total  allocable  ODA   to  low-­‐ income  countries  has  increased  from  29  percent  in  1990  to  52  percent  in  2004.32  Figure   1  demonstrates  the  trends  in  ODA  to  Africa  by  sector,  from  1990-­‐2010.33  In  2010,  42   percent  of  all  the  ODA  donated  to  Africa  by  the  DAC  of  the  OECD  was  transferred  to   the  social  sector,  compared  to  only  18  percent  transferred  to  the  economic  sector.34   Of   the   various   programs   and   initiatives   of   all   forms   of   foreign   aid,   social   sector  aid,  and   in  particular   health  and  education   initiatives,  are  often  considered   –‘„‡–Š‡‘•–•—……‡••ˆ—ŽǤ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡƒ‹†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••ƒ†Š‡ƒŽ–Š‹†‹…ƒ–‘”•Šƒ˜‡‘Ž› recently   become  a   focus  of   statistical  analyses,  and  aid   has   been  demonstrated   to   Šƒ˜‡„‘–Š’‘•‹–‹˜‡ƒ†‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡‡ơ‡…–•‘Š‡ƒŽ–Š‘—–…‘‡•ǡ•—…Šƒ•‘”–ƒŽ‹–›”ƒ–‡•Ǥ35   To  my  knowledge,  there  are  no  studies  that  also  consider  the  interaction  of  executive   …‘•–”ƒ‹–• ƒ† ƒ‹† ƪ‘™•Ǥ ‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ •…‹‡–‹•–• ƒ† ‡…‘‘‹•–• ‹ ’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ” Šƒ˜‡ focused  on  the  relationship  between  aid,  political  institutions  and  economic  growth   –‘•–—†›ƒ‹†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••Ǥ –‹•‘––Šƒ–ƒ…ƒ†‡‹…•ƒ”‡—ƒ™ƒ”‡‘ˆ–Š‡…‡–”ƒŽ‹–›‘ˆ–Š‡ social  sector  in  development  initiatives,  but   that  measuring  social  outcomes  can  be   ‡š–”‡‡Ž›†‹ƥ…—Ž–‹…‘’ƒ”‹•‘–‘‡ƒ•—”‹‰‡…‘‘‹…‘—–…‘‡••—…Šƒ•‰”‘™–Šǡ savings  and  investment.  Data  on  poverty,  health  and  other  development  indicators   tend   to   be   noisy  and   inconsistent.36   However,   to   fully  understand   the  relationship   „‡–™‡‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ ‹•–‹–—–‹‘• ƒ† ƒ‹† ‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••ǡ •–—†‹‡• —•– ƒ††”‡•• ‘–Š‡” 30  

 Riddell,  Does  Foreign  Aid  Really  Work?,  173.

31  

 Anthony  Bebbington  and  Willy  McCourt,  “Introduction:  A  Framework  for  Understanding  Development  Success,”  in  Development  Success:

                                                   Statecraft  in  the  South,  edited  by  Anthony  Bebbington  and  Willy  McCourt  (New  York:  Palgrave  MacMillan,  2007):  1-­‐29,  4.

32  

 –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–••‘…‹ƒ–‹‘ǡ‡•‘—”…‡‘„‹Ž‹œƒ–‹‘ȋ ȌǡDz‹†”…Š‹–‡…–—”‡ǣ˜‡”˜‹‡™‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ‹”‡†•‹ƥ…‹ƒŽ

                                                   Development  Assistance  Flows,”  February  2007,  9.

33  

 Note:  Figures  and  tables  are  found  after  the  text.

34  

 OECD,  “Development  Aid  at  a  Glance:  Statistics  by  Region  2.  Africa,”  2012  edition,  http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/40/27/42139250.pdf.

35  

 See  Mishra  and  Newhouse,  “Health  Aid  and  Infant  Mortality.”  

36  

 Riddell,  Does  Foreign  Aid  Really  Work?,  167.


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development  indicators  in   addition  to   economics.  Furthermore,   as  the  relationship   between   aid   and   political   institutions   is   inherently   dynamic,   it   is   important   to   …‘•‹†‡”ƒ•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ––‹‡ˆ”ƒ‡‹–Š‡ƒƒŽ›•‹•Ǥ In  summary,  recent  studies  on  the  relationship  between  political  institutions   ƒ† ƒ‹† ‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡•• •—‰‰‡•– –Šƒ– ƒ‹† ‹• ‘Ž› •‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–Ž› ‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡ ƒ– ˆƒ…‹Ž‹–ƒ–‹‰ development  when  the  recipient  state  has  strong  political  institutions.  Governments   ™‹–Š™‡ƒ’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ‹•–‹–—–‹‘•ƒ”‡Ž‡••Ž‹‡Ž›–‘—•‡ƒ‹†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡Ž›ǡ›‡–‹–‹•–Š‡•‡•ƒ‡ states  that  are  often  in  the  most  need  of  aid.  However,  most  studies  focus  on  economic   ‹†‹…ƒ–‘”•ȋ•—…Šƒ•‰”‘™–Šƒ†‹˜‡•–‡–Ȍƒ•ƒ‹†‹…ƒ–‘”‘ˆƒ‹†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••–Š‘—‰Š this   is   an   incomplete   measure.   Other   development   statistics,   such   as   social   and   infrastructure  indicators,  must  be  included  for  a  holistic  analysis.  The  use  of  social   development  indicators,  and  health  outcomes  in  particular,  in  statistical  analyses  of   ƒ‹†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••Šƒ•‡‡”‰‡†‹–Š‡’ƒ•–Ƥ˜‡›‡ƒ”•Ǥ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ–Š‡•‡•–—†‹‡•†‘‘– …‘•‹†‡”–Š‡‡ơ‡…–‘ˆ’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ‹•–‹–—–‹‘•ǤŠ—•–Š‡‡š‹•–‹‰Ž‹–‡”ƒ–—”‡ˆƒ‹Ž•–‘ˆ—ŽŽ› …ƒ’–—”‡–Š‡”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’„‡–™‡‡’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ‹•–‹–—–‹‘•ƒ†ƒ‹†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••‹—„Ǧ ƒŠƒ”ƒˆ”‹…ƒǤ ’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”ǡƒ‹†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡•• ‹–Š‡•‘…‹ƒŽ•‡…–‘””‡“—‹”‡• ˆ—”–Š‡” study.   A  NEW  STATISTICAL  ANALYSIS  OF  THE  RELATIONSHIP  BETWEEN   POLITICAL  INSTITUTIONS  AND  AID  EFFECTIVENESS

Research  Design This  paper  seeks  to  add  to  the  existing  literature  through  a  statistical  analysis   of  the  relationship  between  aid,  executive  constraints  and  health  outcomes  in  Sub-­‐ Saharan   Africa.   If   the   theories   of   Alence,   Smith   and   others   are   correct,   we   would   expect  regimes  with  relatively  weak  institutions  to  experience  a  negative  relationship   with   not   only   economic   growth,   but   also   public   goods   provision   and   other   social   development  outcomes  (such  as  health  and  education).  

†‡ƒŽŽ›ƒ‡ƒ•—”‡‘ˆƒ‹†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••™‘—Ž†‹…Ž—†‡ƒ˜ƒ”‹‡–›‘ˆ‹†‹…ƒ–‘”•ǡ including   economic,   wealth   distribution   and   poverty   reduction,   infrastructure,   education  and   health,  among  others.   Unfortunately   the  data  available   for   most  of   these  indicators  (such  as  wealth  distribution  and  literacy  rates)  are  noisy  and  utterly   inconsistent.  These  indicators  may  have  only  recently  been  measured  and  recorded  


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for  the  region,  have  not  been  consistently  recorded  by  a  reliable  source,  or  are  simply   †‹ƥ…—Ž––‘‡ƒ•—”‡ȋ•—…Šƒ•–Š‡’‘˜‡”–›‰ƒ’ȌǤ…‘‘‹…ƒ†Š‡ƒŽ–Š‹†‹…ƒ–‘”•ƒ”‡–Š‡ exception.  I  have  used  two  health  outcomes  (life  expectancy  and  child  mortality)  as  a   ‡ƒ•—”‡‘ˆƒ‹†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••–‘…‘’Ž‡‡–‡š‹•–‹‰ƒƒŽ›•‡•–Šƒ–…‘•‹†‡”‡…‘‘‹… development. Political   institutions   have   been   measured   as   coalition   size,   degree   of   democratic   contestation,   and   degree   of   restraints   on   the   executive,   among   many   others.  Of  all  the  indicators  available  for  political  institutions,  the  measure  of  executive   constraints   has  the   most  explanatory  power  concerning  whether  aid   is  distributed   ‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡Ž›Ǥ•†‹•…—••‡†ƒ„‘˜‡ǡ‹•–‹–—–‹‘ƒŽ”‡•–”ƒ‹–•‘–Š‡†‹•…”‡–‹‘ƒ”›ƒ—–Š‘”‹–› of   the   executive   are   determinants   of   good   governance.37   This   is   particularly   true   concerning  the  distribution  of  unearned  revenues  such  as  aid.  In  theory,  the  greater   –Š‡”‡•–”ƒ‹–‘–Š‡‡š‡…—–‹˜‡ǡ–Š‡‘”‡†‹ƥ…—Ž–‡‘’ƒ–”‹‘‹ƒŽ‹•„‡…‘‡•ǡƒ† –Š‡‘”‡‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡Ž›ƒ‹†‹•—•‡†Ǥ This  analysis  of  the  relevant  literature  has  led  me  to  the  following  research   question:   What   is   the   relationship   between   executive   constraints,   aid   and   health   outcomes   in   Sub-­‐Saharan   Africa?   My   hypothesis   is   that   this   relationship   will   be   ’‘•‹–‹˜‡ǣ ƒ• ‡š‡…—–‹˜‡ …‘•–”ƒ‹–• ‹…”‡ƒ•‡ǡ ƒ‹† „‡…‘‡• ‘”‡ ‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡ ȋŠ‡ƒŽ–Š ‹†‹…ƒ–‘”• ‹’”‘˜‡ ƒ– ƒ ‰”‡ƒ–‡” ”ƒ–‡ȌǤ – ‹• –Š‡ ‡ơ‡…– ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘ „‡–™‡‡ executive   constraints   and   aid   on   health   outcomes   that   is   the   focus   of   this   study,   ‘– –Š‡ †‹”‡…– ‘” ‹•‘Žƒ–‡† ‡ơ‡…–• ‘ˆ ‡‹–Š‡” ’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ ‹•–‹–—–‹‘• ‘” ƒ‹†Ǥ ‘ –‡•– –Š‹• hypothesis  I  performed  a  time  series  cross-­‐sectional  analysis  of  these  indicators  in   Sub-­‐Saharan  African  countries  from  1960-­‐2009.    

Data This   analysis   will   focus   on   the   political   institutions   of   independent   Sub-­‐ Saharan  African  states  and  the  degree  to  which  executive  constraints  either  constrain   ‘”‡š’ƒ†ƒ‹†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••Ǥ‡ƒ”•™Š‡”‡–Š‡•‡…‘—–”‹‡•™‡”‡—†‡”…‘Ž‘‹ƒŽƒ—–Š‘”‹–› ƒ”‡‘–‹…Ž—†‡†ǡƒ•…‘Ž‘‹‡•†‘‘–‘ƥ…‹ƒŽŽ›”‡…‡‹˜‡ˆ”‘–Š‡Ǥ ƒ††‹–‹‘ǡ the  following   countries   are   excluded  because   of   a  lack   of   available   data:  Seychelles,   37  

 Alence,  “Political  Institutions  and  Developmental  Governance  in  Sub-­‐Saharan  Africa,”  163.


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Sao  Tome  and   Principe  and   South   Sudan.  This   leaves   46  countries   to   be   included   in   the   analysis,   some   of   which   have   data   for   the   entire   period   (1960-­‐2009),   and   ‘–Š‡”•™‹–Š•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–Ž›ˆ‡™‡”’‘••‹„Ž‡‘„•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘•†—‡–‘†ƒ–‡•‘ˆ‹†‡’‡†‡…‡ (such  as  Namibia),  or  missing  data  (such  as  Somalia).  The  dataset  comprised  2  078   observations.  The  data  from  1960-­‐2009  includes  indicators  for  executive  constraints,   ƒ‹† ‹ƪ‘™ Ž‡˜‡Ž• ȋ‡– Ȍǡ ƒ† Š‡ƒŽ–Š ‹†‹…ƒ–‘”• ȋŽ‹ˆ‡ ‡š’‡…–ƒ…› ƒ† …Š‹Ž† ‘”–ƒŽ‹–›ȌǤ•‘ˆ ͥͥ͜͝ǡ–Š‡”‡ ‹• Š‡ƒŽ–Š•‡…–‘”•’‡…‹Ƥ… †ƒ–ƒƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡ ˆ”‘–Š‡ ǤŠ—•ˆ”‘ͥͥ͜͝Ǧͤ͜͜͞ǡƒ‹†‹ƪ‘™Ž‡˜‡Ž•…ƒ„‡‡ƒ•—”‡†„‘–Šƒ•‡–ƒ† health  sector  ODA.  

1.   Executive  constraints  ‡ƒ•—”‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ Ƥ”•– ‹†‡’‡†‡– ˜ƒ”‹ƒ„Ž‡ǡ ‡š‡…—–‹˜‡ …‘•–”ƒ‹–•ǡ ™ƒ• obtained   from   the   Polity   IV   project.   The   Polity   IV   project   codes   the   “authority   characteristics   of   states   in   the   world   system”38   for   statistical   analysis,   classifying   states  as  either  democratic,  anocratic,  or  autocratic.  The  component  variable  most   relevant  to  this  analysis  is  Executive  Constraints  (Decision  Rules),  labelled  XCONST   in   the   Polity   IV   database.   This   variable   measures   “the   extent   of   institutionalized   constraints   on   the   decision-­‐making   powers   of   chief   executives.”39   Operationally,   these  limitations  on  executive  authority  are  imposed  by  accountability  groups,  such   as  legislatures,  “the  ruling  party  in  a  one-­‐party  state;  councils  of  nobles  or  powerful   advisors   in   monarchies;   the   military   in   coup-­‐prone   polities;   and   in   many   states   a   strong,   independent   judiciary.”40   Governments   are   given   a   score   of   1   to   7,   which   I   recoded  as  0  to  6,  where  0  is  Unlimited  Authority  (for  example,  “the  legislature  cannot   initiate   legislation   or   veto   or   suspend   acts   of   the   executive”41)   and   6   is   Executive   Parity  or  Subordination  (for  example,  “a  legislature,  ruling  party,  or  council  of  nobles   initiates   much   or   most   important   legislation”42).   There   are   several   missing   values   assigned  to  polities  that  are  experiencing  a  political  transition   in  some   form.   Figure   38  

 Ted  Robert  Gurr,  Keith  Jaggers  and  Monty  G.  Marshall,  “Polity  IV  Project:  Political  Regime  Characteristics  and  Transitions,  1800-­‐2010  –  Data

                                                   Users’  Manual,”  Center  for  Systemic  Peace  (12  November,  2010),  1.  

39  

 Ibid.,  24.

40  

 Ibid.

41  

 Ibid.

42  

 Ibid.


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2   summarizes  the  variable  Executive  Constraints,  demonstrating  the  trend  over  the   Ć¤ÂˆÂ–Â›ÇŚÂ›Â‡ÂƒÂ”’‡”‹‘†Ǥ –‹•”‡’”‡•‡Â?–ƒ–‹˜‡‘ˆ–Š‡‰‡Â?‡”ƒŽ’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ–”‡Â?†‘ˆ–Š‡…‘Â?–‹Â?‡Â?–ǥ from  the  post-­â€?colonial  period  (1960-­â€?1980)  and   subsequent  rise  in  authoritarianism,   to  the  resurgence  and  growth  of  democracy  from  1990  onwards.  

2.   ܠƪ‘™• ‘”–Š‡’—”’‘•‡•‘ˆ–Š‹•ƒÂ?ÂƒÂŽÂ›Â•Â‹Â•ÇĄ–Š‡†‡ƤÂ?‹–‹‘Â?‘ˆ–Š‡•‡…‘Â?†‹Â?†‡’‡Â?†‡Â?– Â˜ÂƒÂ”Â‹ÂƒÂ„ÂŽÂ‡ÇĄƒ‹†ƪ‘™•ǥ‹•Ž‹Â?‹–‡†–‘–”ƒÂ?•ˆ‡””‡†ˆ”‘Â?Â?‡Â?„‡”•‘ˆ–Š‡ǯ• –‘†‡˜‡Ž‘’‹Â?‰…‘—Â?–”‹‡•ƒÂ?†Â?—Ž–‹Žƒ–‡”ƒŽ‹Â?•–‹–—–‹‘Â?•ǤŠ‡†‡ƤÂ?‡•ÂƒÂ•ÇŁ  DzǼ –Š‘•‡ ƪ‘™• –‘ …‘—Â?–”‹‡• ƒÂ?† –‡””‹–‘”‹‡• ‘Â? –Š‡  ‹•– ‘ˆ  ‡…‹’‹‡Â?–• ƒÂ?† –‘ Â?—Ž–‹Žƒ–‡”ƒŽ †‡˜‡Ž‘’Â?‡Â?– ‹Â?•–‹–—–‹‘Â?• ™Š‹…Š ƒ”‡ ÇĽ ’”‘˜‹†‡† „› Â‘ĆĽÂ…Â‹ÂƒÂŽ agencies,   including  state  and   local  governments,  or   by  their  executive  agencies;  and   each   transaction  of  which   ‌   is  administered  with   the  promotion  of   the  economic   development   and   welfare   of   developing   countries   as   its   main   objective   ‌   and   is   concessional  in  character.â€?  43  

Š‹•†‡ƤÂ?‹–‹‘Â?‘ˆ †‘‡• Â?‘– ‹Â?…Ž—†‡ Š—Â?ƒÂ?‹–ƒ”‹ƒÂ?‘”‡Â?‡”‰‡Â?…›ÂƒÂ‹Â†ÇĄ Â?‹Ž‹–ƒ”› ÂƒÂ‹Â†ÇĄ ’‡ƒ…‡Â?‡‡’‹Â?‰ ‘” ƒÂ?–‹nj–‡””‘”‹•Â? ‡ƥ‘”–•Ǥ – ƒŽ•‘ †‘‡• Â?‘– ‹Â?…Ž—†‡ ƒ‹† †‘Â?ƒ–‡† by   individuals,   NGOs,   or   charities.   It   does   include   aid   donated   by   international   ‹Â?•–‹–—–‹‘Â?•ȋ•—…Šĥ–Š‡‘”Ž†ƒÂ?Â?ƒÂ?†–Š‡  ČŒÇĄÂ‘ĆĽÂ…Â‹ÂƒÂŽƒ‰‡Â?…‹‡•ȋ•—…ŠĥÂ?‹–‡† Nations   agencies),   and   states.   ODA   is   measured   as   Net   ODA   received   per   capita   (current  US$),  obtained  from  the  World  Bank. ‹‰—”‡ Í&#x;•—Â?Â?ƒ”‹œ‡• –Š‡Â˜ÂƒÂ”Â‹ÂƒÂ„ÂŽÂ‡ÇĄ†‡Â?‘Â?•–”ƒ–‹Â?‰ –Š‡ –”‡Â?† ‹Â?ƒ‹† ƪ‘™• –‘ —„njƒŠƒ”ƒÂ? ˆ”‹…ƒ ‘˜‡” –Š‡ Ć¤ÂˆÂ–Â›ÇŚÂ›Â‡ÂƒÂ” ’‡”‹‘†Ǥ —”‹Â?‰ –Š‹• ’‡”‹‘† –Š‡ ƒ‹† ƒ‰‡Â?†ƒ (as   determined   by   international   institutions   such   as   the   World   Bank   and   the   International   Monetary   Fund,   the   United   Nations,   individual   powerful   states,   ƒÂ?†–‘ƒ…‡”–ƒ‹Â?‡š–‡Â?––Š‡ ‹Â?ƪ—‡Â?…‡‘ˆ  •ƒÂ?†‘–Š‡”…‹˜‹Ž•‘…‹‡–›ÂƒÂ…Â–Â‘Â”Â•ČŒ™‡Â?– through  several  transformations:  the  1960s  was  the  decade  of  industrialization  (such   as  infrastructure  projects);  the  1970s  marked  a  shift  of  focus  to  poverty,  redirecting   aid   towards  agricultural  projects  and  social  services;   the   1980s  saw   the  emergence   43  

 OECD,  “Is  it  ODA?�  Factsheet  –  November  2008,  http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/21/21/34086975.pdf,  emphasis  in  original.


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‘ˆ •–”—…–—”ƒŽ ƒ†Œ—•–‡– ’”‘‰”ƒ‡•ǡ ƒ ‡ơ‘”– Ž‡† „› –Š‡   –‘ ”‡•–”—…–—”‡ –Š‡ debt  of  burdened  developing  countries  that  included  neoliberal  reforms  to  economic   institutions;  the  1990s  was  the  era  of  good  governance  and  democratic  reform;  and   the  2000s  was   the  era  of   the  Millennium  Development  Goals.44  With  each  era  came   ƪ—…–—ƒ–‹‘•‹†‘‹ƒ–†‘‘”•ȋ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ‹•–‹–—–‹‘•ƒ†ƒ‰‡…‹‡•ǡ•–ƒ–‡•ǡ‘” others)  and  dollars.     As  of  1990,  the  OECD  made  public  a  database  of  sector-­‐level  ODA,  including   sectors   such   as   Agriculture,   Mineral   Resources   and   Mining,   Water   Supply   and   Sanitation,  Education,  and  Health.45  The  Institute  for  Health  Metrics  and  Evaluation   (IHME),   an   independent   global   research   centre   at   the   University   of   Washington,   collects   and   analyses   data   on   Development   Assistance   for   Health   (DAH)   from   a   variety  of  sources,  including   the  OECD.   46    I  have  derived  a  second  indicator  for  aid   ƪ‘™•ǡ Net   Health   ODA   received   per   capita   (constant   2008   US$),   from   the   IHME   (compiled  from  original  OECD  data)  for  the  1990-­‐2008  period.   Ž‹‡‡–ǡŠ‡ƒŽ–Š•‡…–‘”‹•‘–ƒơ‡…–‡†„›–Š‡†‘‘”ˆƒ–‹‰—‡‘ˆ–Š‡ 1990s.  Figure  4  summarizes  the  variable,  demonstrating  the  trend  in  health  sector  aid   ƪ‘™•–‘—„ǦƒŠƒ”ƒˆ”‹…ƒ‘˜‡”–Š‡’‡”‹‘†ͥͥ͜͝Ǧͤ͜͜͞Ǥ

3.   ‹†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡•• Š‡ ‘”Ž† ƒ †‡Ƥ‡• ƒ‹† ‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡•• ƒ•ǣ Dz–Š‡ ‹’ƒ…– –Šƒ– ƒ‹† Šƒ• ‹ reducing  poverty  and  inequality,  increasing  growth,  building  capacity  …  health,  and   other  measures  of  human  welfare.”47  As  discussed  above,  due  to  the  availability  of  data,   –Š‹•ƒƒŽ›•‹•Šƒ•ˆ‘…—•‡†‘–™‘Š‡ƒŽ–Š‹†‹…ƒ–‘”•ƒ•ƒ‡ƒ•—”‡‘ˆƒ‹†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••ǣ life  expectancy  (years)  and  child  mortality  (under  5  deaths  per  1  000  live  births).  This   data  was  also  obtained  from  the  World  Bank.  Figures  6  and  7  demonstrate  the  general   –”‡†‹Ž‹ˆ‡‡š’‡…–ƒ…›ƒ†…Š‹Ž†‘”–ƒŽ‹–›‘˜‡”–Š‡Ƥˆ–›Ǧ›‡ƒ”’‡”‹‘†Ǥ•™‘—Ž†„‡ expected,  health  indicators  for  the  region  improve  overall  during  the  period.   The   trends   in   the   data   described   above   demonstrate   that   both   aid   and   44  

ƒ”–‹‡”‡†‹–ŠǡŠ‡ ƒ–‡‘ˆˆ”‹…ƒǣ ‹•–‘”›‘ˆ ‹ˆ–›‡ƒ”•‘ˆ †‡’‡†‡…‡ǡȋ‡™‘”ǣ—„Ž‹…ơƒ‹”•ǡ͜͜͞͡Ȍǡ͝͠͞ǡͣ͟͝Ǧͣͣ͟Ǣƒ„‹•ƒ‘›‘ǡ

                                                 Dead  Aid  (Vancouver:  Douglas  &  McIntyre,  2009),  10-­‐28.

45  

 OECD,  “Stat  Extracts.”

46  

 Institute  for  Health  Metrics  and  Evaluation,  “Global  Health  Data  Exchange,”  http://www.healthmetricsandevaluation.org/ghdx.

47  

‘”Ž†ƒǡDzƒ–ƒǣ‹†ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••ǡdzŠ––’ǣȀȀ†ƒ–ƒǤ™‘”Ž†„ƒǤ‘”‰Ȁ–‘’‹…Ȁƒ‹†Ǧ‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••Ǥ


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‡š‡…—–‹˜‡…‘•–”ƒ‹–•ƒ”‡‹ƪ—‡…‡†„›–Š‡•‘…‹ƒŽǡ’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽƒ†‡…‘‘‹…’Š‡‘‡ƒ of   history.   Unlike   life  expectancy  and  child   mortality,  they  do   not   follow  a  relatively   homogenous  pattern.  In  general,  studies  of  this  nature  have  not  accounted  for  these   temporal   dependencies   in   the   independent   variables.   As   the   overall   period   may   conceal  the  heterogeneity  of  the  data,  I  performed  the  analysis  both  for  the  overall   period  and  within  the  following  historical  periods:  the  post-­‐colonial  era  (1960-­‐1975),   the  Cold  War  era  (1976-­‐1989),  the  post-­‐Cold  War  era  (1990-­‐1999),  and  the  millennium   ‡”ƒȋ͜͜͜͞Ǧͥ͜͜͞ȌǤƒ…Š’‡”‹‘†‹•…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹œ‡†„›•’‡…‹Ƥ…ǡƒ†‘ˆ–‡’‡”˜‡”•‡ǡ–”‡†• in  executive  constraints  and  foreign  aid.  These  trends  are  juxtaposed  in  Figure  7;  the   reference  lines  delineate  the  four  historical  eras  for  clarity.  A  brief  explanation  of  the   trends  in  each  period  is  outlined  below: ȈŠ‡‘•–Ǧ‘Ž‘‹ƒŽ”ƒȋͩͦ͡͠Ǧͩͧͥ͡Ȍ.  During  this  period,  43  of  the  46  countries   considered  in   this  dataset  gained  independence  or  had  done  so  previously.   – Ƥ”•–ǡ –Š‡ …‘–‹‡– •‡‡‡† Dz†‡•–‹‡† ˆ‘” ƒ ‡”ƒ ‘ˆ —’”‡…‡†‡–‡† progress”   as   the   “march   of   African   nationalism   seemed   invincible.”   48   However,  these  nations  with  little  experience  of  representative  democracy   overwhelmingly   embraced   the   “traditions   of   autocratic   governance,   paternalism   and   dirigisme   [that]   were   embedded   in   the   [colonial]   institutions   the   new   leaders   inherited.”49   Decolonization   was   followed   by  a  steep  decline  in  executive  constraints  (from  a  score  of  2.3  to  1.4)  and   •‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–‹…”‡ƒ•‡‹ƒ…”‘••–Š‡”‡‰‹‘ȋˆ”‘͊͝Ǥ͞’‡”…ƒ’‹–ƒ–‘͊͞͝Ǥ͡ȌǤ This  is   also  the   era   of  the   aid   agenda  focusing   on  industrialization,   as   well   as   some   poverty   reduction   strategies.   Aid   was   used   by   various   actors   to   ‹ƪ—‡…‡–Š‡’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽǡ•‘…‹ƒŽƒ†‡…‘‘‹……Ž‹ƒ–‡‘ˆ—„ǦƒŠƒ”ƒˆ”‹…ƒǤ     ȈŠ‡‘Ž†ƒ””ƒȋͩͧͦ͡Ǧͩͨͩ͡Ȍ.  These  newly  independent  states  were  the   site  of  proxy  wars,  political  interventions  by   foreign  powers,  and  economic   battles   during   the   Cold   War.50 Š‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ ‹ƪ—‡…‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’”‡˜‹‘—• era   remained   strong   (colonial   institutions   and   ties,   as   well   as   Cold   War   48  

 Martin  Meredith,  The  Fate  of  Africa,  141.

49  

 Ibid.,  154.

50  

 Ibid.,  148.


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interests),  while   the  aid   agenda   shifted   to   focus   on   free-­‐market   solutions   to  better  the  desolate  economic  state  of  the  region.  During  the  latter  part   of   the   Cold   War,   the   region   experienced   a   moderate   decline   and   relative   stagnation   in   executive   constraints   (from   a   score   of   1.4   to   1.1),   as   well   as   a  steep   increase   in   ODA  across   the   region   (from   $22   per  capita   to   $62.7).       ȈŠ‡ ‘•–Ǧ‘Ž†ƒ” ”ƒ ȋͩͩ͡͠Ǧͩͩͩ͡ȌǤŠ‹•‡”ƒ‘ơ‡”‡† –Š‡‡•– Dzƒ—‹“—‡ historical   opportunity   to   impose   its   political   and   economic   values   across   the   globe   with   Africa   as   a   prime   target.”51   Democratization   became   a   precondition   for   countries   to   receive   foreign   aid   and   loans   from   both   international   institutions   and   some   states.   Simultaneously,   domestic   factors  such  as  popular  movements  and  a  growing  middle  class  popularized   democratic   reforms   across   the   continent.52   This   era   is   marked   by   a   steep   increase  in  executive  constraints  (from  a  score  of  1.9  to  3.3).  However,  aid   ƪ‘™• †”‘’’‡† ƒ• –Š‡ •–”ƒ–‡‰‹… ‹–‡”‡•–• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘Ž† ƒ” †‹••‹’ƒ–‡† ƒ† donors   began   to   experience   fatigue   with   the   overall   lack   of   progress   in   the   region.   Over   the   course   of   this   period,   ODA   declined   to   nearly   half   its  initial  amount,  from  $75.5  per  capita  in  1990  to  $39  per  capita  in  1999.     Ȉ Š‡ ‹ŽŽ‡‹— ”ƒ ȋ͢͠͠͠Ǧͩ͢͠͠Ȍ.   After   a   steep   decline   in   the   post-­‐Cold   War  era,   the  adoption  of   the   MDGs   in   2000  revitalized  donors  and   ODA   redoubled  from  $33.6  per  capita  in  2000  to  $76.3  per  capita  in  2009.  The  wave   of  democratization  in  Sub-­‐Saharan  Africa  from  the  previous  era  continued,   „—––‘ƒŽ‡••‡”‡š–‡–ǡƒ†‹–•‡ơ‡…–Šƒ•‘–Šƒ†ƒ—‹˜‡”•ƒŽ‹’ƒ…–ƒ…”‘••–Š‡ region:  executive  constraints  increased   from  a  score  of  3.2  in  2000  to  3.5  in   2009.

RESULTS As  this  analysis  is  both  a  time-­‐series  and  cross-­‐section,  I  have  used  the  Prais-­‐ 51  

 Apollos  O.  Nwauwa,  “Concepts  of  Democracy  and  Democratization  in  Africa  Revisited”  (paper  presented  at  the  Fourth  Annual  Kent  State

                                                   University  Symposium  on  Democracy,  April  28-­‐29,  2004).    

52  

 Claude  Ake,  “Rethinking  African  Democracy,”  Journal  of  Democracy  2,  no.  1  (2001):  32-­‐44,  33

.


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Winsten   regression   with   correlated   panel-­‐corrected   standard   errors   to   account   for   autocorrelation.   Furthermore,   I   have   performed   the   regression   in   several   time   periods  to  account  for  possible  confounds.  The  regression  measures  the  respective   ‡ơ‡…–•‘ˆˆ‘”‡‹‰ƒ‹†ȋ‡–”‡…‡‹˜‡†’‡”…ƒ’‹–ƒƒ†‡– ‡ƒŽ–Š”‡…‡‹˜‡†’‡” capita)  and  Executive  Constraints  on  both  child  mortality  and  life  expectancy.  The   ˆ‘…—•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒƒŽ›•‹•‹•–Š‡‡ơ‡…–‘ˆ–Š‡‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘‘ˆƒ†‡š‡…—–‹˜‡…‘•–”ƒ‹–•ǡ which   measures   the   extent   to   which   the   latter   either   expands   or   constrains   the   ‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡•• ‘ˆ  ‘ Š‡ƒŽ–Š ‘—–…‘‡• ȋ‡– ȝ‘•–”ƒ‹–• ƒ† ‡– ‡ƒŽ–Š ODA*Constraints).   The   estimation   model   is   outlined   by   the   following   regression   equation:   Health  Outcome  =  ß0  +  ß1*ODA  +  ß2*Constraints  +  ß3ODA*Constraints Each   independent   variable   (Net   ODA   received   per   capita,   Net   Health   ODA   ”‡…‡‹˜‡† ’‡” …ƒ’‹–ƒ ƒ† š‡…—–‹˜‡ ‘•–”ƒ‹–•Ȍ ƒ† –Š‡ ‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘ ‡ơ‡…– ȋ‡– ODA*Constraints  and  Net  Health  ODA*Constraints)  is  expected  to  have  a  positive   ‡ơ‡…–‘Ž‹ˆ‡‡š’‡…–ƒ…›ȋ‹…”‡ƒ•‡–Š‡‡ƒǡ›‡ƒ”•Ȍǣß1>0    

ß2>0  

ß3>0.  Similarly,  

‡ƒ…Š‹†‡’‡†‡–˜ƒ”‹ƒ„Ž‡ƒ†–Š‡‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘‡ơ‡…–‹•‡š’‡…–‡†–‘Šƒ˜‡ƒ‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡ ‡ơ‡…–‘…Š‹Ž†‘”–ƒŽ‹–›ȋ†‡…”‡ƒ•‡–Š‡‡ƒǡ—†‡”͡†‡ƒ–Š•’‡”͜͜͜͝Ȍǣß1<0    ß2<0    ß3<0.   Table  153•—ƒ”‹œ‡•–Š‡‡ơ‡…–•‘ˆ‡–”‡…‡‹˜‡†’‡”…ƒ’‹–ƒǡš‡…—–‹˜‡ ‘•–”ƒ‹–• ƒ† ‡– ȝ‘•–”ƒ‹–• ‘ …Š‹Ž† ‘”–ƒŽ‹–› ‹ –Š‡ Ƥˆ–›Ǧ›‡ƒ” ’‡”‹‘† (1960-­‐2009),  where   the  constant   rate  of  child   mortality   is   175   (under   5  deaths   per   ͜͜͜͝Ȍ‹ͥ͟͟͝‘„•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘•ǤŠ‡…‘‡ƥ…‹‡–‘ˆ–Š‡”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’„‡–™‡‡‡– received  per  capita  and  child  mortality  is   -­‐0.036:  as   net   ODA   increases   by   $1,  the  rate  of  child   mortality  decreases   by   0.036.   An  increase  of  $100  of  foreign  aid  per  capita  will  save  the  lives  of  3.6  children  per  1   ͜͜͜ǡ’‡”›‡ƒ”Ǥ‘–‘Ž›‹•–Š‹•”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–ȋϏȁœȁϋ͜Ǥ͜͜͠Ȍǡ‹–†‡‘•–”ƒ–‡• –Šƒ–ƒ‹†ǡ…‡–‡”‹•’ƒ”‹„—•ǡŠƒ•„‡‡•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–Ž›‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡ƒ–”‡†—…‹‰…Š‹Ž†‘”–ƒŽ‹–› ‹ —„ǦƒŠƒ”ƒ ˆ”‹…ƒǤ Š‡ ‘–Š‡” ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’• ‹ –Š‹• ”‡‰”‡••‹‘ ƒ”‡ ‹•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ– 53  

 Tables  are  found  at  the  end  of  the  text.


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(Executive  Constraints  and  Net  ODA*Constraints).  This  result  suggests  that  executive   …‘•–”ƒ‹–•†‘‡•‘–‹’ƒ…–ƒ‹†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••ǡ…‘–”ƒ†‹…–‹‰›Š›’‘–Š‡•‹•Ǥ ƒ„Ž‡͞•—ƒ”‹œ‡•–Š‡‡ơ‡…–•‘ˆ‡–”‡…‡‹˜‡†’‡”…ƒ’‹–ƒǡ‡– ‡ƒŽ–Š ODA  received  per  capita,  Executive  Constraints,  Net  ODA*Constraints  and  Net  Health   ODA*Constraints  on  child  mortality  in  the  sub-­‐period  (1990-­‐2008).  It  is  in  this  period   that  the  interaction  of  ODA  (both  net  and  health)  and  executive  constraints  has  a   •‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–‡ơ‡…–ǤŠ‡…‘‡ƥ…‹‡–‘ˆ–Š‡”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’„‡–™‡‡‡–ȝ‘•–”ƒ‹–• and  child  mortality  is  -­‐0.006,  with  a  constant  of  137  (under  5  deaths,  per  1,000)  and   a  total  868  observations.  As  Executive  Constraints  increases  at  a  rate  of  1  (on  a  scale   of  0  to  6   where  0  indicates  unlimited   executive   authority   and  6  indicates   executive   ’ƒ”‹–›‘”•—„‘”†‹ƒ–‹‘Ȍǡ–Š‡‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••‘ˆ‡–”‡…‡‹˜‡†’‡”…ƒ’‹–ƒ‹…”‡ƒ•‡• „›͜Ǥ͜͜͢Ǥ‹–Š‘—–…‘•–”ƒ‹–•ǡƒ‹†Šƒ•ƒ’‘•‹–‹˜‡ƒ†’‡”˜‡”•‡‡ơ‡…–‘–Š‡”ƒ–‡‘ˆ …Š‹Ž† ‘”–ƒŽ‹–›ǡ –Š‘—‰Š –Š‹• ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ ‹• •–ƒ–‹•–‹…ƒŽŽ› ‹•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ– ȋϏȁœȁϋ͜Ǥ͢͝͝ȌǤ •š‡…—–‹˜‡‘•–”ƒ‹–•‹…”‡ƒ•‡ǡ–Š‡’‘•‹–‹˜‡‡ơ‡…–‘ˆ‡–”‡…‡‹˜‡†’‡”…ƒ’‹–ƒ diminishes  and  eventually  becomes  negative.  An  increase  from  0  to  6  in  Executive   ‘•–”ƒ‹–•™‘—Ž††‡…”‡ƒ•‡–Š‡…‘‡ƥ…‹‡–‘ˆ‡–”‡…‡‹˜‡†’‡”…ƒ’‹–ƒ„›͜Ǥ͜͟͢ ȋ͜Ǥ͜͜͢ȝ͢Ȍǡˆ”‘͜Ǥ͜͝͠–‘Ǧ͜Ǥ͜͞͞ǡ”‡†‡”‹‰’”‡˜‹‘—•Ž›’‡”˜‡”•‡ƒ‹†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡ƒ–”‡†—…‹‰ child  mortality.   The   interaction   of   Net   Health   ODA   received   per   capita   and   Executive   ‘•–”ƒ‹–• ȋ‡– ‡ƒŽ–Š ȝ‘•–”ƒ‹–•Ȍ …‘•–”ƒ‹• –Š‡ ‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡•• ‘ˆ Š‡ƒŽ–Š ODA.   Without   constraints,   Net   Health   ODA   received   per   capita   has   a   negative   ‡ơ‡…–‘–Š‡”ƒ–‡‘ˆ…Š‹Ž†‘”–ƒŽ‹–›ǣˆ‘”‡˜‡”›‹…”‡ƒ•‡‘ˆ͊͝–Š‡”‡‹•ƒ…‘””‡•’‘†‹‰ decrease  in  child  mortality  of  0.613;  or,  for  every  increase  of  $10  per  capita  in  foreign   ƒ‹†ǡ–Š‡Ž‹˜‡•‘ˆ͢Ǥ͟͝…Š‹Ž†”‡’‡”›‡ƒ”ƒ”‡•ƒ˜‡†ǤŠ‹••–”‘‰…‘‡ƥ…‹‡–‹•†‡…”‡ƒ•‡† with  the  introduction  of  constraints.  An  increase  of  1  (on  a  scale  of  0  to  6)  in  Executive   ‘•–”ƒ‹–•†‡…”‡ƒ•‡• –Š‡‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••‘ˆ Š‡ƒŽ–Š  „› ͜Ǥͣͣ͜Ǥ ‹–Šƒ•…‘”‡‘ˆ ͝ in   Executive   Constraints,   for  every   increase  of   $1  of   Net   Health   ODA   received   per   capita,  the  rate  of  child  mortality  decreases  by  0.536.  With  a  score  of  6  in  Executive   Constraints   (an   increase   in   6   on   the   scale),   for   every   increase   of   $1   of   Net   Health   ODA   received   per   capita,   the   rate   of   child   mortality   decreases   by   0.151.   Executive   …‘•–”ƒ‹–••‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–Ž›…‘•–”ƒ‹–Š‡‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••‘ˆƒ‹†ƒ–†‡…”‡ƒ•‹‰–Š‡”ƒ–‡‘ˆ …Š‹Ž†‘”–ƒŽ‹–›ǤŠ‹Ž‡–Š‡†‹”‡…–‹’ƒ…–‘ˆŠ‡ƒŽ–Šƒ‹†‹•‘”‡•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ––Šƒ‘˜‡”ƒŽŽ


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aid,  it  is  also  restrained  by  executive  constraints.  This  is  a  curious  and  unexpected   result  requiring  further  research. The   relationships   of   the   independent   variables   and   the   second   health   outcome,   life   expectancy,   are   similar   to   child   mortality   in   both   periods.   Table   3   •—ƒ”‹œ‡•–Š‡‡ơ‡…–•‘ˆ‡–”‡…‡‹˜‡†’‡”…ƒ’‹–ƒǡš‡…—–‹˜‡‘•–”ƒ‹–•ƒ† ‡–ȝ‘•–”ƒ‹–•‘Ž‹ˆ‡‡š’‡…–ƒ…›ȋ›‡ƒ”•Ȍ‹–Š‡Ƥˆ–›Ǧ›‡ƒ”’‡”‹‘†ȋͥ͢͜͝Ǧͥ͜͜͞Ȍǡ where  the   constant  is  48.8  in   a  total  2  039   observations.  As   was  the   case   with   child   ‘”–ƒŽ‹–›ǡ–Š‡‘Ž›•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’‹•ƒ’‘•‹–‹˜‡ ‘‡ „‡–™‡‡ Ž‹ˆ‡ ‡š’‡…–ƒ…› ƒ† ‡–  ”‡…‡‹˜‡† ’‡” …ƒ’‹–ƒǡ –Š‡ …‘‡ƥ…‹‡– ‘ˆ which  is  0.003.  For  every  increase  of  $1  in  foreign  aid,  life  expectancy  increases  by   0.003.   Or,  an   increase   in   $100  of   ODA  per  capita  will  add  three  years  of   longevity.   ‰ƒ‹ǡƒ‹†‹•†‡‘•–”ƒ–‡†–‘Šƒ˜‡ƒ•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–‹’ƒ…–‘Š‡ƒŽ–Š‘—–…‘‡•†—”‹‰ –Š‹•’‡”‹‘†ǡ™Š‹Ž‡‡š‡…—–‹˜‡…‘•–”ƒ‹–•ƒ†–Š‡‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘‡ơ‡…–ƒ”‡‹•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–Ǥ ƒ„Ž‡͠•—ƒ”‹œ‡•–Š‡‡ơ‡…–•‘ˆ‡–”‡…‡‹˜‡†’‡”…ƒ’‹–ƒǡ‡– ‡ƒŽ–Š ODA   received   per   capita,   Executive   Constraints,   Net   ODA*Constraints   and   Net   Health  ODA*Constraints  on  life  expectancy  in  the  latter  period  (1990-­‐2008).  Once   again,  the  interaction  of  net  ODA  and  executive  constraints  (Net  ODA*Constraints)   ‹••‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–ǡ™‹–Šƒ…‘‡ƥ…‹‡–‘ˆ͜Ǥͤ͜͜͜Ǥ‡– ‡ƒŽ–Š”‡…‡‹˜‡†’‡”…ƒ’‹–ƒŠƒ• ƒ•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–‹’ƒ…–‘Ž‹ˆ‡‡š’‡…–ƒ…›ǣƒ‹…”‡ƒ•‡‘ˆ͊͜͝’‡”…ƒ’‹–ƒ‹Š‡ƒŽ–Š ™‹ŽŽ ƒ†† ͜Ǥ͢ ›‡ƒ”• ‘ˆ Ž‘‰‡˜‹–›ǡ „—– ‡– ‡ƒŽ–Š ȝ‘•–”ƒ‹–• ‹• ‹•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ– ȋϏȁœȁϋ͜Ǥͤ͝͠ȌǤ•™ƒ•‡š’‡…–‡†ǡŠ‡ƒŽ–Šƒ‹†‹•‘”‡‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡–Šƒ‘˜‡”ƒŽŽƒ‹†ǡ…‡–‡”‹• paribus,  at  increasing  life  expectancy. ‹–Š ”‡‰ƒ”†• –‘ „‘–Š Š‡ƒŽ–Š ‘—–…‘‡•ǡ –Š‡ ‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘ ‡ơ‡…– ȋ‡– ȝ‘•–”ƒ‹–•Ȍ „‡…‘‡• •‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ– ȋ™‹–Š –Š‡ ‡š’‡…–‡† ‡ơ‡…– ‘ˆ ‡š‡…—–‹˜‡ …‘•–”ƒ‹–• ‡š’ƒ†‹‰ ƒ‹† ‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••Ȍ ‘Ž› ‹ –Š‡ •—„Ǧ’‡”‹‘† ȋͥͥ͜͝Ǧͤ͜͜͞ȌǤ Š‹• •—‰‰‡•–•–Šƒ––Š‡Ƥˆ–›Ǧ›‡ƒ”’‡”‹‘†ƒ›‘˜‡”Ž‘‘Š‹•–‘”‹…ƒŽ—ƒ…‡•ƒ•–Š‡‡•–‹ƒ–‹‘ method  assumes  homogeneity  in  the  data.  The  trends  in  aid  and  executive  constraints   are   both   heterogeneous  and   temporally  dependent,  as  described   under   “Data.”   To   account  for  these  temporal  dependencies,  I  have  divided  the  data  into  four  historical   periods:  the  post-­‐colonial  era   (1960-­‐1975),  the   Cold  War  era   (1976-­‐1989),   the  post-­‐ ‘Ž†ƒ”‡”ƒȋͥͥ͜͝Ǧͥͥͥ͝Ȍǡƒ†–Š‡‹ŽŽ‡‹—‡”ƒȋ͜͜͜͞Ǧͥ͜͜͞ȌǤŠ‡Œ—•–‹Ƥ…ƒ–‹‘ˆ‘” –Š‹•†‹˜‹•‹‘‹•‰‹˜‡ƒ„‘˜‡ȋ—†‡”Dzƒ–ƒȂ͟Ǥ‹†ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••dzȌǡƒ†˜‹•—ƒŽ‹œ‡†‹


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Figure  7.   Š‡–‡’‘”ƒŽ‡ơ‡…–‘–Š‡ƒƒŽ›•‹•‹•‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‡†‹ƒ„Ž‡•͡ȋ…Š‹Ž†‘”–ƒŽ‹–›Ȍ and   6   (life  expectancy).   In  Table   5,   Net   ODA*Constraints   is  demonstrated  to   have   ƒ‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡ƒ†•–ƒ–‹•–‹…ƒŽŽ›•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’™‹–Š…Š‹Ž†‘”–ƒŽ‹–›‹‡˜‡”›‡”ƒ except  for  the  most  recent  millennium  era  (2000-­‐2009).  From  era  to  era,  executive   …‘•–”ƒ‹–•‡š’ƒ†–Š‡‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••‘ˆƒ‹†ƒ–”‡†—…‹‰…Š‹Ž†‘”–ƒŽ‹–›ƒ–ƒ†‡…”‡ƒ•‹‰ ”ƒ–‡ǡˆ”‘ƒ…‘‡ƥ…‹‡–‘ˆǦ͜Ǥͥ͟͝͠‹–Š‡’‘•–Ǧ…‘Ž‘‹ƒŽ‡”ƒǡ–‘ƒ…‘‡ƥ…‹‡–‘ˆǦ͜Ǥͥ͜͜͠‹ the  post-­‐Cold  War  era.  In  the  post-­‐colonial  era,  as  Executive  Constraints  increases  at   ƒ”ƒ–‡‘ˆ͝ǡ–Š‡‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••‘ˆ‡–”‡…‡‹˜‡†’‡”…ƒ’‹–ƒ‹…”‡ƒ•‡•„›͜Ǥͥ͟͝͠Ǥ ˆ–Š‡ ‡–”‡…‡‹˜‡†’‡”…ƒ’‹–ƒ…‘‡ƥ…‹‡–ȋǦ͜Ǥͥ͝͝Ȍ™ƒ••‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–ǡƒ‹…”‡ƒ•‡ˆ”‘͜ –‘͝‹š‡…—–‹˜‡‘•–”ƒ‹–•™‘—Ž†‘”‡–Šƒ†‘—„Ž‡ƒ‹†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••ǣ͊͜͝‘ˆƒ‹†’‡” capita  per  year  would  reduce  child  mortality  by  2.6  (-­‐0.119  –  0.1439).  In  the  post-­‐Cold   ƒ”‡”ƒǡ–Š‡‡–”‡…‡‹˜‡†’‡”…ƒ’‹–ƒ…‘‡ƥ…‹‡–ȋ͜Ǥ͜͟͡ȌŠƒ•ƒ’‘•‹–‹˜‡‡ơ‡…–‘ …Š‹Ž†‘”–ƒŽ‹–›ȋ–Š‘—‰Š‹–‹••–ƒ–‹•–‹…ƒŽŽ›‹•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–ȌǤš‡…—–‹˜‡…‘•–”ƒ‹–•‡š’ƒ† ƒ‹†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••ǡ „—–ƒ–ƒ†‡…”‡ƒ•‡† ”ƒ–‡ ‹…‘’ƒ”‹•‘ –‘ „‘–Š‡ƒ”Ž‹‡” ’‡”‹‘†•Ǥ – would   require   an   increase   from   0   to   4   in   Executive   Constraints   for   aid   to   have   a   negative  relationship  with  child  mortality   (-­‐0.0094*4  =  -­‐0.0376).  With  such  an  increase,  $10  of  aid  per  capita  per  year  would   reduce  child  mortality  by  0.37. In   Table   6,   Net   ODA*Constraints   is   demonstrated   to   have   a   positive   and   •–ƒ–‹•–‹…ƒŽŽ›•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’™‹–ŠŽ‹ˆ‡‡š’‡…–ƒ…›‹‡˜‡”›‡”ƒǡ‹…Ž—†‹‰–Š‡ most   recent   millennium   era   (2000-­‐2009).   The   overall   trend   in   the   data   is   similar   –‘ –Šƒ– ‘ˆ …Š‹Ž† ‘”–ƒŽ‹–›ǣ ‡š‡…—–‹˜‡ …‘•–”ƒ‹–• ‡š’ƒ† –Š‡ ‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡•• ‘ˆ ƒ‹†ǡ ‹…”‡ƒ•‹‰Ž‘‰‡˜‹–›ƒ–ƒ†‡…”‡ƒ•‹‰”ƒ–‡‘˜‡”–‹‡ǡˆ”‘ƒ…‘‡ƥ…‹‡–‘ˆ͜Ǥͣ͜͝͡‹–Š‡ ’‘•–Ǧ…‘Ž‘‹ƒŽ‡”ƒǡ–‘ƒ…‘‡ƥ…‹‡–‘ˆ͜Ǥ͜͜͝‹–Š‡‹ŽŽ‡‹—‡”ƒǤ –Š‡’‘•–Ǧ…‘Ž‘‹ƒŽ ‡”ƒǡ ƒ• š‡…—–‹˜‡ ‘•–”ƒ‹–• ‹…”‡ƒ•‡• ˆ”‘ ͜ –‘ ͝ǡ –Š‡ ‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡•• ‘ˆ ‡–  ”‡…‡‹˜‡†’‡”…ƒ’‹–ƒ‘”‡–Šƒ†‘—„Ž‡•ǡˆ”‘͜Ǥ͜͝͞ȋϏȁœȁϋ͜Ǥ͜͞͡Ȍ–‘͜Ǥͣͣ͜͞Ǥ‹–Š‘—– executive   constraints,   $10   of   aid   would   add   one-­‐tenth   of   a  year   to   life   expectancy.   With  executive  constraints,  $10  of  aid  adds  more  than  one  quarter  of  a  year.   ‘†‹•…—••–Š‡‹’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆ–Š‡‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘‡ơ‡…–‹”‡ƒŽ–‡”•ǡ…‘•‹†‡” –Š‡’‘•–Ǧ‘Ž†ƒ”‡”ƒǡ™Š‡”‡–Š‡‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘‡ơ‡…–‹••‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–ˆ‘”„‘–Š”‡†—…‹‰ child  mortality  (-­‐0.0094)  and  increasing  life  expectancy  (0.0016).  In  the  year  1995,  


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–Š‡‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••‘ˆƒ‹† –”ƒ•ˆ‡””‡† –‘ ‘—–Š ˆ”‹…ƒ ȋ™‹–Šƒ •…‘”‡‘ˆ ͢ ‹‡š‡…—–‹˜‡ …‘•–”ƒ‹–•Ȍ ƒ– ”‡†—…‹‰ …Š‹Ž† ‘”–ƒŽ‹–› ™ƒ• ‡š’ƒ†‡† „› ƒ …‘‡ƥ…‹‡– ‘ˆ Ǧ͜Ǥ͜͢͡͠ ȋǦ͜Ǥͥ͜͜͠ȝ͢ȌǤ ˆ͊͝‘ˆƒ‹†”‡†—…‡•…Š‹Ž†‘”–ƒŽ‹–›ƒ–ƒ”ƒ–‡‘ˆǦ͜Ǥ͜͟͢ȋƤ‰—”‡†‡”‹˜‡†ˆ”‘ Table  1)  when  there  are  no  constraints,  $1  of  aid  would  have  reduced  child   mortality   at   a  rate   of  -­‐0.0924  in  South  Africa,  where  the   constant  rate   of   child  mortality  is  61   deaths  per  1  000.  South  Africa  received  $10  of  aid  per  capita  in  1995,  reducing  the  rate   of  child  mortality  by  nearly  one  death  per  1  000,   from  61   to  60  (in  addition   to  other   factors  that  reduced  child  mortality).     In  comparison,  aid  transferred  to  Sierra  Leone  (with  a  score  of  0  in  executive   constraints)   was   not   expanded   by   executive   constraints.   In   the   same   scenario,   $1   of  aid  reduces  child   mortality  at  a  rate  of   -­‐0.036,  where   the  constant  rate  of  child   mortality   is   271  deaths  per   1   000.   Sierra   Leone  received   $53  of  aid  per  capita   in   1995,   reducing  the  rate  of  child  mortality  by  1.9  deaths  per  1  000,  from  271  to  nearly  269   (again,  in  addition  to  other  factors  that  reduced  child  mortality).  If  South  Africa  had   received  $53  in  aid  per  capita,  its  rate  of  child  mortality  would  have  been  reduced  by   4.77  deaths  per  1  000  due  to  strong  executive  constraints.  The  impact  of  1  aid  dollar  in   South  Africa  was  greater  than  in  Sierra  Leone  due  to  executive  constraints.   Š‡ Ƥ†‹‰• ‹†‹…ƒ–‡ –Šƒ– ƒ‹† ‹• ‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡ ƒ– ”‡†—…‹‰ …Š‹Ž† ‘”–ƒŽ‹–› ƒ† increasing   life   expectancy   in   states   with   strong   executive   constraints,   or   a   good   ’‘Ž‹…›‡˜‹”‘‡–ǤŠ‹•”‡•—Ž–”‡•‡„Ž‡•Ƥ†‹‰•‹’”‡˜‹‘—••–—†‹‡•–Šƒ–ˆ‘…—•‡† ‘ ‡…‘‘‹… ‰”‘™–Š ƒ• ƒ ‡ƒ•—”‡ ‘ˆ ƒ‹† ‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••ǡ †‹•…—••‡† ‡ƒ”Ž‹‡” ‹ –Š‡ paper.   However,   countries   with   good   policies   are   rarely   those   in   need   of   foreign   aid.   The   comparison   of   South   Africa   and   Sierra   Leone   demonstrates   the   irony   in   the   aid-­‐institutions   paradox:   countries   most   in   need   of   aid,   such   as   Sierra   Leone,   ƒ”‡‰‘˜‡”‡†„›’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ‹•–‹–—–‹‘•–Šƒ–ƒ”‡–Š‡Ž‡ƒ•–‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡ƒ–—•‹‰ƒ‹†ˆ‘”‹–• designated  purposes,  such  as   improving  the   health  of  citizens;  while  countries  with   •–”‘‰‹•–‹–—–‹‘ƒŽ‡˜‹”‘‡–•ǡ•—…Šƒ•‘—–Šˆ”‹…ƒǡƒ”‡˜‡”›‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡ƒ–—•‹‰ƒ‹† but  are  less  in  need.  The  international  community  is  inclined  to  donate  to  those  who   are  perceived  to  be  in  need:  of  the  top  ten  recipients  of  foreign  aid  in  Sub-­‐Saharan     Africa  in  2010,  60%  had  a  score  lower  than  3  in  executive  constraints  (see  Figure  8  for   list).  


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CONCLUSION:  AID,  EXECUTIVE  CONSTRAINTS  &  HEALTH  OUTCOMES This  paper  takes  a  time-­‐series  cross-­‐section  approach  to  estimate  the  ability   ‘ˆ‡š‡…—–‹˜‡…‘•–”ƒ‹–•–‘‡‹–Š‡”‡š’ƒ†‘”…‘•–”ƒ‹–Š‡‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••‘ˆˆ‘”‡‹‰ƒ‹† ‘ Š‡ƒŽ–Š ‘—–…‘‡• ‹ —„ǦƒŠƒ”ƒ ˆ”‹…ƒǤ Ž–Š‘—‰Š –Š‡”‡ ‹• ƒ •‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ– ‡ơ‡…–ǡ it   is  an  average  of   the  data  across  a   heterogeneous  set  of  countries.   In  an  attempt   to  account  for  heterogeneity,  and  particularly  temporal  dependencies  in  the  data,  I   divided  the  analysis  across  one  health  aid  comparison  period  (1990-­‐2008)  and  four   historical   sub-­‐periods.   I   also   considered   other   potential   confounds   (climate   and   …‘Ž‘‹ƒŽŠ‹•–‘”›Ȍǡ„—–‰‡‡”ƒŽŽ›ˆ‘—†–Š‡–‘„‡‹•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–ƒ††‹†‘–‹…Ž—†‡ –Š‡ ”‡•—Ž–• ‹ –Š‹• ’ƒ’‡”Ǥ Š‡ ƒƒŽ›•‹• ’”‡•‡–• –™‘ •‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ– Ƥ†‹‰•ǣ ͝Ȍ Š‡ƒŽ–Š •‡…–‘”•’‡…‹Ƥ…ƒ‹†‹•‘”‡‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡–Šƒ‘˜‡”ƒŽŽƒ‹†ƒ–‹’”‘˜‹‰Š‡ƒŽ–Š‘—–…‘‡•ǡ ƒ†͞Ȍ‡š‡…—–‹˜‡…‘•–”ƒ‹–•‡š’ƒ†–Š‡‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••‘ˆƒ‹†Ǥ

 –Š‡ ‘˜‡”ƒŽŽ ’‡”‹‘† ȋͥ͢͜͝Ǧͥ͜͜͞Ȍǡ ‡–  ‹• ‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡ ƒ– „‘–Š ”‡†—…‹‰ child  mortality  and  increasing  life  expectancy.  However,  this  relationship  becomes   ‹•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–™Š‡–‡’‘”ƒŽ†‡’‡†‡…‹‡•ƒ”‡ƒ……‘—–‡†ˆ‘”Ǥ –Š‡Ƥ˜‡•—„Ǧ’‡”‹‘†• ‘ˆ–Š‡ƒƒŽ›•‹•ǡ‡–‹••‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–Ž›‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡ƒ–”‡†—…‹‰…Š‹Ž†‘”–ƒŽ‹–›‘Ž›‹ –Š‡‘Ž†ƒ”‡”ƒȋͥͣ͢͝Ǧͥͤͥ͝ȌǤ‹‹Žƒ”Ž›ǡ‡–‹••‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–Ž›‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡ƒ–‹…”‡ƒ•‹‰ life  expectancy  only   in   the   post-­‐colonial  era   (1960-­‐1975).   Ultimately,   net   ODA   has   Ž‹––Ž‡ †‡‘•–”ƒ„Ž‡ ‡ơ‡…– ‘ Š‡ƒŽ–Š ‘—–…‘‡•ǡ –Š‘—‰Š ™Š‡ ‹– †‘‡• ‹– ‹• ’‘•‹–‹˜‡Ǥ Ž‹‡‡–ǡŠ‡ƒŽ–Š‹•˜‡”›‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡ƒ–„‘–Š”‡†—…‹‰…Š‹Ž†‘”–ƒŽ‹–›ƒ† increasing   life   expectancy   in   the   1990-­‐2008   sub-­‐period.   Perhaps   as   health   aid   is   directed   towards   particular   initiatives,   it   “may   be   less   fungible   than   overall   aid,”54   and   thus  less  susceptible   to  neopatrimonialism.  However,   the   relationship  between   ‡š‡…—–‹˜‡…‘•–”ƒ‹–•ƒ†Š‡ƒŽ–Šƒ‹†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••‹•‹•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–ǤŠ‹•”‡•—Ž–”‡“—‹”‡• further  investigation.  Furthermore,  ƒ•–Š‡†ƒ–ƒˆ‘”Š‡ƒŽ–Š•‡…–‘”•’‡…‹Ƥ…ƒ‹†‹•Ž‹‹–‡† –‘–Š‹•’‡”‹‘†ǡ‹–•‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••…ƒ‘–„‡…‘’ƒ”‡†ƒ…”‘••Š‹•–‘”‹…ƒŽ‡”ƒ•Ǥ Š‡ ‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘ ‡ơ‡…– ȋ–Š‡ †‡‰”‡‡ –‘ ™Š‹…Š ‡š‡…—–‹˜‡ …‘•–”ƒ‹–• ‡‹–Š‡” ‡š’ƒ†‘”…‘•–”ƒ‹–Š‡‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••‘ˆƒ‹†Ȍ‹•‘Ž›•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–‹–Š‡•—„Ǧ’‡”‹‘†•ǡ –Š‘—‰Š ‹– ‹• •‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ– ‹ ‡ƒ”Ž›ƒŽŽ‘ˆ –Š‡ ȋ‡š…‡’– ˆ‘” ‡– ‡ƒŽ–Š ƒ† Ž‹ˆ‡ 54  

 Mishra  and  Newhouse,  “Health  Aid  and  Infant  Mortality,”  27.


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expectancy  in  1990-­‐2008,  and  net  ODA  and  child  mortality  in  the  millennium  era   ͜͜͜͞Ǧͥ͜͜͞ȌǤ’ƒ”–ˆ”‘–Š‡”‡•–”ƒ‹‹‰‡ơ‡…–‘ˆ‡š‡…—–‹˜‡…‘•–”ƒ‹–•‘Š‡ƒŽ–Š in  reducing   child  mortality  in  the  1990-­‐2008  sub-­‐period,  they   generally   expand  the   ‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••‘ˆƒ–‹’”‘˜‹‰Š‡ƒŽ–Š‘—–…‘‡•ǤŠ‹•…‘Ƥ”•›Š›’‘–Š‡•‹•ǣƒ• ‡š‡…—–‹˜‡…‘•–”ƒ‹–•‹…”‡ƒ•‡ǡƒ‹†„‡…‘‡•��”‡‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡ȋŠ‡ƒŽ–Š‹†‹…ƒ–‘”•‹’”‘˜‡ ƒ–ƒ‰”‡ƒ–‡””ƒ–‡ȌǤ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ–Š‡…‘‡ƥ…‹‡–‘ˆ–Š‹•”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’†‡…”‡ƒ•‡•‘˜‡”–‹‡ǣ –Š‡‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘‡ơ‡…–‹•‰”‡ƒ–‡”‹–Š‡’‘•–Ǧ…‘Ž‘‹ƒŽ‡”ƒ–Šƒ‹–Š‡‹ŽŽ‡‹—‡”ƒǡ ™Š‡”‡‹–‹••‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–Ž›™‡ƒ‡‡†ȋ–‘–Š‡’‘‹–‘ˆ‹•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ…‡ˆ‘”…Š‹Ž†‘”–ƒŽ‹–›ȌǤ ‡’‘••‹„Ž‡‡š’Žƒƒ–‹‘‹•–Šƒ––Š‡•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–‰ƒ‹•‘ˆˆ‘”‡‹‰ƒ‹†ƒ”‡ƒ––Š‡‘—–•‡– (health  outcomes   improve  at  a  greater   rate   in   the  earlier   periods   than   in   the   later   periods). Š‡–‡’‘”ƒŽ‡ơ‡…–‘–Š‡†ƒ–ƒ™ƒ•ˆ‘—†–‘„‡•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–ǡŠ‘™‡˜‡”‹–†‘‡• not  account  for  all  potential  confounds.  It  does  not  account  for  the  cross-­‐sectional   †‹ơ‡”‡…‡•‹–Š‡†ƒ–ƒ‹’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”Ǥ•–Š‡”‡‹••‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘‹„‘–Š‡š‡…—–‹˜‡ constraints  and  aid  amongst  countries  in  a  given  year  or  period,  the  results  of  this   ƒƒŽ›•‹•Ƥ†‹‰•ƒ›„‡‹ƪ—‡…‡†„›ƒ”–‹Ƥ…‹ƒŽ‡ơ‡…–•‹–Š‡†ƒ–ƒȋ’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”Ž›‹–Š‡ ͥͤ͜͝Ǧ͜͜͜͞’‡”‹‘†™Š‡”‡˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‹‘‹••‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–ȌǤŠ‹•‘†‡Ž”‡“—‹”‡•ˆ—”–Š‡”ƒƒŽ›•‹• –Šƒ–‹…Ž—†‡•…‘—–”›ǦƤš‡†‡ơ‡…–•‘”‘–Š‡”‡–Š‘†•–Šƒ–ƒ……‘—–ˆ‘”…”‘••Ǧ•‡…–‹‘ƒŽ as  well  as  temporal  variation.   This  paper  should  be  considered,  along  with   the  new  but  growing  literature   ‘ˆƒ…”‘ǦŽ‡˜‡Ž•–—†‹‡•‘ƒ‹†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••ƒ†Š‡ƒŽ–Š‘—–…‘‡•ǡƒ•ƒˆ”ƒ‡™‘”ˆ‘” analysis  at  the  country   level.  The  relationship   between  political   institutions  and  aid   ‹•„—–‘‡’‹‡…‡‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ‹†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••’—œœŽ‡ǣ™Šƒ–ƒ…”‘Ǧƒ†‹…”‘ǦŽ‡˜‡Žˆƒ…–‘”• †‡–‡”‹‡ƒ‹†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••ǫŠ‹•ƒƒŽ›•‹•’‘‹–•–‘ƒ˜ƒ”‹ƒ„Ž‡ǡ‡š‡…—–‹˜‡…‘•–”ƒ‹–•ǡ –Šƒ–ƒ’’‡ƒ”•–‘Šƒ˜‡ƒ•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–‹’ƒ…–‘™Š‡–Š‡”‘”‘–•–ƒ–‡•—•‡ƒ‹†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡Ž›Ǥ This  variable  should  be  considered  in  case  studies  and  micro-­‐level  analyses  on  aid   ‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••Ǥ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ ƒ ‘”‡ ”‘„—•– ƒƒŽ›•‹• ‘ˆ –Š‹• ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ ‹• ”‡“—‹”‡†ǡ ‹ particular  one   that  addresses   the  cross-­‐sectional  variance  in   the  data.  Furthermore,   as  each   recipient  country   has  a   unique  experience  with  aid,   studies  of   this   nature   •Š‘—Ž†•‡”˜‡ƒ•ƒˆ”ƒ‡™‘”ˆ‘”…‘—–”›Ǧ•’‡…‹Ƥ…ƒƒŽ›•‡•‘ˆƒ‹†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡‡••ǡƒ† potentially  inform  the  aid  policies  of  donor  countries,  international  institutions,  or   non-­‐state  actors  of  the  international  community.


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Living in a Computer Graveyard AN  A NTHROPOLOGICAL  A NALYSIS  O F  T HE  COMMUNITY  A ND   ECONOMY  O F  AGBOGBLOSHIE,  ACCRA,  G HANA Kate  Beck

Agbogbloshie  is  an  area  on  the  outskirts  of  Ghana’s  capital  city   Accra.  Since   the  mid-­‐1990s,  its  economy  has  rapidly  transformed  from  an  agricultural  marketplace   into  one  of  the  world’s  largest  “e-­‐waste”  dumping  sites,  specializing  in  the  collection,   recycling,   marketing   and   disposal   of   scrap   precious   metals   and   used   hard   drives.   This  informal  scrap-­‐dealing  economy  is   fueled  by  industrialized  countries  shipping   used   electronics   to   Ghana   to   be   recycled,   disposed   of,   or   as   “donations”   intended   to  bridge  the  technological  divide.1  International  media,  environmental  groups,  and   NGOs  have  depicted  Agbogbloshie  as  a  slum  causing  severe,  irreversible  harm  to  the   environment   and   the   health   of   the   local   population,   while   Western   governments   have   focused  on   the  potential  security   threats  of  shipping  unformatted  used   hard   †”‹˜‡•‘ơ•Š‘”‡Ǥ‘‹–‹‰ƒ–‡–Š‡•‡”‹••ǡ–Š‡‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ…‘—‹–›Šƒ•ƒ†˜‘…ƒ–‡† for  the  reduction  or  complete  discontinuation  of  e-­‐waste  exports  to  Ghana. My  aim  in  this  paper  is  two-­‐fold.  First,  I  will  situate  the  informal  micro-­‐level   economy   in  Agbobloshie  within  a   macro-­‐level  context   by  focusing  on  the  colonial   Ž‡‰ƒ…› ‘ˆ †‡’‡†‡…›ǡ ‡…‘‘‹… ‹•ƒƒ‰‡‡–ǡ ƒ† –Š‡ ‹ƪ—‡…‡• ‘ˆ ‰Ž‘„ƒŽ markets   and   the   international   community.   At   the   micro-­‐level,   I   will   draw   on   the   extensive  research  of   Martin   Oteng-­‐Ababio  to  examine  the  site’s  role  as  an   informal   economy  as  well  as  a  cultural  base  where  people  live,  work,  and  interact  with  each   ‘–Š‡”Ǥ Š‡ ‡Ǧ™ƒ•–‡ ‹†—•–”› ‘ơ‡”• ‡’Ž‘›‡– ƒ† •‡…—”‹–› ˆ‘” –Š‘—•ƒ†• ‘ˆ –Š‡ …‘—–”›ǯ•’‘‘”‡•–ǡ„—––Š‡•‡‡…‘‘‹…‘’’‘”–—‹–‹‡•ƒ”‡‘ơ•‡–„›–Š‡’”‡…ƒ”‹‘—•‡•• of  employment  and  industry-­‐related  health  and  safety  risks.    At  a  macro-­‐level  these   risks  are   shown   to   be  exacerbated   by   poor  domestic   regulations  and  an  economic   disincentive   to   enforce   the   existing   UN   Basel   Convention   among   importing   and   1  

   In  reality,  most  donated  computers  are  usable  for  an  average  of  three  years  before  breaking  and  becoming  e-­‐waste  themselves,  while  over  40%

                                                   of  donated  computers  are  nonfunctional  upon  arrival.  


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exporting   nations   alike.   Once   these   tensions   are   established,   I   aim   to   show   how   a   synthesis   of   micro-­‐level   and   macro-­‐level   considerations   supports   a   third   policy  option  that  neither  halts  the  global  e-­‐waste  trade  nor  upholds  the  laissez-­‐ faire  status  quo.  If  regional,  domestic,  and  international  bodies  work  together  to   formalize  and  thus  legitimize  the  global  e-­‐waste  trade  through  regulatory  policy,   the  industry  might  reach  its  true  potential,  as  a  promise  of  economic  development   and  secure  livelihoods  in  Agbogbloshie  and  all  of  Ghana.

 –Š‡ Ƥ”•– •‡…–‹‘ ‘ˆ –Š‹• ’ƒ’‡”ǡ  ‡šƒ‹‡ –Š‡ Š‹•–‘”‹…ƒŽ ’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ ƒ† economic   factors   that   have   led   to   the   emergence   of   the   Agbogbloshie   e-­‐waste   recycling   industry  and   informal  settlement.   In  the  second  section,   I  discuss  the   development  of   Agbogbloshie’s   informal  e-­‐waste  economy   in   the  context  of   the   ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ‡…‘‘›ǡƒ†–Š‡‡’Ž‘›‡–‘’’‘”–—‹–‹‡•‹–‘ơ‡”•……”ƒǯ•’‘‘”‡•– ’‡‘’Ž‡Ǥ –Š‡ƤƒŽ•‡…–‹‘ǡ Š‘‡‹‘–Š‡‹ˆ‘”ƒŽ‡…‘‘›‹‰„‘‰„Ž‘•Š‹‡ to  reveal  tensions  between  the  promises  and  threats  of  the  industry,  including  the   contradictions  between  local  and  outsider   perceptions  of  its  value  as  an  informal   community,   as   well   as  its  role  in  the  international  sphere.  Ultimately,  I   argue  the   ‹…”‘ǦŽ‡˜‡Ž‡…‘‘‹…„‡‡Ƥ–•ˆ‘”™‘”‡”•ƒ†–Š‡…‘—‹–›—•–„‡•‡”‹‘—•Ž› considered  at  both  a  domestic  and  international  policy  level.  Rather  than  condemn   Agbobloshie   outright,   the   international   community   should   recognize   the   site’s   role  as  a  local,  community  and  cultural  base,  as  well  as  its  potential   to  contribute   positively   to   economic   development   in   Ghana.   The   international   community   should   also   encourage   the   Ghanaian   government   to   integrate   the   e-­‐waste   trade   ‹–‘‹–•ˆ‘”ƒŽ‡…‘‘›•‘’”‘Ƥ–•…ƒ„‡‰‹–‘„‡‡Ƥ––Š‡™‹†‡”…‘—‹–›ƒ† worker  safety  standards  can  be  enforced.  

FACTORS  CONTRIBUTING  TO  THE  DEVELOPMENT  OF  THE  E-­WASTE   RECYCLING  INDUSTRY  IN  AGBOGBLOSHIE

Globalization   and   foreign   intervention   are   not   new   in   Ghana.   The   region   where   Ghana   is   located   today   was   declared   the   Gold   Coast   by   British   colonizers  in  1844.  By  1900,  Britain  had  begun  to  develop  a  lucrative  economy  in   the   Gold   Coast,  focused   mainly  on  the  export  of  cocoa  and  gold.  This  resource-­‐


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based   economy   enabled   Britain   to   establish   colonial   institutions   and   cities   in   the   colonyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   resource-­â&#x20AC;?rich   southern   region.   Northern   Ghana,   which   is   in   the   Savanna   Belt   and   relatively   resource-­â&#x20AC;?poor,   received   no   socio-­â&#x20AC;?economic   assistance   from   the   British,   while  Southern  Ghana  became  Britainâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  â&#x20AC;&#x153;model   colony.â&#x20AC;?2  In  this  period,  the   British  established  Accra  as  the  capital  city  of  the  colony,  and   located   most  of  the   socio-­â&#x20AC;?economic  structures  and  government  institutions   there.  Today,  Accra  Greater   Metropolitan  Area  has  a  population  of  four  million  and  remains  the  nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  economic   and  political  hub.

Â? Í?ÍĽÍĄÍŁ Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x192; Â&#x201E;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2021; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; ƤÂ&#x201D;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013; Â&#x2C6;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2026;Â&#x192;Â? Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x201D;Â&#x203A; Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018; Â&#x2030;Â&#x192;Â&#x2039;Â? Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2026;Â&#x2021;Ǣ however,   many   of   the   legacies   of   British   colonialism   held   fast.   The   countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   economy  continued  to  rely  solely  on  the  export  of  raw  materials  and  the  import  of   Â?Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2014;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x192;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2014;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â? Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x2039;Â?Ǥ Â&#x2122;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2021; Â?Â&#x201D;Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x160;ÇĄ Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x192;ÇŻÂ&#x2022;ƤÂ&#x201D;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2018;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2026;Â&#x192;Â&#x17D; Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x192;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;ÇĄ focused  on   increasing   internal   industrial  production,  reducing  reliance  on  foreign   economies,  and  developing  social   programs  and  infrastructure  in  northern  Ghana.3   These   economic   and   social   development   initiatives   greatly   increased   the   national   debt,   however,   causing   the   economy   to   decline   into   recession.   Ghanaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   economic   downturn  during  the  1960s  featured  a  45  percent  decrease  in  minimum  wage,  a  46   Â&#x2019;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x2018;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2019;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?ÇĄÂ&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â?ĆŞÂ&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x201D;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x192;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020;ÍĄÍ&#x153;ÇŚÍ?Í?ÍŁÂ&#x2019;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013; annually4.     Economic   prosperity   and   living   standards   in   Ghana   fell   dramatically   during  the  same  period,  particularly  among  the  countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  poor,  rural  population. This  historical  background  of  colonial  dependency  and  post-��­â&#x20AC;?colonial  economic   mismanagement  has  inhibited  the  emergence  of  viable  economic  infrastructure  in   Ghana.  As  a  result,  Ghanaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  economy  has  relied  heavily  on  high  levels  of  consumption   from  developed  countries  ever  since   British  colonization,  and  this  trend   has  carried   through   to   its   export-­â&#x20AC;?centered   role   in   the   international   economy   today.   Ghana   once  provided  resources  for  developed   nations  and  today   it   manages  the  waste  they   produce.  Throughout  its  history  and  into  the  present,  Ghanaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  economy  has  centered   2  

 Kwadwo  Konadu-­â&#x20AC;?Agyemang,  â&#x20AC;&#x153;The  Best  of  Times  and  the  Worst  of  Times:  Structural  adjustment  programs  and  uneven  development  in  Africa,              

                                                   the  case  of  Ghana,â&#x20AC;?  Professional  Geographer  52  (2000):  469-­â&#x20AC;?483,  475.

3  

 Ibid.,  475.

4  

 â&#x20AC;&#x153;Ghana  â&#x20AC;&#x201C;  The  Economy,  Historical  Background,â&#x20AC;?  United  States  Library  of  Congress  Country  Studies,  http://countrystudies.us/ghana/63.html.


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on  supporting   the  economic  growth  of  wealthy  states  in   the  global  economic  “core”   at  the  expense  of  its  own  development. Structural   adjustment   policies   (SAPs)   introduced   by   the   World   Bank   and   International   Monetary   Fund   (IMF)   to   address   Ghana’s   economic   crisis   in   1983   weakened   the   Ghanaian   economy   and   social   safety   net   even   further.   While   there   ™‡”‡•‘‡’‘•‹–‹˜‡‘—–…‘‡•ˆ”‘–Š‡•ǡ•—…Šƒ•”‡†—…‡†‹ƪƒ–‹‘ƒ†ƒ‘”‡ •–ƒ„Ž‡ ‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ „ƒ•‡ǡ –Š‡ ’‘Ž‹…‹‡• ‡ơ‡…–• were   overwhelmingly   negative.   Ghana’s   debt   increased   by   nearly   US$4.5   billion   within   10   years,   and   the   ensuing   currency   crash   priced   most   businesses   and   individuals   out   of   the   market   for   needed   imports,   from   medication   to   machinery,   and   other   important   supplies.5   The  consequences  of  the  SAPs  were  felt  most   acutely   in   Ghana’s   northern   provinces,   the   region   with   the   highest   levels   of   poverty,   lowest  accessibility  to  healthcare,  and  highest   unemployment   rates.6   Cuts   to   agriculture   subsidies   and   government-­‐funded   social  

Ghana’’s  historical   colonial  dependency   and  post-­colonial   economic   mismanagement   has  inhibited  the   emergence  of   viable  economic   infrastructure.

programs   in   northern   Ghana   caused   rapid   north-­‐south   migration   in   search   of   new   livelihoods. Together,  these  conditions  fostered  the  development  of  a  large  and  lucrative   informal   urban  economy   in   Accra.   The   Ghana   E-­‐Waste   Assessment  written   under   the  auspices  of  the  United  Nations’s  Basel  Convention  lists  “migration  from  northern   Ghana  as  a  result  of   few   income  opportunities”  as  one  of   the   four   main   factors  of   population   growth   in   Agbogbloshie.7.   Northern   migrants   have   not   only   moved   to   Agbogbloshie  because  of  its  relatively  inexpensive  informal  living  accommodations,   but  have  also  begun  participating  in  the  e-­‐waste  economy  in  Agbogbloshie  as  a  means   5  

 Konadu-­‐Agyemang,  “The  Best  of  Times  and  the  Worst  of  Times,”  475.

6  

 Ibid.,  475-­‐477.

7  

ƒ™‘›ƒ™Ǧ•‡‹‡–ƒŽǤǡ ŠƒƒǦ™ƒ•–‡‘—–”›••‡••‡–ǡ‡Ǧƒ•–‡ˆ”‹…ƒ”‘Œ‡…–ȋƒ”…Š͜͞͝͝ȌǡŠ––’ǣȀȀ‡™ƒ•–‡‰—‹†‡Ǥ‹ˆ‘ȀƤŽ‡•Ȁ

                                                   Amoyaw-­‐    Osei_2011_GreenAd-­‐Empa.pdf.,  3.


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33

of  surviving  in  the  urban  environment.8  Today,  56  percent  of  the  population  works   in  “survival”  industries,  informal   work  that  provides   only  the  basic  necessities  for   a   person’s  survival.  This  is  believed  to  be  largely  due   to   the   policies   prescribed  by   the   World  Bank  and  the  IMF  almost  30  years  ago.9   While   the   SAPs   created   favourable   conditions   for   the   development   and   growth   of   the   informal   e-­‐waste   economy   in   Agbobloshie,   direct   American,   European   and   UN   policies   precipitated   and   then   perpetuated   it.   In   the   1980s,   –Š‡  ƒ† —”‘’‡ –ƒ”‰‡–‡† ˆ”‹…ƒ …‘—–”‹‡• ˆ‘” –‘š‹… ™ƒ•–‡ †‹•’‘•ƒŽǡ ‘ơ‡”‹‰ •‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ– Ƥƒ…‹ƒŽ ‹…‡–‹˜‡• –‘ ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ‰‘˜‡”‡–• ˆ‘” ’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–‹‘ ‹ ™ƒ•–‡ import   programs.10   By   1989,   the   majority  of   UN   member   states  adopted   the   Basel   Convention,  which  restricted   and  regulated  the  trans-­‐boundary  trade   of  hazardous   waste.  This  convention  has  been  expanded  in  recent   years  to  include  e-­‐waste.11  The   Basel  Convention  has  however  failed  to  adequately  address  the  global  e-­‐waste  trade.   Many   African   countries,   including   Ghana,   have   resumed   their   peripheral   roles   as   ‡†Ǧ‘ˆǦ–Š‡ǦŽ‹‡‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ™ƒ•–‡†‹•’‘•‡”•™‹–Š‘—–•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–‡…‘‘‹…‰”‘™–Š or   development.12   Domestic   Ghanaian   policy   has   further   encouraged   the   industry   by  leaving  it  unregulated.  Currently,  the  Ghanaian  government  has  not  attempted  to   tax  or  restrict  e-­‐waste  imports.13  The  free  and  unrestricted  importation  of  computers   is  a  government  initiative  aiming  to  “decrease  the  technological  divide”  and  increase   the  availability  of  computers  to  the  Ghanaian  population.14  Out  of  the  estimated  280   000  tons  of  used  technology  delivered  to  Ghana  annually,  approximately  60  percent   is   repaired   and   sold   in   second-­‐hand   markets   and   40   percent   enters   the   recycling   industry  through  informal  collectors.15  Those  devices  that  are  repaired  and  sold  have   8  

 Richard  Grant  and  Martin  Oteng-­‐Ababio,  “Mapping  the  Invisible  and  Real  ‘African’  Economy:  Urban  E-­‐waste  Circuitry,”  Urban  Geography

                                                   33,  no.  1  (2012):  1-­‐21,  16

9  

 Martin  Oteng-­‐Ababio,  “When  Necessity  Begets  Ingenuity:  E-­‐Waste  Scavenging  as  a  Livelihood  Strategy  in  Accra,  Ghana,”  African  Studies  

                                                 Quarterly  13,  no.  1  (2012):  1-­‐21,  2.

10  

 Dharam  Vir,  Education  and  Polity  in  Nepal:  An  Asian  experiment  (Northern  Book  Centre,  1988),  23.

11  

 “Overview  of  Basel  Convention,”  UN  Basel  Convention,  http://www.basel.int/TheConvention/Overview/tabid/1271/Default.aspx.

12  

 Ibid.

13  

 Amoyaw-­‐Osei  et  al.,  Ghana  E-­‐waste  Country  Assessment,  2.

14  

 Ibid.,  2.

15  

 Ibid.,  1.  


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very  short  lifespans,  with  most  ending  up  in  the  e-­‐waste  circuit  within  three  years.  This   policy  does,  however,  serve  to  justify  non-­‐interference  by  the  Ghanaian  government,   meaning  they  are  not  obligated  to  tax  or  regulate  shipments  and  dumping  of  e-­‐waste   by  more  developed  nations.  It  can  be  concluded  that  this  policy  has  not  increased  the   —•‡‘ˆ–‡…Š‘Ž‘‰›‹ Šƒƒ‹ƒ„—•‹‡••‡•ǡ‹•–‹–—–‹‘•‘”Š‘—•‡Š‘Ž†•Ǣ”ƒ–Š‡”ǡ‹–Šƒ• perpetuated  the  country’s  historic  peripheral  role  in  the  international  economy,  and   initiated  the  rapid  growth  of  the  e-­‐waste  economy  in  Accra’s  largest  slum.

  THE  INTERNATIONAL  NATURE  OF  AGBOGBLOSHIE’’S  INFORMAL   ECONOMY  AND  ITS  IMPACT  ON  THE  COMMUNITY     Strict   regulations   on   the   disposal   of   hazardous   waste   have   lead   North   American   and   European   countries   to   look   beyond   their   borders   to   dispose   of   or   “donate”   used   computers   and   technology.   The   EU   Waste   Electric   Equipment   ‹”‡…–‹˜‡ǡˆ‘”‹•–ƒ…‡ǡ‘Ž›ƒŽŽ‘™•‡Ǧ™ƒ•–‡†‹•’‘•ƒŽ•›•–‡•–‘„‡•‡–—’ƒ†Ƥƒ…‡† by  technological  producers.16.  In  the  US  it  costs  approximately  $500  to  recycle  one  ton   ‘ˆ‡Ǧ™ƒ•–‡ǡ„—–‹–‘Ž›…‘•–•͊͜͠–‘†‹•’‘•‡‘ˆ–Š‡•ƒ‡“—ƒ–‹–›‘ˆ‡Ǧ™ƒ•–‡‹ƒŽƒ†ƤŽŽǤ Because   the  US  has  implemented  laws   that  ban   the  disposal  of  e-­‐waste  in  domestic   Žƒ†ƤŽŽ•ǡ ‡Ǧ™ƒ•–‡ ‹•–‡ƒ† ‰‡–• •Š‹’’‡† –‘ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‹‰ …‘—–”‹‡• ™Š‡”‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ–‹‘ is   free  and  unregulated.17  The  Basel  Convention  states  that  this  is  a   form  of  NIMBY-­‐ ism  (“Not  in  my  backyard”),  meaning  core  states  choose   to  ship  waste   to  peripheral   states  with  fewer  environmentally-­‐  and  socially-­‐conscious   restrictions  on  disposal.18   Because  of  Ghana’s  unregulated  import  regime  for  used  electronics,  the  peripheral   country  imports  hundreds  of  thousands  of  tons  of  e-­‐waste  annually.  Although  the   Ghanaian  government  signed  on  to  the   Basel   Convention   in   2005,   it   has   not   been   fully   incorporated   into   legislation.   Government   has   in   fact   moved   in   the  opposite   direction   by   increasing  the   imported  electronics  through  the   One   Laptop  per   Child   and  the  One  Laptop  per  Household  projects  established  in  2009.19   16  

 Marin  Oteng-­‐Ababio,  “E-­‐waste:  an  emerging  challenge  to  Solid  Waste  Management  in  Ghana,”  International  Development  Planning  Review  32,

                                                   no.  2  (2010):  191-­‐206,  191.

17  

 Ibid.,  196.

18  

 “Overview  of  the  Basel  Convention.”  

19  

‘›ƒ™Ǧ•‡‹‡–ƒŽǤǡ ŠƒƒǦ™ƒ•–‡‘—–”›••‡••‡–ǡ͞Ǣ–‡‰Ǧ„ƒ„‹‘ǡDzŠ‡‡…‡••‹–›‡‰‡–• ‰‡—‹–›ǡdz͢Ǥ


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As  a  result,  Agbogbloshie   has  established  as  an   informal   local  economy  that   provides  livelihoods  for  thousands  of  Accra’s  most  impoverished  people.  The  e-­‐waste   industry  in  Agbogbloshie  is  a  key  sector  of  Accra’s  economy.  It  generates  $105  -­‐  $268   million  annually,  directly  employs   4   500   -­‐   6   000  people,  and   indirectly  supports  the   livelihoods  of  300  000  people  nationwide.20  The  site  has  also  acquired  a  worldwide   reputation   for   having  a   high  degree  of   local  expertise   in  extracting,  recycling,  and   installing  e-­‐waste  scraps.  For  this  reason,  I  have  chosen  to  examine  Agbogbloshie  not   as  a  dump,  but  as  a  recycling  site  in  the  international  commodity  chain,  which  has  the   potential  to  become  a  location  for  innovative  and  sustainable  e-­‐waste  management.   This  perspective  builds  on  to  the  analysis  of  researcher  Martin  Oteng-­‐Ababio,  who   has  written  numerous  papers  about  Agbogbloshie  that  are  referenced  throughout  my   analysis.   Previously   in   Accra,   waste   collecting   was   a   stigmatized   occupation.   Waste   collectors   were   called   Kaya   Bola,   which   is   derogatory   slang   implying   low   rank   in   society.21  Today,  the  waste-­‐collection  industry  is  no  longer  limited  to  the  marginalized   ’‘‘”Ǣ”ƒ–Š‡”ǡ Šƒƒ‹ƒ•‘ˆƒŽŽ„ƒ…‰”‘—†•‘™’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–‡‹–Š‡‹†—•–”›–‘ƒ‡ ends  meet.22  The  economy  is  composed  of  young,  male  full-­‐time  collectors  and  scrap   dealers,  and  a  small  number  of  schoolchildren  who  collect  part-­‐time  to  provide  an   additional  income  for  their  families.  While  some  women  work  directly  in  the  e-­‐waste   industry,  most   participate  by   providing  complementary  goods  and  services  for  sale,   such  as  tools,  food,  and  water.23 Agbogbloshie   workers   are   organized   in   a   hierarchy   of   scrap   collectors,   refurbishers,  middlemen,  and  scrap  dealers.  A  scrap  collector’s  role  is  to  sort  through   e-­‐waste,  dismantling  pieces  by  hand  or  with  rudimentary  tools,  in  search  of  recyclable   parts  or  precious  metals.  Scrap  collectors  are  considered  the  lowest  in  the  economic   hierarchy,   but   are   able   to   gain   higher   earnings   and   stronger   bargaining   positions   „›•’‡…‹ƒŽ‹œ‹‰‹…‘ŽŽ‡…–‹‰ƒ…‡”–ƒ‹‹–‡ǡ•—…Šƒ•Žƒ’–‘’•‘”•’‡…‹Ƥ……‘’—–‡”

20  

 Ibid.,  6-­‐7.

21  

 Grant  and  Oteng-­‐Ababio,  “Mapping  the  Invisible  and  Real  ‘African’  Economy,”  4.

22  

 Oteng-­‐Ababio,  “When  Necessity  Begets  Ingenuity,”  3.

23  

 Ibid.,  7.


36

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parts.24  The  middlemen  buy  recyclables  from  collectors,  and   then  sell   them   to  local   or   foreign   scrap   dealers.   These   individuals   have   well-­‐formed   connections   in   scrap   collecting  and  scrap-­‐dealing  circles,  allowing  them  to  buy  high-­‐quality,  low-­‐priced   ‰‘‘†•ƒ†•‡ŽŽ–Š‡ˆ‘”Žƒ”‰‡’”‘Ƥ–•Ǥ25 Many  scrap  dealers  reprimand  middlemen  for  exploiting  both  the  collectors   and  the  dealers.  The  scrap  dealers,  however,  are  at  the  top  of  the  hierarchy  and  earn   –Š‡‘•–’”‘Ƥ–‹–Š‡‡…‘‘›ȋ…Ž‘•‡–‘͊͜͡ƒ†ƒ›ȌǤŠ‡›„—›•…”ƒ’•ˆ”‘‹††Ž‡‡ –Š‡•‡ŽŽ–Š‡–‘”‡Ƥ‡”›‹†—•–”‹‡•Ž‹‡•–‡‡Ž’Žƒ–•ƒ†ƒŽ—‹—•‡Ž–‡”•ǡ‘”–‘ exporters.  Dealers  can  also  become  more  competitive  by  specializing  in  certain  types   ‘ˆƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡ‘”„›†‡˜‡Ž‘’‹‰–Š‡‹”‘™‹…”‘ǦƤ”•ǡ™Š‹…Š•‡ŽŽƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•‹Š‹‰Š‡” “—ƒ–‹–‹‡•Ǥ Š‹• Š‹‡”ƒ”…Š›ǡ Š‘™‡˜‡”ǡ ‹• ‰‡‡”ƒŽŽ› ‹ƪ‡š‹„Ž‡ ƒ† …Ž‘•‡†ǡ ƒ‹‰ ‹– †‹ƥ…—Ž––‘‘˜‡—’–Š‡‡…‘‘‹…Žƒ††‡”Ǥ26 Agbogbloshie’s  e-­‐waste  recycling  industry  is  built  on  the  key  principles  of  an   informal  economy.  These  include  a  lack  of  government  regulations  or  monitoring,   ƒ†–Š‡‡’Ž‘›‡–‘ˆ˜—Ž‡”ƒ„Ž‡‰”‘—’•™Š‘‘–Š‡”™‹•‡™‘—Ž†„‡—ƒ„Ž‡–‘Ƥ† work.27  As  the  e-­‐waste  industry  in  Agbogbloshie  has  grown,  the  recycling  community   has  established   formal  organizations   to   protect   the   industry’s  vulnerable  workers.   The  Ghana  Scrap  Dealers  Youth  Association  is  one  example.  Membership  provides   †‡ƒŽ‡”•™‹–Š’”‘–‡…–‹‘ˆ”‘ƒ”‡–ƪ—…–—ƒ–‹‘•ǡƒŽƒ”‰‡”•‘…‹ƒŽ‡–™‘”ƒ†•‘‡ Ƥƒ…‹ƒŽ•‡…—”‹–›–Š”‘—‰Š‹…”‘Ƥƒ…‡Ž‘ƒ•Ǥ28  The  association  has  2  000  members,   although   many   scrap   dealers   are   not   members.   Other   associations,   including   a   Repairers’  Association  (GESTA)  have  also  been  established  to  formally  organize  and   ‘ơ‡”•‡…—”‹–›ˆ‘”™‘”‡”•Ǥ Research  on  Agbogbloshie’s  recycling  economy  by  NGOs,  the  UN,  Ghanaian   government  organizations  and  universities  has  also  become  more  prevalent  in  recent   ›‡ƒ”•ǤŠ‹•”‡•‡ƒ”…ŠŠƒ•Ž‡†–‘–Š‡“—ƒ–‹Ƥ…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ…‡”–ƒ‹ƒ•’‡…–•‘ˆ–Š‡‡…‘‘›ǡ ‹…Ž—†‹‰ ‹–• ’”‘Ƥ–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›ǡ ‡’Ž‘›‡– Ƥ‰—”‡•ǡ ƒ†  ’‡”…‡–ƒ‰‡•ǡ ƒ† Šƒ• 24  

 Grant  and  Oteng-­‐Ababio,  “Mapping  the  Invisible  and  Real  ‘African’  Economy,”  15.

25  

 Ibid.,  15.

26  

 Ibid.,  13.

27  

 “Informal  economy,”  International  Labour  Organization,  http://www.ilo.org/global/topics/employment-­‐promotion/informal-­‐economy/lang-­‐

                                                   en/index.htm.

28  

 Grant  and  Oteng-­‐Ababio,  “Mapping  the  Invisible  and  Real  ‘African’  Economy,”  15.


LIVING IN A COMPUTER GRAVEYARD

37

ˆ‘”ƒŽŽ› ƒ’’‡† ‘—– –Š‡ ‡…‘‘‹… ƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡• ‘ˆ ‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽ• ƒ† Ƥ”•Ǥ Ž–Š‘—‰Š –Š‹•”‡•‡ƒ”…ŠŠƒ•ƒ––‡’–‡†–‘•Š‡†‘”‡Ž‹‰Š–‘–Š‡•…ƒŽ‡ƒ†•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ…‡‘ˆ–Š‡ ‡Ǧ™ƒ•–‡‡…‘‘›ǡ‹–—•–„‡‘–‡†–Šƒ–—…Š‘ˆ‹–•Ƥ†‹‰•Šƒ˜‡„‡‡Ž‹‹–‡†„› the   informality   of   the   occupation.   The   scrap   dealers,   middlemen   and   collectors   interviewed  were  only  able  to  verbally  estimate  their  daily  and  total  earnings,  and  the   ˆ—ŽŽ‡…‘‘‹…•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ…‡‡ƒ•—”‡†„› ƒ†‡’Ž‘›‡–Ƥ‰—”‡•…‘—Ž†‘Ž›„‡ estimated  due  to  the  lack  of  government  monitoring.  

  MICRO-­LEVEL  ANALYSIS  OF  THE  AGBOGBLOSHIE  NEIGHBOURHOOD   AND  ITS  INHABITANTS The   informal   economy’s   workers   have   also   become   inextricably   tied   to   national   and   international   formal   economies.   E-­‐waste   is   delivered   to   Accra’s   international  airport  or  seaport,   marking   Agbogbloshie  as   the  end-­‐of-­‐cycle  waste-­‐ management   center   in   the   international   computer   and   electronics   industry.29   29  

 Ibid.,  2.


38

BECK

Â&#x2021;Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2020;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â&#x17D;Â&#x17D;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x203A;Â&#x2026;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2019;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;ƤÂ?Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â? Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x192;ÇĄÂ&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x161;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018; Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;ƤÂ?Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x203A;Â&#x192;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x192;ǤÂ&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x203A;Â&#x2026;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2019;Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;ÇŚÂ&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â?Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x203A; chains  of  the  formal  economy  through  downstream  processors,  industries  that  use   these  recycled  parts  in  production.30  Because  the  Agbogbloshie  economy  is  relatively   new  and  rudimentary,  many  of  the  intensive  recycling  operations  must  be  performed   in   more  developed  e-­â&#x20AC;?waste  sites   in   China  or   India.  Wiring   boards  are   transported   to  informal  recycling  sites  in   either   of  these  two   countries,   while   cathode  ray  tubes   and  hazardous  waste  (including  batteries  and  backlights)  must  be  sent  to  specialized   recycling  facilities,  which  are  part  of  the  formal  economy.31  This  intricate  international   trade   network   ties   Agblogboshie   to   the   formal   global   economy,   complicating   its   informal  and  unregulated  local  status  and  implicating  the  international  community.

While  Agbogbloshieâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  e-­â&#x20AC;?waste  industry  has  rapidly  developed  into  a  lucrative   sector  that  connects  Accraâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  informal  economy  to  the  rest  of  the  world,  the  region   cannot  be   understood  simply  as  the  end  of  the  line  in  the  global  commodity  chain.   Agbogbloshie   must   also   be   recognized   as   a   neighbourhood,   which   has   developed   within  in  the  context  of  the  international  economy  and  provides  informal  settlements,   facilities,   and   rudimentary   resources   for   more   than   40   000   of   the   worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   most   impoverished  people.32Â&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â?Â?Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x203A;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x17D;Â&#x203A;Â&#x192;ĆĄÂ&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020; Â&#x201E;Â&#x203A;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x17D; e-­â&#x20AC;?waste   economy   both   positively   and   negatively:   by   earning   a   livelihood   from   it,   by  the  more  general  wealth  it  has  brought  to  the  community,  and  by  the  pollution   produced  by  the  recycling  operations.   For  Accraâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s  poor,  uneducated,  and  unemployed,  Agbogbloshie   has   become  a   living   community,   and  the   e-­â&#x20AC;?waste   economy  has  become  its  means   of  survival.   The   Â&#x2021;ÇŚÂ&#x2122;Â&#x192;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x203A; Â&#x2018;ĆĄÂ&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â?Â&#x2039;ƤÂ&#x2026;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2013; Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2019;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x203A;Â?Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013; Â&#x2018;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018; Â&#x2030;Â&#x201E;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2030;Â&#x201E;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2022;Â&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2021;ÇŻÂ&#x2022; destitute   population,   providing   incomes   that   are   higher   than   Ghanaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   formal   minimum   wage.   Workers   who   were   previously   unemployed   or   forced   to   migrate   30  

 Samuel  Agyei-­â&#x20AC;?Mensah  and  Martin  Oteng-­â&#x20AC;?Ababio,  â&#x20AC;&#x153;Perceptions  of  Health  and  Environmental  Impacts  of  E-­â&#x20AC;?Waste  Management  in  Ghana,â&#x20AC;?  

                                                   International  Journal  of  Environmental  Health  Research  22,  no.  6  (2012):  500-­â&#x20AC;?517,  504.

31  

 Amoyaw-­â&#x20AC;?Osei  et  al.,  Ghana  E-­â&#x20AC;?waste  Country  Assessment,  79.

32  

Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x160;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2039;Â?ÇĄDzÂ&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2014;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x192;Â&#x203A;Â&#x192;Â&#x203A;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2039;ÇŁÂ&#x2014;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2014;Â&#x201D;Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;ÇŚÂ&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;ĆĽÂ&#x2026;Â&#x2014;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x192;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x201E;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2030;Â&#x201E;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2022;Â&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2021;ÇĄÇł Â?Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x160;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022;

                                                   1,  no.  1  (2012):  11-­â&#x20AC;?17.


LIVING IN A COMPUTER GRAVEYARD

39

from  the  failing  agricultural  industries  in  Ghana’s  north  now  have  the  opportunity   –‘‡ƒ”•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–Ž›‘”‡–Šƒƒ…‹˜‹Ž•‡”˜ƒ–‹–Š‡…‘—–”›ȋ•…”ƒ’†‡ƒŽ‡”•…ƒ‡ƒ” $380-­‐460  per  month,   civil  servants   earn  $93  per  month).33  Children,   who   work  part   time  as  scrap  collectors,  can  potentially  provide  an  additional  $20  per ��month  to  their   family’s   income,  equivalent  to  two  weeks  rent   in  Agbogbloshie.34

American  and  European   laws  banning  e-­waste   DISPOSALÒINÒLANDµLLSÒ has  resulted  in  it  being   shipped  to  developing   countries  where   importation  is  free  and   unregulated.

Although   Ghana’s   position   in   the   international   commodity   chain   has   allowed   the  e-­‐waste  industry  to  generate  relatively  good   incomes  for  some  individuals,  work  and  life  in   Agbogbloshie   remains   precarious   for   most.   Interviews   with   e-­‐waste   workers   reveal   “the   economic   hardship   and   livelihood   fragility   of  this  industry.”35.  While  earnings   from  scrap   dealing   have   the   potential   to   be   very   high,   ‹ ”‡ƒŽ‹–› ’”‘Ƥ–• …ƒ ƪ—…–—ƒ–‡ •‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–Ž› for  all  actors   in   the  sector  due   to   the   lack  of   ‰‘˜‡”‡– ‘‹–‘”‹‰ǡ ƪ—…–—ƒ–‹‘• ‹ –Š‡

international   economy,   and   increased   local   competition.   The   informality   of   the   economy   means   there   is   little   job   security,   which   increases   the   precariousness   of   ‡Ǧ™ƒ•–‡™‘”ǤŠ‡ͤ͜͜͞‡…‘‘‹……”‹•‹•ǡˆ‘”‡šƒ’Ž‡ǡŠƒ•Šƒ†ƒ•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–”‡…‡••‹‘ƒ”› ‡ơ‡…– ‘ ‡Ǧ™ƒ•–‡ ”‡…›…Ž‹‰ ‹†—•–”‹‡•Ǥ ‡…ƒ—•‡ …‘•—’–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‡Ž‡…–”‘‹…• Šƒ• decreased,   waste   produced   from   the   replacement   of   electronics   has   decreased   as   well.  The  demand  and  prices  for  recycled  precious  metals  and  other  computer  parts   have   also  fallen.36Š‡‰Ž‘„ƒŽ‡…‘‘‹…”‡…‡••‹‘Šƒ•–Š—••‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–Ž›”‡†—…‡†–Š‡ incomes  and  job  security  of  the  members  of  the  Agbogbloshie  community.     This   peripheral   industry   within   the   international   economy   has   developed   within  the  most  peripheral  area  of  Accra.  Lack  of  government  funding  and  oversight   33  

 Ibid.,  9.

34  

 Ibid.,  12.

35  

 Grant  and  Otang-­‐Ababio.  “Mapping  the  Invisible  and  Real  ‘African’  Economy,”  9.

36  

 Meng  Xing,  “An  Investigation  of  the  Situation  of  E-­‐Waste  Recycling,”  Urban  Media  Networks  (2009),  6.


40

BECK

in   Agbogbloshie   means   poorly   built   high-­‐density   housing   and   unhygienic   sewage   systems  and  water  sources  continue   to   be   the   norm.  These   poor   living  conditions   have   resulted   in   increased   rates   of   illnesses,   such   as   malaria   and   gastro-­‐intestinal   diseases,   in   the   Agbogbloshie   community.37   Although   the   e-­‐waste   economy   has   been  able  to  provide  Agbogbloshie’s  population  with  improved  economic  means  to   establish  livelihoods,  prosperity  has  not  translated  into  the  development  of  improved   community  infrastructure.  Living  and  working  conditions  in  Agbogbloshie  therefore   remain  precarious,  perpetuating  the  cycle  of  poverty  and  underdevelopment  despite   opportunities  for  promising  individual  earnings.   International   and   local   contradictions   are   pronounced   in   the   analysis   of   health   risks   in   the   community.   International   media,   NGOs,   and   the   UN   Basel   Convention   have   made   the   health   risks   associated   with   e-­‐waste   recycling   a   major   policy   concern.   According   to   Greenpeace,   health   risks   include   “acute   damage   to   the   lungs   from   inhalation   of   fumes   of   heavy   metals,   […]   mental   retardation   in   case  of   lead  exposure,   […]  damage  to   blood  cells,  the   kidney,  and  predispositions  to   cancers.”38Ǥ—–™‘”‡”•ǯ’‡”…‡’–‹‘•‘ˆŠ‡ƒŽ–Š”‹••ƒ”‡•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–Ž›Ž‡••‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡–Šƒ the  international  community  purports.  All  respondents  in  a  survey  by  Samuel  Agyei-­‐ Mensah  and  Martin  Oteng-­‐Ababio  believed  that  working  in  the  e-­‐waste  industry  did   have  health  impacts,  but  the  biggest  health  impacts  were  “accident  induced”  injuries   (burning,   cuts,   scrapes,   etc).39   Within   the   Agbogbloshie   community,   youth   scrap   collectors  were  much  less  likely  to  recognize  the  potential  hazards  of  working  and   living  in  Agbogbloshie.  Men  in   the  e-­‐waste  industry  perceived  health  risks  as  being   Ž‡•• •‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ– …‘’ƒ”‡† –‘ –Š‡ ™‘‡ǯ• ’‡”…‡’–‹‘•ǡ ™Š‹…Š …ƒ „‡ ‡š’Žƒ‹‡† „› women’s  traditional  roles  in  Ghanaian  society   as   caregivers   and   environmental   and   health  stewards.40   For   most  survey  respondents,   the   income  assurance  of  employment   in   the   e-­‐waste  industry  outweighed  associated  environmental  and  health  hazards.  Lastly,  the   majority  of  respondents  believed  that,  despite  the  potential  health  risks  of  the  e-­‐waste   37  

 Ahlvin,  “The  Burden  of  the  Kayayei,”  12.

38  

 Amoyaw-­‐Osei  et  al.,  Ghana  E-­‐waste  Country  Assessment.

39  

 Agyei-­‐Mensah  and  Oteng-­‐Ababio,  “Perceptions  of  Health  and  Environmental  Impacts,”  513.

40  

 Ibid.


LIVING IN A COMPUTER GRAVEYARD

41

industry,  Agbogbloshie  provided  them  and  their  families  with  a  “decent  livelihood”   and  was  comparatively  better  than  the  alternatives.41  Moreover,  respondents  with  the   highest   incomes,  who   had   created   the   best   livelihoods   from   the   e-­‐waste   industry,   were   less   likely   to   believe   there  were   health  risks  connected  with   their  work.  This   overwhelming   local   support   for   the   industry   calls   into   question   the   univocal   condemnation  from  international  NGOs  and  governance  bodies.  Furthermore,  the   •‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–‡…‘‘‹……‘–”‹„—–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡‡Ǧ™ƒ•–‡•‡…–‘”‹‰Š–‡š’Žƒ‹–Š‡ˆƒ‹Ž—”‡‘ˆ these  groups  to  enact  concrete  policy  changes  halting  the  industry  outright.  Because   of  the   importance  of  e-­‐waste  recycling   in   both   international  and  domestic   formal   economies,   international   actors   and   the   Ghanaian   government   lack   incentive   to   take  action  and   properly  address   the  serious  health   risks   to   the  community.  Similar   individualized   economic   rewards   in   Agbogbloshie   create   a   disincentive   for   the   community  to  address  health  and  safety  concerns  themselves.  

CONCLUSION Throughout  this  essay,  I  have  discussed  how  the  e-­‐waste  industry’s  economic   activities   have   shaped   the   lives   of   the   people   in   Agbogbloshie’s   impoverished   …‘—‹–›Ǥ Šƒ˜‡•’‡…‹Ƥ…ƒŽŽ›‡šƒ‹‡†–Š‡Š‹•–‘”‹…ƒŽ„ƒ…‰”‘—†‘ˆ–Š‡†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– of  Agbogbloshie  and  the  e-­‐waste  economy,  and  I  have  focused  on  Agbogbloshie  as   an  economic  center  and  a  community.  Today,  the  people  of  Agbogbloshie  are  faced   ™‹–Š–Š‡’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ‘ˆŠ‹‰Š‡…‘‘‹…”‡–—”•„›’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–‹‰‹–Š‡‡Ǧ™ƒ•–‡‹†—•–”›Ǣ however,  they  are  also  faced  with  the  high  risks  associated  with  living  and  working   in   this   community,   and   the   precariousness   of   e-­‐waste   collecting   and   dealing   as   a   livelihood. Agbogbloshie   is   currently   transitioning   from   a   stigmatized   slum   into   an   economic  urban  center,  yet  the  future  of  the  community  and  its  people  largely  depends   on  the  action  of  the  Ghanaian  government,  business  interests  and  the  international   community.  I  see  three  possible  outcomes  moving  forward,  two  of  which  maintain   •‘‡˜‡”•‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡•–ƒ–—•“—‘ǡƒ†‘‡‘ˆ™Š‹…Š™‹ŽŽ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽŽ›‘ơ‡”–Š‡Š‹‰Š‡•– degrees  economic  and  social  stability  to  Agbogbloshie  residents.Š‡Ƥ”•–’‘••‹„‹Ž‹–› 41  

 Ibid.,  514.


42

BECK

is  the  complete  halt  of  global  e-­â&#x20AC;?waste  imports  to   Ghana,  driven  by  the  international  communityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   health  and  environmental  concerns  and  enacted   through   domestic   legislation   upholding   the   Basel   Convention   tenets.   This   possibility   threatens   Agbogbloshieâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   e-­â&#x20AC;?waste   economy   and  the  many  livelihoods  it  supports.  A  second   Â&#x2019;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â&#x201E;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2018;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2018;ĆĄÂ&#x2022;Â&#x160;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021; business   interests   if   the   industry   remains   unregulated.   If   the   international   community   is   unable   to   put  a  stop   to  e-­â&#x20AC;?waste   imports,   the   economy   could   become   lucrative   enough   to  

Agbogbloshie  cannot   be  understood   simply  as  the  end   of  the  line  in  the   global  commodity   chain.  It  must  also   be  recognized  as  a   neighbourhood.

attract   large   corporations.   These   corporations   Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2019;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x192;Â&#x17D; Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018; Â&#x2030;Â&#x192;Â&#x2039;Â? Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2019;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;ƤÂ&#x2013;Â&#x2022; Â&#x201E;Â&#x203A; exploiting   the   communityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s   poor   labour   force,   which   could   drastically   change   the   current  organization  of  the  economy  and  decrease  earnings  and  working  conditions   Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021; Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â&#x201E;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2022;Ǥ  ƤÂ?Â&#x192;Â&#x17D; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020; Â&#x201E;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013; Â&#x2019;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â&#x201E;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2022;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018; Â&#x2122;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2020; Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2039;Â&#x192;Â? government   begin   to   monitor  and   regulate   the  development  of   Agbogbloshie  as  a   neighbourhood   and   economy,   while   working   with   the   community   to   develop   and   respect   workersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;   associations   and   co-­â&#x20AC;?operatives.   This   government   action   has   the   potential   to  improve   the  health  and  environmental  standards  in  Agbogbloshie,  and   Â&#x2122;Â&#x2039;Â&#x17D;Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2122;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x203A;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2014;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2019;ÇĄÂ&#x2122;Â&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x2026;Â&#x201E;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2021;ƤÂ&#x2013;Â&#x2022; within  the  Agbogbloshie  community.  

8%&-RXUQDORI,QWHUQDWLRQDO$Ě&#x2020;DLUV  >@


LONG-TERM STALEMATE

43

‘‰Ǧ‡”–ƒŽ‡ƒ–‡ THE  L ORD’S  R ESISTANCE  A RMY  &  T HE  U GANDAN  G OVERNMENT:    ǧ ǧ   ǫ Ivo  Martinich

ˆ–‡” ‘”‡ –Šƒ –™‘ †‡…ƒ†‡• ‘ˆ …‘ƪ‹…– ‹ ‰ƒ†ƒǡ ’”‘•’‡…–• ˆ‘” ’‡ƒ…‡ ‹ –Š‡•ƒŽŽƒ•–ˆ”‹…ƒƒ–‹‘”‡ƒ‹•Ž‹Ǥ‹…‡Š‹•”‹•‡–‘’‘™‡”‹ͥͤ͢͝ǡ‰ƒ†ƒ ”‡•‹†‡– ‘™‡”‹ —•‡˜‡‹ Šƒ• Ž‡† ƒ „Ž‘‘†›ǡ ’”‘–”ƒ…–‡† ™ƒ” ƒ‰ƒ‹•– –Š‡ ‘”†ǯ• ‡•‹•–ƒ…‡”›ȋȌǡƒ‰—‡””‹ŽŽƒ‰”‘—’–Šƒ–…‘„‹‡•Š”‹•–‹ƒ‹†‡‘Ž‘‰›ƒ†ƒ–‹˜‡ „‡Ž‹‡ˆ•ǤŠ‹•…‘ƪ‹…–‹•‘–‘Ž›‘‡‘ˆ–Š‡Ž‘‰‡•–…‘ƪ‹…–•‘–Š‡…‘–‹‡–ǡ‹–Šƒ• ƒŽ•‘…Žƒ‹‡†‘”‡–Šƒ͟͜͜͜͜Ž‹˜‡•ƒ†Šƒ••’”‡ƒ†–‘•‡˜‡”ƒŽ‘–Š‡”…‘—–”‹‡•‹–Š‡ ”‡‰‹‘Ǥ͝Ž–Š‘—‰Š–Š‡‰ƒ†ƒƒ”›Šƒ••‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–Ž›™‡ƒ‡‡†–Š‡‹”‡…‡– ›‡ƒ”•ǡ’‡ƒ…‡–ƒŽ•„‡–™‡‡–Š‡–™‘’ƒ”–‹‡•–‘–Š‡…‘ƪ‹…–Šƒ˜‡”‡’‡ƒ–‡†Ž›ˆƒ‹Ž‡†ǤŠ‹• ’ƒ’‡”™‹ŽŽƒ”‰—‡–Šƒ––Š‡…‘ƪ‹…– ‹ ‰ƒ†ƒ Šƒ•”‡ƒ…Š‡†ƒ•–ƒŽ‡ƒ–‡–Šƒ–™‹ŽŽ ‘– „‡ •‘Ž˜‡† —†‡” –Š‡ …—””‡– …‹”…—•–ƒ…‡• ˆ‘” –™‘ ”‡ƒ•‘•ǣ Ƥ”•–ǡ –Š‡ ƒ•›‡–”‹… ‰—‡””‹ŽŽƒ™ƒ”ˆƒ”‡‡’Ž‘›‡†„›–Š‡”‡†‡”•ƒ†‡…‹•‹˜‡˜‹…–‘”›ˆ‘”–Š‡ ‘˜‡”‡– ‘ˆ ‰ƒ†ƒ ȋ ‘Ȍ —Ž‹‡Ž›Ǣ ‘”‡‘˜‡”ǡ ƒŽ–Š‘—‰Š ™‡ƒ‡‡†ǡ –Š‡  †‘‡• ‘– Šƒ˜‡ ‡ƒ‹‰ˆ—Ž ‹…‡–‹˜‡• –‘ †‡‘„‹Ž‹œ‡Ǥ Š‹• ’ƒ’‡” ™‹ŽŽ ’”‘˜‹†‡ ƒ „”‹‡ˆ ‘˜‡”˜‹‡™ ‘ˆ –Š‡–™‘’ƒ”–‹‡•–‘–Š‡…‘ƪ‹…–„‡ˆ‘”‡‡šƒ‹‹‰–Š‡‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘•„‡–™‡‡–Š‡ ‘ ƒ†–Š‡•‹…‡–Š‡„‡‰‹‹‰‘ˆ–Š‡…‘ƪ‹…–ǡ„‘–Š‹–Š‡„ƒ––Ž‡Ƥ‡Ž†ƒ†ƒ––Š‡ ‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‹‰–ƒ„Ž‡ǤŠ‡–Š‹”†•‡…–‹‘™‹ŽŽƒ”‰—‡–Šƒ––Š‡…‘ƪ‹…––‘†ƒ›Šƒ•”‡ƒ…Š‡†ƒ •–ƒŽ‡ƒ–‡ƒ•ƒ”‡•—Ž–‘ˆ–Š‡ǯ•ƒ•›‡–”‹…™ƒ”ˆƒ”‡ƒ†–Š‡Žƒ…‘ˆ‹…‡–‹˜‡ˆ‘” –Š‡–‘†‡‘„‹Ž‹œ‡ǤŠ‡’ƒ’‡”™‹ŽŽ…‘…Ž—†‡™‹–Š’‘Ž‹…›”‡…‘‡†ƒ–‹‘•–‘™ƒ”†• ƒ‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‡†•‘Ž—–‹‘Ǥ

THE  PARTIES  TO  THE  CONFLICT:  ORIGINS,  GOALS  AND  RESOURCES Š‡ ‰ƒ†ƒ ‘˜‡”‡– ƒ† –Š‡  Šƒ˜‡ ˆ‘—‰Š– ‡ƒ…Š ‘–Š‡” •‹…‡ ͥͤ͢͝ǡ ™Š‡ ‘™‡”‹ —•‡˜‡‹ǡ Ž‡ƒ†‡” ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ‡•‹•–ƒ…‡ ”› ȋȌǡ …ƒ‡ –‘ ’‘™‡”ƒˆ–‡”‘˜‡”–Š”‘™‹‰‹–‘‡ŽŽ‘ǯ•‹Ž‹–ƒ”›Œ—–ƒǤ—•‡˜‡‹ǯ•…‘—’”‡’”‡•‡–‡† ͝

 ƒ‡•‡˜ƒǡDzŠ‡›–Š‘ˆƒ†‡••ǣ‘Ž†”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ‹–›ƒ†Ǯ”‡•‘—”…‡ǯ’Ž—†‡”„›–Š‡‘”†ǯ•‡•‹•–ƒ…‡”›ǡdz‹˜‹Žƒ”•ͥǡ‘Ǥ͠ȋͣ͜͜͞Ȍǣ͟͟͠Ǧͤ͟͡ǡ


44

MARTINICH

‘–‘Ž›ƒ…Šƒ‰‡‘ˆ‰‘˜‡”‡–‹‰ƒ†ƒǡ„—–ƒŽ•‘ƒ†‹•”—’–‹‘‘ˆ–”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ ’‘™‡” ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•™‹–Š‹ –Š‡…‘—–”›ǡƒ•ǡ —–‹Ž –Š‡ǡ ‰ƒ†ƒ Šƒ†‘Ž› „‡‡ ”—Ž‡† „› Ž‡ƒ†‡”• ˆ”‘ –Š‡ ‘”–Š‡” …Š‘Ž‹ ”‡‰‹‘Ǥ͞ ƒ”‹ ”‹’’ †‡•…”‹„‡• —•‡˜‡‹ǯ• ‰‘˜‡”‡–ƒ•ƒŠ›„”‹†”‡‰‹‡–Šƒ–Dz’”‘‘–‡ȑ•Ȓ…‹˜‹Ž”‹‰Š–•ƒ†’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽŽ‹„‡”–‹‡•ǡ ›‡– —’”‡†‹…–ƒ„Ž› …—”–ƒ‹Žȑ•Ȓ –Š‘•‡ •ƒ‡ ”‹‰Š–• ƒ† Ž‹„‡”–‹‡•Ǥdz͟ Š‡ ‡ơ‘”–• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‰‘˜‡”‡–‘ˆ‰ƒ†ƒ–‘‡†–Š‡…‘ƪ‹…–Šƒ˜‡Žƒ”‰‡Ž›ˆ‘…—•‡†‘†‡ˆ‡ƒ–‹‰–Š‡ ‹Ž‹–ƒ”‹Ž›ǤŠ‹•Šƒ”†ǦŽ‹‡•–ƒ…‡‡š’Žƒ‹•‰ƒ†ƒǯ••–‡ƒ†›‹…”‡ƒ•‡‹‹Ž‹–ƒ”› ‡š’‡†‹–—”‡•–Š”‘—‰Š‘—–—•‡˜‡‹ǯ•”—Ž‡Ǥ›ͥͥ͝͝ǡ–Š‡•‹œ‡‘ˆ–Š‡‰ƒ†ƒ”› Šƒ†‹…”‡ƒ•‡†–‘ͤ͜͜͜͜•‘Ž†‹‡”•ǡˆ”‘͜͜͜͜͞‹ͥͤ͢͝Ǥ‹‹Žƒ”Ž›ǡ–Š‡‹Ž‹–ƒ”›„—†‰‡– ”‘•‡ˆ”‘͊ͥ͢Ǥ͞‹ŽŽ‹‘‹ͥͤͤ͝–‘͊ͣ͟͞‹ŽŽ‹‘‹ͣ͜͜͞Ǥ͠……‘”†‹‰–‘‡–‡”   —ƒ”ƒ–‘ǡ Dz–Š‡ ‹Ž‹–ƒ”›ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š ˆƒ˜‘—”‡† „› ”‡•‹†‡– —•‡˜‡‹ǡ Šƒ•ǡƒ– „‡•–ǡ ˆƒ‹Ž‡†ǡƒ†ƒ–™‘”•–ǡ’‡”’‡–—ƒ–‡†–Š‡…‘ƪ‹…–Ǥdz͡   Š‡ǡ‘–Š‡‘–Š‡”Šƒ†ǡŠƒ•„‡‡†‡Ƥ‡†ƒ•Dzƒ‘Ǧ•–ƒ–‡ƒ”‡†‰”‘—’ –Šƒ–†‹”‡…–•‹–•˜‹‘Ž‡…‡ǡˆ‘”–Š‡‘•–’ƒ”–ǡƒ‰ƒ‹•––Š‡…‹˜‹Ž‹ƒ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‘”–Š‡” ‰ƒ†ƒǤdz͢Š‡‰”‘—’‡‡”‰‡†ƒ•ƒ”‡•—Ž–‘ˆ –Š‡†‹•ƒ–Ž‹‰‘ˆ ‡ŽŽ‘ǯ• ‰ƒ†ƒ ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ‹„‡”ƒ–‹‘”› ȋȌǤ —””‡–Ž›ǡ ‘•‡’Š ‘›…‘ƒ†•–Š‡”‡„‡Ž ‘˜‡‡–ǡ™Š‘•‡‘”‹‰‹ƒŽ‰‘ƒŽ™ƒ•Dz–‘Ƥ‰Š–ƒ‰ƒ‹•––Š‡ƒ”‰‹ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–”‹„‡• ‹ ‘”–Š‡” ƒ† ƒ•–‡” ‰ƒ†ƒǡ ƒ† ȑǤǤǤȒ –‘ ”‡’Žƒ…‡ –Š‡ ‰ƒ†ƒ ‰‘˜‡”‡– ™‹–Š‘‡„ƒ•‡†‘–Š‡‹„Ž‹…ƒŽ‡‘ƒ†‡–•Ǥdzͣ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ†‡•’‹–‡‹–•…Žƒ‹ –‘ ”‡’”‡•‡– ƒ”‰‹ƒŽ‹œ‡† …Š‘Ž‹ ’‡‘’Ž‡ǡ –Š‡  ”ƒ’‹†Ž› Ž‘•– –Š‡ Ž‘…ƒŽ•—’’‘”– ‹–”‡…‡‹˜‡†‹‹–•‡ƒ”Ž›†ƒ›•ǤŠ‹•Ž‘••‘ˆ’‘’—Žƒ”•—’’‘”–™ƒ•–Š‡…‘•‡“—‡…‡‘ˆ ƒ–”‘…‹–‹‡•…‘‹––‡†ƒ‰ƒ‹•–‹–•‘™’‡‘’Ž‡ǡ™Š‹…Š…‘–”‹„—–‡†–‘–Š‡”‡‰‹‘ǯ• ‹…”‡ƒ•‹‰™ƒ”ˆƒ–‹‰—‡Ǥͤ•–‹ƒ–‡••—‰‰‡•––Š‡‰”‘—’Šƒ•ƒ„†—…–‡†‘”‡–Šƒ͜͜͜͞͡ …Š‹Ž†”‡ǡ•‘‡‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ•›‘—‰ƒ••‹šǡ•‹…‡–Š‡„‡‰‹‹‰‘ˆ–Š‡…‘ƪ‹…–Ǥ”‘—†

  ͞

–Š‘›‹…‹ǡDzš‹•–‡–‹ƒŽ‘–‹˜ƒ–‹‘•‹–Š‡‘”†ǯ•‡•‹•–ƒ…‡”›ǯ•‘–‹—‹‰‘ƪ‹…–ǡdz–—†‹‡•‹‘ƪ‹…–ƒ†‡””‘”‹•͟͜ǡ‘Ǥ͝

ȋͣ͜͜͞Ȍǣͣ͟͟Ǧ͟͡͞ǡͤ͟͟Ǥ

͟ ͠ ͡ ͢ ͣ

‹Ž‹ƒ”‹”‹’’ǡ—•‡˜‡‹ǯ•‰ƒ†ƒǣƒ”ƒ†‘š‡•‘ˆ‘™‡”‹ƒ ›„”‹†‡‰‹‡ȋ‘—Ž†‡”ǡ‘Ž‘Ǥǣ›‡‹‡‡”—„ǡ͜͜͞͝Ȍǡ͝Ǥ  „‹†Ǥǡ͝͠͝Ǥ ‡–‡” Ǥ—ƒ”ƒ–‘ǡDz†‹‰–Š‡‡ƒŽ‹‰Š–ƒ”‡•‘ˆ‘”–Š‡”‰ƒ†ƒǡdz‡ƒ…‡‡˜‹‡™ǣ ‘—”ƒŽ‘ˆ‘…‹ƒŽ —•–‹…‡ͤ͝ǡ‘Ǥ͝ȋ͜͜͢͞Ȍǣͣ͟͝Ǧ͝͠͠ǡ͜͝͠Ǥ ‡˜ƒǡDzŠ‡›–Š‘ˆƒ†‡••ǡdz͟͟͠Ǥ ƒ‹•—Ž‹•‡›‘Œ‘ǡDzŠ‡ –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ”‹‹ƒŽ‘—”–ƒ†–Š‡‘”†ǯ•‡•‹•–ƒ…‡”›‡ƒ†‡”•ǣ”‘•‡…—–‹‘‘”‡•–›ǫǡdz –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ

”‹‹ƒŽƒ™‡˜‹‡™ͣǡ‘Ǥ͝ȋͣ͜͜͞Ȍǣ͟͢͝Ǧͤͥ͟ǡ͟͢͞Ǥ

ͤ

‹ŽŽ‡ƒ†‘‡Žƒ••‡”‘‘–ǡ‡†•ǤǡŠ‡‘”†ǯ•‡•‹•–ƒ…‡”›ǣ›–Šƒ†‡ƒŽ‹–›ȋ‘†‘ǣ‡†‘‘•ǡ͜͜͞͝Ȍǡͤ͟Ǥ


LONG-TERM STALEMATE

45

͜͜͜͝͞‘ˆ–Š‘•‡…Š‹Ž†”‡Šƒ˜‡„‡‡‹ŽŽ‡†Ƥ‰Š–‹‰ˆ‘”–Š‡Ǥͥ –‹•‡••‡–‹ƒŽ–‘‘–‡ –Šƒ– –Š‡ ǯ• ‘–‹˜ƒ–‹‘•ǡ ™Š‹…Š ‘”‹‰‹ƒŽŽ› …‘•‹•–‡† ‹ ’”‘–‡…–‹‰ ƒ”‰‹ƒŽ‹œ‡† …Š‘Ž‹’‡‘’Ž‡ǡŠƒ˜‡‡˜‘Ž˜‡†‘˜‡”–‹‡Ǥ Š‡ •Š‹ˆ– ˆ”‘ –Š‡ ‰”‘—’ǯ• ‘”‹‰‹ƒŽ ‘–‹˜ƒ–‹‘• –‘ ‹–• …—””‡– ‰‘ƒŽ• Šƒ•ǡ ‹ –—”ǡƒŽ–‡”‡†–Š‡†›ƒ‹…•‘ˆ–Š‡…‘ƪ‹…–Ǥ•‹…‹‘–‡•ǡ–Š‡™‡–ˆ”‘Šƒ˜‹‰ ‹•–”—‡–ƒŽ‘–‹˜ƒ–‹‘•–‘’—”‡Ž›‡š‹•–‡–‹ƒŽ‘–‹˜ƒ–‹‘•ǡ™Š‹…Š’ƒ”–Ž›‡š’Žƒ‹•™Š› ’‡ƒ…‡Šƒ•Š‹–Š‡”–‘”‡ƒ‹‡†‡Ž—•‹˜‡ǤŽ‹‡‹•–”—‡–ƒŽ‘–‹˜ƒ–‹‘•ǡƒ‰”‘—’™‹–Š ‡š‹•–‡–‹ƒŽ‘–‹˜ƒ–‹‘••‡‡•Dz–‘’‡”’‡–—ƒ–‡–Š‡‘”‰ƒ‹œƒ–‹‘‹‘”†‡”–‘’”‘˜‹†‡–Š‡ „‡‡Ƥ–•‘ˆ•‘…‹‡–›ǡ•—…Šƒ••‡…—”‹–›ƒ†ƒ˜‘…ƒ–‹‘Ǥdz͜͝ ”‘—’•™‹–Šƒ‹Ž›‡š‹•–‡–‹ƒŽ ‘–‹˜ƒ–‹‘•—•–…‘–‹—‡–‘Ƥ‰Š–ǡƒ•ƒ‡†–‘…‘ƪ‹…–…‘””‡•’‘†•™‹–Š–Š‡‡†‘ˆ –Š‡‰”‘—’‹–•‡ŽˆǤŠ‡‹•…—””‡–Ž›†”‹˜‡„›’”‹ƒ”‹Ž›

For  groups   with  existential   motivations,   continuing  the   CON¹ICTÒISÒNECESSARYÒ because  an  end  to   CON¹ICTÒISÒALSOÒTHEÒ end  of  the  group

‡š‹•–‡–‹ƒŽ‘–‹˜ƒ–‹‘•ǡƒ•‹–Žƒ…•…Ž‡ƒ”’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ‘–‹˜‡•ǡ ƒ† Ƥ‰Š–‡”• ‘ˆ ƒŽŽ ”ƒ• Žƒ… …‘’‡ŽŽ‹‰ ‹…‡–‹˜‡• –‘ †‡‘„‹Ž‹œ‡Ǥ –Š‡…ƒ•‡‘ˆŠ‹‰ŠǦŽ‡˜‡Ž…‘ƒ†‡”•ǡ ‹•–”—•– ‘ˆ —•‡˜‡‹ǯ• ‰‘˜‡”‡– ‹• ‡‘—‰Š ”‡ƒ•‘ –‘Dz•–ƒ›‹–Š‡„—•Šǡdzƒ•–Š‡›ˆ‡ƒ”–Š‡›™‹ŽŽ„‡–”‹‡†ƒ† ‹’”‹•‘‡†‹ˆ–Š‡›†‡…‹†‡–‘†‡‘„‹Ž‹œ‡Ǥ‹‹Žƒ”Ž›ǡ–Š‡ ͜͜͞͡ –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ”‹‹ƒŽ ‘—”– ȋ Ȍ ‹†‹…–‡– ƒ‰ƒ‹•– ‘› ƒ† ‘–Š‡”  …‘ƒ†‡”• Šƒ• …”‡ƒ–‡† ƒ ‡™ǡ ‡“—ƒŽŽ› ’‘™‡”ˆ—Ž †‹•‹…‡–‹˜‡ –‘ †‡‘„‹Ž‹œ‡Ǥ͝͝   —”–Š‡”‘”‡ǡƒˆ–‡”Ƥ‰Š–‹‰™‹–Š–Š‡ˆ‘”‘”‡–Šƒ

–™‘†‡…ƒ†‡•ǡ–Š‡•‡–‘’…‘ƒ†‡”•Žƒ…•‹ŽŽ•–Šƒ–™‘—Ž†‡ƒ„Ž‡–Š‡–‘•‡…—”‡ƒ •–ƒ„Ž‡‡…‘‘‹…ˆ—–—”‡‹…‹˜‹Ž•‘…‹‡–›Ǥ͝͞‹‡™‹•‡ǡƒ„†—…–‡‡•Šƒ˜‡Ž‹––Ž‡‹…‡–‹˜‡–‘‰‘ „ƒ…–‘…‹˜‹Ž•‘…‹‡–›ǡƒ•–Š‡›Šƒ˜‡„‡‡ˆ‘”…‡†–‘…‘‹–ƒ–”‘…‹–‹‡•ƒ‰ƒ‹•–‡„‡”• ‘ˆ–Š‡‹”‘™…‘—‹–›Ǥ‡˜ƒƒ‹–ƒ‹•–Šƒ––Š‡—•‡•–Š‹•ƒ•ƒ‡…Šƒ‹•–‘ ”‡†—…‡–Š‡‘’’‘”–—‹–›…‘•–‘ˆ‡„‡”•Š‹’–‘–Š‡‰”‘—’Ǥ ‡ƒ”‰—‡•–Šƒ–ƒ„†—…–‡‡• ƒ”‡Dzˆ‘”…‡†‹–‘–Š‡’‘•‹–‹‘‘ˆ’‡”’‡–”ƒ–‘”Ȃƒ’”‘…‡••–Šƒ–†”ƒ•–‹…ƒŽŽ›‹…”‡ƒ•‡•–Š‡ …‘•–•‘ˆ”‡–—”‹‰–‘…‘—‹–‹‡•†—‡–‘–Š‡–Š”‡ƒ–‘ˆ”‡’”‹•ƒŽ•ƒ†‘•–”ƒ…‹œ‹‰Ǥdz͟͝   ͥ ͜͝   ͝͝   ͝͞   ͟͝  

ƒ‹•—Ž‹•‡›‘Œ‘ǡDzŠ‡ –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ”‹‹ƒŽ‘—”–ƒ†–Š‡‘”†ǯ•‡•‹•–ƒ…‡”›‡ƒ†‡”•ǡdz͟͢͞Ǥ  „‹†Ǥǡ͟͠͝Ǥ  „‹†Ǥ  „‹†Ǥǡͣ͟͠Ǥ ‡˜ƒǡDzŠ‡›–Š‘ˆƒ†‡••ǡdz͟͟͡Ǥ


46

MARTINICH

Š‡  ‹• ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ …‘’‡•ƒ–‡ ˆ‘” –Š‡‹” ”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡Ž› •ƒŽŽ Ƥ‰Š–‹‰ ˆ‘”…‡ „› ‡’Ž‘›‹‰ƒ•›‡–”‹…ƒŽ™ƒ”ˆƒ”‡–ƒ…–‹…•ǤŠ‡‰”‘—’Šƒ†ƒ•ƒ›ƒ•͜͜͜͡•‘Ž†‹‡”• ƒ–‹–•’‡ƒ‹‡ƒ”Ž›͜͜͜͞ǡ„—–‡•–‹ƒ–‡••—‰‰‡•––Šƒ––‘†ƒ›‹–Šƒ••‘‡™Š‡”‡„‡–™‡‡ ͜͜͡ƒ†͜͜͜͝Ǥ͝͠ ‹˜‡‹–•—‡”‹…ƒŽ‹ˆ‡”‹‘”‹–›ǡ–Š‡‰”‘—’‘’‡”ƒ–‡•‹ƒ†‡…‡–”ƒŽ‹œ‡† ƒ‡”ǡ …ƒ””›‹‰ ‘—– Š‹–Ǧƒ†Ǧ”— ƒ––ƒ…• Ž‡† „› •ƒŽŽ ‰”‘—’• ‘ˆ •‘Ž†‹‡”• ƒ‰ƒ‹•– –Š‡ Ǥ͝͡ ƒ††‹–‹‘ǡ†—‡–‘ƒŽƒ…‘ˆ’‘’—Žƒ”•—’’‘”–ǡ–Š‡‰”‘—’Šƒ•–‘”‡Ž›‘ ˆ‘”…‹„Ž‡ ”‡…”—‹–‡– –‘ ƒ‹–ƒ‹ƒ Ƥ‰Š–‹‰ ˆ‘”…‡Ǥ • ‡˜ƒ ‘–‡•ǡ Dz‹ –Š‡ƒ„•‡…‡ ‘ˆ ‡…‘‘‹… ƒ† •‘…‹ƒŽ ‡†‘™‡–• ™‹–Š ™Š‹…Š –‘ ”‡™ƒ”† ‡„‡”•Š‹’ǡ –Š‡  ƒ„†—…–•’‘–‡–‹ƒŽƤ‰Š–‡”•ˆ”‘–Š‡…‹˜‹Ž‹ƒ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘‹ƒ™ƒ›–Šƒ–‹•ƒƒŽ‘‰‘—•–‘ ”‡•‘—”…‡‡š’Ž‘‹–ƒ–‹‘Ǥdz͢͝„†—…–‹‘–ƒ…–‹…•Šƒ˜‡‡ƒ„Ž‡†–Š‡–‘ƒ‹–ƒ‹ƒˆ‘”…‡ Žƒ”‰‡‡‘—‰Š–‘…‘–‹—‡‹–•™ƒ”ǡ†‡•’‹–‡‘—–‹‰’”‡••—”‡ˆ”‘‰‘˜‡”‡––”‘‘’• †—”‹‰–Š‡’ƒ•––™‘ƒ†ƒŠƒŽˆ†‡…ƒ†‡•Ǥ

INTERACTIONS  BETWEEN  THE  GoU  AND  THE  LRA:   FAILED  WAR,  FAILED  PEACE Š‡ Ƥ”•– …‘ˆ”‘–ƒ–‹‘• „‡–™‡‡ –Š‡  ƒ† –Š‡ ‰ƒ†ƒ ‰‘˜‡”‡– ‘……—””‡†‹ͥͤ͢͝ǡ™Š‡—•‡˜‡‹…ƒ‡–‘’‘™‡”Ǥˆ–‡”Ž‘•‹‰’‘’—Žƒ”•—’’‘”–†—‡–‘ ‹–•ƒˆ‘”‡‡–‹‘‡†ƒ–”‘…‹–‹‡•ǡ–Š‡”‡‰ƒ‹‡†‘‡–—‹ͥͥͣ͝ǡ™Š‡–Š‡ƒ–‹Ǧ ƒ’ƒŽƒ—†ƒ‡•‡‰‘˜‡”‡–„‡‰ƒ’”‘˜‹†‹‰‹–™‹–Š™‡ƒ’‘•ƒ†ƒ—‹–‹‘Ǥͣ͝   ‰ƒ†ƒƒ†—†ƒ”‡•–‘”‡††‹’Ž‘ƒ–‹…”‡Žƒ–‹‘•‹͜͜͞͞™‹–Š–Š‡ƒ‹”‘„‹‰”‡‡‡–ǡ ™Š‹…Šƒ—–Š‘”‹œ‡†‰ƒ†ƒ–”‘‘’•–‘ƒ––ƒ…–Š‡‹—†ƒ‡•‡–‡””‹–‘”›ǡƒ†ƒŽ•‘ ‡•–ƒ„Ž‹•Š‡†–Šƒ––Š‡—†ƒ‡•‡‰‘˜‡”‡–™‘—Ž†‘Ž‘‰‡”’”‘˜‹†‡ƒ”•–‘–Š‡Ǥ Š‘”–Ž›ƒˆ–‡”•‹‰‹‰–Š‡ƒ‰”‡‡‡–ǡ–Š‡‰‘˜‡”‡–‘ˆ‰ƒ†ƒŽƒ—…Š‡†’‡”ƒ–‹‘

”‘ ‹•–ǡ™Š‹…Š‹˜‘Ž˜‡†ƒ‡•–‹ƒ–‡†͜͜͜͜͝–”‘‘’•ƒ†…‘•–‹–—–‡†ƒƒŒ‘”„Ž‘™ –‘–Š‡Ǥͤ͝Š‡‘’‡”ƒ–‹‘†‡•–”‘›‡†„ƒ•‡•‹—†ƒǡ…ƒ—•‹‰•‡”‹‘—•Ž‘‰‹•–‹…ƒŽ †‹ƥ…—Ž–‹‡• ˆ‘” –Š‡ Ǥͥ͝ Š‡ ‘•– ”‡…‡– †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–• ”‡‰ƒ”†‹‰ –Š‡ Š—– ˆ‘” ‘› …ƒ‡ ‹ ƒ”…Š ͜͞͝͞ ™Š‡ –Š‡ ˆ”‹…ƒ ‹‘ ƒ‘—…‡† ‹– ™‘—Ž† Žƒ—…Š ƒ ‡™‹Ž‹–ƒ”›‘ơ‡•‹˜‡ƒ‰ƒ‹•––Š‡‡„‡”•‘—–•‹†‡‘ˆ‰ƒ†ƒ–‡””‹–‘”›ǤŠ‡ ͝͠   ͝͡   ͢͝   ͣ͝   ͤ͝   ͥ͝  

 „‹†Ǥǡ͟͟͠Ǥ ‘„‡”–Ǥ ‡Ž†ƒǡDzŠ›‰ƒ†ƒ ƒ• ƒ‹Ž‡†–‘‡ˆ‡ƒ––Š‡‘”†ǯ•‡•‹•–ƒ…‡”›ǡdz‡ˆ‡•‡ƒ†‡…—”‹–›ƒŽ›•‹•ͤ͝ǡ‘Ǥ͝ȋͤ͜͜͞Ȍǣ͠͡Ǧ͡͞ǡͣ͠Ǥ ‡˜ƒǡDzŠ‡›–Š‘ˆƒ†‡••ǡdz͟͟͠Ǥ ‹…‹ǡDzš‹•–‡–‹ƒŽ‘–‹˜ƒ–‹‘•ǡdzͥ͟͟Ǥ ŽŽ‡ƒ†Žƒ••‡”‘‘–ǡŠ‡‘”†ǯ•‡•‹•–ƒ…‡”›ǡ͝͠Ǥ ‡˜ƒǡDzŠ‡›–Š‘ˆƒ†‡••ǡdz͟͠͡Ǥ


LONG-TERM STALEMATE

47

ˆ”‹…ƒ‹‘‘ƥ…‹ƒŽŽ›ƒ••—��‡†…‘ƒ†‘ˆ–Š‡ˆ‘”…‡‹‡’–‡„‡”͜͞͝͞ƒ†ǡ•‹…‡ –Š‡ǡ ͡ ͜͜͜ –”‘‘’• ˆ”‘ ‰ƒ†ƒǡ ‘—–Š —†ƒǡ ‡–”ƒŽ ˆ”‹…ƒ ‡’—„Ž‹… ƒ† –Š‡ ‡‘…”ƒ–‹…‡’—„Ž‹…‘ˆ–Š‡‘‰‘Šƒ˜‡—•—……‡••ˆ—ŽŽ›–”‹‡†–‘…ƒ’–—”‡‘”‹ŽŽ ‘•‡’Š ‘›‹–Š‡‹””‡•’‡…–‹˜‡–‡””‹–‘”‹‡•Ǥ͜͞   ơ‘”–•–‘‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‡ƒ•‘Ž—–‹‘–‘–Š‡…‘ƪ‹…–Šƒ˜‡’”‘˜‡†‡“—ƒŽŽ›—•—……‡••ˆ—ŽǤ ‡‡šƒ’Ž‡‘ˆƒ•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–ƒ––‡’––‘ˆƒ…‹Ž‹–ƒ–‡ƒ‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‡†•‘Ž—–‹‘–‘–Š‡…‘ƪ‹…– –‘‘’Žƒ…‡‹ͥͥ͝͠–Š”‘—‰Š–Š‡‡†‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‡––›‹‰‘„‡ǡ‘‡‘ˆ–Š‡ˆ‡™Ƥ‰—”‡• –”—•–‡†„›„‘–Š’ƒ”–‹‡•Ǥ͞͝‹‹Žƒ”Ž›ǡ‹‘˜‡„‡”ͥͥͥ͝ǡ–Š‡ ‘˜‡”‡–‘ˆ‰ƒ†ƒ ƒ’’”‘˜‡†–Š‡‡•–›…–ǡ™Š‹…Š‰”ƒ–‡†ƒ‡•–›–‘Dzƒ›‰ƒ†ƒ™Š‘Šƒ•ƒ–ƒ› –‹‡•‹…‡–Š‡͢͞–Š†ƒ›‘ˆ ƒ—ƒ”›ǡͥͤ͢͝‡‰ƒ‰‡†‹‘”‹•‡‰ƒ‰‹‰‹™ƒ”‘”ƒ”‡† ”‡„‡ŽŽ‹‘ ƒ‰ƒ‹•– –Š‡ ‰‘˜‡”‡– ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡’—„Ž‹… ‘ˆ ‰ƒ†ƒǤdz͞͞ ‘–Š‡” •‘Ž—–‹‘ ™ƒ•ƒ––‡’–‡†‹͜͜͞͠ǡ™Š‡—•‡˜‡‹†‡…Žƒ”‡†ƒ—‹Žƒ–‡”ƒŽ…‡ƒ•‡ǦƤ”‡–Šƒ–Ž‡†–‘ –Š‡„‡‰‹‹‰‘ˆƒ‡™•‡”‹‡•‘ˆ’‡ƒ…‡–ƒŽ•†‹”‡…–‡†„›‹‰‘„‡Ǥ͟͞ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ–Š‡•‡ ‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‹‘•™‡”‡ƒŽ•‘•–‘’’‡†ƒˆ–‡”–Š‡…‡ƒ•‡ǦƤ”‡‡†‡†ƒ†–Š‡‰‘˜‡”‡–†‡‹‡† –Š‡ǯ•”‡“—‡•––‘‡š–‡†‹–ǤŠ‡Žƒ–‡•–•‡–‘ˆ–ƒŽ•„‡‰ƒ‹͜͜͢͞‹ —„ƒ–Š”‘—‰Š –Š‡‡†‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡‰‘˜‡”‡–‘ˆ‘—–Š—†ƒǤŠ‡•‡–ƒŽ•‡˜‡–—ƒŽŽ›„”‘‡‘ơ ‹’”‹Žͤ͜͜͞ƒˆ–‡”‘›”‡ˆ—•‡†–‘•‹‰–Š‡’‡ƒ…‡ƒ‰”‡‡‡–Ǥ͞͠Š‹•Š‹•–‘”›‘ˆˆƒ‹Ž‡† ’‡ƒ…‡–ƒŽ•Šƒ•‘–‘Ž›‡šƒ…‡”„ƒ–‡†•…‡’–‹…‹•”‡‰ƒ”†‹‰ƒ‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‡†•‘Ž—–‹‘ǡ„—– Šƒ•ƒŽ•‘’”‘‰”‡••‹˜‡Ž›‹…”‡ƒ•‡†‹•–”—•–„‡–™‡‡–Š‡–™‘’ƒ”–‹‡•–‘–Š‡…‘ƪ‹…–Ǥ ƒ††‹–‹‘ƒŽ‡Ž‡‡––Šƒ–Šƒ•ˆ—”–Š‡”…‘’Ž‹…ƒ–‡†–Š‡’‘••‹„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆƒ’‡ƒ…‡ˆ—Ž ‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‹‘‹•–Š‡ƒ””‡•–™ƒ””ƒ–‹••—‡†„›–Š‡ ‹͜͜͞͡ƒ‰ƒ‹•– ‘•‡’Š‘›ǤŠ‡ …”‹‡•‹…Ž—†‡‘”‡–Šƒ͜͜͞͞ƒ••ƒ••‹ƒ–‹‘•ƒ†͟͜͜͞ƒ„†—…–‹‘•…ƒ””‹‡†‘—–‹ ‘”‡ –Šƒ ͤ͜͜ ƒ––ƒ…•Ǥ͞͡ ‘› ‹• …Šƒ”‰‡† ™‹–Š ”ƒ’‡ǡ —”†‡”ǡ ‡•Žƒ˜‡‡–ǡ •‡š—ƒŽ ‡•Žƒ˜‡‡–ǡƒ†ˆ‘”…‡†‡Ž‹•–‡–‘ˆ…Š‹Ž†”‡Ǥ͢͞Š‡’‘••‹„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ „‡‹‰–”‹‡† ‹ –Š‡ˆ—–—”‡ƒ›„‡‘‡‘ˆ–Š‡”‡ƒ•‘•™Š›–Š‡Ž‡ƒ†‡”Šƒ•”‡ˆ—•‡†–‘†‡‘„‹Ž‹œ‡Ǥ ••–ƒ–‡†„›ƒ…Š‘Ž‹”‡Ž‹‰‹‘—•Ž‡ƒ†‡”ǡDz‘„‘†›…ƒ…‘˜‹…‡–Š‡Ž‡ƒ†‡”•‘ˆƒ”‡„‡Ž   ͜͞  

Dzˆ”‹…ƒ‹‘ —–•‰ƒ†ƒ‡„‡Ž ”‘—’ǡdzŽ ƒœ‡‡”ƒ‰Ž‹•Šǡͥ͝‡’–‡„‡”͜͞͝͞ǤŠ––’ǣȀȀ™™™ǤƒŽŒƒœ‡‡”ƒǤ…‘Ȁ‡™•Ȁƒˆ”

…ƒȀ͜͞͝͞Ȁͥ͜Ȁͥͥͣͤͤͣ͜͞͝͞͝͝͠͡͡͠͝͡͝ǤŠ–ŽǤ

͞͝   ͞͞   ͟͞   ͞͠   ͞͡   ͢͞  

—ƒ”ƒ–‘ǡDz†‹‰–Š‡‡ƒŽ‹‰Š–ƒ”‡•ǡdzͥ͟͝Ǥ Dz‡•–›…–ǡdz‰ƒ†ƒ‡‰ƒŽ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ •–‹–—–‡ǡŠ––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ—Ž‹‹Ǥ‘”‰Ȁ—‰ȀŽ‡‰‹•Žƒ–‹‘Ȁ…‘•‘Ž‹†ƒ–‡†Ǧƒ…–Ȁͥ͞͠Ǥ  ‘ƒƒǤ—‹ǡDz ‡––‹‰–‘‡ƒ…‡ǫ‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‹‰™‹–Š–Š‡‹‘”–Š‡”‰ƒ†ƒǡdz —ƒ‹‰Š–•‡˜‹‡™͜͝ǡ‘Ǥ͝ȋͤ͜͜͞Ȍǣ͡͡Ǧͣ͝ǡ͡͡Ǥ ƒ—Ž ƒ…•‘ǡDzǮ‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‹‰™‹–Š Š‘•–•ǯǣ‡Ž‹‰‹‘ǡ…‘ƪ‹…–ƒ†’‡ƒ…‡‹‘”–Š‡”‰ƒ†ƒǡdzŠ‡‘—†ƒ„Ž‡ͥͤǡ‘Ǥ͜͠͞ȋͥ͜͜͞Ȍǣͥ͟͝Ǧ͟͟͝ǡ͟͢͞Ǥ —‹ǡDz ‡––‹‰–‘‡ƒ…‡ǡdz͢͡Ǥ —‹•‘”‡‘…ƒ’‘‡–ƒŽǤǡDzƒ””ƒ–‘ˆ””‡•–ˆ‘” ‘•‡’Š‘› ••—‡†ͤ —Ž›͜͜͞͡ƒ•‡†‡†ͣ͞‡’–‡„‡”͜͜͞͡ǡdz –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ

”‹‹ƒŽ‘—”–ȋ͜͜͞͡ȌŠ––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ‹……Ǧ…’‹Ǥ‹–Ȁ‹……†‘…•Ȁ†‘…Ȁ†‘…ͥͣͤ͝͡Ǥ’†ˆǤ


48

MARTINICH

‘˜‡‡––‘…‘‡–‘–Š‡‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‹‰–ƒ„Ž‡ƒ†ƒ––Š‡•ƒ‡–‹‡–‡ŽŽ–Š‡–Šƒ––Š‡› ™‹ŽŽƒ’’‡ƒ”‹…‘—”–•–‘„‡’”‘•‡…—–‡†Ǥdzͣ͞ ˆƒ…–ǡ‹…‡–––‹ǡƒ…‘ƒ†‡” ™Š‘Šƒ•„‡‡‹†‹…–‡†„›–Š‡ ǡ•—‰‰‡•–‡†–Šƒ––Š‡‘—”–ǯ•ƒ””‡•–™ƒ””ƒ–•™‡”‡ –Š‡ ƒ‹‘„•–ƒ…Ž‡–‘–Š‡ ‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‹‘• ‹ ͜͜͞͡Ǥͤ͞Ž–Š‘—‰Š —•‡˜‡‹ Šƒ•’”‘‹•‡† …‘ƒ†‡”•–Šƒ– ‹†‹…–‡–•™‘—Ž†„‡™‹–Š†”ƒ™‹ˆƒ’‡ƒ…‡ƒ‰”‡‡‡–‹• •‹‰‡†ǡ”‡„‡ŽŽ‡ƒ†‡”•Šƒ˜‡ƒ•‡†ˆ‘”–Š‡…Šƒ”‰‡•–‘„‡”‡•…‹†‡†ƒ•ƒ’”‡…‘†‹–‹‘ˆ‘” ƒ’‡ƒ…‡ƒ‰”‡‡‡–Ǥ —”–Š‡”‘”‡ǡ–Š‡‰‘˜‡”‡–‘ˆ‰ƒ†ƒ‹•‘–Ž‡‰ƒŽŽ›ƒ—–Š‘”‹œ‡† –‘™‹–Š†”ƒ™‹–•”‡ˆ‡””ƒŽ–‘–Š‡ ǡ™Š‹…Šƒ††•‘”‡—…‡”–ƒ‹–›ƒ†…‘ˆ—•‹‘–‘ –Š‡•‹–—ƒ–‹‘Ǥ —‡–‘ „‘–Š’ƒ”–‹‡•ǯ ‹–”ƒ•‹‰‡…‡ ‹–Š‡‹”†‡ƒ†•ǡ–Š‡ „ƒ”‰ƒ‹‹‰ ”ƒ‰‡‹–Š‹•…‘ƪ‹…–Šƒ•ƒ””‘™‡†•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–Ž›ǡŽ‡ƒ˜‹‰Ž‹––Ž‡”‘‘ˆ‘”ƒ‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‡† •‘Ž—–‹‘Ǥ

THE  CURRENT  STALEMATE:  RULING  OUT  ALTERNATIVE  OUTCOMES

ˆ –Š‡ …—””‡– …‹”…—•–ƒ…‡• ‡†—”‡ǡ ‹– …ƒ „‡ ƒ”‰—‡† –Šƒ– –Š‡ ™ƒ” ‹ ‰ƒ†ƒ™‹ŽŽ”‡ƒ‹ƒ•–ƒŽ‡ƒ–‡ǡ‰‹˜‡–Šƒ–ƒŽ–‡”ƒ–‹˜‡‘—–…‘‡••‡‡‹…”‡ƒ•‹‰Ž› ‹’Žƒ—•‹„Ž‡Ǥ Š‡ ƒŽ–‡”ƒ–‹˜‡ ‘—–…‘‡• ƒ”‡ ƒ ‹Ž‹–ƒ”› ˜‹…–‘”› ˆ‘” ‡‹–Š‡” ’ƒ”–›ǡ ‘” ƒ ‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‡†•‡––Ž‡‡–Ǥ –‹•…Ž‡ƒ”–Šƒ––Š‡™‹ŽŽ‘–„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘‘˜‡”–Š”‘™—•‡˜‡‹ǯ• ‰‘˜‡”‡–Ǥ ‹–Š ˆ‡™‡” –Šƒ ͝ ͜͜͜ •‘Ž†‹‡”•ǡ –Š‡  …ƒ ‘Ž› …ƒ””› ‘—– •ƒŽŽ ͣ͞   ͤ͞  

•‡›‘Œ‘ǡDzŠ‡ –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ”‹‹ƒŽ‘—”–ǡdzͣ͟͜Ǥ  „‹†Ǥ


LONG-TERM STALEMATE

49

ƒ„—•Š‡•ǡƒ††‘‡•‘–’‘•‡ƒ•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ––Š”‡ƒ––‘–Š‡‰ƒ†ƒ•–ƒ–‡ǤŠ‡‹• ‘—–—„‡”‡†ƒ–Ž‡ƒ•––‡–‘‘‡„›‰‘˜‡”‡–ˆ‘”…‡•ǡƒ†Šƒ•‹ˆƒ…–„‡‡ƒŽ‘•– ‡–‹”‡Ž›’—•Š‡†‘—–‘ˆ ‰ƒ†ƒ ‹”‡…‡–›‡ƒ”•Ǥͥ͞ —”–Š‡”‘”‡ǡ –Š‡ Žƒ…‘ˆ’‘’—Žƒ” •—’’‘”–…‘•–‹–—–‡•ƒ‹•—”‘—–ƒ„Ž‡‘„•–ƒ…Ž‡ˆ‘”‘›ǯ•‘˜‡‡–ǡ™Š‹…Š‹•‘™ …‘’Ž‡–‡Ž› †‹•…‘‡…–‡† ˆ”‘ –Š‡ Ž‘…ƒŽ ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ǡ ƒ† Šƒ• ”‡…—””‡–Ž› –ƒ”‰‡–‡† …‹˜‹Ž‹ƒ•‹‹–•ƒ––ƒ…•Ǥ Š‡’”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆƒ†‡…‹•‹˜‡˜‹…–‘”›ˆ‘”–Š‡‰ƒ†ƒ‰‘˜‡”‡–‹•ƒŽ•‘Ž‘™Ǥ ƒ”ƒ†‘š‹…ƒŽŽ›ǡ–Š‡‰‘˜‡”‡–ǯ•‹Ž‹–ƒ”›‘ơ‡•‹˜‡•ǡ™Š‹…ŠŠƒ˜‡…‘•‹†‡”ƒ„Ž›”‡†—…‡† –Š‡ —„‡” ‘ˆ  ‡„‡”•ǡ Šƒ˜‡ ƒŽ•‘ ƒ†‡ ‹– ‘”‡ †‹ƥ…—Ž– –‘ ‡Ž‹‹ƒ–‡ –Š‡ ”‡ƒ–•‘ˆ –Š‡‰”‘—’Ǥ • ‡˜ƒ‡š’Žƒ‹•ǡ Dz Ƥ‰Š–‡”• Šƒ˜‡ ‘™†‹•’‡”•‡† ‹–‘ •ƒŽŽ‰”‘—’•ȑǤǤǤƒ†Ȓ•‘ˆƒ”ǡ–Š‹•–ƒ…–‹…Šƒ•’”‘˜‡†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡ˆ‘”ƒ––ƒ…‹‰ƒ†ƒ„†—…–‹‰ ’‡‘’Ž‡ ˆ”‘ –Š‡ Ž‘…ƒŽ …‘—‹–›ǡ ƒ• ™‡ŽŽ ƒ• ˆ‘” ƒ˜‘‹†‹‰ …‘•–Ž› ‡…‘—–‡”• ™‹–Š ȑ‰ƒ†ƒ‡‘’Ž‡‡ˆ‡…‡ ‘”…‡•ȒǤdz͟͜ ƒ††‹–‹‘ǡ†‡•’‹–‡–Š‡ǯ•†™‹†Ž‹‰Ƥ‰Š–‹‰ …ƒ’ƒ…‹–›ǡƒ„†—…–‹‘”‡’”‡•‡–•ƒƒŽ‘•–‹‡šŠƒ—•–‹„Ž‡•‘—”…‡‘ˆ‡™”‡…”—‹–•ˆ‘”–Š‡ ‰”‘—’ǤŠ‡”‡ˆ‘”‡ǡ‹–Š‡…ƒ•‡‘ˆ–Š‡ǡ”‡…—””‡–Ž‘••‡•‹„ƒ––Ž‡•†‘‘–‡…‡••ƒ”‹Ž› •—‰‰‡•– –Šƒ– –Š‡‘”‰ƒ‹œƒ–‹‘ ‹•ƒ„‘—– –‘†‹••‘Ž˜‡Ǥ • ‡Ž†ƒ ‘–‡•ǡ Dz–Š‘—‰Š –Š‡ ƒ…–—ƒŽ —„‡” ‘ˆ ”‡„‡Ž• ƒ› ƪ—…–—ƒ–‡ǡ –Š‡› Šƒ˜‡ ‡˜‡” ”‡ƒ…Š‡† ƒ ’‘‹– „‡Ž‘™ ™Š‹…Š–Š‡‰”‘—’…‘—Ž†‘–”‡‰‡‡”ƒ–‡Ǥdz͟͝ —”–Š‡”‘”‡ǡ–Š‡•‹œ‡ƒ†–Š‡‰‡‘‰”ƒ’Š‹… …Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ”‡ƒ ‹ ™Š‹…Š –Š‡  ‘’‡”ƒ–‡• Šƒ˜‡ ƒŽ•‘ …‘’Ž‹…ƒ–‡† –Š‡ ‰ƒ†ƒ”›ǯ•‡ơ‘”–•–‘Ƥ†‘›ǤŠ‡‘˜‡•ƒ”‘—†‰ƒ†ƒǡ–Š‡‡‘…”ƒ–‹… ‡’—„Ž‹…‘ˆ–Š‡‘‰‘ǡ‘—–Š—†ƒƒ†‡–”ƒŽˆ”‹…ƒ‡’—„Ž‹…Ȅƒ”‡‰‹‘–Š‡•‹œ‡ ‘ˆ ”ƒ…‡™‹–ŠŽ‹––Ž‡‹ˆ”ƒ•–”—…–—”‡–‘‘˜‡ƒ†•—’’Ž›–”‘‘’•Ǥ͟͞‘•‡“—‡–Ž›ǡ‹–‹• ”‡ƒ•‘ƒ„Ž‡–‘„‡Ž‹‡˜‡–Šƒ––Š‡‰‘˜‡”‡–ǯ•‹Ž‹–ƒ”›•—’‡”‹‘”‹–›™‹ŽŽ‘–‰—ƒ”ƒ–‡‡ƒ †‡…‹•‹˜‡˜‹…–‘”›ƒ‰ƒ‹•––Š‡‹–Š‡‡ƒ”ˆ—–—”‡Ǥ ‘””—’–‹‘ƒ†‹…‘’‡–‡…‡‹–Š‡‰ƒ†ƒ”›ǡ‘™”‡ƒ‡†–Š‡‰ƒ†ƒ ‡‘’Ž‡‡ˆ‡…‡ ‘”…‡ȋ ȌǡŠƒ˜‡”ƒ‹•‡†ˆ—”–Š‡”‘„•–ƒ…Ž‡•‹–Š‡Ƥ‰Š–ƒ‰ƒ‹•––Š‡ Ǥ……‘”†‹‰–‘ ‡Ž†ƒǡDzŠ‡ •Š‘”–…‘‹‰•ƒ”‡—‡”‘—•ǡ„‡‰‹‹‰™‹–Š ƒ‰‡‡”ƒŽŽƒ…‘ˆ…‘’‡–‡–ǡ†‡†‹…ƒ–‡†‹Ž‹–ƒ”›’”‘ˆ‡••‹‘ƒŽ•Ǥdz͟͟Š‡‰ƒ†ƒ”› ͥ͞   ͟͜   ͟͝   ͟͞  

 ‡Ž†ƒǡDzŠ›‰ƒ†ƒ ƒ• ƒ‹Ž‡†ǡdz͢͠Ǥ

͟͟  

 ‡Ž†ƒǡDzŠ›‰ƒ†ƒ ƒ• ƒ‹Ž‡†ǡdz͢͠Ǥ

‡˜ƒǡDzŠ‡›–Š‘ˆƒ†‡••ǡdz͟͠͡Ǥ  ‡Ž†ƒǡDzŠ›‰ƒ†ƒ ƒ• ƒ‹Ž‡†ǡdzͣ͠Ǥ —ƒ”ƒ–‘ǡDz†‹‰–Š‡‡ƒŽ‹‰Š–ƒ”‡•ǡdzͤ͟͝Ǥ


50

MARTINICH

Šƒ•„‡‡ƒ……—•‡†‘ˆ…”‡ƒ–‹‰Dz‰Š‘•–•‘Ž†‹‡”•dz™Š‘‹”‡ƒŽ‹–›™‡”‡†‡ƒ†‘”‹••‹‰ǡ„—– ™Š‘•‡•ƒŽƒ”‹‡•™‡”‡†—Ž›…‘ŽŽ‡…–‡†„›‘–Š‡”‡„‡”•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ”›Ǥ͟͠•–‹ƒ–‡••—‰‰‡•– –Šƒ– –Š‹• ’”‘„Ž‡ …‘•–• –Š‡ ‰‘˜‡”‡– ͊͜͠ ‹ŽŽ‹‘ ’‡” ›‡ƒ”Ǥ͟͡  –‡ŽŽ‹‰ ‡šƒ’Ž‡ ‘……—””‡†‹ ‡„”—ƒ”›͜͜͞͞ǡ‹–Š‡™ƒ‡‘ˆ’‡”ƒ–‹‘ ”‘ ‹•–ǡ™Š‡ƒƒ—†‹–‘ˆ–Š‡ ͠th†‹˜‹•‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ”›”‡˜‡ƒŽ‡†–Šƒ––Š‡”‡™‡”‡‘Ž›͜͜͞͠•‘Ž†‹‡”•ƒ˜ƒ‹Žƒ„Ž‡–‘Ƥ‰Š– ƒŽ–Š‘—‰Š–Š‡†‹˜‹•‹‘…Žƒ‹‡†–‘Šƒ˜‡ͣ͜͜͞Ǥ͟͢Š‡”‡ˆ‘”‡ǡ–Š‡‹…”‡ƒ•‡•‹–Š‡‹Ž‹–ƒ”› „—†‰‡– ‹ ‰ƒ†ƒ Šƒ˜‡ ‘– –”ƒ•Žƒ–‡† ‹–‘ ƒ ‹…”‡ƒ•‡‘ˆ–Š‡…ƒ’ƒ„‹Ž‹–‹‡•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ”›Ǥ ƒ””‹‰ ƒ †‡…‹•‹˜‡ ˜‹…–‘”› ˆ‘” ‡‹–Š‡” •‹†‡ǡ –Š‡ ”‡ƒ‹‹‰ ƒŽ–‡”ƒ–‹˜‡ –‘ ƒ •–ƒŽ‡ƒ–‡ ‹• ƒ ‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‡† •‡––Ž‡‡–Ǥ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ ƒ ’‡ƒ…‡ˆ—Ž •‘Ž—–‹‘ –‘ –Š‡ …‘ƪ‹…– †‘‡• ‘– •‡‡ Ž‹‡Ž› —†‡” –Š‡ …—””‡– …‹”…—•–ƒ…‡•Ǥ ‹”•–ǡ –Š‡”‡ ‹• ƒ‰”‡ƒ–†‡ƒŽ‘ˆ‹•–”—•–„‡–™‡‡–Š‡‰‘˜‡”‡– ƒ† –Š‡ ǡ ™Š‹…Š ’”‘†—…‡• ƒ …‘‹–‡– ’”‘„Ž‡ǣ ‹ –Š‡ ƒ„•‡…‡ ‘ˆ —–—ƒŽ –”—•–ǡ ‡ƒ…Š ’ƒ”–› •‡‡• –‘ „‡ ”‡Ž—…–ƒ– –‘ …‘‹– –‘ ƒ› ƒ‰”‡‡‡–™Š‡”‡–Š‡‘Ž›ƒ••—”ƒ…‡‹•–Š‡‘–Š‡”

A  central  element   of  a  new  approach   should  be  a  clear   and  effective  path   to  demobilization   and  reintegration   for  former   combatants.

•‹†‡ǯ• ™‘”†Ǥ ‘‡–• ˆ”‘ „‘–Š ‘› ƒ† —•‡˜‡‹ ‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‡ –Š‹• –‡•‹‘Ǥ  ƒ ‹–‡”˜‹‡™ǡ ‘› ƒƥ”‡† –Šƒ– Dz—•‡˜‡‹ …ƒ‘––ƒŽ’‡ƒ…‡ǡŠ‡‹•ƒ‹ŽŽ‡”ƒ†Š‡™ƒ–‡†–‘‹ŽŽ‡„›ƒŽŽ‡ƒ•Ǥdzͣ͟  On  the  other   Šƒ†ǡ—•‡˜‡‹Šƒ•”‡ˆ‡””‡†–‘–Š‡ƒ•Dzˆ‘‘Ž•ǡdzDz–‡””‘”‹•–•ǡdzƒ†Dz…”‹‹ƒŽ•Ǥdzͤ͟Š‹• ‹•–”—•– Šƒ••–‡ƒ†‹Ž› ‹…”‡ƒ•‡†ƒ•’ƒ•–’‡ƒ…‡ ‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‹‘• Šƒ˜‡ ˆƒ‹Ž‡†ǤŽ–Š‘—‰Š ‹– …‘—Ž†„‡ƒ”‰—‡†–Šƒ–ƒ–Š‹”†Ǧ’ƒ”–›‡†‹ƒ–‘”…‘—Ž†Š‡Ž’‘˜‡”…‘‡–Š‹•…‘‹–‡– ’”‘„Ž‡ǡ…—””‡–Ž›–Š‡”‡‹•‘‡š–‡”ƒŽƒ…–‘”™Š‘‹•–”—•–‡†„›„‘–Š’ƒ”–‹‡•ǤŠ‡Žƒ•– ƒ––‡’––‘—•‡ƒ–Š‹”†’ƒ”–›™ƒ•†—”‹‰–Š‡ —„ƒ–ƒŽ•‹ͣ͜͜͞ǡ™Š‡–Š‡‰‘˜‡”‡–‘ˆ ‘—–Š—†ƒ‹‹–‹ƒŽŽ›ƒ…–‡†ƒ•ƒ‡†‹ƒ–‘”„‡ˆ‘”‡–Š‡†‡…Žƒ”‡†‹–—–”—•–™‘”–Š›Ǥͥ͟ —”–Š‡”‘”‡ǡ –Š‡ ǯ• …—””‡– ‡š‹•–‡–‹ƒŽ ‘–‹˜ƒ–‹‘• ”‡†‡” ƒ ‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‡† ͟͠   ͟͡   ͟͢   ͣ͟   ͤ͟   ͥ͟  

 „‹†Ǥ ŽŽ‡ƒ†Žƒ••‡”‘‘–ǡŠ‡‘”†ǯ•‡•‹•–ƒ…‡”›ǡ͡͞Ǥ  „‹†Ǥ ‹…‹ǡDzš‹•–‡–‹ƒŽ‘–‹˜ƒ–‹‘•ǡdz͟͠͞Ǥ —ƒ”ƒ–‘ǡDz†‹‰–Š‡‡ƒŽ‹‰Š–ƒ”‡•ǡdz͜͝͠Ǥ —‹ǡDz ‡––‹‰–‘‡ƒ…‡ǡdz͢͞Ǥ


LONG-TERM STALEMATE

51

•‡––Ž‡‡–™‹–Š–Š‡‰‘˜‡”‡–•‡ŽˆǦ†‡ˆ‡ƒ–‹‰ǤŠ‡ǯ•ƒ‹‰‘ƒŽ‘™•‡‡•–‘„‡ ‹†‡Ƥ‹–‡…‘–‹—ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ™ƒ”ǡ™Š‹…Š’”‘˜‹†‡•–Š‡‡„‡”•™‹–Š•‘‡„‡‡Ƥ–• –Šƒ––Š‡›™‘—Ž†‘Ž‘‰‡”‡Œ‘›‹…‹˜‹Ž•‘…‹‡–›ǤƤ‰Š–‡”•ƒ”‡”‡Ž—…–ƒ––‘Dz…‘‡ „ƒ…ˆ”‘–Š‡„—•Šdzƒ‹Ž›„‡…ƒ—•‡–Š‡›ˆ‡ƒ”ˆ‘”–Š‡‹”•ƒˆ‡–›ƒ†‡…‘‘‹…ˆ—–—”‡Ǥ  ƒ††‹–‹‘ǡ–Š‡›‘™–Š‡›™‹ŽŽ‘–„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–‡‹’‘Ž‹–‹…•‘”Œ‘‹–Š‡‰ƒ†ƒ ‹Ž‹–ƒ”›ǡ™Š‹…Š‹’Ž‹‡•–Š‡›™‘—Ž†ˆƒ…‡ƒ„Ž‡ƒ‡…‘‘‹…•‹–—ƒ–‹‘‹ˆ–Š‡›†‡…‹†‡†–‘ †‡‘„‹Ž‹œ‡Ǥ’‡ƒ…‡ƒ‰”‡‡‡–—†‡”–Š‡…—””‡–…‹”…—•–ƒ…‡•…‘—Ž†‘–’”‘˜‹†‡ –Š‡•‡‰—ƒ”ƒ–‡‡•ˆ‘”‡„‡”•Ǥ ‘–Š‡”™‘”†•ǡ‹–Š‡’”‡•‡–•–ƒ–‡ǡ–Š‡…‘•–‘ˆ Ƥ‰Š–‹‰ ‹• Ž‘™‡” –Šƒ –Š‡…‘•–‘ˆ†‡‘„‹Ž‹œ‹‰ ˆ‘” –Š‡ ǤŠ‡•‡…‹”…—•–ƒ…‡•ǡ ƒ……‘”†‹‰–‘‡˜ƒǡ•—‰‰‡•––Šƒ–‰ƒ†ƒˆƒ…‡•ƒDz•‡ŽˆǦ•—•–ƒ‹‹‰…‘ƪ‹…–Ǥdz͜͠

FORWARD:  LONG-­TERM  SOCIAL  AND  ECONOMIC  REINTEGRATION In ‘”†‡” –‘ „”‡ƒ –Š‡ …—””‡– •–ƒŽ‡ƒ–‡ǡ –Š‡ ‰‘˜‡”‡– —•–ǡ Ƥ”•– ‘ˆ ƒŽŽǡ ”‡–Š‹‹–•ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š–‘–Š‡…‘ƪ‹…–Ǥ––‡’–‹‰–‘…ƒ’–—”‡‘”‹ŽŽ‡˜‡”›‡„‡”‘ˆ –Š‡ǡ™Š‹…Š•‡‡•–‘„‡–Š‡‘˜‡”ƒ”…Š‹‰•–”ƒ–‡‰›‘ˆ–Š‡‰‘˜‡”‡–ǡ‹•˜‹”–—ƒŽŽ› ‹’‘••‹„Ž‡ ƒ† ™‘—Ž† …‘‡ ƒ– ‡‘”‘—• ‡…‘‘‹… ƒ† Š—ƒ …‘•–•Ǥ †‡” –Š‡ …—””‡– …‹”…—•–ƒ…‡•ǡ –Š‡ …‘ƪ‹…– ƒ’’‡ƒ”• –‘ Šƒ˜‡ ”‡ƒ…Š‡† ƒ ‡† ™‹–Š‘—– ƒ ‘ƥ…‹ƒŽ…Ž‘•‹‰ǡƒ•—„Ǧ‘’–‹ƒŽ•…‡ƒ”‹‘ˆ‘”„‘–Š’ƒ”–‹‡•Ǥ ‘”‡šƒ’Ž‡ǡ–Š‡‰‘˜‡”‡– ™‹ŽŽ „‡ ˆ‘”…‡† –‘ ƒ‹–ƒ‹ƒ—‡…‡••ƒ”‹Ž› Žƒ”‰‡ƒ”›‘ˆ ͠͡ ͜͜͜ –”‘‘’• ˆ‘”›‡ƒ”•ǡ ƒ†…‘–‹—‡•’‡†‹‰„‡–™‡‡͝͡ƒ†͜͞’‡”…‡–‘ˆ‹–•”‡˜‡—‡‹†‡ˆ‡…‡•‘ƒ•–‘ …‘–ƒ‹ƒ‹…”‡ƒ•‹‰Ž›ƒ”‰‹ƒŽ‹œ‡†”‡„‡Ž‰”‘—’Ǥ͠͝   Š‡ƒ„•‡…‡‘ˆƒ‘ƥ…‹ƒŽ…‘…Ž—•‹‘ƒŽ•‘’”‡˜‡–•–Š‡…‘—–”›ˆ”‘–”ƒ•ˆ‘”‹‰ ‹–•‹•–‹–—–‹‘•‹–‘–Š‘•‡Ƥ–ˆ‘”ƒ’‘•–Ǧ…‘ƪ‹…–•‘…‹‡–›ǤŠ‹•–”ƒ•ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘‡‡†•–‘ •–ƒ”–™‹–Šƒ”‡†—…–‹‘‹–Š‡•‹œ‡‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ”›ǡƒ•™‡ŽŽƒ”‡ƒ†Œ—•–‡–‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ”›ǯ• ”‘Ž‡‹ƒ’‘•–Ǧ…‘ƪ‹…–‡”ƒ™Š‡…‘—–‡”Ǧ‹•—”‰‡…›™‹ŽŽ‘Ž‘‰‡”„‡ƒ’”‹‘”‹–›Ǥ–Š‡” •‡…—”‹–›–Š”‡ƒ–••—…Šƒ•‘”†ƒ…‡ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽƒ†Žƒ†‹‡•™‹ŽŽŠƒ˜‡–‘„‡ƒ††”‡••‡†Ǥ ‹‹Žƒ”Ž›ǡ–Š‡…‘—–”›™‹ŽŽ‡‡†ƒ•–”‘‰‡”ǡ„‡––‡”Ǧ‡“—‹’’‡†Œ—†‹…‹ƒ”›–‘ƒ††”‡••–Š‡ Ž‡‰ƒŽ •–ƒ–—• ‘ˆ ˆ‘”‡” …‘„ƒ–ƒ–• ƒ† –Š‡ …Žƒ‹• ‘ˆ ˜‹…–‹•Ǥ –‡”ƒŽŽ› †‹•’Žƒ…‡† ’‡”•‘•ǡ ‹ –—”ǡ™‹ŽŽ ”‡“—‹”‡ Š‡Ž’ –‘ ”‡–—” –‘ –Š‡‹” Š‘‡•ǡ ”‡…Žƒ‹ –Š‡ Žƒ† –Šƒ– ͜͠   ͠͝  

‡˜ƒǡDzŠ‡›–Š‘ˆƒ†‡••ǡdz͟͡͡Ǥ DzŠ‡‹Ž‹–ƒ”›ƒŽƒ…‡ǡdz –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ •–‹–—–‡ˆ‘”–”ƒ–‡‰‹…–—†‹‡•͝͝͞ǡ‘Ǥ͝ȋ͜͞͝͞Ȍǣ͠͝͝Ǧ͢͠͞ǡͤ͠͡Ǥ


52

MARTINICH

™ƒ•–ƒ‡ˆ”‘–Š‡†—”‹‰–Š‡™ƒ”ǡƒ†•‡…—”‡–Š‡‹”Ž‹˜‡Ž‹Š‘‘†•Ǥ”ƒ‹‹‰’”‘‰”ƒ• ƒŽŽ‘™‹‰ˆ‘”‡””‡„‡Ž•–‘ƒ…“—‹”‡‡™•‹ŽŽ•ƒ†•—……‡••ˆ—ŽŽ›‡–‡”–Š‡Žƒ„‘—”ˆ‘”…‡ ™‹ŽŽƒŽ•‘Šƒ˜‡–‘„‡‹’Ž‡‡–‡†Ǥ Š‡”‡ˆ‘”‡ǡ–Š‡‰‘˜‡”‡–•Š‘—Ž†ƒ†‘’–ƒ‘”‡…‘’”‡Š‡•‹˜‡ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š–‘ •‘Ž˜‡–Š‡…‘ƪ‹…–Ǥ…‡–”ƒŽ‡Ž‡‡–‘ˆ–Šƒ–ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š•Š‘—Ž†„‡ƒ…Ž‡ƒ”ƒ†‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡ ’ƒ–Š–‘†‡‘„‹Ž‹œƒ–‹‘ƒ†”‡‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‘ˆ‘”ˆ‘”‡”…‘„ƒ–ƒ–•ǤŠ‡‘Ǧ”‡‡™ƒŽ ‘ˆ–Š‡‡•–›…–ǡ™Š‹…Š‡š’‹”‡†‹ƒ›͜͞͝͞„—–‡Œ‘›‡†‘˜‡”™Š‡Ž‹‰’‘’—Žƒ” •—’’‘”–ǡ‹•ƒ•‘—”…‡‘ˆ‰”‡ƒ–…‘…‡”‹–Š‡…Š‘Ž‹”‡‰‹‘ǡƒ†™‹ŽŽ‘•–Ž‹‡Ž›„‡…‘‡ ƒ‘„•–ƒ…Ž‡–‘ƤƒŽŽ›…‘…Ž—†‹‰–Š‡…‘ƪ‹…–Ǥ͠͞Š‡‹‹‡––Š”‡ƒ–‘ˆ’”‘•‡…—–‹‘ ™‹ŽŽ—†‘—„–‡†Ž›†‡–‡”—‡”‘—•™‘—Ž†Ǧ„‡†‡ˆ‡…–‘”•ˆ”‘”‡–—”‹‰–‘…‹˜‹Ž•‘…‹‡–›Ǥ Š‡‰‘˜‡”‡–•Š‘—Ž† ”‡‹–”‘†—…‡ –Š‡ ‡•–› …–™‹–Š‘—–†‡Žƒ›ƒ†ƒ„ƒ†‘ ‹–•’”‡˜‹‘—•Dz†‡‘„‹Ž‹œƒ–‹‘‹–ǡdz™Š‹…Š‹…Ž—†‡†ƒ•—‡“—‹˜ƒŽ‡––‘–Š”‡‡‘–Š• ‘ˆ ƒ –‡ƒ…Š‡”ǯ• •ƒŽƒ”›ǡ ƒ ƒ––”‡••ǡ ƒ† ’ƒ•Ǥ͟͠ Š‹• ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š ™ƒ• •Š‘”–Ǧ•‹‰Š–‡†ǡ ƒ† Ž‡ˆ– —ƒ††”‡••‡† –Š‡ —†‡”Ž›‹‰ ’”‘„Ž‡ ‘ˆ Ž‘‰Ǧ–‡” ‡…‘‘‹… ƒ† •‘…‹ƒŽ ”‡‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ‘–Š‡”‹†‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡‰‘˜‡”‡–ǯ•ƪƒ™‡†ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š…ƒ„‡ˆ‘—† ‹‹–•ͤ͜͜͞Ȁͥ͜͜͞„—†‰‡–ǡ™Š‹…ŠƒŽŽ‘…ƒ–‡†‘Ž›ͤ͞Ǥ͡„‹ŽŽ‹‘‰ƒ†ƒ•Š‹ŽŽ‹‰•ȋ”‘—‰ŠŽ› ͊͜͝‹ŽŽ‹‘Ȍ–‘•‘…‹ƒŽ†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–ǡ…‘’ƒ”‡†–‘‘˜‡”͟͜͡„‹ŽŽ‹‘•Š‹ŽŽ‹‰•ȋƒ”‘—† ͊ͥ͝͞‹ŽŽ‹‘Ȍ–‘•‡…—”‹–›Ǥ͠͠Š‡”‡ˆ‘”‡ǡ–Š‡•–ƒŽŽ‹‰‘ˆ–Š‡”‡‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‘’”‘…‡••†—‡–‘ ƒŽƒ…‘ˆˆ—†••Š‘—Ž†…‘‡ƒ•‘•—”’”‹•‡Ǥ͠͡  ‘”†‡”–‘‡…‘—”ƒ‰‡…‘„ƒ–ƒ–•–‘†‡‘„‹Ž‹œ‡ǡ–Š‡‰‘˜‡”‡–‡‡†• –‘ ’”‘˜‹†‡ Ž‡‰ƒŽ ‰—ƒ”ƒ–‡‡• ƒ† ‹…‡–‹˜‡• –‘ ™‘—Ž†Ǧ„‡ ”‡–—”‡‡•Ǥ —•‡˜‡‹ Ƥ”•– ‡‡†•–‘…”‡ƒ–‡ƒ†‹’Ž‡‡–’”‘–‡…–‹‘’”‘‰”ƒ•–Šƒ–™‘—Ž†‰—ƒ”ƒ–‡‡–Š‡•ƒˆ‡–› ‘ˆ ”‡–—”‡‡•Ǥ ‹‹Žƒ”Ž›ǡ ‹ˆ ‹– ‹• –‘ „‡ ‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡ ƒ† ƒ’’‡ƒŽ‹‰ ˆ‘”  ‡„‡”•ǡ ƒ †‡‘„‹Ž‹œƒ–‹‘ƒ†”‡‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‘’”‘‰”ƒ‡‡†•–‘ƒ†‘’–ƒ‡š’ƒ•‹˜‡ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š–‘ Œ—•–‹…‡–Šƒ–‹•‘–Ž‹‹–‡†–‘–Š‡’—‹•Š‡–‘ˆ’‡”’‡–”ƒ–‘”•Ǥƒ–Š‡”ǡ‹–•Š‘—Ž†‹…Ž—†‡ „”‘ƒ†‡”‰‘ƒŽ••—…Šƒ• Dz…‘ƪ‹…–”‡•‘Ž—–‹‘ǡ”‡…‘…‹Ž‹‰…‘—‹–‹‡• ȑƒ†Ȓ‡Ž‹…‹–‹‰ –”—–Šƒ„‘—–ƒ†…ƒ—•‡•‘ˆ–Š‡…‘ƪ‹…–Ǥdz͢͠ –Š‡…ƒ•‡‘ˆ ‰ƒ†ƒǡ™Š‡”‡†‡…ƒ†‡•‘ˆ   ͠͞  

ƒ•’‡”‰‰‡”ǡDzŠ‡†‘ˆ‡•–›‹‰ƒ†ƒǣ ’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘•ˆ‘”‡ˆ‡…–‹‘•ǡdz‘—‰Š”‘Œ‡…–ǡŠ––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ‡‘—‰Š’”‘Œ‡…–Ǥ‘”‰ȀƤŽ‡•Ȁ

 —Ž—‹•’ƒ–…ŠǤ’†ˆǤ

͟͠   ͠͠  

—‹ǡDz ‡––‹‰–‘‡ƒ…‡ǡdz͢͠Ǥ Dz‡‹—ƒŽ—†‰‡–‡”ˆ‘”ƒ…‡‡’‘”– ‹•…ƒŽ‡ƒ”ͤ͜͜͞Ȁͥ͜ǡdz‹‹•–”›‘ˆ ‹ƒ…‡ǡŽƒ‹‰ƒ†…‘‘‹…‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–ǡŠ––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ

Ƥƒ…‡Ǥ‰‘Ǥ—‰Ȁ‹†‡šǤ’Š’Ȁˆ—†‹‰Ǧ”‡Ž‡ƒ•‡•Ȁ†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–Ǧ„—†‰‡–Ǧ”‡Ž‡ƒ•‡•ǤŠ–ŽǤ

͠͡  

‰‰‡”ǡDzŠ‡†‘ˆ‡•–›‹‰ƒ†ƒǤdz

͢͠  

ƒ–‡ŽŽƒǡDz”‘•‡…—–‹‘ƒ†‡ƒ…‡ǣ‘Ž‡ˆ‘”‡•–›‡ˆ‘”‡–Š‡ ǫdz‡˜‡” ‘—”ƒŽ‘ˆ –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽƒ™ƒ†‘Ž‹…›ͥ͟ǡ‘Ǥ͞ȋ͜͞͝͝Ȍǣ


LONG-TERM STALEMATE

53

…‘ƪ‹…–Šƒ˜‡†‡•–”‘›‡†–Š‡•‘…‹ƒŽˆƒ„”‹…ǡ‡…Šƒ‹••–Šƒ–ˆ‘…—•‘”‡•–‘”ƒ–‹˜‡Œ—•–‹…‡ •‡‡–‘„‡—…Š‘”‡ƒ†‡“—ƒ–‡–Šƒ”‡–”‹„—–‹˜‡Œ—•–‹…‡ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š‡•ǡ•—…Šƒ•–Šƒ–‘ˆ –Š‡ Ǥͣ͠Š‡—•‡‘ˆ Ž‘…ƒŽ Œ—•–‹…‡ ‡…Šƒ‹••ǡ ‘–ƒ„Ž› ƒ–‘‘’—–ǡ…‘—Ž†•‡”˜‡ƒ• ƒ„ƒ•‡ˆ‘”ƒ™‹†‡”’”‘…‡••‘ˆŽ‘…ƒŽ”‡…‘…‹Ž‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ›‡‘‡–ƒŽǤ†‡Ƥ‡ƒ–‘‘’—–ƒ• Dzƒ‡–Š‘†‘ˆ†‹•’—–‡”‡•‘Ž—–‹‘‡’Ž‘›‡†ƒˆ–‡”–Š‡—”†‡”‘”—‹–‡–‹‘ƒŽ‹ŽŽ‹‰ „‡–™‡‡…Žƒ•‹…Š‘Ž‹dz™Š‘•‡—Ž–‹ƒ–‡‰‘ƒŽ‹•Dz–‘ ”‡•–‘”‡”‡Žƒ–‹‘•„‡–™‡‡–Š‡‘ơ‡†‡†…Žƒ•Ǥdzͤ͠  

Where  decades   OFÒCON¹ICTÒHAVEÒ DESTROYEDÒTHEÒ   social  fabric,   approaches  must   focus  on  restorative   justice  rather     than  retributive

•ƒ’—„Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘„›–Š‡ –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ‡–‡” ˆ‘””ƒ•‹–‹‘ƒŽ —•–‹…‡‡Ž—…‹†ƒ–‡•ǡDz’—„Ž‹…‘’‹‹‘ ƒ† •–—†‹‡• Šƒ˜‡ ”‡’‡ƒ–‡†Ž› ‹†‹…ƒ–‡† –Šƒ– –Š‡ †‡•‹”‡ ˆ‘” –”—–ŠǦ•‡‡‹‰ ‹ ‰ƒ†ƒ ‹• •–”‘‰ƒ† –Šƒ– ‹– ‹• •‡‡ ƒ• ƒ ”‡ƒŽ ’”‹‘”‹–› „› ’‡‘’Ž‡ ‹ –Š‡ ”‡‰‹‘• ƒơ‡…–‡† „› …‘ƪ‹…–Ǥdzͥ͠ Š‡”‡ˆ‘”‡ǡ ƒ –”—–Š ƒ†”‡…‘…‹Ž‹ƒ–‹‘…‘‹••‹‘„ƒ•‡†‘–Š‡ƒ–‘ ‘’—–•›•–‡‹‘”–Š‡”‰ƒ†ƒ…‘—Ž†Ž‡ƒ†–‘Dz–Š‡ …‘‘Ž‹‰ ‘ˆ Š‡ƒ”–•dz͜͡ ‹ –Š‡ ”‡‰‹‘ ƒ† …‘—Ž† ƒŽ•‘ †‡…”‡ƒ•‡–Š‡Ž‹‡Ž‹Š‘‘†‘ˆƒ”‡Žƒ’•‡‹–‘…‘ƪ‹…–Ǥ‘ –Š‹•‡†ǡ‰ƒ†ƒ…‘—Ž†ƒ––‡’––‘”‡’Ž‹…ƒ–‡‘—–Š

ˆ”‹…ƒǯ•”—–Šƒ†‡…‘…‹Ž‹ƒ–‹‘‘‹••‹‘ǡ™Š‹…Š’Žƒ›‡†ƒ‡›”‘Ž‡‹–Š‡…‘—–”›ǯ• ”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡Ž›’‡ƒ…‡ˆ—Ž–”ƒ•‹–‹‘–‘†‡‘…”ƒ…›Ǥ͡͝—…Šƒ…‘‹••‹‘…‘—Ž†ǡ‹ƒ††‹–‹‘ǡ Ž‡ƒ†–‘–Š‡™‹–Š†”ƒ™ƒŽ‘ˆ–Š‡ ƒ””‡•–™ƒ””ƒ–•ƒ‰ƒ‹•––Š‡…‘ƒ†‡”•Ǥ  ˆƒ…–ǡ—†‡””–‹…Ž‡ͣ͝‘ˆ–Š‡‘‡–ƒ–—–‡ǡ’”‘•‡…—–‘”•…ƒ†‡–‡”‹‡–Šƒ–ƒ…ƒ•‡‹• ‘–ƒ†‹••‹„Ž‡‹ˆ‹–DzŠƒ•„‡‡‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‡†„›ƒ–ƒ–‡™Š‹…ŠŠƒ•Œ—”‹•†‹…–‹‘‘˜‡”‹– ƒ†–Š‡–ƒ–‡Šƒ•†‡…‹†‡†‘––‘’”‘•‡…—–‡–Š‡’‡”•‘…‘…‡”‡†Ǥdz͡͞ —”–Š‡”ǡ”–‹…Ž‡ ͟͡‡•–ƒ„Ž‹•Š‡•–Šƒ–ƒ’”‘•‡…—–‘”…ƒ†‡…Ž‹‡–‘’”‘…‡‡†™‹–Šƒ‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‹‘™Š‡ ͥ͟͞Ǧ͟͜͝ǡ͢͞͠Ǥ

ͣ͠  

‡±‡ ‡ơ”‡›ǡDz ‘”‰‹˜‡‡••ǡ‡•–›ƒ† —•–‹…‡ǣŠ‡ƒ•‡‘ˆ–Š‡‘”†ǯ•‡•‹•–ƒ…‡”›‹‘”–Š‡”‰ƒ†ƒǡdz‘‘’‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒ†‘ƪ‹…–͢͠ǡ

‘Ǥ͝ȋ͜͞͝͝ȌǣͤͥǤ ͤ͠  

‡––››‡‘‡–ƒŽǤǡDzǮ–Š‡‘‘Ž‹‰‘ˆ ‡ƒ”–•ǯǣ‘—‹–›”—–ŠǦ‡ŽŽ‹‰‹‘”–Š‡”‰ƒ†ƒǡdz —ƒ‹‰Š–•‡˜‹‡™͟͝ǡ‘Ǥ͝ȋ͜͞͝͞Ȍǣ͝͝͝Ǥ

ͥ͠  

Dz‘ˆ”‘–‹‰–Š‡ƒ•–ǣ”—–Š‡ŽŽ‹‰ƒ†‡…‘…‹Ž‹ƒ–‹‘‹‰ƒ†ƒǡdz –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ‡–”‡ˆ‘””ƒ•‹–‹‘ƒŽ —•–‹…‡ǡŠ––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ‹…–ŒǤ‘”‰Ȁ•‹–‡•

†‡ˆƒ—Ž–ȀƤŽ‡•Ȁ  Ǧ”‹‡Ƥ‰Ǧ‰ƒ†ƒǦ‘ˆ”‘–‹‰Ǧƒ•–Ǧ͜͞͝͞Ǧ‰Ž‹•ŠǤ’†ˆȋƒ……‡••‡†‡…‡„‡”͝͝ǡ͜͞͝͞ȌǤ

͜͡   ͡͝  

‡––››‡‘‡–ƒŽǤǡŠ‡‘‘Ž‹‰‘ˆ ‡ƒ”–•ǡ͝͝͝Ǥ

͡͞  

Dz‘‡–ƒ–—–‡‘ˆ–Š‡ –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ”‹‹ƒŽ‘—”–ǡdz‹–‡†ƒ–‹‘•ǡŠ––’ǣȀȀ—–”‡ƒ–›Ǥ—Ǥ‘”‰Ȁ…‘†Ȁ‹……Ȁ•–ƒ–—–‡Ȁ‡‰Ž‹•ŠȀ”‘‡̼•–ƒ–—–‡ȋ‡ȌǤ’†ˆ

ŽŽƒǡ”‘•‡…—–‹‘ƒ†‡ƒ…‡ǡ͞͠͞Ǥ

ȋƒ……‡••‡†‡…‡„‡”͝͝ǡ͜͞͝͞ȌǤ


54

MARTINICH

†‘‹‰•‘Dz‹•‘–‹–Š‡‹–‡”‡•–•‘ˆŒ—•–‹…‡Ǥdz͟͡›”‡‘˜‹‰–Š‡–Š”‡ƒ–‘ˆ’”‘•‡…—–‹‘ ˆ”‘–Š‡ ǡ–Š‡ ‘™‘—Ž†„‡‹ƒ„‡––‡”’‘•‹–‹‘–‘‡…‘—”ƒ‰‡…‘ƒ†‡”• –‘†‡‘„‹Ž‹œ‡Ǥ

CONCLUSIONS F‘” –Š‡ ’ƒ•– ͞͡›‡ƒ”•ǡ –Š‡…‘ˆ”‘–ƒ–‹‘ „‡–™‡‡ –Š‡ ƒ† –Š‡ ‰ƒ†ƒ ‰‘˜‡”‡–Šƒ•„‡‡ƒ•‘—”…‡‘ˆ–—”‘‹Ž‹ƒ•–ˆ”‹…ƒǤŠ‡ƒ–”‘…‹–‹‡•…‘‹––‡† „›–Š‡Šƒ˜‡…‘–”‹„—–‡†–‘–Š‡…‘ƪ‹…–ǯ•”‡’—–ƒ–‹‘ƒ•‘‡‘ˆ–Š‡…”—‡ŽŽ‡•–ƒ† „Ž‘‘†‹‡•–‘–Š‡…‘–‹‡–ǤŽ–Š‘—‰Š–Š‡‰ƒ†ƒƒ”›Šƒ•ƒƒ‰‡†–‘™‡ƒ‡–Š‡ ‹”‡…‡–›‡ƒ”•ǡƒ†‡…‹•‹˜‡‹Ž‹–ƒ”›˜‹…–‘”›‹•—Ž‹‡Ž›Ǥ ‹˜‡–Š‡…—””‡–•–ƒ–‡ ‘ˆ–Š‡…‘ƪ‹…–ǡƒ‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‡†•‡––Ž‡‡–ƒŽ•‘•‡‡•—Ž‹‡Ž›Ǥ ™ƒ””ƒ–ƒ‰ƒ‹•– ‘›ƒ†–Š‡‡š’‹”›‘ˆ–Š‡‡•–›…–‹ƒ›͜͞͝͞ƒ”‡•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–†‡–‡””‡–•ˆ‘”–Š‡ –‘‡‰ƒ‰‡‹•‡”‹‘—•‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ ‘”ƒ‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‡†•‡––Ž‡‡––‘•—……‡‡†ǡ–Š‡ ‰ƒ†ƒ‰‘˜‡”‡–™‹ŽŽ Šƒ˜‡–‘”‡˜‹•‡ ‹–•ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š–‘–Š‡…‘ƪ‹…–ǡƒ††‡•‹‰ƒ …‘’”‡Š‡•‹˜‡†‡‘„‹Ž‹œƒ��‹‘ƒ†”‡‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‘’”‘‰”ƒ–Šƒ–…‘—Ž†…‘˜‹…‡ ‡„‡”•–‘Žƒ›†‘™–Š‡‹”ƒ”•ǤŠ‹•’”‘‰”ƒ™‹ŽŽŠƒ˜‡–‘†‡ƒŽ™‹–Š•‘…‹ƒŽǡŽ‡‰ƒŽǡƒ† ‡…‘‘‹…‹••—‡•–Šƒ–…ƒ‘–„‡ƒ††”‡••‡†—–‹Ž–Š‡…‘ƪ‹…–…‘‡•–‘ƒ‡†Ǥ‹…–‹• •Š‘—Ž†”‡…‡‹˜‡”‡’ƒ”ƒ–‹‘•ǡ •‡‡†–‘”‡–—”Š‘‡ǡƒ†ˆ‘”‡”…‘„ƒ–ƒ–•‡‡† –‘„‡”‡‹–‡‰”ƒ–‡†‹–‘…‹˜‹Ž•‘…‹‡–›ǤŽ›–Š‡™‹ŽŽ‹–„‡’‘••‹„Ž‡–‘†‡…Žƒ”‡–Šƒ––Š‡ …‘ƪ‹…–‹‰ƒ†ƒŠƒ•‡†‡†Ǥ

͟͡  

 „‹†Ǥ

8%&-RXUQDORI,QWHUQDWLRQDO$̆DLUV  >@


GOOD HEDGES, GOOD NEIGHBOURS?

55

Good  Hedges,  Good  Neighbours?  Ƭ     ǧ  Colin  Chia

INTRODUCTION Š‹ƒǯ•‰”‘™‹‰Šƒ”†’‘™‡”‹•™‹†‡Ž›ƒ–‹…‹’ƒ–‡†–‘„‡–Š‡†‡Ƥ‹‰ƒ””ƒ–‹˜‡ ‘ˆ–Š‡…‘‹‰†‡…ƒ†‡•ǡƒ”‹‰ƒ–‹‡‘ˆ—…‡”–ƒ‹–›‹–Š‡•‹ƒǦƒ…‹Ƥ…Ǥ‘—–”‹‡• ƒ”‡Ƥ†‹‰–Š‡‰‡‘’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ‰”‘—†•Š‹ˆ–‹‰„‡‡ƒ–Š–Š‡‹”ˆ‡‡–Ǥ ‘”—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǡ–Š‡•‡ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–•…”‡ƒ–‡„‘–Š‘’’‘”–—‹–›ƒ†ƒš‹‡–›ǤŠ‡‰”‘™–Š‘ˆ‹–•Žƒ”‰‡•––”ƒ†‹‰ partner   is   key   for   its   economy,   but   this   is   matched   by   uncertainty   regarding   how   China  will  use  its  growing  power,  and  whether,  as  a  close  American  ally,  Australia  will   „‡†”ƒ™‹–‘ƒ›…‘ƪ‹…––Šƒ–‹‰Š–‡”—’–Ǥ‡ƒ™Š‹Ž‡ǡ‘—–Š‡ƒ•–•‹ƒ…‘—–”‹‡• ˆƒ…‡ƒ•‹‹Žƒ”†‹Ž‡ƒǢ™Š‹Ž‡„‡‡Ƥ–‹‰ˆ”‘–Š‡‡…‘‘‹…‘’’‘”–—‹–‹‡•–Šƒ–Šƒ˜‡ ƒ……‘’ƒ‹‡†Š‹ƒǯ•”‹•‡ǡ–Š‡›ƒ”‡™ƒ”›‘ˆˆƒŽŽ‹‰—†‡”‡‹Œ‹‰ǯ••Šƒ†‘™Ǥ……‘”†‹‰Ž›ǡ –Š‡›ƒ”‡Š‡†‰‹‰ƒ‰ƒ‹•–Š‹ƒǡ•‡‡‹‰–‘ƒ˜‘‹†„‡‹‰…‘‡”…‡†‘˜‡”‹••—‡••—…Šƒ•


56

CHIA

–Š‡‘—–ŠŠ‹ƒ‡ƒ–‡””‹–‘”‹ƒŽ†‹•’—–‡•ǤŠ‹•‡••ƒ›ƒ”‰—‡•–Šƒ–Š‹ƒǯ•‹…”‡ƒ•‹‰ ƒ••‡”–‹˜‡‡••‹†‡ƒŽ‹‰™‹–Š‹–•‘—–Š‡ƒ•–•‹ƒ‡‹‰Š„‘—”•‹•†”‹˜‹‰–Š‡”‡‰‹‘ from   hedging   their   bets   (or   “soft   balancing”)   on   China’s   peaceful   rise,   towards   Šƒ”†‡”„ƒŽƒ…‹‰„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”ƒ•–Š‡›•‡‡‘’–‹‘•–‘”‡•‹•–Š‹‡•‡’‘™‡”ǤŽ–Š‘—‰Š –Š‡›ƒ”‡‘–†‹”‡…–Ž›‹’Ž‹…ƒ–‡†‹–Š‡‘—–ŠŠ‹ƒ‡ƒ–‡””‹–‘”‹ƒŽ†‹•’—–‡•ǡ‡‹–Š‡”

†‘‡•‹ƒȂƒ•‘—–Š‡ƒ•–•‹ƒǯ•”‡‰‹‘ƒŽŠ‡ƒ˜›™‡‹‰Š–Ȃǡ‘”—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒȂ„›˜‹”–—‡‘ˆ ‹–•‰‡‘‰”ƒ’Š‹…ƒ†‡…‘‘‹…’‘•‹–‹‘Ȃ…ƒ‡•…ƒ’‡„‡‹‰‹’Ž‹…ƒ–‡†‹–Š‡™‹†‡” ‹••—‡‘ˆ–Š‡”‡…‘Ƥ‰—”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ•‹ƒǦƒ…‹Ƥ…ǯ•”‡‰‹‘ƒŽ‘”†‡”ǤŠ—•ǡ–Š‹•‡••ƒ›ˆ—”–Š‡” argues  that  the  region’s  changing  power  dynamics  makes  Australia’s  relationship   ™‹–Š †‘‡•‹ƒ‹…”‡ƒ•‹‰Ž›‹’‘”–ƒ–ˆ‘”„‘–Š…‘—–”‹‡•ǡƒ†–Šƒ–„›…‘„‹‹‰ •–”‡‰–Š•ƒ†„—‹Ž†‹‰ƒ”‡‰‹‘ƒŽDz’‘™‡”…‘”‡dzǡ–Š‡•‡–™‘‹††Ž‡’‘™‡”•…ƒŠƒ˜‡ƒ ”‡ƒŽ‹’ƒ…–‘–Š‡•–”ƒ–‡‰‹…‘’–‹‘•ˆ‘”‘–Š‡”‘—–Š‡ƒ•–•‹ƒ…‘—–”‹‡•Ǥ

ASEAN  ANXIETIES:  THE  REGIONAL  CONTEXT   Š‡••‘…‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‘—–Š‡ƒ•–•‹ƒƒ–‹‘•ȋȌŠƒ•…‘‡–‘„‡’‹˜‘–ƒŽ ƒ†‡˜‡†‡…‹•‹˜‡‹–Š‡„—‹Ž†‹‰‘ˆ•‹ƒ”‡‰‹‘ƒŽ‹•Ǥ1—…Š‘ˆ–Š‡™‹†‡”•‹ƒǦ ƒ…‹Ƥ…ǯ• —Ž–‹Žƒ–‡”ƒŽƒ†•‡…—”‹–›ƒ”…Š‹–‡…–—”‡ ‹• „—‹Ž–™‹–Š ƒ•ƒ•–ƒ”–‹‰ ’‘‹–ǡƒ†–Š‡‘”‰ƒ‹•ƒ–‹‘…ƒ…Žƒ‹•—……‡••‹Šƒ˜‹‰…”‡ƒ–‡†ƒ‘”‡…‘Š‡•‹˜‡ƒ† …‘‘’‡”ƒ–‹˜‡‘—–Š‡ƒ•–•‹ƒ”‡‰‹‘Ǥ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ‡˜‡–•‹͜͞͝͞•Š‘™‡†Š‘™ ‹••–”ƒ‹‡†„›‡š–‡”ƒŽ‹ƪ—‡…‡•ǤŠ‡‹–”—•‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡‘—–ŠŠ‹ƒ‡ƒ–‡””‹–‘”‹ƒŽ †‹•’—–‡•‹–‘–Š‡ —Ž›͜͞͝͞‹‹•–‡”‹ƒŽ•—‹–…ƒ—•‡†–Š‡•—‹––‘ˆƒ‹Ž–‘ ’”‘†—…‡ƒŒ‘‹–…‘—‹“—±ˆ‘”–Š‡Ƥ”•––‹‡‹‹–•Š‹•–‘”›ǤŠ‹•…ƒ‡ƒ•ƒ”—†‡ ƒ™ƒ‡‹‰ƒ††‡‘•–”ƒ–‡†’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ–Š”‡ƒ–•–‘—‹–›Ǥ͞‡‡‡†–‘„‡–Š‡ product  of  Chinese  lobbyists,  this  failure  added  to  the  growing  uneasiness  towards   –Š‡”‹•‡‘ˆŠ‹ƒƒ‘‰•–‹–•‡‹‰Š„‘—”•Ǥ‡•’‹–‡–Š‡•—„•‡“—‡–ƒ’’‡ƒ”ƒ…‡‘ˆƒ —‹–‡†ˆ”‘–‹‘˜‡„‡”ǡ™Š‡–Š‡‘”‰ƒ‹•ƒ–‹‘ǯ•‡„‡”•ƒ‰”‡‡†–‘’—•Š‡‹Œ‹‰ –‘‡•–ƒ„Ž‹•Šƒˆ‘”ƒŽ…‘†‡‘ˆ…‘†—…–‹–Š‡•‡ƒǡ–Š‡ˆ—ŽŽ‹’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘•ˆ‘” 1  

Š‡Ž†‘‹‘ǡDzƒ†—Ž–‹Žƒ–‡”ƒŽ‹•ǣŠ‡Ž‘‰ǡ„—’›”‘ƒ†–‘…‘—‹–›ǡdz‘–‡’‘”ƒ”›‘—–Š‡ƒ•–•‹ƒ

͟͜ȋͤ͜͜͞Ȍǣ͢͞͠Ǧͥ͞͞Ǥ ͞

ƒ‡‰Š›‡ǡDzˆ–‡”–Š‡Š‘‡Š ƒ‹Ž—”‡ǣ‡‡†•–‘”‡‰ƒ‹…‘Š‡•‹‘ƒ†•‘Ž‹†ƒ”‹–›ǡdz 

‘‡–ƒ”‹‡•ǡ͢͝ —Ž›͜͞͝͞Ǥ


GOOD HEDGES, GOOD NEIGHBOURS?

57

•‘Ž‹†ƒ”‹–›ƒ”‡›‡––‘„‡•‡‡Ǣ–Š‡”‡™‡”‡…‘…‡”•ƒ„‘—–ƒ—†‡”Ž›‹‰•’Ž‹–‹ ‡˜‡„‡ˆ‘”‡–Š‹•‡’‹•‘†‡Ǥ3    ǯ• †‡Ǧˆƒ…–‘ Ž‡ƒ†‡” ‹• †‘‡•‹ƒǡ ƒ …‘—–”› –Šƒ– ƒ……‘—–• ˆ‘” ƒ„‘—– ͜͠ ’‡”…‡– ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‘”‰ƒ‹œƒ–‹‘ ‡„‡”•ǯ  ƒ† ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘Ǥ͠ – ‹• –Š—• –Š‡ …‘—–”›–Šƒ–™‹ŽŽ‘•–‹ƪ—‡…‡Š‘™–Š‡”‡‰‹‘™‹ŽŽ”‡•’‘†–‘–Š‡”‹•‡‘ˆŠ‹ƒǤ

–‹•—“—‡•–‹‘ƒ„Ž›ǯ•†‘‹ƒ–‡„‡”ǡ‘–‘Ž›„‡…ƒ—•‡‘ˆ–Š‡•›„‘Ž‹… Ž‘…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆǯ••‡…”‡–ƒ”‹ƒ–‹ ƒƒ”–ƒǤŠ‡‘”‰ƒ‹•ƒ–‹‘ǯ•‹…‡’–‹‘‹–•‡Žˆ…ƒ„‡ •‡‡ƒ• †‘‡•‹ƒ…‘•–”ƒ‹‹‰‹–•‘™’‘™‡”ƒ†ƒ„‹–‹‘ǡƒ……‡’–‹‰Ƥ”•–Ǧƒ‘‰Ǧ ‡“—ƒŽ••–ƒ–—•ƒ•‘—–Š‡ƒ•–•‹ƒǯ•Dz„‡‡˜‘Ž‡–Š‡‰‡‘Ǥdz5…‡”–ƒ‹–›‘˜‡”Š‘™Š‹ƒ ™‹ŽŽ …‘†—…– ‹–•‡Žˆ ‘Ž› ”‡‹ˆ‘”…‡• †‘‡•‹ƒǯ• ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ ‹ –Š‡ ”‡‰‹‘ƒŽ ’‹…–—”‡Ǥ Š‡–Š‡” …‘ƪ‹…– ‘” …‘‘’‡”ƒ–‹‘ ”‡•—Ž–•ǡ †‘‡•‹ƒ ™‹ŽŽ „‡ …”—…‹ƒŽŽ› ‹’‘”–ƒ– ‹ •–‡‡”‹‰ƒ†…‘’‹‰™‹–Š–Š‡‘—–…‘‡ǡ‰‹˜‡–Š‡…Ž‘—– –Šƒ–Šƒ•‹•‹ƒǦƒ…‹Ƥ…—Ž–‹Žƒ–‡”ƒŽ‹•Ȅƒ†–Š‡…Ž‘—––Šƒ– †‘‡•‹ƒ Šƒ•‹Ǥ͢‘”‡‘˜‡”ǡ †‘‡•‹ƒ‹•–‘ƒ‰”‡ƒ–‡š–‡–Ǯ–‹‡†ǯ–‘Ǣˆ‘” ƒƒ”–ƒ–‘ ƒ„ƒ†‘‹–•”‡‰‹‘ƒŽ‡‹‰Š„‘—”•™‘—Ž†„‡ƒ‡ƒ”–Š•Šƒ‹‰ƒ†—Ž‹‡Ž›†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–Ǥ

– ‹• „‡…‘‹‰ ‹…”‡ƒ•‹‰Ž› …Ž‡ƒ” –Šƒ– •‹ƒǦƒ…‹Ƥ… …‘—–”‹‡• ™‘—Ž† ’”‡ˆ‡” –‘ ƒ˜‘‹† China   gaining   regional   hegemony   or   primacy;   the   real   question   is   whether   they   …ƒ•—……‡••ˆ—ŽŽ›”‡•‹•–Š‹ƒǯ•ƒ„‹–‹‘•Ǥ•–Š‡”‡‰‹‘ƒŽŽ‡ƒ†‡”‘ˆ‘—–Š‡ƒ•–•‹ƒǡ

†‘‡•‹ƒŠƒ•ƒ‹–‡‰”ƒŽ”‘Ž‡–‘’Žƒ›ƒ•–Š‡”‡‰‹‘ǯ••–ƒ–‡••‡ƒ”…Šˆ‘”•–”ƒ–‡‰‹…‘’–‹‘•Ǥ

GARUDAS,  KANGAROOS,  AND  COMMON  INTERESTS

†‘‡•‹ƒƒ†—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒƒ”‡’ƒ”–‘ˆ–Š‡•ƒ‡…‘–‹‡–‹–Š‡™‘”Ž†Ǧ…‘“—‡•– „‘ƒ”†‰ƒ‡‹•ǡ„—–—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǯ••–”ƒ–‡‰‹…’‘Ž‹…›ƒ‡”•…‘—Ž†‘Ž›™‹•Šˆ‘”•—…Šƒ •‹’Ž‡ƒƥ‹–›‹”‡ƒŽ‹–›Ǥ †‡‡†ǡ—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ‰”ƒ’’Ž‡•™‹–Š“—‡•–‹‘•‘ˆ‹†‡–‹–›ƒ† Ž‘…ƒ–‹‘ ˆ‡™ ‘–Š‡” …‘—–”‹‡• ˆƒ…‡Ǥ Š‡ ˜‡”› –‡” Dz•‹ƒǦƒ…‹Ƥ…ǡdz …‘‘Ž› —•‡† ‹ —•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ –‘ ”‡ˆ‡” –‘ ‹–• ‘™ ”‡‰‹‘ǡ Š‹‰ŠŽ‹‰Š–• –Š‡ †‹ƥ…—Ž–› ‹ …‘…‡‹˜‹‰ ‘ˆ 3  

ƒ””›‡•‡”ǡDz • †‘‡•‹ƒ—–‰”‘™‹‰ǫǡdz ‘‡–ƒ”‹‡•ǡͥ͞‡’–‡„‡”͜͜͞͝Ǥ

͠

Dzƒ–ƒƒǡdz‘”Ž†ƒȋ͜͞͝͝ȌǤ

5  

ƒŽˆ‡”•ǡDz‡‰‹‘ƒŽ‘™‡”•ƒ†–Š‡š‡”…‹•‡‘ˆ ‡‰‡‘›‹‘—–Š‡ƒ•–•‹ƒǣ•–—†›‘ˆ †‘‡•‹ƒƒ†

‹‡–ƒǡdz•‹ƒ—”˜‡›͠͡ȋ͜͜͞͡Ȍǣͤ͢͠Ǧ͢͜͡Ǥ ͢

ڔ‰ ”‹‡†”‹…Š•ǡDzƒ•–•‹ƒ‡‰‹‘ƒŽ‡…—”‹–›ǣŠƒ––Š‡ˆƒ‹Ž›…ƒȋ‘–Ȍ†‘ǡdz•‹ƒ—”˜‡›͡͞ȋ͜͞͝͞Ȍǣͣ͡͠Ǧͣͣ͢ǡ

ͣ͢͡Ǥ


58

CHIA

—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒƒ•ƒDz•‹ƒdz…‘—–”›Ǥƒ–Š‡”ǡ—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ•‘ˆ–‡’‡”…‡‹˜‡–Š‡•‡Ž˜‡•ǡƒ† ƒ”‡’‡”…‡‹˜‡†ǡƒ•ƒ•–”ƒ‰‡ƒ†Ž‘‡Ž›‘—–’‘•–‘ˆ–Š‡‡•–Ǥͣ  Australia’s  largest  trading   ’ƒ”–‡”‹•Š‹ƒƒ†‹–•…Š‹‡ˆ•‡…—”‹–›ƒ††‡ˆ‡…‡ƒŽŽ›‹•–Š‡‹–‡†–ƒ–‡•ǤŠ‹Ž‡ –Š‡—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ’—„Ž‹…‹•Žƒ”‰‡Ž›•—’’‘”–‹˜‡‘ˆ–Š‡ƒŽŽ‹ƒ…‡ƒ†‡š’‡…–•—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ ˆ‘”‡‹‰’‘Ž‹…›–‘„‡…Ž‘•‡Ž›ƒŽ‹‰‡†™‹–Š–Š‘•‡‘ˆ‘–Š‡”‡•–‡”…‘—–”‹‡•ǡ‡…‘‘‹… ‹’‡”ƒ–‹˜‡•‡ƒ—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǯ•ˆƒ–‡‹•‹–‹ƒ–‡Ž›–‹‡†–‘ ƒ•– •‹ƒǤ —•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǯ• ’‘™‡”Š‘—•‡ ‹‹‰ •‡…–‘”ǡ ˆ‘” ‡šƒ’Ž‡ǡ‹•Š‹‰ŠŽ›†‡’‡†‡–‘†‡ƒ†ˆ”‘Š‹ƒǤ Š‡•‡ –‡•‹‘• …”‡ƒ–‡ …‘’Ž‡š‹–‹‡• ‹ —•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ policymaking  as  Australia  seeks   to  chart  a  course   to   ‡•—”‡„‘–Š‹–•†‡ˆ‡…‡ƒ†‡…‘‘‹…•‡…—”‹–›Ǥ  Ž–Š‘—‰Š ‘–Š‡” ‘—–Š‡ƒ•– •‹ƒ …‘—–”‹‡• †‘ ‘– Šƒ˜‡ –Š‡ •ƒ‡ …—Ž–—”ƒŽ ƒ† Š‹•–‘”‹…ƒŽ –‹‡• –‘ –Š‡ ‹–‡† –ƒ–‡• ƒ• —•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǡ –Š‡› ‡˜‡”–Š‡Ž‡•• Ƥ† –Š‡•‡Ž˜‡• ‹ ƒ •‹‹Žƒ” †‹Ž‡ƒǤ Š‡ ”‡‰‹‘ǯ• …‘—–”‹‡• Šƒ˜‡ ƒ ‰”‡ƒ– •–ƒ‡ ‹ Š‹ƒǯ• ‡…‘‘‹…

Indonesia  and   Australia  are   part  of  the  same   continent  in  Risk,   but  Australia’’s   policymakers  can   only  wish  for  such   AÒSIMPLEÒAFµNITY

•—……‡••ǡ „—– ƒŽ•‘ ™ƒ– –‘ ƒ˜‘‹† …‘‡”…‹‘ ‘” ˆƒŽŽ‹‰ ‹–‘‡‹Œ‹‰ǯ•‘”„‹–ǤŠ‡›Šƒ˜‡–Š—•”‡ƒ…–‡†–‘–Š‹•–‡•‹‘„›•‡‡‹‰–‘‡‡’–Š‡ ‡‰ƒ‰‡†‹–Š‡”‡‰‹‘ǤͤŠ‹•Š‡†‰‹‰„‡Šƒ˜‹‘—”Ȃ‹™Š‹…Š…‘—–”‹‡••‡‡–‘ ‘ơ•‡–Š‹ƒǯ•‹…”‡ƒ•‹‰’‘™‡”™‹–Š‹ƪ—‡…‡Ȃ…‘—Ž†„‡…‘‡•–”‘‰‡”‘”•™‹–…Š –‘ „ƒŽƒ…‹‰ǡ ƒ• Š‹ƒǯ• „‡Šƒ˜‹‘—” …‘Ƥ”• –Š‡‹” ˆ‡ƒ”•Ǥͥ ‘•‡“—‡–Ž›ǡ  …‘—–”‹‡•ǡƒŽ‘‰™‹–Š—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǡƒ”‡„‡‹‰†”‹˜‡–‘‡‰ƒ‰‡‡˜‡‘”‡™‹–Š–Š‡Ǥ͜͝  —•–”ƒŽ‹ƒƒ† †‘‡•‹ƒ„”‹‰–‘‰‡–Š‡”…‘’Ž‡‡–ƒ”›•–”‡‰–Š•ƒ†…‘‘ •–”ƒ–‡‰‹…‹–‡”‡•–•Ǥ †‘‡•‹ƒǡƒ‹††Ž‡Ǧ‹…‘‡†‡‘…”ƒ…›™‹–Š–Š‡™‘”Ž†ǯ•ˆ‘—”–ŠǦ Žƒ”‰‡•– ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ǡ Šƒ• ‹Š‡”‡– •–”ƒ–‡‰‹… ™‡‹‰Š– ƒ† ‰”‡ƒ– ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽǤ ‘˜‡”•‡Ž›ǡ —•–”ƒŽ‹ƒŠƒ•ƒ”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡Ž›•ƒŽŽ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ƒ†Žƒ”‰‡ǡ•’ƒ”•‡Ž›Ǧ’‘’—Žƒ–‡†Žƒ†ƒ••Ǥ ͣ

‘˜‡”˜‹‡™‘ˆ’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ†‡„ƒ–‡•‘˜‡”—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǯ•‰‡‘’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ‹†‡–‹–›…ƒ„‡ˆ‘—†‹ǣ‡ƒ—”‡ǡDz—‡•–‹‘•‘ˆ

‘—‹–›ǣ—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ‹†‡–‹–›ƒ†•‹ƒ…Šƒ‰‡ǡdz—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ ‘—”ƒŽ‘ˆ‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ…‹‡…‡͠͡ǡ‘Ǥ͝ȋ͜͜͞͝ȌǣͣͤǦͤ͟Ǥ ͤ

—‰ŠŠ‹–‡ǡŠ‡Š‹ƒŠ‘‹…‡ǣŠ›‡”‹…ƒ•Š‘—Ž†•Šƒ”‡’‘™‡”ȋ‘ŽŽ‹‰™‘‘†ǡ‹…ǣŽƒ… …Ǥǡ͜͞͝͞Ȍǡ͠͡Ǥ

ͥ

‡‹‘‰ƒǡDzŠ‡ƒ†ƒ•–•‹ƒ‡…—”‹–›”…Š‹–‡…–—”‡ǣ—‹Ž†‹‰ƒ”‡‰‹‘ƒŽ•‡…—”‹–›‡š—•‘Š—„Ǧƒ†Ǧ•’‘‡ǡdz•‹ƒ

‡”•’‡…–‹˜‡͟͡ȋ͜͞͝͝Ȍǣ͝Ǧ͟͢ǡ͠Ǥ ͜͝  

Ǥ ƒ‡• ‡”‰—•‘ǡDzŠ‹ƒǯ•‘‰Ǧ‡”‡Žƒ–‹‘•™‹–Š‘—–Š‡ƒ•–•‹ƒǣ‡›‘†–Š‡’‹˜‘–ǡdz—Ž–—”‡ƒ†ƒŽƒǣŠ‡—ŽŽ‡–‹

‘ˆ–Š‡‡–”‡ˆ‘”ƒ•–Ǧ‡•–—Ž–—”ƒŽƒ†…‘‘‹…–—†‹‡•͜͝ȋ͜͞͝͞Ȍǣ͡Ǧ͜͞ǡ͟͝Ǥ


GOOD HEDGES, GOOD NEIGHBOURS?

59

‘™‡˜‡”ǡ‹–ƒŽ•‘Šƒ•‘‡‘ˆ–Š‡™‘”Ž†ǯ•‘•–’”‘†—…–‹˜‡‡…‘‘‹‡•Ȃ͟͝–ŠǦŽƒ”‰‡•–„› ‘‹ƒŽ ƒ†•‡˜‡–Š’‡”…ƒ’‹–ƒȂ11ƒ†ƒ”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡Ž›’‘™‡”ˆ—Ž‹Ž‹–ƒ”›ˆ‘”…‡‹ –Š‡ ”‡‰‹‘ƒŽ ’‹…–—”‡Ǥ  —•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ †‡ˆ‡…‡ ’Žƒ‹‰ǡ ‹– Šƒ• Ž‘‰ „‡‡ ”‡…‘‰‹•‡† –Šƒ–•–”ƒ–‡‰‹…‰‡‘‰”ƒ’Š›ƒ‡• †‘‡•‹ƒ…”‹–‹…ƒŽ–‘—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ•‡…—”‹–›‹†‡ˆ‡†‹‰ –Š‡ …‘–‹‡– ˆ”‘ ƒ––ƒ…Ǥ͝͞   Australian   defence   strategy   considers   the   northern   ƒ‹” ƒ† •‡ƒ ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š‡• –‘ ‹–• Žƒ†ƒ•• ƒ ’”‹‡ …‘…‡”ǡ ƒ† ƒ ˆ”‹‡†Ž› †‘‡•‹ƒ •‹––‹‰ƒ•–”‹†‡–Š‘•‡ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š‡•‹•…”—…‹ƒŽ–‘–Š‡†‡ˆ‡…‡‘ˆ–Š‡—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ…‘–‹‡–Ǥ Š‡•‡ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š‡•ƒŽ•‘ˆ‘”—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǯ•˜‹–ƒŽ–”ƒ†‡ƒ†–”ƒ•’‘”–Ž‹•™‹–Š•‹ƒǡƒ† —•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǯ•ͥ͜͜͞‡ˆ‡…‡Š‹–‡ƒ’‡”…‘•‹†‡”•ƒ•–”‘‰ƒ†•–ƒ„Ž‡ †‘‡•‹ƒƒ•ƒ Dz˜‹–ƒŽ•–”ƒ–‡‰‹…‹–‡”‡•–ǡdz‹‘”†‡”–‘ƒ‹–ƒ‹ƒ•‡…—”‡”‡‰‹‘ƒŽ‡‹‰Š„‘—”Š‘‘†Ǥ13‘

†‘‡•‹ƒǡ —•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǯ• ‘”–Š‡” ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š‡• ƒ”‡ ‹–• –‡””‹–‘”‹ƒŽ ™ƒ–‡”•ǡ ƒ† ‹– Šƒ• ƒ ‘„˜‹‘—• ‹–‡”‡•– ‹†‡›‹‰ ˆ‘”‡‹‰ ’‘™‡” ‹–”—•‹‘• ‹–‘ –Š‡ƒ”‡ƒǤ͝͠Š‡•‡•Šƒ”‡† security  interests  are  one  reason  that  longstanding  defence  cooperation  is  deepening,   –Š‡ ‘„‘”‡ƒ–› ȋ͜͜͢͞Ȍ „‡‹‰‘‡ ‡› ‹Ž‡•–‘‡Ǥ—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒƒ† †‘‡•‹ƒ –Š—• Šƒ˜‡–Š‡’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ–‘„‡•–”ƒ–‡‰‹…’ƒ”–‡”•‹ƒ”‡‰‹‘‹…”‡ƒ•‹‰Ž›ƒơ‡…–‡†„›ƒŒ‘” ’‘™‡”‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘•ǡ”‹˜ƒŽ”‹‡•ƒ†’‡”Šƒ’•ǡ…‘ƪ‹…–•Ǥ  †‘‡•‹ƒƒŽ•‘Ž‘‘•Žƒ”‰‡‹—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǯ••‡…—”‹–›”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’•ƒ††‹’Ž‘ƒ–‹… ‡‰ƒ‰‡‡–• ™‹–Š –Š‡ ‘—–Š‡ƒ•– •‹ƒ ”‡‰‹‘Ǥ Š‡ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ ™‹–Š †‘‡•‹ƒ ‹• ˜‹–ƒŽ –‘ —•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǯ• ‡‰ƒ‰‡‡– ‘– ‘Ž› ™‹–Š ǡ ™Š‡”‡ †‘‡•‹ƒ ‹• –Š‡ ‹ƪ—‡–‹ƒŽŠ‡ƒ˜›™‡‹‰Š–ǡ„—–ƒŽ•‘™‹–Š–Š‡™‹†‡”•‹ƒǦƒ…‹Ƥ…Ǥ—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǯ•”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ ™‹–Š †‘‡•‹ƒ ‹• ‹•‡’ƒ”ƒ„Ž‡ ˆ”‘ ‹–•‡‰ƒ‰‡‡–™‹–Š –Š‡™‹†‡” ”‡‰‹‘ „‡…ƒ—•‡ ‘—–Š‡ƒ•– •‹ƒ …‘—–”‹‡• ‡ƒ•—”‡ —•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ „› ‹–• ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ ™‹–Š †‘‡•‹ƒǤ15  

†‘‡•‹ƒ ‹• –Š‡”‡ˆ‘”‡ ƒ ˜‹–ƒŽ …‘†—‹– ˆ‘” —•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ ‡‰ƒ‰‡‡– ™‹–Š ‘—–Š‡ƒ•– •‹ƒ ƒ† –Š‡ ™‹†‡” ”‡‰‹‘ǡ ‘‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ –‘’ —•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ ˆ‘”‡‹‰ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘• ’”‹‘”‹–‹‡•Ǥ͢͝   11  

Dzƒ–ƒƒǡdz‘”Ž†ƒȋ͜͞͝͝ȌǤ

͝͞  

ƒ—Ž‹„„ǡDz •–”ƒ–‡‰‹… ‡‘‰”ƒ’Š›‡Ž‡˜ƒ––‘—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǯ•—””‡–‡ˆ‡…‡‘Ž‹…›ǫǡdz—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ ‘—”ƒŽ‘ˆ –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ

ơƒ‹”•͢͜ȋ͜͜͢͞Ȍǣͣ͞͠Ǧ͢͞͠ǡͥ͞͠Ǧ͜͞͡Ǥ 13  

‡’ƒ”–‡–‘ˆ‡ˆ‡…‡ǡ‡ˆ‡†‹‰—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ‹–Š‡•‹ƒǦƒ…‹Ƥ……‡–—”›ǣ ‘”…‡͜͟͜͞ȋƒ„‡””ƒǡǣ‘‘™‡ƒŽ–Š‘ˆ

—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǡͥ͜͜͞Ȍǡ͠͞Ǥ ͝͠  

—‰ŠŠ‹–‡ǡDz‘„„Ž›”‹†‰‡ǣ–”ƒ–‡‰‹…‹–‡”‡•–•ƒ†‘„Œ‡…–‹˜‡•‹ ‘”…‡͜͟͜͞ǡdz‡…—”‹–›ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‡•͡ȋͥ͜͜͞Ȍǣ͞͝Ǧͥ͞Ǥ

15    

ƒ—Ž‡ŽŽ›ǡDz—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ‹‡™ǣŠ‡‘—–Ž‘‘ˆ‘”–Š‡”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ǡdz‹‹ơ‡”‡–‘…‹‡–‹‡•ǡŠƒ”‡† —–—”‡•ǣ—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǡ

 †‘‡•‹ƒƒ†–Š‡”‡‰‹‘ǡ‡†Ǥ ‘Š‘ˆ”‹‡•ȋ‹‰ƒ’‘”‡ǣ •–‹–—–‡‘ˆ‘—–Š‡ƒ•–•‹ƒ–—†‹‡•ǡ͜͜͢͞Ȍǣ͟͠Ǧͤ͟Ǥ ͢͝    

ƒ‹‡‹‰•„—”›ǡ™‘–‡’• ‘”™ƒ”†ǡ‡–‡’ƒ…ǣ †‘‡•‹ƒǯ•ƒ”†—‘—•’ƒ–Š‘ˆ”‡ˆ‘”ȋƒ„‡””ƒǡǣ—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ


60

CHIA

—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ ™ƒ• ‹…Ž—†‡† ‹ –Š‡ ƒ•– •‹ƒ —‹– ’”‹ƒ”‹Ž› „‡…ƒ—•‡ ‘ˆ †‘‡•‹ƒǯ• „ƒ…‹‰ǡ„—–™Š‡‡˜‹—††ˆƒ‹Ž‡†–‘…‘•—Ž–ƒ†‰‡–•—’’‘”–ˆ”‘ †‘‡•‹ƒȂ ƒ†‘–Š‡”…‘—–”‹‡•Ȃˆ‘”Š‹••‹ƒǦƒ…‹Ƥ…‘—‹–›‹‹–‹ƒ–‹˜‡ǡ‹–‡†‡†—’ †‡ƒ†‘ƒ””‹˜ƒŽǤͣ͝“—ƒŽŽ›•‘ǡ—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ‹• †‘‡•‹ƒǯ•…Šƒ‡Ž–‘–Š‡‡•–ǣ‹ˆ ƒƒ”–ƒ …ƒ‘–…‘‘’‡”ƒ–‡™‹–Šƒ‡•–‡”Ž‹„‡”ƒŽ†‡‘…”ƒ…›™‹–Š™Š‹…Š‹–•Šƒ”‡•ƒƒ”‹–‹‡ „‘”†‡”ƒ†˜‡”›•‹‹Žƒ”‰‘ƒŽ•ǡ–Š‹•™‹ŽŽƒ†˜‡”•‡Ž›ƒơ‡…–‹–•…‘‡…–‹‘•–‘–Š‡ƒ† ‘–Š‡”‡•–‡”…‘—–”‹‡•ǤŠ‹•™ƒ•‡š‡’Ž‹Ƥ‡†„›—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ‰‘˜‡”‡–Ž‘„„›‹‰ †—”‹‰–Š‡ͥͥͣ͝Ǧͥͥ•‹ƒ ‹ƒ…‹ƒŽ”‹•‹•Ǥƒ„‡””ƒ’—„Ž‹…Ž›„ƒ…‡† ƒƒ”–ƒƒ‰ƒ‹•– –Š‡ –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ‘‡–ƒ”› —†ǡƒ†•‘—‰Š––‘—•‡‹–•‹ƪ—‡…‡‹ƒ•Š‹‰–‘–‘ –‡’‡”–Š‡Šƒ”•Š‡••‘ˆ–Š‡ —†ǯ••–”—…–—”ƒŽƒ†Œ—•–‡–’ƒ…ƒ‰‡ǡ”‡…‘‰‹•‹‰–Šƒ– ‹–™ƒ•…ƒ—•‹‰†‘‡•–‹…‹•–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›‹ †‘‡•‹ƒǤͤ͝Š‡•‡ƒ”‡–™‘…‘—–”‹‡•–Šƒ–Šƒ˜‡ƒ ‰”‡ƒ–†‡ƒŽ–‘‘ơ‡”‡ƒ…Š‘–Š‡”ǡ›‡–„‘–Š•‹†‡•‰”‘••Ž›—†‡”‡•–‹ƒ–‡–Š‡‹’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆ –Š‡‹””‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’Ǥ ‘”—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ‡•’‡…‹ƒŽŽ›ǡ”‡‰‹‘ƒŽ—…‡”–ƒ‹–›‡Šƒ…‡• †‘‡•‹ƒǯ• ‹’‘”–ƒ…‡ǡƒ†‘™‘”‡–Šƒ‡˜‡”ǡ—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ‡‡†••–”ƒ–‡‰‹…”‡‰‹‘ƒŽƒŽŽ‹‡•ƒ†–‘ ƒ˜‘‹†„‡‹‰‡š…Ž—†‡†ˆ”‘–Š‡”‡‰‹‘ǯ•—Ž–‹Žƒ–‡”ƒŽƒ”…Š‹–‡…–—”‡Ǥ ˆƒ…–ǡ‹–ƒ›‘– „‡–‘‘Ž‘‰„‡ˆ‘”‡—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ™‹ŽŽ‡‡† †‘‡•‹ƒ—…Š‘”‡–Šƒ †‘‡•‹ƒ™‹ŽŽ‡‡† —•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǤ

THE  OTHER  RISING  POWER? Š‹Ž‡ †onesia’s   regional   importance   is   clear   today,   in   the   near   future  

†‘‡•‹ƒ™‹ŽŽƒŽ•‘„‡…‘‡‘”‡‹’‘”–ƒ–‹ƒ†‘ˆ‹–•‡ŽˆǤ›˜‹”–—‡‘ˆ‹–•”ƒ™•‹œ‡ ƒ†’‘–‡–‹ƒŽǡ †‘‡•‹ƒ‹•’‘‹•‡†–‘„‡…‘‡‘‡‘ˆ–Š‡™‘”Ž†ǯ•Žƒ”‰‡•–‡…‘‘‹‡• ƒ†’‡”Šƒ’•‡˜‡ƒƒŒ‘”’‘™‡”™‹–Š‹–Š‡‡š––Š‹”–››‡ƒ”•Ǥͥ͝ †‘‡•‹ƒƒŽ”‡ƒ†›Šƒ• –Š‡™‘”Ž†ǯ•ˆ‘—”–ŠǦŽƒ”‰‡•–’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ƒ†‹•–Š‡Žƒ”‰‡•–‡…‘‘›‹‘—–Š‡ƒ•–•‹ƒǤ ‘ †‘—„– –Š‡”‡ ƒ”‡ •‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ– ‹–‡”ƒŽ …ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‡• •—…Š ƒ• ™‹†‡•’”‡ƒ† …‘””—’–‹‘ ƒ†’‘‘”‹ˆ”ƒ•–”—…–—”‡ǡƒ†‹–‹•–”—‡–Šƒ– †‘‡•‹ƒǯ••‡…—”‹–›ˆ‘…—•‹•‘‹–‡”ƒŽ …ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‡•Ǥ—–‹ˆ–Š‡•‡ƒ”‡‘˜‡”…‘‡ǡ †‘‡•‹ƒǯ•Šƒ”†’‘™‡”ƒ†•–”ƒ–‡‰‹…™‡‹‰Š– –”ƒ–‡‰‹…‘Ž‹…› •–‹–—–‡ǡ͜͞͝͞Ȍǡ͠Ǥ ͣ͝  

ƒ””›‘†ƒǡDz”‘‰”‡••ƒ†‹‹–•ǣ—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒƒ†‘—–Š‡ƒ•–•‹ƒǡdz‹‹††Ž‡‘™‡””‡ƒ‹‰ǣ—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ‹™‘”Ž†ƒơƒ‹”•

͜͜͢͞Ǧ͜͜͞͝‡†Ǥ ƒ‡•‘––‘ƒ† ‘Šƒ˜‡Š‹ŽŽȋ‡Ž„‘—”‡ǣšˆ‘”†‹˜‡”•‹–›”‡••ǡ͜͞͝͝Ȍǣ͢͝͡Ǧͤ͝͠ǡͤ͢͝Ǧͥ͢͝Ǥ ͤ͝  

‡‘”‡ƒ›Ž‘”ƒ† ”‡‰ƒ”ŽǡDz ‘™ƒ”†ƒ…• ƒƒ”–ƒ‘˜‡”  ǡdz—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ ‹ƒ…‹ƒŽ‡˜‹‡™ǡ͜͝ƒ”…Šͥͥͤ͝Ǥ

ͥ͝  

˜ƒƒ•ƒƒǡDz †‘‡•‹ƒǯ•‹•‹‰‡‰‹‘ƒŽƒ† Ž‘„ƒŽ”‘ƤŽ‡ǣ‘‡••‹œ‡”‡ƒŽŽ›ƒ––‡”ǫǡdz‘–‡’‘”ƒ”›‘—–Š‡ƒ•–

•‹ƒ͟͟ȋ͜͞͝͝Ȍǣͣ͝͡Ǧͤ͝͞ǡͤ͝͡Ǧͥ͝͡Ǥ


GOOD HEDGES, GOOD NEIGHBOURS?

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™‹ŽŽ‰”‘™ƒŽ‘‰™‹–Š ‹–•‡…‘‘›ǡˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰ƒ–”ƒŒ‡…–‘”›•‹‹Žƒ”–‘–Š‡–”ƒ‹Ž „Žƒœ‡† „›Š‹ƒǤ †‘‡•‹ƒ‹•Ž‹‡Ž›–‘•’‡†ƒ–Ž‡ƒ•–•‘‡‘ˆ‹–•‡™™‡ƒŽ–Š‘†‡˜‡Ž‘’‹‰ ‹–•‹Ž‹–ƒ”›ǡ‹‡‡’‹‰™‹–Šƒ”•ƒ†…ƒ’ƒ„‹Ž‹–›ƒ…“—‹•‹–‹‘–”‡†•‹–Š‡”‡‰‹‘Ǥ͜͞   ‘”—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ–Š‹•‡–ƒ‹Ž•ƒƒŒ‘”…Šƒ‰‡ǡƒ•Š‹•–‘”‹…ƒŽŽ›–Š‡‹”‡‹‰Š„‘—”•Šƒ˜‡„‡‡ militarily  weaker,  and  Australian  strategic  policy  faces  challenges  in  adapting  to  this   …Šƒ‰‹‰”‡ƒŽ‹–›Ǥ͞͝ ƒŽŽŽ‹‡Ž‹Š‘‘†ǡ †‘‡•‹ƒ™‹ŽŽ‘–‘Ž›‰”‘™–‘„‡„‹‰‰‡”„—–ƒŽ•‘ •–”‘‰‡”–Šƒ—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǡƒ†’‡”Šƒ’•™‹‡Ž†‰Ž‘„ƒŽ‹ƪ—‡…‡–Š”‘—‰Š‹–•‡„‡”•Š‹’ ‘ˆ–Š‡ ͜͞Ǥ  Š‡ „—‹Ž†‹‰ ‘ˆ ƒ Dz’‘™‡” …‘”‡dz ‹• •‡‡ ƒ• ‘‡ ’‘••‹„Ž‡ •–”ƒ–‡‰‹… ‰‘ƒŽ ˆ‘” —•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ‹ƒƒ‰‹‰–Š‡•‹ƒǦƒ…‹Ƥ…ǯ•…Šƒ‰‹‰’‘™‡”„ƒŽƒ…‡ǡƒ† †‘‡•‹ƒ‹• –Š‡‘„˜‹‘—••–”ƒ–‡‰‹…’ƒ”–‡”Ǥ͞͞Š‹• Šƒ• „‡…‘‡ƒ ‘”‡”‡ƒŽ‹•–‹…‘’–‹‘ƒ• Š‹ƒǯ• ƒ••‡”–‹˜‡‡••ƒ†‹–‡”Œ‡…–‹‘•‹–‘ƒơƒ‹”••‡‡–‘„‡‹…”‡ƒ•‹‰Ž›—•‡––Ž‹‰ Ȃ ƒ† ’‡”Šƒ’• ƒŽ‹‡ƒ–‹‰ Ȃ –‘ ‘—–Š‡ƒ•– •‹ƒ …‘—–”‹‡•ǤŠ‡›™‹ŽŽ–Š‡”‡ˆ‘”‡™ƒ––‘‡‡’Š‹ƒƒ–

Indonesia  is   Australia’’s  obvious   partner  in  building   a  regional  power   core  to  manage   !SIA 0ACIµCgSÒ changing  balance   of  power

an  arm’s  length,  and  look  for  ways  to  do  so  without   †‡’‡†‹‰ ‘ ‡”‹…ƒ ’‘™‡”Ǥ ‰ƒ‰‡‡– ‹ •‹ƒ‹•…‡”–ƒ‹Ž›ƒƒŒ‘”‹–‡”‡•–ˆ‘”–Š‡ǡƒ–Ž‡ƒ•– —†‡”–Š‡’”‡•‹†‡…›‘ˆƒ”ƒ…„ƒƒǡ™Š‘‹͜͞͝͝ ’”‘…Žƒ‹‡† ƒ Dzƒ…‹Ƥ… ’‹˜‘–dz ‹  ˆ‘”‡‹‰ ’‘Ž‹…›Ǥ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ–Š‡•–ƒ‡•…‘’‡ŽŽ‹‰ ‹–• ‹–‡”‡•– ‹–Š‡ •‹ƒǦƒ…‹Ƥ… ƒ”‡ —…Š Ž‘™‡” ˆ‘” ƒ•Š‹‰–‘Ǥ  ƒ ƒŒ‘” …‘ˆ”‘–ƒ–‹‘ –Š‡  ™‹ŽŽ ‘– Dz–”ƒ†‡ ‘• ‰‡Ž‡•ˆ‘”ƒ‹’‡‹ǡdz‘”…ƒ‹–…”‡†‹„Ž›„‡Šƒ˜‡ƒ•‹ˆ‹– ™‘—Ž†Ǥ͟͞ ‘—–Š‡ƒ•–•‹ƒ…‘—–”‹‡• –Š‡”‡ˆ‘”‡ Šƒ˜‡ ‹…‡–‹˜‡• –‘ †‡˜‡Ž‘’ –Š‡‹” ‘™ …ƒ’ƒ…‹–› –‘ ”‡•‹•–

͜͞  

‹…Šƒ”†‹–œ‹‰‡”ǡDz‡™”•ƒ…‡ǫǣš’Žƒ‹‹‰”‡…‡–‘—–Š‡ƒ•–•‹ƒ‹Ž‹–ƒ”›ƒ…“—‹•‹–‹‘•ǡdz‘–‡’‘”ƒ”›

‘—–Š‡ƒ•–•‹ƒ͟͞ȋ͜͜͞͝Ȍǣ͜͡Ǧͥ͢Ǥ ͞͝  

‘„‡”–›•‘ǡDzŠ‡Ǯ”…‘ˆ •–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›ǯƒ†—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǯ•–”ƒ–‡‰‹…‘Ž‹…›ǡdz—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ ‘—”ƒŽ‘ˆ –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽơƒ‹”•͢͝

ȋͣ͜͜͞Ȍǣ͞͝͡Ǧ͟͞͝Ǥ ͞͞  

‘†›‘ǡ ‘”•‹–Š‡‹˜‡”ǣ—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǯ••–”ƒ–‡‰‹…‘’–‹‘•‹ƒ–”ƒ•ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ•‹ƒȋƒ„‡””ƒǡǣ—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ

–”ƒ–‡‰‹…‘Ž‹…› •–‹–—–‡ǡ͜͞͝͝Ȍǡͣ͞Ǧ͟͜Ǥ ͟͞  

Š‹–‡ǡŠ‡Š‹ƒŠ‘‹…‡ǡͤ͜Ǥ


62

CHIA

Š‹‡•‡ ‹ƪ—‡…‡ ƒ† …‘‡”…‹‘Ǥ ‹…‡ –Š‡”‡ ‹• ‘ …‡”–ƒ‹ ‰—ƒ”ƒ–‡‡ ‘ˆ ‡”‹…ƒ „ƒ…‹‰‹ƒ›…ƒ•‡ǡ–Š‹•‹••‹’Ž›–Š‡’”—†‡––Š‹‰–‘†‘Ǥ  ‘”—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǡ–Š‹•Š‡‹‰Š–‡•–Š‡‹’‘”–ƒ…‡‘ˆ‹–•”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’™‹–Š †‘‡•‹ƒ ƒ† ‘–Š‡” ‘—–Š‡ƒ•– •‹ƒ ƒ–‹‘• –‘ ‡•—”‡ Ž‘‰Ǧ–‡” •‡…—”‹–›Ǥ ‘” ‡šƒ’Ž‡ǡ ƒŽƒ›•‹ƒ ƒ† ‹‰ƒ’‘”‡ Šƒ˜‡ ƒ ‡š‹•–‹‰ †‡ˆ‡…‡ ƒ””ƒ‰‡‡– Ȃ –Š‡ ‹˜‡ ‘™‡” ‡ˆ‡…‡ ””ƒ‰‡‡–• ȋ Ȍ Ȃ –Šƒ– ‹…Ž—†‡• —•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǤ͞͠ ‹•–‘”‹…ƒŽŽ›ǡ –Š‡  ™ƒ• •‡‡ƒ•ƒƒ–‹Ǧ †‘‡•‹ƒ…‘ƒŽ‹–‹‘ǡ „—– Šƒ• „‡…‘‡ Ž‡•• •‘ •‹…‡ –Š‡ ”‡‰‹‘ǯ• –—”„—Ž‡–’‘•–Ǧ…‘Ž‘‹ƒŽ’‡”‹‘†ǤŠ‡•‡–Š”‡‡…‘—–”‹‡•ƒ”‡—…Š‘”‡Ž‹‡Ž›–‘–”—•– ‡ƒ…Š‘–Š‡”ƒ†ˆ‘…—•‘•Šƒ”‡†…‘…‡”•™‹–Š”‹•‹‰Š‹‡•‡’‘™‡”ǡ‘˜‡”•‡’ƒ”ƒ–‡ ‹••—‡• ƒ‘‰ ‡ƒ…Š ‘–Š‡”Ǥ ”‘ –Š‡ —•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ ’‡”•’‡…–‹˜‡ǡ –Š‡”‡ ƒ”‡ …‡”–ƒ‹Ž› ˆƒ” greater   compatibilities   with   its   neighbours   than   with   China,   and   especially   with  

†‘‡•‹ƒǡ™Š‡”‡†‡‘…”ƒ–‹•ƒ–‹‘Šƒ•Ž‡†–‘ƒˆƒ”‘”‡…‘’ƒ–‹„Ž‡’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ…—Ž–—”‡Ǥ͞͡

TYING  UP  A  GIANT  Š‡’‘™‡”…‘”‡‹†‡ƒ‹•…Š‹‡ƪ›ƒŠƒ”†’‘™‡”…‘…‡’–ǡ„—–‹–…ƒ™‘”–‘‰‡–Š‡” ™‹–Šƒ•‘ˆ–’‘™‡”•‘Ž—–‹‘–‘”‡•‘Ž˜‡–Š‡”‡‰‹‘ƒŽ–‡•‹‘‰‡‡”ƒ–‡†„›–Š‡•Š‹ˆ–•‹ –Š‡„ƒŽƒ…‡‘ˆ’‘™‡”Ǥ—Ž–‹Žƒ–‡”ƒŽ‡‡•Š‡–™‘—Ž†ƒ‹–‘ˆ‘”…‡Š‹ƒ–‘ƒ……‡’– self-­‐constraints  within  a   regional   institutional   framework,  and   both   Australia  and  

†‘‡•‹ƒ ƒ”‡ Š‡ƒ˜‹Ž› ‹˜‡•–‡† ‹ —Ž–‹Žƒ–‡”ƒŽ ‘”†‡”Ǧ„—‹Ž†‹‰Ǥ †‘‡•‹ƒ Šƒ• †‘‡ –Š‹•–Š”‘—‰Šǡ™Š‹…Š ‹••‹ƒǯ• ‘•– Ȃƒ†’‡”Šƒ’•‘Ž› Ȃ…‘Š‡”‡–”‡‰‹‘ƒŽ organisation,   while   Australia   has   sought   to   build   regional   multilateralism   partly   †”‹˜‡„›–Š‡ˆ‡ƒ”–Šƒ–‹–™‹ŽŽ„‡‡š…Ž—†‡†ˆ”‘–Š‡”‡‰‹‘ƒŽ‘”†‡”‹ˆ‹–†‘‡•‘––ƒ‡ ƒƒ…–‹˜‡Šƒ†‹…‘•–”—…–‹‰‹–Ǥ•ˆƒ”ƒ• †‘‡•‹ƒ‹•…‘…‡”‡†ǡ—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒŠƒ•ƒ ”‘Ž‡–‘’Žƒ›Ǣ ƒƒ”–ƒǯ•’—•Šˆ‘”—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǯ•‹…Ž—•‹‘‹–Š‡ƒ•–•‹ƒ—‹–Šƒ•„‡‡ •‡‡ƒ•ƒƒ––‡’––‘„ƒŽƒ…‡Š‹ƒ†‹’Ž‘ƒ–‹…ƒŽŽ›Ǥ͢͞  Combining  strengths  in  a  power   …‘”‡…‘—Ž†„‡ƒ‡ƒ•‘ˆ…‘˜‹…‹‰Š‹ƒ–‘ƒ……‡’–…‘•–”ƒ‹–•™‹–Š‹ƒ—Ž–‹Žƒ–‡”ƒŽ ‹•–‹–—–‹‘ƒŽ‘”†‡”„›”ƒ‹•‹‰–Š‡…‘•–•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒŽ–‡”ƒ–‹˜‡•Ǥ‡–„‡ˆ‘”‡„ƒ”‰ƒ‹‹‰…ƒ •—……‡‡†ǡ‡‹Œ‹‰—•–•‡‡–Šƒ–‹–‹•‹‹–•‘™‹–‡”‡•––‘ƒ……‡’–•—…Š”‡•–”ƒ‹–•Ǥ  – ‹• Šƒ”† †‡Ƥ‡ ‡‹Œ‹‰ǯ• ƒ„‹–‹‘• •‹…‡ –Š‡ Š‹‡•‡ ‘—‹•– ƒ”–› ͞͠  

ƒ”Ž›Ž‡Šƒ›‡”ǡDzŠ‡ ‹˜‡‘™‡”‡ˆ‡…‡””ƒ‰‡‡–•ǣŠ‡“—‹‡–ƒ…Š‹‡˜‡”ǡdz‡…—”‹–›ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‡•͟ȋͣ͜͜͞ȌǣͥǦͥ͢Ǥ

͞͡  

‘†ƒǡDz”‘‰”‡••ƒ†‹‹–•ǡdzͣͤ͝Ǧͣͥ͝Ǥ

͢͞  

‡ŽŽ›ǡDz—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ‹‡™ǡdzͣ͟Ǥ


GOOD HEDGES, GOOD NEIGHBOURS?

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‹• ˆƒ” ˆ”‘ „‡‹‰ ƒ –”ƒ•’ƒ”‡– ’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ ‹•–‹–—–‹‘Ǥ – …‡”–ƒ‹Ž› ˆƒ…‡• ’ƒ”ƒ†‘š‹…ƒŽ pressures  to   act  in   a  nationalist   and  belligerent  manner,   while  pursuing   a  “peaceful   ”‹•‡Ǥdz‡˜‡”–Š‡Ž‡••ǡŠ‹ƒ‹•…‡”–ƒ‹–‘”‡Œ‡…–ƒ•—„‘”†‹ƒ–‡•–ƒ–—•™‹–Š‹•‹ƒǡƒ† ™‹ŽŽŽ‹‡Ž›•‡‡–‘ƒ••‡”–™Šƒ–‹–•‡‡•ƒ•‹–•”‹‰Š–ˆ—Ž’”‹ƒ…›‹–Š‡”‡‰‹‘Ȃ’‡”Šƒ’• ƒ ”‡‰‹‘ƒŽ Š‡‰‡‘› •–›Ž‡† ƒˆ–‡” –Š‡ ‘”‘‡ ‘…–”‹‡Ǥͣ͞ –Š‡” •‹ƒǦƒ…‹Ƥ… …‘—–”‹‡•ǡŠ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ™‹ŽŽ…‡”–ƒ‹Ž›”‡•‹•–•—…Šƒ”‡‰‹‘ƒŽ‘”†‡”ǡƒ†ˆ‘”‹‡–ƒƒ† –Š‡Š‹Ž‹’’‹‡•‹’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”ǡŠ‹ƒǯ•ƒ…–‹‘•‹͜͞͝͞Šƒ˜‡•’‘‡—…ŠŽ‘—†‡”–Šƒ ’”‡˜‹‘—• ƒ••—”ƒ…‡• –Šƒ– ‡‹Œ‹‰ †‘‡• ‘– •‡‡ ”‡‰‹‘ƒŽ †‘‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥͤ͞   Can   China   •–‹ŽŽ„‡…‘˜‹…‡†–‘’Žƒ…‡‹–•‡Žˆ™‹–Š‹ƒˆ”ƒ‡™‘”‘ˆ

If  Beijing  can  get   a  seat  at  the  table   there  seems  little   reason  for  it  to   KICKÒTHEÒTABLEÒOVER

multilateral   institutions,   which   by   their   nature   allow   smaller  countries  to  constrain  larger  and  more  powerful   ones?  Getting   China  to  settle  for   less   means  the  route   ‘ˆ ‹•–‹–—–‹‘ƒŽ‹• ‡‡†• –‘ „‡ ƒ––”ƒ…–‹˜‡Ǣ –Š‡ •‘ˆ– ’‘™‡”‘’–‹‘‡‡†•–‘ƒ’’‡ƒ”‡ƒ•‹‡”–Šƒ‡š‡”–‹‰Šƒ”† ’‘™‡”Ǥ †‘‡•‹ƒ …ƒ ƒ† •Š‘—Ž† Ƥ‰—”‡ ’”‘‹‡–Ž› in   guiding   China   down   the   route   of   engagement   and   ‹•–‹–—–‹‘ƒŽ‹•‹‹–•†‡ƒŽ‹‰•™‹–Š‘—–Š‡ƒ•–•‹ƒǡƒ–

–Š‡˜‡”›Ž‡ƒ•–Ǥ‘”‡‘˜‡”ǡ–Š‡”‡‹•ƒ…Šƒ…‡–Šƒ–‡‹Œ‹‰™‘—Ž†ƒ……‡’–•—…Šƒ„ƒ”‰ƒ‹Ǥ

‹˜‡ Š‹ƒǯ•ƒ’’ƒ”‡– ˆ‘”‡‹‰ ’‘Ž‹…›ƒ•’‹”ƒ–‹‘•ƒ”‡ –‘…Žƒ‹ ‹–• ”‹‰Š–ˆ—Ž ’Žƒ…‡ƒ• a   great  power,  if  Beijing   can   get   a   seat   at  the  table  there   seems  little  reason  for  it  to   ‹…–Š‡–ƒ„Ž‡‘˜‡”Ǥ ‘”–—ƒ–‡Ž›ǡ–Š‡‡š‹•–‹‰‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ‘”†‡”‹•…‘’ƒ–‹„Ž‡™‹–Š –Š‡•‡ƒ„‹–‹‘•Ǣ‡‹Œ‹‰ˆ‘”‡šƒ’Ž‡ƒŽ”‡ƒ†›Š‘Ž†•ƒ’‡”ƒ‡–•‡ƒ–‘–Š‡‹–‡† ƒ–‹‘•‡…—”‹–›‘—…‹Žǡƒ…Ž‡ƒ”ƒ”‡”‘ˆ‹–•‰”‡ƒ–’‘™‡”•–ƒ–—•‹†‹’Ž‘ƒ–‹…–‡”•Ǥ Š‹ƒ…‘—Ž†™‹‡Ž†‹ƪ—‡…‡ƒ†’‘™‡”™‹–Š—…ŠŽ‡••…‘•–‹ˆ‹–—’Š‘Ž†•ƒ‹ƒ‰‡ƒ•ƒ Dz‰‘‘†…‹–‹œ‡dz‹–Š‡‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ…‘—‹–›ǡƒ•‘’’‘•‡†–‘ƒ‹ƒ‰‡‘ˆƒ’‘™‡”ˆ—Ž …‘—–”›ƒ–ƒ‰‘‹•‹‰‹–•‡‹‰Š„‘—”•Ǥ –”‡ƒ‹•–‘„‡•‡‡‹ˆ‹…”‡ƒ•‹‰Ž›ˆ”ƒ…–‹‘—• ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•™‹–Š‘—–Š‡ƒ•–•‹ƒ‡‹‰Š„‘—”•ƒ”‡ˆ‘”‡‹‰’‘Ž‹…›‹••–‡’•ǡ‘””‡ƪ‡…–‹˜‡‘ˆ –Š‡ƒ––‹–—†‡†‹•’Žƒ›‡†„› ‘”‡‹‰‹‹•–‡”ƒ‰ ‹‡…Š‹™Š‡Š‡–‘Ž†–Š‡͜͜͞͝ ‡‰‹‘ƒŽ ‘”—–Šƒ–DzŠ‹ƒ‹•ƒ„‹‰…‘—–”›ƒ†‘–Š‡”…‘—–”‹‡•ƒ”‡•ƒŽŽ…‘—–”‹‡•ǡ ͣ͞  

Š‹–‡ǡDzŠ‡Š‹ƒŠ‘‹…‡ǡdz͢͝Ǧ͢͟Ǥ

ͤ͞  

‡›‘›ǡDz‘—–Š‡ƒ•–•‹ƒƒ†Š‹ƒǣƒŽƒ…‹‰‘”„ƒ†™ƒ‰‘‹‰ǫǡdz‘–‡’‘”ƒ”›‘—–Š‡ƒ•–•‹ƒͣ͞ȋ͜͜͞͡Ȍǣ͟͜͡Ǧ͟͞͞ǡ

ͣ͟͜Ǥ


64

CHIA

ƒ†–Šƒ–ǯ•Œ—•–ƒˆƒ…–Ǥdzͥ͞‹–Š‡”™ƒ›ǡ–Š‡”‡ƒ”‡‰‘‘†”‡ƒ•‘•ˆ‘”•‹ƒǦƒ…‹Ƥ…ƒ–‹‘•–‘ Ž‘‘–‘–Š‡‹”‡‹‰Š„‘—”•ƒ•™‡ŽŽƒ•ƒ…”‘••–Š‡ƒ…‹Ƥ…‹Š‡†‰‹‰‘Š‹ƒǯ•”‹•‡ǡƒ† ’”‡’ƒ”‹‰ˆ‘”–Š‡™‘”•–‹ˆ…‘ƪ‹…–†‘‡•”‡•—Ž–Ǥ

CONCLUSION U…‡”–ƒ‹–›‹•–Š‡‘”†‡”‘ˆ–Š‡†ƒ›‹–Š‡•‹ƒǦƒ…‹Ƥ…ǤŠ‡‡›“—‡•–‹‘•ƒ”‡ǣ Š‘™•–”‘‰™‹ŽŽŠ‹ƒ„‡…‘‡ǡƒ†Š‘™ˆƒ”™‹ŽŽ‹–”‡ƒ…Š™‹–Š‹–•‡™’‘™‡”ǫ ƒŽŽ ’”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹–›ǡ–Š‡ƒ•™‡”•ƒ”‡‘–Ž‹‡Ž›…Ž‡ƒ”ǡ‡˜‡‹‡‹Œ‹‰ǤŠ‡”‡ƒ…–‹‘‘ˆ‘—–Š‡ƒ•– Asian  countries  has  been   to  hedge,  but   the  increasing   trend  is   to  go  further  and   try   –‘ „ƒŽƒ…‡ ƒ‰ƒ‹•– Š‹ƒ Ȃ –Š‡ Š‹Ž‹’’‹‡• Šƒ• ‘’‡Ž› …ƒŽŽ‡† ˆ‘” ƒ’ƒ –‘ ”‡‘˜‡ –Š‡’ƒ…‹Ƥ•–…Žƒ—•‡’Žƒ…‡†‹‹–•…‘•–‹–—–‹‘ƒˆ–‡”–Š‡‡…‘†‘”Ž†ƒ”ƒ†•‡”˜‡ ƒ™‹†‡”•‡…—”‹–›”‘Ž‡‹–Š‡”‡‰‹‘ǡˆ‘”‡šƒ’Ž‡Ǥ͟͜Š‡”‡‹•ˆ‡ƒ”–Šƒ–™‹–Š–Š‡”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡ †‡…Ž‹‡‘ˆ–Š‡‹–‡†–ƒ–‡•ǡƒ•Š‹‰–‘™‹ŽŽ”‡†—…‡‹–•’”‡•‡…‡‹•‹ƒǡ‘”™‘”•‡ǡ –Šƒ–‡”‹…ƒ’‘™‡”ƒ†…‘‹–‡–•™‹ŽŽ„‡‘˜‡”–Ž›…ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‡†ˆ‘”…‹‰–Š‡–‘ ”‡•’‘†‘””‹••Šƒ––‡”‹‰‹–•…”‡†‹„‹Ž‹–›Ǥ‡ƒ™Š‹Ž‡ǡƒ–‹‘ƒŽ‹•–•‡–‹‡–•™‹–Š‹ Š‹ƒ‹‰Š–ˆ‘”…‡–Š‡Šƒ†‡˜‡‘ˆ…‘…‹Ž‹ƒ–‘”›Ž‡ƒ†‡”•‹‡‹Œ‹‰ǡ‡•’‡…‹ƒŽŽ›™Š‡”‡ –Š‡ǯ•…”‡†‹„‹Ž‹–›‹•–‹‡†–‘ƒ••‡”–‹‘•‘ˆŠ‹ƒǯ•’‘•‹–‹‘‹–‡””‹–‘”‹ƒŽ†‹•’—–‡•Ǥ Š‡–Š‡” „› ‡ƒ•‘ˆ Šƒ”†‘”•‘ˆ–’‘™‡”ǡ–Š‡”‡‰‹‘ ‡‡†•–‘ ƒƒ‰‡ƒ†”‡†—…‡ the  risk   that   miscalculation,   misperception,  or  accidental  escalation  could   lead   to   …ƒ–ƒ•–”‘’Š‡Ǥ  †‡”–Š‡•‡…‘†‹–‹‘•ǡ–Š‡‘„˜‹‘—••‘Ž—–‹‘ˆ‘”™‘””‹‡†•‹ƒǦƒ…‹Ƥ…•–ƒ–‡• Ž‹‡• ‹ „—‹Ž†‹‰ ’‘™‡”ƒ‘‰ –Š‡•‡Ž˜‡•Ǥ ‡‡’‡‹‰ •‡…—”‹–›…‘‘’‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒ‘‰ —•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǡ †‘‡•‹ƒǡ ƒ† ‘–Š‡” ‘—–Š‡ƒ•– •‹ƒ …‘—–”‹‡• …‘—Ž† „‡ ‡› ˆ‘” –Š‡•‡ countries  in  maintaining  the  broadest  range  of  strategic  options,  and  would  help  raise   ‡‹Œ‹‰ǯ•…‘•–•‘ˆ•‡‡‹‰”‡‰‹‘ƒŽ Š‡‰‡‘›Ǥ —‹Ž†‹‰ ‘”‡ ‹†‡’‡†‡– ‹Ž‹–ƒ”› …ƒ’ƒ…‹–‹‡•™‘—Ž†ƒŽ•‘”‡†—…‡–Š‡ ‡‡†ƒ†–Š‡”‹•‘ˆ–Š‡ ‘ˆ „‡‹‰†”ƒ™ ‹–‘ ’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ…‘ƪ‹…–•„‡–™‡‡‹–•”‡‰‹‘ƒŽƒŽŽ‹‡•ƒ†Š‹ƒǡƒ†Š‡Ž’ƒ˜‘‹†•‹–—ƒ–‹‘• ™Š‡”‡ ‡‹–Š‡” ‡‹Œ‹‰ ‘” ƒ•Š‹‰–‘ ˆ‡‡Ž „ƒ…‡† ‹–‘ ƒ …‘”‡”Ǥ  …Ž‘•‡” —•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǦ ͥ͞  

—‘–‡†‹—‡”‘—••‘—”…‡•‹…Ž—†‹‰ ‘Š‘ˆ”‡–ǡDzǤǤƒ‡•ƒ‘—‰Š‡”‘‡™‹–ŠŠ‹ƒǡdzŠ‡ƒ•Š‹‰–‘‘•–ǡ

͟͜ —Ž›͜͜͞͝Ǥ ͟͜  

ƒ˜‹†‹ŽŽ‹‰ǡ‘‡Žƒ†‹‰‹ƒ† ‘ƒ–Šƒ‘„Ž‡ǡDzŠ‹Ž‹’’‹‡•ƒ…•‡ƒ”‹‰‘ˆ ƒ’ƒǡdz ‹ƒ…‹ƒŽ‹‡•ǡͥ

‡…‡„‡”͜͞͝͞Ǥ


GOOD HEDGES, GOOD NEIGHBOURS?

65

†‘‡•‹ƒ’ƒ”–‡”•Š‹’…‘—Ž†–Š—•Šƒ˜‡‰”‡ƒ–’‘–‡–‹ƒŽ‹–Š‡Dz•‹ƒ…‡–—”›ǤdzŠ‡› are  each  other’s  strongest  and  most  powerful  neighbours,  but  neither  country  can,   „› ‹–•‡Žˆǡ „‡…‘•‹†‡”‡†ƒ ƒ‹ ’Žƒ›‡” ‹ –Š‡ •‹ƒǦƒ…‹Ƥ…ǯ• ƒŒ‘” ’‘™‡”†›ƒ‹…•Ǥ ‘”‹‰–‘‰‡–Š‡”ǡŠ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ–Š‡›Šƒ˜‡—…Š‰”‡ƒ–‡”’”‘•’‡…–•‘ˆ•‡…—”‹‰–Š‡•Šƒ”‡† •–”ƒ–‡‰‹… ‹–‡”‡•– ‘ˆ ƒ ’‡ƒ…‡ˆ—Ž ƒ† •–ƒ„Ž‡ ”‡‰‹‘ Ȃ ™Š‹…Š ‹•ǡ •—”‡Ž›ǡ ƒ ‰‘ƒŽ •Šƒ”‡† „› –Š‡ ”‡•–‘ˆ –Š‡ ”‡‰‹‘ƒ•™‡ŽŽǤ ‹˜‡ –Š‡‹”•Šƒ”‡† ‹–‡”‡•–•ƒ†•‹‹Žƒ” ’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ ‡˜‹”‘‡–•ǡ‘—–Š‡ƒ•–•‹ƒ…‘—–”‹‡•…‘—Ž†„‡‘˜‡”Ž‘‘‹‰ƒ‹’‘”–ƒ–•–”ƒ–‡‰‹… ’ƒ”–‡”‹—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒ‹ˆ–Š‡‡–ƒŽ„‘—†ƒ”‹‡•‘ˆ–Š‡‹””‡‰‹‘‡†ƒ––Š‡”ƒˆ—”ƒ‡ƒǤ

8%&-RXUQDORI,QWHUQDWLRQDO$̆DLUV  >@


FRANKS

66

†‹‰‡‘—• ƪ—‡…‡‹”…–‹…‘Ž‹…› Kelsey  Franks

Dz‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ†‹•…—••‹‘•‘”…–‹…‹••—‡••Š‘—Ž†‹…Ž—†‡–Š‘•‡ ™Š‘Šƒ˜‡Ž‡‰‹–‹ƒ–‡‹–‡”‡•–•‹–Š‡”‡‰‹‘ǡdz1•–ƒ–‡†‹–‡†–ƒ–‡•‡…”‡–ƒ”›‘ˆ–ƒ–‡ ‹ŽŽƒ”› Ž‹–‘ ‹ ͜͜͞͝ǡ …”‹–‹…‹œ‹‰ –Š‡ ƒƒ†‹ƒ ‰‘˜‡”‡– ˆ‘” ‡š…Ž—†‹‰ –Š‡

—‹– ˆ”‘ƒ ‡‡–‹‰‘ˆ –Š‡ ˆ‘”‡‹‰ ‹‹•–‡”•‘ˆ –Š‡ ”…–‹… Dz ‹˜‡Ǥdz͞Š‡ —‹– Šƒ˜‡ Šƒ† …‘•‹†‡”ƒ„Ž‡ •—……‡•• •‡‹œ‹‰ –Š‡ ƒ––‡–‹‘ ‘ˆ ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ Ž‡ƒ†‡”•ǡ †‡•’‹–‡ –Š‡ ƒƒ†‹ƒ ‰‘˜‡”‡–ǯ• …Ž‡ƒ” ”‡Ž—…–ƒ…‡ –‘ ‹…Ž—†‡ –Š‡ ‹ †‹•…—••‹‘ ƒ† ‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‹‘”‡‰ƒ”†‹‰–Š‡”…–‹…Ǥ›‡„”ƒ…‹‰ƒŽ–‡”ƒ–‡ƒ˜‡—‡••—…Šƒ•–Š‡ —‹– ‹”…—’‘Žƒ”‘—…‹Žǡ–Š‡”…–‹…‘—…‹Žǡƒ†–Š‡‡†‹ƒǡ–Š‡ —‹–Šƒ˜‡„‡‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘ …‹”…—˜‡– •‘‡ †‘‡•–‹… „ƒ””‹‡”• –‘ ‹…Ž—•‹‘ ƒ† ‡š‡”– ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ‹ƪ—‡…‡ ‹”…–‹…†‡…‹•‹‘Ǧƒ‹‰Ǥ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ–Š‹• ‹ƪ—‡…‡ Šƒ• „‡‡ ‹•—ƥ…‹‡–‰‹˜‡–Š‡ ”‹‰Š–•’”‘‹•‡†–‘‹†‹‰‡‘—•’‡‘’Ž‡•—†‡”–Š‡‹–‡†ƒ–‹‘•‡…Žƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘–Š‡ ‹‰Š–•‘ˆ †‹‰‡‘—•‡‘’Ž‡•ȋ Ȍƒ†–Š‡—ƒ˜—–ƒ†Žƒ‹•‰”‡‡‡– ȋȌǡ  and  –Š‡…‡–”ƒŽ‹–›‘ˆ–Š‡”…–‹…”‡‰‹‘ˆ‘”–Š‡ —‹–ǯ•…—Ž–—”ƒŽƒ†‡…‘‘‹… •—”˜‹˜ƒŽǤ …‘”’‘”ƒ–‹‰–Š‡”‡•‘—”…‡•ǡ‘™Ž‡†‰‡ǡƒ†‡‡†•‘ˆ–Š‡ —‹–‹–‘”…–‹… ’‘Ž‹…›™‹ŽŽ‰‹˜‡–Š‡‰”‘—’‹…”‡ƒ•‡†‹ƪ—‡…‡†‘‡•–‹…ƒŽŽ›ƒ†‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽŽ›ǡƒ† •‡”˜‡ –‘ •—’’‘”– ƒƒ†ƒǯ•…—””‡–Ž› ˆ”ƒ‰‹Ž‡…Žƒ‹ –‘…‘’Ž‡–‡ •‘˜‡”‡‹‰–›‘˜‡” –Š‡ ‘”–Š™‡•–ƒ••ƒ‰‡Ǥ

  *                                                  Kelsey  Franks  is  a  also  senior  editor;  however,  she  had  no  role  in  selecting  this  paper  for  publication.  Submissions  are  read  with  names  removed, ƒ†‘Ž›”‡Ǧ‹•‡”–‡†‘…‡–Š‡‡†‹–‘”‹ƒŽ„‘ƒ”†Šƒ••‡Ž‡…–‡†–Š‡ƤƒŽ’ƒ’‡”•Ǥ 1  

‘„ ‹ŽŽ‹‡•ǡDzŽ‹–‘‡„—‡•ƒƒ†ƒ‘”…–‹…‡‡–‹‰ǡdzŠ‡ —ƒ”†‹ƒǡͥ͞ƒ”…Š͜͜͞͝ǡŠ––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ‰—ƒ”†‹ƒ

…‘Ǥ—Ȁ™‘”Ž†Ȁˆ‡‡†ƒ”–‹…Ž‡Ȁͥͥͤ͜͜͢͠Ǥ

͞

Š‡”…–‹…Dz ‹˜‡dz‹•ƒƒ‡”‡…‡–Ž›‰‹˜‡–‘ƒƒ†ƒǡ‡ƒ”ǡ‘”™ƒ›ǡ—••‹ƒƒ†–Š‡‹–‡†–ƒ–‡•ǤŠ‡”…–‹…‘—…‹Ž‹•…‘’‘•‡†‘ˆ˜‘–‹‰

”‡’”‡•‡–ƒ–‹˜‡•ˆ”‘–Š‡•‡Ƥ˜‡ƒ–‹‘•ǡ™‡†‡ǡ ‹Žƒ†ƒ† …‡Žƒ†ǡƒ†’‡”ƒ‡–’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–•ˆ”‘‹†‹‰‡‘—•’‡‘’Ž‡•‰”‘—’•Ǥ


INDIGENOUS INFLUENCE

67

CIRCUMVENTING  BARRIERS  TO  INCLUSION   Š‡͜͜͞͝‡‡–‹‰‘ˆ–Š‡ˆ‘”‡‹‰‹‹•–‡”•‘ˆ–Š‡”…–‹… ‹˜‡™ƒ•‘––Š‡Ƥ”•– –‹‡–Š‡ —‹– Šƒ† „‡‡‡š…Ž—†‡† ˆ”‘ ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ†‹•…—••‹‘‘˜‡”–Š‡”…–‹…Ǥ  ͤ͜͜͞ǡ‡ƒ”‹˜‹–‡†‹‹•–‡”•ˆ”‘–Š‡”…–‹… ‹˜‡ƒ–‹‘•–‘ Ž—Ž‹••ƒ––‘†‹•…—•• ’Žƒ• ˆ‘” ‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ ’‘Ž‹…›ǡ ƒ”‹–‹‡ •‡…—”‹–› ƒ† –”ƒ•’‘”–ǡ ƒ† ”‡•‘—”…‡ ‡š–”ƒ…–‹‘Ǥ”‡˜‡–‡†ˆ”‘’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–‹‰‹†‹•…—••‹‘ƒ††‡…‹•‹‘Ǧƒ‹‰ǡ–Š‡ —‹– ‹”…—’‘Žƒ”‘—…‹Žȋ Ȍ”‡•’‘†‡†„›‹••—‹‰Dzƒ†‡…Žƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘•‘˜‡”‡‹‰–›dz‘‡ †ƒ›’”‹‘”–‘ƒ”…–‹…‘—…‹Ž ‘”‡‹‰‹‹•–‡”••—‹–‡‡–‹‰‹”‘•øǡ‘”™ƒ›Ǥ3   Š‡†‡…Žƒ”ƒ–‹‘ƒ••‡”–‡†ǣ ‘”™ƒ›ǡ‡ƒ”ǡƒƒ†ƒǡƒ†—••‹ƒǥ‹–Š‡‹”†‹•…—••‹‘‘ˆ”…–‹…•‘˜‡”‡‹‰–›ǡ Šƒ˜‡‘–”‡ˆ‡”‡…‡†‡š‹•–‹‰‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ‹•–”—‡–•ȑ”‡ƒ†–Š‡”…–‹…‘—…‹ŽȒ–Šƒ– ’”‘‘–‡ƒ†’”‘–‡…– –Š‡”‹‰Š–•‘ˆ ‹†‹‰‡‘—•’‡‘’Ž‡•ǤŠ‡› Šƒ˜‡ƒŽ•‘ ‡‰Ž‡…–‡† –‘ ‹…Ž—†‡ —‹– ‹ ”…–‹… •‘˜‡”‡‹‰–› †‹•…—••‹‘• ‹ ƒ ƒ‡” …‘’ƒ”ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ ”…–‹… ‘—…‹Ž†‡Ž‹„‡”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ͠  

‹‹Žƒ”–‘–Š‡™ƒ›‹™Š‹…Š–Š‡ —‹–‹˜‘Ž˜‡† ‹ŽŽƒ”›Ž‹–‘ƒ†–Š‡‡†‹ƒ™Š‡ ‡š…Ž—†‡†ˆ”‘–Š‡ ‘”‡‹‰‹‹•–‡”••—‹–‹͜͜͞͝ǡ–Š‹•‡šƒ’Ž‡‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‡•Š‘™–Š‡

—‹–™‡”‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡Ž›—–‹Ž‹œ‡–Š‡”‡•‘—”…‡•ƒ––Š‡‹”†‹•’‘•ƒŽǤ –Š‹•…ƒ•‡ǡ–Š‡ ”‡•‘—”…‡•™‡”‡–Š‡ ƒ†–Š‡ƒ„‹Ž‹–›–‘’‡”ˆ‡…–Ž›–‹‡–Š‡”‡Ž‡ƒ•‡‘ˆ–Š‡†‡…Žƒ”ƒ–‹‘ –‘ ƒš‹‹œ‡ –Š‡ ‹ƪ—‡…‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡ †‡…Žƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ –Š‡ ‹‹•–‡”•ǡ ‡†‹ƒ ƒ† –Š‡ ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ…‘—‹–›ǤŠ‡‹’ƒ…–‘ˆ„‘–Š–Š‡†‡…Žƒ”ƒ–‹‘ƒ†Ž‹–‘ǯ••–ƒ–‡‡– ™ƒ••‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–ǡ™‹–Š”…–‹…ƒ—–Š‘”‹–›‹…Šƒ‡Ž›‡”•ƒ••‡”–‹‰–Šƒ–Dzˆ”‘‘™‘ǡȑ–Š‡ ”…–‹… ‹˜‡ȒŠƒ˜‡–‘ƒ‡•—”‡–Š‡”‡‹•‹†‹‰‡‘—•”‡’”‡•‡–ƒ–‹‘Ǥdz5 ‡ŽŽ‘™”‡•‡ƒ”…Š‡” ‘„‡”– —‡„‡”–•ƒ™–Š‡‡˜‡–•ƒ•‡˜‡‘”‡…‘•‡“—‡–‹ƒŽǡ•–ƒ–‹‰–Š‡ǯ••…‘Ž†‹‰ …‘„‹‡†™‹–Š ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽƒ™ƒ”‡‡••‘ˆ ƒƒ†ƒǯ•‡ơ‘”– –‘‡š…Ž—†‡ –Š‡ —‹–™‹ŽŽ

3  

‹…Šƒ‡Ž›‡”•ǡŠ‘™•–Š‡”…–‹…ǫǣ†‡”•–ƒ†‹‰‘˜‡”‡‹‰–›‹•’—–‡•‹–Š‡‘”–Šȋƒ…‘—˜‡”ǡǣ‘—‰Žƒ•Ƭ… –›”‡ǡ͜͜͞͝Ȍǡ͝͞͡Ǥ

͠

Dz‹”…—’‘Žƒ” —‹–‡…Žƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘‘˜‡”‡‹‰–›‹–Š‡”…–‹…ǡdz —‹–‹”…—’‘Žƒ”‘—…‹Žǡ’”‹Žͥ͜͜͞ǡŠ––’•ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ‹–Ǥ…ƒȀ•‹–‡•Ȁ†‡ˆƒ—Ž–

ƤŽ‡•Ȁ‡…Žƒ”ƒ–‹‘̼͝͞š̼ͤ͝‹…‡ǦŠƒ‹”•̼‹‰‡†Ǥ’†ˆǤ

5  

 „‹†Ǥ


68

FRANKS

‡ƒDz–Š‡‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡†‡ƒ–Š‘ˆ–Š‡”…–‹… ‹˜‡‡‡–‹‰•Ǥ͢ Š‡˜ƒŽ—‡‘ˆ’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–‹‘ƒ†‹ƪ—‡…‡‹–Š‡”…–‹…‘—…‹Ž’”‘’–‡†–Š‡

—‹––‘•’‡ƒ‘—–™Š‡‡š…Ž—†‡†ˆ”‘–Š‡‡‡–‹‰•„‡–™‡‡–Š‡”…–‹… ‹˜‡ǤŠ‡ ”…–‹… ‘—…‹Ž ‹•ƒ „‘†›–Š”‘—‰Š™Š‹…Š ‹†‹‰‡‘—•’‡‘’Ž‡• Šƒ˜‡ Š‹•–‘”‹…ƒŽŽ› „‡‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ ‹ƪ—‡…‡ †‡…‹•‹‘Ǧƒ‹‰ –‘ ƒ •‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ– †‡‰”‡‡ǡ †‡•’‹–‡ Š‘Ž†‹‰ ‘Ž› Dz’‡”ƒ‡– ’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–dz ƒ• ‘’’‘•‡† –‘ Dz’‡”ƒ‡– ‡„‡”dz •–ƒ–—•Ǥ Š‹• ƒŽŽ‘™• ‹†‹‰‡‘—• ‘”‰ƒ‹œƒ–‹‘• Ȃ –Š‡ —‹– ‹”…—’‘Žƒ” ‘—…‹Ž ȋ Ȍǡ ƒ‹ ‘—…‹Žǡ —••‹ƒ••‘…‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ †‹‰‡‘—•‡‘’Ž‡•‘ˆ–Š‡‘”–Šƒ†–Š‡Ž‡—– –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ••‘…‹ƒ–‹‘ Ȃ Dz…‘•—Ž–ƒ–‹‘ ”‹‰Š–• ‹ …‘‡…–‹‘ ™‹–Š –Š‡ ‘—…‹Žǯ• ‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‹‘• ƒ† †‡…‹•‹‘•Ǥdzͣ —‡ –‘ –Š‡

The  declaration’’s   perfectly-­timed   release  maximized   ITSÒIN¹UENCEÒONÒTHEÒ ministers,  media   and  international   community

principle  of  consensus  decision-­‐making  adopted  in  the   ––ƒ™ƒ‡…Žƒ”ƒ–‹‘ǡ‡ƒ…Š‘ˆ–Š‡‡‹‰Š–‡„‡”•–ƒ–‡•ǡƒŽŽ ™‹–Š–‹‡•–‘‹†‹‰‡‘—•’‡‘’Ž‡•‘”‰ƒ‹œƒ–‹‘•ǡŠƒ˜‡˜‡–‘ ’‘™‡”Ǥ ‹•–‘”‹…ƒŽŽ›ǡ–Š‡ Šƒ•„‡‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡Ž› ƒ”‰—‡ ƒ† …‘˜‹…‡ ƒ– Ž‡ƒ•– ‘‡ ‡„‡” –‘ ”‡’”‡•‡– –Š‡‹”‹–‡”‡•–†—”‹‰˜‘–‡•Ǥ ‘”‡šƒ’Ž‡ǡ–Š‡ǯ•”‡…‡– ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ˆ‘”’‡”ƒ‡–‘„•‡”˜‡”•–ƒ–—•‘–Š‡”…–‹… Council  coincided  with  their  ban   on  the  import   of  seal   ’”‘†—…–•Ǥ‘™‹‰–Š‡ƒ††‹–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡–‘–Š‡‘—…‹Ž

™‘—Ž†Œ‡‘’ƒ”†‹œ‡–Š‡‹”‹–‡”‡•–•Ȃƒ•†‡‘•–”ƒ–‡†„›–Š‡ǯ•Žƒ…‘ˆ…‘…‡”ˆ‘” –Š‡ —‹–ǯ•…‡–”ƒŽ‹†—•–”›Ȃƒ†™‘—Ž†Ž‹‡Ž›†‹Ž—–‡–Š‡‹”‹ƪ—‡…‡™‹–Š‹–Š‡•ƒŽŽ „‘†›ǡ–Š‡ —‹–…‘˜‹…‡†ƒƒ†ƒ–‘‘’’‘•‡–Š‡ǯ•ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ƒ†’”‡˜‡––Š‡ ˆ”‘‰ƒ‹‹‰’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–•–ƒ–—•Ǥͤ   Š‡  Šƒ• ‡š‡”–‡† ƒ††‹–‹‘ƒŽ ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ‹ƪ—‡…‡ –Š”‘—‰Š –Š‡ ‹–‡† ƒ–‹‘•˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ”‘‰”ƒ‡ǤDz—‹Ƥ‡†’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽˆ‘”…‡ǥȑƒ†Ȓ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ actor   of   consequence,”ͥ –Š‡ ‹ƪ—‡…‡ ‘ˆ –Š‡  ™ƒ• Ƥ”•– ƒ†‡ …Ž‡ƒ” †—”‹‰ –Š‡ ‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‹‘•ƒ†ƒ†‘’–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡–‘…Š‘Ž‘˜‡–‹‘‘‡•–‹…‹†‡•ƒ†”‰ƒ‹… ͢

DzŽ‹–‘ǯ•”…–‹…‘‡–•Š‡‡” —‹–ǡdz‡™•ƒƒ†ƒǡ͟͝ƒ”…Š͜͜͞͝ǡŠ––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ…„…Ǥ…ƒȀ‡™•Ȁ…ƒƒ†ƒȀ•–‘”›Ȁ͜͜͞͝Ȁ͜͟Ȁ͟͝Ȁ…Ž‹–‘

ƒ”…–‹…ǤŠ–ŽǤ

ͣ

Dz‡”ƒ‡–ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–•ǡdz”…–‹…‘—…‹ŽǡŠ––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥƒ”…–‹…Ǧ…‘—…‹ŽǤ‘”‰Ȁ‹†‡šǤ’Š’Ȁ‡Ȁƒ„‘—–Ǧ—•Ȁ’‡”ƒ‡–’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–•Ǥ

ͤ

Dzƒƒ†ƒƒ‰ƒ‹•––”›–‘”…–‹…‘—…‹Ž‡…ƒ—•‡‘ˆ‡ƒŽ”ƒ†‡ƒǡdz‡™•‘”Ž†ǡͥ͞’”‹Žͥ͜͜͞ǡŠ––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ…„…Ǥ…ƒȀ‡™•Ȁ™‘”Ž†Ȁ

•–‘”›Ȁͥ͜͜͞Ȁ͜͠Ȁͥ͞Ȁ…†ƒǦ‡—Ǧƒ”…–‹…Ǧ•‡ƒŽǤŠ–ŽǤ ͥ

›‡”•ǡŠ‘™•–Š‡”…–‹…ǫǡ͟͝͞Ǥ


INDIGENOUS INFLUENCE

69

‘ŽŽ—–ƒ–•Ǥ ƒ”‰‡ “—ƒ–‹–‹‡• ‘ˆ –‘š‹… …Š‡‹…ƒŽ• ‘˜‡ ‘”–Š ˆ”‘ ‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ‹œ‡† ƒ–‹‘• –Š”‘—‰Š ™Šƒ– ‹• ‘™ ƒ• –Š‡ ‰”ƒ••Š‘’’‡” ‡ơ‡…–Ǥ ‘™‹‰ –Š‡ Šƒ”ˆ—Ž ‡ơ‡…–‘ˆŠ‹‰Š…‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆ–Š‡•‡…Š‡‹…ƒŽ•‹ —‹–™‘‡Ȃ’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”Ž›–Š‘•‡ „”‡ƒ•–ˆ‡‡†‹‰ȂŠ‡‹Žƒƒ––ǦŽ‘—–‹‡”ǡ–Š‡”‡’”‡•‡–ƒ–‹˜‡‘ˆ–Š‡ ƒ––Š‡…‘ˆ‡”‡…‡ made   a   direct   and   human   appeal   to   member   states   during   the   negotiation   of   the   …‘˜‡–‹‘ǡ’”‡•‡–‹‰ƒ•‘ƒ’•–‘‡…ƒ”˜‹‰‘ˆƒ —‹–‘–Š‡”„”‡ƒ•–ˆ‡‡†‹‰ƒ…Š‹Ž† –‘–Š‡‡š‡…—–‹˜‡†‹”‡…–‘”‘ˆ–Š‡…‘ˆ‡”‡…‡Ǥ͜͝Š‡–‘…Š‘Ž‘˜‡–‹‘™ƒ•‘ƥ…‹ƒŽŽ› ƒ†‘’–‡†‹͜͜͞͝ƒ†Šƒ••‹…‡„‡‡”ƒ–‹Ƥ‡†„›͢͝͞…‘—–”‹‡•Ǥ11    

UNDRIP  AND  NLCA:  UNFULFILLED  SELF-­DETERMINATION ‡•’‹–‡ ‘†‡”ƒ–‡ •—……‡•• ‹ƪ—‡…‹‰ –Š‡•‡ ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ †‹•…—••‹‘•ǡ –Š‡

—‹–Šƒ˜‡ƒ”‰—ƒ„Ž›„‡‡—ƒ„Ž‡–‘‡š‡”––Š‡†‡‰”‡‡‘ˆ‹ƪ—‡…‡–‘™Š‹…Š–Š‡›ƒ”‡ ‡–‹–Ž‡†–‘—†‡”–Š‡‹–‡†ƒ–‹‘•‡…Žƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘–Š‡‹‰Š–•‘ˆ †‹‰‡‘—•‡‘’Ž‡• ȋ Ȍƒ†–Š‡—ƒ˜—–ƒ†Žƒ‹•‰”‡‡‡–ȋȌȂƒ†‘‡•–‹…‡š’”‡••‹‘ –Š‡ ”‹‰Š– ‘ˆ •‡ŽˆǦ†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ ƥ…‹ƒŽŽ› ‡†‘”•‡† „› ƒƒ†ƒ ‹ ‘˜‡„‡” ͜͜͞͝ǡ   ƒ††”‡••‡• –Š‡ ”‹‰Š–• ‘ˆ ‹†‹‰‡‘—• ’‡‘’Ž‡•ǡ ‡’Šƒ•‹œ‹‰ Dz–Š‡ ”‹‰Š–• ‘ˆ indigenous  peoples  to   maintain  and  strengthen  their  own   institutions,  cultures  and   –”ƒ†‹–‹‘• ƒ† –‘ ’—”•—‡ –Š‡‹” †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– ‹ ‡‡’‹‰ ™‹–Š –Š‡‹” ‘™ ‡‡†• ƒ† ƒ•’‹”ƒ–‹‘•Ǥdz͝͞ ‡–”ƒŽ –‘ –Š‡•‡ ”‹‰Š–• ‹• –Š‡ ”‹‰Š– ‘ˆ •‡ŽˆǦ†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ǣ –Š‡ —‹–ǯ• Dz”‹‰Š––‘Ž‹˜‡ƒ’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”™ƒ›‘ˆŽ‹ˆ‡ǡ–‘’”ƒ…–‹…‡ƒ•’‡…‹Ƥ……—Ž–—”‡ƒ†”‡Ž‹‰‹‘ǡ–‘—•‡ –Š‡‹”‘™Žƒ‰—ƒ‰‡•ǡ–Š‡ƒ„‹Ž‹–›–‘†‡–‡”‹‡–Š‡…‘—”•‡‘ˆˆ—–—”‡†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–ƒ† –‘„‡‹˜‘Ž˜‡†‹–Š‡’”‘…‡••‡•‘ˆ”…–‹…’‘Ž‹…›ƒ‹‰Ǥdz13Š‡ͥͥ͟͝ƒ‹‡†–‘ ‡•–ƒ„Ž‹•Š—ƒ˜—–ƒ•Dzƒ‡š’”‡••‹‘‘ˆ —‹–•‡ŽˆǦ†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘Ǣdz͝͠Š‘™‡˜‡”ǡ†—‡–‘ –Š‡ˆƒ‹Ž—”‡‘ˆ–Š‡ ƒƒ†‹ƒ‰‘˜‡”‡––‘—’Š‘Ž†–Š‡…‘‹–‡–• ƒ†‡ ‹–Š‹• ƒ‰”‡‡‡–ǡ–Š‡ —‹–‹ƒƒ†ƒ…—””‡–Ž›ˆƒ…‡•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–‡…‘‘‹…ǡ•‘…‹ƒŽǡ’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽǡ ‡†—…ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ† ‘……—’ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ†˜‡”•‹–›ǡ •–‡‹‰ ˆ”‘ –Š‡ †‹•”—’–‹‘ …ƒ—•‡† „› ͜͝  

 „‹†Ǥǡ͟͝͞Ǥ

11  

 „‹†Ǥǡ͝͞͠Ǥ

͝͞  

Dz ”‡“—‡–Ž›•‡†—‡•–‹‘•ǣ‡…Žƒ”ƒ–‹‘‘–Š‡‹‰Š–•‘ˆ †‹‰‡‘—•‡‘’Ž‡•ǡdz‹–‡†ƒ–‹‘•‡”ƒ‡– ‘”—‘ †‹‰‡‘—• ••—‡•ǡ

 

Š––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ—Ǥ‘”‰Ȁ‡•ƒȀ•‘…†‡˜Ȁ—’Ƥ‹Ȁ†‘…—‡–•Ȁ •‹†‹‰‡‘—•†‡…Žƒ”ƒ–‹‘Ǥ’†ˆǤ 13  

ƒ”—––ƒŽŽǡ”‘–‡…–‹‰–Š‡”…–‹…ǣ †‹‰‡‘—•‡‘’Ž‡•ƒ†—Ž–—”ƒŽ—”˜‹˜ƒŽȋ‡†ˆ‘”†ǣ‘—–Ž‡†‰‡ǡͥͥͤ͝ȌǤ

͝͠  

Š‘ƒ•‡”‰‡”ǡ‘…‹Ž‹ƒ–‘”ǯ• ‹ƒŽ‡’‘”–ǣ—ƒ˜—–ƒ†Žƒ‹•‰”‡‡‡– ’Ž‡‡–ƒ–‹‘Žƒ‹‰‘–”ƒ…–‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‹‘•ˆ‘”–Š‡‡…‘†

Žƒ‹‰‡”‹‘†ȋ‡’ǡƒ…‘—˜‡”ǣ ‘˜‡”‡–‘ˆƒƒ†ƒǡ͜͜͢͞ȌǤ


70

FRANKS

’”‘ˆ‘—†…—Ž–—”ƒŽƒ†‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ…Šƒ‰‡Ǥ ‹–Š‹ ƒƒ†ƒǡ —‹– ‘’’‘”–—‹–‹‡• ƒ† ƒ……‡•• –‘ ˆ—†‹‰ Šƒ˜‡ ‘– „‡‡ ˆ‘”–Š…‘‹‰—†‡”–Š‡ˆ”ƒ‡™‘”Ǥ••‡–ˆ‘”–Š‹”–‹…Ž‡͟͞‘ˆ–Š‡ǡ–Š‡ ’‡”…‡–ƒ‰‡‘ˆ‰‘˜‡”‡–Œ‘„•Š‡Ž†„› —‹–‹•”‡“—‹”‡†–‘ƒ–…Š–Š‡‹”•Šƒ”‡‘ˆ–Š‡ ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ Ȃ –Šƒ– ‹• ͤ͡τ ‹ —ƒ˜—–Ǥ15 —‹– ’‡‘’Ž‡…—””‡–Ž› Š‘Ž†ƒ ‡”‡ ͠͡τ‘ˆ ‰‘˜‡”‡–Œ‘„•ǡ͜͠τŽ‡••–Šƒ–™Šƒ–™ƒ•’”‡•…”‹„‡†‹–Š‡ͥͥ͟͝ƒ‰”‡‡‡–Ǥ‡”‰‡”ǡ–Š‡ …‘…‹Ž‹ƒ–‘”‘ˆ–Š‡ ’Ž‡‡–ƒ–‹‘Žƒ‹‰‘–”ƒ…–‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‹‘•ǡƒ––”‹„—–‡† –Š‹• ‰ƒ’ –‘ –Š‡ —‹Ž‹‰—ƒŽ ‰Ž‹•Š ‡†—…ƒ–‹‘ •›•–‡ –Šƒ– •‡˜‡”‡Ž› †ƒƒ‰‡• —‹– …Š‹Ž†”‡ǯ• …‘Ƥ†‡…‡ƒ†”‡‹ˆ‘”…‡•Dz–Š‡…‘Ž‘‹ƒŽ‡••ƒ‰‡ ‘ˆ‹ˆ‡”‹‘”‹–›Ǥdz͢͝  He  suggests  a  bilingual  education   •›•–‡–Šƒ–™‹ŽŽ•–”‡‰–Š‡ —–‹–—–‹•…Š‘‘Ž•ǡ ‹’”‘˜‡ ƒ…Š‹‡˜‡‡– ‹ „‘–Š —–‹–—– ƒ† ‰Ž‹•Šǡ ƒ† ‹…”‡ƒ•‡ –Š‡ ƒ‘—– ‘ˆ —‹– “—ƒŽ‹Ƥ‡† –‘ ™‘” ™‹–Š‹ ‰‘˜‡”‡–Ǥ ƒ… ‘ˆ federal   funding   is   the   greatest   impediment   to   ”‡ƒŽ‹œ‹‰ „‹Ž‹‰—ƒŽ ‡†—…ƒ–‹‘ ‹ —ƒ˜—–Ǥ Š‡ ‰‘˜‡”‡– ”‡…‡–Ž› ’”‘˜‹†‡† –Š‡ –‡””‹–‘”›

The  government   of  Canada  has   excluded  the   Inuit  from  critical   discussion  and   decision-­making   forums

™‹–Š Œ—•– ‘˜‡” ͣǤ͡ ‹ŽŽ‹‘ ƒƒ†‹ƒ †‘ŽŽƒ”• –‘ †‡˜‡Ž‘’ „‹Ž‹‰—ƒŽ ‡†—…ƒ–‹‘Ǣ Š‘™‡˜‡”ǡ –Š‹• —„‡” ˆƒŽŽ• •Š‘”– ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡•–‹ƒ–‡† ͜͞ ‹ŽŽ‹‘†‘ŽŽƒ”• ”‡“—‹”‡† –‘ ‹’Ž‡‡– –Š‡ ’”‘‰”ƒƒ† –Š‡ Ž‘‰Ǧ–‡”…‘•–• –‘ ƒ‹–ƒ‹‹–Ǥͣ͝‘–‘Ž›Šƒ•‰‘˜‡”‡–ˆ—†‹‰„‡‡‹ƒ†‡“—ƒ–‡ǡ„—–…‘•‹†‡”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ —‹–‹–‡”‡•–•ƒ†‡‡†•Šƒ•ƒŽ•‘ˆƒŽŽ‡•Š‘”–Ǥ —–‹‰ƒ†Ƥ•Š‹‰‹•…‡–”ƒŽ–‘ —ƒ˜—–ǯ•‡…‘‘›ǡƒ†ƒ”‡‘‡‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ‹•‘—”…‡•‘ˆ‹…‘‡ˆ‘” —‹–‹–Š‡‘”–ŠǤ ‡…‡–Ž›ǡƒ•†‡–ƒ‹Ž‡†„››‡”•ǡ ‹•Š‡”‹‡•ƒ†…‡ƒ•ƒƒ†ƒƒŽŽ‘™‡†ƒ‘˜ƒ…‘–‹ƒǦ „ƒ•‡†Ƥ•Š‡”›–‘–”ƒ•ˆ‡”“—‘–ƒ•–‘–™‘‘–Š‡”…‘’ƒ‹‡•‹–Š‡–Žƒ–‹…ǤŠ‡‹‹•–‡” ƒ‰”‡‡†ǡDz‹‰‘”‹‰’Ž‡ƒ•ˆ‘”•‘‡‘ˆ–Š‡“—‘–ƒˆ”‘–™‘•ƒŽŽ —‹–Ǧ‘™‡†…‘’ƒ‹‡• –Šƒ–™‡”‡ƒŽ”‡ƒ†›‡‰ƒ‰‡†‹–Š‡Ƥ•Š‡”›ƒ†‡ƒ‰‡”–‘‡š’ƒ†Ǥdzͤ͝•–Š‡•‡‡šƒ’Ž‡• 15  

›‡”•ǡŠ‘™•–Š‡”…–‹…ǫǡ͝͝͞Ǥ

͢͝  

‡”‰‡”ǡ‘…‹Ž‹ƒ–‘”ǯ• ‹ƒŽ‡’‘”–Ǥ

ͣ͝  

 „‹†Ǥ

ͤ͝  

›‡”•ǡŠ‘™•–Š‡”…–‹…ǫǡͤ͝͝Ǥ

 


INDIGENOUS INFLUENCE

71

‹ŽŽ—•–”ƒ–‡ǡ –Š‡ ƒƒ†‹ƒ ‰‘˜‡”‡– Šƒ• ˆƒ‹Ž‡† –‘ ’”‘˜‹†‡ –Š‡ —‹– ™‹–Š ‡‹–Š‡” adequate  funding  or  opportunity  to  address  the  immense  challenges  they  face  in  the   ‘”–ŠǤ‘•‡“—‡–Ž›ǡ–Š‡’”‘˜‹•‹‘•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ† ƒ•‡š’”‡••‹‘•‘ˆ•‡ŽˆǦ †‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ Šƒ˜‡ „‡‡ Ž‡ˆ– —ˆ—ŽƤŽŽ‡†ǡ †‡•’‹–‡ †‘‡•–‹… Ž‡‰‹•Žƒ–‹‘ †‡•‹‰‡† –‘ •—’’‘”––Š‹•‘„Œ‡…–‹˜‡Ǥ Š‡‰‘˜‡”‡–‘ˆƒƒ†ƒŠƒ•ƒŽ•‘‡š…Ž—†‡†–Š‡ —‹–ˆ”‘…”‹–‹…ƒŽ†‹•…—••‹‘ ƒ† †‡…‹•‹‘Ǧƒ‹‰ ˆ‘”—• ”‡‰ƒ”†‹‰ ”‡•‘—”…‡ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– ƒ† ‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ ƒ‰”‡‡‡–•Ǥ•ƒ‹†‹‰‡‘—•’‡‘’Ž‡ǡ–Š‡ —‹–”‡Ž›—’‘–Š‡”…–‹…‡˜‹”‘‡– Dz‘–‘Ž›ȑǥȒ‹ƒ‡…‘‘‹…•‡•‡Ǥ –ȑƒŽ•‘Ȓ‘—”‹•Š‡•–Š‡•’‹”‹–—ƒŽŽ›ƒ†’”‘˜‹†‡• ƒ ˆ—†ƒ‡–ƒŽ „ƒ•‹• ˆ‘” –Š‡ †‹•–‹…–‹˜‡ …—Ž–—”‡• ƒ† ™ƒ›• ‘ˆ Ž‹ˆ‡ –Š‡› ƒ”‡ Ƥ‰Š–‹‰ –‘ ’”‘–‡…–Ǥdzͥ͝   – ‹• —†‡‹ƒ„Ž‡ –Šƒ– ‹– ‹• –Š‹• ‰”‘—’ –Šƒ– ‹• ‘•– ƒơ‡…–‡† „› …Ž‹ƒ–‡ …Šƒ‰‡‹ƒƒ†ƒǤŠ‡–”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ —‹–™ƒ›‘ˆŽ‹ˆ‡„‡…‘‡•‹…”‡ƒ•‹‰Ž›–Š”‡ƒ–‡‡† “as   temperatures   rise,   weather   patterns   change,   snow   and   ice   conditions   become   Ž‡•• ’”‡†‹…–ƒ„Ž‡ǡ ƒ† ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡‹” ˆ‘‘† ƒ‹ƒŽ †‡…Ž‹‡Ǥdz͜͞ – ‹• ƒ”‰—‡† –Šƒ– as  contributors  to  emissions  causing  climate  change,  it  is  our  shared  responsibility   –‘†‘™Šƒ–™‡…ƒ–‘Ž‹‹––Š‡’”‘†—…–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡•‡‰ƒ•‡•ǤŠ‡‹Žƒƒ––ǦŽ‘—–‹‡”ƒ† ‘–Š‡” —‹–ˆ”‘˜ƒ”‹‘—•ƒ–‹‘•ƒ†‡–Š‹•ƒ”‰—‡–‹ƒ’‡–‹–‹‘ƤŽ‡†–‘–Š‡ –‡”Ǧ ‡”‹…ƒ‘‹••‹‘‘ —ƒ‹‰Š–•‹ƒ•Š‹‰–‘Ǥ͞͝Š‡›ƒ”‰—‡†ǡDzŠ‡‹–‡† –ƒ–‡•ǡ„›ˆƒ‹Ž‹‰–‘”‡†—…‡‹–•ƒ••‹˜‡‡‹••‹‘•‘ˆ…ƒ”„‘†‹‘š‹†‡ƒ†‘–Š‡” •ǡ Šƒ† ˜‹‘Žƒ–‡† –Š‡ …—Ž–—”ƒŽ ƒ† ‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ ”‹‰Š–• ‘ˆ –Š‡ —‹–Ǥdz͞͞ Š‡ ƒƒ†‹ƒ ‰‘˜‡”‡–…‘—Ž††‘—…Š–‘•—’’‘”––Š‡”‹‰Š–•‘ˆ–Š‡ —‹–†‘‡•–‹…ƒŽŽ›–Š”‘—‰Š ˆ—ŽƤŽŽ‹‰–Š‡”‡“—‹”‡‡–•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ† ƒ†‡ƒ„Ž‹‰–Š‡–‘”‡ƒŽ‹œ‡ –Š‡‹”‰‘ƒŽ•ƒ•ƒ’‡‘’Ž‡ǡƒ†‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽŽ›ǡ„›‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰–Š‡ —‹–‹•—‹–‡‡–‹‰• when  possible  and  supporting  their   interests   in   international  agreements  regarding   …—Ž–—”ƒŽƒ†‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ’”‘–‡…–‹‘Ǥ

ͥ͝  

—––ƒŽŽǡ”‘–‡…–‹‰–Š‡”…–‹…ǡ͟Ǥ

͜͞  

›‡”•ǡŠ‘™•–Š‡”…–‹…ǫǡ͝͞͠Ǥ

͞͝  

 „‹†Ǥǡ͝͞͠Ǥ

͞͞  

 „‹†Ǥ

 


72

FRANKS

RECONCILING  INUIT  AND  GOVERNMENT  POSITIONS  IN  THE  ARCTIC ‡•’‹–‡ …‘‘ ’‡”…‡’–‹‘ǡ –Š‡ ‘„Œ‡…–‹˜‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ —‹– ƒ† ƒƒ†‹ƒ ‰‘˜‡”‡–‹–Š‡”…–‹…ƒ”‡‘–‹””‡…‘…‹Žƒ„Ž‡‘”‹…‘’ƒ–‹„Ž‡ǤŠ‹Ž‡…‘ŽŽƒ„‘”ƒ–‹‘ in  the  past  has  been  limited,   the  potential   for   future  collaboration  between   the   two   ‰”‘—’•‘˜‡”–Š‡‹••—‡•‘ˆ–Š‡‘”–Š™‡•–ƒ••ƒ‰‡ƒ††‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘‹••‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–Ǥ Š‡ ‘”–Š™‡•– ƒ••ƒ‰‡ ‹• ƒ ”‘—–‡ –Š”‘—‰Š ƒƒ†ƒǯ• ”…–‹… ƒ”…Š‹’‡Žƒ‰‘ …‘‡…–‹‰–Š‡–Žƒ–‹…ƒ†ƒ…‹Ƥ…‘…‡ƒ•Ǥ ‹•–‘”‹…ƒŽŽ›ǡ‹…‡…‘†‹–‹‘•Šƒ˜‡ƒ†‡–Š‹• •–”ƒ‹–—ƒ˜‹‰ƒ„Ž‡ˆ‘”‘•–‘ˆ–Š‡›‡ƒ”Ǥ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ™‹–Š–Š‡”‡‰‹‘ǯ•”‡…‡–™ƒ”‹‰ǡ ‹…‡Ǧ•–”‡‰–Š‡‡†•Š‹’•ƒ†‹…‡„”‡ƒ‡”Ǧ‡•…‘”–‡†…‘˜‘›•™‹ŽŽ•‘‘„‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘—•‡–Š‡ ”‘—–‡›‡ƒ”Ǧ”‘—†Ǥ͟͞‹–Š‹…”‡ƒ•‡†’‘–‡–‹ƒŽˆ‘”—•‡ƒ•ƒ…‘•–Ǧ•ƒ˜‹‰•Š‘”–‡”•Š‹’’‹‰ ”‘—–‡ǡ“—‡•–‹‘•Šƒ˜‡ƒ”‹•‡•—””‘—†‹‰–Š‡Ž‡‰ƒŽ•–ƒ–—•‘ˆ–Š‡‘”–Š™‡•–ƒ••ƒ‰‡Ǥ ƒƒ†ƒ ”‡‰ƒ”†• –Š‡ •–”ƒ‹– ƒ• DzŠ‹•–‘”‹… ‹–‡”ƒŽ ™ƒ–‡”•ǡdz ”‡“—‹”‹‰ ˆ‘”‡‹‰˜‡••‡Ž• –‘ •‡‡ ‰‘˜‡”‡– ’‡”‹••‹‘ –‘ –”ƒ•‹–ǡ ƒ† •—„Œ‡…–‹‰ –Š‡ –‘ Dz–Š‡ ˆ—ŽŽ ˆ‘”…‡ ‘ˆ ƒƒ†‹ƒ†‘‡•–‹…Žƒ™Ǥdz͞͠‘˜‡”•‡Ž›ǡ–Š‡‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ•’Š‡”‡Ȃ–Š‡‹’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ” ȂŠƒ•ƒ‹–ƒ‹‡†–Šƒ––Š‡‘”–Š™‡•–ƒ••ƒ‰‡ˆ—ŽƤŽŽ•–Š‡…”‹–‡”‹ƒ‘ˆƒDz‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ •–”ƒ‹‰Š–ǡdz™Š‹…ŠƒŽŽ‘™•ˆ‘”‡‹‰˜‡••‡Ž•–Š‡”‹‰Š–‘ˆ–”ƒ•‹–’ƒ••ƒ‰‡™‹–Š‘—–‰‘˜‡”‡– ’‡”‹••‹‘Ǥ ˆ –Š‡ ‘”–Š™‡•– ƒ••ƒ‰‡ ™‡”‡ –‘ „‡…‘‡ ƒ ”‡…‘‰‹œ‡† ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ strait,  it  would  “limit  Canada’s  ability  to  control  these  waters,  especially  in  terms  of   ”—Ž‡• ‰‘˜‡”‹‰ ‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ ‹••—‡• ƒ† •Š‹’’‹‰ ’”ƒ…–‹…‡•Ǥdz͞͡ Š‡ Ž‘‘•‡‹‰ ‘ˆ Œ—”‹•†‹…–‹‘ƒŽ’‘™‡”™‘—Ž†‹…”‡ƒ•‡ƒƒ†ƒǯ••—•…‡’–‹„‹Ž‹–›–‘‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ†ƒƒ‰‡ …ƒ—•‡†„›‹…”‡ƒ•‡†…‘‡”…‹ƒŽ–”ƒƥ…Ȃƒƒ”‡ƒ‘ˆ’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”…‘…‡”–‘„‘–Š–Š‡ ˆ‡†‡”ƒŽ‰‘˜‡”‡–ƒ†–Š‡ —‹–Ǥ  Š—•ǡ‹–‹•‹–Š‡„‡•–‹–‡”‡•–‘ˆ„‘–Š‰”‘—’•–‘†‘ ƒŽŽ–Šƒ–‹•’‘••‹„Ž‡–‘’”‡˜‡–ˆ—”–Š‡”†ƒƒ‰‡ˆ”‘‘……—””‹‰Ǥ Š‡ Dz–Š‘—•ƒ†•‘ˆ›‡ƒ”•‘ˆ —‹–ǯ• —•‡ƒ†‘……—’ƒ…›dz͢͞  of   the  sea-­‐ice  and   ™ƒ–‡”• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ”…–‹… ”…Š‹’‡Žƒ‰‘ Ȃ ‹ ’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ” –Š‡ ‘”–Š™‡•– ƒ••ƒ‰‡ Ȃ ‹• Ž‹‡Ž› ƒƒ†ƒǯ••–”‘‰‡•–ƒ”‰—‡–•—’’‘”–‹‰‹–•Dz ‹•–‘”‹… –‡”ƒŽƒ–‡”•dz…Žƒ‹ǡƒ†Dz–Š‡

͟͞  

 „‹†Ǥǡͥ͟Ǥ

͞͠  

 „‹†Ǥǡ͟͠Ǥ

͞͡  

ƒ––Š‡™ƒ”ƒ‰Šƒƒ†ŽŽ‹•‘ ‘‘†›ǡDzƒƒ†‹ƒ”…–‹…‘˜‡”‡‹‰–›ǡdzƒƒ†‹ƒ‹„”ƒ”›‘ˆƒ”Ž‹ƒ‡–ǡ‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽƒ†‘…‹ƒŽơƒ‹”•‹˜‹•‹‘ǡ͢͞

 

 ƒ—ƒ”›͜͜͢͞ǡŠ––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ’ƒ”ŽǤ‰…Ǥ…ƒȀ‘–‡–ȀȀ”‡•‡ƒ”…Š’—„Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘•Ȁ’”„͜͢͡͝Ǧ‡ǤŠ–͛‡Ƥ‹‰Ǥ

͢͞  

›‡”•ǡŠ‘™•–Š‡”…–‹…ǫǡͥ͝͝Ǥ


INDIGENOUS INFLUENCE

73

‘Ž›†‹‡•‹‘‘ˆ ȑƒƒ†ƒǯ•Ȓ Ž‡‰ƒŽ ’‘•‹–‹‘ –Šƒ– ”‡•‘ƒ–‡•™‹–Š ‘Ǧƒƒ†‹ƒ•Ǥdzͣ͞   ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ‹‘”†‡”–‘„‡‡Ƥ–ˆ”‘–Š‹•‡Ž‡‡–ǡ–Š‡ƒƒ†‹ƒ‰‘˜‡”‡–—•–•ƒ–‹•ˆ› –Š‡…‘‹–‡–•–‘–Š‡ —‹–ƒ••‡–ˆ‘”–Š‹–Š‡Ǥ•ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ–‡†„››‡”•ǡ Š‡ ’Ž‹‰Š– ‘ˆ –Š‡ —‹– —†‡”‹‡• –Š‡ …”‡†‹„‹Ž‹–› ‘ˆ ƒƒ†ƒǯ• ‘”–Š™‡•– Passage  claim,  since  it  is  not  as  if  other  countries  are  unaware  of  the  hypocrisy   ‘ˆ Š‘Ž†‹‰ ˆ‘”™ƒ”† —‹– —•‡ ƒ† ‘……—’ƒ–‹‘ ƒ• ƒ …‡–”ƒŽ …‘’‘‡– ‘ˆ ȑƒƒ†ƒǯ•Ȓ Ž‡‰ƒŽ ’‘•‹–‹‘ ™Š‹Ž‡ ƒŽŽ‘™‹‰ –Š‡•ƒ‡’‡‘’Ž‡–‘•—ơ‡”•‘„ƒ†Ž›Ǥͤ͞   Š”‘—‰Šƒ ’”‘…‡••‘ˆ†‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘ Ȃ –Š‡ Dz–”ƒ•ˆ‡” ‘ˆ ˆ‡†‡”ƒŽ Œ—”‹•†‹…–‹‘ ‘˜‡” ”‘™ Žƒ†• ƒ† ”‡•‘—”…‡• –‘ –Š‡ ‘˜‡”‡– ‘ˆ —ƒ˜—–dz Ȃͥ͞   –Š‡ ’”‘˜‹•‹‘• ‘ˆ –Š‡  …ƒ „‡ ‘”‡ ˆ—ŽŽ› ”‡ƒŽ‹œ‡†ǡ „‡‡Ƥ––‹‰ —‹– ’‡‘’Ž‡•ǯ “—ƒŽ‹–› ‘ˆ Ž‹ˆ‡ ƒ† ƒŽŽ‘™‹‰ –Š‡ ƒƒ†‹ƒ ‰‘˜‡”‡– –‘

Devolution   would  encourage   development  and   Canada’’s  internal   waters  claim

•–”‡‰–Š‡‹–•…Žƒ‹–‘–Š‡‘”–Š™‡•–ƒ••ƒ‰‡Ǥ Š‡‘•‡”˜ƒ–‹˜‡‰‘˜‡”‡–Šƒ•„‡‰—ƒ†‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘ƒ‰”‡‡‡––Šƒ–™‘—Ž† ‰‹˜‡Dz–Š‡ —‹–‘ˆ—ƒ˜—–…‡”–ƒ‹•’‡…‹Ƥ…”‹‰Š–•ƒ†”‡•’‘•‹„‹Ž‹–‹‡•‹”‡•’‡…–‘ˆ —‹– ™‡† ƒ†•ƒ†ƒ”‘Ž‡ ‹ –Š‡ –‡””‹–‘”›ǯ•‘˜‡”ƒŽŽ”‡•‘—”…‡ ƒƒ‰‡‡–”‡‰‹‡Ǥdz͟͜   •–Š‡’”‹ƒ”›ƒƒ‰‡”ƒ†„‡‡Ƥ…‹ƒ”›‘ˆ”‡•‘—”…‡†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–‹–Š‡”‡‰‹‘ǡ–Š‡

—‹–™‘—Ž†„‡‡Ƥ–‰”‡ƒ–Ž›ˆ”‘–Š‡‡•–‹ƒ–‡†‘‡–”‹ŽŽ‹‘ƒƒ†‹ƒ†‘ŽŽƒ”•™‘”–Š‘ˆ ƒ–—”ƒŽ‰ƒ•”‡•‡”˜‡•ǤŠ‹Ž‡–Š‡‡š’Ž‘‹–ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ”‡•‘—”…‡•ǡƒ†‹…”‡ƒ•‡††‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– ƒ› ƒ’’‡ƒ” …‘–”ƒ†‹…–‘”› –‘ –Š‡ ‰”‹‡˜ƒ…‡• ‘ˆ –Š‡ —‹– Ȃ •—…Š ƒ• –Š‘•‡ ‘ˆ ƒ––Ǧ Ž‘—–‹‡” Ȃƒ• ‹– Ž‡ƒ†• –‘‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ†‡‰”ƒ†ƒ–‹‘ǡ –Š‡ „‡•–™ƒ› –‘ Ž‹‹–†ƒƒ‰‡ caused  by  greenhouse  gas  emissions  is   to   place  control  of   resources  in   the  hands  of   –Š‘•‡™Š‘ƒ”‡ƒ†˜‡”•‡Ž›ƒơ‡…–‡†„›‹–Ǥ31‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘™‘—Ž†ƒ…Š‹‡˜‡–Š‹•„›ƒŽŽ‘™‹‰ ͣ͞  

 „‹†Ǥ

ͤ͞  

 „‹†Ǥǡ͝͞͞Ǥ

ͥ͞  

Dz‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘ǣ—‡•–‹‘•ƒ†•™‡”•ǡdz—ƒ˜—–š‡…—–‹˜‡ƒ† –‡”‰‘˜‡”‡–ƒŽơƒ‹”•ǡ ‘˜‡”‡–‘ˆ—ƒ˜—–ǡŠ––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ‡‹ƒǤ‰‘˜Ǥ—Ǥ…ƒ

 ȀƬ̼‡‰Ǥ’†ˆǤ

͟͜  

Dzƒ†•ƒ†‡•‘—”…‡•‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘‡‰‘–‹ƒ–‹‘”‘–‘…‘Žǡdz—ƒ˜—–š‡…—–‹˜‡ƒ† –‡”‰‘˜‡”‡–ƒŽơƒ‹”•ǡ ‘˜‡”‡–‘ˆ—ƒ˜—–ǡŠ––’ǣȀ

™™™Ǥ‡‹ƒǤ‰‘˜Ǥ—Ǥ…ƒȀ Ȁ‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘τ͜͞”‘–‘…‘Ž̼‡‰Ǥ’†ˆǤ

31  

˜‹†‡…‡•—‰‰‡•–•–Šƒ–‹…‡”–ƒ‹•‹–—ƒ–‹‘•Ž‘…ƒŽ‰‘˜‡”ƒ…‡‘ˆƒ–—”ƒŽ”‡•‘—”…‡•…ƒ’”‘†—…‡Š‹‰Š‡”•—•–ƒ‹‡†›‹‡Ž†•™‹–Š‰”‡ƒ–‡”ƒ……‘—–ƒ„‹

‹–›–Šƒ‹ˆƒƒ‰‡†„›†‹•–ƒ–ƒ†‹‹•–”ƒ–‘”•Ǥ‡‡Ž‹‘”•–”‘ǡDz‘’‹‰™‹–Š–Š‡”ƒ‰‡†›‘ˆ–Š‡‘‘•ǡdz—ƒŽ‡˜‹‡™‘ˆ‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ …‹‡…‡͞Ǥ͝ȋͥͥͥ͝Ȍǣͥ͟͠Ǧ͟͡͡ǡ‡„ǡ͢͞ ‡„”—ƒ”›͜͟͞͝Ǥ


74

FRANKS

–Š‡ —‹––‘Dz„‡––‡”…‘–”‘Ž–Š‡’ƒ…‡‘ˆ†‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–ǥƒ†ƒ‹–ƒ‹‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ stewardship,”͟͞‹ƒƒ‡”–Šƒ––Š‡ƒƒ†‹ƒ‰‘˜‡”‡–ǡ‰‹˜‡‹–•†‹•–ƒ…‡ˆ”‘ –Š‡‹‡†‹ƒ–‡…‘•‡“—‡…‡•‘ˆ…Ž‹ƒ–‡…Šƒ‰‡ǡ‹•—ƒ„Ž‡–‘ƒ…Š‹‡˜‡ǤŠ‹•Ž‘‰Ǧ–‡”ǡ ˆ‘”™ƒ”†ǦŽ‘‘‹‰’‘Ž‹…›™‘—Ž†”‡“—‹”‡„‘–Š…‘•‹†‡”ƒ„Ž‡•Š‘”–Ǧ–‡”‹˜‡•–‡–ƒ† –Š‡ƒƒ†‹ƒ‰‘˜‡”‡––‘”‡Ž‹“—‹•Šƒ„•‘Ž—–‡…‘–”‘Ž‘˜‡””‡•‘—”…‡•ƒ†”‡˜‡—‡• ‹–Š‡”…–‹…”‡‰‹‘Ǥ ‘™‡˜‡”‹–Š‡Ž‘‰–‡”ǡƒŽŽ‘™‹‰Dz—ƒ˜—––‘•Šƒ”‡–Š‡”‡˜‡—‡ ˆ”‘‹–•‘™”‡•‘—”…‡•ǡdz™‘—Ž†„‡‡Ƥ––Š‡ƒƒ†‹ƒ‰‘˜‡”‡–„›dz”‡†—…ȑ‹‰Ȓ–Š‡ „—”†‡‘•‘—–Š‡”–ƒš’ƒ›‡”•ǡdzƒ†‰‹˜‡–Š‡ƒ‘—–‘ˆ”‡•‘—”…‡•ǡDz‡˜‡–—ƒŽŽ›‡ƒ„Ž‡ —ƒ˜—– –‘ „‡ ƒ ‡– …‘–”‹„—–‘” –‘ ƒƒ†ƒǯ• ™‡ƒŽ–ŠǤdz33   Additionally,   as   economic   †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– ”‡“—‹”‡• ‹’”‘˜‡† ‹ˆ”ƒ•–”—…–—”‡ǡ †‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘ ™‘—Ž† ‹†‹”‡…–Ž› ‡…‘—”ƒ‰‡–Š‡ˆ‡†‡”ƒŽ‰‘˜‡”‡––‘‹˜‡•–‹’”‘Œ‡…–••—…Šƒ•‡š–‡†‹‰ƒ‹”•–”‹’•ǡ „—‹Ž†‹‰†‡‡’™ƒ–‡”’‘”–•ƒ† ‹’”‘˜‹‰–Š‡‡š‹•–‹‰”‘ƒ† ‡–™‘”Ǥ͟͠   Projects  and   ‹˜‡•–‡–™‘—Ž†…”‡ƒ–‡—…Š‡‡†‡†‡…‘‘‹…‘’’‘”–—‹–‹‡•ˆ‘”–Š‡ —‹–Ǥ Š‡ †‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘ ’”‘…‡••ǡ ƒ• ‡š’Žƒ‹‡† ƒ„‘˜‡ǡ ™‘—Ž† ‘– ‘Ž› ‡…‘—”ƒ‰‡ ‡…‘‘‹… ƒ† ‹ˆ”ƒ•–”—…–—”‡ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– ‹ —ƒ˜—–ǡ „—– –Š”‘—‰Š ƒ‡Ž‹‘”ƒ–‹‰ –Š‡Ž‹˜‹‰…‘†‹–‹‘•‘ˆ”‡•‹†‡–•ǡ™‘—Ž†ƒŽŽ‘™–Š‡ƒƒ†‹ƒ‰‘˜‡”‡––‘—•‡–Š‡

—‹–ǯ•—‹“—‡”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’–‘–Š‡”…–‹…–‘•—’’‘”–‹–•‹–‡”ƒŽ™ƒ–‡”•…Žƒ‹™‹–Š‘—– „‡‹‰’‡”…‡‹˜‡†ƒ•Š›’‘…”‹–‹…ƒŽǤ††‹–‹‘ƒŽŽ›ǡ†‡˜‘Ž˜‹‰DzŽ‡‰‹•Žƒ–‹˜‡Œ—”‹•†‹…–‹‘‘˜‡” –Š‡Žƒ†”‡•‘—”…‡•ƒ†ƒ”‹‡„‡†”‡•‘—”…‡•dz–‘–Š‡ ‘˜‡”‡–‘ˆ—ƒ˜—–™‘—Ž† ˆ—”–Š‡” •–”‡‰–Š‡ ƒƒ†ƒǯ• •‘˜‡”‡‹‰–› …Žƒ‹ „› ”‡‹ˆ‘”…‹‰ –Š‡ …—””‡– ”‘Ž‡ ‘ˆ

—‹–—•‡ƒ†‘……—’ƒ…›Ǥ35Š‡ –”ƒ•ˆ‡”‘ˆ”‹‰Š–��ǡ™‘—Ž† „‡•‡‡ƒ•ƒ Dz‡š‡”…‹•‡‘ˆ ƒƒ†ƒǯ•‡š…Ž—•‹˜‡ƒ—–Š‘”‹–›‘˜‡”–Š‡™ƒ–‡”•‘ˆ–Š‡”…–‹…”…Š‹’‡Žƒ‰‘ǡdz͟͢  and  align   ™‹–Š ƒ”’‡”•Dz—•‡‹–‘”Ž‘•‡‹–dzƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š–‘”…–‹…•‘˜‡”‡‹‰–›Ǥͣ͟

͟͞  

Dz‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘Ǧ—‡•–‹‘•ƒ†•™‡”•Ǥdz

33  

 „‹†Ǥ

͟͠  

 „‹†ǤǢ›‡”•ǡŠ‘™•–Š‡”…–‹…ǫǡ͢͝͝Ǥ

35  

 „‹†Ǥ

͟͢  

—œƒ‡ƒŽ‘†‡“—‘–‡†‹›‡”•ǡŠ‘™•–Š‡”…–‹…ǫǡ͝͞͞Ǥ

ͣ͟  

›‡”•ǡŠ‘™•–Š‡”…–‹…ǫǡͥ͜͝Ǥ

 


INDIGENOUS INFLUENCE

75

CONCLUSION ‘‡•–‹… ƒ† ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ’‘Ž‹–‹…• ‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰ –Š‡ ‰‘˜‡”‡– ‘ˆ ƒƒ†ƒǡ –Š‡ —‹–ǡƒ†–Š‡”…–‹…”‡‰‹‘ƒ”‡ Š‹‰ŠŽ› ‹–‡”†‡’‡†‡–ǡƒ† Šƒ˜‡ƒ•—„•–ƒ–‹ƒŽ ‹’ƒ…–‘–Š‡†‡‰”‡‡–‘™Š‹…Š–Š‡ —‹–ƒ”‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘‹ƪ—‡…‡‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ†‡…‹•‹‘• ƒ††‹•…—••‹‘‹˜‘Ž˜‹‰–Š‡”…–‹…”‡‰‹‘Ǥ•†‡‘•–”ƒ–‡†„›–Š‡‡š…Ž—•‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡

—‹–ˆ”‘‹–‡”‰‘˜‡”‡–ƒŽ…‘˜‡”•ƒ–‹‘ǡ–Š‡ƒƒ†‹ƒ‰‘˜‡”‡–Šƒ•”‘—–‹‡Ž› ’”‡˜‡–‡† –Š‹• ‰”‘—’ ˆ”‘ Šƒ˜‹‰ ‹–• ˜‘‹…‡• Š‡ƒ”† ‘ –‘’‹…• •—…Š ƒ• •—•–ƒ‹ƒ„Ž‡ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡– ƒ† ‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒŽ ’”ƒ…–‹…‡Ǥ ‡•’‹–‡ –Š‡ †‘‡•–‹… ‘„•–ƒ…Ž‡• ˆ‘” ‹ƪ—‡…‡‹”…–‹…†‹•…—••‹‘ƒ††‡…‹•‹‘Ǧƒ‹‰ǡ–Š‡ —‹–Šƒ˜‡„‡‡ƒ„Ž‡–‘‡š‡”– ƒ •‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ– †‡‰”‡‡ ‘ˆ ‹ƪ—‡…‡ ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽŽ›ǡ ‘–ƒ„Ž› –Š”‘—‰Š –Š‡  ƒ† –Š‡ ‡†‹ƒǤ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ ‰‹˜‡ –Š‡ ”‹‰Š–• ƒ† ”‡•’‘•‹„‹Ž‹–‹‡• ƒŽŽ‘…ƒ–‡† –‘ –Š‹• ‹†‹‰‡‘—• ‰”‘—’‹–Š‡ƒ† ƒ†–Š‡‹”†‡’‡†‡…‡‘–Š‡”…–‹…‡˜‹”‘‡–ˆ‘” ‡…‘‘‹…ƒ†…—Ž–—”ƒŽ•—”˜‹˜ƒŽǡ–Š‹•‹ƪ—‡…‡Šƒ•„‡‡‹•—ƥ…‹‡–Ǥ As   the   legal   status   of   the   Northwest   Passage   becomes   more   salient   in   the   …‘‹‰ ›‡ƒ”•ǡ –Š‡ ‘–‹˜ƒ–‹‘ ˆ‘” –Š‡ ƒƒ†‹ƒ ‰‘˜‡”‡– –‘ ‹…Ž—†‡ –Š‡ —‹– ™‹ŽŽ‹…”‡ƒ•‡ǤŠ‹•‹•†—‡–‘–Š‡ —‹–ǯ•ƒ„‹Ž‹–›–‘Ž‡†•—’’‘”–ƒ†…”‡†‹„‹Ž‹–›–‘–Š‡ ‰‘˜‡”‡–ǯ•ƒ••‡”–‹‘–Šƒ––Š‡”‘—–‡…‘•–‹–—–‡•Š‹•–‘”‹…‹–‡”ƒŽ™ƒ–‡”•Ǥ ‘”†‡” ˆ‘”–Š‡‰‘˜‡”‡––‘–ƒ‡ˆ—ŽŽƒ†˜ƒ–ƒ‰‡‘ˆ–Š‹••—’’‘”–ǡ–Š‡›™‹ŽŽ„‡”‡“—‹”‡†–‘ ‹’”‘˜‡–Š‡Ž‹˜‹‰…‘†‹–‹‘•‘ˆ‘”–Š‡””‡•‹†‡–•ǡƒ•’”‘‹•‡†‹„‘–Š†‘‡•–‹…ƒ† ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽŽƒ™Ǥ‘‹‰–‘ƒƒ‰”‡‡‡–‘†‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘™‘—Ž†„‡‰‹ƒ’”‘…‡••‘ˆ †‡•’‡”ƒ–‡Ž›‡‡†‡††‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–ƒ†‹˜‡•–‡–‹—ƒ˜—–ǤŠ‡ —‹–™‘—Ž†„‡‡Ƥ– ˆ”‘ ‹…”‡ƒ•‡† ‡…‘‘‹… ƒ…–‹˜‹–› •–‡‹‰ ˆ”‘ †‡˜‘Ž—–‹‘ǡ ƒ† –Š‡ ƒƒ†‹ƒ ‰‘˜‡”‡–™‘—Ž†•–”‡‰–Š‡–Š‡˜ƒŽ‹†‹–›‘ˆ–Š‡‹”…Žƒ‹–‘–Š‡‘”–Š™‡•–ƒ••ƒ‰‡Ǥ – ‹•‹–Š‡„‡•–‹–‡”‡•–‘ˆ„‘–Š–Š‡ —‹–ƒ†ƒƒ†‹ƒ‰‘˜‡”‡––‘’”‘˜‹†‡ˆ‘”–Š‡

—‹–ǯ•ƒ…–‹˜‡’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ–‹‘ƒ† ‹ƪ—‡…‡ ‹†‘‡•–‹…ƒ† ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ†‹•…—••‹‘ and  decision-­‐making  regarding  the  Arctic  region,  particularly  as  it  relates  to  Canada’s   …Žƒ‹–‘–Š‡‹…”‡ƒ•‹‰Ž›‹’‘”–ƒ–”‘—–‡–Š”‘—‰Šƒƒ†ƒǯ•‘”–ŠǤ

8%&-RXUQDORI,QWHUQDWLRQDO$̆DLUV  >@


RECOGNIZING THE RIGHTS OF THE SAMI

76

‡…‘‰‹œ‹‰–Š‡‹‰Š–•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ‹         

 Allison  Rounding

INTRODUCTION Indigenous   peoples   worldwide   have   been,   and   continue   to   be,   subject   to   †‹•…”‹‹ƒ–‹‘ǡˆ‘”…‡†”‡Ž‘…ƒ–‹‘ǡƒ†‡ơ‘”–•†‡•‹‰‡†–‘‡Ž‹‹ƒ–‡–Š‡‹”Žƒ‰—ƒ‰‡ and   culture,   among   other   injustices.   Indigenous   peoples   have   resisted   this   oppression   at   a   domestic   level,   but   they   now   also   have   the   tool   of   international   law   at   their   disposal.   The   Sami1   people2   of   Northern   Europe   are   one   of   the   many   indigenous  groups  that   have  simultaneously  gained  power   in  domestic  politics,  and   used  international  law  to  become  recognized  as  an  indigenous  people  with  unique   cultural   and   land   rights.   Creating   a   separate   Sami   state   has   not   been   a   popular   idea   among   the   Sami   people;3   rather,   they   have   sought   self-­‐determination   within   a  state  structure  through  the  pursuit  of  cultural,  language,  land,  and  water  rights.4   When  domestic  avenues  to   securing  these  rights  have  been  blocked,  the  Sami  have   sought  political  redress  through  legal  challenges  at  the  international  level.  Though   1  

 The  term  Sami  will  be  used  here  for  the  sake  of  consistency,  although  the  words  Sámi  and  Saami  can  also  be  used.  The  term  Lapp  will  not  be  used  in  this

’ƒ’‡”ǤŠ‹Ž‡–Š‹•–‡”™ƒ•‰‡‡”ƒŽŽ›—•‡†ƒ•–Š‡‘ƥ…‹ƒŽƒ‡ˆ‘”–Š‡ƒ‹—’—–‹Ž–Š‡ͥ͢͜͝•ǡ–Š‡ƒ‹–Š‡•‡Ž˜‡•”‡‰ƒ”†‹–ƒ•ƒ’‡Œ‘”ƒ–‹˜‡–‡”ȋǤ ƒ––‘ǡDz‘”†‡”•ǡ‹–‹œ‡•Š‹’ƒ†Šƒ‰‡ǣŠ‡…ƒ•‡‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ‹’‡‘’Ž‡ǡͣ͝͡͝Ǧͤ͜͜͞ǡdz‹–‹œ‡•Š‹’–—†‹‡•͝͠ǡ‘Ǥ͡ȋ͜͜͞͝Ȍǣ͡͡͠ȌǤ

2  

Š‡–‡”’‡‘’Ž‡ǡ‘–’‡‘’Ž‡•ǡ™‹ŽŽ„‡—•‡†Š‡”‡‹”‡Žƒ–‹‘–‘–Š‡ƒ‹„‡…ƒ—•‡•‘‡ƒ‹•‡‡–Š‡•‡Ž˜‡•ƒ•…‘•–‹–—–‹‰Dz‘‡’‡‘’Ž‡dzȋ•‡‡ƒ––‘ǡ

Dz‘”†‡”•ǡ‹–‹œ‡•Š‹’ƒ†Šƒ‰‡ǡdz’Ǥ͡͡͝Ȍǡƒ†–Š‡‡š‹•–‹‰•…Š‘Žƒ”Ž›Ž‹–‡”ƒ–—”‡‰‡‡”ƒŽŽ›”‡ˆ‡”•–‘–Š‡ƒ‹ƒ•ƒ’‡‘’Ž‡ǡ‘–’‡‘’Ž‡•ȋ•‡‡ƒ––‘ǡ Dz‘”†‡”•ǡ‹–‹œ‡•Š‹’ƒ†Šƒ‰‡Ǣdz‡ —Ž‹‡‡„ǡDzƒ‹‡ŽˆǦ‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘‹–Š‡ƒ‹‰ǫǡdzƒ–‹‘•ƒ†ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ‹•͝͝ǡ‘Ǥ͠ȋ͜͜͞͡ȌǢǤƒ––‘ ƒ†Ǥ‘”‡•–ƒǡDzƒ‹‹‰Š–•ƒ†ƒ‹ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‡•ǣŠ‡‘†‡”‹œƒ–‹‘’”‘…‡••ƒ†–Š‡™‡†‹•Šƒ‹‘˜‡‡–ǡͤͤ͢͝Ǧ͜͜͢͞ǡdz…ƒ†‹ƒ˜‹ƒ  ‘—”ƒŽ‘ˆ ‹•–‘”›ǡ͟͟ǡ‘Ǥ͝ǡȋͤ͜͜͞ȌǢŽˆ‘Ž‡•–ƒǡDz †‹‰‡‘—•‡‘’Ž‡ƒ†–Š‡‹‰Š––‘‡ŽˆǦ†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ǣŠ‡…ƒ•‡‘ˆ–Š‡™‡†‹•Šƒ‹’‡‘’Ž‡ǡdz Š‡ƒƒ†‹ƒ ‘—”ƒŽ‘ˆƒ–‹˜‡–—†‹‡•ǡ͞͡ǡ‘Ǥ͞ȋ͜͜͞͡ȌǢǤ‡ŽŽ‡ƒ†Ǥ–”‘•‡•ǡDzƒ‹‹–‹œ‡•Š‹’ǣƒ”‰‹ƒŽ‹œƒ–‹‘‘”‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‘ǫǡdz…–ƒ‘”‡ƒŽ‹ƒǡ ͣ͞ǡ‘Ǥ͝ȋ͜͜͞͝ȌȌǤ ‘™‡˜‡”‹–—•–„‡‘–‡†–Šƒ––Š‡”‡ƒ”‡•‡˜‡”ƒŽƒ‹Žƒ‰—ƒ‰‡•ƒ†–Š‡”‡…ƒ„‡•‘‡…—Ž–—”ƒŽ†‹ơ‡”‡…‡•„‡–™‡‡–Š‡•‡‰”‘—’•‘ˆƒ‹ ȋƒ––‘ǡDz‘”†‡”•ǡ‹–‹œ‡•Š‹’ƒ†Šƒ‰‡ǡdz͡͠͠ȌǤŠ‡ƒ‹ƒ”‡‘–ƒ‘‘Ž‹–Š‹…‰”‘—’ƒ†–Š‡”‡ƒ”‡†‡„ƒ–‡•‘–Š‡ƒ–—”‡‘ˆƒ‹•‡ŽƢ‘‘†ȋ‡„ǡ Dzƒ‹‡ŽˆǦ‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘‹–Š‡ƒ‹‰ǡdz͟͟͡ȌǤ —”–Š‡”‘”‡ǡ–Š‡—•‡‘ˆ–Š‡–‡”‹†‹‰‡‘—•’‡‘’Ž‡˜‡”•—•’‡‘’Ž‡•Šƒ•„‡‡…‘–‡–‹‘—•‹‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ Žƒ™ǡƒ†‰‡‡”ƒŽŽ›™Š‡–Š‡Ǯ•ǯ‹•ƒ††‡†–Š‹•‹•ƒ”‡…‘‰‹–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡”‹‰Š–•ƒ†•‡ŽˆǦ†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‹†‹‰‡‘—•‰”‘—’•ȋ•‡‡ƒ–”‹…Š‘”„‡””›ǡ  †‹‰‡‘—•‡‘’Ž‡•ƒ† —ƒ‹‰Š–•ȋƒ…Š‡•–‡”ǣƒ…Š‡•–‡”‹˜‡”•‹–›”‡••ǡ͜͜͞͞Ȍǡ͠͝ȌǤ ‘”–Š‹•”‡ƒ•‘–Š‡–‡”‹†‹‰‡‘—•’‡‘’Ž‡•™‹ŽŽ„‡—•‡†                    when  referring  to  indigenous  groups  worldwide.

3  

‡„ǡDzƒ‹‡ŽˆǦ‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘‹–Š‡ƒ‹‰ǫǡdzͤ͟͡Ǣ”‘†Š—‡ǡDzƒƒ‹ƒ†‘”™‡‰‹ƒ•ǣ›„‘Ž•‘ˆ’‡‘’Ž‡Š‘‘†ƒ†ƒ–‹‘Š‘‘†ǡdz‹Š‡

 †‹‰‡‘—•š’‡”‹‡…‡ǣ Ž‘„ƒŽ’‡”•’‡…–‹˜‡•ǡ‡†•ǤǤǤƒƒƒƒ†Š”‹•†‡”•‘ȋ‘”‘–‘ǣƒƒ†‹ƒ…Š‘Žƒ”•”‡••ǡ͜͜͢͞Ȍǣͣ͢͞Ǥ

4  

‡„ǡDzƒ‹‡ŽˆǦ‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘‹–Š‡ƒ‹‰ǡdz͡͠͝Ǥ


77

ROUNDING

international   law   has   become   less   of   an   instrument   of   colonialism   over   time,   indigenous  peoples  still  face  barriers  to  accessing  the  protection  of  international   law.   The   Sami   have   been   recognized   domestically   as   an   indigenous   people   possessing  both  the  right  to  participate  in  the  domestic  politics  of  Norway,  Sweden   Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020; Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020;5  through  self-­â&#x20AC;?led  parliaments,  and  the  right  to  engage  in  traditional   activities   like   reindeer   herding.   Nonetheless,   though   granted,   these   rights   have   not  always   been   upheld   by   national  governments.   Consequently,   the   Sami   have   repeatedly   appealed   to   international   law   to   press   their   claims,   although   they   have   been   met  with  unclear  success.  These  results   indicate   that   the   Sami  are   in   a  situation  similar  to  many  other  indigenous  peoples:  though  the  Sami  have  had   domestic  successes  in  moving  states  to  accommodate  some  of  their  demands,͢  the   project  of  securing  the  rights  of  the  Sami  under  international  law  is  far  from  over.

INDIGENEITY,  SELF-­DETERMINATION,  AND  THE  HISTORY  SAMI Â&#x2018;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013; Â&#x192;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020; Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;ƤÂ?Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2022; Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6; DzÂ&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2022;Çł Â&#x2039;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x203A; Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x203A; Â&#x201E;Â&#x203A; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2019;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2026;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x192;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2014;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2014;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;ÇĄÂ&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2C6;ÇŚÂ&#x2039;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;ƤÂ&#x2026;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?ÇĄÂ&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2019;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018; Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x153;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â? Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D; Â&#x2020;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â? Â&#x201E;Â&#x203A; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D; Â&#x2030;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2019;Ǥ Â? Â&#x192;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?ÇĄ Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2021;Â&#x161;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2026;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6; oppression  and  subsumption  under  an  alien  state  structure  are  emphasized  as  key   aspects  of  the  term.7 Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;ǤÂ?Â&#x192;Â&#x203A;Â&#x192;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;DzÂ&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2022;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2022;Â&#x201E;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x192;Â&#x2020;Â&#x17D;Â&#x203A;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018; the   living   descendants   of   pre-­â&#x20AC;?invasion   inhabitants   of   lands   now   dominated   by   Â&#x2018;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2022;Ǥdzͤ Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2039; ƤÂ&#x2013; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2026;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x192; Â&#x192;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x203A; Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â&#x201E;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020; Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â? Â&#x2014;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2021;ÇĄ Â&#x2122;Â&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2026;Â&#x160; 5  

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Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;ÇĄÂ&#x192;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2030;Â&#x160;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2122;Â&#x192;Â&#x203A;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â&#x160;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2030;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â?Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x201E;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2039;Č&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x192; Â&#x2018;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â?ÇĄDzÂ&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2122;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2039;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2039; Â&#x2018;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2026;Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;Â&#x161;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;ÇĄÇłÂ&#x2039;Â? 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͢  

 Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;ǤÂ?Â&#x192;Â&#x203A;Â&#x192;ÇĄ Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2019;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â? Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â&#x2122;Č&#x2039;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2122;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â?ÇŁÂ&#x161;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2020;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x203A;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2022;ÇĄÍ&#x17E;Í&#x153;Í&#x153;Í&#x153;Č&#x152;ÇĄÍ?ͤÍ&#x;Ǥ

7  

 Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Č&#x2039;Â&#x192;ÇŻÂ?Â&#x2021;ÇŻÂ&#x152;Č&#x152;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x201E;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2020; Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2018;Â?ÇĄ Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2019;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2026;Â&#x203A;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x160;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2019;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;ÇŁÂ&#x2026;Â&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2030;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Č&#x2039;Â&#x192;Â&#x2022;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2018;Â?ÇŁÂ&#x2014;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2026;Â&#x160;Â&#x2014;Â&#x201E;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030;ÇĄ

Í&#x17E;Í&#x153;Í&#x153;ͤČ&#x152;ÇĄÍ Í&#x;ǢÂ&#x160;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â?Â&#x201E;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x201D;Â&#x203A;ÇĄ Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2019;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020; Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x160;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022;ÇĄ͠ͼǤ

ͤ

Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x203A;Â&#x192;ÇĄ Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2019;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â? Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â&#x2122;ÇĄÍ&#x;Ǥ


RECOGNIZING THE RIGHTS OF THE SAMI

78

they  call  Sápmi,  for  thousands  of  years  prior  to  the  establishment  of  the  Norwegian,   ™‡†‹•Šƒ† ‹‹•Š•–ƒ–‡•Ǥ

†‹‰‡‘—• ‰”‘—’• ‘ˆ–‡ •‡‡ •‡ŽˆǦ†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ǡ ™Š‹…Š ƒ›ƒ †‡•…”‹„‡• ƒ• –Š‡ Dz‹†‡ƒ –Šƒ– ƒŽŽ ƒ”‡ ‡“—ƒŽŽ› ‡–‹–Ž‡† –‘ …‘–”‘Ž –Š‡‹” ‘™ †‡•–‹‹‡•Ǥdzͥ   Under   –Š‡ ‹–‡† ƒ–‹‘• –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ‘˜‡ƒ– ‘ ‹˜‹Ž ƒ† ‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ ‹‰Š–•ǡ ƒ† –Š‡

–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ‘˜‡ƒ–‘…‘‘‹…ǡ‘…‹ƒŽƒ†—Ž–—”ƒŽ‹‰Š–•ƒŽŽ’‡‘’Ž‡Šƒ˜‡–Š‡ right  to  self-­‐determination,  and  to   “freely  determine  their  political  status  and   freely   ’—”•—‡ –Š‡‹” ‡…‘‘‹…ǡ •‘…‹ƒŽ ƒ† …—Ž–—”ƒŽ †‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–Ǥdz͜͝ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ ƒ› •–ƒ–‡• Šƒ˜‡†‡‹‡†–Šƒ–‹†‹‰‡‘—•‰”‘—’•ƒ”‡Dz’‡‘’Ž‡•dzƒ†ǡ

The  project  of   securing  the  rights   of  the  Sami  under   international  law  is   far  from  over.

therefore,   their   right   to   self-­‐determination   frequently   goes   unrecognized.   The   Sami   seek   self-­‐determination   through   regaining   control   of   their   land,   cultural,   and   economic  practices  damaged  by  colonialism. The  Sami  have  historically  been  perceived  as  an   undesirable  element  of  society  and   have  consequently   ‡š’‡”‹‡…‡†‘’’”‡••‹‘ƒ––Š‡Šƒ†•‘ˆ–Š‡‘”†‹…•–ƒ–‡•Ǥ Similarly  to   other  marginalized  indigenous   groups,  the  

Sami   have   lived   under   “conditions  of   severe  disadvantage   relative   to  others   in   the   •–ƒ–‡•…‘•–”—…–‡†ƒ”‘—†–Š‡Ǥdz11”‹‘”–‘‘”Ž†ƒ”

ǡ‘”†‹…’‘Ž‹…‹‡•–‘™ƒ”†•–Š‡ Sami  focused  on  assimilation  and  paternalism,  undermining  Sami  language,  culture   and  identity.12  The  Sami  lost  control  of  their   land,  as  reindeer   herding  areas   made   way  for  settlers,  agriculture,  forestry  and  hydropower  projects.13  Economic  sanctions,   ˆ‘”‡šƒ’Ž‡’”‡˜‡–‹‰–Š‡„—›‹‰ƒ†‘™‹‰‘ˆŽƒ†ǡ™‡”‡‹’‘•‡†‘‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽ• who  did  not  assimilate  into  an  ethnic  Norwegian  lifestyle,  including  the  Sami.14   ‘”‡‘˜‡”ǡ–Š‡ ‘ƒ†‹… Ž‹ˆ‡•–›Ž‡‘ˆ–Š‡ ƒ‹ ƒ†‡ ‹–‡ƒ•› ˆ‘” ‘”†‹…•–ƒ–‡• ͥ

 Ibid.,  75.

͜͝   ƒ”ƒŠ ›‘™‹–œ‡–ƒŽǤǡDz–—†› —‹†‡ǣŠ‡‹‰Š–•‘ˆ †‹‰‡‘—•‡‘’Ž‡•ǡdz‹‡•‘–ƒ —ƒ‹‰Š–•‹„”ƒ”›ǡŠ––’ǣȀȀ™™™͝Ǥ—Ǥ‡†—ȀŠ—ƒ”–•Ȁ‡†—ƒ– •–—†›‰—‹†‡•Ȁ‹†‹‰‡‘—•ǤŠ–ŽǤ

11  

ƒ›ƒǡ †‹‰‡‘—•‡‘’Ž‡•‹ –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽƒ™ǡ͟Ǥ

12   ‡ŽŽ‡ƒ†–”‘•‡•ǡDzƒ‹‹–‹œ‡•Š‹’ǡdzͤ͡Ǥ 13  

ƒ––‘ǡDz‘”†‡”•ǡ‹–‹œ‡•Š‹’ƒ†Šƒ‰‡ǡdz͜͡͡Ǥ

14   Ǥƒ”’’‹ǡDz…‘—–‡”‹‰‹ơ‡”‡–‡””‹–‘”‹ƒŽ‹–‹‡•ǣ‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽˆ”ƒ‰‡–ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ‹Š‘‡Žƒ†ǡdz‹Œ†•…Š”‹ˆ–‘‘”…‘‘‹•…Š‡‘…‹ƒŽ‡ ‡‘‰”ƒƤ‡ ͥ͞ǡ‘͠ǡȋ͜͜͞͝Ȍǣͥ͟͠Ǧ͜͠͠ǡͥͥ͟Ǥ


79

ROUNDING

to  claim  that  the  Sami  did  not   properly  own  their  lands,15  and  to  depict  the  Sami  as   Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x2026;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2039;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x153;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020; Â?Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2022; Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â&#x2026;Â?Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x192;Â&#x2019;Â&#x192;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x203A; Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018; Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2039;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2122;Â?Â&#x192;ĆĄÂ&#x192;Â&#x2039;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2022;ǤÍ?͢   Because   the   Sami  migrated  across  borders  throughout  the  eighteenth  century,  traditional  Sami   territories  do  not  conform   to   the  borders  of  current  Westphalian  states.  While   they   Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x192;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2122;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2030;Â&#x160;Â&#x2013;Â&#x201D;Â&#x192;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x161;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;ÇĄÂ&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x2122;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x153;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2022;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x203A; state  in  particular.  Initially  the   borders   of   the   Nordic   states   Â&#x2122;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021; Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2013; Â&#x2122;Â&#x2021;Â&#x17D;Â&#x17D; Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;ƤÂ?Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020;ÇĄ Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020; Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â?ĆŞÂ&#x2039;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2122;Â&#x160;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x17D;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; northernmost  areas  of   Europe   meant   that   the   Sami   had   to   Â&#x2019;Â&#x192;Â&#x203A; Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x161;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018; Â?Â&#x2014;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2019;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Ǥ17   In   1751,   Norway,   Sweden   and   Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020; Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2013;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2039;Â&#x201D; Â&#x201E;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2022;ÇĄ and  the  Sami  were  partitioned   into   states   and   assumed   citizenship.Í?ͤ  

Nevertheless,  

citizenship  was  subordinate  to   a   Sami   identity,   and   the   Sami   often   chose   their   citizenship   strategically   to   access   certain   reindeer  grazing  areas  divided   among  states.Í?ÍĽÂ&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x192;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2019; Â&#x2018;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2039;Â&#x17D;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x203A; Č&#x201E;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x201E;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020; Â&#x201E;Â&#x203A;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2018;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;ƤÂ&#x2026;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2026; Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022; Č&#x201E; Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2122;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2039; Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018; Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021; Â&#x192;Â&#x2026;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2022; Â&#x201E;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018; Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2020; Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;ÇĄ ƤÂ&#x2022;Â&#x160; and   otherwise   access   their   lands.   This   treaty   respected   their   history   on   the   land   and  acknowledged  the   widespread   area   of  their  traditional  lands,   while   enforcing   a   Western  sense  of  citizenship  and  land  ownership  upon  the  nomadic  Sami.Í&#x17E;Í&#x153; 15  

Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2039;ÇĄDzÂ?Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x2039;ĆĄÂ&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;ÇĄÇłÍ&#x;ͼͣǤ

Í?͢   Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â?Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â?ÇĄDz Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2019;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x160;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2021;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2C6;ÇŚÂ&#x2021;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â?Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?ǥdz͠Í&#x;ͼǤ 17   Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018;ÇĄDzÂ&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2022;ÇĄÂ&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x153;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2022;Â&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2019;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;ÇĄÇłͥͥ͠Ǥ Í?ͤ    Ibid. Í?ÍĽ    Â&#x201E;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2020;Ǥǥͥͤ͠Ǥ Í&#x17E;Í&#x153;    Â&#x201E;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2020;Ǥǥͥ͢͠ǢÂ&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2039;ÇĄDzÂ?Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x2039;ĆĄÂ&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;ÇĄÇłÍ&#x;ͼͼǤ


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‘™‡˜‡”ǡ –Š‹• ƒ…‘™Ž‡†‰‡‡– ‘ˆ ‘”–Š‡” —”‘’‡ ƒ• –”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ‹ –‡””‹–‘”› ‡†‡† †—”‹‰ –Š‡ ‹‡–‡‡–Š …‡–—”›Ǥ Š‡ ‘”™‡‰‹ƒǦ ‹‹•Š „‘”†‡” ™ƒ• …Ž‘•‡† –‘ –Š‡ ƒ‹ ‹ ͤ͝͡͞ǡ —••‹ƒ …Ž‘•‡† –Š‡‹” „‘”†‡” –‘ ”‡‹†‡‡” Š‡”†‹‰ ‹ –Š‡•ƒ‡›‡ƒ”ǡ‘”™ƒ›„ƒ‡†–Š‡ƒ‹Ž‹˜‹‰‹ ‹Žƒ†ˆ”‘Ƥ•Š‹‰™‹–Š‹–Š‡‹” „‘”†‡”•ǡƒ†–Š‡™‡†‹•ŠǦ ‹‹•Š„‘”†‡”™ƒ•…Ž‘•‡†–‘”‡‹†‡‡”Š—•„ƒ†”›‹ͤͤͥ͝Ǥ21   Š‡•‡’‘Ž‹…‹‡•†‹˜‹†‡†–Š‡ƒ‹ƒŽ‘‰ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ„‘”†‡”•™‹–Š‘—––Š‡‹”…‘•‡–Ǥ˜‡” the  course  of  the  nineteenth  century,  the  northernmost  areas  of  Europe  became  a   ˆ”‘–‹‡”ƒ”‡ƒˆ‘”•‡––Ž‡‡–ǡƒ†ƒ••‡––Ž‡”•‘˜‡†‘”–Š™ƒ”†–Š‡ƒ‹™‡”‡‡š’‡…–‡† to  vacate  their  lands  to  make  way  for  the  settlers’  farms.22‡‹†‡‡”Š‡”†‹‰ƒ†‘–Š‡” Sami  activities  were  deemed  to  be  less  valuable  than  agriculture,  and  nomadic  Sami   were  not  treated  as  legitimate  landowners  or  users  compared  to  the  settlers.23   The   Sami   have   continued   to   lose   access   and   control   over   much   of   their   reindeer  grazing  lands.  24•ƒ”’’‹…‘–‡†•ǡ–›’‹…ƒŽŽ›™Š‡‡˜‡”–Š‡Žƒ†‘™‡”•Š‹’ ’”ƒ…–‹…‡•‘ˆ ‹†‹‰‡‘—• ’‡‘’Ž‡•†‹ơ‡” ˆ”‘ –Š‘•‡‘ˆ•–ƒ–‡•ǡ –Š‡•–ƒ–‡‰ƒ‹•…‘–”‘Ž over  what  was  once  indigenous   territory.25 ‘”‡šƒ’Ž‡ǡ‹™‡†‡ǡ–Š‡‰‘˜‡”‡– assumed  ownership  of   their  land  when   the   rights  of   the  Sami   to  engage  in   reindeer   Š‡”†‹‰„‡…ƒ‡Ž‡‰ƒŽŽ›’”‘–‡…–‡†—†‡”–Š‡‡‹†‡‡” ”ƒœ‹‰…–‘ˆͤͤ͢͝Ǥ͢͞  Though   –Š‡ƒ‹”‡–ƒ‹‡†–Š‡‹””‹‰Š––‘Ƥ•ŠǡŠ—–ǡƒ†Š‡”†”‡‹†‡‡”ǡ–Š‡‹”–‹–Ž‡–‘Žƒ†™ƒ•‘ Ž‘‰‡””‡•’‡…–‡†Ǥ —”–Š‡”‘”‡ǡƒ‹™Š‘™‡”‡‘–”‡‹†‡‡”Š‡”†‡”•‘”™Š‘Ž‹˜‡†‘ Š‘‡•–‡ƒ†•™‡”‡Dzˆ”‘ƒŽ‡‰ƒŽ’‡”•’‡…–‹˜‡Ž‡‰‹–‹ƒ–‡Ž›‡š…Ž—†‡†ˆ”‘–Š‡•›•–‡‘ˆ ”‹‰Š–•Ǥdz27—„•‡“—‡–™‡†‹•ŠŽƒ™•…‘…‡”‹‰”‡‹†‡‡”ˆƒ”‹‰’ƒ••‡†ǡ‹–Š‡ͥ͜͝͞• ƒ†ͥͣ͜͝•ǡ…‘–‹—‡†–Š‡–”‡†‘ˆ†‡Ƥ‹‰ƒ‹„ƒ•‡†‘ˆƒ‹Ž›Š‹•–‘”›‘ˆ”‡‹†‡‡” ˆƒ”‹‰ǡ”ƒ–Š‡”–Šƒ„ƒ•‡†‘…—Ž–—”‡‘”•‡ŽˆǦ‹†‡–‹Ƥ…ƒ–‹‘Ǥͤ͞

21   ƒ––‘ǡDz‘”†‡”•ǡ‹–‹œ‡•Š‹’ǡŠƒ‰‡ǡdzͤ͡͠Ǥ 22   Ǥƒ‰‹Žǡ–Š‹…‹–›ƒ†ƒ–‹‘—‹Ž†‹‰‹–Š‡‘”†‹…‘”Ž†ȋ‘†‘ǣ —”•–ǡͥͥ͝͡Ȍǣ͢͝͞Ǥ 23   ƒ––‘ǡDz‘”†‡”•ǡ‹–‹œ‡•Š‹’ǡŠƒ‰‡ǡdzͥ͡͠Ǥ 24   ƒ”•Ǧ†‡”ƒ‡”ǡDzŠ‡ƒ‹ǣ‹†‹‰‡‘—•’‡‘’Ž‡‹–Š‡‹”‘™Žƒ†ǡdz‹Š‡ƒ‹ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ‹‘”‹–›‹™‡†‡ǡ‡†ǤǤ ƒŠ”‡•‘‰ȋ–‘…Š‘ŽǣŽ“˜‹•– Ƭ‹•‡ŽŽ –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽǡͥͤ͝͞Ȍǣ͝͝Ǧ͞͞ǡ͝͡Ǧͣ͝Ǥ

25   ƒ”’’‹ǡDz…‘—–‡”‹‰‹ơ‡”‡–‡””‹–‘”‹ƒŽ‹–‹‡•ǡdzͥͣ͟Ǥ ͢͞   ‘”‡•–ƒǡDz †‹‰‡‘—•‡‘’Ž‡ƒ†–Š‡‹‰Š––‘‡ŽˆǦ‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ǡdzͣ͟͠Ǥ 27    „‹†Ǥǡͥ͟͠Ǥ ͤ͞   ƒ––‘ƒ†‘”‡•–ƒǡDzƒ‹‹‰Š–•ƒ†ƒ‹ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‡•ǡdz͟͝Ǥ


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FIGHTING  FOR  RIGHTS  AT  THE  DOMESTIC  LEVEL –†‘‡•–‹…Ž‡˜‡Ž•–Š‡ƒ‹Šƒ˜‡„‡‡ˆƒ‹”Ž›•—……‡••ˆ—Žƒ–‰ƒ‹‹‰”‡…‘‰‹–‹‘ as  an  indigenous  people  with  the  right  to  practice  their  unique  cultural,  linguistic,  and   traditional  economic  activities.  While  these  symbolic  rights  have  been  recognized  by   national  governments,  as  the  previous  section  illustrates,  Sami  land  rights  have  been   continuously   marginalized.   Norway   has   been   the   most   willing   to   recognize   Sami   ”‹‰Š–•ǡ™‹–Š–Š‡‘”™‡‰‹ƒ ‹ƒ”…–‘ˆ͜͜͞͡‰‹˜‹‰–Š‡ƒ‹…‘–”‘Ž‘˜‡”–Š‡ Žƒ†ƒ†™ƒ–‡” ‹ ‹ƒ”…‘—–›Ǥͥ͞     This   is  one  of   the   few   instances  where   the   Sami  have   regained  title  over  land.  Norway  is  also  the  only  Nordic  country  that  has   ”ƒ–‹Ƥ‡† –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ„‘—” ”‰ƒ‹œƒ–‹‘ ‘˜‡–‹‘ ͥ͢͝ǡ™Š‹…Š”‡…‘‰‹œ‡• Dz–Š‡ ƒ•’‹”ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆ ȑ‹†‹‰‡‘—•Ȓ’‡‘’Ž‡•–‘‡š‡”…‹•‡…‘–”‘Ž‘˜‡”–Š‡‹”‘™ ‹•–‹–—–‹‘•ǡ ways  of  life  and  economic  development  and  to  maintain  and  develop  their  identities,   Žƒ‰—ƒ‰‡•ƒ†”‡Ž‹‰‹‘•ǡ™‹–Š‹–Š‡ˆ”ƒ‡™‘”‘ˆ–Š‡–ƒ–‡•‹™Š‹…Š–Š‡›Ž‹˜‡Ǥdz͟͜  This   convention  also  asserts   that   the  state’s   legal  system   must  adequately  address   land   claim  issues,  and  “measures  shall  be  taken  in  appropriate  cases  to  safeguard  the  right   ‘ˆ–Š‡’‡‘’Ž‡•…‘…‡”‡†–‘—•‡Žƒ†•Ǥdz31   Š—•ˆƒ”™‡†‡ƒ† ‹Žƒ†Šƒ˜‡‘’–‡†‘––‘•‹‰‘–‘ ‘˜‡–‹‘ ͥ͢͝ǡƒ†–Š‡›Šƒ˜‡‘–”‡…‘‰‹œ‡†ƒ‹Žƒ†”‹‰Š–•Ǥ ‘”‡šƒ’Ž‡ǡ‹–Š‡ͥͤ͝͝Dzƒš‡† ‘—–ƒ‹dzȋ‘”ƒ––‡ƤƒŽŽȌ…ƒ•‡ǡ™‡†‡ǯ•—’”‡‡‘—”–”—Ž‡†–Šƒ––Š‡•–ƒ–‡ǡ‘––Š‡ ƒ‹ǡ‘™‡†Žƒ†•‹–Š‡’”‘˜‹…‡‘ˆ ƒ–Žƒ†Ǥ32  The  Sami  possess  the  right  to  herd   ”‡‹†‡‡”‹ ƒ–Žƒ†ǡƒ†–Š‹•”‹‰Š–‹•„ƒ•‡†‘–Š‡‹”Ž‹˜‡Ž‹Š‘‘†•‹…‡–‹‡‹‡‘”‹ƒŽǡ but  they  do  not  possess  title  over  the  land.33 ͜͞͝͝ǡ–Š‡—”‘’‡ƒ‘—…‹Ž…”‹–‹…‹œ‡† –Š‡•‡…‘—–”‹‡•ˆ‘”‘–•‹‰‹‰‘–‘–Š‹• …‘˜‡–‹‘ƒ†”‡…‘‰‹œ‹‰ƒ‹Žƒ† rights.34”‘’–‡†„›–Š‹•…”‹–‹…‹•ǡ™‡†‡ǡ‹’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”ǡŠƒ•‹†‹…ƒ–‡†–Šƒ–‹–ƒ› ͥ͞   DzŠ‡ƒ‹‘ˆ‘”–Š‡”—”‘’‡ǡdz‹–‡†ƒ–‹‘•‡‰‹‘ƒŽ ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘‡–”‡ˆ‘”‡•–‡”—”‘’‡ǡŠ––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥ—”‹…Ǥ‘”‰Ȁ‡Ȁ‹†‹‰‡‘—•Ǧ’‡‘’Ž‡Ȁͣͣ͟͜͞                      the-­‐sami-­‐of-­‐northern-­‐europe-­‐-­‐one-­‐people-­‐four-­‐countries.

͟͜    ‡†‡”•‘ǡ †‹‰‡‘—•‹’Ž‘ƒ…›ƒ†–Š‡‹‰Š–•‘ˆ‡‘’Ž‡•ǡdz͜͞͝Ǥ 31    „‹†Ǥǡ͜͞͡Ǥ 32   ƒ––‘Ƭ‘”‡•–ƒǡDzƒ‹‹‰Š–•ƒ†ƒ‹ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‡•ǡdzͣ͟Ǣƒ”‰ƒ”‡–‡–‡’Š‡•‘ǡDzƒ‹ƒ†•ƒ† †‹‰‡‘—•—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒƒ†•ǡdz‹ ‹”•– ‘”Ž†ǡ ‹”•–ƒ–‹‘•ǣ –‡”ƒŽ…‘Ž‘‹ƒŽ‹•ƒ†‹†‹‰‡‘—••‡ŽˆǦ†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘‹‘”–Š‡”—”‘’‡ƒ†—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒǡ‡†•Ǥ Ǥ‹‡”—’ƬǤ‘Ž„‡”‰ ȋ”‹‰Š–‘ǣ—••‡š…ƒ†‡‹…”‡••ǡ͜͞͝͝Ȍǣͤ͢͝Ǧͥͣ͝ǡͣ͟͝Ǥ

33   ‘”‡•–ƒǡDz †‹‰‡‘—•‡‘’Ž‡ƒ†–Š‡‹‰Š––‘‡ŽˆǦ‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ǡdz͟͠͠Ǥ 34   DzŠ‡ƒ‹‘ˆ‘”–Š‡”—”‘’‡Ǥdz


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sign  on  in  the  future.35  

Sami  Parliaments ‡•‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ–™ƒ›‹™Š‹…Š–Š‡ƒ‹Šƒ˜‡„‡‡”‡…‘‰‹œ‡††‘‡•–‹…ƒŽŽ›‹• through  the  creation  of  Sami  parliaments  in  all  three  Nordic  states.    The  Sami  people   ‹‡ƒ…Š…‘—–”›‡Ž‡…–‡„‡”•–‘–Š‡ƒ‹’ƒ”Ž‹ƒ‡–‘ˆ–Š‡‹”•–ƒ–‡Ǥ‡‘’Ž‡ƒ”‡‡Ž‹‰‹„Ž‡ –‘˜‘–‡‹ˆ–Š‡›•‡ŽˆǦ‹†‡–‹ˆ›ƒ•ƒ‹ǡ•’‡ƒƒƒ‹Žƒ‰—ƒ‰‡ƒ–Š‘‡ȋ‘”Šƒ˜‡ƒ’ƒ”‡– ‘”‰”ƒ†’ƒ”‡–™Š‘†‹†Ȍǡƒ†Ȁ‘”ƒ”‡–Š‡…Š‹Ž†‘ˆ•‘‡‘‡™Š‘Šƒ•ƒŽ”‡ƒ†›”‡‰‹•–‡”‡† to  vote  in  a  Sami  election.͟͢Š‡ƒ‹’ƒ”Ž‹ƒ‡–‹ ‹Žƒ†™ƒ•…”‡ƒ–‡†‹ͥͣ͟͝ǡƒ† deals  predominantly  with  Sami  cultural  issues  and  helps  allocate  government  funds   earmarked   for   the   Sami.37 ˆ–‡” –Š‡ ‘”™‡‰‹ƒ …‘•–‹–—–‹‘™ƒ•‘†‹Ƥ‡†–‘•–ƒ–‡–Šƒ–‘”™ƒ› must  “create  conditions  enabling  the  Sami  people   to   preserve   and   develop   its   language,   culture   ƒ†™ƒ›‘ˆ Ž‹ˆ‡ǡdz –Š‡ ‘”™‡‰‹ƒ ƒ‡†‹‰‰‹™ƒ• ˆ‘”‡†‹ͥͤͥ͝Ǥͤ͟ ‘™‡˜‡”ǡ—Ž‹‡‹ ‹Žƒ†ǡ–Š‡ powers   of   the   Norwegian   Sami   parliament   are   Žƒ”‰‡Ž› ƒ†˜‹•‘”›Ǥ Š‡ ™‡†‹•Š ƒ‹ ƒ”Ž‹ƒ‡– ™ƒ• …”‡ƒ–‡† ‹ ͥͥ͟͝ ƒ• ƒ ‡š’‡”– …‘•—Ž–ƒ–‹˜‡

International  law  is   now  increasingly   IN¹UENCEDÒANDÒ utilized  by  non-­ state  actors  such   as  the  Sami

body  on   issues  concerning   the   Sami.ͥ͟   Like   the   Norwegian  Sami  parliament,  the  Swedish   Sami  parliament   has   no  veto  power,  can   only  suggest  –  not  pass  –  legislation,  and  is  economically  dependent  on   the  state  as   –Š‡ƒ‹’ƒ”Ž‹ƒ‡–•…ƒ‘––ƒš‘”‰‡‡”ƒ–‡”‡˜‡—‡•ˆ”‘”‡•‘—”…‡•‘ƒ‹Žƒ†•Ǥ …‘‘‰‘ƒŽ‘ˆ–Š‡˜ƒ”‹‘—•ƒ‹’ƒ”Ž‹ƒ‡–•‹••‡ŽˆǦ†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ǡ͜͠  as   ™‡ŽŽƒ•…‘–”‘Ž‘ˆƒ‹…—Ž–—”‡ǡŽƒ†•ƒ†”‡•‘—”…‡•™‹–Š‹ƒ•–ƒ–‡•–”—…–—”‡Ǥ‡•’‹–‡ their  lack   of  real  political   authority,  the  parliaments  have   contributed  to  reform   on   35   ‘”‡•–ƒǡDz †‹‰‡‘—•‡‘’Ž‡ƒ†–Š‡‹‰Š––‘‡ŽˆǦ‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ǡdz͢͠͠Ǥ ͟͢   ‡ŽŽ‡ƒ†–”‘•‡•ǡDzƒ‹‹–‹œ‡•Š‹’ǡdzͣ͟Ǥ 37   ƒ––‘ǡDz‘”†‡”•ǡ‹–‹œ‡•Š‹’ǡŠƒ‰‡ǡdz͡͡͞Ǥ ͤ͟   ‡ŽŽ‡ƒ†–”‘•‡•ǡDzƒ‹‹–‹œ‡•Š‹’ǡdzͥ͢Ǥ ͥ͟   ƒ––‘ǡDz‘”†‡”•ǡ‹–‹œ‡•Š‹’ǡŠƒ‰‡ǡdz͡͡͞Ǥ ͜͠   ‡„ǡDzƒ‹‡ŽˆǦ‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘‹–Š‡ƒ‹‰ǡdz͟͡͡Ǥ


83

ROUNDING

Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2026;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x192;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2018;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2026;Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â&#x201E;Â&#x2039;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x203A;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2039;ǤÂ&#x2021;Â&#x2019;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022; from   the   Sami   parliaments  often   meet  and  work   together  on  common   issues,   but   Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x203A;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2019;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;ĆĄÂ&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;ÇĄÂ&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x192;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2026;Â&#x160;Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;ĆĄÂ&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022;Ǥ Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2026; Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022; Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021; Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021; Â?Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x17D; Â&#x2021;ĆĄÂ&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018; Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2039;Â&#x201D; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2039; Â&#x2019;Â&#x2018;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Ǥ41 Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D; Â&#x2021;Â&#x161;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2019;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;ÇĄ Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2030;Â&#x160; Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2122;Â&#x192;Â&#x203A; Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2019;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x160;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2039; Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030; Â&#x2122;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â? Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2039;Â&#x201D; borders,  they  still  do   not  allow  the   Sami   from   Sweden  to   herd  reindeer   in   Norway.42   The   Sami   have  attained   recognition  of   their  status  as   indigenous   peoples   through   domestic  politics,  but  this  approach  has  not  achieved  their  demands  for  land  rights.   INTERNATIONAL  LAW  AND  THE  SAMI The   Sami   have   secured   some   of   their   rights   through   domestic   legal   challenges  and  politics,  but  this  is  not  only  legal  avenue  open  to  them.  With  the  rise   of   international   human  rights   law,  the   Sami  people   have  gained  access  to  another   tool.  If  domestic   politics  courts  do  not  adequately  address  their  concerns,  the  Sami   are  able  go   to  organizations  such  as   the  United  Nations  and  demand  recognition  of   their  rights  as  indigenous  people.  International  law  was  certainly  not  created  with   Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x160;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2019;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â?Â?Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2020;ÇĄÂ&#x201E;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x2022;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x203A;Â&#x192;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2022;ÇĄDzÂ&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â&#x2122;ÇĄ although  once  an  instrument  of  colonialism,  has  developed  and  continues  to  develop,   Â&#x160;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2122;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2030;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x17D;Â&#x203A;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2019;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x17D;Â&#x203A;ÇĄÂ&#x2013;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2019;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;ÇŻÂ&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2022;Ǥdz43

Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x17D; Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â&#x2122; Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022; Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2122; Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2026;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x192;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x17D;Â&#x203A; Â&#x2039;Â?ĆŞÂ&#x2014;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2026;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020; Â&#x2014;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x153;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020; Â&#x201E;Â&#x203A; Â?Â&#x2018;Â?ÇŚÂ&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021; actors,44  such  as  the  Sami.  International  law  consists  of  norms  and  procedures  linked   to  international  institutions  and  organizations  â&#x20AC;&#x153;that  are  in  some  measure  controlling   Â&#x192;Â&#x2026;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2022; Â&#x152;Â&#x2014;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x17D; Â&#x201E;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Ǥdz45 Â&#x2018;Â&#x2122;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2014;Â&#x17D; Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2022;Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x17D; Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â&#x2122;ÇĄ Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020; Â&#x192;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020; Â&#x2018;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2030;Â&#x160; Â&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2021;Â&#x161;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2026;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2122;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â?Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030; Â&#x2122;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;  Â&#x192;Â&#x2022; Â&#x192;Â? indigenous  person,  the  â&#x20AC;&#x153;international  community  has  not  been  completely  successful   Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x192;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x201E;Â&#x2021;Â&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2039;Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022;Â?Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x201E;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2022;Ǥdz͢͠ Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x160;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022;Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â&#x2122;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â? non-­â&#x20AC;?binding,  and  court  cases  can   be   lengthy  processes.  The   Sami   have  challenged   41   Â&#x160;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2021;Â?ÇĄDzÂ&#x192;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2122;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2039;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2022;ÇĄÇłÍ&#x17E;ͤ͠Ǥ 42   Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018;ÇĄDzÂ&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2022;ÇĄÂ&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x153;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2022;Â&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2019;ÇĄÂ&#x160;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;ǥdzͥͥÍ&#x17E;Ǥ 43   Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x203A;Â&#x192;ÇĄ Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2019;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â? Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â&#x2122;ÇĄ͠Ǥ 44    Ibid.,  5. 45    Ibid.,  4. ͢͠   Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;ÇĄDz Â?Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030; Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â&#x2122;ÇĄÇł Â&#x201D;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x2026;Â&#x2039;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Č&#x2039;Í?ͼͼ͢Č&#x152;ÇĄÂ&#x160;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2019;ÇŁČ&#x20AC;Č&#x20AC;Â&#x2122;Â&#x2122;Â&#x2122;ǤÂ&#x2030;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2026;ǤÂ&#x2026;Â&#x192;Č&#x20AC;Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2026;Â&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Č&#x20AC;Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2026;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;ǤÂ&#x2019;Â&#x160;Â&#x2019;ÇŤÂ&#x2039;Â&#x2020;Ď&#x2039;ͥ͢Ǥ  


RECOGNIZING THE RIGHTS OF THE SAMI

84

national  governments  using  international  legal  procedures,  but  they  have  lost  many   cases.   While   they   have   been   recognized   as   an   indigenous   people   at   domestic   and   international   levels,   this   has   not   always   translated   into   respect   for   their   land   and   cultural  rights.

Â? Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Í?ͼ͢Í&#x153;Â&#x2022; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020; Í?ÍĽÍŁÍ&#x153;Â&#x2022;ÇĄ Â&#x192;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x153;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â? Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2022;Â&#x2122;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2013; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2030;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201E;Â&#x2021;ÇĄ Â&#x192;Â? educated   Sami   elite   organized.47 Â&#x2022; Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2030;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2122;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2122;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021; Â&#x201E;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2030;Â&#x192;Â? Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018; Â&#x2C6;Â&#x201D;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2021; demands  in  terms  of  indigenous  rights,  the  Sami  adopted  the  discourse  of  indigenous   rights.ͤ͠ Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2039; Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013; Â&#x2026;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x192;Â&#x201D; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2039;Â&#x201D; Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2039;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x203A; Â&#x2122;Â&#x192;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;ĆĄÂ&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013; Â&#x2C6;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â? Â&#x2026;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x153;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2022;Â&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?ÇŚÂ&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;ÇĄÂ&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201E;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2013;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2020;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x201E;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x192;Â&#x2022;Â&#x203A;Â?Â&#x201E;Â&#x2018;Â&#x17D; Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6; Â&#x2019;Â&#x192;Â?ÇŚÂ&#x192;Â?Â&#x2039; Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x201E;Â&#x2039;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x153;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Ǥ Â? Í?ͼͣͤǥ Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2122;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2039;Â&#x192;Â? Â&#x2030;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â?Â?Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;ÇŻÂ&#x2022; Â&#x2019;Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2022; Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018; Â&#x201E;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2039;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2020; Â&#x192; Â&#x160;Â&#x203A;Â&#x2020;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2021;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2020;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2122;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2122;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;ƤÂ&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2C6;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2039;ÇĄ who  were  concerned  about  the  environmental   impact  of  the  dam  and   its   negative   Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201C;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2026;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;ƤÂ&#x2022;Â&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Ǥ͠ͼ  Environmentalists  supported  the   Sami,  and  protests,  which   included   hunger  strikes  and   human   barriers   to  prevent   machinery  from  accessing  the  river,  gained  widespread  media  attention.  Nonetheless,   protestors   were   forcibly   removed   by   the   Norwegian   police  force.ÍĄÍ&#x153;

The  Sami  have   sought  redress  in   international  law   when  national   avenues  have   been  blocked.

Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030; Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x192;Â&#x17D; Â&#x192;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2014;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022; Â&#x201E;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2026;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020;ÇĄ Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2039; sought  redress  in  international  law.  The  Sami  petitioned   Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2014;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2021;Â&#x192;Â? Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2DC;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2018;Â? Â&#x2018;Â? Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x192;Â? Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x160;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022; Č&#x2039; Č&#x152;ÇĄ Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2039;Â&#x201D; Â&#x160;Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030; Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020; ƤÂ&#x2022;Â&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030; Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2122;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2020; Â&#x201E;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2014;Â&#x201D;Â&#x201E;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020; Â&#x201E;Â&#x203A; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021; Â&#x2020;Â&#x192;Â? Â&#x2019;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x152;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Ǥ Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021; Â&#x201D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2026;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021; ͤ Â&#x2018;Â&#x2C6; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;  ÇĄ Â&#x2122;Â&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2026;Â&#x160; Â&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022; Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013; DzÂ&#x192; Â?Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x203A; Â&#x2030;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2019; Â&#x2039;Â&#x2022;ÇĄ Â&#x2039;Â? principle,  entitled  to  claim  the  right  to  respect  for  the[ir]   Â&#x2019;Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2014;Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2021;ÇŚÂ&#x2022;Â&#x2013;Â&#x203A;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;ÇĄÇłÂ&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2013;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2014;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x192;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2013;Â&#x160;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2020;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2122;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2020; not   prevent   the   Sami   from   living   in   their   traditional   ways,  and   the  case  was  declared   inadmissible.51   While  

47   Â&#x2021;Â&#x17D;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2013;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2018;Â?Â&#x2022;Â?Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;ÇĄDzÂ&#x192;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x153;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2022;Â&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2019;ÇĄÇł͢ͼǤ ͤ͠   Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018;ÇĄDzÂ&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2022;ÇĄÂ&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x153;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2022;Â&#x160;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2022;ÇĄÂ&#x160;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;ǥdzͥÍ?Í?Ǥ Í ÍĽ   Â&#x192;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2019;Â&#x2039;ÇĄDzÂ?Â&#x2026;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â?Â&#x2030;Â&#x2039;ĆĄÂ&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2013;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;ǥdz͠Í&#x153;Í&#x153;Ǥ ÍĄÍ&#x153;    Ibid . 51   Â&#x160;Â&#x2018;Â&#x201D;Â?Â&#x201E;Â&#x2021;Â&#x201D;Â&#x201D;Â&#x203A;ÇĄ Â?Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2021;Â?Â&#x2018;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2022;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2018;Â&#x2019;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2021;Â&#x2022;Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2020; Â&#x2014;Â?Â&#x192;Â?Â&#x2039;Â&#x2030;Â&#x160;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2022;ÇĄÍ&#x17E;ͼͤǤ


85

ROUNDING

–Š‡ •ƒ‹†–Šƒ––Š‡‹’ƒ…–‘ˆ–Š‡†ƒ‘–Š‡‹”–”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ‡…‘‘‹…ƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡• might   entitle   them   to   some   compensation,   the   court   rejected   the   Sami’s   cultural   argument.52 Š‡ ƒ‹ —Ž–‹ƒ–‡Ž› Ž‘•– –Š‡ „ƒ––Ž‡ ‘˜‡” Ž–ƒǤ ‡– –Š‡ Ž–ƒ ’”‘–‡•– movement   helped  the   Sami   network  across   Nordic   borders,  since  the  dam  was  seen   ƒ•ƒ–Š”‡ƒ––‘ƒŽŽƒ‹ǡ‘–Œ—•––Š‘•‡Ž‹˜‹‰‹–Š‡‹‡†‹ƒ–‡ƒ”‡ƒǤŠ‡Ž–ƒ’”‘–‡•– helped   mobilize   the   Sami   movement   in   Norway   that   resulted   in   the  creation  of  a   ‘”™‡‰‹ƒƒ‹ƒ”Ž‹ƒ‡–‹ͥͤͥ͝Ǥ53  While   the  Sami  were  ultimately  unsuccessful   ‹–Š‡Ž–ƒ‹˜‡”†ƒ…ƒ•‡ǡ–Š‡‹”—•‡‘ˆ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽŽƒ™†‡‘•–”ƒ–‡•ƒ‡™ƒ˜‡—‡ ˆ‘”‹†‹‰‡‘—•”‡•‹•–ƒ…‡™Š‡ƒ–‹‘ƒŽŽ‡˜‡Ž•’”‘˜‡‹‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡Ǥ The  Sami  have  used  international  law  to  try  to  regain  control  over  their  lands,   ”‡•‘—”…‡•ƒ†–”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ‡…‘‘‹…ƒ…–‹˜‹–‹‡•Ǥ ͥͤ͝͡ǡ ˜ƒ‹–‘ǡƒƒ‹ƒŽ‹˜‹‰ in  Sweden,  unsuccessfully  brought  a  case  before  the  International  Covenant  on  Civil   ƒ†‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ‹‰Š–•Ǥ‡•’‹–‡ƒŽ‘‰ˆƒ‹Ž›Š‹•–‘”›‘ˆ”‡‹†‡‡”Š‡”†‹‰ǡ‹–‘Ž‘•––Š‡ right  to  water  and  land  in  his  village,  as  well  as  the  right  to  farm  reindeer  because   he   had   worked   in   a   profession   other   than   reindeer   farming   for   more   than   three   years.54 Š‡…‘—”– ˆ‘—† –Šƒ– –Š‹• ™‡†‹•Š Ž‡‰‹•Žƒ–‹‘†‹† ‘–˜‹‘Žƒ–‡ ”–‹…Ž‡ ͣ͞ ‘ˆ –Š‡ –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ‘˜‡ƒ–‘‹˜‹Žƒ†‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ‹‰Š–•ǡ™Š‹…Š’”‘–‡…–•–Š‡”‹‰Š––‘ ‡Œ‘›‘‡ǯ•…—Ž–—”‡ǡƒ•Š‡™ƒ••–‹ŽŽƒ„Ž‡–‘Š—–ƒ†Ƥ•Š‘ƒ‹Žƒ†•‹ˆŠ‡’—”…Šƒ•‡† a   license.   Sweden  argued   that   the   laws  governing  reindeer   husbandry,  with  which   ‹–‘–‘‘‹••—‡ǡ™‡”‡†‘‡–‘Dzˆƒ˜‘—”–Š‡ƒ‹…‘—‹–›‹‘”†‡”–‘ƒ‡”‡‹†‡‡” Š—•„ƒ†”›‡…‘‘‹…ƒŽŽ›˜‹ƒ„Ž‡‘™ƒ†‹–Š‡ˆ—–—”‡ǡdzƒ•Dz‹–‹••‹’Ž›‘–’‘••‹„Ž‡ –‘Ž‡–ƒŽŽƒ‹‡š‡”…‹•‡”‡‹†‡‡”Š—•„ƒ†”›™‹–Š‘—–Œ‡‘’ƒ”†‹œ‹‰–Š‹•‘„Œ‡…–‹˜‡ƒ† ”—‹‰ –Š‡ ”‹• ‘ˆ ‡†ƒ‰‡”‹‰ –Š‡ ‡š‹•–‡…‡ ‘ˆ ”‡‹†‡‡” Š—•„ƒ†”›Ǥdz55   Like   the   ™‡†‹•Š ‡‹†‡‡” ”ƒœ‹‰ …– ‘ˆ ͤͤ͢͝ǡ –Š‹• ”—Ž‹‰ ƒŽŽ‘™‡† –Š‡ •–ƒ–‡ –‘ …‘–”‘Ž ƒ traditional  economic  activity  of  the  Sami,  and  tied  Sami  identity  to  reindeer  herding   ƒ•‘’’‘•‡†–‘•‡ŽˆǦ‹†‡–‹Ƥ…ƒ–‹‘Ȃƒ‡›…‘’‘‡–‘ˆ‹†‹‰‡‡‹–›Ǥ

 ͥͥ͝͞ǡ ƒ ‰”‘—’ ‘ˆ ƒ‹ ‹ ‹Žƒ† „”‘—‰Š– ƒ …ƒ•‡ –‘ –Š‡ ‹–‡† ƒ–‹‘• –Š”‘—‰Š–Š‡’–‹‘ƒŽ”‘–‘…‘Ž–‘–Š‡ –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ‘˜‡ƒ–‘‹˜‹Žƒ†‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ 52    Ibid. 53   ƒ”’’‹ǡDz…‘—–‡”‹‰‹ơ‡”‡–‡””‹–‘”‹ƒŽ‹–‹‡•ǡdz͜͜͠Ǥ 54   Dz ˜ƒ‹–‘˜Ǥ™‡†‡ǡdz‹˜‡”•‹–›‘ˆ‹‡•‘–ƒ —ƒ‹‰Š–•‹„”ƒ”›ȋǤ†ǡȌǡŠ––’ǣȀȀ™™™͝Ǥ—Ǥ‡†—ȀŠ—ƒ”–•Ȁ—†‘…•Ȁͥͣ͝Ǧͥͤ͝͡ǤŠ–Žǡǡpara  2.1. 55    Ibid.,  para  4.3.


RECOGNIZING THE RIGHTS OF THE SAMI

86

‹‰Š–•Ǥ –Š‡…ƒ•‡ Žƒ”‹¡•ƒ‡–ƒŽǤ˜Ǥ ‹Žƒ†ǡ–Š‡ƒ‹ƒ”‰—‡†–Šƒ–ƒ…‘–”ƒ…– „‡–™‡‡–Š‡ ‹‹•Š‡–”ƒŽ ‘”‡•–”›‘ƒ”†ƒ†ƒ’”‹˜ƒ–‡…‘’ƒ›ƒŽŽ‘™‹‰ƒ•–‘‡ quarry  to  be  built  in  reindeer  herding  area  would  destroy  their  traditional  livelihood.͢͡   Š‡›ƒ”‰—‡† –Šƒ– —†‡” ”–‹…Ž‡ ͣ͞ǡ –Š‹•ƒ‰”‡‡‡–˜‹‘Žƒ–‡† –Š‡‹” ”‹‰Š– –‘ ”‡‹†‡‡” herding,  an  integral  part  of  Sami  culture.  The  site  of  the  stone  quarry  was  situated  on  a   sacred  Sami  religious  site,  and  the  nearest  village  to  the  quarry  was  the  last  remaining   ‹‹•Š˜‹ŽŽƒ‰‡™‹–ŠƒŠ‘‘‰‡‘—•ƒ‹’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ǤŠ‹Ž‡ ‹Žƒ†…‘…‡†‡†–Šƒ– reindeer  herding  was  important  to  Sami   culture,  the   court  found  that  this   contract   †‹†‘–„”‡ƒ…Š”–‹…Ž‡ͣ͞ǤŠ‡”‡Šƒ†„‡‡…‘•—Ž–ƒ–‹‘•™‹–Šƒ‹’‡‘’Ž‡’”‹‘”–‘–Š‡ quarry  contract  being  written,  and  the  court  found  that  the  quarry  did  not  interfere   enough  with  reindeer   herding  for  there  to   be  a  violation.57 –Š‡” ƒ‹…ƒ•‡•ˆ”‘ ‹Žƒ†”‡‰ƒ”†‹‰Ž‘‰‰‹‰‘–”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽƒ‹Žƒ†•ƒ†‡•‹‹Žƒ”ƒ”‰—‡–•ƒ„‘—– ”–‹…Ž‡ͣ͞ƒ†ƒŽ•‘—Ž–‹ƒ–‡Ž›ˆƒ‹Ž‡†Ǥͤ͡ —•–Ž‹‡–Š‡Ž–ƒƒ†‹–‘…ƒ•‡•ǡ–Š‡•‡”—Ž‹‰• indicated  that,  while  the   Sami   have  the  right  to  practice  their  traditional  reindeer   Š‡”†‹‰ƒ•†‡Ƥ‡†‹‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽŽƒ™ǡ–Š‡•–ƒ–‡—Ž–‹ƒ–‡Ž›‘™•–Š‡Žƒ†ƒ†…ƒ use  it  for  their  own  economic  purposes.ͥ͡

CONCLUSION Issues  facing  the  Sami  regarding  cultural  rights  and  land  rights  are  common  to  other   ‹†‹‰‡‘—•’‡‘’Ž‡•ǤŠ‡Ƥ‰Š–ˆ‘”ƒ‹Žƒ†”‹‰Š–•‹•‘……—””‹‰ƒ–„‘–Š–Š‡†‘‡•–‹… and   international   level,   and   is   “a   part   of   the   international   movement   among   the   ‹†‹‰‡‘—•’‡‘’Ž‡•‘ˆ–Š‡ˆ‘—”–Š™‘”Ž†Ǥdz͢͜  The  Sami  have  achieved  a  minimal  level   of   political   independence   and   recognition   at   the   domestic   level,   but   they   clearly   remain   within   the   system   of   Nordic   states,͢͝   as   their   parliaments   and   industries   ”‡ƒ‹ —†‡” ‰‘˜‡”‡– …‘–”‘ŽǤ ‘”‡‘˜‡”ǡ ™Š‡”‡ –”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ‹ Ž‹˜‡Ž‹Š‘‘†•ǡ ͢͡   Š‘”„‡””›ǡ †‹‰‡‘—•‡‘’Ž‡•ƒ† —ƒ‹‰Š–•ǡͤ͢͝Ǥ 57    „‹†Ǥǡͤ͢͝Ǧͣ͜͝ . ͤ͡    „‹†Ǥǡͣ͜͝Ǧͣ͝͝Ǥ ͥ͡   –‡’Š‡•‘ǡDzƒ‹ƒ†•ƒ† †‹‰‡‘—•—•–”ƒŽ‹ƒƒ†•ǡdzͣ͝͠Ǥ ͢͜   ƒ‡”ǡDzŠ‡ƒ‹ǡdz͝͝Ǥ ͢͝   ‡„ǡDzƒ‹‡ŽˆǦ‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘‹–Š‡ƒ‹‰ǡdz͟͡͞Ǥ


87

ROUNDING

such  as  reindeer   herding,   have   been  tolerated,   “modern   [non-­‐indigenous]  systems   of   administration   and   governance   have   been   introduced   to   control   and   regulate   –Š‡Ǥdz͢͞   Since   the  creation  of   the   Lapp   Codicil,   Nordic  states   have  recognized   the   ƒ‹…—Ž–—”‡‹•‘‡™ƒ›ǤŠ‡›•‡‡–Š‡ƒ‹ƒ•„‡‹‰‹‡š–”‹…ƒ„Ž›–‹‡†–‘”‡‹†‡‡” husbandry,   yet   simultaneously   restrict   the   Sami’s   opportunity   to   pursue   reindeer   farming  and  other  traditional  activities   by  developing  and  controlling   Sami   lands.   ‘‡•–‹…’ƒ”Ž‹ƒ‡–•ƒ†‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽŽƒ™Šƒ˜‡›‡––‘ƒ†‡“—ƒ–‡Ž›’”‘–‡…–ƒ‹Žƒ† ”‹‰Š–•Ǥ ŽŽ •–ƒ–‡•…‘–ƒ‹‹‰ƒ ’ƒ”–‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ‹ ’‘’—Žƒ–‹‘ Šƒ˜‡ ”‡…‡‹˜‡†…”‹–‹…‹• for  their  handling   of  indigenous  issues  from  the  United  Nations  Committee   on  the   Ž‹‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ…‹ƒŽ‹•…”‹‹ƒ–‹‘ǡ͢͟   and   while  these   criticisms   are  non-­‐binding,   –Š‡›†‘ƒŽŽ‘™–Š‡ƒ‹–‘ƒ’’Ž›‘”ƒŽ’”‡••—”‡–‘–Š‡‹”•–ƒ–‡•ǤŽ–Š‘—‰Š‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ law  has  evolved  to  include  indigenous  peoples,  allowing  people  like  the  Sami  to  access   ‹–™Š‡–Š‡‹”†‘‡•–‹…Ž‡‰ƒŽ‘’–‹‘•Šƒ˜‡„‡‡‡šŠƒ—•–‡†ǡ‹–‹•ˆƒ”ˆ”‘’‡”ˆ‡…–Ǥ  …ƒ•‡••—…Šƒ•–Š‡Ž–ƒ‹˜‡”…‘–”‘˜‡”•›ǡ‹–‘˜Ǥ™‡†‡ǡƒ† Žƒ”‹¡•ƒ‡–ƒŽǤ ˜Ǥ ‹Žƒ†ǡ –Š‡ ƒ‹ǯ•”‹‰Š– –‘…‘–”‘Ž –Š‡‹” –”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽ Žƒ†• Šƒ• „‡‡”‡’—†‹ƒ–‡†ǡ and  the  state  remains  in  control  of  Sápmi.  State  borders  have  split  the  Sami,  and  the   ‹†‡ƒ‘ˆ—‹Ƥ‡†ž’‹—†‡”ƒ‹…‘–”‘ŽDz‹••–‹ŽŽ˜‡”›—…ŠƒƤ…–‹‘Ǥdz͢͠  Control  over   ž’‹‹•‡›•‹…‡ǡƒ•ƒ‹•…Š‘Žƒ”ƒ”•Ǧ†‡”ƒ‡”ƒ••‡”–•ǡƒ‹Žƒ†‹•DzŽ‹–‡”ƒŽŽ› –Š‡ ˆ‘—†ƒ–‹‘ ˆ‘” ‘—” ‡š‹•–‡…‡ ƒ• ƒ ’‡‘’Ž‡ ƒ† ƒ ƒ„•‘Ž—–‡ ”‡“—‹”‡‡– ˆ‘” ‘—” •—”˜‹˜ƒŽƒ••—…ŠǤdz͢͡ ™‡†‹•Šƒ† ‹‹•Š”ƒ–‹Ƥ…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ  ‘˜‡–‹‘ ͥ͢͝™‘—Ž† be   a   crucial   recognition   of   Sami   land   rights,͢͢   but   as   long   as   “the   real   power   and   –Š‡ ƤƒŽ”‹‰Š–‘ˆ†‡…‹•‹‘‘ ‹†‹‰‡‘—• ‹••—‡•”‡ƒ‹™‹–Š–Š‡•‘˜‡”‡‹‰ ƒ–‹‘Ǧ •–ƒ–‡ǡdz–Š‡”‡ƒ”‡Ž‹‹–‡†’”‘•’‡…–•ˆ‘””ƒ†‹…ƒŽ’‘Ž‹…›…Šƒ‰‡•Ǥdzͣ͢  International  law  has   ‡š’ƒ†‡†–‘‹…Ž—†‡‹†‹‰‡‘—•’‡‘’Ž‡••—…Šƒ•–Š‡ƒ‹ǡƒ†Šƒ•’”‘˜‹†‡†ƒ‡™ tool  of  resistance,  but  thus  far  international  law  has  failed  to  adequately  protect  their   cultural  and  land  rights.      

͢͞   ƒ”’’‹ǡDz…‘—–‡”‹‰‹ơ‡”‡–‡””‹–‘”‹ƒŽ‹–‹‡•ǡdzͥͣ͟Ǥ ͢͟   ƒ––‘ǡDz‘”†‡”•ǡ‹–‹œ‡•Š‹’•ǡŠƒ‰‡ǡdz͡͡͞Ǥ ͢͠   Š—‡ǡDzƒƒ‹ƒ†‘”™‡‰‹ƒ•ǡdzͤ͞͞Ǥ ͢͡   ƒ‡”ǡDzŠ‡ƒ‹ǡdz͝͝Ǥ ͢͢   ƒ––‘ƒ†‘”‡•–ƒǡDzƒ‹‹‰Š–•ƒ†ƒ‹ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‡•ǡdz͠͝Ǥ ͣ͢   ‘”‡•–ƒǡDz †‹‰‡‘—•‡‘’Ž‡•ƒ†–Š‡‹‰Š––‘‡ŽˆǦ‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ǡdz͠͡͝Ǥ

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VOICES IN THE ARCTIC

88

Commentary:  Voices  in  the  Arctic Matt  Wildcat*

Š‹•›‡ƒ”ǡ–Š‡ ‘—”ƒŽ‘ˆ –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽơƒ‹”•‹•’—„Ž‹•Š‹‰–™‘’ƒ’‡”• ‘‹†‹‰‡‘—•‹••—‡•‹–Š‡”…–‹…Ǥ‘–Š’ƒ’‡”••’‡ƒ–‘–Š‡‹••—‡•–Šƒ–ƒ”‹•‡ƒ––Š‡ …‘ƪ—‡…‡‘ˆ‹†‹‰‡‘—••‡ŽˆǦ†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ǡ•–ƒ–‡ƒ••‡”–‹‘•‘ˆ•‘˜‡”‡‹‰–›‹–Š‡ ”…–‹…ǡƒ†”‡•‘—”…‡‡š’Ž‘‹–ƒ–‹‘Ǥ –Š‹•…‘‡–ƒ”›ǡ ™‘—Ž†Ž‹‡–‘”‡•’‘†ƒ† †”ƒ™…‘‡…–‹‘• „‡–™‡‡–Š‡–™‘ƒ”–‹…Ž‡•ǤŠ‡ Ƥ”•–’ƒ’‡”ǡ Dz †‹‰‡‘—• ƪ—‡…‡ ‹ –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ”…–‹… ‘Ž‹…›ǡdz •–ƒ”–• „› †‹•…—••‹‰ Š‘™ –Š‡ —‹– Šƒ˜‡ „‡‡ ƒ„Ž‡ –‘ ‹ƪ—‡…‡ ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ˆ‘”—•ǡ ›‡– ƒƒ†ƒ …‘–‹—‡• –‘ ˆƒŽŽ •Š‘”– ‘ˆ ‹–• …‘‹–‡–•—†‡”–Š‡—ƒ˜—–ƒ†Žƒ‹•‰”‡‡‡–ȋȌƒ†–Š‡‹–‡† ƒ–‹‘• ‡…Žƒ”ƒ–‹‘ ‘ –Š‡ ‹‰Š–• ‘ˆ †‹‰‡‘—• ‡‘’Ž‡• ȋ ȌǤ —”‹‰ Š‡” ˆ‘…—•‘–Š‡‘”–Š™‡•–ƒ••ƒ‰‡ǡ1‡Ž•‡› ”ƒ•ƒ”‰—‡•…‘‘’‡”ƒ–‹‘„‡–™‡‡ƒƒ†ƒ ƒ† —‹–’‡‘’Ž‡•…ƒ‡–”‡…Šƒ…Žƒ‹ˆ‘”ƒƒ†ƒǯ•Œ—”‹•†‹…–‹‘‘˜‡”–Š‡‘”–Š™‡•– ƒ••ƒ‰‡ „› ‹…”‡ƒ•‹‰ —‹– •‡ŽˆǦ†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ  Dz‡…‘‰‹œ‹‰ –Š‡ ‹‰Š–• ‘ˆ –Š‡ ƒ‹ǣŠ‡ ƒ‹Ž—”‡‘ˆ –‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ƒ™ ˆ‘” †‹‰‡‘—• ‡‘’Ž‡•ǡdzŽŽ‹•‘ ‘—†‹‰ ƒ”‰—‡• Dz–Š”‘—‰Š ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ Žƒ™ǡ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ȑ–Š‡ ƒ‹Ȓ Šƒ˜‡ „‡‡•—……‡••ˆ—Ž ‹ ‘˜‹‰ •–ƒ–‡•–‘™ƒ”†•ƒ……‘‘†ƒ–‹‰•‘‡‘ˆ–Š‡‹”†‡ƒ†• „—––Š‡’”‘Œ‡…–‘ˆ•‡…—”‹‰ –Š‡”‹‰Š–•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ‹ǡƒ†‹†‹‰‡‘—•’‡‘’Ž‡•‘”‡‰‡‡”ƒŽŽ›ǡ‹•ˆƒ”ˆ”‘‘˜‡”ǤdzŠ‹• ƒ”‰—‡– ’ƒ”ƒŽŽ‡Ž• ”ƒ• „›†‡‘•–”ƒ–‹‰ –Š‡ Ž‡‰ƒŽ˜‹…–‘”‹‡• ‹†‹‰‡‘—•‰”‘—’• Šƒ˜‡ƒ…Š‹‡˜‡†ǡƒ‰ƒ‹•–ƒ„ƒ…†”‘’‘ˆ‘‰‘‹‰…‘•–”ƒ‹–•‹†‹‰‡‘—•’‡‘’Ž‡•ˆƒ…‡‹ –Š‡‹”•–”—‰‰Ž‡•ˆ‘”•‡ŽˆǦ†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ Š‡•‡’ƒ’‡”•„‘–Šƒ††”‡•••‹‹Žƒ”‹••—‡•–Šƒ–…‘ˆ”‘–•‡ŽˆǦ†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘ˆ‘” ‹†‹‰‡‘—•’‡‘’Ž‡•ǡƒ‡Ž›•–ƒ–‡ƒ••‡”–‹‘•‘ˆ•‘˜‡”‡‹‰–›ƒ†”‡•‘—”…‡‡š’Ž‘‹–ƒ–‹‘Ǥ *                                    ƒ––‹Ž†…ƒ–‹•ƒŠ•–—†‡–‹–Š‡‡’ƒ”–‡–‘ˆ‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ…‹‡…‡ǡŠƒ˜‹‰’”‡˜‹‘—•Ž›•–—†‹‡†ƒ––Š‡‹˜‡”•‹–›‘ˆ‹…–‘”‹ƒȋ †‹‰‡‘—•  ‘˜‡”ƒ…‡Ȍƒ†–Š‡‹˜‡”•‹–›‘ˆŽ„‡”–ƒȋ ‘‘—”•ƒ–‹˜‡–—†‹‡•ȌǤƒ––‹•‡Š‹›ƒ™ȋŽƒ‹•”‡‡Ȍƒ†ƒ‡„‡”‘ˆ”‹‡•‹”‡‡ ƒ–‹‘‹Ž„‡”–ƒ™Š‡”‡Š‡‰”‡™—’‘–Š‡”‹‡•‹”‡•‡”˜‡Ǥ

1  

ƒ–Šƒƒ†‡”Ž‹’’‡ǡDz–—†›”‡†‹…–•”…–‹…Š‹’’‹‰—‹…Ž›‡…‘‹‰ƒ‡ƒŽ‹–›dzǡŠ‡ Ž‘„‡ƒ†ƒ‹Žǡ͠ƒ”…Š͜͟͞͝Ǥ


89

WILDCAT

Š‡› ˆ”ƒ‡ –Š‡‹” “—‡•–‹‘• „‡–™‡‡ „‘–Š †‘‡•–‹… ƒ† ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ’‘Ž‹–‹…•ǡ ƒ† „‘–Š ‘˜‡‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡Ž› „‡–™‡‡ –Š‡ –™‘ ”‡ƒŽ•Ǥ ‹ƒŽŽ›ǡ „‘–Š ’ƒ’‡”• •Šƒ”‡ƒ ‘”ƒ–‹˜‡‘”‹‡–ƒ–‹‘–Šƒ–•‡‡•–‘‘’‡‹–‡ŽŽ‡…–—ƒŽ•’ƒ…‡•’”‘‘–‹‰–Š‡•‡ŽˆǦ †‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‹†‹‰‡‘—•’‡‘’Ž‡•‹–Š‡”…–‹…Ǥ ”‘–Š‹••Šƒ”‡†’Žƒ–ˆ‘”ǡ–Š‡› –ƒ‡†‹˜‡”‰‡–’ƒ–Š•‹…”‡ƒ–‹‰–Š‹•‹–‡ŽŽ‡…–—ƒŽ•’ƒ…‡Ǥ

THE  ‘‘DOMESTIC’’ Š‡ƒ‹†‹˜‡”‰‡…‡‘ˆ–Š‡•‡’ƒ’‡”•‹•‹Š‘™–Š‡›ˆ”ƒ‡Dz†‘‡•–‹…ǤdzŠ‡”‡ ”ƒ• ˆ”ƒ‡• —‹–Ǧƒƒ†‹ƒ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘• ƒ• ƒ Dz†‘‡•–‹…dz ‹••—‡ǡ ‘—†‹‰ ˆ”ƒ‡• Š‡” ’ƒ’‡” ™‹–Š‹ –Š‡ Š‹•–‘”› ‘ˆ †‘‡•–‹…ƒ–‹‘Ǥ Š‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡…‡• ƒ† …—Ž–—”‡• ‘ˆ ‹†‹‰‡‘—•’‡‘’Ž‡•ƒ”‘—†–Š‡™‘”Ž†ƒ”‡†‹˜‡”•‡„—–‘‡…‘‘ƒŽ‹–›ǡƒ•‘—†‹‰ ’‘‹–•‘—–ǡ‹•–Šƒ–‘ˆDz„‡‹‰•—„•—‡†—†‡”ƒƒŽ‹‡•–ƒ–‡•–”—…–—”‡ǤdzŠ‹•Š‹•–‘”› Šƒ•‘˜‡”™Š‡Ž‹‰Ž›”‡•—Ž–‡†‹–Š‡•‘…‹ƒŽǡ’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽǡƒ†‡…‘‘‹…ƒ”‰‹ƒŽ‹œƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ‹†‹‰‡‘—•’‡‘’Ž‡•ƒ”‘—†–Š‡‰Ž‘„‡Ǥ͞•™‡ŽŽǡ–Š‡Ž‡‰‹–‹ƒ…›„‡Š‹†–Š‡’”‘…‡•• ‘ˆ†‘‡•–‹…ƒ–‹‘…‘–‹—‡•–‘„‡…‘–‡•–‡†„›ƒ›‹†‹‰‡‘—•ƒ–‹‘•Ǥ ‹–—ƒ–‹‰ ‹†‹‰‡‘—•Ǧ•–ƒ–‡ ”‡Žƒ–‹‘• ™‹–Š‹ –Š‡ Š‹•–‘”› ‘ˆ †‘‡•–‹…ƒ–‹‘ ™‘—Ž†›‹‡Ž† ‹’‘”–ƒ– ‹•‹‰Š–• ˆ‘” –Š‡…Žƒ‹• ”ƒ• ƒ‡•Ǥ ”ƒ•ƒ”‰—‡• –Šƒ– ƒƒ†ƒ…‘—Ž†•–”‡‰–Š‡‹–•…Žƒ‹–‘–Š‡‘”–Š„›Dz–”ƒ•ˆ‡””‹‰…‘–”‘Ž‘˜‡”ȑƒ–—”ƒŽ ‰ƒ•Ȓ”‡•‘—”…‡•–‘–Š‡dz —‹–ǤŠ‹•‹•„‡…ƒ—•‡DzŠ‡Ǯ–Š‘—•ƒ†•‘ˆ›‡ƒ”•‘ˆ —‹–ǯ•—•‡ ƒ†‘……—’ƒ…›ǯ‘ˆ–Š‡•‡ƒǦ‹…‡ƒ†™ƒ–‡”•‘ˆ–Š‡”…–‹…ƒ”…Š‹’‡Žƒ‰‘ǤǤǤȑ‹•ȒǮ–Š‡‘Ž› †‹‡•‹‘‘ˆƒƒ†ƒǯ•Ž‡‰ƒŽ’‘•‹–‹‘–Šƒ–”‡•‘ƒ–‡•™‹–Š‘Ǧƒƒ†‹ƒ•ǯǤdz Š‡ ˜‹‡™‡† ‹ Š‹•–‘”‹…ƒŽ …‘–‡š–ǡ –”ƒ•ˆ‡””‹‰ ”‡•‘—”…‡• –‘ –Š‡ —‹– ™‘—Ž† ”‡“—‹”‡ ƒ •‹‰‹Ƥ…ƒ– ”‡˜‡”•ƒŽ ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’ƒ•– ƒ…–‹‘•Ǥ †‡” –Š‡  –Š‡

—‹–Š‘Ž†‹‡”ƒŽ”‹‰Š–•‘˜‡”‘Ž›͝Ǥͤ’‡”…‡–‘ˆ–Š‡Žƒ†Ǥ‡ˆ‘”‡–Š‡–Š‡ ˆ‡†‡”ƒŽ‰‘˜‡”‡–”‡ˆ—•‡†–‘‡˜‡”‡…‘‰‹œ‡–Šƒ––Š‡ —‹– Š‡Ž† ‹‡”ƒŽ”‹‰Š–• –‘Žƒ†Ǥ –Š‡…‘—”–…ƒ•‡ ƒŽ‡–‘ˆƒ‡”ƒ‡˜Ǥ‹‹•–‡”‘ˆ †‹ƒơƒ‹”•ƒ† ‘”–Š‡” ‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–ǡ ƒ —‹– ‰”‘—’ ƒ••‡”–‡† –Š‡› ’‘••‡••‡† ƒ„‘”‹‰‹ƒŽ –‹–Ž‡ ͞

ƒ› †‹‰‡‘—•’‡‘’Ž‡•™‘—Ž†’ƒ–‡–Ž›†‹•ƒ‰”‡‡™‹–Š›—•‡‘ˆ–Š‡™‘”††‘‡•–‹…ƒ–‹‘ƒ†ƒ‹–ƒ‹–Šƒ–‹†‹‰‡‘—•’‘Ž‹–‹‡•ƒ”‡

ƒ–‹‘•ǡƒ†•Š‘—Ž†’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽŽ›”‡Žƒ–‡–‘•–ƒ–‡•‘ƒƒ–‹‘Ǧ–‘Ǧƒ–‹‘„ƒ•‹•ǤŠ‹Ž‡ ƒ‰”‡‡™‹–Š–Š‹•’‘•‹–‹‘ƒ•ƒŽ‡‰ƒŽƒ†”Š‡–‘”‹…ƒŽ•–”ƒ–‡‰›ǡ –Š‡‘Ǧ–Š‡Ǧ‰”‘—†”‡ƒŽ‹–›‹•–Šƒ–‘•–•–ƒ–‡•Šƒ˜‡–Š‡ƒ„‹Ž‹–›–‘ƒ••‡”–†‡ˆƒ…–‘•‘˜‡”‡‹‰–›‘˜‡”‹†‹‰‡‘—•’‡‘’Ž‡•ƒ†–Š‡‹”–‡””‹–‘”‹‡•ǡ ™Š‡”‡“—‹”‡†Ǥ


VOICES IN THE ARCTIC

90

–‘ ƒ Žƒ”‰‡ ’‘”–‹‘ ‘ˆ Žƒ† ƒ”‘—† ƒ‡” ƒ‡ ƒ† •‘—‰Š– ƒ ‹Œ—…–‹‘ Dzƒ‰ƒ‹•– ‹‹‰ …‘’ƒ‹‡• ˆ”‘ ‹–‡”ˆ‡”‹‰ ™‹–Š –Š‡‹” …Žƒ‹‡† ”‹‰Š– –‘ Šƒ”˜‡•– …ƒ”‹„‘—ǡdz͟   ƒ†Dzȑ”‡•–”ƒ‹Ȓ–Š‡‰‘˜‡”‡–‘ˆƒƒ†ƒˆ”‘‹••—‹‰ǤǤǤŽƒ†—•‡’‡”‹–•‘–Š‡ –”ƒ†‹–‹‘ƒŽŽƒ†•‘ˆ–Š‡ —‹–‘ˆƒ‡”ƒ‡Ǥdz͠Š‡ˆ‡†‡”ƒŽ…‘—”–”—Ž‡†–Šƒ––Š‡ —‹– Š‡Ž† ƒ„‘”‹‰‹ƒŽ –‹–Ž‡ǡ „—– –Š‹• –‹–Ž‡ ‘Ž› ƒŽŽ‘™‡† ˆ‘” Š—–‹‰ ƒ† Ƥ•Š‹‰ ’”ƒ…–‹…‡•Ǥ –Š‡”™‹•‡ ƒƒ†ƒ Šƒ† ƒ…“—‹”‡† ‹‡”ƒŽ ”‹‰Š–• –‘ —‹– Žƒ† —’‘ –Š‡ ƒ†˜‡– ‘ˆ ‰Ž‹•Š•‘˜‡”‡‹‰–›ǡƒ’”‘…‡••Ž‡ˆ–—†‡Ƥ‡†„›–Š‡…‘—”–•Ǥ ”ƒ• ƒ‡• ƒ ƒ„‹–‹‘—• ƒ”‰—‡– †‡ˆ‡†‹‰ –Š‡ …Žƒ‹ –Šƒ– ‹…”‡ƒ•‹‰

—‹–•‡ŽˆǦ†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘‹–—”‹…”‡ƒ•‡•ƒƒ†‹ƒ•‘˜‡”‡‹‰–›Ǥ‡–ǡ™Š‡˜‹‡™‡†‹ Š‹•–‘”‹…ƒŽ’‡”•’‡…–‹˜‡”‡…‘‰‹œ‹‰‹†‹‰‡‘—•…Žƒ‹•–‘Žƒ†•ƒ†”‡•‘—”…‡•’—–•–Š‡ ƒƒ†‹ƒ•–ƒ–‡‹ƒ’”‡…ƒ”‹‘—•’‘•‹–‹‘Ǥ‹…Šƒ‡Ž•…Š‘—–Ž‹‡•–Š‹•™‡ŽŽǣ ƒƒ†ƒ •–‹ŽŽ ”‡•–• ‹–• ˆ‘—†ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ Ž‡‰‹–‹ƒ…› ‘ –Š‡ ‹†‡‘Ž‘‰› ƒ†Ž‡‰ƒŽ”‡ƒ•‘‹‰‘ˆ‰Ž‹•Š…‘Ž‘‹ƒŽ‹•ǤŠ‡Ž›…Š’‹‘ˆ–Š‹•‹†‡‘Ž‘‰› ƒ†Ž‡‰ƒŽ”‡‰‹‡‹•–Š‡Ƥ”…‘˜‹…–‹‘–Šƒ––Š‡ƒ…“—‹•‹–‹‘‘ˆ•‘˜‡”‡‹‰–›ǡ Ž‡‰‹•Žƒ–‹˜‡ƒ—–Š‘”‹–›ǡƒ†—†‡”Ž›‹‰–‹–Ž‡„›–Š‡”‘™‹•‘–’”‘„Ž‡ƒ–‹… ‡˜‡ ™‹–Š‘—– –Š‡ ƒ••‡– ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‹†‹‰‡‘—• ’‡‘’Ž‡• ‘ ™Š‘•‡ –‡””‹–‘”‹‡• ƒƒ†‹ƒ••‡––Ž‡†Ǥ5

ƒ–Š‡”–Šƒ‰‹˜‡…‘–”‘Ž‘˜‡”Žƒ†„ƒ…–‘–Š‡ —‹–ǡ‹–‹•‘”‡Ž‹‡Ž›–Šƒ–ƒƒ†ƒ™‹ŽŽ —–‹Ž‹œ‡ —‹–’‡‘’Ž‡ƒ†‹ƒ‰‡”›–‘Ǯ‹†‹‰‡‹œ‡ƒƒ†ƒǯ–Š”‘—‰Š‡ơ‘”–••—…Šƒ•–Š‡ ƒƒ†‹ƒƒ‰‡”’”‘‰”ƒǤ6

THE  NORMATIVE  WORK  OF  HISTORY

ˆ ”ƒ• ‘’‡• —’ ‘”ƒ–‹˜‡ •’ƒ…‡ „› ‹†‡–‹ˆ›‹‰ —–—ƒŽ ‹–‡”‡•–• ƒ† ͟

Š‘ƒ• ••ƒ…ǡ„‘”‹‰‹ƒŽƒ™‹ƒƒ†ƒǡ͟”††‹–‹‘ȋƒ•ƒ–‘‘ǣ—”‹…Š”‡••ǡ͜͜͞͠ȌǡͥͤǤ

͠

‹…Šƒ‡Ž•…ŠǡDz‘•–ǦƒŽ†‡”ǡƒƒ†ƒǯ• —†‹…‹ƒ”›–”—‰‰Ž‡•–‘‡…‘Ƥ‰—”‡ƒ–‹˜‡‹‰Š–•ǡdz—Ž–—”ƒŽ—”˜‹˜ƒŽ—ƒ”Ž–‡”Ž›ͤ͞ǡ‘Ǥ͝ȋ͜͜͞͠Ȍǣ͢ǦͥǤ

5  

 „‹†Ǥ

6  

†ƒ ƒ—†”›ǡDzŠ‡‡–‹•Ǧ‹œƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒƒ†ƒǣŠ‡”‘…‡••‘ˆŽƒ‹‹‰‘—‹•‹‡Žǡ‡–‹••ƒ‰‡ǡƒ†–Š‡‡–‹•‡‘’Ž‡‘ˆƒƒ†ƒǯ•›–Š‹…ƒŽ”‹‰‹dz

„‘”‹‰‹ƒŽ‘Ž‹…›–—†‹‡•͞ǡ‘Ǥ͞ȋ͜͟͞͝Ȍǣ͢͠ǦͤͣǢ ‡‹ˆ‡”†‡•‡ǡDz„‘”‹‰‹ƒŽǣ‘•–”—…–‹‰–Š‡„‘”‹‰‹ƒŽƒ† ƒ‰‹‡‡”‹‰–Š‡ƒƒ†‹ƒ ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ”ƒ†dzȋŠ‹••‡”–ƒ–‹‘ǡ…ƒ•–‡”‹˜‡”•‹–›ǡ͜͞͝͞ȌǤŠ‹Ž‡„‘–Š‘ˆ–Š‡•‡’ƒ’‡”•—•‡–Š‡…ƒ•‡‘ˆ‡–‹•’‡‘’Ž‡• „‡Ž‹‡˜‡–Š‡ –Š‡‘”‡–‹…ƒŽˆ”ƒ‡™‘”–Šƒ–ƒƒ†ƒƒ––‡’–•–‘”‡•‘Ž˜‡•‡––Ž‡”Ǧ…‘Ž‘‹ƒŽƒš‹‡–‹‡•„›—•‹‰‹†‹‰‡‘—•’‡‘’Ž‡•ƒ†•›„‘Ž‹•–‘Ǯ‹†‹‰‡‹œ‡ ‹–•‡Žˆǯ…ƒ„‡ƒ’’Ž‹‡†„”‘ƒ†Ž›Ǥ


91

WILDCAT

…Šƒ”–‹‰ ƒ ˆ—–—”‡ ’‘Ž‹…› ’ƒ–Š –‘ •‡…—”‡ –Š‡ ‘”–Š™‡•– ƒ••ƒ‰‡ǡ ‘—†‹‰ ‘’‡• —’‘”ƒ–‹˜‡•’ƒ…‡„›Ž‡––‹‰Š‹•–‘”›†‘–Š‡™‘”ˆ‘”Š‡”ǤŠ‡ƒ—–Š‘”ƒ––‡’–•–‘ ƒ••‡••–Š‡…—””‡–•–ƒ–‡‘ˆƒ‹Žƒ†ƒ†…—Ž–—”ƒŽ”‹‰Š–•‹Ž‹‰Š–‘ˆ…Šƒ‰‡•™‹–Š‹ ‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽŽƒ™‘˜‡”–Š‡Žƒ•–͜͡›‡ƒ”•ǡƒ†–Š‡…”‡ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ‹’ƒ”Ž‹ƒ‡–•™‹–Š‹ ”…–‹…•–ƒ–‡•ǤŠ‡ƒ—–Š‘”…‘˜‡”•͜͞͡›‡ƒ”•‘ˆ’‘Ž‹–‹…ƒŽ‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘•„‡–™‡‡–Š‡ƒ‹ ƒ† –Š‡ •–ƒ–‡•‘ˆ ‘”™ƒ›ǡ ™‡†‡ǡƒ† ‹Žƒ†Ǥ Š‹• Š‹•–‘”› ’”‘˜‹†‡• –Š‡…‘–‡š– ˆ‘”–Š”‡‡…‘—”–…ƒ•‡•„”‘—‰Š––‘‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽŽ‡‰ƒŽ–”‹„—ƒŽ•Ǥ –Š‡•‡…ƒ•‡•ǡ™Š‹Ž‡ –Š‡ƒ‹ƒ”‡—•—……‡••ˆ—Ž‹’”‡••‹‰ˆ‘””‡…‘‰‹–‹‘‘ˆ…—Ž–—”ƒŽ”‹‰Š–•ǡ‘—†‹‰ǡ ‘‡–Š‡Ž‡••ǡ„”‹‰•–Š‡•‡…ƒ•‡•–‘Ž‹ˆ‡–Š”‘—‰Š…‘–‡š–—ƒŽŽ›†‡‘•–”ƒ–‹‰–Šƒ––Š‡•‡ …ƒ•‡•”‡Ž›‘ƒ†‡‹ƒŽ‘ˆƒ‹Žƒ†”‹‰Š–•–Šƒ–‹•–‹‡†–‘ƒŠ‹•–‘”›™Š‡”‡Dz–Š‡‘ƒ†‹… ƒ‹™‡”‡‘––”‡ƒ–‡†ƒ•Ž‡‰‹–‹ƒ–‡Žƒ†‘™‡”•‘”—•‡”•…‘’ƒ”‡†–‘–Š‡ȑ•‘—–Š‡”Ȓ •‡––Ž‡”•Ǥdz Š‹Ž‡‘—†‹‰’”‘˜‹†‡•—•™‹–Šƒ”‹…Š—†‡”•–ƒ†‹‰‘ˆ–Š‡‹••—‡•Š‡‹‰Š– „‘””‘™ˆ”‘–Š‡ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š–ƒ‡„› ”ƒ•‹†”‡ƒ‹‰„‹‰Ǥ ”‡ƒ†‹‰–Š‡–™‘’‹‡…‡• –‘‰‡–Š‡”‹–‹•’‘••‹„Ž‡–‘…‘’ƒ”‡ƒ†…‘–”ƒ•––Š‡‡š’Ž‹…‹–‘”ƒ–‹˜‡’”‡•…”‹’–‹‘• ’”‘˜‹†‡†„› ”ƒ•ǡ™‹–Š–Š‹…Š‹•–‘”›’”‘˜‹†‡†„›‘—†‹‰Ǥ‡ƒ†‡”•…ƒ–Š‡†”ƒ™ ‘„‘–Šƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š‡•–‘†‡˜‹•‡ƒ‡–Š‘†ˆ‘”…”‡ƒ–‹‰‹–‡ŽŽ‡…–—ƒŽ•’ƒ…‡•–Šƒ–’”‘‘–‡ ‹†‹‰‡‘—••‡ŽˆǦ†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ

INCLUDING  INUIT  AND  INDIGENOUS  VOICES ‘…Ž‘•‡ǡ „‘–Šƒ—–Š‘”•ƒ˜‘‹† –Š‡ ’‹–ˆƒŽŽ‘ˆ™”‹–‹‰ƒ„‘—– ‹†‹‰‡‘—• ‹••—‡• „›‘ơ‡”‹‰’”‡•…”‹’–‹‘•ˆ‘”™Šƒ–‹†‹‰‡‘—•’‡‘’Ž‡••Š‘—Ž††‘‹‘”†‡”–‘ƒ†˜ƒ…‡ –Š‡‹”•–”—‰‰Ž‡ˆ‘”•‡ŽˆǦ†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‹‘Ǥ‘–Š†‹”‡…––Š‡‹”ƒ––‡–‹‘–‘™ƒ”†–Š‡…Šƒ‰‡• •–ƒ–‡••Š‘—Ž†—†‡”–ƒ‡‹–Š‡‹””‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’™‹–Š‹†‹‰‡‘—•’‡‘’Ž‡•ǡƒ‘˜‡–Šƒ–Šƒ• ‘–„‡‡ƒ†‘’–‡†„›ƒ‹•–”‡ƒ”Š‡–‘”‹…ǡƒ–Ž‡ƒ•–™‹–Š‹ƒƒ†ƒǤ‘—†‹‰ƒ‡• ‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡—•‡‘ˆ•…Š‘Žƒ”•Š‹’ƒ†‘–Š‡”™”‹–‹‰•ˆ”‘‹†‹‰‡‘—•ƒ†ƒ‹ƒ—–Š‘”•‹ Š‡”’ƒ’‡”ǤŠ‡•‡˜‘‹…‡•ƒ”‡—•‡†–‘‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡Ž›‘ơ‡”…‘‡–ƒ”›‘‹–‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒŽŽƒ™ ƒ†–Š‡•‹–—ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ‹’‡‘’Ž‡•Ǥ ”ƒ•‹•ƒ„Ž‡–‘‡ơ‡…–‹˜‡Ž›—•‡“—‘–ƒ–‹‘•ˆ”‘

—‹–ƒ…–‹˜‹•–Š‡Ž‹ƒƒ––Ǧ‘—Ž–‹‡”ǡ„—– ™ƒ•†‹•…‘…‡”–‡†–‘Ƥ†–Šƒ–‘™”‹–‹‰•‘ˆ


VOICES IN THE ARCTIC

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STAFF BIOGRAPHIES ¦ JIA 2013

93

STAFF Editor-­in-­Chief SAM ROWAN is a fourth-year Honours Political Science with International Relations student, and is interested in the changing conceptualizations of global politics, and the production and sociology of the discipline. Sam has studied abroad at Sciences Po Paris, and will be pursuing graduate studies in the fall. Sam is also involved in running Cinema Politica UBC, and enjoys cycling and eating quinoa. Senior  Editors MICHAEL BARRETT completed his undergraduate degree in December 2012, with a major in Political Science and a minor in Economics. In September, he will be attending law school. MOLLIE DEYONG will graduate this year with a BA in Political Science. Her favourite topics of study are gender and legal theory, though she wishes she had taken at least one history course during her undergrad. Mollie›s interests include food (eating, cooking, smelling), animals (special emphasis on dogs and capybaras), and reading (anything other than romance novels). In September 2013, she will be attending law school at the University of Victoria. KELSEY FRANKS is a fourth-year student, pursuing a degree in Honours Political Science with International Relations. She recently returned to UBC after spending time on exchange in England, where she furthered her knowledge of European history, politics and culture. After graduation, Kelsey plans on continuing her studies in law and global affairs, and travelling.  ISABELLE PLESSIS is in the final year of her degree in Honours Political Science with International Relations and a minor in German. Though interested in all things international, she has a soft spot for International Political Economy, with a research interest in global governance, emerging economies, and European integration. She is currently writing her Honours thesis on the politicization of Chinese investment in sub-Saharan Africa. Isabelle has studied abroad in England and Germany, and will use any excuse to go travelling. When not studying, you can find Isabelle running, sleeping, or eating (and sometimes all three at once). Isabelle will begin a master›s degree in International Political Economy next year. Junior  Editors SAMMY BARKER is a fourth-year Honours Political Science student with an interest in immigration politics, security studies and international diplomacy. After graduation, Sammy is off to law school where she tentatively plans to specialize in immigration law. In her spare time, she enjoys skiing, yoga and golfing. NIKKI BLU is an International Relations and Political Science student finishing her last year at UBC. She is interested in global environmental politics and conflict management. After graduation she plans on continuing her studies in water security and water resources management. During her spare time when she is not immersed in the exciting world of IR, she enjoys swimming, painting and baking.  FATIMA HEWAIDI is a third-year International Relations student. In addition to serving on the editorial board, she has also been involved in the International Relations Students Association as the Head Delegate of this year’s Model NATO team and as the Director of Delegate Affairs at UBCMUN 2013. Upon graduating, she plans to move to the Middle East and prepare herself for graduate studies in International Relations with an extensive concentration on the MENA region. JULIE JENKINS is pursuing a degree in Political Science with a minor in Sociology. Her academic interests include critical, postcolonial and democratic theory, the sociology of knowledge and power, and public-interest policy and law. Active in Vancouver’s independent media community, Julie is committed to projects that create space for public pedagogy and inclusive dialogues about social, political and economic change.


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THE JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

NATALYA KAUTZ is a second-year student, hoping to major in Economics and International Relations. She has been involved with campus publishing, previously employed as Features Editor at The Ubyssey. During her next two years at UBC, Natalya plans to travel, eat cheese, and delve into all that academia has to offer.  SABINA KRAVCAKOVA, is a double degree student graduating at UBC and Sciences Po Paris this year. Sabina’s genuine passion for international relations guided her from Eastern Europe to France and then to Canada. Initially specializing in European affairs, Sabina’s studies at UBC inspired her to enlarge her academic and language focus to Asia and the process of globalization. Her next adventure is to pursue new challenges in the field of international management. Sabina’s ultimate goal is to be a veritable global citizen, therefore living in different places, exploring new cultures and learning new language is not just a hobby for Sabina, but her lifestyle and everyday reality. FATEMEH MAYANLOO is in her fourth-year of a double major in Economics and International Relations. She is particularly interested in areas of economic development relating to maternal health initiatives, access to drug development and, more recently, the interface between intellectual property, competition policy and access to medical innovations. She will be working in Latin America this upcoming summer with an NGO that focuses on agroecology and appropriate technologies. In her spare time, she enjoys nerding out over Game of Thrones, and watching Kipper and hanging out with her two-year-old brother.  BETTY ZHANG is a fifth-year student majoring in International Relations with a minor in French. Having spent eight months last year working in Hong Kong, she has developed a keen interest in the Asia-Pacific region. Upon graduation, Betty hopes to pursue a career that combines her curiosity for global issues with her love for writing and travel. Layout  and  Design SANDY CHU is a third-year International Relations student minoring in Environment and Society. Her fascination with the discipline lies with security studies, sustainable urban development, modern warfare, and international political economy. She will be going on exchange to University College London in the upcoming term. In reality, she spends most of her time at UBC sitting in cafés looking at fonts magnified to 100pt. ANITA HUNG is a third-year student studying Political Science. Her academic interests include Middle East conflict studies, and international humanitarian law. She is a self-identified typography snob with a passion for food, photography, and travel. Anita’s ideal career would to be an international human rights lawyer by day, and a fashion editor by night.  Marketing  and  Distribution ANNIE JU is a fourth-year Political Science and Gender Studies student. Aside from JIA, she has contributed to The Ubyssey and works at the Communications Department of Go Global. She has also lived and studied abroad in Lyon, France in her third year to indulge in her passion for traveling, the French language, and wine. Upon graduation this May, Annie will be pursuing a Master’s degree in Journalism in New York. STEPHANIE XU is currently a second-year student in science, majoring in biopsychology, and hoping to pursue a career in forensic psychiatry. Her interest with international relations stems from her many years of Model United Nations involvement where she has participated as both delegate and chair. She hopes to expand her experience with world relations by documenting her travels with her photography. Faculty  Liaison EMMA LANGE is a third-year student, currently pursuing a double major in Political Science and Human Geography. She hopes to use her knowledge acquired at UBC to engage in purposeful global travels.


AUTHOR BIOGRAPHIES ¦ JIA 2013

95

AUTHORS KATE BECK is a third-year undergraduate student completing a major in International Relations and a minor in Human Geography. Her main interests are in international micro-economic development and community planning, and she hopes to complete a Master’s in Regional Planning after finishing her undergraduate degree. MIEKA BUCKLEY-PEARSON graduated from UBC in May 2012 with a degree in Honours Political Science with International Relations and a minor in African Studies. In addition to writing her thesis, in her last year she was also the Editor-in-Chief of the UBC Journal of Political Studies. She focuses her academic and career interests on the role of global civil society in the sustainable social, economic, and political development of the southeastern region of Africa. She currently lives in Ottawa and is a Project Coordinator for the United Nations Association in Canada. COLIN  CHIA is graduating from UBC in 2013 with a BA in Political Science, and hopes to pursue graduate studies in politics this fall. His main academic interests are security studies, nationalism and federalism, and politics of the Asia-Pacific region. He recently completed an exchange term at the Australian National University. KELSEY FRANKS is a fourth-year student, pursuing a degree in Honours Political Science with International Relations. She recently returned to UBC after spending time on exchange in England, where she furthered her knowledge of European history, politics and culture. After graduation, Kelsey plans on continuing her studies in law and global affairs, and travelling.  IVO MARTINICH is a fourth-year student in the Honours Political Science with International Relations program. His academic interests lie mostly within the field of international relations, and include transitional justice, peacekeeping operations and international organizations. Upon graduation, Ivo hopes to complete a J.D. degree and pursue a career in international law. He also enjoys travelling and reading twentieth-century French and Latin American literature. ALLISON ROUNDING is a fourth-year Honours Political Science student who is also doing a minor in Gender Studies. She is interested in social justice issues, and more specifically, issues surrounding HIV/ AIDS stigma as well as childcare and the welfare state. She plans to continue her education at a graduate level after completing her undergraduate degree in December 2013.


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UBC JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

SPONSORS INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS STUDENTS ASSOCIATION 8%&KDVORQJHQFRXUDJHGJOREDOFLWL]HQVKLSDVDNH\SDUWRIDFDGHPLFGHYHORSPHQW)RURYHUWZHQW\¿YH years, the International Relations Students Association (IRSA) has worked to develop co-curricular programs that help achieve this goal. We aim to provide students from a variety of disciplines with a forum for the discussion of international issues. IRSA membership is available to all UBC students and alumni. Our core projects include: Â&#x2021;8%&-RXUQDORI,QWHUQDWLRQDO$Ì&#x2020;DLUV Â&#x2021;1LJKWRID7KRXVDQG'LQQHUV Â&#x2021;8%&0RGHO8QLWHG1DWLRQV Â&#x2021;%LDQQXDOIRUHLJQSROLF\FRQIHUHQFH Â&#x2021;0RGHO1$72DQG81GHOHJDWLRQV Â&#x2021;&DUHHUQLJKW Â&#x2021;6RFLDOHYHQWV Â&#x2021;%LZHHNO\PHHWLQJV 7KH-,$DQG,56$ZRXOGOLNHWRWKDQNWKHIROORZLQJRUJDQL]DWLRQVDQGGHSDUWPHQWVIRUWKHLUJHQHURXV support for our programs: Â&#x2021;8%&$OPD0DWHU6RFLHW\ Â&#x2021;8%&$UWV8QGHUJUDGXDWH6RFLHW\ Â&#x2021;7KH/LX,QVWLWXWHIRU*OREDO,VVXHV Â&#x2021;8%&,QWHUQDWLRQDO+RXVH Â&#x2021;8%&,QWHUQDWLRQDO5HODWLRQV3URJUDP ZZZEORJVXEFFDLUVD__/LX,QVWLWXWHIRU*OREDO,VVXHV5RRP

7KH $06 6XVWDLQDELOLW\ )XQG LV VXSSRUWHG WKURXJK D FRQWULEXWLRQ of just slightly over $2 from each UBC student. This fund of over $100,000 goes to support reducing the ecological footprint and increasing the social cohesion of the student community at UBC. Our students submit proposals that are reviewed on a regular basis through our website at http://amssustainability.ca

The UBC International Relations program is a degree granting undergraduate program in the Faculty RI$UWV:LWKDSSUR[LPDWHO\PDMRUVWKHSURJUDPLVRQHRIWKHODUJHVWLQWKH)DFXOW\,QWHUQDWLRQDO Relations is an interdisciplinary major which permits students to take courses in a variety of disciplines LQFOXGLQJ+LVWRU\3ROLWLFDO6FLHQFH(FRQRPLFV WKHWKUHHFRUHGLVFLSOLQHV DVZHOODV*HRJUDSK\$VLDQ 6WXGLHVDQG6RFLRORJ\DPRQJRWKHUV7KH,5SURJUDPLVDSURXGVSRQVRURIWKH8%&-RXUQDORI,QWHUQDWLRQDO$Ì&#x2020;DLUV


UBC Journal of International Affairs 2013